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1

The Twenty-First Century Challenges To Sexuality and Religion.  

PubMed

Clergy and religious leaders are facing a wide variety of sexual needs and concerns within their faith communities. Conflicts over sexual issues are growing across the entire spectrum of religious denominations, and clerics remain ill prepared to deal with them. As religious communities work to remain influential in public policy debates, clergy and the institutions that train them need to be properly prepared for twenty-first century challenges that impact sexuality and religion. Clergy are often the first point of contact for sexual problems and concerns of their faith community members-complex issues centered on morals, spirituality, and ethics. Yet, there still exists a significant lack of sexual curricula in the programs that are educating our future religious leaders. The resulting paucity of knowledge leaves these leaders unprepared to address the needs and concerns of their congregants. However, with accurate, relevant human sexuality curricula integrated into theological formation programs, future leaders will be equipped to competently serve their constituencies. This paper provides a rationale for the need for such training, an overview of the faith- and theology-based history of a pilot training project, and a description of how the Christian faith and the social sciences intersect in a training pilot project's impetus and process. PMID:23070841

Turner, Yolanda; Stayton, William

2012-10-16

2

Leading and managing in developing countries: challenge, growth and opportunities for twenty-first century organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the importance of managing cultural differences in developing countries for twenty-first century organisations. With increasing business globalisation and different cultures we have in this world, maintaining and managing cultural differences becomes a challenge for managers and supervisors in the twenty-first century. Thus, managing cultural differences is an essential skill all managers must master if they are

Michael Ba Banutu-Gomez

2002-01-01

3

The Public Health Enterprise: Examining Our Twenty-First-Century Policy Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the public health enterprise and its policy challenges in the twenty-first century. Among the many challenges public health faces, we include here collaboration across a broad range of stakeholders, the public health infrastructure, agree- ment on public health's essential services, preparedness, accountability and measure- ment, workforce, and a research agenda. Two Institute of Medicine reports on the

Hugh Tilson; Bobbie Berkowitz

2006-01-01

4

Mechanics and Materials: Research and Challenges in the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanics and materials, closely related and complementary to each other, are essential elements in all of the transcendent technologies in the twenty-first century and in the new economy. The transcendent technologies include nanotechnology, microelectronics, information technology and biotechnology. Research opportunities and challenges of the theoretical and applied mechanics as well as engineering materials in the exciting information age are presented and discussed.

Chong, Ken P.

5

Climate change: a crop protection challenge for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Convincing data now show that temperatures are increasing, and that changing precipitation patterns are already affecting agriculture. Predicted future impacts vary by region, but all are projected to suffer productivity declines by the late twenty-first century unless successful mitigation measures are implemented soon. Exacerbating the climate change challenge, doubling of overall crop productivity will be required by mid-century. Clearly, crop protection will become increasingly difficult as higher-yielding varieties present a larger and more tempting target to all pests, and the pests themselves extend their ranges poleward and into other new geographies owing to reduced winter kill and longer growing seasons. Fortunately, good progress on enhancing crop protection technology to meet these challenges is already being made, but the scope of this climatic provocation is such that complacency is not an option. Increased investment into new technologies and adoption of new agricultural practices with improved adaptive and mitigation potential are both essential. PMID:21432984

Gustafson, David I

2011-03-22

6

Globalization and the global city: Meeting the challenges of the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the impact of globalization on the development of a nation-state's economic competitiveness in the\\u000a twenty-first century. It argues that cities must enhance their governing capacity, i.e., adjust their economic bases, administrative\\u000a structures and business cultures to suit the needs of transnational corporations. Using South Korea as a case study, the article\\u000a makes a case for futher democratization

Sung-Bok Lee

2000-01-01

7

Twenty-first Century ethics of medical research involving human subjects: achievements and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of ethics in medical research has seen important developments in the last three decades, but it also faces great\\u000a challenges in the new century. The purposes of this report are to examine the current status of ethics of medical research\\u000a involving human subjects and the nature of the ethical challenges facing this research, to identify the weakness of

Antonios H. Tzamaloukas; Konstantin N. Konstantinov; Emmanuel I. Agaba; Dominic S. C. Raj; Glen H. Murata; Robert H. Glew

2008-01-01

8

U.S. drinking water challenges in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed Central

The access of almost all 270 million U.S. residents to reliable, safe drinking water distinguishes the United States in the twentieth century from that of the nineteenth century. The United States is a relatively water-abundant country with moderate population growth; nonetheless, current trends are sufficient to strain water resources over time, especially on a regional basis. We have examined the areas of public water infrastructure, global climate effects, waterborne disease (including emerging and resurging pathogens), land use, groundwater, surface water, and the U.S. regulatory history and its horizon. These issues are integrally interrelated and cross all levels of public and private jurisdictions. We conclude that U.S. public drinking water supplies will face challenges in these areas in the next century and that solutions to at least some of them will require institutional changes.

Levin, Ronnie B; Epstein, Paul R; Ford, Tim E; Harrington, Winston; Olson, Erik; Reichard, Eric G

2002-01-01

9

Twenty-First-Century Kids, Twenty-First-Century Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Inspired by a new generation of librarians and children, Walter reconsiders the legacy passed on by the matriarchs of children's services and examines more recent trends and challenges growing out of changes in educational philosophy and information technology. This thoroughly researched book includes the current issues and trends of: (1)…

Walter, Virginia A.

2010-01-01

10

Heterotopia! The Challenge for Museums of the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their inception in the late eighteenth century, as they became one of the more liberal institutions in the area of public education, public museums have enjoyed a highly privileged position within society. Yet, little was really understood about their structuring until the latter part of the twentieth century when researchers, in the area of critical museum studies, utilised the

Christine Dauber

11

American Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century: Social, Political and Economic Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents 17 papers on higher education, organized into four parts, which address the higher education setting, external forces, the academic community, and central issues for the 21st century. Following an introduction by the editors, the papers are: (1) "Patterns in Higher Education Development" (Philip G. Altbach); (2) "The Ten…

Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Berdhal, Robert O., Ed.; Gumport, Patricia J., Ed.

12

DISEASE EMERGENCE IN BIRDS: CHALLENGES FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) conjunctivitis is an example of the rapid geographic spread that can result from disease emergence in naive populations. That event was neither novel nor transient relative to its occurrence or effects. Disease emergence and reemergence are hallmarks of the latter part of the twentieth century (Center for Disease Control 1994, Levins et al. 1994, DaSilva and Laccarino

Milton Friend; Robert G. McLean; F. Joshua Dein

2001-01-01

13

New ways of organizing the realization of customer value – a new challenge for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twenty-first century has been predicted to be the century of quality. Customers around the world will demand quality. Quality will be a success factor for business, and quality means a responsible use of resources. But, will this prediction be fulfilled and how will the organizations work to ensure quality and customer value? Certainly the ways to manage for quality

Kerstin M. C. Jonson

1999-01-01

14

New challenges for telephone survey research in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Telephone surveys are critical for examining cross-sectional characteristics of population subgroups, tracking trends in prevalence of conditions and risk behaviors over time, identifying risk factors associated with multiple health conditions, and assessing the effects of interventions. Technology has aided telephone research through advances such as computer-assisted telephone interviewing. However, technology such as answering machines and caller ID has contributed to declines in response rates and has increased costs of conducting telephone surveys. The exponential increase in cell phone utilization presents a challenge to the tradition of random digit dial (RDD) surveys of households. Because telephone surveys are used by other industries such as marketing and public opinion polling, the marketplace may help drive innovation and adaptation. Cell phones have made telephone communication an even greater part of the everyday culture and could make potential telephone survey respondents even more accessible to public health researchers. PMID:17094769

Kempf, Angela M; Remington, Patrick L

2007-01-01

15

[Multiresistant gram-negative bacteria. A bacterial challenge of the twenty-first century].  

PubMed

The incidence of human-pathogenic microorganisms with resistance or even complete insensitivity to broad-spectrum antibiotics is increasing. This poses a serious challenge to infection control in hospitals and to hygiene strategies in clinical areas with critically ill patients, particularly intensive care or transplant units. These microorganisms create problems that are seemingly impossible to solve at present. The management of gram-positive pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) has been facilitated by evidence-based recommendations resulting in a measurable decrease in the incidence of infection and, where treatment is concerned, in a selection of reliably effective drugs for clinicians. However, in the more frequent cases of multiresistant gram-negative (MRGN) pathogens, the only option is the use of poorly defined regimens with older drugs, which carry the risk of serious side effects and organ toxicities. This article presents a comparative analysis of hospital hygiene management for MRSA and MRGN pathogens, pointing out both similarities and features which are unique to MRGN pathogens. PMID:23479223

Schröppel, K; Riessen, R

2013-03-13

16

3?Staffing Twenty?first?century Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We highlight important differences between twenty?first?century organizations as compared with those of the previous century, and offer a critical review of the basic principles, typical applications, general effectiveness, and limitations of the current staffing model. That model focuses on identifying and measuring job?related individual characteristics to predict individual?level job performance. We conclude that the current staffing model has reached a

Wayne F. Cascio; Herman Aguinis

2008-01-01

17

U. S. labor supply in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American labor force will be transformed as the twenty-first century unfolds, a change that will confront policymakers and business firms with new challenges and new opportunities. The impending slowdown of labor force growth that will accompany the retirement of the baby boom generation already is playing a central role in national debates over the future solvency of Social Security

Katharine Bradbury; Christopher L. Foote; Robert K. Triest

2007-01-01

18

Towards the twenty?first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the change in thought and technology in France, North America and England in the late 18th century is paralleled in the change in contemporary modes of behaviour and ways of looking at the self. The philosophy articulated at that time was by the philosophers of the Enlightenment and poets of Romanticism. Contemporary psychologies are concerned with

Michael P. Ellis

1987-01-01

19

Engaging twenty-first century learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gulf between the educational methods in UK secondary and tertiary education has never been wider. Students are increasingly driven by marks a nd the expectation is of 'teaching' not 'learning'. Ev en a mild spell of disengagement can quickly lead to a r equest for transfer. Respected sources agree that twenty-f irst century students demand more than ever before:

Peter Willmot; Tony Sutton; Sarah Bamforth

2007-01-01

20

Sources of Conflict in the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reviews critically some of the more significant recent writings about the future security environment dealing with sources of conflict in the twenty-first century. The writings reviewed range between the unabashed optimism of Francis Fukuyama1s...

R. D. Anderson

1999-01-01

21

The Challenges of Teaching and Learning about Science in the Twenty-First Century: Exploring the Abilities and Constraints of Adolescent Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we critically examine skills that are necessary for the effective learning of science in adolescent populations. We argue that a focus on twenty-first-century skills among adolescents within the context of science instruction must be considered in light of research on cognitive and social development. We first review adolescents'…

Anderman, Eric M.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Gray, DeLeon L.

2012-01-01

22

The challenges of teaching and learning about science in the twenty-first century: exploring the abilities and constraints of adolescent learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we critically examine skills that are necessary for the effective learning of science in adolescent populations. We argue that a focus on twenty-first-century skills among adolescents within the context of science instruction must be considered in light of research on cognitive and social development. We first review adolescents’ emerging abilities in terms of five domains identified by

Eric M. Anderman; Gale M. Sinatra; DeLeon L. Gray

2012-01-01

23

Information ethics for twenty-first century library professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To provide an introduction to concepts and resources that will be useful to library professionals learning about information ethics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper argues for the importance of information ethics to twenty-first century library professionals. It describes what various authors have said about how information ethics can be applied to the ethical dilemmas faced by library professionals. Findings

Don Fallis

2007-01-01

24

Agricultural Trade Reform in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we approach the beginning of the twenty-first century, the world is a very different place than during the early stages of the Uruguay Round negotia- tions that led to the formation of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The beginning of these negotiations was in the early 1980s. The United States had accumulated large stocks as a result of domestic

Mary Bohman; Mary Anne Normile

25

Needed: A Twenty-First Century Vision for Economic Assistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. economic assistance programs lack a viable strategic vision that addresses U.S. interests, projects American values, and addresses global problems that we will be dealing with in the twenty-first century. Unless we develop a new strategic vision, we ...

G. W. Anderson

1993-01-01

26

Interdisciplinary Studies for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new liberal arts core curriculum for the twenty-first century is proposed, including four elements: global studies, self-reliance skills, interdisciplinary thinking skills, and selected traditional studies. The approach, being tried in a number of American colleges, addresses flaws in the existing liberal arts curriculum. (MSE)

Bauman, M. Garrett

1989-01-01

27

Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010–2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number

Geoffrey P. Hammond

1996-01-01

28

Childhood obesity: a pandemic of the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The researchers and clinicians need to gain a better understanding of the social and environmental contexts by which childhood obesity is becoming a growing problem of twenty-first century and develop more efficacious methods of prevention and treatment.Methods:Summary of the actions and achievements of the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) since its foundation in 1991 until the 16th anniversary. Review of

E Malecka-Tendera; A Mazur

2006-01-01

29

Tribology research in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to predict and discuss some of the many challenges facing fundamental research in tribology over the first half of the new century. This is done in two stages, looking at likely developments over the first twelve years based on extrapolation of existing trends, and then, more speculatively, considering possible driving forces over subsequent decades.

Hugh Spikes

2001-01-01

30

Children's environmental health in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

In the twenty-first century, the global burden of disease trends are the result of complex interaction among rapid industrialization and urbanization, unsustainable use of natural resources, and population growth. In addition, global environmental changes due to climate change, ozone depletion, desertification/deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and increased used of some biotechnologies are having an important impact on human health. Many other factors also play an important role in the population's health response to global environmental threats, including poverty, malnutrition, poor sanitation, and infectious diseases. Worldwide, the burden of environmental disease is much higher for children than adults, especially in young children under 5 years of age. Quantification of the burden of diseases attributable to environment shows that environmental risk factors can contribute to more than one-third of the disease burden in children, a fraction of disease that could be prevented. Children are often exposed to multiple environmental threats combined with other behavioral, social, and economic risk factors. Many of the environmental health risk factors are shared among children's home, school, and community. Therefore, an integrated approach should be considered in order to create healthy environments for children. The promotion of safe environments for children has to involve decision makers, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), families, and various sectors including health, education, housing, environment, agriculture, industry, transport, and energy. Multiple initiatives have been proposed from collection, evaluation, and dissemination of information on children's health and the potential environmental threats to research, monitoring, risk assessment, and policies to improve the environmental conditions and ultimately children's growth and development. PMID:18991913

Pronczuk, Jenny; Surdu, Simona

2008-10-01

31

Preparing Students for a Twenty-First Century Global Workplace in an Era of Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the study is to thoroughly examine a school district's plan for developing, implementing, and monitoring a strategic plan for adequately preparing students with twenty-first century skills or the marketable skills students will need in order to contribute to the dynamic twenty-first century workplace while meeting federal and state…

Cognetta, Sebastian

2010-01-01

32

Working Poor in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the recently observed trends in Poland, as in most other countries, is the increase in the distances between the different income segments of the labor market. This is accompanied by an increase in relative poverty of the employees. In the nineties in the twentieth century the term of working poor appeared. In discussions on poverty, however, many problems

Ewa Polak

2011-01-01

33

Sun Tzu: Theorist for the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

What strategic theory and theorist should the United States military adopt to conduct war in the 21st century. Theories of war provide insight into problem solving regarding war and the use of military force. Right now senior leaders are discussing this q...

G. L. Wilcoxon

2010-01-01

34

Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

35

Teaching the Constitution to Twenty-First Century Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Civic education in public schools faces major challenges. Under No Child Left Behind, many schools have favored teaching math and English rather than civics, which undermines one of the purposes of public schools--to educate students to be responsible and active citizens in democracy. A second challenge comes inside the classroom: engaging the…

Jackson, Peggy S.; Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Haas, Nancy S.

2008-01-01

36

Global health: the twenty-first century global health priority agenda.  

PubMed

Growth in global health interest in the past 20 years has been overwhelming and many universities throughout the world have created departments or institutes of global health. The essence of global health has to be promoting health equity globally. The global health agenda must embrace design of mixed health systems, involving both private and public components to address the emerging threat of noncommunicable diseases and existing communicable diseases as well as to reduce health inequity. The priority agenda for the twenty-first century is challenging but the improvements of the past give hope that the barriers to improving global health are surmountable. PMID:21628045

Alleyne, George A O

2011-04-15

37

Story and Archive in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores how new media technologies might converge with the leveling between "story" and "archive," and how that convergence will shape the future of English Studies, focusing on electronic archives of literary and historical materials. Concludes that the central challenge in using new media with students, particularly hypertext pedagogies, is in…

Bass, Randy

1999-01-01

38

Industrial Policy for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike what is commonly believed, the last two decades have not witnessed the twilight of industrial policy. Instead, incentives and subsidies have been refocused on exports and direct foreign investment, in the belief that these activities are the source of significant positive spillovers. The challenge in most developing countries is not to rediscover industrial policy, but to redeploy it in

Dani Rodrik

2004-01-01

39

Alaska: A twenty-first-century petroleum province  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alaska, the least explored of all United States regions, is estimated to contain approximately 40% of total U.S. undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural-gas resources, based on the most recent U.S. Department of the Interior (U.S. Geological Survey and Minerals Management Service) estimates. Northern Alaska, including the North Slope and adjacent Beaufort and Chukchi continental shelves, holds the lion's share of the total Alaskan endowment of more than 30 billion barrels (4.8 billion m3) of oil and natural-gas liquids plus nearly 200 trillion cubic feet (5.7 trillion m3) of natural gas. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Multiple source-rock zones have charged several regionally extensive petroleum systems. Extensional and compressional structures provide ample structural objectives. In addition, recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite systems in Jurassic to Tertiary strata. Despite robust potential, northern Alaska remains a risky exploration frontier - a nexus of geologic complexity, harsh economic conditions, and volatile policy issues. Its role as a major petroleum province in this century will depend on continued technological innovations, not only in exploration and drilling operations, but also in development of huge, currently unmarketable natural-gas resources. Ultimately, policy decisions will determine whether exploration of arctic Alaska will proceed.

Bird, K. J.

2001-01-01

40

Establishing the R&D Agenda for Twenty-First Century Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Much ink has flowed over the past few years describing the need to incorporate twenty-first century skills into K-12 education. Preparing students to succeed as citizens, thinkers, and workers--the bedrock of any educational system--in this environment means arming them with more than a list of facts and important dates. Infusing twenty-first…

Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret

2006-01-01

41

Immunotoxicant screening and prioritization in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Current immunotoxicity testing guidance for drugs, high production-volume chemicals, and pesticides specifies the use of animal models to assess potential biomarkers of immune system effects (e.g., lymphoid organ and bone marrow indices, histopathology) or actual measures of immune function (e.g., responses to challenge with antigens or pathogens). These assays are resource intensive and often require special training or experience to ensure reliable results. Alternative in vitro assays to detect immunosuppression and allergic hypersensitivity have the potential to reduce animal use and testing costs and increase immunotoxicity screening and prioritization efforts. Alternative models to detect immunosuppression tend to address broad modes of action because suppression may be caused by a wide variety of events; current in vitro models access the supply of innate and adaptive immune system cells as well as cellular markers associated with function, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and proliferation. Events leading to the induction of allergic hypersensitivity, particularly contact hypersensitivity, are more restricted, and alternative methods currently exploit chemical properties and activation of defined cell populations to detect and estimate the potency of skin sensitizers. PMID:22105646

Luebke, Robert

2011-11-21

42

Preparing the twenty?first century workforce: the case of curriculum change in radiation protection education in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of the global information society and a myriad of other rapidly changing variables are presenting many new and unique challenges for the twenty?first century workforce, and perhaps the most pressing of these challenges is actually meeting the needs for qualified workers to fill the positions in emerging and growing fields. One such field is the nuclear industry. In

Matthew Schmidt; Matthew Easter; David Jonassen; William Miller; Gelu Ionas

2008-01-01

43

Families and elder care in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Although most Americans know that the U.S. population is aging, they are far less informed about the reality of providing elders with personal care, health care, and social support. Families-particularly women-have always been critical in providing elder care, but the entry of so many women into the paid labor force has made elder care increasingly difficult. Ann Bookman and Delia Kimbrel show how changes in both work and family life are complicating families' efforts to care for elderly relatives. Because almost 60 percent of elder caregivers today are employed, many forms of caregiving must now be "outsourced" to nonfamily members. And because elders are widely diverse by race and socioeconomic status, their families attach differing cultural meanings to care and have widely different resources with which to accomplish their care goals. Although the poorest elders have access to some subsidized services, and the wealthiest can pay for services, many middle-class families cannot afford services that allow elders to age in their homes and avoid even more costly institutional care. Six key groups--health care providers, nongovernmental community-based service providers, employers, government, families, and elders themselves--are engaged in elder care, but their efforts are often fragmented and uncoordinated. All six groups must be able to work in concert and to receive the resources they need. Both employer and government policies must be improved. Although large businesses have taken up the elder care challenge, most small and mid-sized firms still do not offer flexible work arrangements. Social Security and Medicare have provided critical support to families caring for elders, yet both face significant financial shortfalls. The Older American Act and the National Family Caregiver Support Program have broadened access to elder services, but need updating to address the needs of today's employed caregivers and elders who want to "age in place." And just over half of the nation's workforce is eligible for the unpaid leave benefits provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act. The authors close by reflecting on the need for a coordinated, cross-sector movement to create an "aging-friendly" society in the United States-a society that values well-being across the life span and supports citizens from diverse cultures and income levels as they age. PMID:22013631

Bookman, Ann; Kimbrel, Delia

2011-01-01

44

Prisoner Reentry in the First Decade of the Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decades of the twentieth century witnessed a rapid buildup of prison populations followed by rapid increases in the numbers of individuals being released back to communities. Entering the twenty-first century, about 1,700 adults were leaving state and federal prisons each day. This article summarizes recent research on prisoner reentry and concludes that while progress has been made in

Pamela K. Lattimore; Danielle M. Steffey; Christy A. Visher

2010-01-01

45

Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive thinking; information,…

Lee, Wing On

2012-01-01

46

An exploratory study of the achievement of the twenty-first century skills in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey study of the achievement of twenty-first century skills in higher education. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study employs a quantitative survey design. Findings – The findings indicate that the basic scientific and technological skills of reading critically and writing persuasively as well as accessing and using information

Ghazi Ghaith

2010-01-01

47

Career Learning and Development: A Social Constructivist Model for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the UK there have been several calls for new models "fit for purpose" for careers work in the twenty-first century and in response, this article presents a model for career learning and development. This brings together recent theory regarding the ways in which people make career decisions throughout their lives in rapidly changing, turbulent…

Bassot, Barbara

2012-01-01

48

Teaching Middle School Language Arts: Incorporating Twenty-First Century Literacies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Teaching Middle School Language Arts" is the first book on teaching middle school language arts for multiple intelligences and related twenty-first-century literacies in technologically and ethnically diverse communities. More than 670,000 middle school teachers (grades six through eight) are responsible for educating nearly 13 million students…

Small Roseboro, Anna J.

2010-01-01

49

Learning through Media at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the developments in educational media in Slovenia as it prepares for the twenty-first century. Initiated by the Ministry of Education and Sport and the National Education Institute, the program Computer Literacy was introduced which contributed in big changes in the introduction and use of modern media and information technology in the educational process. The programme is a

Nusa Dragan; Ivan Lorenic; Tomaz Skulj; Anka Zupan

2000-01-01

50

Twenty-first Century Academic Media Center: Killer App or Chindogu?  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the role of the academic media center in the twenty-first-century research library? Will it be relevant or irrelevant? In this article the author attempts to answer these questions by first abstracting and summarizing recent reports from the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) and the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). Both reports offer guidance on how tomorrow's

John Vallier

2010-01-01

51

Marketing analytics: the evolution of marketing research in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current state of marketing analytics and how it should become a standard marketing research tool in the twenty-first century. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The design of this paper is both a review of the field of marketing analytics and a discussion of how these factors must be enhanced and incorporated into

William J. Hauser

2007-01-01

52

Improve constantly and forever : The influence of W. Edwards Deming into the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Deming's ideas on the twenty-first century. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A ProQuest search of articles is done mentioning “Deming” and “quality” or “legacy” in the title published between 1994 (Deming died in December 1993) and 2006. Findings – It is found that 136 articles described Deming's legacy. Legacy in

Stephen B. Knouse; Paula P. Carson; Kerry D. Carson; Ronald B. Heady

2009-01-01

53

The Incomplete Rebellion: Mau Mau Movement in Twenty-First-Century Kenyan Popular Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

: This paper concerns the simultaneous and contradictory conceptions of Kenyan history by rereading popular representations of the Mau Mau war of Kenyan independence and its postindependence consequences. It examines twenty-first-century evocations and appropriations of Mau Mau in relation to earlier discourses in literature and politics. It discovers that contemporary artists and citizens deploy references to Mau Mau outside of

Evan Mwangi

2010-01-01

54

The Incomplete Rebellion: Mau Mau Movement in Twenty-First-Century Kenyan Popular Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the simultaneous and contradictory conceptions of Kenyan history by rereading popular representations of the Mau Mau war of Kenyan independence and its postindependence consequences. It examines twenty-first-century evocations and appropriations of Mau Mau in relation to earlier discourses in literature and politics. It discovers that contemporary artists and citizens deploy references to Mau Mau outside of its

Evan Mwangi

2010-01-01

55

Human security: emerging concept of security in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

t the start of the twenty-first century, Latin America shows significant weaknesses in coping with the consequences of the process of globalization. Instability in the region has increased, and that has a significant effect on most of the population. Even though the main traditional security issues have been overcome in the region and Latin America has not made any substantial

Francisco ROJAS ARAVENA

56

Adolescent Health and Well-Being in the Twenty-First Century: A Global Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the current health and well-being of adolescents around the world. Considers the implications for adolescent health and well-being in the twenty-first century of societal trends, including growing poverty and income disparities, the changing health care system, increased migration and urbanization, and new information technology.…

Call, Kathleen Thiede; Riedel, Aylin Altan; Hein, Karen; McLoyd, Vonnie; Petersen, Anne; Kipke, Michele

2002-01-01

57

Infectious Disease in the Twenty-First Century: The Need for a Comprehensive Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As national leaders formulate strategies for the twenty-first century, they are confronted by the re-emergence of infectious disease as a threat to national security. Despite the dramatic advances in genetics and biotechnology that occurred over the cours...

P. W. Mason

1999-01-01

58

The first decade: emerging issues of the twenty-first century in consumer marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As one rewinds the clock to the early days of the twenty-first century, it can be quite surprising to realise how much the consumer landscape has changed from what it is today. This paper aims to introduce the special issue and attempts to take stock of the last decade and reflect on the transformation of key areas of

David Fortin; Mark Uncles

2011-01-01

59

Learning through Media at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes the developments in educational media in Slovenia as it prepares for the twenty-first century. Describes the Computer Literacy program, which was initiated by the government to help in the introduction and use of modern media and information technology in the educational process. (Author/LRW)|

Dragan, Nusa; Lorenic, Ivan; Skulj, Tomaz; Zupan, Anka

2000-01-01

60

Gaga for Google in the Twenty-First Century Advanced Placement Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The migration of online educational needs to tools like Google applications, coupled with the realization that today's twenty-first-century students are digital natives who have lived their entire lives exposed to current technology, forces educators to find ways to use technology to enhance traditional curriculum. In this article, the author…

Adams, Devon Christopher

2008-01-01

61

Reviewing the Role of the Army National Guard in the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

If the United States Army is to maintain land dominance in the future, it must think boldly and act aggressively at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The United States cannot afford to defer research, development, or fielding of new systems capab...

D. W. Chase

2001-01-01

62

Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

Hawkins, Paul Henry

2010-01-01

63

Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,…

Murphy, Peter

2012-01-01

64

Climates of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries Simulated by the NCAR Climate System Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The Climate System Model, a coupled global climate model without ‘‘flux adjustments’’ recently developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, was used to simulate the twentieth-century climate using historical greenhouse,gas and sulfate aerosol forcing. This simulation was,extended,through the twenty-first century under two newly developed scenarios, a business-as-usual case (ACACIA-BAU, CO2 710 ppmv in 2100) and a CO2 stabilization

Aiguo Dai; T. M. L. Wigley; B. A. Boville; J. T. Kiehl; L. E. Buja

2001-01-01

65

World Trends And Issues In Adult Education On The Eve Of The Twenty-First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forces of globalization today seem to have overwhelmed the historical political-cultural mission of adult education. Both in the North and the South, adult education is asked to contribute directly to productivity and thereby to competitiveness in the global market. The social component that survives is expected to help in coping with globalization. Voices of conscience and sanity have been raised at world summits in Rio (1992), Cairo (1994), Copenhagen (1995), Beijing (1995), and elsewhere. However, policies, plans and practices have not matched the declarations and agendas from the summits. The programs spawned by the Education for All conference of 1990 side-lined adult education, and so did the Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (1996). The Fifth International Conference on Adult Education held in Hamburg during July 14-18, 1997 was marked by renewed commitment and solidarity. However, challenges of problematizing globalization, democratizing development, and socializing humanity for life together in the new century remain.

Bhola, H. S.

1998-09-01

66

Modeling international cooperation in human space exploration for the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The policy process of international cooperation in space exploration, including optimistic and pessimistic scenarios for the twenty-first century, is modeled and examined in this study. In the optimistic scenario, international cooperation involves a balanced and interdependent distribution of capabilities between states, their respective national space agencies and communities of space scientists and space engineers. Cooperation is characterized by interstate participation in critical path components and joint research and development. In the pessimistic scenario, international cooperation is structured and dominated politically and economically by powerful states vis-ą-vis weaker states. Cooperation is limited to coordination of separate nationally approved projects and augmentation of capabilities in noncritical path components. On the basis of these two scenarios, policy predictions and implications relevant to exploration missions in the twenty-first century, such as a human-tended lunar base and human missions to Mars, are presented and discussed.

Sadeh, E.; Lester, J. P.; Sadeh, W. Z.

67

Twenty-first century Arctic climate change in the CCSM3 IPCC scenario simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic climate change in the Twenty-first century is simulated by the Community Climate System Model version 3.0 (CCSM3). The simulations from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1) are analyzed using eight (A1B and B1) or five (A2) ensemble members. The model simulates a reasonable present-day climate and historical climate trend. The model projects a decline of sea-ice extent in

Haiyan Teng; Warren M. Washington; Gerald A. Meehl; Lawrence E. Buja; Gary W. Strand

2006-01-01

68

SpiderCrab and the emergent object: designing for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of the robotic prototype SpiderCrab in the context of Emergent Objects 2 (EO2), a portfolio of sub-projects funded by the EPSRC\\/AHRC 'Designing for the Twenty-first Century' initiative. We report first on explorations across EO2 into how performance knowledge and practice can help to understand and facilitate emergence in the context of the design process, including

Mick Wallis; Sita Popat; Alice Bayliss; Joslin Mckinney; John Bryden; David Hogg; Matthew Godden; Rich Walker

2007-01-01

69

Integrating Doctrine and Expository Preaching: A Proposal and an Analysis for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation proposes and analyzes the integration of doctrine and expository preaching for the twenty-first century. Chapter 1 traces the recent history of doctrinal preaching and expository preaching. Problems related to postmodernism, the New Homiletic, and the changes within contemporary evangelicalism also receive treatment.\\u000aChapter 2 defines and blends the definitions of expository preaching and doctrinal preaching. These definitions form

Joel Randall Breidenbaugh

2003-01-01

70

Carebots and Caregivers: Sustaining the Ethical Ideal of Care in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early twenty-first century, we stand on the threshold of welcoming robots into domains of human activity that will\\u000a expand their presence in our lives dramatically. One provocative new frontier in robotics, motivated by a convergence of demographic,\\u000a economic, cultural, and institutional pressures, is the development of “carebots”—robots intended to assist or replace human\\u000a caregivers in the practice of

Shannon Vallor

71

Golf science research at the beginning of the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, there are 30,000 golf courses and 55 million people who play golf worldwide. In the USA alone, the value of golf club memberships sold in the 1990s was US$3.2 billion. Underpinning this significant human activity is a wide variety of people researching and applying science to sustain and develop the game. The 11

M. R. Farrally; A. J. Cochran; D. J. Crews; M. J. Hurdzan; R. J. Price; J. T. Snow; P. R. Thomas

2003-01-01

72

Twenty-First Century India: Population, Economy, Human Development, and the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-First Century India is the first study of India's development giving a fully integrated account of population and development. It is built on new projections of the population for fifty years from the Census of 2001. India's population then had already passed 1 billion. Twenty-five years later it will exceed 1.4 billion, and will almost certainly pass 1.5 billion by

Tim Dyson; Robert Cassen; Leela Visaria

73

Drivers of mountain landscape change during the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Twenty-first century mountain landscapes are evolving under the globally scaled controls of hydroclimate and the spatially\\u000a and temporally discontinuous impacts of human activity and tectonic plate movements. Attention is drawn to the difficulty\\u000a of comparing the effectiveness of the three drivers of change (tectonics, using relief as a surrogate, hydroclimate, and human\\u000a activity) because of their differing temporal rhythms. The

Olav Slaymaker

2010-01-01

74

Remobilization of southern African desert dune systems by twenty-first century global warming.  

