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1

Twenty-first century challenges for biomaterials  

PubMed Central

During the 1960s and 1970s, a first generation of materials was specially developed for use inside the human body. These developments became the basis for the field of biomaterials. The devices made from biomaterials are called prostheses. Professor Bill Bonfield was one of the first to recognize the importance of understanding the mechanical properties of tissues, especially bone, in order to achieve reliable skeletal prostheses. His research was one of the pioneering efforts to understand the interaction of biomaterials with living tissues. The goal of all early biomaterials was to ‘achieve a suitable combination of physical properties to match those of the replaced tissue with a minimal toxic response in the host’. By 1980, there were more than 50 implanted prostheses in clinical use made from 40 different materials. At that time, more than three million prosthetic parts were being implanted in patients worldwide each year. A common feature of most of the 40 materials was biological ‘inertness’. Almost all materials used in the body were single-phase materials. Most implant materials were adaptations of already existing commercial materials with higher levels of purity to eliminate release of toxic by-products and minimize corrosion. This article is a tribute to Bill Bonfield's pioneering efforts in the field of bone biomechanics, biomaterials and interdisciplinary research. It is also a brief summary of the evolution of bioactive materials and the opportunities for tailoring the composition, texture and surface chemistry of them to meet five important challenges for the twenty-first century. PMID:20484227

Hench, Larry L.; Thompson, Ian

2010-01-01

2

The twenty-first century challenges to sexuality and religion.  

PubMed

Clergy and religious leaders are facing a wide variety of sexual needs and concerns within their faith communities. Conflicts over sexual issues are growing across the entire spectrum of religious denominations, and clerics remain ill prepared to deal with them. As religious communities work to remain influential in public policy debates, clergy and the institutions that train them need to be properly prepared for twenty-first century challenges that impact sexuality and religion. Clergy are often the first point of contact for sexual problems and concerns of their faith community members-complex issues centered on morals, spirituality, and ethics. Yet, there still exists a significant lack of sexual curricula in the programs that are educating our future religious leaders. The resulting paucity of knowledge leaves these leaders unprepared to address the needs and concerns of their congregants. However, with accurate, relevant human sexuality curricula integrated into theological formation programs, future leaders will be equipped to competently serve their constituencies. This paper provides a rationale for the need for such training, an overview of the faith- and theology-based history of a pilot training project, and a description of how the Christian faith and the social sciences intersect in a training pilot project's impetus and process. PMID:23070841

Turner, Yolanda; Stayton, William

2014-04-01

3

Some astronomical challenges for the twenty-first century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses some of the scientific puzzles that astronomers may face in the next century. Four areas in astronomy are discussed in detail. These include cosmology and galaxy formation, active galaxies and quasars, supernovae and stellar remnants, and the formation of stars and planets. A variety of observatories on the Moon are proposed to attack these astronomical challenges.

Burns, Jack O.

1992-01-01

4

World Grant Universities: Meeting the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today American higher education urgently needs bold thinking coupled with innovative actions if the United States is to meet the challenges of the 21st century--thinking and doing that goes beyond requests for more funding and accountability and beyond the tendency to look at what individual institutions do well and can contribute to global…

Simon, Lou Anna K.

2010-01-01

5

Twenty-first Century Challenges in Water Resources - A Land-Atmosphere Interaction Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models show skill in simulating the 20th century observed warming rate (0.08 K/decade, global average). In the 21st century, the projected warming rate is significantly higher. For example, the 21st century global average temperature trend is four times higher in the 4.5 watts/m2 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 4.5), and nine times higher in 8.5 watts/m2 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 8.5), compared to the 20th century simulated temperature trend. In this study, we have investigated changes in land-atmosphere interactions, which have important consequences for fresh water availability in the 21st century. A multi-model analysis of results from 16 CMIP5 climate models that have detailed land surface schemes has been examined. A correlation between changes in annual evapotranspiration and temperature (a surrogate for available energy) or changes in precipitation (a surrogate for water availability) among different climate simulations; a total of 103 climate realizations is used as metric to study land-atmosphere interactions. We found that in the highest emission scenario (RCP 8.5), the earth system could potentially see a major change during the 21st century, where much of the land surface will transition to a predominantly water-limited system, i.e., despite increases in precipitation the land surface transitions to a drier state (water-limited). Details of the transition from water and energy limited systems in the 20th century to only water limited systems in the 21st century is presented. Results from the intermediate emissions scenario (RCP4.5) will be also discussed. These results have important consequences for fresh water availability, such as decreased water availability for ground water recharge and runoff.

Kumar, S.; Dirmeyer, P.; Lawrence, D. M.

2012-12-01

6

The Twenty-First Century Multiple Generation Workforce: Overlaps and Differences but Also Challenges and Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the issues around a multiple generational workforce and more specifically, the challenges and benefits for education providers and employers. Design/methodology/approach: Reviewing research papers, analysing academic texts, interrogating market intelligence and contextualising case studies, the…

Helyer, Ruth; Lee, Dionne

2012-01-01

7

New challenges for telephone survey research in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Telephone surveys are critical for examining cross-sectional characteristics of population subgroups, tracking trends in prevalence of conditions and risk behaviors over time, identifying risk factors associated with multiple health conditions, and assessing the effects of interventions. Technology has aided telephone research through advances such as computer-assisted telephone interviewing. However, technology such as answering machines and caller ID has contributed to declines in response rates and has increased costs of conducting telephone surveys. The exponential increase in cell phone utilization presents a challenge to the tradition of random digit dial (RDD) surveys of households. Because telephone surveys are used by other industries such as marketing and public opinion polling, the marketplace may help drive innovation and adaptation. Cell phones have made telephone communication an even greater part of the everyday culture and could make potential telephone survey respondents even more accessible to public health researchers. PMID:17094769

Kempf, Angela M; Remington, Patrick L

2007-01-01

8

Combining chemical and biological endpoints, a major challenge for twenty-first century's environmental specimen banks.  

PubMed

Environmental specimen banks (ESBs) are not a new phenomenon, but in the last decades, the steep rate in the establishment of new ESBs is a sign to address new research approaches for scientists. In this way, environmental biobanking is becoming a well-organized and effective vehicle to collect samples of high quality making them available for future researchers. The endpoints promoted in the ESBs are mainly based on chemical approaches, but the necessity to add biological endpoint is fundamental (e.g., assessment of the environmental health status). Moreover, advances and development of high sensitive, high-throughput techniques along with ecotoxicological approaches based on biomarkers are stimulating a new demand for stored specimens and associated data. Like in chemically targeted environmental specimen banking, the banked samples for the assessment of biological effects also require guidance informed by knowledge of their practices and challenges, along with policies for the correct advancement of research goals and appropriate and effective biobank governance. PMID:24777326

Garmendia, Larraitz; Izagirre, Urtzi; Soto, Manu; Lermen, Dominik; Koschorreck, Jan

2015-02-01

9

Shelter for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed Central

Housing for the twenty-first century will be shaped by the changes that are occurring in society. These include the demographics of the occupant, the products and materials used for construction and furnishing, and the basic use of the structure. An aging population will have different demands on design and function. The health concerns of an aging population encompass chronic degenerative diseases as well as injury. The lessons of the past must make us mindful that chronic, low-level exposures to substances can occur at home. Products and materials used in homes can release vapors that may affect immunologic and neurologic function. Manifestations of dysfunctions will be more important as our population ages and if there is a continued reliance on new chemical formulation for products used in homes and workplaces. The future portends changes in functional use of residences. Electronic communications and robotics will decentralize our work force. Manufacturing or office functions will occur at home. This will present new challenges for health and safety for both monitoring and prevention. PMID:2401266

Spengler, J D

1990-01-01

10

An Educational Revolution to Support Change in the Classroom: Colombia and the Educational Challenges of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As developing countries strive to strengthen their educational institutions to meet the challenges of the economic and social demands of globalization, tension often arises between providing more access to traditional public education and reforming the quality of the education provided. With its Revolucion Educativa, Colombia offers an interesting…

Light, Daniel; Manso, Micaela; Noguera, Teresa

2009-01-01

11

Population in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changing trends in global population in the 21st century are examined. The fall of the fertility rate and resulting actual decline of population will be evident in the major Western countries and Japan by 2005–2015, spreading to others thereafter. Difficult economic and noneconomic problems, for example, aging populations, must be confronted. A 2.1 replacement fertility rate is the key.

Walt W. Rostow

2001-01-01

12

The challenges of teaching and learning about science in the twenty-first century: exploring the abilities and constraints of adolescent learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we critically examine skills that are necessary for the effective learning of science in adolescent populations. We argue that a focus on twenty-first-century skills among adolescents within the context of science instruction must be considered in light of research on cognitive and social development. We first review adolescents’ emerging abilities in terms of five domains identified by

Eric M. Anderman; Gale M. Sinatra; DeLeon L. Gray

2012-01-01

13

The Challenges of Teaching and Learning about Science in the Twenty-First Century: Exploring the Abilities and Constraints of Adolescent Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we critically examine skills that are necessary for the effective learning of science in adolescent populations. We argue that a focus on twenty-first-century skills among adolescents within the context of science instruction must be considered in light of research on cognitive and social development. We first review adolescents'…

Anderman, Eric M.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Gray, DeLeon L.

2012-01-01

14

Youth Civic Engagement in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes results of discussions among social scientists reflecting on issues and opportunities related to youth civic engagement in the twenty-first century. Identifies specific forces, such as globalization, that must be considered by educators and policymakers. Outlines responsibilities of schools, governments, the commercial sector, community…

Youniss, James; Bales, Susan; Christman-Best, Verona; Diversi, Marcelo; McLaughlin, Milbrey; Silbereisen, Rainer

2002-01-01

15

Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

16

Creating an Academic Library for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Bruce Miller took up the position of head librarian at the University of California, Merced in 2001, the plan for the new library was to use the University of California (UC) system's rich base of support as a launching pad for something great and extraordinary: a model academic research library for the twenty-first century. This article…

Barclay, Donald A.