PubMed

Although desert dunes cover 5 per cent of the global land surface and 30 per cent of Africa, the potential impacts of twenty-first century global warming on desert dune systems are not well understood. The inactive Sahel and southern African dune systems, which developed in multiple arid phases since the last interglacial period, are used today by pastoral and agricultural systems that could be disrupted if climate change alters twenty-first century dune dynamics. Empirical data and model simulations have established that the interplay between dune surface erodibility (determined by vegetation cover and moisture availability) and atmospheric erosivity (determined by wind energy) is critical for dunefield dynamics. This relationship between erodibility and erosivity is susceptible to climate-change impacts. Here we use simulations with three global climate models and a range of emission scenarios to assess the potential future activity of three Kalahari dunefields. We determine monthly values of dune activity by modifying and improving an established dune mobility index so that it can account for global climate model data outputs. We find that, regardless of the emission scenario used, significantly enhanced dune activity is simulated in the southern dunefield by 2039, and in the eastern and northern dunefields by 2069. By 2099 all dunefields are highly dynamic, from northern South Africa to Angola and Zambia. Our results suggest that dunefields are likely to be reactivated (the sand will become significantly exposed and move) as a consequence of twenty-first century climate warming. PMID:15988522

Thomas, David S G; Knight, Melanie; Wiggs, Giles F S

2005-06-30

75

Extinction debt of high-mountain plants under twenty-first-century climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative estimates of the range loss of mountain plants under climate change have so far mostly relied on static geographical projections of species' habitat shifts. Here, we use a hybrid model that combines such projections with simulations of demography and seed dispersal to forecast the climate-driven spatio-temporal dynamics of 150 high-mountain plant species across the European Alps. This model predicts average range size reductions of 44-50% by the end of the twenty-first century, which is similar to projections from the most `optimistic' static model (49%). However, the hybrid model also indicates that population dynamics will lag behind climatic trends and that an average of 40% of the range still occupied at the end of the twenty-first century will have become climatically unsuitable for the respective species, creating an extinction debt. Alarmingly, species endemic to the Alps seem to face the highest range losses. These results caution against optimistic conclusions from moderate range size reductions observed during the twenty-first century as they are likely to belie more severe longer-term effects of climate warming on mountain plants.

Dullinger, Stefan; Gattringer, Andreas; Thuiller, Wilfried; Moser, Dietmar; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Guisan, Antoine; Willner, Wolfgang; Plutzar, Christoph; Leitner, Michael; Mang, Thomas; Caccianiga, Marco; Dirnböck, Thomas; Ertl, Siegrun; Fischer, Anton; Lenoir, Jonathan; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Psomas, Achilleas; Schmatz, Dirk R.; Silc, Urban; Vittoz, Pascal; Hülber, Karl

2012-08-01

76

Twenty-first century learning after school: the case of 4-H.  

PubMed

Founded in the early 1900s, the 4-H Youth Development program can serve as a model for out-of-school programs of the twenty-first century. The 4-H pledge, repeated by its members--over 7 million, ranging in age from five to twenty--articulates its core values: "I pledge: My head to clearer thinking, My heart to greater loyalty, My hands to larger service, and My health to better living for my club, my community, my country, and my world." The 4-H Development movement was created to provide opportunities for rural children, to help them become constructive adults. Through an emphasis on "learning by doing," 4-H teaches children the habits of lifelong learning. Historically, 4-H has tapped into university-level advancements, extending such knowledge to youth and thereby giving them early access to scientific discoveries and technological progress. Members apply this learning in their communities through hands-on projects crossing a wide-range of pertinent topics. Research shows that 4-H members are more successful in school than other children and develop a wide range of skills essential in the twenty-first century. Thus, the author makes the case that the foundation of 4-H is exceptionally relevant in today's complex world, perhaps even more so than a century ago. 4-H is a leader in youth development, making it a natural model for twenty-first century after-school programs. Expanding on the 4-H pledge, the author outlines the principles a successful youth development program would have: an emphasis on leadership skills, a feeling of connection and belonging, a forum for exploring career opportunities, and a component of meaningful community service. PMID:17017263

Kress, Cathann

2006-01-01

77

Twenty-first century Arctic climate change in the CCSM3 IPCC scenario simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic climate change in the Twenty-first century is simulated by the Community Climate System Model version 3.0 (CCSM3).\\u000a The simulations from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1) are analyzed using eight (A1B and B1) or five (A2) ensemble\\u000a members. The model simulates a reasonable present-day climate and historical climate trend. The model projects a decline of\\u000a sea-ice extent in

Haiyan Teng; Warren M. Washington; Gerald A. Meehl; Lawrence E. Buja; Gary W. Strand

2006-01-01

78

The Changing Geography of the U.S. Water Budget: Twentieth-Century Patterns and Twenty-First-Century Projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent changes in temperature and precipitation patterns have dramatic effects on the availability of surface water for natural vegetation, streamflow, agricultural production, and human consumption. We use a combination of historical observational climate data and water budget equations to develop time-series and maps of twentieth-century water variables within the contiguous United States and compare these with anticipated twenty-first-century patterns projected

C. Mark Cowell; Michael A. Urban

2010-01-01

79

Science for the twenty-first century: from social contract to the scientific core  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article addresses the need, posed by the challenges of sustainable development and the changing context at the beginning of the 21st century, for changes in the method and practice of science. The major challenges for a \\

Gilberto C. Gallopķn; Silvio Funtowicz; Martin O'Connor; Jerry Ravetz

2002-01-01

80

Twenty-first century learning after school: the case of Junior Achievement Worldwide.  

PubMed

Efforts to increase after-school programming indicate the nation's concern about how youth are engaged during out-of-school time. There are clear benefits to extending the learning that goes on during the school day. Research from the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice shows that after-school participants do better in school and have stronger expectations for the future than youth who are not occupied after school. And the need is evident: 14.3 million students return to an empty house after school, yet only 6.5 million children are currently enrolled in after-school programs. If an after-school program were available, parents of 15.3 million would enroll their child. JA Worldwide began in 1919 and has been rooted in the afterschool arena from its origins. Its after-school programs teach students about the free enterprise system through curriculum focusing on business, citizenship, economics, entrepreneurship, ethics and character, financial literacy, and career development. At the same time, JA Worldwide incorporates hands-on learning and engagement with adults as role models, both key elements to a successful after-school program. Now focused on developing curriculum emphasizing skills needed for the twenty-first century, JA adopted the key elements laid out for after-school programs by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. To ensure that the next generation of students enters the workforce prepared, America's education system must provide the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Programs such as JA Worldwide serve as models of how to provide the twenty-first century skills that all students need to succeed. PMID:17017264

Box, John M

2006-01-01

81

Golf science research at the beginning of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, there are 30,000 golf courses and 55 million people who play golf worldwide. In the USA alone, the value of golf club memberships sold in the 1990s was US dollar 3.2 billion. Underpinning this significant human activity is a wide variety of people researching and applying science to sustain and develop the game. The 11 golf science disciplines recognized by the World Scientific Congress of Golf have reported 311 papers at four world congresses since 1990. Additionally, scientific papers have been published in discipline-specific peer-reviewed journals, research has been sponsored by the two governing bodies of golf, the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews and the United States Golf Association, and confidential research is undertaken by commercial companies, especially equipment manufacturers. This paper reviews much of this human endeavour and points the way forward for future research into golf. PMID:14579870

Farrally, M R; Cochran, A J; Crews, D J; Hurdzan, M J; Price, R J; Snow, J T; Thomas, P R

2003-09-01

82

Assessing twenty-first century skills through a teacher created video game for high school biology students  

Microsoft Academic Search

As twenty?first century skills become a greater focus in K?12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today’s students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi?experimental, qualitative design assessed the twenty?first century skills of digital age literacy, inventive thinking, high

Leonard A. Annetta; Shawn Holmes

2010-01-01

83

Twenty-first century learning in states: the case of the Massachusetts educational system.  

PubMed

A current crisis in education is leaving students less prepared to succeed in the working world than any generation before them. Increasingly complex external, nonacademic pressures have an impact on many of today's students, often causing them to drop out of school. Only 76 percent of Massachusetts high school students graduate, and only 29 percent earn a college degree. National figures are worse. Most educational institutions share a common goal to support students in becoming skilled, productive, successful members of society, but the author argues that this goal is not being met. Despite the constant changes in the world, educational practices have remained static. Most public schools are not adapting to meet the shifting needs of students. Universities are not able to prepare the right mix of prospective employees for the demands of the job market; for example, schools are graduating only 10 percent of the needed engineers. Institutions of higher learning cannot keep up with employers' needs in an evolving global market: strong math, science, and writing abilities; critical thinking skills; and the ability to work in teams. The author draws on exemplary efforts at work in his home state of Massachusetts--whose improvements in student achievement outcomes have been some of the best in the nation--to suggest there is promise in twenty-first century learning. Middle school students involved in a NASA-funded project write proposals, work in teams, and engage in peer review. Older students participate in enhanced, hands-on cooperative school-to-work and after-school programs. Schools are starting to offer expanded day learning, increasing the number of hours they are engaged in formal learning. Yet such programs have not reached significant levels of scale. The author calls for a major shift in education to help today's students be successful in the twenty-first century. PMID:17017262

Driscoll, David P

2006-01-01

84

A Gathering of Great Minds: Designing Twenty-First Century Education with Twentieth Century Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the 21st century turns five and a half and looks forward to summer vacation, the higher education community seems poised to undertake an endeavor of epic proportions: the remodeling of the American approach to college student learning. To begin building structures and designing strategies for 21st century education, the "Greater Expectations: A…

Taylor, Kari B.

2005-01-01

85

Transient twenty-first century changes in daily-scale temperature extremes in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key question for climate mitigation and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in temperature extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase, and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment over the United States (U.S.) to investigate the transient response of the annual frequency, duration and magnitude of 8 daily-scale extreme temperature indices during the twenty-first century of the A1B emissions scenario. We evaluate the time of emergence of a permanent exceedance (PE) above the colder part of the historical (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and the time of emergence of a new norm (NN) centered on the historical maxima (for hot extremes) or minima (for cold extremes). We find that during the twenty-first century, hot extremes permanently exceed the historical distribution's colder half over large areas of the U.S., and that the hot extremes distribution also becomes centered on or above the historical distribution's maxima. The changes are particularly robust for the exceedance of the annual 95th percentile of daily maximum temperature over the West and the Northeast (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2030 and of a NN by 2040), for warm days over the Southwest (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030), and tropical nights over the eastern U.S. (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030). Conversely, no widespread emergence of a PE or a NN is found for most cold extremes. Exceptions include frost day frequency (with a widespread emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2030 and of a NN by 2040 over the western U.S.), and cold night frequency (with an emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2040 and of a NN by 2060 in virtually the entire U.S.). Our analysis implies a transition over the next half century to a climate of recently unprecedented heat stress in many parts of the U.S., along with cold extremes that, although less frequent, remain at times as long and as severe as are found in the current climate.

Scherer, Martin; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

2013-07-01

86

Twenty-first century learning in schools: A case study of New Technology High School in Napa, California.  

PubMed

The most pertinent question concerning teaching and learning in the twenty-first century is not what knowledge and skills students need--that laundry list was identified over a decade ago--but rather how to foster twenty-first century learning. What curricula, experiences, assessments, environments, and technology best support twenty-first century learning? New Technology High School (NTHS) in Napa, California, is one example of a successful twenty-first century school. In this chapter, the author describes the components of this exemplary high school, illustrating an environment that will cultivate twenty-first century student learning. New Technology High School began by defining eight learning outcomes, aligned with the standards of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills; to graduate, students demonstrate mastery of these outcomes through an online portfolio. To help students achieve the outcomes, NTHS employs project- and problem-based learning. Whereas in traditional classrooms students work alone on short-term assignments that do not lend themselves to deep understanding, the project-based learning approach has students working in teams on long-term, in-depth, rigorous projects. Students' work is supported by the school's workplace-like environment and effectiv use of technology. Meaningful assessment is essential to project-based learning; students receive continuous feedback, helping them become self-directed learners. In fact, NTHS uses outcome-based grading through which students constantly know how they are performing on the twenty-first century outcomes. Research has shown that NTHS graduates are better prepared for postsecondary education, careers, and citizenship than their peers from other schools. To facilitate twenty-first century learning, all schools need to rethink their approach to teaching and learning. New Technology High School is one way to do so. PMID:17017260

Pearlman, Bob

2006-01-01

87

How will melting of ice affect volcanic hazards in the twenty-first century?  

PubMed

Glaciers and ice sheets on many active volcanoes are rapidly receding. There is compelling evidence that melting of ice during the last deglaciation triggered a dramatic acceleration in volcanic activity. Will melting of ice this century, which is associated with climate change, similarly affect volcanic activity and associated hazards? This paper provides a critical overview of the evidence that current melting of ice will increase the frequency or size of hazardous volcanic eruptions. Many aspects of the link between ice recession and accelerated volcanic activity remain poorly understood. Key questions include how rapidly volcanic systems react to melting of ice, whether volcanoes are sensitive to small changes in ice thickness and how recession of ice affects the generation, storage and eruption of magma at stratovolcanoes. A greater frequency of collapse events at glaciated stratovolcanoes can be expected in the near future, and there is strong potential for positive feedbacks between melting of ice and enhanced volcanism. Nonetheless, much further research is required to remove current uncertainties about the implications of climate change for volcanic hazards in the twenty-first century. PMID:20403841

Tuffen, Hugh

2010-05-28

88

Psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis: role of patient advocacy organisations in the twenty first century.  

PubMed

All the psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis patient advocacy organisations are devoted to promoting public awareness and patient education; supporting access to effective treatments and physicians committed to the welfare of patients; working with physicians and other organisations to facilitate development of new treatments; and supporting research for more effective treatments and a cure for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. They have participated in the remaking of health politics in the late twentieth century. This was an era in which small patient support and advocacy groups were transformed into sophisticated national health organisations integral to the formation of national health policy and research, treatment, and education funding by working with physicians, legislators, pharmaceutical companies, third party payors, and the media. As we enter the twenty first century, some of these groups have done critical surveys of patients and physicians to discern needs that are redirecting their programming and reshaping directions in the field. Many national leagues have united to form international organisations. Although differences in their national healthcare systems, the age of their organisations, and the diseases they cover are reflected in the focus of their individual activities, much unites them. Whatever their size, as their roles have come to be recognised in the healthcare community, the patient advocacy organisations welcome being invited to the decision making table. This report describes a sampling of these organisations. PMID:15708949

Zimmerman, G M; Savage, L M; Chandler, D C; Maccarone Buonfigli, M

2005-03-01

89

Robust twenty-first-century projections of El Nińo and related precipitation variability.  

PubMed

The El?Nińo-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in rainfall, severe weather, agricultural production, ecosystems and disease in many parts of the world. Given that further human-forced changes in the Earth's climate system seem inevitable, the possibility exists that the character of ENSO and its impacts might change over the coming century. Although this issue has been investigated many times during the past 20?years, there is very little consensus on future changes in ENSO, apart from an expectation that ENSO will continue to be a dominant source of year-to-year variability. Here we show that there are in fact robust projected changes in the spatial patterns of year-to-year ENSO-driven variability in both surface temperature and precipitation. These changes are evident in the two most recent generations of climate models, using four different scenarios for CO2 and other radiatively active gases. By the mid- to late twenty-first century, the projections include an intensification of both El-Nińo-driven drying in the western Pacific Ocean and rainfall increases in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Experiments with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model reveal that robust projected changes in precipitation anomalies during El?Nińo years are primarily determined by a nonlinear response to surface global warming. Uncertain projected changes in the amplitude of ENSO-driven surface temperature variability have only a secondary role. Projected changes in key characteristics of ENSO are consequently much clearer than previously realized. PMID:24121439

Power, Scott; Delage, Franēois; Chung, Christine; Kociuba, Greg; Keay, Kevin

2013-10-13

90

Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could…

Reynolds, David R.

91

Climates of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries Simulated by the NCAR Climate System Model.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Climate System Model, a coupled global climate model without `flux adjustments' recently developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, was used to simulate the twentieth-century climate using historical greenhouse gas and sulfate aerosol forcing. This simulation was extended through the twenty-first century under two newly developed scenarios, a business-as-usual case (ACACIA-BAU, CO2 710 ppmv in 2100) and a CO2 stabilization case (STA550, CO2 540 ppmv in 2100). Here we compare the simulated and observed twentieth-century climate, and then describe the simulated climates for the twenty-first century. The model simulates the spatial and temporal variations of the twentieth-century climate reasonably well. These include the rapid rise in global and zonal mean surface temperatures since the late 1970s, the precipitation increases over northern mid- and high-latitude land areas, ENSO-induced precipitation anomalies, and Pole-midlatitude oscillations (such as the North Atlantic oscillation) in sea level pressure fields. The model has a cold bias (2°-6°C) in surface air temperature over land, overestimates of cloudiness (by 10%-30%) over land, and underestimates of marine stratus clouds to the west of North and South America and Africa.The projected global surface warming from the 1990s to the 2090s is 1.9°C under the BAU scenario and 1.5°C under the STA550 scenario. In both cases, the midstratosphere cools due to the increase in CO2, whereas the lower stratosphere warms in response to recovery of the ozone layer. As in other coupled models, the surface warming is largest at winter high latitudes (5.0°C from the 1990s to the 2090s) and smallest (1.0°C) over the southern oceans, and is larger over land areas than ocean areas. Globally averaged precipitation increases by 3.5% (3.0%) from the 1990s to the 2090s in the BAU (STA550) case. In the BAU case, large precipitation increases (up to 50%) occur over northern mid- and high latitudes and over India and the Arabian Peninsula. Marked differences occur between the BAU and STA550 regional precipitation changes resulting from interdecadal variability. Surface evaporation increases at all latitudes except for 60°-90°S. Water vapor from increased tropical evaporation is transported into mid- and high latitudes and returned to the surface through increased precipitation there. Changes in soil moisture content are small (within ±3%). Total cloud cover changes little, although there is an upward shift of midlevel clouds. Surface diurnal temperature range decreases by about 0.2°-0.5°C over most land areas. The 2-8-day synoptic storm activity decreases (by up to 10%) at low latitudes and over midlatitude oceans, but increases over Eurasia and Canada. The cores of subtropical jets move slightly up- and equatorward. Associated with reduced latitudinal temperature gradients over mid- and high latitudes, the wintertime Ferrel cell weakens (by 10%-15%). The Hadley circulation also weakens (by 10%), partly due to the upward shift of cloudiness that produces enhanced warming in the upper troposphere.

Dai, Aiguo; Wigley, T. M. L.; Boville, B. A.; Kiehl, J. T.; Buja, L. E.

2001-02-01

92

Critical Needs for the Twenty First Century: The Role of the Geosciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Geological Institute and its Member Societies have prepared a concise document for U.S. policy makers about the critical needs of the United States and the rest of the world at the beginning of the twenty first century and how the geosciences can help. In particular, the document is meant for a new Administration and a new Congress in the United States. The geoscience community identified seven critical needs, which are: energy and climate; water; waste disposal; natural hazards; infrastructure, raw materials; and education and the geoscience workforce. Each critical need is described with an explanation of how the geosciences could help address each need. After each summary, the document provides a list of policy directions that policy makers could consider to address these needs with help from the geosciences. The three key policy recommendations are: 1. Establish a natural resource advisor within the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy; 2. Invest in mapping, monitoring, assessments and state and federal surveys of natural resources and 3. Invest in research and develop to understand Earth processes.

Rowan, L.; Leahy, P. P.; Zoback, M.

2008-12-01

93

Challenges for Business Education in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present trends indicate a systematic decline in business education enrollments. The status and definition of the field are being debated, and the need to keep up with constant technological change compounds the issue. The field must move beyond a technical skills orientation to produce lifelong learners able to adapt to change. (SK)

Lundgren, Terry D.

1999-01-01

94

Literature review: a representation of how future knowledge worker is shaping the twenty-first century workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to share findings from a literature review conducted during ongoing scholarly research on the characteristics of knowledge workers. This paper aims to place knowledge workers in the context of twenty-first century organizations by providing a historical background on the emergence of knowledge work. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The literature presented in this review is

Diana Acsente

2010-01-01

95

Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly, over the…

Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

2011-01-01

96

Review of Twenty-First Century Portable Electronic Devices for Persons with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Use of portable electronic devices by persons with moderate intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders is gaining increased research attention. The purpose of this review was to synthesize twenty-first century literature (2000-2010) focusing on these technologies. Twenty-one studies were identified which evaluated use of: (a)…

Mechling, Linda C.

2011-01-01

97

The Spanish Civil War in the twenty-first century peninsular narrative: Narrative endeavors towards a national reconciliation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation analyzes six twenty-first century novels that reflect Spain's current intellectual trends on the Spanish Civil War, Francoism and the transition to a democratic system. These novels deal with the complex correlation between memory and amnesia caused by the traumatic events of the Civil War. Despite the abundance of literature on this topic, these writers insist on the need

Marie D Guiribitey

2007-01-01

98

Who needs gender research and what is its role in the twenty-first century? A personal reflection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider the following questions: who needs gender? Can there possibly be any intelligence left to share? What is the role of gender researchers in 2010 and in the twenty-first century? Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This reflective piece considers these issues against the author's own personal experience as Gender in Management's Regional Editor: Australasia,

Judy McGregor

2010-01-01

99

Assessing Twenty-First Century Skills through a Teacher Created Video Game for High School Biology Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the…

Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn

2010-01-01

100

The Commission on the Social Determinants of Health: reinventing health promotion for the twenty-first century?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the work of the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, established by WHO in 2005 and considers the potential for this Commission to contribute to a reinvention of health promotion for the twenty-first century. It argues that the Commission can do this by reinforcing the move that health promotion has been making since the 1980s to

Fran Baum

2008-01-01

101

From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong…

McWilliam, Erica

2011-01-01

102

Assessing Twenty-First Century Skills through a Teacher Created Video Game for High School Biology Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the…

Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn

2010-01-01

103

A Commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the author's commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," in which Isaac I. Bejar and E. Aurora Graf propose the application of a test design--the duplex design (which was proposed in 1988 by Bock and Mislevy) for application in current accountability assessments.…

Brandt, Steffen

2010-01-01

104

Critical Pedagogy in the Twenty-First Century: A New Generation of Scholars. Critical Constructions: Studies on Education and Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book simultaneously provides multiple analyses of critical pedagogy in the twenty-first century while showcasing the scholarship of this new generation of critical scholar-educators. Needless to say, the writers herein represent just a small subset of a much larger movement for critical transformation and a more humane, less Eurocentric,…

Malott, Curry Stephenson, Ed.; Porfilio, Bradley, Ed.

2011-01-01

105

Twenty-first century learning in school systems: the case of the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township, Indianapolis, Indiana.  

PubMed

To empower students with skills such as information and technological literacy, global awareness and cultural competence, self-direction, and sound reasoning, teachers must master these skills themselves. This chapter examines how the Digital Age Literacy Initiative of the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township in Indianapolis, Indiana, which is funded by the Lilly Endowment, incorporated twenty-first century learning through a systemic approach involving teacher training and the use of data. The authors explain the district's content, process, and context goals toward accomplishing its mission of empowering students with the necessary twenty-first century skills to succeed in the digital age. The district places a strong emphasis on professional development for teachers. To support the necessary teacher learning and therefore sustain the work of the initiative, the district has adopted action research, self-assessment, and an online professional development network. To support teachers in implementing new strategies, master teachers serve as digital age literacy coaches. The chapter discusses the initiative's focus on evidence of progress. Through a partnership with the Metiri Group of California, the district has built a range of assessments including online inventories and twenty-first century skill rubrics. For example, the Mankato Survey collected teacher and student data around access, ability, and use of technology in the classroom in 2001 and then in 2004. This research showed significant gains in some technologies across all grade levels and consistent gains in nearly all technologies for middle and high school students. As it moves into the next phase of implementing the Digital Age Literacy Initiative, the district embraces the systemic shifts in school culture necessary to institutionalize twenty-first century learning. PMID:17017261

Capuano, Marcia; Knoderer, Troy

2006-01-01

106

Values, Roles, Visions, and Professional Development in the Twenty-first Century: Australian and Japanese Principals Voice Their Views  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents the findings of a comparative study of the principals of Australian and Japanese schools and their visions\\u000a for ideal schools in the twenty-first century. It focuses on principals’ views on basic values, roles, visions, and opinions\\u000a on leading and managing schools. The findings are based on the analyses of data from empirical surveys of 145 school leaders

David T. Gamage; Takeyuki Ueyama

107

Simulated Antarctic precipitation and surface mass balance at the end of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to assess potential future Antarctic surface mass balance changes, the underlying mechanisms, and\\u000a the impact of these changes on global sea level. To this end, this paper presents simulations of the Antarctic climate for\\u000a the end of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The simulations were carried out with a stretched-grid atmospheric general\\u000a circulation model,

G. Krinner; O. Magand; I. Simmonds; C. Genthon; J.-L. Dufresne

2007-01-01

108

Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian model of…

Cole, Mike

2013-01-01

109

The Naked Truth: An Analysis of Nudity in American Avant-Garde Dance of the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade there has been a resurgence of experimental dance artists in the United States using nakedness—especially utilizing their own nude bodies—in choreography. In an effort to discover why this trend is reemerging now and how nudity is functioning in new ways in the world of twenty-first century avant-garde American dance, this thesis critically investigates five works of

Patricia L. Gay

2011-01-01

110

Analysis of the projected regional sea-ice changes in the Southern Ocean during the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) for the Fourth Assessment\\u000a Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4), the projected regional distribution of sea ice for the\\u000a twenty-first century has been investigated. Averaged over all those model simulations, the current climate is reasonably well\\u000a reproduced. However, this averaging procedure hides the errors

W. Lefebvre; H. Goosse

2008-01-01

111

Taking Up Space: Museum Exploration in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Museums have become a crucible for questions of the role that traditional art and art history should play in contemporary art. Friedrich Nietzsche argued in the nineteenth century that museums can be no more than mausoleums for effete (fine) art. Over the course of the twentieth century, however, curators dispelled such blanket pessimism by…

Sutton, Tiffany

2007-01-01

112

A Portrait of the PETE Major: Re-Touched for the Early Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The literature on those who choose to become PE teachers received healthy attention in the late twentieth century but has been largely ignored since. Querying those PETE majors in first decade of the new century enables PETE faculty to have updated and pertinent knowledge of their charges. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to…

McCullick, Bryan A.; Lux, Karen M.; Belcher, Donald G.; Davies, Nigel

2012-01-01

113

Ahead of the game : Developing academic library staff for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper looks at issues and trends in the building of a learning organisation for the coming century. There is initial consideration of the concept of the “hybrid library”, a phrase descriptive of the current evolutionary stage as perceived by British academic libraries, and some analysis of what this implies for the future skills requirement of information workers. Mechanisms for

Alasdair Paterson

1999-01-01

114

Perspectives of Northern Sea Route and Northwest Passage in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of modern climate models to simulate ice season length in the Arctic, its recent changes and navigation season on Arctic marine routes along the Eurasian and the North American coastlines is evaluated using satellite ice cover observations for 1979?2007. Simulated mean sea ice season duration fits remarkably well to satellite observations and so do the simulated 20th century

V. C. Khon; I. I. Mokhov; Mojib Latif; Vladimir Semenov; Wonsun Park

2010-01-01

115

THE FUTURE PERFECT: Chicana Feminist Critical Analysis in the Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay reviews Chicana feminist criticism at the millennial turn. Using an interdisciplinary and cultural studies analysis, the essay addresses changes in the historical, material, and social development of knowledge production by Chicanas over the last few decades leading up to the new century. Set within the grammatical of a \\

Ellie D. Hernįndez

2006-01-01

116

Montesquieu for the twenty-first century: factoring civil society and business into global governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper sets out to argue for rethinking governance through the prism of Montesquieu's model of checks and balances within state powers. It aims to explore the parallel between the eighteenth century concept of division of power and the current need to engage and balance the powers of the state, industry\\/markets and civil society in governance for global

Atle Midttun

2010-01-01

117

Multinationals and Global Capitalism: From the Nineteenth to the Twenty First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides an essential historical framework for understanding global business. The author shows how entrepreneurs built a global economy in the nineteenth century by creating firms that pursued resources and markets across borders. It demonstrates how firms shifted strategies as the first global economy disintegrated in the political and economic chaos between the two world wars, and how they

Geoffrey Jones

118

Guideposts for the U.S. Military in the Twenty-first Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Near the close of the 20th century, in September 1999, fifteen general officers -- active duty and retired -- representing all of the Armed Forces, met at Boiling AFB, DC, to consider the impact of air power on warfare. The discussion ranged widely across...

J. Neufeld

2000-01-01

119

Career Counseling in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond Cultural Encapsulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the context in which professional career counseling in the U.S. exists at the beginning of the 21st century and makes recommendations to enhance the growth and development of the profession. Issues addresses include developing curricula, training career counselors, and broadening the focus of career decision making to include work…

Pope, Mark

2003-01-01

120

Twenty first century edgeless universities: Designing community spaces for connectedness across degree programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

better able to meet the needs of 21 st century learners. However the issue of disconnect resulting from a lack of community in such environments needs consideration. The issue may be addressed in part by designing virtual community spaces for degree programs that enable social, educational and professional connectedness. In this concise paper we discuss the design of two Master

Elizabeth Greener; Shannon Johnston

121

Vacuum electronics at the dawn of the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this introduction to the Special Issue on vacuum electronics, the history, operating principles, and recent technological trends of vacuum electronic devices are reviewed. The development of microwave power tubes is described and improvements in these devices over the past quarter of a century are highlighted. These improvements have been substantial and have been driven by modern high-power applications and

VICTOR L. GRANATSTEIN; ROBERT K. PARKER; CARTER M. ARMSTRONG

1999-01-01

122

Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Flynn effect" is a surprising finding, identified by James R. Flynn, that IQ test scores have significantly increased from one generation to the next over the past century. Flynn now brings us an exciting new book which aims to make sense of this rise in IQ scores and considers what this tells us about our intelligence, our minds and society.…

Flynn, James R.

2012-01-01

123

Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Flynn effect" is a surprising finding, identified by James R. Flynn, that IQ test scores have significantly increased from one generation to the next over the past century. Flynn now brings us an exciting new book which aims to make sense of this rise in IQ scores and considers what this tells us about our intelligence, our minds and…

Flynn, James R.

2012-01-01

124

Democracy and Markets in the Twenty-first Century: An Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direction of global economic change in this century is relatively clear. State- owned enterprises are being privatized and new capital markets are emerging in many countries. These and existing markets are becoming increasingly liberalized and interconnected. A truly global financial system is emerging, one in which huge sums of money and capital are continuously and rapidly transferred from one

John R. Freeman

2001-01-01

125

Energy engineering education for the twenty-first century. Preprint 2841  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production and utilization of energy in the United States are beginning to undergo significant changes in response to an increasing awareness of the limits on fossil-fuel reserves, particularly those for oil and natural gas. The resulting transition period, likely to last well into the next century, will have far-reaching consequences for the future of energy engineering education. This paper

J. N. Davidson; L. E. Weaver

1977-01-01

126

Schools for the Twenty-First Century: Leadership Imperatives for Educational Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If America's schools are to meet the needs of the 21st Century, they must be reinvented and restructured. This book is no restructuring cookbook, but is designed to provide ingredients that may be useful in inventing recipes to satisfy local tastes. Chapter 1 discusses purpose in the life of organizations, concentrating explicitly on purpose in…

Schlecty, Phillip C.