2007-01-01

17

Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010–2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number

Geoffrey P. Hammond

1996-01-01

18

Humanities: The Unexpected Success Story of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humanities within universities faced challenges in the latter half of the twentieth century as their value in the modern world was questioned. This paper argues that there is strong potential for the humanities to thrive in the twenty-first century university sector. It outlines some of the managerial implications necessary to ensure that this…

Davis, Virginia

2012-01-01

19

Designing Vaccines for the Twenty-First Century Society  

PubMed Central

The history of vaccination clearly demonstrates that vaccines have been highly successful in preventing infectious diseases, reducing significantly the incidence of childhood diseases and mortality. However, many infections are still not preventable with the currently available vaccines and they represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. In the twenty-first century, the innovation brought by novel technologies in antigen discovery and formulation together with a deeper knowledge of the human immune responses are paving the way for the development of new vaccines. Final goal will be to rationally design effective vaccines where conventional approaches have failed. PMID:24478777

Finco, Oretta; Rappuoli, Rino

2013-01-01

20

Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

2013-01-01

21

Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

Staniforth, Mark

2008-12-01

22

THE HOLOCAUST ON SCREEN IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: NEW APPROACHES/ New Approaches/ New Films  

E-print Network

THE HOLOCAUST ON SCREEN IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: NEW APPROACHES/ NEW FILMS New Approaches/ New An International Conference on New Approaches to Representing the Holocaust in Cinema Held in Conjunction with Prof Ribbat (Universität Paderborn) #12;THE HOLOCAUST ON SCREEN IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: NEW APPROACHES

Hellebrand, Sybille

23

Twenty-First Century Learning: Communities, Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and…

Leh, Amy S.C.; Kouba, Barbara; Davis, Dirk

2005-01-01

24

Challenges for the Twenty-first Century  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bio-based industries are increasingly becoming essential to our nation’s manufacturing base. Beyond food, feed, and fiber, agricultural and biological engineers are now being called upon to design and produce environmentally benign manufactured products, as well as biologically-based energy and tra...

25

The Culturally Fluent Leader of the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased global interdependence will be the dominant feature of the 21st century. This increased relatedness among the world's cultures and nations will require close intercultural linkages which are often fragile and full of hazards. If the 21st century is to experience a greater sense of planetary community, rather than increased tensions and…

Smith, Robert Charles; Lischin, Stevi

26

Psychological Testing and Assessment in the Twenty-first Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As spinoffs of the current revolution in the cognitive and neurosciences, clinical neuropsychologists in the 21st century will be employing biological tests of intelligence and cognition which record individual differences in brain functions at the neuromolecular, neurophysiologic, and neurochemical levels. Assessment of patients will focus more…

Matarazzo, Joseph D.

27

Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

28

Wireless communications in the twenty-first century: a perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless communications are expected to be the dominant mode of access technology in the next century. Besides voice, a new range of services such as multimedia, high-speed data, etc. are being offered for delivery over wireless networks. Mobility will be seamless, realizing the concept of persons being in contact anywhere, at any time. Two developments are likely to have a

MANSOOR SHAFI; AKIRA HASHIMOTO; MASAHIRO UMEHIRA; SHIGEAKI OGOSE; TAKEHIRO MURASE

1997-01-01

29

Moral Psychology for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lawrence Kohlberg slayed the two dragons of twentieth-century psychology--behaviorism and psychoanalysis. His victory was a part of the larger cognitive revolution that shaped the world in which all of us study psychology and education today. But the cognitive revolution itself was modified by later waves of change, particularly an "affective…

Haidt, Jonathan

2013-01-01

30

Preparing the Twenty-First Century Workforce: The Case of Curriculum Change in Radiation Protection Education in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advent of the global information society and a myriad of other rapidly changing variables are presenting many new and unique challenges for the twenty-first century workforce, and perhaps the most pressing of these challenges is actually meeting the needs for qualified workers to fill the positions in emerging and growing fields. One such…

Schmidt, Matthew; Easter, Matthew; Jonassen, David; Miller, William; Ionas, Gelu

2008-01-01

31

Teaching the Constitution to Twenty-First Century Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Civic education in public schools faces major challenges. Under No Child Left Behind, many schools have favored teaching math and English rather than civics, which undermines one of the purposes of public schools--to educate students to be responsible and active citizens in democracy. A second challenge comes inside the classroom: engaging the…

Jackson, Peggy S.; Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Haas, Nancy S.

2008-01-01

32

Twenty First Century Water Asset Accounting: Case Studies Report  

EPA Science Inventory

America’s decaying water infrastructure presents significant financial and logistical challenges for water utilities. Green infrastructure has been gaining traction as a viable alternative and complement to traditional “grey” infrastructure for water management....

33

Story and Archive in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how new media technologies might converge with the leveling between "story" and "archive," and how that convergence will shape the future of English Studies, focusing on electronic archives of literary and historical materials. Concludes that the central challenge in using new media with students, particularly hypertext pedagogies, is in…

Bass, Randy

1999-01-01

34

Teacher-Friendly Technology Applications for the Twenty-First Century Learner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to present recent technology applications for teachers as well as share important techniques in setting up a classroom environment that will prepare their students as twenty-first century learners.

Coyne, Jaime; Potter, Jalene; Hollas, Tori

2013-01-01

35

Prevention of toxic environmental illness in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed Central

Previous introductions of new technologies have frequently resulted in unanticipated occupational and environmental illness. Prevention of such illness in the twenty-first century requires stringent application of two fundamental principles of public health: evaluation of new technologies before their introduction, and surveillance of exposed persons after the introduction of new technologies. Failure to establish these basic preventive mechanisms in advance will inevitably result in the development of new toxic diseases in the twenty-first century. PMID:1698154

Landrigan, P J

1990-01-01

36

Alaska: A twenty-first-century petroleum province  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alaska, the least explored of all United States regions, is estimated to contain approximately 40% of total U.S. undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural-gas resources, based on the most recent U.S. Department of the Interior (U.S. Geological Survey and Minerals Management Service) estimates. Northern Alaska, including the North Slope and adjacent Beaufort and Chukchi continental shelves, holds the lion's share of the total Alaskan endowment of more than 30 billion barrels (4.8 billion m3) of oil and natural-gas liquids plus nearly 200 trillion cubic feet (5.7 trillion m3) of natural gas. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Multiple source-rock zones have charged several regionally extensive petroleum systems. Extensional and compressional structures provide ample structural objectives. In addition, recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite systems in Jurassic to Tertiary strata. Despite robust potential, northern Alaska remains a risky exploration frontier - a nexus of geologic complexity, harsh economic conditions, and volatile policy issues. Its role as a major petroleum province in this century will depend on continued technological innovations, not only in exploration and drilling operations, but also in development of huge, currently unmarketable natural-gas resources. Ultimately, policy decisions will determine whether exploration of arctic Alaska will proceed.

Bird, K.J.

2001-01-01

37

Data Analysis in the Twenty-First Century  

SciTech Connect

The 21st Century is characterized by complex multidisciplinary problems accompanied by massive datasets. 'We are drowning in data, but starving for knowledge', as the volumes of many commercial, industrial and scientific datasets have exceeded the terabyte range and are approaching petabytes and beyond. Statistical methodology has long been employed to find useful and usable information in data. More recently, data mining has harnessed the power of computer technology to find useful and usable patterns in such massive datasets. Although several data mining journals have joined the established statistical journals, no single journal provides an integrated treatment of statistical analysis methodology and data mining technology, particularly when applied to the solution of practical problems. This absence and the needs expressed above motivated the inauguration of John Wiley's new Journal on Statistical Analysis and Data Mining. The goals of this interdisciplinary journal are to encourage collaborations across disciplines, communication of data mining and statistical techniques to both novices and experts involved in the analysis of data from practical problems, and a principled and productive evaluation of analyses and solutions. The journal specifically encourages submission of works that have statistical rigor in the analysis of data, incorporate the most appropriate algorithms from data mining, and address the needs of applications. Applying data mining algorithms to practical problems is not sufficient, because we need to ensure that the results have a sound statistical basis, lest any decision based on these results lead to a catastrophe. Even data mining algorithms founded on sound statistical analysis are not sufficient, if they cannot solve a practical problem. Finally, employing a statistical analysis on a practical problem is not sufficient, unless it scales up to massive datasets. Statistical analysis and data mining are actually two sides of the sword that is sorely needed to conquer data overload in practical problems.

Goodman, A; Kamath, C; Kumar, V

2007-08-16

38

Developmental Education: A Twenty-First Century Social and Economic Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph addresses developmental education in the 21st Century, identifying the major issues and providing examples of successful developmental programs. The first chapter, "Access and the New America of the Twenty-First Century," emphasizes several changes in American society that have affected access to education and developmental…

McCabe, Robert H., Ed.; Day, Philip R., Jr., Ed.

39

Forecasting Twenty-First Century Information Technology Skills: A Delphi Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As cities and regions seek to increase the stock of college educated citizens in order to compete in the twenty-first century knowledge-economy, colleges and universities are realizing increased enrollment. At the same time, much is being written about the skills needed by graduates for the new economy. These studies articulate skills in critical…

Young, Jackie A.