127

The prospects for mathematical logic in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The four authors present their speculations about the future developments,of mathematical,logic in the twenty-rst century. The areas of recursion theory, proof theory and logic for computer science, model theory, and set theory are discussed independently. We can only see a short distance ahead, but we

Samuel R. Buss; Alexander S. Kechris; Anand Pillay; Richard A. Shore

2001-01-01

128

NUCLEAR ENERGY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: Examination of a Contentious Subject  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The worldwide future of nuclear energy is a highly disputed subject; one side is certain that nuclear energy will have to expand in the next century to meet energy demand, whereas the other side is equally certain that this energy form is too dangerous and uneconomical to be of longer-term use. By looking at the way such beliefs are

Peter W. Beck

1999-01-01

129

NATO-Russia Relations in the Twenty-First Century: Obstacles and Opportunities for Strategic Partnership.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NATO-Russian relations remain a major component of global security in the 21st century. Given the complex threats to global security today, the rising energy demands and energy dependency of Europe, and increasing foreign trade between the parties, Russia...

O. Ozkan

2012-01-01

130

Museum period rooms for the twenty-first century: salvaging ambition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late twentieth century, many museums dismantled and disposed of their period rooms. Current trends, however, reveal a revival, driven by the popularity of historic interiors with the public, by the desire of museums to attract new audiences and by their need to address questions of local, social and national identity. Recent initiatives are proving controversial. This article surveys

Julius Bryant

2009-01-01

131

Information Technology for the Twenty-First Century: A Bold Investment in America's Future. Implementation Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is the implementation plan for the Information Technology for the 21st Century (IT[squared]) initiative. With this initiative, the Federal Government is making an important re-commitment to fundamental research in information technology. The initiative proposes $366 million in increased investments in computing, information, and…

Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC. National Science and Technology Council.

132

Putting Art to Work: Revenue-Generating Museum Education Programs for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A set of customized adult education programs for working professionals at the Art Institute of Chicago provides both the kinds of experiences people in the 21st century are looking for and illustrates a distinctive way of thinking about fee-based programming and how it supports the overall museum mission. This article brings together convergent…

Alvarez, Sarah

2010-01-01

133

Inquiry Island: Social Responsibility and Ecological Sustainability in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social studies teachers face significant challenges. Because the challenges are substantial, teachers need to help students develop habits of heart and mind that use and transcend the academic content of formal classroom lessons. Yet, students feel pressure to perform well on standardized measures of achievement, so their teachers focus on…

Houser, Neil O.

2005-01-01

134

Trichinella infection in Serbia in the first decade of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

In Serbia, infection with Trichinella spp. has been recognized as a human health and animal husbandry problem for almost a century. The rate of swine infection gradually decreased from 0.14% to 0.02% between 2001 and 2010. For the past 5 years, Trichinella infections among swine were detected at levels higher than 0.05% in 3 districts of Serbia while prevalence persisted at lower levels for the rest of the country. During this 10-year period, there were 2257 cases of human trichinellosis, including 3 deaths; however, a significant decrease in the number of cases was reported during the last 5 years (fewer than 200 cases per year). The fact that prevalence data presented here are similar to prevalence data from 1990 indicates that this period of 10 years was needed to overcome the re-emergence of Trichinella infection in swine and humans that occurred during the last decade of the previous century. PMID:23462255

Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Lj; Djordjevic, M; Plavsic, B; Grgic, B

2013-02-05

135

A New Work-Life Model for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the coming of the new century, talk of change and new beginnings is everywhere—the new family, the new workforce, the new corporation, the new employee-employer contract. In the midst of all this talk of change, however, policies and practices in the work-life area remain surprisingly the same. No innovative ways of framing the issues have captured the imagination of

Rosalind C. Barnett

1999-01-01

136

The Individual and Community in Twentieth and Twenty-first-Century Pauline Scholarship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rudolf Bultmann’s existential approach to New Testament theology found many supporters in the twentieth century. It also provoked a forceful response from his student Ernst Käsemann, who insisted that Bultmann’s individualizing interpretation, especially of Paul, was defective on exegetical, theological and philosophical grounds, because it ignored Paul’s cosmic and communal theology. The debate between these two scholars has been furthered

Ben C. Dunson

2010-01-01

137

The prospects for mathematical logic in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The four authors present their speculations about the future developmentsof mathematical logic in the twenty-rst century. The areas of recursiontheory, proof theory and logic for computer science, model theory, and set theory arediscussed independently.We can only see a short distance ahead, but wecan see plenty there that needs to be done.A. Turing, 1950.x1. Introduction. The annual meeting of the

Samuel R. Buss; Alexander S. Kechris; Anand Pillay; Richard A. Shore

2002-01-01

138

Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a 'beyond 4°C world' in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The range of future climate-induced sea-level rise remains highly uncertain with continued concern that large increases in the twenty-first century cannot be ruled out. The biggest source of uncertainty is the response of the large ice sheets of Greenland and west Antarctica. Based on our analysis, a pragmatic estimate of sea-level rise by 2100, for a temperature rise of 4°C or more over the same time frame, is between 0.5 m and 2 m--the probability of rises at the high end is judged to be very low, but of unquantifiable probability. However, if realized, an indicative analysis shows that the impact potential is severe, with the real risk of the forced displacement of up to 187 million people over the century (up to 2.4% of global population). This is potentially avoidable by widespread upgrade of protection, albeit rather costly with up to 0.02 per cent of global domestic product needed, and much higher in certain nations. The likelihood of protection being successfully implemented varies between regions, and is lowest in small islands, Africa and parts of Asia, and hence these regions are the most likely to see coastal abandonment. To respond to these challenges, a multi-track approach is required, which would also be appropriate if a temperature rise of less than 4°C was expected. Firstly, we should monitor sea level to detect any significant accelerations in the rate of rise in a timely manner. Secondly, we need to improve our understanding of the climate-induced processes that could contribute to rapid sea-level rise, especially the role of the two major ice sheets, to produce better models that quantify the likely future rise more precisely. Finally, responses need to be carefully considered via a combination of climate mitigation to reduce the rise and adaptation for the residual rise in sea level. In particular, long-term strategic adaptation plans for the full range of possible sea-level rise (and other change) need to be widely developed. PMID:21115518

Nicholls, Robert J; Marinova, Natasha; Lowe, Jason A; Brown, Sally; Vellinga, Pier; de Gusmćo, Diogo; Hinkel, Jochen; Tol, Richard S J

2011-01-13

139

Twenty-first century education: toward greater emphasis on context-social, economic, and educational.  

PubMed

In calling for a greater emphasis on the social, economic, and educational contexts, the discussion presented in this article is generally supportive of C.R. Snyder and T.R. Elliott's (this issue, pp. 1033-1054) vision of 21st century graduate education in clinical psychology. Attention is directed toward the asocial nature of professional psychology, a brief analysis of the influence of economics on the development of clinical psychology education, and the American Psychological Association's accreditation process as it shapes professional psychology education. PMID:15965931

Peterson, Roger L

2005-09-01

140

An explanation for the difference between twentieth and twenty-first century land-sea warming ratio in climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A land-sea surface warming ratio (or ?) that exceeds unity is a robust feature of both observed and modelled climate change. Interestingly, though climate models have differing values for ?, it remains almost time-invariant for a wide range of twenty-first century climate transient warming scenarios, while varying in simulations of the twentieth century. Here, we present an explanation for time-invariant land-sea warming ratio that applies if three conditions on radiative forcing are met: first, spatial variations in the climate forcing must be sufficiently small that the lower free troposphere warms evenly over land and ocean; second, the temperature response must not be large enough to change the global circulation to zeroth order; third, the temperature response must not be large enough to modify the boundary layer amplification mechanisms that contribute to making ? exceed unity. Projected temperature changes over this century are too small to breach the latter two conditions. Hence, the mechanism appears to show why both twenty-first century and time-invariant CO2 forcing lead to similar values of ? in climate models despite the presence of transient ocean heat uptake, whereas twentieth century forcing—which has a significant spatially confined anthropogenic tropospheric aerosol component that breaches the first condition—leads to modelled values of ? that vary widely amongst models and in time. Our results suggest an explanation for the behaviour of ? when climate is forced by other regionally confined forcing scenarios such as geo-engineered changes to oceanic clouds. Our results show how land-sea contrasts in surface and boundary layer characteristics act in tandem to produce the land-sea surface warming contrast.

Joshi, M. M.; Lambert, F. H.; Webb, M. J.

2013-10-01

141

Rethinking the Metropolis: Reconfiguring the Governance Structures of the Twenty-first-century City-region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, metropolitan planning is challenged by the tensions between the search to become a ‘competitive metropolis' as well as a ‘sustainable metropolis'. Many urban regions struggle with dealing with these complexities on the metropolitan level and try to find bottom-up solutions to balance between the supposed merits of new territorial frames and identities on the metropolitan level and the often

Leonie B. Janssen-Jansen; Thomas A. Hutton

2011-01-01

142

Winds of Change: Charting the Course for IT in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spring of 2005, the author, the retiring president of EDUCAUSE, was asked to be the keynote speaker at the EDUCAUSE Western Regional Conference. The conference theme was "Winds of Change: Charting the Course for Technology in Challenging Times." What that brought to his mind was the era of the great sailing ships of the eighteenth and…

Hawkins, Brian L.

2007-01-01

143

Changes in Thought on Higher Education for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The reforms and developments of China's higher education at a time when it faces two great challenges--the world's science/technology revolution and China's social market economy--are, on the whole, replete with achievements and fraught with difficulties and show great changes, but they are unbalanced. Everyone feels that these reforms and…

Maoyuan, Pan

2007-01-01

144

Why the Changing American Economy Calls for Twenty-First Century Learning: Answers to Educators' Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As American educators struggle to meet the unprecedented challenge of preparing all students to master the skills embodied in state learning standards, some wonder whether their efforts make economic sense. After all, the newspapers are full of reports of jobs being outsourced to lower-wage countries and jobs being done by computers. If more and…

Levy, Frank; Murnane, Richard J.

2006-01-01

145

Higher Education and Knowledge Sharing: From Ivory Tower to Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Knowledge is the driving force of a knowledge economy. Therefore, the way knowledge is shared and created and the way these actions are managed could lead to either a competitive advantage for an organisation or it could lead to its demise. Managing especially academics' knowledge to the benefit of all can be even a greater challenge to any…

Buckley, Sheryl

2012-01-01

146

Mental Health in Head Start: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores why mental health has been a contested issue in Head Start and describes recent efforts to bring mental health closer to the center of the program agenda. Describes areas of challenge and innovation that might further the program goal of improving the well-being of parents and children in poverty. Concludes with recommendations for…

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Zigler, Edward

2000-01-01

147

Educating Latino Immigrant Students in the Twenty-First Century: Principles for the Obama Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Carola Suarez-Orozco and Marcelo Suarez-Orozco address one of the most critical challenges facing President Obama's administration: meeting the educational needs of Latino and other immigrant children in the United States. The authors first provide a brief overview of past policies and agendas that have created a situation in which…

Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.

2009-01-01

148

Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms.  

PubMed

Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms--such as corals and some plankton--will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13 models of the ocean-carbon cycle to assess calcium carbonate saturation under the IS92a 'business-as-usual' scenario for future emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. In our projections, Southern Ocean surface waters will begin to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite, a metastable form of calcium carbonate, by the year 2050. By 2100, this undersaturation could extend throughout the entire Southern Ocean and into the subarctic Pacific Ocean. When live pteropods were exposed to our predicted level of undersaturation during a two-day shipboard experiment, their aragonite shells showed notable dissolution. Our findings indicate that conditions detrimental to high-latitude ecosystems could develop within decades, not centuries as suggested previously. PMID:16193043

Orr, James C; Fabry, Victoria J; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Doney, Scott C; Feely, Richard A; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Gruber, Nicolas; Ishida, Akio; Joos, Fortunat; Key, Robert M; Lindsay, Keith; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Matear, Richard; Monfray, Patrick; Mouchet, Anne; Najjar, Raymond G; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Rodgers, Keith B; Sabine, Christopher L; Sarmiento, Jorge L; Schlitzer, Reiner; Slater, Richard D; Totterdell, Ian J; Weirig, Marie-France; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Yool, Andrew

2005-09-29

149

Rising river flows throughout the twenty-first century in two Himalayan glacierized watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greater Himalayan glaciers are retreating and losing mass at rates comparable to glaciers in other regions of the world. Assessments of future changes and their associated hydrological impacts are scarce, oversimplify glacier dynamics or include a limited number of climate models. Here, we use results from the latest ensemble of climate models in combination with a high-resolution glacio-hydrological model to assess the hydrological impact of climate change on two climatically contrasting watersheds in the Greater Himalaya, the Baltoro and Langtang watersheds that drain into the Indus and Ganges rivers, respectively. We show that the largest uncertainty in future runoff is a result of variations in projected precipitation between climate models. In both watersheds, strong, but highly variable, increases in future runoff are projected and, despite the different characteristics of the watersheds, their responses are surprisingly similar. In both cases, glaciers will recede but net glacier melt runoff is on a rising limb at least until 2050. In combination with a positive change in precipitation, water availability during this century is not likely to decline. We conclude that river basins that depend on monsoon rains and glacier melt will continue to sustain the increasing water demands expected in these areas.

Immerzeel, W. W.; Pellicciotti, F.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

2013-09-01

150

CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation  

SciTech Connect

Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

2011-04-01

151

Management of healthcare waste: developments in Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

In many Southeast Asian countries, significant challenges persist with regard to the proper management and disposal of healthcare waste. The amount of healthcare waste in these countries is continuously increasing as a result of the expansion of healthcare systems and services. In the past, healthcare waste, if it was treated at all, was mainly incinerated. In the last decade more comprehensive waste management systems were developed for Southeast Asian countries and implementation started. This also included the establishment of alternative healthcare waste treatment systems. The developments in the lower-middle-income countries are of special interest, as major investments are planned. Based upon sample projects, a short overview of the current development trends in the healthcare waste sector in Laos, Indonesia and Vietnam is provided. The projects presented include: (i) Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (development of the national environmental health training system to support the introduction of environmental health standards and improvement of healthcare waste treatment in seven main hospitals by introducing steam-based treatment technologies); (ii) Indonesia (development of a provincial-level healthcare waste-management strategy for Province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) and introduction of an advanced waste treatment system in a tertiary level hospital in Makassar); and (iii) Vietnam (development of a healthcare waste strategy for five provinces in Vietnam and a World Bank-financed project on healthcare waste in Vietnam). PMID:22993139

Kühling, Jan-Gerd; Pieper, Ute

2012-09-01

152

Long-term climate response to stabilized and overshoot anthropogenic forcings beyond the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From multi-ensembles of climate simulations using the Community Climate System Model version 3, global climate changes have been investigated focusing on long-term responses to stabilized anthropogenic forcings. In addition to the standard forcing scenarios for the current international assessment, an overshoot scenario, where radiative forcings are decreased from one stabilized level to another, is also considered. The globally-averaged annual surface air temperature increases during the twenty-first century by 2.58 and 1.56°C for increased forcings under two future scenarios denoted by A1B and B1, respectively. These changes continue but at much slower rates in later centuries under forcings stabilized at year 2100. The overshoot scenario provides a different pathway to the lower B1 level by way of the greater A1B level. This scenario results in a surface climate similar to that in the B1 scenario within 100 years after the forcing reaches the B1 level. Contrasting to the surface changes, responses in the ocean are significantly delayed. It is estimated from the linear response theory that temperature changes under stabilized forcings to a final equilibrium state in the A1B (B1) scenario are factors of 0.3 0.4, 0.9, and 17 (0.3, 0.6, and 11) to changes during the twenty-first century, respectively, for three ocean layers of the surface to 100, 100 500, and 500 m to the bottom. Although responses in the lower ocean layers imply a nonlinear behavior, the ocean temperatures in the overshoot and B1 scenarios are likely to converge in their final equilibrium states.

Tsutsui, Junichi; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kitabata, Hideyuki; Nishizawa, Keiichi; Nakashiki, Norikazu; Maruyama, Koki

2007-02-01

153

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: WILL THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LEAD OR FOLLOW?  

PubMed

Developing countries, particularly the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, should accommodate their national systems of innovation to the worldwide intellectual property (IP) regime emerging after the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in a way that maximizes global economic welfare in the foreseeable future. As many developed countries' experience demonstrates, badly configured, over-protectionist IP regimes stifle innovation by making inputs to future innovation too costly and too cumbersome to sustain over time. More carefully considered IP regimes, however, are an important way to protect innovative small- and medium-sized firms from predatory, larger competitors. The challenge is for emerging economies to capture the benefits of IP without importing the serious problems that developed countries have themselves failed to solve. Emerging economies can attain this balance by pursuing a policy of counter-harmonization in which they take advantage of existing exemptions in international agreements governing IP to establish regional, local, and international practices that promote more innovative, flexible uses of IP. Such practices include a research exemption for experimental uses of IP, government imposed nonexclusive licensing, anti-blocking provisions, an essential facilities doctrine, and compulsory licenses. Additional tools include an ex ante regime of compensatory liability rules for small scale innovation and sensible exceptions, particularly for science as well as general fair use provisions, to the exclusive rights of domestic copyright laws. Emerging economies will have to overcome strong economic pressure to accept more restrictive IP regimes as part of free trade agreements as well as a lack of technical expertise and internal government coordination. However, emerging economies have already accrued enough experience to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of various IP schemes and their own ability to tailor IP to local needs. Developing countries will need to take advantage of that experience and defend innovative practices at international dispute resolution forums. Through creative, determined efforts, the developing countries can avoid other countries' IP excesses while establishing the kind of IP norms that address the real conditions of creativity and innovation in today's digitally empowered universe of scientific discourse. PMID:21423816

Reichman, Jerome H

2009-01-31

154

Simulating changes in the leaf unfolding time of 20 plant species in China over the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Recent shifts in phenology reflect the biological response to current climate change. Aiming to enhance our understanding of phenological responses to climate change, we developed, calibrated and validated spatio-temporal models of first leaf date (FLD) for 20 broadleaved deciduous plants in China. Using daily meteorological data from the Chinese Meteorological Administration and the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) created using three IPCC scenarios (A2, A1B and B1), we described the FLD time series of each species over the past 50 years, extrapolating from these results to simulate estimated FLD changes for each species during the twenty-first century. Model validation suggests that our spatio-temporal models can simulate FLD accurately with R (2) (explained variance) >0.60. Model simulations show that, from 1952 to 2007, the FLD in China advanced at a rate of -1.14 days decade(-1) on average. Furthermore, changes in FLD showed noticeable variation between regions, with clearer advances observed in the north than in the south of the country. The model indicates that the advances in FLD observed from 1952-2007 in China will continue over the twenty-first century, although significant differences among species and different climate scenarios are expected. The average trend of FLD advance in China during the twenty-first century is modeled as being -1.92 days decade(-1) under the A2 scenario, -1.10 days decade(-1) under the A1B scenario and -0.74 days decade(-1) under the B2 scenario. The spatial pattern of FLD change for the period 2011-2099 is modeled as being similar but showing some difference from patterns in the 1952-2007 period. At the interspecific level, early-leafing species were found to show a greater advance in FLD, while species with larger distributions tended to show a weaker advance in FLD. These simulated changes in phenology may have significant implications for plant distribution as well as ecosystem structure and function. PMID:23689929

Ge, Quansheng; Wang, Huanjiong; Dai, Junhu

2013-05-22

155

Simulating changes in the leaf unfolding time of 20 plant species in China over the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent shifts in phenology reflect the biological response to current climate change. Aiming to enhance our understanding of phenological responses to climate change, we developed, calibrated and validated spatio-temporal models of first leaf date (FLD) for 20 broadleaved deciduous plants in China. Using daily meteorological data from the Chinese Meteorological Administration and the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) created using three IPCC scenarios (A2, A1B and B1), we described the FLD time series of each species over the past 50 years, extrapolating from these results to simulate estimated FLD changes for each species during the twenty-first century. Model validation suggests that our spatio-temporal models can simulate FLD accurately with R 2 (explained variance) >0.60. Model simulations show that, from 1952 to 2007, the FLD in China advanced at a rate of -1.14 days decade-1 on average. Furthermore, changes in FLD showed noticeable variation between regions, with clearer advances observed in the north than in the south of the country. The model indicates that the advances in FLD observed from 1952-2007 in China will continue over the twenty-first century, although significant differences among species and different climate scenarios are expected. The average trend of FLD advance in China during the twenty-first century is modeled as being -1.92 days decade-1 under the A2 scenario, -1.10 days decade-1 under the A1B scenario and -0.74 days decade-1 under the B2 scenario. The spatial pattern of FLD change for the period 2011-2099 is modeled as being similar but showing some difference from patterns in the 1952-2007 period. At the interspecific level, early-leafing species were found to show a greater advance in FLD, while species with larger distributions tended to show a weaker advance in FLD. These simulated changes in phenology may have significant implications for plant distribution as well as ecosystem structure and function.

Ge, Quansheng; Wang, Huanjiong; Dai, Junhu

2013-05-01

156

End-Permian Mass Extinction in the Oceans: An Ancient Analog for the Twenty-First Century?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greatest loss of biodiversity in the history of animal life occurred at the end of the Permian Period (˜252 million years ago). This biotic catastrophe coincided with an interval of widespread ocean anoxia and the eruption of one of Earth's largest continental flood basalt provinces, the Siberian Traps. Volatile release from basaltic magma and sedimentary strata during emplacement of the Siberian Traps can account for most end-Permian paleontological and geochemical observations. Climate change and, perhaps, destruction of the ozone layer can explain extinctions on land, whereas changes in ocean oxygen levels, CO2, pH, and temperature can account for extinction selectivity across marine animals. These emerging insights from geology, geochemistry, and paleobiology suggest that the end-Permian extinction may serve as an important ancient analog for twenty-first century oceans.

Payne, Jonathan L.; Clapham, Matthew E.

2012-05-01

157

Report by Jacques Delors, Chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, First Session (Paris, France, March 2-4, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper the chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century reviewed commission discussions on education in the 21st century. The growing interdependence of the modern world is discussed including the results of the U.S. economic ideology of the Ronald Reagan era on the world economy, and the collapse of…

Delors, Jacques

158

Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century--radon, smoking, and lung cancer risks  

SciTech Connect

Recognition that radon and its daughter products may accumulate to high levels in homes and in the workplace has led to concern about the potential lung cancer risk resulting from indoor domestic exposure. While such risks can be estimated with current dosimetric and epidemiological models for excess relative risks, it must be recognized that these models are based on data from occupational exposure and from underground miners' mortality experience. Several assumptions are required to apply risk estimates from an occupational setting to the indoor domestic environment. Analyses of the relevant data do not lead to a conclusive description of the interaction between radon daughters and cigarette smoking for the induction of lung cancer. The evidence compels the conclusion that indoor radon daughter exposure in homes represents a potential life-threatening public health hazard, particularly in males, and in cigarette smokers. Resolution of complex societal interactions will require public policy decisions involving the governmental, scientific, financial, and industrial sectors. These decisions impact the home, the workplace, and the marketplace, and they extend beyond the constraints of science. Risk identification, assessment, and management require scientific and engineering approaches to guide policy decisions to protect the public health. Mitigation and control procedures are only beginning to receive attention. Full acceptance for protection against what could prove to be a significant public health hazard in the twenty-first century will certainly involve policy decisions, not by scientists, but rather by men and women of government and law.

Fabrikant, J.I. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1990-06-01

159

Clubfoot in the twentieth century: where we were and where we may be going in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

In the twentieth century clubfoot was one of the commonest congenital deformities of the musculoskeletal system with an incidence in some races as low as 0.6 and in others as high as 6.8 per thousand live births (Polynesia). Males have the deformity twice as often as females. In the early 1900s forceful correction of the deformity as espoused by Hugh Owen Thomas was in vogue. In the 1930s Joseph Hiram Kite, like Hippocrates (400 BC), recommended repeated gentle manipulations to achieve a correction. Instead of bandages Kite used serial plaster casts to maintain the correction. During the late 1940s Ignatio Ponseti developed his technique of correction through the normal arc of the subtalar joint. In a clubfoot the soft tissues are more resistant to pressure than the bones. With this concept in mind soft tissue procedures were developed in which the capsules and ligaments were released surgically. With safer pediatric anesthesia the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s saw surgical approaches that were more and more aggressive even including a complete subtalar release. The improved imaging modalities and computer graphics of the 1980s led to a better understanding of the pathoanatomy. Long-term follow-up studies demonstrating malcorrection, overcorrection, pain, and stiffness dampened the enthusiasm for very aggressive surgery. The main problem with surgery is that clubfoot wounds heal by a patching up process called repair. The losses are made good not with the original tissue but with a material that is biologically simple, cheap, and handy - connective tissue scar! As the century drew to a close there was a major swing of the pendulum to the Ponseti method. Surgeons are now learning the limitations of this method. Finally, the author tries to imagine what may happen in the future prevention, classification, and treatment of clubfoot with all the advances in cell biology, molecular biology, biomechanics, biomaterials, surgery, orthotics, and evidence-based medicine. PMID:21946867

Carroll, Norris C

2012-01-01

160

Exploitation of College Instructors Is the Main Threat to Higher Education and the Development of Russia in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Russia at the beginning of the twenty-first century has turned into a country of paradoxes. For example, even though society is increasingly dependent on education and science, it is spending less and less on them. Despite all the talk about how intelligence goes where the pay is better, higher and secondary education, evidently, is an exception.…

Plaksii, S.

2005-01-01

161

Academic Tenure and Higher Education in the United States: Implications for the Dental Education Workforce in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the literature related to the evolution and implementation of academic tenure (AT) in U.S. higher education. It is intended to highlight AT implications for the recruitment, retention, and development of the dental education workforce in the twenty-first century and the need for this workforce to implement change in dental education. The dental educa - tion workforce is

Melanie R. Peterson

162

Three Dialogs: A Framework for the Analysis and Assessment of Twenty-First-Century Literacy Practices, and Its Use in the Context of Game Design within "Gamestar Mechanic"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses a framework for the analysis and assessment of twenty-first-century language and literacy practices in game and design-based contexts. It presents the framework in the context of game design within "Gamestar Mechanic", an innovative game-based learning environment where children learn the Discourse of game design. It…

Games, Ivan Alex

2008-01-01

163

Music education in the twenty-first century: a cross-cultural comparison of German and American music education towards a new concept of international dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative Music Education is often considered to be an unnecessary subject because there seem to be more important issues for research than studying music education in various countries. Comparative music education is not a luxury, but rather a necessity in the twenty-first century. Scholars and music teachers in many countries are struggling with similar problems such as teacher training, performance-based

Alexandra Kertz-Welzel

2008-01-01

164

Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Fourth Session (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, April 13-15, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This session of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century was preceded by a 2-day working group on the processes of education. The Commission also held an afternoon of hearings that included an in-depth exchange between Canadian educational leaders and the Commission members on a wide range of topics that included…

International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (UNESCO), Paris (France).

165

Music Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of German and American Music Education towards a New Concept of International Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comparative Music Education is often considered to be an unnecessary subject because there seem to be more important issues for research than studying music education in various countries. Comparative music education is not a luxury, but rather a necessity in the twenty-first century. Scholars and music teachers in many countries are struggling…

Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

2008-01-01

166

Zoos in the twenty-first century: Can't we find a better way to love nature?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a new millennium approaches, many forms of life on the planet and the environments in which they have evolved are increasingly threatened by human activities Wildlife is being marginalized, and native habitats are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. Equally disturbing is the impending demise of traditional human societies---peoples who have evolved outside of the confines and conditions of modern Western influence. The loss of these human and animal societies has occurred so rapidly that implications are largely unknown. Research on how modern Americans relate to animals, particularly wildlife, revealed a clear and disturbing incongruity best exemplified in the current paradigm of zoo exhibition and education. Although zoos purport to educate visitors about the ecology of natural environments and the universal plight of wildlife, research shows that people, particularly children, learn less about ecological principles in zoos with live animals than they do in non-living natural history exhibits. While designers employ a variety of visual techniques in natural history exhibition, environmental sound as an educational exhibit component is largely nonexistent. Many animal species communicate through sound, especially species in underwater environments. As the audio equivalent of a landscape, the soundscape is as important as any other habitat feature to the well-being of wildlife populations. Using recorded sounds of natural environments, an exhibition soundscape was designed and produced for Oceanario de Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal---the centerpiece of the 1998 World Exposition in Lisbon, Portugal. With programmed sound serving as a major component of natural history exhibition, a conceptual design of a novel zoo for the twenty-first century was described. The "NewZew" concept is based on a growing awareness that the best way to save species is to salvage, preserve, and restore their natural habitats---activities that are largely antithetical to current zoo practice. In introducing visitors to the lifeways of traditional societies and employing recent and emerging technologies, the NewZew educates its visitors about the wonders of life on earth without displaying live animals.

Dewey-Platt, Lauren Kay

167

Concrete: The Sustainable Infrastructure Material for the Twenty First Century. Transportation Research Circular E-C103.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Revolutionary evolutions relating to novel materials of construction and modifications, and improvements in the behavior of traditional materials, have been taking place throughout the 20th century and into the 21st century. These evolutions have been con...

E. G. Nawy

2006-01-01

168

Impacts and responses to sea-level rise: a global analysis of the SRES scenarios over the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) climate and socio-economic scenarios (A1FI, A2, B1 and B2 `future worlds'), the potential impacts of sea-level rise through the twenty-first century are explored using complementary impact and economic analysis methods at the global scale. These methods have never been explored together previously. In all scenarios, the exposure and hence the impact potential

Robert J. Nicholls; Richard S. J. Tol

2006-01-01

169

Reinventing Sexual Scripts: Sexuality and Social Change in the Twenty-First Century (The 2008 John H. Gagnon Distinguished Lecture on Sexuality, Modernity and Change)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the politics and practice of sexuality in the early twenty-first century. Drawing on a set of case\\u000a studies from diverse societies in different regions of the world, the author examines both the intersection of and the tension\\u000a between grassroots struggles for sexual freedom and transnational movements for sexual rights within the broader context of\\u000a ongoing global

Richard Parker

2010-01-01

170

The House, the Street, Global Society: Latin American Families and Childhood in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the colonial period (1492 to approximately 1826), children have constituted a large proportion of the population of Latin America, with approximately thirty to fifty percent under age twenty in the eighteenth century. Public health campaigns in the early twentieth century improved child survival rates and resulted in the substantial expansion of the proportion under age twenty by the 1960s.

Elizabeth Anne Kuznesof

2005-01-01

171

Protecting Parole Board Legitimacy in the Twenty-first Century: The Role of Victims' Rights and Influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis of the 20th-century victims' rights movement concludes that through state and federal legislative enactments made during an especially punitive social climate, victims shifted the priorities of parole boards from meeting the historically individualized needs of inmates to responding to the demands from victims that offenders should serve more time in prison. Reprioritizing victims' interests to the same

Joel M. Caplan

2012-01-01

172

From Villain to Superhero: The Evolution of the Lawyer Stereotype in Nineteenth through the Twenty-First Century Novel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis analyzes the evolution of the lawyer character from the novels of the early 19th century through those of the modern day. The representation of the lawyer character illustrates the contemporary view of lawyers in society and also provides a framework of the relationship between the lawyer and the common man.

Carolyn A. Morway

2009-01-01

173

Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alaska's climate is changing and one of the most significant indications of this change has been the late 19th to early 21st century behavior of Alaskan glaciers. Weather station temperature data document that air temperatures throughout Alaska have been increasing for many decades. Since the mid-20th century, the average change is an increase of ?????2.0????C. In order to determine the magnitude and pattern of response of glaciers to this regional climate change, a comprehensive analysis was made of the recent behavior of hundreds of glaciers located in the eleven Alaskan mountain ranges and three island areas that currently support glaciers. Data analyzed included maps, historical observations, thousands of ground-and-aerial photographs and satellite images, and vegetation proxy data. Results were synthesized to determine changes in length and area of individual glaciers. Alaskan ground photography dates from 1883, aerial photography dates from 1926, and satellite photography and imagery dates from the early 1960s. Unfortunately, very few Alaskan glaciers have any mass balance observations. In most areas analyzed, every glacier that descends below an elevation of ?????1500??m is currently thinning and/or retreating. Many glaciers have an uninterrupted history of continuous post-Little-Ice-Age retreat that spans more than 250??years. Others are characterized by multiple late 19th to early 21st century fluctuations. Today, retreating and/or thinning glaciers represent more than 98% of the glaciers examined. However, in the Coast Mountains, St. Elias Mountains, Chugach Mountains, and the Aleutian Range more than a dozen glaciers are currently advancing and thickening. Many currently advancing glaciers are or were formerly tidewater glaciers. Some of these glaciers have been expanding for more than two centuries. This presentation documents the post-Little-Ice-Age behavior and variability of the response of many Alaskan glaciers to changing regional climate. ?? 2006.

Molnia, B. F.

2007-01-01

174

Sustainable Living by the Bay : Improving Student Engagement in the Science Classroom for the Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Inspiring students to be self-motivated and engaged is a challenge for all school-based curriculum reformers. A cluster of\\u000a schools in the Melbourne Bayside area took up this challenge during the Australian Schools Innovations in Science, Technology\\u000a and Mathematics (ASISTM)-funded initiative entitled Sustainable Living by the Bay. In this chapter, we will be sharing our experience of the project with particular

Lyn Carter; Ranjith Dediwalage

175

Tunisian women in the twenty-first century: past achievements and present uncertainties in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent and dramatic changes in Tunisia since the Jasmine Revolution have brought new challenges for its citizens and for its women in particular. Tunisian women, long considered the most liberated in the Arab-Muslim world, are now seeing a growing conservative mind-set spreading across the country. The more frequent appearance of women wearing headscarves and men sporting beards in public,

Jane D. Tchaļcha; Khedija Arfaoui

2012-01-01

176

Tunisian women in the twenty-first century: past achievements and present uncertainties in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent and dramatic changes in Tunisia since the Jasmine Revolution have brought new challenges for its citizens and for its women in particular. Tunisian women, long considered the most liberated in the Arab-Muslim world, are now seeing a growing conservative mind-set spreading across the country. The more frequent appearance of women wearing headscarves and men sporting beards in public,

Jane D. Tchaļcha; Khedija Arfaoui

2011-01-01

177

When There Isn't a Right Answer: Interpretation and Reasoning, Key Skills for Twenty-First Century Geoscience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A key challenge in university geoscience teaching is to give students the skills to cope with uncertainty. Professional geoscientists can rarely be certain of the "right answer" to problems posed by most geological datasets, and reasoning through this uncertainty, being intelligently flexible in interpreting data which are limited in resolution…

Bond, Clare Elizabeth; Philo, Chris; Shipton, Zoe Kai

2011-01-01

178

A New Pension Settlement for the Twenty-First Century? The UK Pensions Commission's Analysis and Proposals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the analysis and recommendations of the UK Pensions Commission, which reported in November 2005. The UK faces similar demographic challenges to other nations from increasing longevity and past fertility declines. However, in the face of them, both state and private pension provision are in decline for younger cohorts. The Commission proposes reforms to the state pension system

John Hills

2006-01-01

179

Mid-twenty-first century warm season climate change in the Central United States. Part I: regional and global model predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional climate model (RCM) constrained by future anomalies averaged from atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) simulations is used to generate mid-twenty-first century climate change predictions at 30-km resolution over the central U.S. The predictions are compared with those from 15 AOGCM and 7 RCM dynamic downscaling simulations to identify common climate change signals. There is strong agreement among the multi-model ensemble in predicting wetter conditions in April and May over the northern Great Plains and drier conditions over the southern Great Plains in June through August for the mid-twenty-first century. Projected changes in extreme daily precipitation are statistically significant over only a limited portion of the central U.S. in the RCM constrained with future anomalies. Projected changes in monthly mean 2-m air temperature are generally consistent across the AOGCM ensemble average, North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program RCM ensemble average, and RCM constrained with future anomalies, which produce a maximum increase in August of 2.4-2.9 K over the northern and southern Great Plains and Midwest. Changes in extremes in daily 2-m air temperature from the RCM downscaled with anomalies are statistically significant over nearly the entire Great Plains and Midwest and indicate a positive shift in the warm tail of the daily 2-m temperature distribution that is larger than the positive shift in the cold tail.

Patricola, Christina M.; Cook, Kerry H.

2013-02-01

180

Climate change, land use change, and China’s food security in the twenty-first century: an integrated perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food security in China, the world’s most populous country, has long been a concern because of the challenges of population\\u000a growth, water shortages, and loss of cropland through urbanization, soil degradation, and climate change. Here, we present\\u000a an integrated analysis of China’s food demand and supply under IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1, A2, B1, and\\u000a B2 in 2020,

Fulu Tao; Masayuki Yokozawa; Jiyuan Liu; Zhao Zhang

2009-01-01

181

A model study of factors influencing projected changes in regional sea level over the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to projected increases in global mean sea level over the 21st century, model simulations suggest there will also be changes in the regional distribution of sea level relative to the global mean. There is a considerable spread in the projected patterns of these changes by current models, as shown by the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment (AR4). This spread has not reduced from that given by the Third Assessment models. Comparison with projections by ensembles of models based on a single structure supports an earlier suggestion that models of similar formulation give more similar patterns of sea level change. Analysing an AR4 ensemble of model projections under a business-as-usual scenario shows that steric changes (associated with subsurface ocean density changes) largely dominate the sea level pattern changes. The relative importance of subsurface temperature or salinity changes in contributing to this differs from region to region and, to an extent, from model-to-model. In general, thermosteric changes give the spatial variations in the Southern Ocean, halosteric changes dominate in the Arctic and strong compensation between thermosteric and halosteric changes characterises the Atlantic. The magnitude of sea level and component changes in the Atlantic appear to be linked to the amount of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) weakening. When the MOC weakening is substantial, the Atlantic thermosteric patterns of change arise from a dominant role of ocean advective heat flux changes.

Pardaens, Anne K.; Gregory, J. M.; Lowe, J. A.

2010-01-01

182

A model study of factors influencing projected changes in regional sea level over the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to projected increases in global mean sea level over the 21st century, model simulations suggest there will also be changes in the regional distribution of sea level relative to the global mean. There is a considerable spread in the projected patterns of these changes by current models, as shown by the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment (AR4). This spread has not reduced from that given by the Third Assessment models. Comparison with projections by ensembles of models based on a single structure supports an earlier suggestion that models of similar formulation give more similar patterns of sea level change. Analysing an AR4 ensemble of model projections under a business-as-usual scenario shows that steric changes (associated with subsurface ocean density changes) largely dominate the sea level pattern changes. The relative importance of subsurface temperature or salinity changes in contributing to this differs from region to region and, to an extent, from model-to-model. In general, thermosteric changes give the spatial variations in the Southern Ocean, halosteric changes dominate in the Arctic and strong compensation between thermosteric and halosteric changes characterises the Atlantic. The magnitude of sea level and component changes in the Atlantic appear to be linked to the amount of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) weakening. When the MOC weakening is substantial, the Atlantic thermosteric patterns of change arise from a dominant role of ocean advective heat flux changes.

Pardaens, Anne K.; Gregory, J. M.; Lowe, J. A.

2011-05-01

183

Responses of dune activity and desertification in China to global warming in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most areas of arid and semiarid China are covered by aeolian sand dunes, sand sheets, and desert steppes, and the existence of the nearly 80 million people who live in this region could be seriously jeopardized if climate change increases desertification. However, the expected trends in desertification during the 21st century are poorly understood. In the present study, we selected the ECHAM4 and HadCM3 global climate models (after comparing them with the results of the GFDL-R30, CGCM2, and CSIRO-Mk2b models) and used simulations of a dune mobility index under IPCC SRES climate scenarios A1FI, A2a, A2b, A2c, B1a, B2a, and B2b to estimate future trends in dune activity and desertification in China. Although uncertainties in climate predictions mean that there is still far to go before we can develop a comprehensive dune activity estimation system, HadCM3 simulations with most greenhouse forcing scenarios showed decreased desertification in most western region of arid and semiarid China by 2039, but increased desertification thereafter, whereas ECHAM4 simulation results showed that desertification will increase during this period. Inhabitants of thecentral region will benefit from reversed desertification from 2010 to 2099, whereas inhabitants of the eastern region will suffer from increased desertification from 2010 to 2099. From 2010 to 2039, most regions will not be significantly affected by desertification, but from 2040 to 2099, the environments of the western and eastern regions will deteriorate due to the significant effects of global warming (particularly the interaction between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration), leading to decreased livestock and grain yields and possibly threatening China's food security.

Wang, Xunming; Yang, Yi; Dong, Zhibao; Zhang, Caixia

2009-06-01

184

[Primary care pediatrics in the public health system of the twenty-first century. SESPAS report 2012].  

PubMed

Today in our country, the primary care pediatrician is the first contact between children and adolescents with the health system, being also a highly resolving specialist that addresses over 90% of the health needs of this population, monitors growth and development and participates in all activities of prevention, health promotion and health education within primary care teams with nurses and family doctors. Witnessing rapid and profound demographic, social, cultural, scientific and technological changes as well as the demands and expectations of health care for citizens, which should enhance the value and response capacity of primary care. These changes also affect infant morbidity and health care priorities in child and adolescent, posing new challenges for primary care practice and reinforce the role of the pediatrician in primary care. Primary care is not only the gateway to the health system. Primary care teams have to take responsibility for the care of people assigned to coordinate the necessary resources and advising citizens on their health problems and his itinerary care by the health system. It identifies the need to foster teamwork within the health department involved nursing staff to take care activities in this age group. It aims to foster a model based on cooperation and complementarity. A recent systematic review recommended maintaining the figure of the pediatrician in primary care teams and strengthen their specific role as first point of contact with the child's health care system, found significant benefits for children. PMID:22196036

Domķnguez Aurrecoechea, Begońa; Valdivia Jiménez, Carlos

2011-12-22

185

Subjects to Citizens: Adult Learning and the Challenges of Democracy in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Theme 1 of the "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" boldly proclaimed that active citizenship and full participation of all citizens was the necessary foundation for "the creation of a learning society committed to social justice and general well-being" (UNESCO, 1997, p. 4). The "Declaration" advocated that future societies create "greater…

Welton, Michael

2013-01-01

186

Water security in one blue planet: twenty-first century policy challenges for science.  

PubMed

Water-related risks threaten society at the local, national and global scales in our inter-connected and rapidly changing world. Most of the world's poor are deeply water insecure and face intolerable water-related risks associated with complex hydrology. Most of the world's wealthy face lower water-related risks and less complex hydrology. This inverse relationship between hydrological complexity and wealth contributes to a divided world. This must be addressed if global water security is to be achieved. Using a risk-based framework provides the potential to link the current policy-oriented discourse on water security to a new and rigorous science-based approach to the description, measurement, analysis and management of water security. To provide the basis for this science-based approach, we propose an encompassing definition rooted in risk science: water security is a tolerable level of water-related risk to society. Water security policy questions need to be framed so that science can marshal interdisciplinary data and evidence to identify solutions. We join a growing group of scientists in asserting a bold vision for science leadership, calling for a new and comprehensive understanding of the planet's water system and society's water needs. PMID:24080615

Grey, D; Garrick, D; Blackmore, D; Kelman, J; Muller, M; Sadoff, C

2013-09-30

187

The nutrition challenge in the twenty-first century: what role for the United Nations?  

PubMed

United Nations (UN) agencies can play a key role in raising awareness upon the problem of malnutrition and encouraging policy changes which support effective programs. To such ends, the UN Administrative Committee on Coordination's Sub-Committee on Nutrition (ACC/SCN) decided at its recent annual meeting in Nepal to establish a small, but high-level International Commission on Nutrition. The proposal was prompted by recent evidence of slowdown in rates of nutrition progress, the absolute deterioration of nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa, and marked progress made over the past 5 years against micronutrient deficiencies, especially with regard to iodine and vitamin A. The SCN proposed that the commission review the situation and make recommendations upon goals and objectives for accelerating progress in the field of nutrition over the next decade or 2, especially in protein energy malnutrition. The commission should include 3-4 distinguished international experts, including a senior economist. PMID:12321585

1997-07-01

188

Chemical Communication in Crustaceans: Research Challenges for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chemical signals play an important role during various life stages of crustaceans. Settling of larvae, parent–offspring communication,\\u000a mate finding, mate choice, aggressive contests, and dominance hierarchies are all mediated by chemical signals. Enormous advances\\u000a have been made on understanding the function of chemical signals in crustaceans and we are on the doorstep of major advances\\u000a in chemical characterization of pheromones.

Martin Thiel; Thomas Breithaupt

189

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH SERVICES IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: CRITICAL ISSUES, CHALLENGES, AND OPPORTUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor women, their children, and families use public-funded maternal and child health (MCH) services worldwide. However, with the decline in public-funded health services and the growing role of private-financed systems, poor women and their children are at risk of falling through the cracks of business-driven health systems. This article is an overview of (a) critical MCH global health and nonhealth

Chinua Akukwe

2000-01-01

190

Restoring Rivers in the Twenty-First Century: Science Challenges in a Management Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal mandates force consideration of at least some level of river restoration in many developed nations (e.g., Clean Water\\u000a and Endangered Species Act in the United States, or the Water Framework Directive in the European Union), but a lack of specifics\\u000a in legislation compels decision-makers to ask three persistent management questions: (1) How much river restoration do we\\u000a need? (2)

Timothy J. Beechie; George R. Pess; Michael M. Pollock; Mary H. Ruckelshaus; Phil Roni

191

Childhood Obesity Prevention: Compelling Challenge of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There has been a worldwide increase in the prevalence of children who are obese that is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions. These obese children have associated significant co-morbidities. In the past 30 years the proportion of children in the United States who are obese or overweight has tripled; 15%, or approximately nine million, are obese.…

Levy, Luba Zuk; Petty, Karen

2008-01-01

192

Teacher Education Policy in Ireland and the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In line with the principles of the Bologna Process, teacher education systems across Europe are converging along a common path. Taking the Republic of Ireland (Ireland) as a case study, this paper examines the European agenda in relation to teacher education and asks how individual nation states are coping with the demands of greater comparability…

Harford, Judith

2010-01-01

193

Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers suggestions for expanding the focus of child-directed efforts and also includes recommendations for alternative approaches

Sandy K. Wurtele

2009-01-01

194

Outcomes for Children and Adolescents With Cancer: Challenges for the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

Purpose This report provides an overview of current childhood cancer statistics to facilitate analysis of the impact of past research discoveries on outcome and provide essential information for prioritizing future research directions. Methods Incidence and survival data for childhood cancers came from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 (SEER 9) registries, and mortality data were based on deaths in the United States that were reported by states to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by underlying cause. Results Childhood cancer incidence rates increased significantly from 1975 through 2006, with increasing rates for acute lymphoblastic leukemia being most notable. Childhood cancer mortality rates declined by more than 50% between 1975 and 2006. For leukemias and lymphomas, significantly decreasing mortality rates were observed throughout the 32-year period, though the rate of decline slowed somewhat after 1998. For remaining childhood cancers, significantly decreasing mortality rates were observed from 1975 to 1996, with stable rates from 1996 through 2006. Increased survival rates were observed for all categories of childhood cancers studied, with the extent and temporal pace of the increases varying by diagnosis. Conclusion When 1975 age-specific death rates for children are used as a baseline, approximately 38,000 childhood malignant cancer deaths were averted in the United States from 1975 through 2006 as a result of more effective treatments identified and applied during this period. Continued success in reducing childhood cancer mortality will require new treatment paradigms building on an increased understanding of the molecular processes that promote growth and survival of specific childhood cancers.

Smith, Malcolm A.; Seibel, Nita L.; Altekruse, Sean F.; Ries, Lynn A.G.; Melbert, Danielle L.; O'Leary, Maura; Smith, Franklin O.; Reaman, Gregory H.

2010-01-01

195

Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

Wurtele, Sandy K.

2009-01-01

196

Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

Wurtele, Sandy K.

2009-01-01

197

Australia and India: Facing the Twenty-First Century Skills Challenge. Conference Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The governments of India and Australia are working to enhance cooperation on training, at both official and industry level. As part of the exchange of ideas, Francesca Beddie, General Manager, Research, National Centre for Vocational Education Research, visited India in August 2009 at the invitation of the Australia-India Council. This paper…

Beddie, Francesca M.

2009-01-01

198

KRUTILLA'S LEGACY: TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CHALLENGES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS. (R829508)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

199

The past is a guide to the future? Comparing Middle Pliocene vegetation with predicted biome distributions for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

During the Middle Pliocene, the Earth experienced greater global warmth compared with today, coupled with higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations. To determine the extent to which the Middle Pliocene can be used as a 'test bed' for future warming, we compare data and model-based Middle Pliocene vegetation with simulated global biome distributions for the mid- and late twenty-first century. The best agreement is found when a Middle Pliocene biome reconstruction is compared with a future scenario using 560 ppmv atmospheric CO2. In accordance with palaeobotanical data, all model simulations indicate a generally warmer and wetter climate, resulting in a northward shift of the taiga-tundra boundary and a spread of tropical savannah and woodland in Africa and Australia at the expense of deserts. Our data-model comparison reveals differences in the distribution of polar vegetation, which indicate that the high latitudes during the Middle Pliocene were still warmer than its predicted modern analogue by several degrees. However, our future scenarios do not consider multipliers associated with 'long-term' climate sensitivity. Changes in global temperature, and thus biome distributions, at higher atmospheric CO2 levels will not have reached an equilibrium state (as is the case for the Middle Pliocene) by the end of this century. PMID:18854302

Salzmann, U; Haywood, A M; Lunt, D J

2009-01-13

200

Humanizing Democracy: Matthew Arnold's Nineteenth-Century Call for a Common, Higher, Educative Pursuit of Happiness and Its Relevance to Twenty-first Century Democratic Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines a nineteenth century recommendation by Matthew Arnold for democratic educational reform calling for a broadly accessible liberal education to cultivate a magnanimous and civic-minded democratic populace. Discusses how the old vision might become a new blueprint. (SLD)

Novak, Bruce

2002-01-01

201

Regional and global projections of twenty-first century glacier mass changes in response to climate scenarios from global climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large component of present-day sea-level rise is due to the melt of glaciers other than the ice sheets. Recent projections of their contribution to global sea-level rise for the twenty-first century range between 70 and 180 mm, but bear significant uncertainty due to poor glacier inventory and lack of hypsometric data. Here, we aim to update the projections and improve quantification of their uncertainties by using a recently released global inventory containing outlines of almost every glacier in the world. We model volume change for each glacier in response to transient spatially-differentiated temperature and precipitation projections from 14 global climate models with two emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) prepared for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The multi-model mean suggests sea-level rise of 155 ± 41 mm (RCP4.5) and 216 ± 44 mm (RCP8.5) over the period 2006-2100, reducing the current global glacier volume by 29 or 41 %. The largest contributors to projected global volume loss are the glaciers in the Canadian and Russian Arctic, Alaska, and glaciers peripheral to the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Although small contributors to global volume loss, glaciers in Central Europe, low-latitude South America, Caucasus, North Asia, and Western Canada and US are projected to lose more than 80 % of their volume by 2100. However, large uncertainties in the projections remain due to the choice of global climate model and emission scenario. With a series of sensitivity tests we quantify additional uncertainties due to the calibration of our model with sparsely observed glacier mass changes. This gives an upper bound for the uncertainty range of ±84 mm sea-level rise by 2100 for each projection.

Radi?, Valentina; Bliss, Andrew; Beedlow, A. Cody; Hock, Regine; Miles, Evan; Cogley, J. Graham

2013-04-01

202

Sub-Saharan Northern African climate at the end of the twenty-first century: forcing factors and climate change processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional climate model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, is forced with increased atmospheric CO2 and anomalous SSTs and lateral boundary conditions derived from nine coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models to produce an ensemble set of nine future climate simulations for northern Africa at the end of the twenty-first century. A well validated control simulation, agreement among ensemble members, and a physical understanding of the future climate change enhance confidence in the predictions. The regional model ensembles produce consistent precipitation projections over much of northern tropical Africa. A moisture budget analysis is used to identify the circulation changes that support future precipitation anomalies. The projected midsummer drought over the Guinean Coast region is related partly to weakened monsoon flow. Since the rainfall maximum demonstrates a southward bias in the control simulation in July-August, this may be indicative of future summer drying over the Sahel. Wetter conditions in late summer over the Sahel are associated with enhanced moisture transport by the West African westerly jet, a strengthening of the jet itself, and moisture transport from the Mediterranean. Severe drought in East Africa during August and September is accompanied by a weakened Indian monsoon and Somali jet. Simulations with projected and idealized SST forcing suggest that overall SST warming in part supports this regional model ensemble agreement, although changes in SST gradients are important over West Africa in spring and fall. Simulations which isolate the role of individual climate forcings suggest that the spatial distribution of the rainfall predictions is controlled by the anomalous SST and lateral boundary conditions, while CO2 forcing within the regional model domain plays an important secondary role and generally produces wetter conditions.

Patricola, C. M.; Cook, K. H.

2010-09-01

203

Sub-Saharan Northern African climate at the end of the twenty-first century: forcing factors and climate change processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional climate model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, is forced with increased atmospheric CO2 and anomalous SSTs and lateral boundary conditions derived from nine coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models to produce an ensemble set of nine future climate simulations for northern Africa at the end of the twenty-first century. A well validated control simulation, agreement among ensemble members, and a physical understanding of the future climate change enhance confidence in the predictions. The regional model ensembles produce consistent precipitation projections over much of northern tropical Africa. A moisture budget analysis is used to identify the circulation changes that support future precipitation anomalies. The projected midsummer drought over the Guinean Coast region is related partly to weakened monsoon flow. Since the rainfall maximum demonstrates a southward bias in the control simulation in July-August, this may be indicative of future summer drying over the Sahel. Wetter conditions in late summer over the Sahel are associated with enhanced moisture transport by the West African westerly jet, a strengthening of the jet itself, and moisture transport from the Mediterranean. Severe drought in East Africa during August and September is accompanied by a weakened Indian monsoon and Somali jet. Simulations with projected and idealized SST forcing suggest that overall SST warming in part supports this regional model ensemble agreement, although changes in SST gradients are important over West Africa in spring and fall. Simulations which isolate the role of individual climate forcings suggest that the spatial distribution of the rainfall predictions is controlled by the anomalous SST and lateral boundary conditions, while CO2 forcing within the regional model domain plays an important secondary role and generally produces wetter conditions.

Patricola, C. M.; Cook, K. H.

2011-09-01

204

Collection Development Challenges for the 21st Century Academic Librarian  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the down-sized academic library of the twenty-first century, many librarians with little or no formal collection development training or experience are being entrusted with large departmental budgets, occasionally without the collaboration of a department liaison. How do new librarians, or librarians new to a discipline, deal with this challenge? This article attempts to provide both tools and suggestions to

Susan Herzog

2004-01-01

205

Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (UseIT): Preparing Students for the Twenty-First Century Work Force via a Multidisciplinary and Collaborative Learning Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UseIT is one of the three undergraduate research programs sponsored by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The program allows students to work in multi-disciplinary collaborative teams to tackle a scientific “Grand Challenge.” The topic varies each year but it always entails performing computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists, educators, and other target audiences. The program allows undergraduates to use the advanced tools of information technology to solve important problems in interdisciplinary earthquake research. Since the program began in 2002, 145 students have participated in UseIT. The program stresses problem solving and interdisciplinary cross training. A key aspect of the UseIT program is its flexible, yet structured, team approach. Students share their diverse skills and interests, creating a powerful synergy through this peer mentoring. The majority of UseIT interns have considerable computer science skill or aptitude, but successful UseIT interns have hailed from nearly three-dozen disciplines, all class levels, and all skill levels. Successful UseIT interns have in common a willingness to step outside their comfort zones and try new things. During the 2009 internship the focus of the program was to deliver SCEC Virtual Display of Objects (VDO) images and animations of faults and earthquake sequences to SCEC, the Earthquake Country Alliance, and other virtual organizations via a content management system that captures the metadata and guides the user. SCEC-VDO is the SCEC intern-developed visualization software that allows the user to see earthquake related phenomena in three and four dimensions. The 2009 Grand Challenge had special relevance for the interns because the products they created were used for The Great California ShakeOut. This talk will discuss lessons learned from this program, how it addresses the needs of the 21st century STEM work force, and highlights of the 2009 internship.

Degroot, R. M.; Jordan, T. H.; Benthien, M. L.; Ihrig, M.; Berti, R.

2009-12-01

206

Hae-kyung Um - New P'ansori in Twenty-first-Century Korea: Creative Dialectics of Tradition and Modernity - Asian Theatre Journal 25:1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly a century has passed since the first new p'ansori piece The Song of Ch'oe Pyŏng-du was performed at the turn of the twentieth century. While traditional p'ansori, a form of folk musical drama, came to symbolize the cultural and artistic heritage of the Korean nation, new p'ansori, in new millennium, aspires to be a cultural expression that is relevant

Hae-kyung Um

2008-01-01

207

Christ-Centered, Diverse, and Academically Excellent: The Origins of a Possible Model for Christian Schooling in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During the last third of the twentieth century, Christian schooling in the United States was typically identified with the growing conservative, evangelical Protestant movement of that time period. After several United States Supreme Court cases had effectively secularized public schooling by the mid-1960s, the American educational landscape was…

Green, James

2006-01-01

208

Its Hour Come Round at Last? State Sovereign Immunity and the Great State Debt Crisis of the Early Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

State sovereign immunity is a sort of constitutional comet, streaking across the sky once a century to the amazement and consternation of legal commentators. The comet’s appearance has usually coincided with major state debt crises: The Revolutionary War debts brought us Chisholm v. Georgia and the Eleventh Amendment, and the Reconstruction debts brought us Hans v. Louisiana and the Amendment’s

Ernest A. Young

2012-01-01

209

Key Factors in the Rise of Mass Popular Education and Their Relevance for Education in Southern Africa in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper identifies the historical factors that played a key role in the rise of mass popular education and describes how these factors relate to education in Southern Africa in the 21st century. The broad overview of developments since the Renaissance begins with the Protestant Reformation, which established a theoretical basis for elementary…

van Niekerk, E. J.

210

Patents, Copyrights, and Trademarks in the Early Twenty-First Century: The New Relevance of Some Old Concepts of Intellectual Property Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

After laying an historical foundation of the concept of “promonopoly” legislation in the face of a U. S. public policy devoted, since 1890, to a generally antimonopoly position, this paper examines the relevance of recent changes in the three types of domestic promonopoly law: patent law, copyright law, and trademark law. During the last thirty years of the twentieth century,

Thomas S. OConnor

2005-01-01

211

Cardinal John Henry Newman and 'the ideal state and purpose of a university': nurse education, research and practice development for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Cardinal John Henry Newman's book, The Idea of a University, first published in the mid nineteenth century, is often invoked as the epitome of the liberal Enlightenment University in discussions and debates about the role and purpose of nurse education. In this article I will examine Newman's book in greater detail and with a more critical eye than is generally the case in the writing of nurse academics. In particular, I will focus on the claims that Newman was a champion of the Enlightenment University of the nineteenth century, that he promoted the idea of 'disinterested' universal knowledge for its own sake, that he was an early advocate of the pursuit of knowledge through scientific research, and the supposition that he would have welcomed the discipline of nursing into the University. In each case, I will suggest that these claims are based on an extremely selective reading of Newman's work. I will conclude by employing the example of practice development to propose an alternative way for nursing to find its place in the modern University that does not involve a retreat into what I will argue is an outdated and nostalgic view of the aims and purpose of higher education. PMID:22530857

Rolfe, Gary

2011-07-18

212

Terrorism in the year 2020: Examining the ideational, functional and geopolitical trends that will shape terrorism in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intelligence failures associated with the 9\\/11 attacks in the United States have emphasized the challenges government leaders face when trying to predict specific terrorist attacks. A complementary approach focuses on strategic forecasting, which prioritizes assessment of and response to longer-term trends that may shape the evolution of terrorism. Viewed from a historical perspective, terrorism has been influenced by three

Paul J. Smith

2008-01-01

213

An assessment of uncertainties in using volume-area modelling for computing the twenty-first century glacier contribution to sea-level change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large part of present-day sea-level change is formed by the melt of glaciers and ice caps (GIC). This study focuses on the uncertainties in the calculation of the GIC contribution on a century timescale. The model used is based on volume-area scaling, combined with the mass balance sensitivity of the GIC. We assess different aspects that contribute to the uncertainty in the prediction of the contribution of GIC to future sea-level rise, such as (1) the volume-area scaling method (scaling factor), (2) the glacier data, (3) the climate models, and (4) the emission scenario. Additionally, a comparison of the model results to the 20th century GIC contribution is presented. We find that small variations in the scaling factor cause significant variations in the initial volume of the glaciers, but only limited variations in the glacier volume change. If two existing glacier inventories are tuned such that the initial volume is the same, the GIC sea-level contribution over 100 yr differs by 0.027 m or 18 %. It appears that the mass balance sensitivity is also important: variations of 20 % in the mass balance sensitivity have an impact of 17 % on the resulting sea-level projections. Another important factor is the choice of the climate model, as the GIC contribution to sea-level change largely depends on the temperature and precipitation taken from climate models. Connected to this is the choice of emission scenario, used to drive the climate models. Combining all the uncertainties examined in this study leads to a total uncertainty of 0.052 m or 35 % in the GIC contribution to global mean sea level. Reducing the variance in the climate models and improving the glacier inventories will significantly reduce the uncertainty in calculating the GIC contributions, and are therefore crucial actions to improve future sea-level projections.

Slangen, A. B. A.; van de Wal, R. S. W.

2011-08-01

214

An assessment of uncertainties in using volume-area modelling for computing the twenty-first century glacier contribution to sea-level change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large part of present-day sea-level change is formed by the melt of glaciers and ice caps (GIC). This study focuses on the uncertainties in the calculation of the GIC contribution on a century timescale. The model used is based on volume-area scaling, combined with the mass balance sensitivity of the GIC. We assess different aspects that contribute to the uncertainty in the prediction of the contribution of GIC to future sea-level rise, such as (1) the volume-area scaling method (scaling constant), (2) the choice of glacier inventory, (3) the imbalance of glaciers with climate, (4) the mass balance sensitivity, and (5) the climate models. Additionally, a comparison of the model results to the 20th century GIC contribution is presented. We find that small variations in the scaling constant cause significant variations in the initial volume of the glaciers, but only limited variations in the glacier volume change. If two existing glacier inventories are tuned such that the initial volume is the same, the GIC sea-level contribution over 100 yr differs by 0.027 m. It appears that the mass balance sensitivity is also important: variations of 20 % in the mass balance sensitivity have an impact of 17 % on the resulting sea-level projections. Another important factor is the choice of the climate model, as the GIC contribution to sea-level change largely depends on the temperature and precipitation taken from climate models. Combining all the uncertainties examined in this study leads to a total uncertainty of 4.5 cm or 30 % in the GIC contribution to global mean sea level. Reducing the variance in the climate models and improving the glacier inventories will significantly reduce the uncertainty in calculating the GIC contributions, and are therefore crucial actions to improve future sea-level projections.

Slangen, A. B. A.; van de Wal, R. S. W.