2012-01-01

40

Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century and Its Role in the Advancement of Romania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion asserts that Romania recognizes the crucial importance of higher education's role in the development of the knowledge society of the twenty-first century, the importance of university education for the training of young people, and the need to develop Romanian higher education according to the norms of the Bologna Process and of…

Iliescu, Ion

2003-01-01

41

Improve constantly and forever : The influence of W. Edwards Deming into the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Deming's ideas on the twenty-first century. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A ProQuest search of articles is done mentioning “Deming” and “quality” or “legacy” in the title published between 1994 (Deming died in December 1993) and 2006. Findings – It is found that 136 articles described Deming's legacy. Legacy in

Stephen B. Knouse; Paula P. Carson; Kerry D. Carson; Ronald B. Heady

2009-01-01

42

Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive thinking; information,…

Lee, Wing On

2012-01-01

43

An Exploratory Study of the Achievement of the Twenty-First Century Skills in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey study of the achievement of twenty-first century skills in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The study employs a quantitative survey design. Findings: The findings indicate that the basic scientific and technological skills of reading critically and writing…

Ghaith, Ghazi

2010-01-01

44

Library and information science : Skills for twenty-first century professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To review skills needed by library and information science (LIS) professionals in the twenty-first century and suggest a new approach to four key skills. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Considers the DNA skills approach of Hallam and Partridge and analyses the four skills using examples of innovative developments in library and information services. Findings – LIS professionals need a range of

Roxanne Missingham

2006-01-01

45

Career Learning and Development: A Social Constructivist Model for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK there have been several calls for new models "fit for purpose" for careers work in the twenty-first century and in response, this article presents a model for career learning and development. This brings together recent theory regarding the ways in which people make career decisions throughout their lives in rapidly changing, turbulent…

Bassot, Barbara

2012-01-01

46

76 FR 21741 - Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

In this document, the Commission announces that it held a Town Hall meeting on The Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act (the Act or CVAA) hosted by the California State University at Northridge (CSUN). The Town Hall meeting provided an orientation to the Act, and discussed the advanced communications and video programming changes required by the...

2011-04-18

47

76 FR 68117 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Federal Communications Commission published in the Federal Register of September 8, 2011, a document concerning implementation of the Video Description elements of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010. Inadvertently the Compliance date was listed as October 1, 2012. This document corrects the Compliance date to reflect the item and rules as adopted and......

2011-11-03

48

Distance Education Technology: Higher Education Barriers during the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the twenty-first century, despite the expanded opportunities technology affords in student-access to higher education, most institutions of higher education are hesitant to offer technology-based distance education (TBDE). The prohibiting factors include cost, accessibility, faculty concerns, state mandates, academic administrative actions, and…

Owusu-Ansah, Angela; Neill, Patti; Haralson, Michele K.

2011-01-01

49

An Education for the Twenty-First Century: Stewardship of the Global Commons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing that the term "global education" has become commonplace but, too often, is put forward without adequate substance, this proposal seeks to envision a foundational higher education for the twenty-first century. The authors believe it is important to imagine an education fit for global possibilities because theirs has become a world in…

Bennett, Douglas C.; Cornwell, Grant H.; Al-Lail, Haifa Jamal; Schenck, Celeste

2012-01-01

50

Teaching Middle School Language Arts: Incorporating Twenty-First Century Literacies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Teaching Middle School Language Arts" is the first book on teaching middle school language arts for multiple intelligences and related twenty-first-century literacies in technologically and ethnically diverse communities. More than 670,000 middle school teachers (grades six through eight) are responsible for educating nearly 13 million students…

Small Roseboro, Anna J.

2010-01-01

51

Drivers of mountain landscape change during the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Twenty-first century mountain landscapes are evolving under the globally scaled controls of hydroclimate and the spatially\\u000a and temporally discontinuous impacts of human activity and tectonic plate movements. Attention is drawn to the difficulty\\u000a of comparing the effectiveness of the three drivers of change (tectonics, using relief as a surrogate, hydroclimate, and human\\u000a activity) because of their differing temporal rhythms. The

Olav Slaymaker

2010-01-01

52

The Worldwide Significance of Chinese Aesthetics in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through comparisons between traditional Chinese and Western aesthetics, this article tries to explain the worldwide significance\\u000a of Chinese aesthetic tradition in the twenty-first century. In contrast to cognitive-rational spirit and the tendency to distinguish\\u000a the subjectives and objectives of traditional Western aesthetics, traditional Chinese aesthetics shows a distinctive practical-emotional\\u000a spirit and a tendency to harmoniously unite human beings with nature,

Qingping Liu

2006-01-01

53

Extinction debt of high-mountain plants under twenty-first-century climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative estimates of the range loss of mountain plants under climate change have so far mostly relied on static geographical projections of species' habitat shifts. Here, we use a hybrid model that combines such projections with simulations of demography and seed dispersal to forecast the climate-driven spatio-temporal dynamics of 150 high-mountain plant species across the European Alps. This model predicts average range size reductions of 44-50% by the end of the twenty-first century, which is similar to projections from the most `optimistic' static model (49%). However, the hybrid model also indicates that population dynamics will lag behind climatic trends and that an average of 40% of the range still occupied at the end of the twenty-first century will have become climatically unsuitable for the respective species, creating an extinction debt. Alarmingly, species endemic to the Alps seem to face the highest range losses. These results caution against optimistic conclusions from moderate range size reductions observed during the twenty-first century as they are likely to belie more severe longer-term effects of climate warming on mountain plants.

Dullinger, Stefan; Gattringer, Andreas; Thuiller, Wilfried; Moser, Dietmar; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Guisan, Antoine; Willner, Wolfgang; Plutzar, Christoph; Leitner, Michael; Mang, Thomas; Caccianiga, Marco; Dirnböck, Thomas; Ertl, Siegrun; Fischer, Anton; Lenoir, Jonathan; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Psomas, Achilleas; Schmatz, Dirk R.; Silc, Urban; Vittoz, Pascal; Hülber, Karl

2012-08-01

54

Twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over Upper Indus Basin of Himalayan region of Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is based on both the recent and the predicted twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over the mountainous Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which are influenced by snow and glacier melting. Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) data for the periods 1976–2005, 2006–2035, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100 with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) data for the periods of 2041–2050 and 2071–2080 with RCP8.5 are used for climatic projection and, after bias correction, the same data are used as an input to the University of British Columbia (UBC) hydrological model for river flow projections. The projections of all of the future periods were compared with the results of 1976–2005 and with each other. Projections of future changes show a consistent increase in air temperature and precipitation. However, temperature and precipitation increase is relatively slow during 2071–2100 in contrast with 2041–2070. Northern parts are more likely to experience an increase in precipitation and temperature in comparison to the southern parts. A higher increase in temperature is projected during spring and winter over southern parts and during summer over northern parts. Moreover, the increase in minimum temperature is larger in both scenarios for all future periods. Future river flow is projected by both models to increase in the twenty first century (CCAM and RegCM) in both scenarios. However, the rate of increase is larger during the first half while it is relatively small in the second half of the twenty first century in RCP4.5. The possible reason for high river flow during the first half of the twenty first century is the large increase in temperature, which may cause faster melting of snow, while in the last half of the century there is a decreasing trend in river flow, precipitation, and temperature (2071–2100) in comparison to 2041–2070 for RCP4.5. Generally, for all future periods, the percentage of increased river flow is larger in winter than in summer, while quantitatively large river flow was projected, particularly during the summer monsoon. Due to high river flow and increase in precipitation in UIB, water availability is likely to be increased in the twenty first century and this may sustain water demands.

Ali, Shaukat; Li, Dan; Congbin, Fu; Khan, Firdos

2015-01-01

55

Address by Jacques Delors, Chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, General Conference of UNESCO (27th, Paris, France, November 2, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this speech to the members of the general conference of UNESCO, the chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century describes the progress of the Commission's work. The chairman discusses education and the challenges of the world as it enters the 21st century. Changes mentioned include the rapid pace of…

Delors, Jacques

56

The Machinate Literary Animal: Butlerian Science for the Twenty-first Century  

E-print Network

- ral history in the wake of Darwin and a maverick outsider who “lost” in the evolution debates of subsequent decades.1 In his mature evo- 57 The Machinate Literary Animal: Butlerian Science for the Twenty-first Century Anna Neill University... for this reason that it provides a therapeutic alternative to the “trauma” of crossing (in the overthrowing of habit) that Danielle Nielsen identi- fies as a key evolutionary trope in The Way of All Flesh. See David Amigoni, “Charles Darwin’s Centenary...

Neill, Anna

2014-12-01

57

Improved Views of the Moon in the Early Twenty First Century: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The twenty first century was an exciting epoch in planetary exploration, when a large number of lunar scientific achievements were accomplished. New missions in the first decade of the twenty first century have herald a new and exciting phase in lunar exploration, including LRO, LCROSS, the dual GRAIL orbiters, Kaguya, Chandrayaan 1, and the Chang'e series. Here we review the most significant advances in our understanding of lunar geoscience, including the assessment of water ice at lunar poles, the detection of new elements and minerals relating to exposed interior materials, the calculation of highly accurate gravity models, and the detection of subsurface interfaces probably related to basaltic strata formed in distinct episodes. In this paper we emphasize the importance of integrated approaches to the analysis of these large yield of new lunar data, through comparison and integration. By integrating a range of diverse technologies and approaches, this paper reviews new understanding of lunar processes, including the confirmation of the presence of water ice at the poles, the interactions between solar wind and surface oxides, and an improved model of lunar interior structures.