2011-06-01

215

Improving livelihoods in East Africa through livestock research and extension: reflections on changes from the 1950s to the early twenty first century.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the major changes in development thinking that, in our view, have characterized livestock research and extension in Africa since the 1950s. It describes the institutional and ideological environment in which research and extension was then conducted and provides examples of early successes aimed at enhancing productivity. There was then a gradual broadening of the scope of research and extension to internalize the wider contexts of the challenges of improving livelihoods. The four main over-arching changes discussed are: poverty-focus, gender-sensitivity, participation and holism. The discussion ends by speculating on directions for the future. PMID:19037738

Omore, A; Kurwijila, L; Grace, D

2008-11-28

216

Emerging synergisms between drugs and physiologically-patterned weak magnetic fields: implications for neuropharmacology and the human population in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Synergisms between pharmacological agents and endogenous neurotransmitters are familiar and frequent. The present review describes the experimental evidence for interactions between neuropharmacological compounds and the classes of weak magnetic fields that might be encountered in our daily environments. Whereas drugs mediate their effects through specific spatial (molecular) structures, magnetic fields mediate their effects through specific temporal patterns. Very weak (microT range) physiologically-patterned magnetic fields synergistically interact with drugs to strongly potentiate effects that have classically involved opiate, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and nitric oxide pathways. The combinations of the appropriately patterned magnetic fields and specific drugs can evoke changes that are several times larger than those evoked by the drugs alone. These novel synergisms provide a challenge for a future within an electromagnetic, technological world. They may also reveal fundamental, common physical mechanisms by which magnetic fields and chemical reactions affect the organism from the level of fundamental particles to the entire living system. PMID:19305744

Whissell, P D; Persinger, M A

2007-12-01

217

Emerging Synergisms Between Drugs and Physiologically-Patterned Weak Magnetic Fields: Implications for Neuropharmacology and the Human Population in the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

Synergisms between pharmacological agents and endogenous neurotransmitters are familiar and frequent. The present review describes the experimental evidence for interactions between neuropharmacological compounds and the classes of weak magnetic fields that might be encountered in our daily environments. Whereas drugs mediate their effects through specific spatial (molecular) structures, magnetic fields mediate their effects through specific temporal patterns. Very weak (microT range) physiologically-patterned magnetic fields synergistically interact with drugs to strongly potentiate effects that have classically involved opiate, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and nitric oxide pathways. The combinations of the appropriately patterned magnetic fields and specific drugs can evoke changes that are several times larger than those evoked by the drugs alone. These novel synergisms provide a challenge for a future within an electromagnetic, technological world. They may also reveal fundamental, common physical mechanisms by which magnetic fields and chemical reactions affect the organism from the level of fundamental particles to the entire living system.

Whissell, P.D; Persinger, M.A

2007-01-01

218

Twenty-First-Century Adolescents, Writing, and New Media: Meeting the Challenge with Game Controllers and Laptops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today's youth come to the English language arts class with a diverse range of ideas and experiences that give them the ability to develop and blossom into proficient and talented writers for multiple audiences; constant engagement with new media and digital literacies provides them multiple opportunities and multiple channels through which to…

Gerber, Hannah R.; Price, Debra P.

2011-01-01

219

A Country Report: Challenges Facing Iranian Agriculture and Natural Resource Management in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iran’s population has doubled from 33.7 million in 1976 to 70 million in 2006. According to the 2006 Census, 68.4% of the\\u000a population live in urban areas and 31.6% live in 40,000 rural villages. This census excludes the nomadic population, which\\u000a is estimated to be 1.3 million people. Despite agricultural production growing faster than population in the last three decades,

Esmail Karamidehkordi

2010-01-01

220

Twenty-First-Century Adolescents, Writing, and New Media: Meeting the Challenge with Game Controllers and Laptops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's youth come to the English language arts class with a diverse range of ideas and experiences that give them the ability to develop and blossom into proficient and talented writers for multiple audiences; constant engagement with new media and digital literacies provides them multiple opportunities and multiple channels through which to…

Gerber, Hannah R.; Price, Debra P.

2011-01-01

221

The Pedagogical Dimension of Internationalisation? A Challenging Quality Issue in Higher Education for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What are the pedagogical impacts of internationalisation on the development of higher education in Europe? How can we proceed in this process and take a pedagogical stance on the issue? This theoretical article is partly based on a series of empirical studies, conducted by the author, investigating students' and teachers' experiences and…

Wihlborg, Monne

2009-01-01

222

From Crisis to Opportunity: Human Resource Challenges for the Public Sector in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of attention has been focused on the human capital crisis in the public sector since the mid-1990s. Experts and practitioners give many reasons why the current crisis emerged. This article examines the important factors that led to the crisis, what is being done about them through presidential agendas, legislators, oversight agencies, professional societies, and public policy think

Vidu Soni

2004-01-01

223

Mental health of adolescents reared in institutional care in Turkey: challenges and hope in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study are (i) to describe and compare the epidemiology of emotional/behavioral problems and associated risk/protective factors among nationally representative samples of institutionally reared and similarly aged community-based adolescents brought up in their natural homes by means of youth self-reports, caregiver/parent, and teacher informants; and (ii) to identify mental health service needs and utilization. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 2005 through April 2006 using an equal probability cluster sample of 11-18 year old adolescents in institutional care settings (N = 350; 163 males, 187 females) and results were compared with similarly aged community sample of youth living in their natural homes (N = 2,206). The Sociodemographic Information Form, Youth Self Report (YSR), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) by caregivers for institutional sample and parents for the community sample, and Teacher's Report Form (TRF) were used to obtain standardized data on demographic characteristics, emotional/behavioral problems, and risk/protective factors. The prevalence of problems behaviors by YSR, caregiver/parent CBCL, and TRF were: 47, 15.1, 20.5% for the institutional versus 10.1, 7.5 and, 9.5% for the community samples, respectively (p < 0.05). Youth self-reports were fourfold, and all informant reports were twofold higher for institutional versus community comparisons. Furthermore, institutional sample had consistently higher rates, not only of Externalizing, but Internalizing, Social Problems, Attention Problems, and Thought Problems, as well as discrete DSM-oriented scales, suggesting that labeling of institutional youth as simply aggressive and delinquent contributes to their further marginalization and does not comprehensively address their mental health needs. In terms of protective factors, we found that: perceived social support, high competency scores, supportive caregiving, getting along well with peers and relatives (positive relationships), and problem solving skills were significantly protective of mental health. On the other hand fatalistic beliefs, cigarette and alcohol use were significantly associated with increased risk for problem behaviors (p < 0.05). The primary reason for institutional placement was family disruption (68.9%), poverty (15.7%), abandonment (8.4%), and physical or sexual abuse (5.4%). Only 31.2% of the youth were in fact true orphans (loss of one or both parents). It is therefore remarkable that in terms of service use, despite consistently high prevalence of problem behaviors across all informant sources, only 2.4% of the youth had received any speciality mental health services during institutional care. In conclusion, there is a pressing need to transform the social and health care policy and to provide family and community-based alternatives for youth currently in institutional care in Turkey. Before this goal is achieved, it is necessary to address their mental health needs urgently and comprehensively. The highest rates of problems by youth self-report also support the view that the youths' own voices ought to be heard and need to inform the reform process regarding their future care. PMID:19644732

Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Münir, Kerim

2009-07-31

224

Public Service Broadcasting: The Challenges of the Twenty-first Century. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication No. 111.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents a review of key research on public broadcasting and a synthesis of the actuality of public service broadcasting today in the face of increasing globalization, with case studies from 16 countries. Following the General Introduction (Pierre Juneau), the report is divided into two parts. Part 1--"Public Service Television in the…

Atkinson, Dave; Raboy, Marc, Ed.

225

Two challenges for the twenty-first century: achieving financial discipline and putting the internationalization process in order  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article takes stock of the situation caused by the Asian financial crisis and analyses the various proposals made for dealing with it so as to avoid its repetition; it is concluded that financial globalization has destabilized the potentially favour- able effects of the process of opening up to international trade and productive investment. It notes that while the 1997

Robert Boyer

226

Lifespan Engagement and the Question of Relevance: Challenges for Music Education Research in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scope of music education research has expanded significantly over the last 50 years. Nevertheless, many studies remain atomistic, with limited contexts for questions, methods, findings and implications. Such approaches may seek to validate instructional strategies within an established music education system, rather than developing a continuum…

Myers, David

2008-01-01

227

Students' Note-Taking Challenges in the Twenty-First Century: Considerations for Teachers and Academic Staff Developers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Note-taking in lectures is often taken to be the distinguishing characteristic of learning at university. It is typically assumed that this is a commonsensical skill that students either have or will learn through trial and error. The data from a research project in one New Zealand university suggest that taking good notes is not a skill that…

van der Meer, Jacques

2012-01-01

228

Molecular parasitology in the twenty first century  

PubMed Central

Protist parasites cause important human and animal diseases and because of their early divergence from other eukaryotes they possess structural and biochemical characteristics not found in other cells. The completion of the genome projects of most human protist parasites and the development of novel molecular tools for their study guarantee a rapid progress in understanding how they invade, modify, and survive within their hosts. The ultimate goal of these studies will be the identification of targets for the design of drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines. In addition, the accessibility of some of these parasites to multiple genetic manipulations have transformed them in model systems in cell and molecular biology studies that could lead to the understanding of basic biological processes, as well as their evolution and pathogenesis. Here we discuss the biochemical and molecular peculiarities of these parasites and the molecular tools available for their study.

Docampo, Roberto

2012-01-01

229

Educating for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In his first inaugural speech, President Obama declared that "our schools fail too many" and an essential component of laying "a new foundation for growth" will be "to transform our schools and colleges and universities to meet the demands of a new age." Concerns about our nation's position in the global education race have led to a focus on…

Ramaley, Judith A.

2013-01-01

230

Education for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Governors Association (NGA) selected the Independence (Missouri) Public School District as one of 16 districts to implement recommendations in the NGA's "Time for Results" report. The district was chosen because of its strong leadership, evidence of community support, and ability to implement innovating programs. The Independence…

Independence City School District, MO.

231

Twenty-First-Century Historical Archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of historical archaeology has exploded over the past two decades, and especially since 2000. Methodological advances\\u000a and new theoretical insights mean that archaeological research requires periodic evaluation, and this overview builds on the\\u000a work of three earlier assessors of the discipline. Here, I concentrate on four areas of research currently being pursued by\\u000a historical archaeologists: analytical scale, capitalism,

Charles E. Orser Jr

2010-01-01

232

Developing Twenty-First-Century Airpower Strategists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many argue that we are in a period of history with potentially cataclysmic dangers. are we on the cusp of a series of dramatic upheavals. Will global demographic shifts, changing age structures, and population migrations lead to friction and ultimately vi...

R. M. Worden

2008-01-01

233

Transportation in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

New energy-efficient and environmentally-sound magnetically levitated (maglev) transportation systems are being developed that have the potential to supplement and extend the intercity portion of our transportation system, and to alleviate part of the commuter congestion on our highways. Prototype passenger-carrying maglev vehicles are now operating in Japan and Germany. The capabilities of these systems, described in science fiction over two decades ago, are no longer speculative. They will be capable of transporting 100--150 passengers per vehicles or 1500 passengers per train at speeds of 250--350 mph. While performing many of the same functions of short-haul aircraft, these electrically powered vehicles: do not emit pollutants along the route; use about 1/3 the energy per passenger mile of modern aircraft; do not contact the guideway and therefore minimize maintenance; are silent except for the noise of air passing over the body. This paper assesses current maglev technology. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Coffey, H.T.

1991-01-01

234

Transportation in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

New energy-efficient and environmentally-sound magnetically levitated (maglev) transportation systems are being developed that have the potential to supplement and extend the intercity portion of our transportation system, and to alleviate part of the commuter congestion on our highways. Prototype passenger-carrying maglev vehicles are now operating in Japan and Germany. The capabilities of these systems, described in science fiction over two decades ago, are no longer speculative. They will be capable of transporting 100--150 passengers per vehicles or 1500 passengers per train at speeds of 250--350 mph. While performing many of the same functions of short-haul aircraft, these electrically powered vehicles: do not emit pollutants along the route; use about 1/3 the energy per passenger mile of modern aircraft; do not contact the guideway and therefore minimize maintenance; are silent except for the noise of air passing over the body. This paper assesses current maglev technology. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Coffey, H.T.

1991-12-01

235

Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrorism is not a new phenomenon; it has long been a method of violent action by organizations and individuals attempting\\u000a to achieve political goals. Indeed, terrorism is not an end but rather a modus operandi. According to Bruce Hoffman, all terrorists\\u000a share one common denominator: they “live” in the future, and are convinced that they will defeat their enemies and

Boaz Ganor

236

Coercive Airpower in the Twenty First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The classical airpower theorists promoted air forces as a revolutionary new combat and capable of destroying the moral resistance of the enemy. Speaking about the effects of aerial bombardment, Giulio Douhet said, 'A complete breakdown of the social struc...

D. A. Mineau

2006-01-01

237

Meeting the Challenges of the Global Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

astering the challenges of the 21st century will require governments and citizens everywhere to see, think, and act globally—in ways never de- manded of them before. In previous centuries, the course of history was determined largely by events in only a few regions, particularly Europe and North America. The world's continents existed mostly apart, not influencing each other a great

Stephen J. Flanagan

238

Education for All in Latin America in the Twenty-First Century: The Challenges of Jomtien. Development Discussion Paper No. 358.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A declaration for achieving universal basic education adopted by the World Conference on Education for All in Jomtien, Thailand, as it relates to Latin America is discussed in this paper. The document then offers an examination of educational expansion in Latin America, a discussion of disproportionate educational budget cuts, and an analysis of…

Reimers, Fernando M.

239

Young People's Health as a Challenge for Physical Education in Schools in the Twenty-First Century: The Case of Flanders (Belgium)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: A lack of physical activity (PA) and the occurrence of overweight and obesity among school-aged youth have become a major societal problem. Arising from the general concern about the future generations' health, schools have been found to be potentially important settings to promote positive health behaviour, since all pupils can be…

Seghers, Jan; de Martelaer, Kristine; Cardon, Greet

2009-01-01

240

Literacy--The Challenge of the Twenty-First Century: A Rural Perspective and A Rural Community Adopts a Literature Based Language Arts Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children from rural backgrounds often struggle with the unfamiliar language and settings in basal reader selections, but the rich knowledge and experience that a rural child brings to the classroom is rarely reflected there. These papers describe a literature based program developed in the Washington Court House City Schools (Ohio) to teach…

Feick, Terry; And Others

241

Literacy--The Challenge of the Twenty-First Century: A Rural Perspective and A Rural Community Adopts a Literature Based Language Arts Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children from rural backgrounds often struggle with the unfamiliar language and settings in basal reader selections, but the rich knowledge and experience that a rural child brings to the classroom is rarely reflected there. These papers describe a literature based program developed in the Washington Court House City Schools (Ohio) to teach…

Feick, Terry; And Others

242

University-Community Collaborations for the Twenty-First Century: Outreach Scholarship for Youth and Families. Michigan State University Series on Children, Youth, and Families, Vol. 4; Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 1119.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 22 essays and case studies in this book offer a theoretical and practical guide on outreach programs of colleges and universities. The chapters are: (1) "The New American Outreach University: Challenges and Options" (Richard M. Lerner, Lou Anna K. Simon); (2) "The Land-Grant Idea and the Evolving Outreach University" (James T. Bonnen); (3)…

Lerner, Richard M., Ed.; Simon, Lou Anna K., Ed.

243

The Stories We Hear, The Stories We Tell What Can the Life of Jane Barker (1652-1732) Tell us about Women's Leadership in Higher Education in the Twenty-first Century?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jane Barker—poet, novelist, farm manager, student and practitioner of medical arts—was not allowed to attend university because she was a woman. Yet she was Oxford-educated in the most modern of medical theories of her time. By the end of her life, unmarried by choice, Barker was writing for pay under her own name in an emerging genre—the novel—and publicly challenging

Carol Shiner Wilson

244

Southern Ocean warming and increased ice shelf basal melting in the twenty-first and twenty-second centuries based on coupled ice-ocean finite-element modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We utilise a global finite-element sea ice-ocean model (FESOM), focused on the Antarctic marginal seas, to analyse projections of ice shelf basal melting in a warmer climate. Ice shelf-ocean interaction is described using a three-equation system with a diagnostic computation of temperature and salinity at the ice-ocean interface. A tetrahedral mesh with a minimumhorizontal resolution of 4 km and hybrid vertical coordinates is used. Ice shelf draft, cavity geometry, and global ocean bathymetry have been derived from the RTopo-1 data set. The model is forced with the atmospheric output from two climate models: (1) the Hadley Centre Climate Model (HadCM3) and (2) Max Planck Institute's ECHAM5/MPI-OM coupled climate model. Results from experiments forced with their twentieth century output are used to evaluate the modelled present-day ocean state. Sea ice coverage is largely realistic in both simulations; modelled ice shelf basal melt rates compare well with observations in both cases, but are consistently smaller for ECHAM5/MPI-OM. Projections for future ice shelf basal melting are computed using atmospheric output for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios E1 and A1B. In simulations forced with ECHAM5 data, trends in ice shelf basal melting are small. In contrast, decreasing convection along the Antarctic coast in HadCM3 scenarios leads to a decreasing salinity on the continental shelf and to intrusions of warm deep water of open ocean origin. In the case of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf (FRIS), this water reaches deep into the cavity, so that basal melting increases by a factor of 4 to 6 compared to the present value of about 90 Gt/year. By the middle of the twenty-second century, FRIS becomes the dominant contributor to total ice shelf basal mass loss in these simulations. Our results indicate that the surface freshwater fluxes on the continental shelves may be crucial for the future of especially the large cold water ice shelves in the Southern Ocean.

Timmermann, Ralph; Hellmer, Hartmut H.

2013-08-01

245

Integrative technology for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Presented is the concept of Integrative Technology, the intersection of the precision assembly of matter (nanotechnology), coupled with the functional building blocks of nature (biotechnology), and fused by the network flow of spatiotemporal information (informatics). The power of Integrative Technology is illuminated through an illustrative example; the engineering of nano-sized excitable vesicles with the ability to intrinsically process information. The fusion of the tools of nanotechnology and biotechnology to produce excitable vesicles is described, as is the mechanics of information flow that ultimately lead to the manifestations of emergent higher-order behavior. Finally, the potential of using systems engineered and produced from nanoscale components to create complex systems and materials that manifest embedded functional behavior is discussed. PMID:15194606

Montemagno, Carlo D

2004-05-01

246

Is Low Fertility a Twenty-First-Century Demographic Crisis?*  

PubMed Central

Nearly half of the world's population in 2000 lived in countries with fertility rates at or below replacement level, and nearly all countries will reach low fertility levels in the next two decades. Concerns about low fertility, fertility that is well below replacement, are widespread. But there are both persistent rationales for having children and institutional adjustments that can make the widespread intentions for two children attainable, even in increasingly individualistic and egalitarian societies.

Morgan, S. Philip

2010-01-01

247

Mobile learning for the twenty-first century librarian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to present a review of selected mobile learning literature and programmatic approaches for librarians interested in developing mobile digital library services in order to equip readers with a framework for understanding and appreciating mobile digital librarianship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review is culled from distance learning, medical informatics and medical librarianship, internet social studies, and

Jim Hahn

2008-01-01

248

Why America's Disadvantaged Communities Need Twenty-First Century Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In most contemporary discussions about the achievement gap--between rich and poor students, and between Asian and white students on the one hand, and African American and Hispanic students on the other--the underlying assumption is that educational reform can eliminate it. Educational reform efforts, focused on testing and data-driven…

Wilson, Blenda J.

2006-01-01

249

United States Military Space Into the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: What is Spacepower and Does it Constitute a Revolution in Military Affairs; Space-Related Arms Control and Regulation to 2015: Precedents and Prospects (The ABMT Regime and Space-Based Defenses; Recent Space-Related Arms Control Developm...

P. L. Hays

2002-01-01

250

United States Military Space: Into the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the 42nd volume in the Occasional Paper series of the U.S. Air Force Institute for National Security Studies (INSS). This volume presents two important papers on United States military space. The first paper, 'What is Spacepower and Does It Consti...

P. L. Hays

2002-01-01

251

Ashkenazi Jewish screening in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Ashkenazi Jewish genetic screening has expanded significantly in the past 4 decades. Individuals of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewish (AJ) descent are at increased risk of having offspring with particular genetic diseases that have significant morbidity and mortality. In addition, there are some disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, for which northern European Caucasians are at comparable risk with those of an AJ background. Carrier screening for many of these Jewish genetic disorders has become standard of care. As technology advances, so does the number of disorders for which screening is available. Thus, we need to continue to be cognizant of informed consent, test sensitivity, confidentiality, prenatal diagnosis, preimplantation genetic screening, and public health concerns regarding testing. PMID:20494256

Klugman, Susan; Gross, Susan J

2010-03-01

252

Foreign Aid in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It was pointed out in the last chapter that this work is concerned with the low income countries. Here we give a brief description\\u000a of the salient features of these countries, some of the leading features which distinguish them from the middle income countries\\u000a and which warrant their separate treatment.

Hafiz A. Akhand; Kanhaya L. Gupta

253

Key criteria in twenty-first century management promotional decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to determine the key criteria used by managers in rapidly changing organizations to make promotion decisions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was conducted of 311 managers from over 100 different US service and manufacturing enterprises experiencing rapid organizational change. Managers were asked to identify no more than five factors that were most critical in their organization

Clinton O. Longenecker; Laurence S. Fink

2008-01-01

254

The Soviet Union in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this article is how historians and others have understood Soviet history since the demise of the Soviet Union. It is argued that, despite the opening of archives, changes in interpretation have been driven as much by external political and disciplinary developments as by greater availability of data. Important external considerations have been the Cold War and the

Sheila Fitzpatrick

2007-01-01

255

Twenty-First Century Defense and Disruptive Innovation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In preparing for future wars, the U.S. military must anticipate new threats. The successful management of disruptive technologies is crucial to this preparation. This paper explores the military s management of innovation in acquisitions. It has three obj...

C. M. Wagen

2012-01-01

256

A Deans' Grant Initiative for the Twenty-First Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article poses three scenarios for national personnel preparation initiatives that would parallel the structure of the former Deans' Grants: a national initiative on the intersection of disability and diversity, a national initiative on school-university partnerships and disability, and a national initiative on service learning and disability.…

Pugach, Marleen C.

2001-01-01

257

Strategy after oil in the twenty first century  

SciTech Connect

When talking about energy, the basic question a person might ask, what is energy. One definition is, `Doing work requires the capacity to do work, this capacity is called energy.` But, in economical terms, energy is `The driving force, the universal factor, that enables people to convert natural resources to useful goods and services.` In fact, energy is the heartbeat of society and the means for their survival. Today, Oil and gas provide about 70 percent of the energy consumed in the United States. In order to manufacture goods and produce services, we require huge amounts of oil energy. In extreme cases, for example, it takes 10 million barrels of oil to build an aircraft carrier. To operate a battle group during its life cycle, it consumes approximately 64 million barrels of oil. Thus, to utilize many of the products, we need considerable amounts of this energy. Moreover, to dispose of them or to recycle them also requires additional amounts of energy.

AlBitar, O.

1996-04-01

258

The Twenty-First Century University: Some Reservations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that the university is in the process of transformation and that interpretations of data intended to show the features of this reinvented university are not completely satisfactory. Suggests that previously published views may be too optimistic and hierarchical, and that an egalitarian if pluralistic university structure and…

Wasser, Henry

2001-01-01

259

Educating Dentists for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of future educational needs for dentists looks at dramatic changes occurring within health care services in general and dental care services in particular since 1935, changes in the professional culture, and special needs for educating physicians for population-based clinical practice. (MSE)

Greenlick, Merwyn R.

1995-01-01

260

Integrative Studies: Teaching for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The integrative studies model for classroom activities that the author proposes and illustrates in this article combines the chronological focus of traditional disciplines with the thematic orientation of an interdisciplinary approach. A theme or pattern acts as the vehicle for organization. Students are presented with a variety of information…

Davies, Mary Ann

2001-01-01

261

Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of

Brian Duerden

2005-01-01

262

Families and Elder Care in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most Americans know that the U.S. population is aging, they are far less informed about the reality of providing elders with personal care, health care, and social support. Families--particularly women--have always been critical in providing elder care, but the entry of so many women into the paid labor force has made elder care…

Bookman, Ann; Kimbrel, Delia

2011-01-01

263

Development Imperatives for the Twenty-First Century in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development as a growth process is what every person, nation and state seeks from day to day. The issues of development and better welfare are generally important to the average man and woman, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Nigeria and other African countries need to instigate the principles and strategies that will bring about…

Arikpo, Arikpo B.; Etor, Robert B.; Usang, Ewa

2007-01-01

264

Land, ecology, and democracy. A twenty-first century view.  

PubMed

Land is necessary for human flourishing, and its use remains a compelling concern for every society, even those wherein industrialization has sharply diminished people's awareness of land. Here, we consider land's influence on political thinking, particularly thinking about democratic governance, and ask if this influence might be made more beneficial by the application of lessons drawn from ecological research. We identify five such lessons and apply them in six ways to the institution of private-property rights in nature--the main legal institution that allocates and perpetuates power over land--and to modern assumptions about liberal individualism and rights to health. We conclude that people can live well on land, promoting both human and land health, only in governmental forms engaging more citizens more deliberatively than now typical even in democracies. Implications for political institutions and human welfare are discussed under conditions of globalizing interdependence. PMID:17722991

Newton, Julianne Lutz; Freyfogle, Eric T; Sullivan, William C

265

Recreating Schools: Some Thoughts for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Distinguishes among educational reform, reconstruction, revolution, and recreation. In education, "reform" means "renewing" or "rebuilding"; "reconstruction" connotes "remodeling" or "remaking"; and revolution calls for replacing one kind of schooling with another. Recreated schools simultaneously emphasize change and continuity and transform all…

Bravmann, Stephanie Luster; Delisle, Robert G.

1996-01-01

266

Renewal: Remaking America's Schools for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Harold Kwalwasser has put together a call to action for education reform that makes a clear case for what has to be done in order to educate all children to their full potential. He visited forty high-performing and transforming school districts, charters, parochial, and private schools to understand why they have succeeded where others have…

Kwalwasser, Harold

2012-01-01

267

The new business realities of the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article has been adapted from a speech by Mr. Steingraber, CEO of A.T. Kearney, to the Indiana University Graduate School of Business at the MBA Graduate Recognition Ceremony in Bloomington, Indiana, May 3, 1996.

Fred G. Steingraber

1996-01-01

268

Science and Math Curricula in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the mission and goals of the Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU) and its collaboration with Edison Community College (ECC). Topics discussed include information acquisition, integration of curriculum, undergraduate research, and assessment. (JRH)

Elsberry, Jeffrey; Lindsey, Charles

1996-01-01

269

Formal Operations from a Twenty-First Century Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author reflects on Piaget's 1972 article, "Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood," addressed to questions regarding what he alleged to be the final, most advanced level of cognition in his developmental stage theory--formal operations, as described in his 1958 volume coauthored with Inhelder, "The growth of logical thinking…

Kuhn, Deanna

2008-01-01

270

Children's Television in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the state of children's television in Australia and considers possibilities for the future. Topics include regulatory frameworks and requirements for children's programs; imported programming, including animated material; the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child; and values promoted to children. (LRW)|

Browne, Dina

1997-01-01

271

Brand management perspectives in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to define the tasks of product managers from the perspective of professional brand managers and to point out the gaps between their short- and long-term tasks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper conducted two studies: the first utilized a focus group in order to define the tasks of brand managers. In the second study,

Ram Herstein; Moti Zvilling

2011-01-01

272

Direct and Indirect Fires in the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recent termination of the Crusader program coupled with Secretary Rumsfeld's May 2002 testimony before Congress on the future reliance on air- delivered precision munitions has called into question the future of the Field Artillery as a branch and the...

R. C. Longo

2003-01-01

273

Teaching Thinking Skills for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the teaching of thinking skills for the future. An analysis of John Dewey's "How We Think" offers insights into cognition. Four types of thinking--reflective, conceptual, critical and creative--are explored. Aspects of brain research relevant to cognition are discussed. Specific ways to facilitate thinking and several…

Rockler, Michael J.

274

Loblolly -- the pine for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) was a minor component of the vast natural forests of the southern United States before the region was settled by immigrants. Extensive planting and natural regeneration of cutover forest land and abandoned farmland between 1930 and 1990 made loblolly the leading timber species in the United States. It now predominates on 13.4 million ha (45

Robert P. Schultz

1999-01-01

275

Wisdom and lifelong learning in the twenty?first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

While research indicates that humans tend potentially to develop towards wisdom in later years, a review of mainly participant?determined groups and courses in 338 lifelong learning centers for older people shows little interest in wisdom or personal development activities. With the suggestion that this apparent lack of interest may be partially owing to the lack of programs for cultivating wisdom,

Richard Hawley Trowbridge

2007-01-01

276

Obesity: the disease of the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally, with nearly half a billion of the world's population now considered to be overweight or obese. The obesity epidemic is related both to dietary factors and to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Obesity has significant co-morbidities and these are associated with substantial health care and social costs. Of particular concern is the fact that

S Rössner

2002-01-01

277

Energy supply and demand in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy supplies are a matter of life and death, as well as a requirements for economic prosperity to individual countries. Energy supplies, plentiful and competitively priced, are an essential ingredient to progress and the enhancement of fife, both now and in the long term. On the timescale of human history, energy consumption in the world has been very small until

Robert L. McCrory

1989-01-01

278

Teaching Thinking Skills for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the teaching of thinking skills for the future. An analysis of John Dewey's "How We Think" offers insights into cognition. Four types of thinking--reflective, conceptual, critical and creative--are explored. Aspects of brain research relevant to cognition are discussed. Specific ways to facilitate thinking and several…

Rockler, Michael J.

279

American Warfare in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last several years there have been a number of calls for the development of a new theoretical doctrine to govern the force structure of the United States military. The last big change in doctrine occurred in the post-Vietnam era. It involved not simply the change to the all-volunteer force, but an abandonment of escalation brinkmanship and open-ended missions.

Paul R. Camacho

2003-01-01

280

United Kingdom: Skills Development for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learning and Skills Development Agency (LSDA), together with the British Council, provides the leadership for the UNEVOC centre in the United Kingdom (UK). LSDA is a strategic national agency whose mission is to improve the quality of post-16 education and training in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It does this by conducting research to…

Baines, John; Cohen, Judith; Martin, Stephen

2005-01-01

281

Oceanography, the new Frontier for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the discipline of oceanography and some of its specific areas of concern. Describes the major resources of the oceans and reflects on how these may be utilized and shared by nations in the future. (JR)

Marshall, Nelson

1973-01-01

282

Managing Perception: A Twenty-First Century Imperative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'Global War on Terrorism' (GWOT) has -- at its core -- a requirement for persuasion. The GWOT represents less a conflict against an old and proliferated tactic than a fundamental war of ideas, waged largely through regional insurgencies and fought for...

M. J. Riordan

2006-01-01

283

A Library Communication Audit for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a case study relating to an internal communication audit conducted in a large academic library that assessed existing information channels during a period of organizational change in order to recommend improvements. A communications task force developed and administered a survey instrument and then analyzed data and…

Chalmers, Mardi; Liedtka, Theresa; Bednar, Carol

2006-01-01

284

Professionalizing business district management for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore leading theories and concepts in professionalising the emerging field of business district management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In the context of globalization and localization, it discusses distinctive place-based elements of business improvement districts (BIDs), such as: law, nomenclature, assessment formulae, and branding; while suggesting and analyzing strategic international application of certain theories and concepts. Findings

Fayth A. Ruffin

2008-01-01

285

Linked Courses at the Twenty-First Century Metropolitan University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, the authors argue that linked-course learning communities serve students at nonresidential metropolitan public universities by increasing their academic achievement, reducing their attrition, and engaging them in the project of public education. They use a winter 2004 research project to argue that linked courses create supportive…

Cargill, Kima; Kalikoff, Beth

2007-01-01

286

Electronic Survey Administration: Assessment in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent advances in electronic data collection have opened broad new possibilities for educational assessment. Potentially significant savings in time, money, and effort make Web-based and e-mail-based surveys more and more attractive as alternatives to mail surveys and face-to-face interviews. Yet, as with any major change, questions and…

Olsen, Danny R.; Wygant, Steven A.; Brown, Bruce L.