Yang, Hongwei; Zhao, Wenjin

2015-01-01

58

Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015. Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The opportunities for space science in the period from 1995 to 2015 are discussed. A perspective on progress in the six disciplines (the planet Earth; planetary and lunar exploration; solar system space physics; astronomy and astrophysics; fundamental physics and chemistry; and life sciences) of space science are reviewed. The prospectives for major achievements by 1995 from missions already underway or awaiting new starts are included. A set of long range goals for these disciplines are presented for the first two decades of the twenty-first century. Broad themes for future scientific pursuits are presented and some examples of high-priority missions for the turn of the century are highlighted. A few recommendations are cited for each discipline to suggest how these themes might be developed.

1988-01-01

59

3 Evolution and modulation of tropical heating from the last glacial 4 maximum through the twenty-first century  

E-print Network

REVISED PROOF 12 3 Evolution and modulation of tropical heating from the last glacial 4 maximum for the twenty-first century 521 Introduction 53A key to understanding the evolution of Earth's climate is 54

Webster, Peter J.

60

Fantasies of Maternal Unity in Twentieth- and Twenty-First-Century African Diasporic Women's Fiction and Science Fiction  

E-print Network

This dissertation explores the power children realize in the past, present, and future from their real or imagined connections to their absent mothers in twentieth- and twenty-first-century African diasporic women's fiction, ...

Lillvis, Kristen

2011-04-20

61

Why the twenty-first century tropical Pacific trend pattern cannot significantly influence ENSO amplitude?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the climate is highly expected to change due to global warming, it is unclear whether the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) will be more or less active in the future. One may argue that this uncertainty is due to the intrinsic uncertainties in current climate models or the strong natural long-term modulation of ENSO. Here, we propose that the global warming trend cannot significantly modify ENSO amplitude due to weak feedback between the global warming induced tropical climate change and ENSO. By analyzing Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and observation data, we found that the zonal dipole pattern of sea surface temperature [SST; warming in the eastern Pacific and cooling in the western Pacific or vice versa; `Pacific zonal mode' (PZM)] is highly correlated to change in ENSO amplitude. Additionally, this PZM is commonly identified in control experiments (pre-industrial conditions), twentieth century observations, and twenty-first century scenario experiments [representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5 W m-2 (RCP 4.5, 8.5)]. PZM provides favorable conditions for the intensification of ENSO by strengthening air-sea coupling and modifying ENSO pattern. On the other hand, the twenty-first century SST trend pattern, which is different from PZM, is not favorable towards changing ENSO amplitude. Furthermore, we performed an intermediate ocean-atmosphere coupled model simulations, in which the SST trend pattern and PZM are imposed as an external anomalous heat flux or prescribed as a basic state. It was concluded that the SST trend pattern forcing insignificantly changes ENSO amplitude, and the PZM forcing intensifies ENSO amplitude.

An, Soon-Il; Choi, Jung

2015-01-01

62

Why the twenty-first century tropical Pacific trend pattern cannot significantly influence ENSO amplitude?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the climate is highly expected to change due to global warming, it is unclear whether the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) will be more or less active in the future. One may argue that this uncertainty is due to the intrinsic uncertainties in current climate models or the strong natural long-term modulation of ENSO. Here, we propose that the global warming trend cannot significantly modify ENSO amplitude due to weak feedback between the global warming induced tropical climate change and ENSO. By analyzing Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and observation data, we found that the zonal dipole pattern of sea surface temperature [SST; warming in the eastern Pacific and cooling in the western Pacific or vice versa; `Pacific zonal mode' (PZM)] is highly correlated to change in ENSO amplitude. Additionally, this PZM is commonly identified in control experiments (pre-industrial conditions), twentieth century observations, and twenty-first century scenario experiments [representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5 W m-2 (RCP 4.5, 8.5)]. PZM provides favorable conditions for the intensification of ENSO by strengthening air-sea coupling and modifying ENSO pattern. On the other hand, the twenty-first century SST trend pattern, which is different from PZM, is not favorable towards changing ENSO amplitude. Furthermore, we performed an intermediate ocean-atmosphere coupled model simulations, in which the SST trend pattern and PZM are imposed as an external anomalous heat flux or prescribed as a basic state. It was concluded that the SST trend pattern forcing insignificantly changes ENSO amplitude, and the PZM forcing intensifies ENSO amplitude.

An, Soon-Il; Choi, Jung

2014-07-01

63

Funding research in the twenty-first century: current opinions and future directions.  

PubMed

For all academic biomedical researchers, the process of submitting grants and securing research funding is a critical part of advancing one's career. In the current era of decreasing new grant awards and renewals leading to significantly worse success rates, it is hard for young aspiring physician-scientists to remain optimistic regarding their future in academic medicine. It is important that today's young surgeon-scientists prepare for and adapt to the inevitably changing climate of research funding. This article provides a primer on developing a successful career as a funded surgeon-scientist and pathways for building a robust research platform worthy of extramural National Institutes of Health funding in the twenty-first century. PMID:25066856

Squitieri, Lee; Chung, Kevin C

2014-08-01

64

LOW FERTILITY AT THE TURN OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

E-print Network

equilibrium, demographic theory ? Abstract In the past few decades, demographic concerns have shifted from rapid population growth fueled by high fertility to concerns of population decline produced by very low, sub-replacement fertility levels. Once considered a problem unique to Europe or developed nations, concerns now center on the global spread of low fertility. Nearly half of the world’s population now lives in countries with fertility at or below replacement levels. Further, by the mid-twenty-first century three of four countries now described as developing are projected to reach or slip below replacement fertility. We review the research on low fertility through the predominant frameworks and theories used to explain it. These explanations range from decomposition and proximate determinant frameworks to grand theories on the fundamental causes underlying the pervasiveness and spread of low fertility. We focus on the ability of theory to situate previous and future findings and conclude with directions for furthur research.

unknown authors

65

Low Fertility at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

In the past few decades, demographic concerns have shifted from rapid population growth fueled by high fertility to concerns of population decline produced by very low, sub-replacement fertility levels. Once considered a problem unique to Europe or developed nations, concerns now center on the global spread of low fertility. Nearly half of the world's population now lives in countries with fertility at or below replacement levels. Further, by the mid-twenty-first century three of four countries now described as developing are projected to reach or slip below replacement fertility. We review the research on low fertility through the predominant frameworks and theories used to explain it. These explanations range from decomposition and proximate determinant frameworks to grand theories on the fundamental causes underlying the pervasiveness and spread of low fertility. We focus on the ability of theory to situate previous and future findings and conclude with directions for furthur research. PMID:20376287

Morgan, S. Philip; Taylor, Miles G.

2010-01-01

66

Building the electronic health sciences library for the twenty-first century: the Galter Library experience.  

PubMed

Constructing home pages for World-Wide Web access has become a major activity in academic health sciences libraries. At the Northwestern University, Galter Health Sciences Library staff are creating the library's new health information system using Web resources and integrating them with existing library systems-NUmed (OVID MEDLINE) and LUIS/NUcat (NOTIS). Development of Web pages, including selection and organization of electronic information, has become the building process for the electronic library. Selection, organization, design, and construction are important factors in the creation of an efficient and useful information system. Using resources like the World-Wide Web and tools like Netscape, library staff are designing an interface, defining policies and guidelines, and creating the tools that will give users easy access to local and international electronic, scholarly information resources. In this paper, the process used at Northwestern is shown as a model of an electronic health sciences library for the twenty-first century. PMID:10164465

Shedlock, J; Barkey, D C; Ross, F

1996-01-01

67

Bruce's Magnificent Quartet: Inquiry, Community, Technology and Literacy--Implications for Renewing Qualitative Research in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bruce and Bishop's community informatics work brings forward four critical concepts: inquiry, community, technology, and literacy. These four terms serve as the basis for a discussion of qualitative research in the twenty-first century--what is lacking and what is needed. The author suggests that to resolve the tensions or challenges

Davidson, Judith

2014-01-01

68

Transient twenty-first century changes in daily-scale temperature extremes in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key question for climate mitigation and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in temperature extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase, and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment over the United States (U.S.) to investigate the transient response of the annual frequency, duration and magnitude of 8 daily-scale extreme temperature indices during the twenty-first century of the A1B emissions scenario. We evaluate the time of emergence of a permanent exceedance (PE) above the colder part of the historical (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and the time of emergence of a new norm (NN) centered on the historical maxima (for hot extremes) or minima (for cold extremes). We find that during the twenty-first century, hot extremes permanently exceed the historical distribution's colder half over large areas of the U.S., and that the hot extremes distribution also becomes centered on or above the historical distribution's maxima. The changes are particularly robust for the exceedance of the annual 95th percentile of daily maximum temperature over the West and the Northeast (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2030 and of a NN by 2040), for warm days over the Southwest (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030), and tropical nights over the eastern U.S. (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030). Conversely, no widespread emergence of a PE or a NN is found for most cold extremes. Exceptions include frost day frequency (with a widespread emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2030 and of a NN by 2040 over the western U.S.), and cold night frequency (with an emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2040 and of a NN by 2060 in virtually the entire U.S.). Our analysis implies a transition over the next half century to a climate of recently unprecedented heat stress in many parts of the U.S., along with cold extremes that, although less frequent, remain at times as long and as severe as are found in the current climate.

Scherer, Martin; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

2014-03-01

69

Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental conditions and anthropogenic stressors on the future status of the Pacific walrus population at four periods through the twenty-first century. The model framework allowed for inclusion of various sources and levels of knowledge, and representation of structural and parameter uncertainties. Walrus outcome probabilities through the century reflected a clear trend of worsening conditions for the subspecies. From the current observation period to the end of century, the greatest change in walrus outcome probabilities was a progressive decrease in the outcome state of robust and a concomitant increase in the outcome state of vulnerable. The probabilities of rare and extirpated states each progressively increased but remained <10% through the end of the century. The summed probabilities of vulnerable, rare, and extirpated (P(v,r,e)) increased from a current level of 10% in 2004 to 22% by 2050 and 40% by 2095. The degree of uncertainty in walrus outcomes increased monotonically over future periods. In the model, sea ice habitat (particularly for summer/fall) and harvest levels had the greatest influence on future population outcomes. Other potential stressors had much smaller influences on walrus outcomes, mostly because of uncertainty in their future states and our current poor understanding of their mechanistic influence on walrus abundance.

Jay, Chadwick V.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Douglas, David C.

2011-01-01

70

Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental conditions and anthropogenic stressors on the future status of the Pacific walrus population at four periods through the twenty-first century. The model framework allowed for inclusion of various sources and levels of knowledge, and representation of structural and parameter uncertainties. Walrus outcome probabilities through the century reflected a clear trend of worsening conditions for the subspecies. From the current observation period to the end of century, the greatest change in walrus outcome probabilities was a progressive decrease in the outcome state of robust and a concomitant increase in the outcome state of vulnerable. The probabilities of rare and extirpated states each progressively increased but remained >10% through the end of the century. The summed probabilities of vulnerable, rare, and extirpated (P(v,r,e)) increased from a current level of 10% in 2004 to 22% by 2050 and 40% by 2095. The degree of uncertainty in walrus outcomes increased monotonically over future periods. In the model, sea ice habitat (particularly for summer/fall) and harvest levels had the greatest influence on future population outcomes. Other potential stressors had much smaller influences on walrus outcomes, mostly because of uncertainty in their future states and our current poor understanding of their mechanistic influence on walrus abundance. ?? 2011 US Government.

Jay, C.V.; Marcot, B.G.; Douglas, D.C.

2011-01-01

71

Organizing knowledge in the Isis bibliography from Sarton to the early twenty-first century.  

PubMed

This essay explores various ways in which bibliographies have exhibited "sociality." Bibliographies are both products of the social contexts that have created them and engines of social interaction in scholarly communities. By tracing the history of the Isis Bibliography, the longest-running and most comprehensive bibliography in its field, this essay explains how different Isis classification systems have been tied to major twentieth-century cataloging efforts. By looking at classification, the essay also attends to the ways in which aspects of the Isis Bibliography in different decades have reflected social mores of their period. Finally, it demonstrates how critical the Isis Bibliography was in the formation of the discipline of history of science and goes on to discuss how that disciplinary connection is evolving in the twenty-first century. By thinking of the bibliography as a network of scholars, not just scholarly works, the essay asks us to reflect on the nature and purpose of bibliography in the digital age. PMID:24341264

Weldon, Stephen P

2013-09-01

72

Robust twenty-first-century projections of ElNiño and related precipitation variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ElNiño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in rainfall, severe weather, agricultural production, ecosystems and disease in many parts of the world. Given that further human-forced changes in the Earth's climate system seem inevitable, the possibility exists that the character of ENSO and its impacts might change over the coming century. Although this issue has been investigated many times during the past 20years, there is very little consensus on future changes in ENSO, apart from an expectation that ENSO will continue to be a dominant source of year-to-year variability. Here we show that there are in fact robust projected changes in the spatial patterns of year-to-year ENSO-driven variability in both surface temperature and precipitation. These changes are evident in the two most recent generations of climate models, using four different scenarios for CO2 and other radiatively active gases. By the mid- to late twenty-first century, the projections include an intensification of both El-Niño-driven drying in the western Pacific Ocean and rainfall increases in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Experiments with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model reveal that robust projected changes in precipitation anomalies during ElNiño years are primarily determined by a nonlinear response to surface global warming. Uncertain projected changes in the amplitude of ENSO-driven surface temperature variability have only a secondary role. Projected changes in key characteristics of ENSO are consequently much clearer than previously realized.

Power, Scott; Delage, François; Chung, Christine; Kociuba, Greg; Keay, Kevin

2013-10-01

73

Dynamic consent: a patient interface for twenty-first century research networks.  

PubMed

Biomedical research is being transformed through the application of information technologies that allow ever greater amounts of data to be shared on an unprecedented scale. However, the methods for involving participants have not kept pace with changes in research capability. In an era when information is shared digitally at the global level, mechanisms of informed consent remain static, paper-based and organised around national boundaries and legal frameworks. Dynamic consent (DC) is both a specific project and a wider concept that offers a new approach to consent; one designed to meet the needs of the twenty-first century research landscape. At the heart of DC is a personalised, digital communication interface that connects researchers and participants, placing participants at the heart of decision making. The interface facilitates two-way communication to stimulate a more engaged, informed and scientifically literate participant population where individuals can tailor and manage their own consent preferences. The technical architecture of DC includes components that can securely encrypt sensitive data and allow participant consent preferences to travel with their data and samples when they are shared with third parties. In addition to improving transparency and public trust, this system benefits researchers by streamlining recruitment and enabling more efficient participant recontact. DC has mainly been developed in biobanking contexts, but it also has potential application in other domains for a variety of purposes. PMID:24801761

Kaye, Jane; Whitley, Edgar A; Lund, David; Morrison, Michael; Teare, Harriet; Melham, Karen

2015-02-01

74

Dynamic consent: a patient interface for twenty-first century research networks  

PubMed Central

Biomedical research is being transformed through the application of information technologies that allow ever greater amounts of data to be shared on an unprecedented scale. However, the methods for involving participants have not kept pace with changes in research capability. In an era when information is shared digitally at the global level, mechanisms of informed consent remain static, paper-based and organised around national boundaries and legal frameworks. Dynamic consent (DC) is both a specific project and a wider concept that offers a new approach to consent; one designed to meet the needs of the twenty-first century research landscape. At the heart of DC is a personalised, digital communication interface that connects researchers and participants, placing participants at the heart of decision making. The interface facilitates two-way communication to stimulate a more engaged, informed and scientifically literate participant population where individuals can tailor and manage their own consent preferences. The technical architecture of DC includes components that can securely encrypt sensitive data and allow participant consent preferences to travel with their data and samples when they are shared with third parties. In addition to improving transparency and public trust, this system benefits researchers by streamlining recruitment and enabling more efficient participant recontact. DC has mainly been developed in biobanking contexts, but it also has potential application in other domains for a variety of purposes. PMID:24801761

Kaye, Jane; Whitley, Edgar A; Lund, David; Morrison, Michael; Teare, Harriet; Melham, Karen

2015-01-01

75

United Nations population conferences: shaping the policy agenda for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Population conferences have evolved through three overlapping stages, each stage reflecting a different perspective on the relationship between national policy formulation and the international system. Initially, at Rome in 1954 and in Belgrade in 1965, participants were invited on the basis of their expertise and were not expected to represent their governments. By the time of the Bucharest Conference in 1974, the United Nations, in an attempt to give conferences a greater role in shaping population policy and to inspire member governments to show greater concern for their own population problems, decided that conferences would be intergovernmental gatherings and that national delegations would be selected by governments. The effect of this change was that governments gave less weight to scientific expertise and, conversely, greater weight to political and bureaucratic considerations. At the present time, although conferences remain intergovernmental gatherings, the door has been opened for nongovernmental organizations--civil society--to play a more active role in the conference process and in deliberations. As conferences have become more inclusive, their focus has veered from what has conventionally been regarded as population concerns. The changing composition of participants at UN conferences has had the effect of altering the policy agenda in the international population field and, as some have argued since Cairo, has redefined the meaning of population. Conferences in the twenty-first century likely will be compelled to confront diverse demographic problems in addition to social issues demanding the attention of the political system at every level. PMID:11974415

Finkle, Jason L; McIntosh, C Alison

2002-03-01

76

Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

1992-01-01

77

Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

1992-09-01

78

Gendering inequality: a note on Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century.  

PubMed

Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century is remarkable for moving inequality from the margins to mainstream debate through detailed analysis of longitudinal statistics and, for an economist, by advocating an interdisciplinary perspective and writing in a witty and accessible style. With reference to the post 1970 period, when wage increases are largely responsible for the increase in inequality, Piketty shows how patrimonial capitalists (elite managers) in the top decile and centile of the distribution appropriate a growing share of social wealth as a consequence of their 'power to set their own remuneration' in the context of tolerant social norms rather than through their productive contributions. Piketty raises but defers the question of where these social norms come from to other disciplines. A Feminist Economics perspective indicates that these questions are central to a more inclusive form of economic analysis and such an approach would enrich Piketty's analysis in two main ways. First, by paying greater attention to the processes and social norms through which inequalities are produced and justified and second by highlighting the ways in which inequality is experienced differently depending not only on class, but also on other aspects of identity including gender. This approach also suggests that it is necessary to supplement the ex-post redistributive policies recommended by Piketty: a global wealth tax and more steeply progressive income tax, with ex-ante measures to stop the rise in wage inequality in the first place, especially by bridging the huge gulf that exists between those who care for people and those who manage money. PMID:25516345

Perrons, Diane

2014-12-01

79

"Twenty First Century Science": Insights from the Design and Implementation of a Scientific Literacy Approach in School Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the term "scientific literacy" has been increasingly used in recent years to characterise the aim of school science education, there is still considerable uncertainty about its meaning and implications for the curriculum. A major national project in England, "Twenty First Century Science", is evaluating the feasibility of a more flexible…

Millar, Robin

2006-01-01

80

THE IMPACT OF TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CLIMATE CHANGE ON WILDLAND FIRE DANGER IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

THE IMPACT OF TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CLIMATE CHANGE ON WILDLAND FIRE DANGER IN THE WESTERN UNITED from the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) is used to assess changes in wildland fire danger across), under whose auspices this work was performed. 1. Introduction Wildland fire statistics

Westerling, Anthony L.