2004-01-01

287

Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia into the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

The 13th Conference on Australasian Vertebrate Evolution Palaeontology and Systematics (CAVEPS) took place in Perth, Western Australia, from 27 to 30 April 2011. This biennial meeting was jointly hosted by Curtin University, the Western Australian Museum, Murdoch University and the University of Western Australia. Researchers from diverse disciplines addressed many aspects of vertebrate evolution, including functional morphology, phylogeny, ecology and extinctions. New additions to the fossil record were reported, especially from hitherto under-represented ages and clades. Yet, application of new techniques in palaeobiological analyses dominated, such as dental microwear and geochronology, and technological advances, including computed tomography and ancient biomolecules. This signals a shift towards increased emphasis in interpreting broader evolutionary patterns and processes. Nonetheless, further field exploration for new fossils and systematic descriptions will continue to shape our understanding of vertebrate evolution in this little-studied, but most unusual, part of the globe.

Nguyen, Jacqueline M. T.; Molak, Martyna; Black, Karen H.; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Travouillon, Kenny J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.

2011-01-01

288

Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia into the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The 13th Conference on Australasian Vertebrate Evolution Palaeontology and Systematics (CAVEPS) took place in Perth, Western Australia, from 27 to 30 April 2011. This biennial meeting was jointly hosted by Curtin University, the Western Australian Museum, Murdoch University and the University of Western Australia. Researchers from diverse disciplines addressed many aspects of vertebrate evolution, including functional morphology, phylogeny, ecology and extinctions. New additions to the fossil record were reported, especially from hitherto under-represented ages and clades. Yet, application of new techniques in palaeobiological analyses dominated, such as dental microwear and geochronology, and technological advances, including computed tomography and ancient biomolecules. This signals a shift towards increased emphasis in interpreting broader evolutionary patterns and processes. Nonetheless, further field exploration for new fossils and systematic descriptions will continue to shape our understanding of vertebrate evolution in this little-studied, but most unusual, part of the globe. PMID:21715395

Nguyen, Jacqueline M T; Molak, Martyna; Black, Karen H; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Travouillon, Kenny J; Ho, Simon Y W

2011-06-29

289

Developing Aerospace Leaders for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Editorial Abstract: Why is the Developing Aerospace Leaders (DAL) initiative needed? Dr. Thirtle points to a lack of unifying vision and the growth of occupationalism in the Air Force. In this article, reminiscent of Carl Builder's book The Icarus Syndrome, he states DAL's ob­ jectives and explains why it is necessary to recapture the \\

M IKE THIRTLE

290

Talent management for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Most firms have no formal programs for anticipating and fulfilling talent needs, relying on an increasingly expensive pool of outside candidates that has been shrinking since it was created from the white-collar layoffs of the 1980s. But the advice these companies are getting to solve the problem--institute large-scale internal development programs--is equally ineffective. Internal development was the norm back in the 1950s, and every management-development practice that seems novel today was routine in those years--from executive coaching to 360-degree feedback to job rotation to high-potential programs. However, the stable business environment and captive talent pipelines in which such practices were born no longer exist. It's time for a fundamentally new approach to talent management. Fortunately, companies already have such a model, one that has been well honed over decades to anticipate and meet demand in uncertain environments: supply chain management. Cappelli, a professor at the Wharton School, focuses on four practices in particular. First, companies should balance make-versus-buy decisions by using internal development programs to produce most--but not all--of the needed talent, filling in with outside hiring. Second, firms can reduce the risks in forecasting the demand for talent by sending smaller batches of candidates through more modularized training systems in much the same way manufacturers now employ components in just-in-time production lines. Third, companies can improve their returns on investment in development efforts by adopting novel cost-sharing programs. Fourth, they should seek to protect their investments by generating internal opportunities to encourage newly trained managers to stick with the firm. Taken together, these principles form the foundation for a new paradigm in talent management: a talent-on-demand system. PMID:18411966

Cappelli, Peter

2008-03-01

291

Neuroanatomy for the Dentist in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the anatomy and physiology parts of national boards have questions on neuroscience. Currently, there are course guidelines established for dental neuroanatomy but not for dental neuroscience. As a result, there is great variability in what and how neurosciences are taught to dental students. At first glance, it is difficult to determine where neurosciences fit in the dental curriculum. One

Kathleen M. Klueber

292

Applications of carbon nanotubes in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes, which consist of rolled graphene sheets built from sp(2) hybridized carbon atoms, are now attracting scientists from various disciplines due to their fascinating physico-chemical properties. In this account, we will review the recent progress on the synthetic techniques for the large-scale production of carbon nanotubes, especially focusing on the floating-catalyst method used in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. We will also describe effective purification methods avoiding structural damage, and discuss the electrochemical applications of these systems including the fabrication of: (i) lithium-ion secondary batteries; (ii) lead-acid batteries; (iii) electric double-layer capacitors; (iv) fuel cells; and (v) multifunctional fillers in polymer composites. We foresee that carbon nanotubes will find numerous applications and take an important place in the development of emerging technologies in the near future. PMID:15370479

Endo, Morinobu; Hayashi, Takuaya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Milred S

2004-10-15

293

Teaching Thinking: An Agenda for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book offers ideas and strategies for teaching thinking in schools. Sixteen chapters and a concluding discussion, each preceded by an introductory article, are written by experts recognized in their fields. The chapters include: (1) "Reading and Thinking with History and Science Text" (Isabel L. Beck and Janice A. Dole; (2) "Developing…

Collins, Cathy, Ed.; Mangieri, John N., Ed.

294

Teaching Privacy in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What would Benjamin Franklin's Facebook page look like? Would he be "friends" with William Pierce, James Madison, or Alexander Hamilton? Would there have been a separate Facebook group for the framers of the Constitution, where they would have posted comments on the wall regarding the different stipulations that needed inclusion in the document?…

Edbrooke, Odette; Ambrose, Meg Leta

2012-01-01

295

Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

House, James S.

2008-01-01

296

New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

Kassing, Gayle

2010-01-01

297

Entering the 21st century: the challenges for development  

PubMed Central

By many people, the 20th century will be remembered as an era of great achievement in human endeavour, and of enormous economic growth and prosperity. Achievements in medical research, from eradicating infectious diseases to laser surgery; in engineering, from the transistor to space exploration; and in economic development have all contributed to greater well being in the world at the end of the 20th century. Among the challenges to development identified by the World Bank in the coming decades will be managing the twin processes of globalization and localization, as well as post-conflict reconstruction. These will form the backdrop of the Bank's main focus of creating a world free of poverty.

Wolfensohn, J. D.

1999-01-01

298

Up to the Challenge: The Role of Career and Technical Education and 21st Century Skills in College and Career Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report highlights the demand for skills in the global economy and the ways in which educators can meet this demand by drawing on both career and technical education and the Partnership for 21st Century Skills' Framework for 21st Century Learning. Twenty-first century skills and career and technical education are essential in every state,…

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010

2010-01-01

299

Cultivating Inquiry-Driven Learners: A College Education for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Inquiry-driven learners anticipate, embrace, and adapt to disruptive change. Clifton Conrad and Laura Dunek advance a transformative purpose of a college education. They invite stakeholders from across higher education to engage in vigorous dialogue about the aims of a college education--and how to realize those aims. Increasingly influenced by…

Conrad, Clifton; Dunek, Laura

2012-01-01

300

A new energy security paradigm for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional energy security has been focused on the depletion of natural resources, particularly oil, natural gas and coal. More recently, the link between energy security and the military has been made, focused on the defence of international oil tanker chokepoints and the free flow of oil through these trade routes. This paper considers a possible future in which, the impacts

William J. Nuttall; Devon L. Manz

2008-01-01

301

Materials science for the twenty-first century - active and engaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial changes have been made to our Introduction to Engineering Materials course to actively engage students, energize their learning environment, and enhance their educational outcomes. While it is sometimes difficult to keep students engaged in the necessary basics for the course (crystallography, dislocations, phase diagrams), it is less difficult to keep them engaged using different active and \\

Kathleen L. Kitto

2005-01-01

302

Calories for Sale: Food Marketing to Children in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Budgets for marketing to children have spiked well into the billions, an escalation that mirrors the rise in childhood obesity rates. Children are targets for a maelstrom of marketing for all sorts of products enabled by sophisticated technology and minimal government regulation. Despite the fact that recent studies document links between food advertising and childhood obesity, a significant proportion of

Susan Linn; Courtney L. Novosat

2008-01-01

303

The Postponed Agenda: Archaeology and Human Biogeography in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholarly views on the prehistory of the Pacific Islanders are currently undergoing a major shift in perspective and underlying assumptions. This shift is driven by new research data and a need for new theoretical perspectives on space, time, and causal process. A new research agenda is coming to the fore, replacing the agenda guiding Pacific studies since the 1950s. Instead

John Edward Terrell

1997-01-01

304

Identifying Real Dichotomies Underlying the False Dichotomy: Twenty-First Century Mediation in an Eclectic Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some people (lawyers, scholars, judges, dispute resolvers, policymakers) are more concerned about fidelity to procedural protocols while others are more concerned with the substantive rules governing disputes and substantive outcomes. Those in the dispute resolution community preferring facilitation tend to be proceduralists. For them, the observance of proper procedure is a high goal, perhaps the dominant goal. They reason, often

Jeffrey W. Stempel

2000-01-01

305

Networks for Knowledge: The Turkish Electronic Classroom in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considers ways in which technology such as computer networks may affect the future development of education in Turkey. A historical-cultural perspective of Turkish education is provided; education as an agent for transmitting cultural values is discussed; computerized information networks are described; and obstacles are considered. (eight…

McIsaac, Marina Stock

1992-01-01

306

76 FR 55585 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...subscribers, provide video description. It also reinstates the requirement that that...programming recorded less than 24 hours before it is first aired.\\8\\ The rules also require...video description when the network provides it, if the station has the technical...

2011-09-08

307

The Liberal Arts College: The Most Practical and Professional Education for the Twenty-first Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national survey of higher education stakeholders, including college-bound students, parents, executives, human resource managers, and recent graduates, found agreement that problem solving, critical thinking, and writing/oral skills can be defined as career skills and are the most important goals of higher education. However, many don't…

Hersh, Richard H.

1997-01-01

308

How to Use Pragmatism Pragmatically? Suggestions for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This purpose of this paper is to indicate how one should understand John Dewey's attention to and appreciation for the methods and views of modern science. Against the idea that Dewey is a believer in the methods and views of modern science--which would make his philosophy into a form of positivism or scientism--the author argues that Dewey's…

Biesta, Gert J. J.

2009-01-01

309

Twenty-First Century Australian Women and IT: Exercising the Power of Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper investigates the Australian literature relating to female under-representation in the information technology (IT) sphere of careers and education. This summary of the current body of literature presented through the lens of the nature of the discipline includes emerging theories that explore the masculinization of the discipline,…

Lang, Catherine

2007-01-01

310

New Directions: Federal Education Policy in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contributors to this collection examine how today's federal education programs work and show how, instead of working for school improvement, these programs have begun to function as obstacles to the efforts of reform-minded states and schools. The following essays are included: (1) "Overview: Thirty-Four Years of Dashed Hopes" (Chester E. Finn,…

Kanstoroom, Marci, Ed.; Finn, Chester E., Jr., Ed.

311

Urine as a Specimen to Diagnose Infections in Twenty-First Century: Focus on Analytical Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Urine as a clinical specimen to diagnose infections has been used since ancient times. Many rapid technologies to assist diagnosis of infections are currently in use. Alongside traditional enzyme immunoassays (EIA), new technologies have emerged. Molecular analysis of transrenal DNA to diagnose infections is also a rapidly growing field. The majority of EIAs utilize the detection of excreted sugar compounds of the outer microbial cell-wall shed into the bloodstream and excreted into the urine. This mini-review focuses on current knowledge on rapid urinary antigen detection tests to diagnose most common infections, and highlights their diagnostic utility. The past and the future of urinalysis are also briefly discussed. The analysis of the literature shows that some methods are not quantitative, and analytical sensitivity may remain suboptimal. In addition, the performance criteria and technical documentation of some commercial tests are insufficient. Clinical microbiologists and physicians should be alert to assay limitations.

Tuuminen, Tamara

2012-01-01

312

Democracy and Education in the Twenty-First Century: Deweyan Pragmatism and the Question of Racism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why is John Dewey still such an important philosopher today? Writing from the perspective of the Cologne Program of Interactive Constructivism, Stefan Neubert tries in what follows to give one possible answer to this question. Neubert notes that Cologne constructivism considers Dewey in many respects as one of the most important predecessors of…

Neubert, Stefan

2010-01-01

313

Critical Digital Literacies: Following Feminist Composition Theories into Twenty-First Century Contact Zones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation examines how the interests of feminist composition theory, digital media, and new literacies studies intersect within the research context of the first-year writing classroom. Specifically, this project examines what happens to the "contact zone" (Pratt 1991; Bizzell 1994) of first-year composition when we introduce digital…

Blackburn, Jessica B.

2010-01-01

314

The Human Flesh Search Engine: Democracy, Censorship, and Political Participation in Twenty-First Century China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Human Flesh Search Engine is a recent, unique phenomenon on the Chinese internet. Comprising of thousands of forum, micro-blog, and entertainment websites and mobilizing the overwhelming number of Chinese internet users, or netizens, the search engine is able to quickly find obscure information and identify seemingly anonymous internet personalities. These websites allow netizens to have their voices heard in

Vincent Capone

2012-01-01

315

China in the Twenty-First Century: Implications for Open Source Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study seeks to contribute to a better understanding of information and communications trends for open source research on China to the year 2010, including likely information flows and controls in China. Information sensitivities and strict controls o...

R. A. Clothey R. Garian A. M. Savada M. Zhang

1996-01-01

316

Reforming Chinese Characters in the PRC and Japan: New Directions in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides a comparative evaluation of Chinese character reform in the People's Republic of China and Japan, with a particular focus on the latest changes announced in 2009 to the existing script policies in the two countries. The first Chinese script reform took place in 1956 and the first Japanese script reform in 1946, both for the…

Premaratne, Dilhara D.

2012-01-01

317

A Twenty-First Century Assessment of Values Across the Global Workforce  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) data from samples of business managers and professionals across\\u000a 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for\\u000a both individual- and societal-level analyses. At the individual-level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub-dimensions\\u000a and two sets of values dimensions (collectivism and individualism;

David A. Ralston; Carolyn P. Egri; Emmanuelle Reynaud; Narasimhan Srinivasan; Olivier Furrer; David Brock; Ruth Alas; Florian Wangenheim; Fidel León Darder; Christine Kuo; Vojko Potocan; Audra I. Mockaitis; Erna Szabo; Jaime Ruiz Gutiérrez; Andre Pekerti; Arif Butt; Ian Palmer; Irina Naoumova; Tomasz Lenartowicz; Arunas Starkus; Vu Thanh Hung; Tevfik Dalgic; Mario Molteni; Marķa Teresa de la Garza Carranza; Isabelle Maignan; Francisco B. Castro; Yong-lin Moon; Jane Terpstra-Tong; Marina Dabic; Yongjuan Li; Wade Danis; Maria Kangasniemi; Mahfooz Ansari; Liesl Riddle; Laurie Milton; Philip Hallinger; Detelin Elenkov; Ilya Girson; Modesta Gelbuda; Prem Ramburuth; Tania Casado; Ana Maria Rossi; Malika Richards; Cheryl Van Deusen; Ping-Ping Fu; Paulina Man Kei Wan; Moureen Tang; Chay-Hoon Lee; Ho-Beng Chia; Yongquin Fan; Alan Wallace

2011-01-01

318

Developing into Similarity: Global Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explains the process that is causing systems of teacher education in the EU, the USA and elsewhere to converge into a form of fewer qualitative distinctions. We argue that expansion brought about by processes familiar to globalisation is creating wide differences in the cost of information that incentivises use of standardised…

Loomis, Steven; Rodriguez, Jacob; Tillman, Rachel

2008-01-01

319

Music Education for Life: Building Inclusive, Effective Twenty-First-Century Music Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines how to make music programs more inclusive and therefore enable music teachers to compete more effectively for enrollment. Fortunately, music affords teachers many compelling options to win the hearts and minds of students, and thereby to create a more musically literate and supportive public. The author suggests that music…

Shuler, Scott C.

2011-01-01

320

Educating American Muslim Leadership (Men and Women) for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educating and training Muslim men and women leaders who are capable of effectively navigating the multi-ethnic and multi-religious terrain in America--particularly in the post 9-11 milieu--requires the development of a new critical American Muslim pedagogy. This new pedagogy, centered in Islamic epistemology and ontology, should selectively…

al-Islam, Amir

2006-01-01

321

A Communitarian Critique of the Warfare State: Implications for the Twenty-First-Century University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article contends that the relatively recent academic movement known as communitarianism can serve as a policy guide that could work catalytically on American cultural development of the sort that would loosen the tight military-industrial connection and in so doing aid the dismantling of the "warfare state." After chronicling the development…

Theobald, Paul; Knotwell, Jim

2007-01-01

322

Student Workers: Essential Partners in the Twenty-First Century Academic Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a case study that best illustrates the value of student workers in university libraries, focusing particularly on how this kind of creative endeavor benefits everyone involved--the library, the students, the faculty, and at the end of the project: the university community. (Contains 1 table.)

Logan, Firouzeh

2012-01-01

323

Worldwide Test Reviewing at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article sets the stage for the description of a variety of approaches to test reviewing worldwide. It describes the importance of test reviewing as a protection of the public and of society and also the benefits of this activity for test users, who must choose measures to use in particular situations with particular clients at a particular…

Geisinger, Kurt F.

2012-01-01

324

American Hegemony in the Twenty-First Century: Preserving the Status Quo by Fostering Consensus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the end of the Cold War, the United States has been the world's only unquestioned superpower. How the United States evaluates its position as global hegemon has important consequences for American foreign policy, particularly with regards to the potential for future policy constraints. Thus, this paper seeks to consider the question: How durable is American hegemony? The paper first

Sarah Sunn Bush

325

The twenty-first century counsellor: An emerging role in changing times  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant number of personal, social, cultural, and economic forces are encountering each other in our global environment. In order to maintain professional responses which reflect changing times, counsellors and counsellor education programs must attend to international, sociopolitical trends in an interdisciplinary context. In this article, the authors identify trends and recommendations relevant to the future of counselling.

Fred Bemak; Fred J. Hanna

1998-01-01

326

Disintegration and ReIntegration: Logistics of the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional hierarchical model of command and control that served through the U.S. Industrial Revolution has undergone significant change in the past decade. Part of the changes have been prompted by global alliances of business partners. Other changes are the result of new enabling information technology that dramatically alters the role of information in the corporation. Still other changes are

Bernard J. La Londe; Richard F. Powers

1993-01-01

327

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: A LARGE COMPREHENSIVE GLOBAL SURVEY EMPHASIZES KM STRATEGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a first set of results from an ongoing large comprehensive global survey of knowledge management (KM). In light of the observed developments since previous knowledge management surveys, we redefine the KM function, how it should be performed, and what tools and techniques will best assist in its performance. Our research instrument is a global online hosted survey

Elayne Coakes; A. D. Amar; Maria Luisa Granados

2009-01-01

328

Reading and Society in Russia in the First Years of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the changes in the attitude of Russia's reading public in terms of frequency and intensiveness and the factors that influence these changes. In comparison with the situation in the late Soviet era and with the perestroika years, the picture of mass reading by Russians over the 1990s and, especially, in the first years of…

Dubin, B. V.; Zorkaia, N. A.

2010-01-01

329

From Crisis to Opportunity: French and Foreign Language Studies in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to falling enrollments in French and a diminishing pool of high school teachers, faculty at Auburn University tried to turn the tide through a series of curricular and advocacy initiatives. They introduced new French majors in education and in international trade and a collaborative major with the Consumer Affairs Department in French…

Spencer, Samia I.

2003-01-01

330

Toward the Twenty-first Century: Air Command and Staff College Curriculum from Theory to Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Responding to a perceived need resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union, the dismantling of the Berlin Wall, and the end of the Cold War, the Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) at Maxwell Air Force Base (Alabama) revised its curriculum. Data for the descriptive study were gathered through interviews of the leadership of the school and…

Butler, Stephen L.

331

Euro-Atlantic Integration - Ukrainian Security Options in the Twenty- First Century: Origins and Developments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis reviews security options, available for Ukraine since it emerged as an independent state. The choice of taking the European model for the development, integration to the Euro-Atlantic security structures and then to European economic and polit...

A. Smorodin

2005-01-01

332

The Centre-periphery in Knowledge Production in the Twenty-first Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the new configurations in global relations and the centrality of knowledge as the emerging currency in that relationship. Argues that the centre-periphery fault line and dichotomy may be less obvious to the younger generation, taking into account the vacuum created by the collapse of the Soviet Union. Includes references. (CMK)|

Hoppers, Catherine A. Odora

2000-01-01

333

The Effect and Value of Newspapers in Education in the Twenty?first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the situation in the year 2060, with examples from the daily lives of three pupils ? two children and one grown?up. The mixture of facts and visions makes it necessary for the reader to read ‘between the lines’. Background information has been gathered through reading, life experience and also from answers to a questionnaire from three

Jan Vincens Steen

1992-01-01

334

How to Use Pragmatism Pragmatically? Suggestions for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This purpose of this paper is to indicate how one should understand John Dewey's attention to and appreciation for the methods and views of modern science. Against the idea that Dewey is a believer in the methods and views of modern science--which would make his philosophy into a form of positivism or scientism--the author argues that Dewey's…

Biesta, Gert J. J.

2009-01-01

335

Financial Prospects for American Higher Education in the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] In an important paper written for the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, Harold Hovey pointed out that even if economic growth continued, the outlook for state funding of public higher education might not be as rosy as it had been in the recent past.\\u000aMy objective in this paper is to speculate about the financial futures

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

2001-01-01

336

The Law School Mission Statement: A Survival Guide for the Twenty-first Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared law school mission statements with questionnaire responses about the school's program, overall direction, and values. Found that while many law schools are addressing issues effectively, they are not doing so through the use of a mission statement. In some areas, top-ranked schools have a significantly different focus, and there are major…

Butler, Gordon T.

2000-01-01

337

"Made in Germany": The Politics of Teaching German Popular Culture in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In North American universities, pop culture increasingly appears in the German Studies classroom to "spice up" the curriculum. But what is conveyed and taught and how is it inserted into the curriculum and into the US cultural context? This article explores three examples of popular culture in the German Studies classroom: representations of the…

Kahnke, Corinna; Stehle, Maria

2011-01-01

338

Natural Hazards: Geology, Engineering, Agriculture, and Sociopolitical\\/Humanitarian Considerations for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dangers from natural hazards have been characterized quantitatively by national and international committees of geoscientists based on technical advances in geochemistry and geophysics (sensu lato). The current status of knowledge on natural hazards is reviewed with particular emphasis on comet\\/asteroid impact, earthquakes, and volcanoes. All these hazards are survivable by the world's population if appropriate measures are taken over the

Joseph V. Smith

2000-01-01

339

Alaska Geochemical Database: Mineral Exploration Tool for the Twenty First Century-PDF of Presentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area (BRWCA) is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles (mi2): 1,500 mi2 i...

B. M. Gamble J. M. Schmidt K. A. Labay M. Granitto N. B. Shew

2012-01-01

340

Dismantling the Poverty Trap: Disability Policy for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working-age people with disabilities are much more likely than people without disabilities to live in poverty and not be employed or have shared in the economic prosperity of the late 1990s. Today's disability policies, which remain rooted in paternalism, create a \\

David C. Stapleton; Bonnie L. O'Day; Gina A. Livermore; Andrew J. Imparato

2006-01-01

341

Reducing health disparities in the twenty-first century: Opportunities for nursing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights selected components of the National Institute of Nursing Research's (NINR) Strategic Plan on Reducing Health Disparities. Building on its long history of supporting research devoted to improving minority health, NINR has expanded its opportunities and efforts related to health disparities and enhancing the research career development of minority investigators. Given the increased emphasis on reducing and, ultimately,

Janice Phillips; Patricia A. Grady

2002-01-01

342

Making a difference--women, medicine, and the twenty-first century.  

PubMed Central

Women can and should make a difference in how medical care is given in the future. The increased number of women physicians presents an opportunity to make a significant impact on the quality of medical care. Data is provided on the number of women applicants to medical school, matriculants and graduates, specialty choices, the status of women in academic medicine, and the income of women physicians. Four aspects of the environment that portend important changes for medicine in the future are identified: scientific developments, alternative delivery systems and the corporate practice of medicine, the aging population and other demographic changes, and the expanding number of physicians. Some of these changes suggest opportunities for making a difference in the traditional specialties of medicine, in providing care to underserved populations, in research careers, in the shortage areas of preventive medicine and public health, occupational medicine, child psychiatry, and physical medicine and rehabilitation, and in new areas such as community pediatrics, behavioral pediatrics, and adolescent medicine. There are many choices and many decisions to be made, and each individual can choose to make a difference.

Wilson, M. P.

1987-01-01

343

Environmental scanning: an essential tool for twenty-first century librarianship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article aims to highlight important aspects of environmental scanning (ES). As a managerial tool of high utility, ES may assist library professionals – at all levels – proactively assess and respond to change in the technological, demographic, economic and social environments that may have a future impact on the library profession and stakeholder services. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This

James Castiglione

2008-01-01

344

Christoph Buchel v. Mass MoCA: A "Tilted Arc" for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tension among the different models for understanding the relation between the artist and the artwork is brought most explosively to light when legal battles erupt between artists and institutions. This can be found in both the "Tilted Arc" controversy of the 1980s and in a recent dispute involving the Swiss installation artist Christoph Buchel…

Gover, K. E.

2012-01-01

345

Pressing an Ear Against a Hive or New Play Explorations in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a drama course, which included 20 play readings and discussions as well as descriptive commentary focusing on the play's inherent strengths and the laws which govern the world of the play. Explains how, when reading a certain student play, many of those present grew impatient with the play's alleged inaccessibility. Contends that…

Bly, Mark

2003-01-01

346

Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the

G. L. Kulcinski; E. N. Cameron; J. F. Santarius; I. N. Sviatoslavsky; L. J. Wittenberg; Harrison H. Schmitt

1992-01-01

347

It is a Small World: Global Medical Education for the Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

ast year's epidemic of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) virus in Asia and the present world-wide concern about the spread of the H5N1 avian flu virus has brought international health concerns to the front pages of national and international news- papers, newsmagazines, and health journals around the world. Add to this the global Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic, the

Stephen J. Atwood

2004-01-01

348

The Twenty-First Century Learner and Game-Based Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on research that illustrates the increasing use of technologies by middle grade learners. Focus group results are showcased and creatively expressed through an original video, entitled \\

Hiller A. Spires; John K. Lee; James Lester

349

Planning Workshop: To Strengthen American Cognitive Science for the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cognitive science's major accomplishments have been analyses of cognition by individual agents, including language, problem solving, representations of knowledge in memory, perception, and decision making. Prospects for continued progress on these importa...

1992-01-01

350

Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century: Recent Advances in Economic Theory and Undergraduate Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Undergraduate economics lags behind cutting-edge economic theory. The author briefly reviews six related advances that profoundly extend and deepen economic analysis: game-theoretic modeling, collective-action problems, information economics and contracting, social preference theory, conceptualizing rationality, and institutional theory. He…

Ferguson, William D.

2011-01-01

351

Reconstructing apprenticeship for the twenty-first century: lessons from Norway and the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is a comparative study of the attempts made to revitalize apprenticeship in the UK and Norway in the 1990s. It begins by outlining a cycle of repeated policy failure to develop a high-quality work-based route in the UK and highlights a set of underlying problems that Modern Apprenticeships (MA) failed to resolve and which remain largely un-addressed by

Jonathan Payne

2002-01-01

352

Pediatric Psychology Training and Genetics: What Will Twenty-First-Century Pediatric Psychologists Need to Know?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To demonstrate the importance of genetic knowledge in coming decades and to outline necessary areas of genetic education. Method This article reviews research involv- ing genetic testing of children for cancer syndromes, development disabilities, psychiatric problems, and other conditions. Results The developmental, clinical, research, and con- sultation skills of well-trained pediatric psychologists will make them valuable collaborators with genetics

Andrea Farkas Patenaude

2003-01-01

353

COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE AS A TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY DISCIPLINE IN THE LIBERAL ARTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer science as a liberal arts discipline has a presence in most college curriculums. But as the field matures, more practitioners are recognizing a need for a more diverse approach to computational thinking. This paper presents a proposal for creating an interdisciplinary computational science major within the liberal arts.

Joseph Brian Adams

354

Rehabilitation of cardiac patients in the twenty-first century: Changing paradigms and perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rehabilitation of the coronary patient has changed dramatically over the past 40 years. The deleterious effects of prolonged bed rest have prompted the liberalization of activity soon after an acute cardiac event. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation has been shown to provide a 20–24% reduction in total and cardiovascular-related mortality. Adjunctive upper body aerobic exercise and mild to moderate resistance training can

Barry A. Franklin; Kimberly Bonzheim; Seymour Gordon; Gerald C. Timmis

1998-01-01

355

Plato's Republic and liberal economic education for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the insight economists would like to share with non-economists derives from two fundamental concepts: division of labor and intrinsic versus extrinsic incentives. As Plato's Republic offers concise treatment of both concepts, it provides an excellent complement to standard principles of economics texts. Indeed, utilizing Republic enables a richer understanding of these two central economic concepts, in the process

Jeffrey Wagner

2007-01-01

356

Introduction: NeoLiberalism, State Power and Global Governance in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few more vital contemporary questions for political scientists than those that emanate from the relationship between\\u000a neo-liberalism, the exercise of state power, and the institutions and practice of global governance. Since the demise during\\u000a the early 1970s of the first ‘Washington Consensus’ provided by the capital controls and fixed exchange rate system of the\\u000a Bretton Woods international economic

Simon Lee; Stephen Mcbride

357

The importance of marketing boards in Canada: a twenty-first century perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Marketing boards are an integral part of the farm economy in Canada. Their purposes have been debated for decades but seldom from a marketing perspective. Such an approach makes for an interesting way to study them. The purpose of this paper is to assess the pros and cons of marketing boards, suggesting how they can be made more

Robert D. Tamilia; Sylvain Charlebois

2007-01-01

358

Assistance and Conflict: The African Diaspora and Africa's Development in the Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africans in the diaspora contributed laudably to the socio-political liberation of Africa, especially in the southern Africa sub-region. A discernable feature of their involvement in Africa's political liberation efforts was that they tended to work within the boundaries of 'the agreed agenda' of African peoples and governments. With the liberation of South Africa, there has now been an obvious shift

Edward O. Erhagbe

359

The Adventurous School: Vision, Community and Curriculum for Primary Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"The Adventurous School" tells the uplifting stories of three primary schools who took charge of renewing their vision, their place in the community and their curriculum to become environments where children, teachers, parents and partners thrived. The book takes the reader through each school's five year journey and gives real-life practical…

Reed, Jane; Maskell, Kathy; Allinson, David; Bailey, Rosemary; Bates, Fernanda; Davies, Sian; Gallimore, Catherine

2012-01-01

360

Bacteriophages as twenty-first century antibacterial tools for food and medicine.  

PubMed

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasing source of concern in all environments in which these drugs have been used. More stringent regulations have led to a slow but sure decrease in antibiotic use in the food industry worldwide, but have also stimulated the search for alternative antibacterial agents. In medicine, the number of people infected with pan-resistant bacteria is driving research to develop new treatments. Within these contexts, studies on the use of bacteriophages in both medicine and the food industry have recently flourished. This renewed interest has coincided with the demonstration that these viruses are involved in geochemical cycles, revolutionizing our vision of their ecological role on our planet. Bacteriophages have co-evolved with bacteria for billions of years and retain the ability to infect bacteria efficiently. They are undoubtedly one of the best potential sources of new solutions for the management of undesirable bacteria. PMID:21491205

Maura, Damien; Debarbieux, Laurent

2011-03-29

361

Bacteriophages as twenty-first century antibacterial tools for food and medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasing source of concern in all environments in which these drugs have been used.\\u000a More stringent regulations have led to a slow but sure decrease in antibiotic use in the food industry worldwide, but have\\u000a also stimulated the search for alternative antibacterial agents. In medicine, the number of people infected with pan-resistant\\u000a bacteria is driving research

Damien Maura; Laurent Debarbieux

2011-01-01

362

Mahan for the Twenty First Century: His Principles Still Apply to National Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alfred T. Mahan (1840-1914) wrote in an era of technological change, but he always believed that the importance of sea power would remain unchanged. He set forth three requirements that were necessary for the success of a nation (production, shipping, and...

R. D. Parker

2003-01-01

363

Transatlantic Recognition Issues: Seeking New Directions in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both the US and European higher education systems have long histories of transatlantic cooperation, a tradition that it is important to preserve and enhance even in the context of increased competition and important systemic reforms in both North America and Europe. The Bologna Process has led to several systemic reforms in European higher…

Hunt, E. Stephen

2009-01-01

364

Attention Deficit Disorder Comes of Age: Toward the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers focuses on definitions, assessment, assessment instruments, and distinctions between attention deficit disorder (ADD) and general learning disabilities or conduct disorders. Part I covers issues of definition and assessment in the following papers: "Methodological Issues in the Classification of ADD" (Jack Fletcher, et…

Shaywitz, Sally E., Ed.; Shaywitz, Bennett A., Ed.

365

Emerging problems in the coastal zone for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued availability of some marine resources is threatened by the increased fluxes to the oceans of identifiable and measurable collections of pollutants, which include plant nutrients, plastics, environmental oestrogens, and organisms contained in ship-ballast waters. Characteristic of these societal discards that will guide research progress are long residence times; slow accumulation rates; increasing fluxes with time; and dissemination over

Edward D. Goldberg

1995-01-01

366

Educating the creative workforce: new directions for twenty?first century schooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets out reasons for arguing that creativity is not garnish to the roast of industry or of education—i.e. the reasoning behind Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi's insistence that creativity is not only about elites but involves everyone. This article investigates three key domains—scholarship, commerce and learning—to argue the importance of moving creativity from the margins of formal education to its centre.

Erica McWilliam; Sandra Haukka

2008-01-01

367

Twenty-first Century Australian Women and IT: Exercising the power of choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the Australian literature relating to female under-representation in the information technology (IT) sphere of careers and education. This summary of the current body of literature presented through the lens of the nature of the discipline includes emerging theories that explore the masculinization of the discipline, followed by a discussion of the lack of a sustainable impact on

Catherine Lang

2007-01-01

368

Prospects for the automobile: sputtering toward the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

America has 130 million licensed drivers with over 100 million cars, logging over 1 trillion miles of travel every year. The American automobile fleet accounts for more than 90% of all personal transportation and not without its costs. Automobiles have become the greatest threat to the lives of Americans between the ages of 15 and 35; autos generate about half

1980-01-01

369

Twenty-first Century Lattice Gauge Theory: Results from the QCD Lagrangian  

SciTech Connect

Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) reduces the strong interactions, in all their variety, to an elegant nonabelian gauge theory. It clearly and elegantly explains hadrons at short distances, which has led to its universal acceptance. Since its advent, however, many of its long-distance, emergent properties have been believed to be true, without having been demonstrated to be true. This paper reviews a variety of results in this regime that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian. This body of work sheds light on the origin of hadron masses, its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, as well as on other intriguing features such as the phase structure of QCD. In addition, nonperturbative QCD is quantitatively important to many aspects of particle physics (especially the quark flavor sector), nuclear physics, and astrophysics. This review also surveys some of the most interesting connections to those subjects.

Kronfeld, Andreas S.; /Fermilab

2012-03-01

370

Critical Media Literacy: Crucial Policy Choices for a Twenty-First-Century Democracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of critical media literacy expands the notion of literacy to include different forms of mass communication and popular culture, as well as deepens the potential of literacy education to critically analyze relationships between media and audiences, information and power. The authors argue that critical media literacy is crucial for…

Kellner, Douglas; Share, Jeff

2007-01-01

371

Why American Business Demands Twenty-First Century Learning: A Company Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today's knowledge economy requires that the citizenry and workforce be able to harness information and communication technologies in order to remain competitive on a global scale. As a result of new demands, the notion of digital literacy has become less a luxury and more an imperative for many countries, gaining significant momentum in the past…

Knox, Allyson

2006-01-01

372

Killing kids: recession and survival in twenty-first-century Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's lesson is on killing one another. Life is a game. Get desperate and fight. Become an adult of value.1 Deeply engrossed in their private conversations, the thirty-six junior-high stu- dents of Class B fail to notice the military presence along the highway on which their excursion bus is traveling. That this is no ordinary school outing becomes shockingly apparent

ANDREA G ARAI

373

The Brain-Disordered Defendant: Neuroscience and Legal Insanity in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain-damaged defendants are seen everyday in American courtrooms, and in many cases, their criminal behavior appears to be the product of extremely poor judgment and self-control. Some have a disorder in the frontal lobes, the area of the brain responsible for judgment and impulse control. Yet because defendants suffering from frontal lobe dysfunction usually understand the difference between right and

Richard E. Redding

2006-01-01

374

Technology: advancing retail buyer performance in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explain how buyers can more effectively and efficiently utilize technologies to improve their performance and to inform top executives in retail firms how these technologies can be used to improve the overall performance of the retail store. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using a descriptive approach, the paper identifies current technologies that are being

Susan S. Fiorito; Myron Gable; Amanda Conseur

2010-01-01

375

The Art of Negotiation: What the Twenty-First Century Business Student Should Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Negotiation skills are vital for concluding international treaties on subjects ranging from arms agreements, and rights in outer space to trade agreements. Yet the importance of being able to negotiate effectively is not limited to international treaties or crises situations. Using negotiation exercises represents a student-centered approach to…

McClendon, Bill; Burke, Debra D.; Willey, Lorrie

2010-01-01

376

Turning the Tide: Bringing Economics Teaching into the Twenty First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economics as a discipline has considerable strengths. But the number of economics students has fallen substantially over a number of years. How can the tide be turned and the product made more attractive? Economics textbooks have become too dogmatic, as if many problems have been solved and students simply need to absorb a settled body of knowledge. Theoretical models taught

Paul Ormerod

2003-01-01

377

Twenty-first century brain banking. Processing brains for research: the Columbia University methods  

PubMed Central

Carefully categorized postmortem human brains are crucial for research. The lack of generally accepted methods for processing human postmortem brains for research persists. Thus, brain banking is essential; however, it cannot be achieved at the cost of the teaching mission of the academic institution by routing brains away from residency programs, particularly when the autopsy rate is steadily decreasing. A consensus must be reached whereby a brain can be utilizable for diagnosis, research, and teaching. The best diagnostic categorization possible must be secured and the yield of samples for basic investigation maximized. This report focuses on integrated, novel methods currently applied at the New York Brain Bank, Columbia University, New York, which are designed to reach accurate neuropathological diagnosis, optimize the yield of samples, and process fresh-frozen samples suitable for a wide range of modern investigations. The brains donated for research are processed as soon as possible after death. The prosector must have a good command of the neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and the protocol. One half of each brain is immersed in formalin for performing the thorough neuropathologic evaluation, which is combined with the teaching task. The contralateral half is extensively dissected at the fresh state. The anatomical origin of each sample is recorded using the map of Brodmann for the cortical samples. The samples are frozen at ?160°C, barcode labeled, and ready for immediate disbursement once categorized diagnostically. A rigorous organization of freezer space, coupled to an electronic tracking system with its attached software, fosters efficient access for retrieval within minutes of any specific frozen samples in storage. This report describes how this achievement is feasible with emphasis on the actual processing of brains donated for research.

del Amaya, Maria Pilar; Keller, Christian E.

2007-01-01

378

The Fourth Amendment in the Twenty-First Century: Technology, Privacy, and Human Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police and local political officials in Tampa FL argued that the FaceIt system promotes safety, but privacy advocates objected to the city's recording or utilizing facial images without the victims' consent, some staging protests against the FaceIt system. Privacy objects seem to be far more widely shared than this small protest might suggest.

Andrew E. Taslitz

2002-01-01

379

Twenty-first century brain banking. Processing brains for research: the Columbia University methods.  

PubMed

Carefully categorized postmortem human brains are crucial for research. The lack of generally accepted methods for processing human postmortem brains for research persists. Thus, brain banking is essential; however, it cannot be achieved at the cost of the teaching mission of the academic institution by routing brains away from residency programs, particularly when the autopsy rate is steadily decreasing. A consensus must be reached whereby a brain can be utilizable for diagnosis, research, and teaching. The best diagnostic categorization possible must be secured and the yield of samples for basic investigation maximized. This report focuses on integrated, novel methods currently applied at the New York Brain Bank, Columbia University, New York, which are designed to reach accurate neuropathological diagnosis, optimize the yield of samples, and process fresh-frozen samples suitable for a wide range of modern investigations. The brains donated for research are processed as soon as possible after death. The prosector must have a good command of the neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and the protocol. One half of each brain is immersed in formalin for performing the thorough neuropathologic evaluation, which is combined with the teaching task. The contralateral half is extensively dissected at the fresh state. The anatomical origin of each sample is recorded using the map of Brodmann for the cortical samples. The samples are frozen at -160 degrees C, barcode labeled, and ready for immediate disbursement once categorized diagnostically. A rigorous organization of freezer space, coupled to an electronic tracking system with its attached software, fosters efficient access for retrieval within minutes of any specific frozen samples in storage. This report describes how this achievement is feasible with emphasis on the actual processing of brains donated for research. PMID:17985145

Vonsattel, Jean Paul G; Del Amaya, Maria Pilar; Keller, Christian E

2007-11-06

380

Alienation from work: Marxist ideologies and twenty-first-century practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper responds to calls for research that takes into consideration the broader ideologies underpinning the employment relationship within capitalist societies by building and testing a model of work alienation. We examine how three work-related factors identified originally by Karl Marx act as precursors of alienation, that is, a disconnection of oneself from work, that are experienced in the modern

Amanda Shantz; Kerstin Alfes; Catherine Truss

2012-01-01

381

Reading and Society in Russia in the First Years of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the changes in the attitude of Russia's reading public in terms of frequency and intensiveness and the factors that influence these changes. In comparison with the situation in the late Soviet era and with the perestroika years, the picture of mass reading by Russians over the 1990s and, especially, in the first years of the…

Dubin, B. V.; Zorkaia, N. A.

2010-01-01

382

SALMON RECOVERY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: BREACHING THE BASIC BARRIERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far ...

383

Micrographia of the twenty-first century: from camera obscura to 4D microscopy  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the evolutionary and revolutionary developments of microscopic imaging are overviewed with a perspective on origins. From Alhazen’s camera obscura, to Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek’s two-dimensional optical micrography, and on to three- and four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy, these developments over a millennium have transformed humans’ scope of visualization. The changes in the length and time scales involved are unimaginable, beginning with the visible shadows of candles at the centimetre and second scales, and ending with invisible atoms with space and time dimensions of sub-nanometre and femtosecond. With these advances it has become possible to determine the structures of matter and to observe their elementary dynamics as they unfold in real time. Such observations provide the means for visualizing materials behaviour and biological function, with the aim of understanding emergent phenomena in complex systems.

Zewail, Ahmed H.

2010-01-01

384

Textiles and Clothing Business Professionals for the Twenty-First Century: Moving Toward Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile and clothing programs of the future, including instruction, extension, and research, will be influenced to some extent by the needs of national and international fashion-related business and industry as well as by the customerlclients whose needs are served by those businesses and industries. By identifying some possible futures of the textile and clothing industries\\/businesses and their clients, we will

Carol Anne Dickson

1984-01-01

385

ASAS Centennial Paper: Lactation biology for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of general aspects of mam- mary gland function, including metabolic pathways and hormonal regulation of mammary gland development and lactation, in livestock species was obtained several decades ago. As basic biological information of growth factor action, apoptotic mechanisms, and signal trans- duction events has exploded, the mouse became the model of choice for studying fundamental mechanisms regulating mammary function.

J. J. Loor; W. S. Cohick

2010-01-01

386

Leading Change: Jesuit Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored perceptions of possible future scenarios for Jesuit higher education in the United States by the year 2030. This study focused on two questions, (a) How do leaders perceive the future of Jesuit higher education? and (b) What key factors identified by these leaders will lead to the most desirable outcome for Jesuit higher…

Lowdon, Melissa

2010-01-01

387

In the tracks of Tamerlane: Central Asia's path to the twenty?first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is hardly a corner of the world that has not been affected in one way or another by the events of 11 September 2001, the repercussions are especially evident in the region once known as Soviet Central Asia. Previously a backwater of world politics, the attention focused on this area comes at a time when the countries and

Dan Burghart

2002-01-01

388

How to Understand the Gene in the Twenty-First Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is widely acknowledged in the literature on philosophy of biology and, more recently, among biologists themselves that the gene concept is currently in crisis. This crisis concerns the so-called "classical molecular concept", according to which a gene is a DNA segment encoding one functional product, which can be either a RNA molecule or a…

Meyer, Lia Midori Nascimento; Bomfim, Gilberto Cafezeiro; El-Hani, Charbel Nino

2013-01-01

389

Innovating Science Policy: Restructuring S&T Policy for the Twenty-first Century super1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the next twenty years, accelerating scientific and technical developments will spawn immense changes to society that can be both crucially beneficial and tragically destructive. This trend, principally occurring outside of government control, is both helping the United States to improve defense and economic security and producing threats to national security. To deal with these increasingly technical issues, the nation's

James J. Richardson; Whitney B. Matson; Robert J. Peters

2004-01-01

390

Desiderata for Controlled Medical Vocabularies in the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

Builders of medical informatics applications need controlled medical vocabularies to support their applications and it is to their advantage to use available standards. In order to do so, however, these standards need to address the requirements of their intended users. Over the past decade, medical informatics researchers have begun to articulate some of these requirements. This paper brings together some of the common themes which have been described, including: vocabulary content, concept orientation, concept permanence, nonsemantic concept identifiers, poly-hierarchy, formal definitions, rejection of “not elsewhere classified” terms, multiple granularities, multiple consistent views, context representation, graceful evolution, and recognized redundancy. Standards developers are beginning to recognize and address these desiderata and adapt their offerings to meet them.

Cimino, James.J.

2012-01-01

391

Lucy to Lalibela: heritage and identity in Ethiopia in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unusually for an African country, Ethiopia was only briefly colonised. As such, this multi-ethnic yet predominantly ancient Christian country, for hundreds of years ruled by an Imperial Dynasty, preserved a unique cultural identity underpinned by a powerful social memory. The ‘story of Ethiopia’ (which in the present article is given the label ‘heritage meta-narrative’) was carefully nurtured over hundreds of

Niall Finneran

2012-01-01

392

Impacts of thermohaline circulation shutdown in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss climate impacts of a hypothetical shutdown of the thermohaline circulation (‘THC’) in the 2050s, using the climate\\u000a model HadCM3. Previous studies have generally focussed on the effects on pre-industrial climate. Here we take into account\\u000a increased greenhouse gas concentrations according to an IS92a emissions scenario. THC shutdown causes cooling of the Northern\\u000a Hemisphere of -1.7?C, locally stronger. Over

Michael Vellinga; Richard A. Wood

2008-01-01

393

The Global University for the Twenty-First Century. A Strategic Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This strategic plan addresses the internationalization of activities of American colleges and universities offering programs in food, agricultural, and natural resources disciplines. Internationalization is enhanced by appropriate university roles in economic development, humanitarian assistance, augmentation of global food security, and…

National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

394

Education and Tolerance. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the issue of tolerance and its important place in education. The consequences of an unchecked growth of intolerance, fostered by indifference, in the form of an increase in violent conflict, promises to be not only unpleasant locally, but possibly catastrophic on a world scale, when interdependent social and economic…

Connell, Helen

395

TRADE REFORM, THE WTO AND CHINA's FOOD ECONOMY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of the paper is to address the policy changes that accompany China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and evaluate the various impacts of the agreement. To do so, we review the contours of past policies and describe the nature of the promises it has made to the WTO. We show that China's WTO commitments are

Jikun Huang; Scott Rozelle

2003-01-01

396

Nuclear weapons, proliferation, and terrorism: U.S. response in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

As the remaining superpower in the post-Cold War world, the US needs to re-evaluate its policy toward the growing threat to US national interests and the effects of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), specifically nuclear devices, and their use by terrorist groups against US interests abroad. As the world reacts to the implosion of the former Soviet Union, there are increased numbers of nations and possibly terrorist groups trying to become players in the international arena. This study describes the ease of obtaining the scientific knowledge, plans, and materials to enable a terrorist`s construction of a nuclear device. It also analyzes motivation of terrorist groups, concluding that a nuclear weapon, capable of inflicting violence in the extreme, fulfills the terrorist`s goal of violence in support of a political agenda or to inspire radical change. Given the guidance from the national level, this study proposes a series of policy options available to the NCA for application in an aggressive counterproliferation policy. Finally, the US must rapidly reorganize its counterproliferation structure and methods to streamline a more aggressive approach that is recognized and feared by potential nuclear terrorists; augment current political efforts with a clearly defined counterproliferation military mission and associated doctrine.

DeLawter, D.A.

1998-11-01

397

The New Face of Genetics: Creating A Multimedia Educational Tool for the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study of certain genetic conditions, it is important to understand the specific "dysmorphology" associated with them. This describes the unique anatomical manifestations of the genetic condition. Traditionally, students learn about dysmorphology by reading text descriptions or looking at photographs of affected individuals. The New Face of Genetics is a film project that aims to teach students dysmorphology by featuring people who have specific genetic conditions. The goal is to enhance students' understanding of these conditions as well as to impart the humanity and beauty of the people who appear in the film. Students will have the opportunity to see dysmorphic features on the animated human form as well as meet individuals who are living with genetic difference. The target audience includes genetic counseling students and other medical professionals. Three short films were made in this format to demonstrate how this type of educational tool can be made. The featured conditions were Marfan syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome and Joubert syndrome. Future work will be carried out by other genetic counseling students who will make additional films based on our templates. A compendium of approximately 20 films will be eventually completed and released to genetic counseling programs and medical schools.

Fan, Audrey

398

Sustainable Engineering: A Model for Engineering Education in the Twenty-First Century?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication contains reprint articles for which IEEE does not hold copyright. You may purchase this article from the Ask*IEEE Document Delivery Service at http:\\/\\/www.ieee.org\\/services\\/askieee\\/

David Allen; Cynthia Murphy; Braden Allenby; Cliff Davidson

2007-01-01

399

Teaching with Joy: Educational Practices for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This edited collection addresses the growing need for ideas and methods conducive to holistic educational practices and aims to encourage more personal growth in students too often distracted by the background noise of war, violence, racism, and environmental deterioration. The contributors are working teachers and professors who have integrated…

Shelton-Colangelo, Sharon, Ed.; Mancuso, Carolina, Ed.; Duvall, Mimi, Ed.

2006-01-01

400

Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Sustaining a Culture of Excellence in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) continue to provide a substantial role in the black community and in\\u000a higher education by providing a culture of excellence. Yet, their role in higher education is the center of many academic\\u000a and political debates. Defining this role has been thwarted with questions of HBCUs relevance in society, in the African–American\\u000a community, and in

Nia Imani Cantey; Robert Bland; LaKerri R. Mack; Danielle Joy-Davis

401

Liberal Education and the Entrepreneurial Mindset A Twenty-First-Century Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In some quarters, the suggestion that a productive marriage can and should exist between a liberal education and the entrepreneurial mindset might seem heretical. But in clearly defining what is meant by the entrepreneurial mindset, the importance of why its study as an integrative discipline within liberal education can be understood.…

Higdon, Leo J., Jr.

2005-01-01

402

‘Framing’ Lifelong Learning in the Twenty-First Century: Towards a Way of Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two contrasting inter-related humanist forms of discourse of lifelong learning are evident in the literature. The first, dominated\\u000a by politicians and employers, appears to interpret lifelong learning as a means to improve competitiveness and productivity regarding what is done in practice within a global economy; the other, led mainly\\u000a by academics, is represented as the very means continually resolve the

Kevin J. Flint; David Needham

403

Authenticity in Learning for the Twenty-First Century: Bridging the Formal and the Informal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper attempts to bridge informal and formal learning by leveraging on affordance structures associated with informal environments to help learners develop social, cognitive, and metacognitive dispositions that can be applied to learning in classrooms. Most studies focus on either learning in formal or informal contexts, but this study seeks…

Hung, David; Lee, Shu-Shing; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

2012-01-01

404

Ceremony Earth: Digitizing Silko's Novel for Students of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many students the author has taught get frustrated when they read Leslie Silko's canonical Native American novel, "Ceremony". Not only do they struggle with Silko's disruptions of linear temporality and her collapsing of binary oppositions, but they also struggle with the novel's geographic and cultural location. To help students better…

Mott, Rick

2011-01-01

405

Living Divided No More: A Journey into Health in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article begins to explore the idea of health. It begins to ask questions about where the idea of health comes from, what it means to different people in different places and why it should matter. As society has been increasingly confronted with the realities of a more economically and technologically driven global society, health has evolved…

Carter, Erin

2011-01-01

406

Project Kaleidoscope 2.0: Leadership for Twenty-First Century STEM Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been over twenty years since the publication of reports calling for increased efforts to reform undergraduate STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education. There are more STEM classrooms today that utilize "pedagogies of engagement" than there were twenty years ago; however, these kinds of learning environments are…

Elrod, Susan

2010-01-01

407

Globalizing the Community College: Strategies for Change in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book discusses the effects of globalization on community colleges, and the organizational responses to globalization. The author looks at seven community colleges that have undergone organizational change in response to globalization. For each college, he examines the effects of globalization in three areas: the economic domain, the cultural…

Levin, John S.

408

Hispanic fertility, immigration, and race in the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

In this paper we systematically describe the connection between immigration and fertility in light of the increasing nativist reaction to Hispanic groups. We follow a life-course perspective to directly link migration and fertility transitions. The analysis combines original qualitative and quantitative data collected in Durham/Chapel Hill, NC as well as national level information from the Current Population Survey. The qualitative data provides a person-centered approach to the connection between migration and fertility that we then extend in quantitative analyses. Results demonstrate that standard demographic measures that treat migration and fertility as separate processes considerably distort the childbearing experience of immigrant women, inflating fertility estimates for Hispanics as a whole. Once this connection is taken into consideration the fertility levels of Hispanic women are much lower than those reported with standard measures and the fertility-specific contribution of Hispanics to U.S. population growth is much reduced.

Parrado, Emilio A.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

2012-01-01

409

Spinning Straw into Gold: A Community College Library's Twenty First Century Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a library renovation project in a community college that involved using existing space and reorganizing it to support the way students learn both individually and collaboratively. The article also looks at the importance of the academic library as place.

Devin McKay

2010-01-01

410

Preparing Africa for the twenty-first century: Lessons from constitutional economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1960s, when most African countries gained independence, they had an opportunity to select new political and economic institutions to promote growth and development. After more than three decades of political autonomy, it now appears that the opportunity made possible by decolonization was wasted and never fully utilized to promote sustainable development in the continent. As a result, after

John Mukum Mbaku

1995-01-01

411

Introduction: Gender and Electoral Politics into the Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2004 elections in the United States will surely be remembered most for the hotly contested and deeply divisive presidential election between incumbent Republican President George W. Bush and Democratic chal- lenger John F. Kerry. Because of the international and domestic contro- versy over the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, the entire world was watching this election. The Democrats and John

SUSAN J. CARROLL; RICHARD L. FOX

412

Media Literacy Pedagogy: Critical and New/Twenty-First-Century Literacies Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article offers a conceptualization of media literacy pedagogy in light of National Education Technology Plan efforts, which name teaching as one of five essential areas to build an education system that can increase as well as sustain the United States' economic growth and prosperity in the global economy. In particular, two distinct…

Westbrook, Nalova

2011-01-01

413

Critical Media Literacy: Crucial Policy Choices for a Twenty-First-Century Democracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The concept of critical media literacy expands the notion of literacy to include different forms of mass communication and popular culture, as well as deepens the potential of literacy education to critically analyze relationships between media and audiences, information and power. The authors argue that critical media literacy is crucial for…

Kellner, Douglas; Share, Jeff

2007-01-01

414

Stratospheric Radiocarbon in the Twenty-First Century: Comparing Measurements and Model Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of 14CO2 on whole-air samples collected cryogenically from balloon flights in 2003, 2004 and 2005, along with simultaneous measurements of other long-lived stratospheric tracers (such as nitrous oxide, methane, and CFCs), are compared with model results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 3D chemical transport model IMPACT. Year-to-year variations are examined in order to quantify the contributions of the time-dependent carbon-14 production rates, variations in stratospheric transport, and the Suess Effect due to fossil fuel burning in the troposphere that propogates into the stratosphere. Implications for radiocarbon studies at Earth's surface that aim to quantify the partitioning of carbon between the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial biosphere will be discussed.

Kanu, A. M.; Comfort, L. L.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Bergmann, D.; Guilderson, T.; Atlas, E. L.; Schauffler, S.; Boering, K. A.

2011-12-01

415

The state of Ugandan bibliographic control and strategies into the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins of librarianship in Uganda are indicated and the legislation affecting bibliographic control in the country described. Issues are discussed including publishing, a national library and national bibliographic agency, information technology, education and standards. Factors affecting the current state of bibliographic control in Uganda are examined and relevant agencies and publications listed. Strategies for further development are put forward

I. M. N. Kigongo-Bukenya

2000-01-01

416

Conditions of Work for Women Historians in the Twenty-First Century Risking Our Dreams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once upon a time—35 years ago—in a country not very far away, on a landscape that would look very familiar in many ways, was a very strange academic world. Women were a tiny minority in major graduate history programs; the average fi gure was 13 percent. There were fewer women in visible positions in the profession than there had been

Linda K. Kerber

2006-01-01

417

An integrated chronostratigraphic data system for the twenty-first century  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Research in stratigraphy is increasingly multidisciplinary and conducted by diverse research teams whose members can be widely separated. This developing distributed-research process, facilitated by the availability of the Internet, promises tremendous future benefits to researchers. However, its full potential is hindered by the absence of a development strategy for the necessary infrastructure. At a National Science Foundation workshop convened in November 2001, thirty quantitative stratigraphers and database specialists from both academia and industry met to discuss how best to integrate their respective chronostratigraphic databases. The main goal was to develop a strategy that would allow efficient distribution and integration of existing data relevant to the study of geologic time. Discussions concentrated on three major themes: database standards and compatibility, strategies and tools for information retrieval and analysis of all types of global and regional stratigraphic data, and future directions for database integration and centralization of currently distributed depositories. The result was a recommendation to establish an integrated chronostratigraphic database, to be called Chronos, which would facilitate greater efficiency in stratigraphic studies (http://www.chronos.org/) . The Chronos system will both provide greater ease of data gathering and allow for multidisciplinary synergies, functions of fundamental importance in a variety of research, including time scale construction, paleoenvironmental analysis, paleoclimatology and paleoceanography. Beyond scientific research, Chronos will also provide educational and societal benefits by providing an accessible source of information of general interest (e.g., mass extinctions) and concern (e.g., climatic change). The National Science Foundation has currently funded a three-year program for implementing Chronos.. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Sikora, P. J.; Ogg, J. G.; Gary, A.; Cervato, C.; Gradstein, F.; Huber, B. T.; Marshall, C.; Stein, J. A.; Wardlaw, B.

2006-01-01

418

Déją vu: leprosy and immigration discourse in the twenty-first century United States.  

PubMed

Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, continues to be feared and poorly understood in the United States, where knowledge of the disease is limited and prevalence is low. The presence of leprosy among immigrants, however, provides fuel for those with an anti-immigration agenda. In recent years, there have been several examples of popular media distortions of statistics and of information on leprosy's properties and contagiousness. As in previous eras of U.S. history, public fears about leprosy seem to be related to anti-immigration or nativist sentiment, which often mask underlying concerns about the potential economic threat of immigrant populations. In this article, I analyse the role of the U.S. media and other stakeholders who may have an interest in generating public fear associated with leprosy, in presenting and at times manipulating data about the disease to create an association between leprosy and undocumented immigration. PMID:20496566

White, Cassandra

2010-03-01

419

Continuous objective monitoring of alcohol use: twenty-first century measurement using transdermal sensors.  

PubMed

Transdermal alcohol sensors continuously collect reliable and valid data on alcohol consumption in vivo over the course of hours to weeks. Transdermal alcohol readings are highly correlated with breath alcohol measurements, but transdermal alcohol levels lag behind breath alcohol levels by one or more hours owing to the longer time required for alcohol to be expelled through perspiration. By providing objective information about alcohol consumption, transdermal alcohol sensors can validate self-report and provide important information not previously available. In this article, we describe the development and evaluation of currently available transdermal alcohol sensors, present the strengths and limitations of the technology, and give examples of recent research using the sensors. PMID:22823467

Leffingwell, Thad R; Cooney, Nathaniel J; Murphy, James G; Luczak, Susan; Rosen, Gary; Dougherty, Donald M; Barnett, Nancy P

2012-07-23

420

Promoting Gender Equality at Work: Turning Vision into Reality for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains papers in which 12 experienced gender specialists examine the various developments and elements affecting women's participation as equal players in the workplace and propose actions and policies promoting sex equity in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Preface" (Mary Chinery-Hesse); "Introduction " (Eugenia…

Date-Bah, Eugenia, Ed.

421

Contrasting patterns of early twenty-first-century glacier mass change in the Himalayas.  

PubMed

Glaciers are among the best indicators of terrestrial climate variability, contribute importantly to water resources in many mountainous regions and are a major contributor to global sea level rise. In the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya region (HKKH), a paucity of appropriate glacier data has prevented a comprehensive assessment of current regional mass balance. There is, however, indirect evidence of a complex pattern of glacial responses in reaction to heterogeneous climate change signals. Here we use satellite laser altimetry and a global elevation model to show widespread glacier wastage in the eastern, central and south-western parts of the HKKH during 2003-08. Maximal regional thinning rates were 0.66?±?0.09 metres per year in the Jammu-Kashmir region. Conversely, in the Karakoram, glaciers thinned only slightly by a few centimetres per year. Contrary to expectations, regionally averaged thinning rates under debris-mantled ice were similar to those of clean ice despite insulation by debris covers. The 2003-08 specific mass balance for our entire HKKH study region was -0.21?±?0.05?m?yr(-1) water equivalent, significantly less negative than the estimated global average for glaciers and ice caps. This difference is mainly an effect of the balanced glacier mass budget in the Karakoram. The HKKH sea level contribution amounts to one per cent of the present-day sea level rise. Our 2003-08 mass budget of -12.8?±?3.5 gigatonnes (Gt) per year is more negative than recent satellite-gravimetry-based estimates of -5?±?3?Gt?yr(-1) over 2003-10 (ref. 12). For the mountain catchments of the Indus and Ganges basins, the glacier imbalance contributed about 3.5% and about 2.0%, respectively, to the annual average river discharge, and up to 10% for the Upper Indus basin. PMID:22914167

Kääb, Andreas; Berthier, Etienne; Nuth, Christopher; Gardelle, Julie; Arnaud, Yves

2012-08-23

422

Competing Views of Embryos for the Twenty-First Century: Textbooks and Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It might seem that an embryo is an embryo, and that there would be a fact of the matter. That seems especially true with respect to the way embryos are presented in textbooks, including high school biology textbooks. This paper looks at three co-existing, competing, and often conflicting views of embryos. Then with a close study of twentieth…

Maienschein, Jane; Wellner, Karen

2013-01-01

423

Twenty-First Century Lattice Gauge Theory: Results from the Quantum Chromodynamics Lagrangian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) reduces the strong interactions, in all their variety, to a simple nonabelian gauge theory. It clearly and elegantly explains hadrons at short distances, which has led to its universal acceptance. Since its advent, however, many of its long-distance, emergent properties have been believed to be true without having been demonstrated to be true. This article reviews various results in this regime that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian. This research sheds light on the origin of hadron masses, its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, and other intriguing features such as the phase structure of QCD. Also, nonperturbative QCD is quantitatively important to many aspects of particle physics (especially the quark flavor sector), nuclear physics, and astrophysics. This review also surveys some of the most interesting connections to those subjects.

Kronfeld, Andreas S.