81

Professional Capabilities for Twenty-First Century Creative Careers: Lessons from Outstandingly Successful Australian Artists and Designers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artists and designers are positioned at the centre of the twenty-first century creative economy. In order to recognise and make the most of the opportunities afforded by this new era, artists and designers still require the creativity, disciplinary depth of knowledge and technical skills traditionally possessed by professionals in these…

Bridgstock, Ruth

2013-01-01

82

From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong…

McWilliam, Erica

2011-01-01

83

Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

2010-01-01

84

Assessing Twenty-First Century Skills through a Teacher Created Video Game for High School Biology Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the…

Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn

2010-01-01

85

Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly, over the past…

Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

2011-01-01

86

Critical Pedagogy in the Twenty-First Century: A New Generation of Scholars. Critical Constructions: Studies on Education and Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book simultaneously provides multiple analyses of critical pedagogy in the twenty-first century while showcasing the scholarship of this new generation of critical scholar-educators. Needless to say, the writers herein represent just a small subset of a much larger movement for critical transformation and a more humane, less Eurocentric, less…

Malott, Curry Stephenson, Ed.; Porfilio, Bradley, Ed.

2011-01-01

87

A Commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," in which Isaac I. Bejar and E. Aurora Graf propose the application of a test design--the duplex design (which was proposed in 1988 by Bock and Mislevy) for application in current accountability assessments.…

Brandt, Steffen

2010-01-01

88

Review of Twenty-First Century Portable Electronic Devices for Persons with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of portable electronic devices by persons with moderate intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders is gaining increased research attention. The purpose of this review was to synthesize twenty-first century literature (2000-2010) focusing on these technologies. Twenty-one studies were identified which evaluated use of: (a) handheld…

Mechling, Linda C.

2011-01-01

89

The Challenge of the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two representatives in United States House of Representatives look at population trends and aging in America, describing the role they would like federal government to take in the future. Discusses issues related to older workers, retirement, local efforts, Medicare, preventive medicine, long-term care, and rights of the elderly. (NB)

Wyden, Ron; DeFazio, Peter

1988-01-01

90

Scenarios for the risk of hunger in the twenty-first century using Shared Socioeconomic Pathways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are being developed internationally for cross-sectoral assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. These are five scenarios that include both qualitative and quantitative information for mitigation and adaptation challenges to climate change. In this study, we quantified scenarios for the risk of hunger in the 21st century using SSPs, and clarified elements that influence future hunger risk. There were two primary findings: (1) risk of hunger in the 21st-century greatly differed among five SSPs; and (2) population growth, improvement in the equality of food distribution within a country, and increases in food consumption mainly driven by income growth greatly influenced future hunger risk and were important elements in its long-term assessment.

Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko

2015-01-01

91

Twenty First Century Science: Insights from the Design and Implementation of a Scientific Literacy Approach in School Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the term “scientific literacy” has been increasingly used in recent years to characterise the aim of school science education, there is still considerable uncertainty about its meaning and implications for the curriculum. A major national project in England, Twenty First Century Science, is evaluating the feasibility of a more flexible science curriculum structure for 15-year-old and 16-year-old students, centring around a core course for all students with a scientific literacy emphasis. Over 12,000 students in 78 schools have followed this course since September 2003. The development of a detailed teaching programme is an important means of clarifying the meanings and implications of a “scientific literacy” approach. Questionnaire data from teachers at the end of the first and second years of the project (N = 40 and N = 51) show a strongly positive evaluation of the central features of the course design. Teachers perceive the scientific literacy emphasis as markedly increasing student interest and engagement. Key challenges identified are the language and reasoning demands in looking critically at public accounts of science, and the classroom management of more open discussion about science-related issues.

Millar, Robin

2006-10-01

92

Towards regional projections of twenty-first century sea-level change based on IPCC SRES scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea-level change is often considered to be globally uniform in sea-level projections. However, local relative sea-level (RSL)\\u000a change can deviate substantially from the global mean. Here, we present maps of twenty-first century local RSL change estimates\\u000a based on an ensemble of coupled climate model simulations for three emission scenarios. In the Intergovernmental Panel on\\u000a Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC

A. B. A. Slangen; C. A. Katsman; L. L. A. Vermeersen; R. E. M. Riva

2012-01-01

93

‘Operationalizing’ the Capability Approach as a Basis for Equality and Human Rights Monitoring in Twenty?first?century Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines a new capability?based measurement framework that has been developed as a basis for equality and human rights monitoring in twenty?first?century Britain. We explore the conceptual foundations of the framework and demonstrate its practical application for the purposes of monitoring equality (in terms of the distribution of substantive freedoms and opportunities among individuals and groups) and human rights

Tania Burchardt; Polly Vizard

2011-01-01

94

The Role of Nutrient Efficient Plants in Improving Crop Yields in the Twenty First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 21st century, nutrient efficient plants will play a major role in increasing crop yields compared to the 20th century, mainly due to limited land and water resources available for crop production, higher cost of inorganic fertilizer inputs, declining trends in crop yields globally, and increasing environmental concerns. Furthermore, at least 60% of the world's arable lands have mineral

N. K. Fageria; V. C. Baligar; Y. C. Li

2008-01-01

95

Twenty-first century skills for students: hands-on learning after school builds school and life success.  

PubMed

At the core of the movement for twenty-first century skills are students. The growing efforts to increase programs leveraging out-of-school time are focused on giving American youth everything they need to compete in this increasingly complex world. The author is one of many students who have been well served by initiatives imparting twenty-first century skills during after-school hours. Now a senior at Boston Latin School, the author has been helped along the way by Citizen Schools, an after-school education program focused on hands-on learning apprenticeships and homework help. While enrolled in the program as a middle school student, the author took part in projects that exemplified hands-on, inquiry-based learning that helped her develop twenty-first century skills. For example, along with dozens of other students, she advanced her data analysis skills by analyzing statistics about Boston Public high schools, which also helped her select and enroll in one of the city's premier exam schools. Also, she and her peers worked with corporate attorneys who served as writing coaches and whose expertise the author drew from in producing a published essay and greatly improving her writing skills. The author now finds that the public speaking, leadership, organizational, social, and management abilities she built through her participation in Citizen Schools are a great asset to her in high school. The confidence with which she tackles her responsibilities can also be traced back to her experiences in the program. As she looks toward college, the author reflects and realizes that being actively involved in a quality after-school program put her on track for a successful future. PMID:17017266

Cabral, Leide

2006-01-01

96

Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a 'beyond 4°C world' in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The range of future climate-induced sea-level rise remains highly uncertain with continued concern that large increases in the twenty-first century cannot be ruled out. The biggest source of uncertainty is the response of the large ice sheets of Greenland and west Antarctica. Based on our analysis, a pragmatic estimate of sea-level rise by 2100, for a temperature rise of 4°C or more over the same time frame, is between 0.5 m and 2 m--the probability of rises at the high end is judged to be very low, but of unquantifiable probability. However, if realized, an indicative analysis shows that the impact potential is severe, with the real risk of the forced displacement of up to 187 million people over the century (up to 2.4% of global population). This is potentially avoidable by widespread upgrade of protection, albeit rather costly with up to 0.02 per cent of global domestic product needed, and much higher in certain nations. The likelihood of protection being successfully implemented varies between regions, and is lowest in small islands, Africa and parts of Asia, and hence these regions are the most likely to see coastal abandonment. To respond to these challenges, a multi-track approach is required, which would also be appropriate if a temperature rise of less than 4°C was expected. Firstly, we should monitor sea level to detect any significant accelerations in the rate of rise in a timely manner. Secondly, we need to improve our understanding of the climate-induced processes that could contribute to rapid sea-level rise, especially the role of the two major ice sheets, to produce better models that quantify the likely future rise more precisely. Finally, responses need to be carefully considered via a combination of climate mitigation to reduce the rise and adaptation for the residual rise in sea level. In particular, long-term strategic adaptation plans for the full range of possible sea-level rise (and other change) need to be widely developed. PMID:21115518

Nicholls, Robert J; Marinova, Natasha; Lowe, Jason A; Brown, Sally; Vellinga, Pier; de Gusmão, Diogo; Hinkel, Jochen; Tol, Richard S J

2011-01-13

97

Strategies for Effective Teaching in the Twenty-First Century: A Supplement for Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The long-range goal of Louisiana's teacher professional accountability programs is to enhance student learning by providing opportunities for teachers to strengthen skill areas and by identifying those aspects of teaching performance that may need improvement. "Strategies for Effective Teaching in the 21st Century" is intended to be used by school…

Louisiana Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

98

The School of the Twenty-First Century: Ruminations on the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that education means the transmission and reception of knowledge, abilities, skills, and consciousness so that individuals can become effective members of society. Discusses the failures of the educational system of the former Soviet Union. Describes a preferred type of schooling for Russian society in the 21st century. (CFR)

Bestuzhev-Lada, I. V.

1995-01-01

99

Information Technology for the Twenty-First Century: A Bold Investment in America's Future. Implementation Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the implementation plan for the Information Technology for the 21st Century (IT[squared]) initiative. With this initiative, the Federal Government is making an important re-commitment to fundamental research in information technology. The initiative proposes $366 million in increased investments in computing, information, and…

Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC. National Science and Technology Council.

100

Project-Based Learning: A Critical Pedagogy for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Dewey's notion of the school as a "social laboratory" influenced educational policy a century ago when the United States underwent a "great transformation" in its educational history toward mass schooling, resulting partly from the "high school movement", where the focus was on "schooling for life". Project-based learning, which builds on…

Maida, Carl A.

2011-01-01

101

Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Flynn effect" is a surprising finding, identified by James R. Flynn, that IQ test scores have significantly increased from one generation to the next over the past century. Flynn now brings us an exciting new book which aims to make sense of this rise in IQ scores and considers what this tells us about our intelligence, our minds and society.…

Flynn, James R.