2012-11-01

424

Events, Patterns, and Analysis Forecasting International Conflict in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

It seems like a lifetime ago, but if one looks back to the heady days after the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the subsequent demise of the Soviet Union, there was certainly a great deal of speculation that the world in general, and the United States in particular, would experience a significantly lower amount of conflict than was the

Devika Subramanian; Richard J. Stoll

425

Registers, Schools and Scales: Comments on Language and Identity in Twenty-First Century Catalonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Monolingual speakers of a national language continue to be the ideal figures on which national identities and senses of community are built. Yet this longstanding equation between nation and language is being contested by other ideologies. Alternatives are emerging from such disparate social locations as the European Union, now advocating for…

Gal, Susan

2013-01-01

426

Media Literacy Pedagogy: Critical and New/Twenty-First-Century Literacies Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a conceptualization of media literacy pedagogy in light of National Education Technology Plan efforts, which name teaching as one of five essential areas to build an education system that can increase as well as sustain the United States' economic growth and prosperity in the global economy. In particular, two distinct…

Westbrook, Nalova

2011-01-01

427

An Endangered Partnership: The Anglo-American Defence Relationship in the Early Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the contemporary Anglo-American defence relationship. It begins by setting the general historical and contemporary context, including the impact of the Iraq war, before focusing on the military dimension. The main body of the paper addresses UK\\/US military planning and operations, UK defence budgetary issues, nuclear weapons collaboration and the impact of changing strategic relationships between the UK,

James Wither

2006-01-01

428

Spinning Straw into Gold: A Community College Library's Twenty First Century Transformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a library renovation project in a community college that involved using existing space and reorganizing it to support the way students learn both individually and collaboratively. The article also looks at the importance of the academic library as place.|

McKay, Devin

2011-01-01

429

A view of quality trends in South America in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting in the 1980s, South America went through dramatic political and economic changes. Military governments were replaced by democratic governments. These governments, forced by a severe crisis and the requirements of an increasingly competitive global economy, implemented, in the early 1990s, economic reforms based on free market principles and created the Mercosur. The major countries in this new and dynamic

Marcos E. J. Bertin

1999-01-01

430

Slight mass gain of Karakoram glaciers in the early twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessments of the state of health of Hindu-Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya glaciers and their contribution to regional hydrology and global sea-level rise suffer from a severe lack of observations. The globally averaged mass balance of glaciers and ice caps is negative. An anomalous gain of mass has been suggested for the Karakoram glaciers, but was not confirmed by recent estimates of mass balance. Furthermore, numerous glacier surges in the region that lead to changes in glacier length and velocity complicate the interpretation of the available observations. Here, we calculate the regional mass balance of glaciers in the central Karakoram between 1999 and 2008, based on the difference between two digital elevation models. We find a highly heterogeneous spatial pattern of changes in glacier elevation, which shows that ice thinning and ablation at high rates can occur on debris-covered glacier tongues. The regional mass balance is just positive at +0.11+/-0.22myr-1 water equivalent and in agreement with the observed reduction of river runoff that originates in this area. Our measurements confirm an anomalous mass balance in the Karakoram region and indicate that the contribution of Karakoram glaciers to sea-level rise was -0.01mmyr-1 for the period from 1999 to 2008, 0.05mmyr-1 lower than suggested before.

Gardelle, Julie; Berthier, Etienne; Arnaud, Yves

2012-05-01

431

Colonisation, Globalisation, and the Future of Languages in the Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The typical academic discourse on language endangerment has presented languages as anthropomorphic organisms with lives independent of their speakers and capable of negotiating on their own the terms of their coexistence. Not surprisingly it has become commonplace to read about killer languages in the same vein as language wars, language murders and linguicides. I argue below that languages are parasitic

Salikoko S. Mufwene

432

Normative pluralism: Islam, religion and law in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new books on Islam and law provide the occasion for reflection on legal and religious pluralism. Bringing together a more nuanced and complex understanding of religion — one not determined by Enlightenment ideologies of separation — and of law — one also freed of Enlightenment notions of positivism and secularism — provide opportunities for ways to re-think the cultures

Winnifred Fallers Sullivan

2005-01-01

433

Climate simulation of the twenty-first century with interactive land-use changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To include land-use dynamics in a general circulation model (GCM), the physical system has to be linked to a system that represents\\u000a socio-economy. This issue is addressed by coupling an integrated assessment model, IMAGE2.2, to an ocean–atmosphere GCM, CNRM-CM3.\\u000a In the new system, IMAGE2.2 provides CNRM-CM3 with all the external forcings that are scenario dependent: greenhouse gas (GHGs)\\u000a concentrations, sulfate

Aurore Voldoire; Bas Eickhout; Michiel Schaeffer; Jean-Franēois Royer; Fabrice Chauvin

2007-01-01

434

Engaging the creative arts to meet the needs of twenty?first?century boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we navigate through a new form of economic era where science, technology, knowledge and services will replace consumer goods as drivers of growth, and the workplace will increasingly value creative abilities, there appears a need for an educational paradigm shift. However, within an Australian context of increasing school accountability, a great deal of emphasis is placed on standards vis?ą?vis

Laura Scholes; Michael C. Nagel

2011-01-01

435

School Leadership in the Twenty-First Century: Different Approaches to Common Problems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article identifies the major themes that emerge from the five selected articles in this special issue. Collectively, they demonstrate some trends occurring in the area of school leadership, but also show that individual countries are looking at these trends in different ways. It is an example of what might be called thinking globally but…

Townsend, Tony

2011-01-01

436

The time of troubles: The US national security agency in the twenty?first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to ask whether the US National Security Agency (NSA) doing its job or stumbling through a midlife crisis. It reviews what has occurred at NSA during the last decade. It argues that some statements that have appeared in the American press that NSA was solely responsible for some of the US intelligence community's recent intelligence failures are

Mtthew M. Aid

2000-01-01

437

Seekers after Truth? Images of Postgraduate Research and Researchers in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Western cultural practices contribute to our understanding of the purpose of higher education and how we are to conduct ourselves in educational contexts. In this article, entitled "Seekers after truth?", I analyse recent works of popular fiction which draw on and contribute to the idea that postgraduate research is a process of locating and…

Kelly, Frances

2012-01-01

438

Intergenerational Practice: Mentoring and Social Capital for Twenty-First Century Communities of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aiming to elucidate the relationship between social capital and intergenerational practice within mentoring, this article presents data from a case study of the School Volunteer Program in Western Australia. Drawing on situated learning theory and the concept of community of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998; Wenger, McDermott, &…

Cumming-Potvin, Wendy Marie; MacCallum, Judith

2010-01-01

439

Integrating Basic and Applied Developmental Research: A New Model for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, basic and applied research agendas in the Želd of child development have followed separate paths. One reason the two have not merged is that the objectives of basic and applied research are often seen as incompatible. In this paper, we argue that researchers can simultaneously achieve the objectives of advancing basic knowledge and addressing applied problems within a

David C. Schwebel; Jodie M. Plumert; Herbert L. Pick

2000-01-01

440

From Scans to Sutures: Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-assisted surgery is the process of using medical images, such as CT scans, X-ray fluoroscopy, or 3D ultrasound, to improve patient care. A typical surgical procedure begins by acquiring and processing a CT scan with specially developed image-analysis software. A surgeon then performs a \\

R. E. Ellis

2005-01-01

441

Hope and despair: making sense of politics in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

As his life degenerates into accelerating cycles of chaos in the film 'Clockwork', the headmaster, played by John Cleese, expresses his existential response to the latest crisis in his life: 'It's not the despair, I can cope with the despair. It's the hope I can't stand.' Politics as hope has fallen out of favour. Whether from cynicism, pessimism or realism--or a combination of all three--the standing of politics, let alone politicians, is at a very low ebb. This reality provides the opportunity to assess both causes and consequences by asking: how do we make sense of politics? The following discussion considers this vital question under four headings: context, participation, issues and goals. PMID:12227845

Stewart, Angus

2002-09-01

442

Creating an Educational Theatre Program for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that justifications for art and culture recently have changed from one of basic freedom of expression and communication of an inner vision ("art for art's sake"), to one of utilitarianism and entrepreneurialism. On a very basic level, theatre in school settings works with young people inside the context of a community…

Woodson, Stephani Etheridge

2004-01-01

443

Strengthening Media Education in the Twenty-First Century: Opportunities for the State of Pennsylvania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article defines media education and places it in the context of contemporary research on the arts, culture, and economic and social development. The author reviews current instructional settings where media analysis and media production activities are now occurring in K-12 education in Pennsylvania. This article then describes how other…

Hobbs, Renee

2005-01-01

444

US Strategy in the Pacific – Geopolitical Positioning for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to apply IR theory to the US presence in the Pacific. It analyses the ways in which geopolitical considerations of position are at the heart of US security strategy in the Pacific. It argues that America's long-term security position in the Pacific is a basic geopolitical matter; be it in terms of traditional geopolitics (regional position as

David Scott

2012-01-01

445

Developing an Interdisciplinary, Distributed Graduate Course for Twenty-First Century Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graduate programs have placed an increasing emphasis on the importance of interdisciplinary education, but barriers to interdisciplinary training still remain. We present a new model for interdisciplinary, cross-institution graduate teaching that combines the best of local teaching, distance learning, and experiential learning to provide students…

Wagner, Helene H.; Murphy, Melanie A.; Holderegger, Rolf; Waits, Lisette

2012-01-01

446

Twenty-First Century Moonlighters. Issues in Labor Statistics. Summary 02-07.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In May 2001, 7.8 million people in the United States (5.7% of U.S. workers) worked multiple jobs. The May 2001 Current Population Survey asked multiple jobholders their main reason for holding more than one job. These percentages of respondents gave the following reasons: to meet expenses or pay off debt, 27.8%; to earn extra money, 35.4%; to…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

447

Developing Media Literacy in Cyberspace: Pedagogy and Critical Learning for the Twenty-First-Century Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By joining bodies of research in media theory, cultural studies, and critical pedagogy, this book offers a vision of learning that values social empowerment over technical skills. An inquiry into the existence and range of models equipped to cultivate critical teaching and learning in the Internet-supported classroom, the book argues that media…

Frechette, Julie D.

448

Music education in the twenty-first century: a psychological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from Hargreaves' (1986a) review of the relationship between developmental psychology and music education, we characterise the mid-1980s as a point at which the different main strands of music psychology - cognitive, developmental, and social - began to unfold. We move to the present day and beyond, suggesting that a major change has been the incorporation of a social perspective:

David J. Hargreaves; Nigel A. Marshall; Adrian C. North

2003-01-01

449

Leadership Competence Educational Model for a Twenty-First Century Nursing Doctoral Education in Contemporary Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author proposes a nursing education model about leadership that can be used to improve the leadership skills of nursing doctoral students. This model is developed at the University of Michigan School of Nursing. In developing this model, the author had the opportunity to observe the University of Michigan, School of Nursing…

Terzioglu, Fusun

2011-01-01

450

In the Shadow of Daniel Webster: Arguing Appeals in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is natural - I suppose it is expected - for every Solicitor General to hold forth at some point during his tenure with pearls of wisdom on the Twelve Secrets, or Ten Commandments, or Five Essential Rules of effective oral advocacy. I have always been reluctant to do that . . . reluctantly, after years of resistance, I too

Seth P. Waxman

2001-01-01

451

Teaching with Joy: Educational Practices for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This edited collection addresses the growing need for ideas and methods conducive to holistic educational practices and aims to encourage more personal growth in students too often distracted by the background noise of war, violence, racism, and environmental deterioration. The contributors are working teachers and professors who have integrated a…

Shelton-Colangelo, Sharon, Ed.; Mancuso, Carolina, Ed.; Duvall, Mimi, Ed.

2006-01-01

452

Nuclear Weapons, Proliferation, and Terrorism: U.S. Response in the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the remaining superpower in the post-Cold War world, the U.S. needs to reevaluate its policy toward the growing threat to U.S. national interests and the effects of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), specifically nuclear devices, and their use by terro...

D. A. DeLawter

1998-01-01

453

Nuclear weapons, proliferation, and terrorism: U.S. response in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the remaining superpower in the post-Cold War world, the US needs to re-evaluate its policy toward the growing threat to US national interests and the effects of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), specifically nuclear devices, and their use by terrorist groups against US interests abroad. As the world reacts to the implosion of the former Soviet Union, there are

DeLawter

1998-01-01

454

Transforming technology management education: Value creation-learning in the early twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

General management education is often criticized as irrelevant, out of touch, too ldquotrade-school,rdquo too interested in training financial services professionals and consultants, and insufficiently focused on innovation, the major driver of the economy. Technology management (TM) education has always focused on practical and relevant management issues and innovation has been a major theme. We believe however that rapid changes in

Mel Horwitch; Edward A. Stohr

2008-01-01

455

"Frankenstein" for the Twenty-First Century: An Exploration of Contemporary Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the novel "Frankenstein" by Mary Shelley and how it might be used in secondary English classes as a means of investigating contemporary issues of technology and morality. Describes how one teacher asked students to identify a social issue from the novel and investigate it in today's news media. (HB)|

Simmons, Eileen A.

1994-01-01

456

Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The duplex design by Bock and Mislevy for school-based testing is revisited and evaluated as a potential platform in test-based accountability assessments today. We conclude that the model could be useful in meeting the many competing demands of today's test-based accountability assessments, although many research questions will need to be…

Bejar, Isaac I.; Graf, E. Aurora

2010-01-01

457

Major Long-Term Factors Influencing Dental Education in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores broad trends such as advances in oral sciences and the increasing old-age population and their effects on dental education. Asserts that these trends will ultimately result in the merging of dental and medical education. Also addresses the integration of scientific and clinical dental approaches, the problem of dental faculty isolation,…

Cohen, M. Michael, Jr.

2002-01-01

458

Educational Facilities for the Twenty-First Century: Research Analysis and Design Patterns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook examines the relationship between school buildings and educational performance. Following the introductory chapter, chapter 2 presents findings from empirical studies that have examined the building/performance issue. Research has demonstrated that the physical setting has both direct and mediated effects on prosocial and achievement…

Moore, Gary T.; Lackney, Jeffery A.

459

"Made in Germany": The Politics of Teaching German Popular Culture in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In North American universities, pop culture increasingly appears in the German Studies classroom to "spice up" the curriculum. But what is conveyed and taught and how is it inserted into the curriculum and into the US cultural context? This article explores three examples of popular culture in the German Studies classroom: representations of the…

Kahnke, Corinna; Stehle, Maria

2011-01-01

460

Fermilab Industrial Affiliates roundtable on research technology in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

This collection of articles presents views on the future of physics research by leading experts in the field. Topics discussed include particle physics, the Superconducting Super Collider, and the development of new superconducting materials. The articles have been abstracted and indexed separately.

Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Fenner, R.B. (eds.)

1987-05-01

461

Dance Education Matters: Rebuilding Postsecondary Dance Education for Twenty-First Century Relevance and Resonance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Postsecondary dance education is at a crucial juncture in its history in academe. Emerging from women's physical education programs in the 1930s, the profession's realignment with the arts broadly and arts-based education specifically has been characterized by ambitious goals and steady growth through the 1990s. However, a number of critical…

Risner, Doug

2010-01-01

462

Twenty-First Century Progress Toward the Global Control of Human Hookworm Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hookworms are bloodsucking nematodes that afflict up to 740 million persons in tropical and subtropical regions, with Asia\\u000a and sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting particularly high infection rates. Prevalence, intensity, and pathology often vary considerably\\u000a at both the regional and local level, and may be influenced by coinfection with other parasitic infections such as malaria.\\u000a Immunoepidemiological studies suggest that hookworms manipulate the

Richard Bungiro; Michael Cappello

2011-01-01

463

Biochemical terrorism: the medical threat in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

September 11, 2001, forever changed the landscape surrounding terrorism. The oceans no longer protected the United States from terrorists. And as incidences in the Philippines, Spain, Iraq, and other corners of the globe have found, no place on the planet can be considered risk-free. Unfortunately, not only must the world be concerned with acts of violence and destruction, but also

Ido Laish; Maor Maman; Nir Marcus; Eran Rotman; Jehoshua Dor; Ariel Hourvitz

2004-01-01

464

Beyond asbestos and environmental litigation: Coverage disputes in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in the 1970s, first asbestos, and thereafter environmental, coverage litigation involving general liability policies substantially dominated the field of insurance coverage disputes. These areas of insurance coverage litigation have now fully matured. Although litigation in these areas will continue into the foreseeable future, other types of coverage disputes have begun to appear in significant numbers. This article will analyze these other types of coverage disputes that are gaining prominence as the next millennium approaches. Coverage disputes involving general liability policies have arisen in the following notable areas: (1) pharmaceutical drug and medical devices (including latex-induced injuries and diseases); (2) tobacco; (3) electromagnetic fields; (4) solvents; (5) noise-induced hearing loss; (6) repetitive stress injuries; (7) employment; (8) sick building syndrome; (9) lead poisoning; (10) construction defects; (11) intellectual property; and (12) computer-related techno-torts. This wide range of discrete areas of law, for the most part, defies classification. Nevertheless, some generalizations can be made and parallels can be drawn when this developing body of law is viewed from a broader perspective.

Medaglia, M.E.; Mebren, P.A. von

1998-10-01

465

Technological utopianism in the twenty?first century: russia's nuclear future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet nuclear power establishment, the second largest in the world, has embarked on an ambitious program to build dozens of reactors between 2003 and 2020. The rejuvenation of that Soviet establishment through Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy (MinAtom) is based on the technological utopianism of Russian political and scientific leaders. They see nuclear energy as a way to maintain

Paul Josephson

2003-01-01

466

Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms-such as corals and some plankton-will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13

James C. Orr; Victoria J. Fabry; Olivier Aumont; Laurent Bopp; Scott C. Doney; Richard A. Feely; Anand Gnanadesikan; Nicolas Gruber; Akio Ishida; Fortunat Joos; Robert M. Key; Keith Lindsay; Ernst Maier-Reimer; Richard Matear; Patrick Monfray; Anne Mouchet; Raymond G. Najjar; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Keith B. Rodgers; Christopher L. Sabine; Jorge L. Sarmiento; Reiner Schlitzer; Richard D. Slater; Ian J. Totterdell; Marie-France Weirig; Yasuhiro Yamanaka; Andrew Yool

2005-01-01

467

Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

Stachokas, George

2009-01-01

468

School leadership in the twenty-first century: different approaches to common problems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identifies the major themes that emerge from the five selected articles in this special issue. Collectively, they demonstrate some trends occurring in the area of school leadership, but also show that individual countries are looking at these trends in different ways. It is an example of what might be called thinking globally but acting locally. The major trends

Tony Townsend

2011-01-01

469

Biological weapons and bioterrorism in the first years of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates four recent developments in biological-weapons politics and bioterrorism. First is American opposition to finalization of a verification protocol for the Biological Weapons Convention; second, a successful attempt at mass-casualty terrorism; third, an ongoing investigation into the bioterrorist capabilities of the al Qaeda network; and, fourth, a series of fatal anthrax attacks in the United States. The first of these evaluations is informed by interviews conducted between 2000 and 2002 with policy principals in the United States and elsewhere. PMID:16859345

Leitenberg, Milton

2002-09-01

470

Virtual Libraries and Education in Virtual Worlds: Twenty-First Century Library Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the use of the Internet and time spent on the Internet by individuals grows, and the use of virtual worlds like Active Worlds and Second Life increases, the library needs to have an interactive place and role in these worlds as well as a bricks and mortar space. This article provides an overview of what some libraries are doing in these…

Bell, Lori; Lindbloom, Mary-Carol; Peters, Tom; Pope, Kitty

2008-01-01

471

Considering Student Veterans on the Twenty-First-Century College Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The new GI Bill offers the best educational benefits for veterans in the history of the nation. While many campus officials believe a surge of student veterans is under way, 2012 is the first year of college eligibility for veterans who enlisted specifically for the Post 9-11 GI Bill benefits signed into law in the summer of 2008. Further, the…

Vacchi, David T.

2012-01-01

472

The age of extremes: Concentrated affluence and poverty in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization, rising income inequality, and increasing class segregation have produced a geographic concentration of affluence\\u000a and poverty throughout the world, creating a radical change in the geographic basis of human society. As the density of poverty\\u000a rises in the environment of the world’s poor, so will their exposure to crime, disease, violence. and family disruption. Meanwhile\\u000a the spatial concentration of

Douglas S. Massey

1996-01-01

473

Environmental plutonium — creation of the universe to twenty-first century mankind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gigatonne amounts of 244Pu and 239Pu were probably formed in supernova explosions during the creation of the universe and there is ongoing production of 239Pu by spontaneous fission of 238U, and thus plutonium must be regarded as a natural radioelement which has been present on earth during the whole of the evolution of life. The cosmogenic 244Pu largely decayed away

David M. Taylor

2001-01-01

474

Opioid induced bowel disease: a twenty-first century physicians' dilemma. Considering pathophysiology and treatment strategies.  

PubMed

The treatment of cancer-associated pain as well as chronic non-cancer-related pain (CNCP) is an increasingly relevant topic in medicine. However, it has long been recognized that opiates can adversely affect many organ systems, most notably the gastrointestinal system. These are referred to as the spectrum of "opioid-induced bowel dysfunction" (OBD) or what we will refer to as "opioid-induced bowel disease" (OIBD) which include constipation, nausea, vomiting, delayed gastric emptying, and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), and a newer entity known as narcotic bowel syndrome (NBS). Opioid analgesics are increasingly being used for the treatment of cancer pain, non-cancer-associated pain, and postoperative pain. As we achieve our goals towards pain control, we need to be cognizant of and competent in how to prevent and treat OIBD. The basis is due in part to µ-receptor activation, decreasing the peristaltic contraction and leading to sequelae of OIBD. Treatment beyond lifestyle interventional strategy will employ laxatives and stool softeners. However, studies performed while patients were already using laxativies and stool softeners have elicited the necessity of peripherally acting agents such as methylnaltrexone (MNTX) and alvimopan. Patients responded dramatically to both medications, but these studies were limited to patients that were deemed to have advanced illness. Lubiprostone, while different in its mechanism of action from MNTX and alvimopan, has proven effective and should be considered for use in OIBD. Further investigational research will promulgate more information and allow for better and more efficient treatment options for OIBD. PMID:23836088

Sharma, Ankush; Jamal, M Mazen

2013-07-01

475

Global warming in the twenty-first century: an alternative scenario.  

PubMed

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO(2) greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH(4), and N(2)O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO(2) and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO(2) GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH(4) and O(3) precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO(2) GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO(2) emissions, this reduction of non-CO(2) GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties. PMID:10944197

Hansen, J; Sato, M; Ruedy, R; Lacis, A; Oinas, V

2000-08-29

476

TV for the Twenty-First Century: The Video Ad Model in Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Historically, advertising has been evaluated and transacted on a placement basis. We have used location, context, time of\\u000a day (and other proxies) as ways to target audiences. Passive exposure and intrusiveness were the underlying components of\\u000a this ad model. The Internet, and more broadly digital distribution’s two-way path, allows for a transformation, one where\\u000a advertisers can purchase specific audiences with

Adam Gerber; Rick Mandler

477

The United Nations and War in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Nations was created in 1945 to prevent another world war. It was designed, as the Preamble to the Charter states, to eliminate the scourge of war. The failure to agree on a permanent UN international army meant that the UN had to improvise in dealing with wars. Peacekeeping, which is not mentioned anywhere in the UN Charter, had

Robert Weiner

2003-01-01

478

Training in the Twenty-First Century: Where Do We Go from Here?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Seven trends are emerging in the corporate training and development sector of human resource development (HRD). First, there is an increasing corporate commitment for training. Employers are viewing training today as an essential element in their competitive business strategies. Second, customer service training is becoming the competitive weapon…

Spikes, W. Franklin, III

479

Creative brainstorming and integrative thinking: skills for twenty-first century managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce examples and methods of incorporating creative brainstorming and integrative thinking skills into training programs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper discusses an innovative training program as a case study to demonstrate the application of creative brainstorming and thinking skills into the design of the program. Findings – Interdisciplinary thinking, engagement, flexibility, individual

Fahri Karakas; Mustafa Kavas

2008-01-01

480

Strengthening Media Education in the Twenty-First Century: Opportunities for the State of Pennsylvania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article defines media education and places it in the context of contemporary research on the arts, culture, and economic and social development. The author reviews current instructional settings where media analysis and media production activities are now occurring in K-12 education in Pennsylvania. This article then describes how other…

Hobbs, Renee

2005-01-01

481

Desiderata for Controlled Medical Vocabularies in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Builders of medical informatics applications need controlled medical vocabularies to support their applications and it is to their advantage to use available standards. In order to do so, however, these standards need to address the requirements of their intended users. Over the past decade, medical informatics researchers have begun to articulate some of these requirements. This paper brings together some

James J. Cimino

1998-01-01

482

Expressionists of the twenty-first century: the commodification and commercialization of expressed breast milk.  

PubMed

Breast milk expression has been promoted as liberating for women and as offering them more choices, but there has been little research on women's experiences of it and even less critical commentary on the consequences of its incorporation into mainstream behavior. Drawing on narratives of women in the United Kingdom about breastfeeding, we explore the increasingly popular practice of expressing and feeding expressed breast milk. We argue that breast milk has become commodified, breastfeeding commercialized and technologized, and the mother-infant relationship disrupted. We suggest that breastfeeding as a process is being undermined by vested interests that portray it as unreliable and reconstruct it in artificial feeding terms, so playing on women's insecurities. The major beneficiaries of expression are fathers who want increased involvement in infant care and commercial enterprises that aim to maximize profits for shareholders. PMID:23944247

Ryan, Kath; Team, Victoria; Alexander, Jo

2013-01-01

483

Natives, Newcomers and Nativism: A Human Rights Model for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article undertakes a broad overview of nativist sentiment and discrimination in U.S. social and legal history. Following a powerful vignette of a personal experience encountering nativism because of her accent, the author briefly reviews the history of the New York City Human Rights Commission in Part II. Part III traces the history of U.S. immigration and the parallel legacy

Berta Esperanza Hernįndez-Truyol

1996-01-01

484

Seeing the Light: Religious Colleges in Twenty-First-Century America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samuel Schuman examines the place of religious colleges and universities, particularly evangelical Protestant institutions, in contemporary American higher education. Many faith-based schools are flourishing. They have rigorous academic standards, impressive student recruitment, ambitious philanthropic goals, and well-maintained campuses and…

Schuman, Samuel

2009-01-01

485

The motivation of gameplay : The real twenty-first century learning revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many academics prefer to think of education as “work” rather than “fun”. As a result, motivation in higher education rarely comes from the process itself. The author predicts this will change as the generation raised on the engagement of games no longer accepts the historical but unnecessary separation of fun and learning. The author offers the games world as an

Marc Prensky

2002-01-01

486

The Century-Long Challenge of Global Carbon Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time scale of the global carbon management is a century, not a decade and not a millennium. A century is the ratio of 1000 billion metric tons of carbon [Gt(C)] to 10 Gt(C)\\/yr. 1000 Gt(C) is the future emissions that will lead to approximately a doubling of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, 280 ppm, assuming the total net ocean

R. Socolow

2002-01-01

487

Economics and the Challenge of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economics and the Challenge of Global Warming is a balanced and comprehensive analysis of the role of economics in confronting global warming, the central environmental issue of the twenty-first century. It avoids a technical exposition in order to reach a wide audience and is up to date in its theoretical and empirical underpinnings. It is addressed to all who have

Charles S. Pearson

488

Developing Sexual Agency: Rethinking Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Theories for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neo-liberal society asserts that adults should be independent and responsible for themselves, and that children and adolescents\\u000a should be dependent on their parents. The earlier construction of the concept of adolescence makes this seem obviously true.\\u000a Yet if we remember that “adolescence” was part of a project of gender, race, and class construction, it becomes easier to\\u000a ask whether adolescence

Valerie D. Lehr

2008-01-01

489

Twenty-First Century Ecosystems: Managing the Living World Two Centuries After Darwin. Report of a Symposium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication of the report Biodiversity by the National Academy of Sciences/Smithsonian Institution in 1988 helped reframe the concept of biological diversity as a global resource, to be indexed, used, and above all, preserved, and captured the attenti...

2011-01-01

490

The Contribution of the National Laboratories in Meeting U.S. 21st Century Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Two pivotal National Academies reports, 'Making the Nation Safer and Rising Above the Gathering Storm, Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future (RAGS)', together with 'The National Quadrennial Defense Review, The Department of Defense Strategic R and D Plan', the report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the National Academy of Engineering's Grand Challenges delineate the major challenges we face as a nation in the 21st century. They assert that fundamental advances and a sustained effort in science, engineering, and technology are needed to address these challenges effectively. A partial listing of some 21st century challenges for which transformational R and D is needed is given.

Murray, C A

2008-08-12

491

Central and South America: Challenges for the 21st Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research project is to explore the importance that Central and South America will play in the 21st century. Understanding the history of the region as well as current economic, democratic, military, political and social trends should i...

E. W. Harter

1998-01-01

492

Newspaper Information in Tanzania: challenges for the 21St Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the task of providing adequate newspaper information services to meet the demands of 21st century Tanzania. Defines what is meant by newspaper information, and outlines the present situation of the provision of newspaper information in Africa and mainland Tanzania. Discusses the problems of providing access to newspaper information and the newspaper services provided by libraries in Tanzania. Analyses the

Ponsian A. Mwiru

1999-01-01

493

Challenged by Egyptians: Greek Sports in the Third Century bc  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the third century BC, Ptolemaic Egypt was very successful on the Greek sports circuit. This essay analyses the prominent position of Egyptian competitors – that is, residents of Ptolemaic Egypt competing for a traditional Greek city or for Alexandria – both in equestrian and athletic events. Their achievements were no coincidence: sport was actively promoted by the Ptolemies, through the construction of sports

Sofie Remijsen

2009-01-01

494

Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as “new,” “emerging,” or “evolving” pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses,

John N. Sofos

2008-01-01

495

Challenges of Urban Education: Sociological Perspectives for the Next Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The papers in this collection discuss the challenges facing urban education and the sociology of urban education. The more comprehensive perspective presented in this document can contribute to the improvement of city schools and the empowerment of urban students. Following an introduction, "Challenges of the New Sociology of Urban Education"…

McClafferty, Karen A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.; Mitchell, Theodore R., Ed.

496

Mos scaling: transistor challenges for the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Conventional scaling of gate oxide thickness, source\\/drain extension (SDE), junction depths, and gate lengths have enabled MOS gate dimensions,to be reduced from 10?m in the 1970’s to a present day size of 0.1?m. To enable transistor scaling into the 21, century, new solutions such as high dielectric constant materials for gate insulation and shallow, ultra low resistivity junctions need

S. Thompson; P. Packan; M. Bohr

1994-01-01

497

Challenges Facing Hispanic-Serving Institutions in the First Decade of the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, the presidents and chancellors of Hispanic-serving institutions identified 5 challenges that their institutions will face as the end of the first decade of the 21st century approaches. Almost 8 of 10 respondents listed lack of funding as the most important challenge. The 2nd most important issue was the poor academic preparedness of…

de los Santos, Alfredo G., Jr.; Cuamea, Karina Michelle

2010-01-01

498

Twenty-first DOE\\/NRC nuclear air-cleaning conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Twenty-First Department of Energy\\/Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Air-Cleaning Conference was held August 12-16, 1990, in San Diego, California. A total of 232 air-cleaning specialists attended the conference. The United States and 14 foreign countries were represented, and the specialists were affiliated with government agencies, educational institutions, and the nuclear industry. Several major topics were discussed during the conference, including

R. R. Bellamy; D. W. Moeller; M. W. First

1991-01-01

499

Twenty-First Water Reaction Safety Information Meeting. Volume 2, Severe accident research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research

Monteleone

1994-01-01

500

The Social Practice of Learning: A Craft for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article argues that the social practice of learning (SPL), involving life-long learning, meta-learning, deep reflection, and dialogue in a community, should be the distinguishing knowledge base of schools in the twenty-first century. This article also analyses the strategies and challenges of the recent education reforms in Singapore through…

Hung, David; Ng, Pak Tee; Koh, Thiam Seng; Lim, Seo Hong

2009-01-01