2012-01-01

102

Museum period rooms for the twenty-first century: salvaging ambition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late twentieth century, many museums dismantled and disposed of their period rooms. Current trends, however, reveal a revival, driven by the popularity of historic interiors with the public, by the desire of museums to attract new audiences and by their need to address questions of local, social and national identity. Recent initiatives are proving controversial. This article surveys

Julius Bryant

2009-01-01

103

Twenty-First Century Research Needs in Electrostatic Processes Applied to Industry and Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the early century Nobel Prize winning (1923) experiments with charged oil droplets, resulting in the discovery of the elementary electronic charge by Robert Millikan, to the early 21st century Nobel Prize (2002) awarded to John Fenn for his invention of electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and its applications to proteomics, electrostatic processes have been successfully applied to many areas of industry and medicine. Generation, transport, deposition, separation, analysis, and control of charged particles involved in the four states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma are of interest in many industrial and biomedical processes. In this paper, we briefly discuss some of the applications and research needs involving charged particles in industrial and medical applications including: (1) Generation and deposition of unipolarly charged dry powder without the presence of ions or excessive ozone, (2) Control of tribocharging process for consistent and reliable charging, (3) Thin film (less than 25 micrometers) powder coating and Powder coating on insulative surfaces, (4) Fluidization and dispersion of fine powders, (5) Mitigation of Mars dust, (6) Effect of particle charge on the lung deposition of inhaled medical aerosols, (7) Nanoparticle deposition, and (8) Plasma/Corona discharge processes. A brief discussion on the measurements of charged particles and suggestions for research needs are also included.

Mazumder, M. K.; Sims, R. A.; Biris, A. S.; Srirama, P. K.; Saini, D.; Yurteri, C. U.; Trigwell, S.; De, S.; Sharma, R.

2005-01-01

104

Higher Education and Knowledge Sharing: From Ivory Tower to Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge is the driving force of a knowledge economy. Therefore, the way knowledge is shared and created and the way these actions are managed could lead to either a competitive advantage for an organisation or it could lead to its demise. Managing especially academics' knowledge to the benefit of all can be even a greater challenge to any…

Buckley, Sheryl

2012-01-01

105

Winds of Change: Charting the Course for IT in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spring of 2005, the author, the retiring president of EDUCAUSE, was asked to be the keynote speaker at the EDUCAUSE Western Regional Conference. The conference theme was "Winds of Change: Charting the Course for Technology in Challenging Times." What that brought to his mind was the era of the great sailing ships of the eighteenth and…

Hawkins, Brian L.

2007-01-01

106

From Bureaucracy to Profession: Remaking the Educational Sector for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Jal Mehta examines the challenges faced by American schooling and the reasons for persistent failure of American school reforms to achieve successful educational outcomes at scale. He concludes that many of the problems faced by American schools are artifacts of the bureaucratic form in which the education sector as a whole was…

Mehta, Jal

2013-01-01

107

Changes in Thought on Higher Education for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reforms and developments of China's higher education at a time when it faces two great challenges--the world's science/technology revolution and China's social market economy--are, on the whole, replete with achievements and fraught with difficulties and show great changes, but they are unbalanced. Everyone feels that these reforms and…

Maoyuan, Pan

2007-01-01

108

Twenty-first century reversal of the surface ozone seasonal cycle over the northeastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

emissions can alter the surface O3 seasonal cycle, as detected from northeastern U.S. (NE) observations during recent decades. Under continued regional precursor emission controls (-72% NE NOx by 2100), the NE surface O3 seasonal cycle reverses (to a winter maximum) in 21st century transient chemistry-climate simulations. Over polluted regions, regional NOx largely controls the shape of surface O3 seasonal cycles. In the absence of regional NOx controls, climate warming contributes to a higher surface O3 summertime peak over the NE. A doubling of the global CH4 abundance by 2100 partially offsets summertime surface O3 decreases attained via NOx reductions and contributes to raising surface O3 during December-March when the O3 lifetime is longer. The similarity between surface O3 seasonal cycles over the NE and the Intermountain West by 2100 indicates a NE transition to a region representative of baseline surface O3 conditions.

Clifton, O. E.; Fiore, A. M.; Correa, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.

2014-10-01

109

Intelligent machines in the twenty-first century: foundations of inference and inquiry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The last century saw the application of Boolean algebra to the construction of computing machines, which work by applying logical transformations to information contained in their memory. The development of information theory and the generalization of Boolean algebra to Bayesian inference have enabled these computing machines, in the last quarter of the twentieth century, to be endowed with the ability to learn by making inferences from data. This revolution is just beginning as new computational techniques continue to make difficult problems more accessible. Recent advances in our understanding of the foundations of probability theory have revealed implications for areas other than logic. Of relevance to intelligent machines, we recently identified the algebra of questions as the free distributive algebra, which will now allow us to work with questions in a way analogous to that which Boolean algebra enables us to work with logical statements. In this paper, we examine the foundations of inference and inquiry. We begin with a history of inferential reasoning, highlighting key concepts that have led to the automation of inference in modern machine-learning systems. We then discuss the foundations of inference in more detail using a modern viewpoint that relies on the mathematics of partially ordered sets and the scaffolding of lattice theory. This new viewpoint allows us to develop the logic of inquiry and introduce a measure describing the relevance of a proposed question to an unresolved issue. Last, we will demonstrate the automation of inference, and discuss how this new logic of inquiry will enable intelligent machines to ask questions. Automation of both inference and inquiry promises to allow robots to perform science in the far reaches of our solar system and in other star systems by enabling them not only to make inferences from data, but also to decide which question to ask, which experiment to perform, or which measurement to take given what they have learned and what they are designed to understand.

Knuth, Kevin H.

2003-01-01

110

Simulating changes in the leaf unfolding time of 20 plant species in China over the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent shifts in phenology reflect the biological response to current climate change. Aiming to enhance our understanding of phenological responses to climate change, we developed, calibrated and validated spatio-temporal models of first leaf date (FLD) for 20 broadleaved deciduous plants in China. Using daily meteorological data from the Chinese Meteorological Administration and the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) created using three IPCC scenarios (A2, A1B and B1), we described the FLD time series of each species over the past 50 years, extrapolating from these results to simulate estimated FLD changes for each species during the twenty-first century. Model validation suggests that our spatio-temporal models can simulate FLD accurately with R 2 (explained variance) >0.60. Model simulations show that, from 1952 to 2007, the FLD in China advanced at a rate of -1.14 days decade-1 on average. Furthermore, changes in FLD showed noticeable variation between regions, with clearer advances observed in the north than in the south of the country. The model indicates that the advances in FLD observed from 1952-2007 in China will continue over the twenty-first century, although significant differences among species and different climate scenarios are expected. The average trend of FLD advance in China during the twenty-first century is modeled as being -1.92 days decade-1 under the A2 scenario, -1.10 days decade-1 under the A1B scenario and -0.74 days decade-1 under the B2 scenario. The spatial pattern of FLD change for the period 2011-2099 is modeled as being similar but showing some difference from patterns in the 1952-2007 period. At the interspecific level, early-leafing species were found to show a greater advance in FLD, while species with larger distributions tended to show a weaker advance in FLD. These simulated changes in phenology may have significant implications for plant distribution as well as ecosystem structure and function.

Ge, Quansheng; Wang, Huanjiong; Dai, Junhu

2014-05-01

111

Ocean heat transport into the Arctic in the twentieth and twenty-first century in EC-Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean heat transport into the Arctic and the heat budget of the Barents Sea are analyzed in an ensemble of historical and future climate simulations performed with the global coupled climate model EC-Earth. The zonally integrated northward heat flux in the ocean at 70°N is strongly enhanced and compensates for a reduction of its atmospheric counterpart in the twenty first century. Although an increase in the northward heat transport occurs through all of Fram Strait, Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait and Barents Sea Opening, it is the latter which dominates the increase in ocean heat transport into the Arctic. Increased temperature of the northward transported Atlantic water masses are the main reason for the enhancement of the ocean heat transport. The natural variability in the heat transport into the Barents Sea is caused to the same extent by variations in temperature and volume transport. Large ocean heat transports lead to reduced ice and higher atmospheric temperature in the Barents Sea area and are related to the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The net ocean heat transport into the Barents Sea grows until about year 2050. Thereafter, both heat and volume fluxes out of the Barents Sea through the section between Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya are strongly enhanced and compensate for all further increase in the inflow through the Barents Sea Opening. Most of the heat transported by the ocean into the Barents Sea is passed to the atmosphere and contributes to warming of the atmosphere and Arctic temperature amplification. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are enhanced. Net surface long-wave and solar radiation are enhanced upward and downward, respectively and are almost compensating each other. We find that the changes in the surface heat fluxes are mainly caused by the vanishing sea ice in the twenty first century. The increasing ocean heat transport leads to enhanced bottom ice melt and to an extension of the area with bottom ice melt further northward. However, no indication for a substantial impact of the increased heat transport on ice melt in the Central Arctic is found. Most of the heat that is not passed to the atmosphere in the Barents Sea is stored in the Arctic intermediate layer of Atlantic water, which is increasingly pronounced in the twenty first century.

Koenigk, Torben; Brodeau, Laurent

2014-06-01

112

CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation  

SciTech Connect

Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

2011-04-01

113

A twenty-first century California observing network for monitoring extreme weather events  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During Northern Hemisphere winters, the West Coast of North America is battered by extratropical storms. The impact of these storms is of paramount concern to California, where aging water supply and flood protection infrastructures are challenged by increased standards for urban flood protection, an unusually variable weather regime, and projections of climate change. Additionally, there are inherent conflicts between releasing water to provide flood protection and storing water to meet requirements for water supply, water quality, hydropower generation, water temperature and flow for at-risk species, and recreation. In order to improve reservoir management and meet the increasing demands on water, improved forecasts of precipitation, especially during extreme events, is required. Here we describe how California is addressing their most important and costliest environmental issue – water management – in part, by installing a state-of-the-art observing system to better track the area’s most severe wintertime storms.

White, A.B.; Anderson, M.L.; Dettinger, M.D.; Ralph, F.M.; Hinojosa, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Hartman, R.K.; Reynolds, D.W.; Johnson, L.E.; Schneider, T.L.; Cifelli, R.; Toth, Z.; Gutman, S.I.; King, C.W.; Gehrke, F.; Johnston, P.E.; Walls, C.; Mann, D.; Gottas, D.J.; Coleman, T.

2013-01-01

114

Water resources in the twenty-first century; a study of the implications of climate uncertainty  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The interactions of the water resources on and within the surface of the Earth with the atmosphere that surrounds it are exceedingly complex. Increased uncertainty can be attached to the availability of water of usable quality in the 21st century, therefore, because of potential anthropogenic changes in the global climate system. For the U.S. Geological Survey to continue to fulfill its mission with respect to assessing the Nation's water resources, an expanded program to study the hydrologic implications of climate uncertainty will be required. The goal for this program is to develop knowledge and information concerning the potential water-resources implications for the United States of uncertainties in climate that may result from both anthropogenic and natural changes of the Earth's atmosphere. Like most past and current water-resources programs of the Geological Survey, the climate-uncertainty program should be composed of three elements: (1) research, (2) data collection, and (3) interpretive studies. However, unlike most other programs, the climate-uncertainty program necessarily will be dominated by its research component during its early years. Critical new concerns to be addressed by the research component are (1) areal estimates of evapotranspiration, (2) hydrologic resolution within atmospheric (climatic) models at the global scale and at mesoscales, (3) linkages between hydrology and climatology, and (4) methodology for the design of data networks that will help to track the impacts of climate change on water resources. Other ongoing activities in U.S. Geological Survey research programs will be enhanced to make them more compatible with climate-uncertainty research needs. The existing hydrologic data base of the Geological Survey serves as a key element in assessing hydrologic and climatologic change. However, this data base has evolved in response to other needs for hydrologic information and probably is not as sensitive to climate change as is desirable. Therefore, as measurement and network-design methodologies are improved to account for climate-change potential, new data-collection activities will be added to the existing programs. One particular area of data-collection concern pertains to the phenomenon of evapotranspiration. Interpretive studies of the hydrologic implications of climate uncertainty will be initiated by establishing several studies at the river-basin scale in diverse hydroclimatic and demographic settings. These studies will serve as tests of the existing methodologies for studying the impacts of climate change and also will help to define subsequent research priorities. A prototype for these studies was initiated in early 1988 in the Delaware River basin.

Moss, Marshall E.; Lins, Harry F.

1989-01-01

115

Us, them, and others: reflections on Canadian multiculturalism and national identity at the turn of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The John Porter Lecture at the annual meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria 2013 draws upon my book Us, Them, and Others: Pluralism and National Identity in Diverse Societies. Incorporating the findings from an analysis of Canadian English-language newspaper discourses during the 1990s into a theoretical framework inspired by Weberian sociology, the book argues that pluralism is best understood as a dynamic set of triangular relations where the compromise between unequal groups--"us" and "others"--is rendered meaningful through the confrontation with real or imagined outsiders ("them"). The lecture summarizes the theoretical contribution and explains how multiculturalism became consolidated in dominant Canadian discourses in the late 1990s. The lecture then discusses changes to Canadian multicultural identity at the beginning of the twenty-first century. PMID:24964519

Winter, Elke

2014-05-01

116

Training maternal and child health epidemiologists: leaders for the twenty first century.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the structure, implementation and outcomes of the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology (MCHEPI) program at the University of Illinois School of Public Health (UIC-SPH) and discusses the successes and challenges in developing MCH Epidemiology leaders for the local, state, and national public health workforce. The MCHEPI program at UIC-SPH offers both the MPH and PhD degree and is based on six key components: integration across school divisions, competency-based training, tailored curricula, practica/dissertations with public health agencies, personal leadership training and development, and socialization. Based on data from the 1998-2012 cohorts, all former and current MCHEPI MPH students (n = 28) have participated in practica with local or state public health agencies and former and current MCHEPI doctoral students at the dissertation stage (12 out of 15) have partnered with local, state or national public health agencies in conducting their dissertations. The alumni of the MCHEPI MPH program (n = 25) appear to serve in higher level positions in their second compared to their first placements post-graduation. All MCHEPI doctoral alumni (n = 8) serve at the emerging senior level or senior scientist level upon graduation, in local, state and federal agencies, or in academe. Explicit linkage of MCHEPI students to practice through tailored curricula, practica, and dissertations with public health agencies, and the development of an identity as a member of the MCHEPI field appear to be important to the generation of epidemiology leaders for the MCH workforce. Leadership development is a lifelong process and as such, snapshots of current students and alumni at any one point in time do not provide the entire picture of the impact of MCH epidemiology training programs. Examining the trajectories of emerging leaders over time is essential for evaluating the true success of Maternal and Child Health Bureau workforce and training investments. PMID:24985696

Handler, Arden; Klaus, Jaime; Rankin, Kristin; Rosenberg, Deborah

2015-02-01

117

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: WILL THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LEAD OR FOLLOW?  

PubMed

Developing countries, particularly the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, should accommodate their national systems of innovation to the worldwide intellectual property (IP) regime emerging after the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in a way that maximizes global economic welfare in the foreseeable future. As many developed countries' experience demonstrates, badly configured, over-protectionist IP regimes stifle innovation by making inputs to future innovation too costly and too cumbersome to sustain over time. More carefully considered IP regimes, however, are an important way to protect innovative small- and medium-sized firms from predatory, larger competitors. The challenge is for emerging economies to capture the benefits of IP without importing the serious problems that developed countries have themselves failed to solve. Emerging economies can attain this balance by pursuing a policy of counter-harmonization in which they take advantage of existing exemptions in international agreements governing IP to establish regional, local, and international practices that promote more innovative, flexible uses of IP. Such practices include a research exemption for experimental uses of IP, government imposed nonexclusive licensing, anti-blocking provisions, an essential facilities doctrine, and compulsory licenses. Additional tools include an ex ante regime of compensatory liability rules for small scale innovation and sensible exceptions, particularly for science as well as general fair use provisions, to the exclusive rights of domestic copyright laws. Emerging economies will have to overcome strong economic pressure to accept more restrictive IP regimes as part of free trade agreements as well as a lack of technical expertise and internal government coordination. However, emerging economies have already accrued enough experience to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of various IP schemes and their own ability to tailor IP to local needs. Developing countries will need to take advantage of that experience and defend innovative practices at international dispute resolution forums. Through creative, determined efforts, the developing countries can avoid other countries' IP excesses while establishing the kind of IP norms that address the real conditions of creativity and innovation in today's digitally empowered universe of scientific discourse. PMID:21423816

Reichman, Jerome H

2009-01-31

118

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: WILL THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LEAD OR FOLLOW?  

PubMed Central

Developing countries, particularly the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, should accommodate their national systems of innovation to the worldwide intellectual property (IP) regime emerging after the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in a way that maximizes global economic welfare in the foreseeable future. As many developed countries’ experience demonstrates, badly configured, over-protectionist IP regimes stifle innovation by making inputs to future innovation too costly and too cumbersome to sustain over time. More carefully considered IP regimes, however, are an important way to protect innovative small- and medium-sized firms from predatory, larger competitors. The challenge is for emerging economies to capture the benefits of IP without importing the serious problems that developed countries have themselves failed to solve. Emerging economies can attain this balance by pursuing a policy of counter-harmonization in which they take advantage of existing exemptions in international agreements governing IP to establish regional, local, and international practices that promote more innovative, flexible uses of IP. Such practices include a research exemption for experimental uses of IP, government imposed nonexclusive licensing, anti-blocking provisions, an essential facilities doctrine, and compulsory licenses. Additional tools include an ex ante regime of compensatory liability rules for small scale innovation and sensible exceptions, particularly for science as well as general fair use provisions, to the exclusive rights of domestic copyright laws. Emerging economies will have to overcome strong economic pressure to accept more restrictive IP regimes as part of free trade agreements as well as a lack of technical expertise and internal government coordination. However, emerging economies have already accrued enough experience to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of various IP schemes and their own ability to tailor IP to local needs. Developing countries will need to take advantage of that experience and defend innovative practices at international dispute resolution forums. Through creative, determined efforts, the developing countries can avoid other countries’ IP excesses while establishing the kind of IP norms that address the real conditions of creativity and innovation in today’s digitally empowered universe of scientific discourse. PMID:21423816

Reichman, Jerome H.

2010-01-01

119

Evolution and modulation of tropical heating from the last glacial maximum through the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twentieth century observations show that during the last 50 years the sea-surface temperature (SST) of the tropical oceans has increased by ~0.5°C and the area of SST >26.5 and 28°C (arbitrarily referred to as the oceanic warm pool: OWP) by 15 and 50% respectively in association with an increase in green house gas concentrations, with non-understood natural variability or a combination of both. Based on CMIP3 projections the OWP is projected to double during twenty-first century in a moderate CO2 forcing scenario (IPCC A1B scenario). However, during the observational period the area of positive atmospheric heating (referred to as the dynamic warm pool, DWP), has remained constant. The threshold SST ( T H ), which demarks the region of net heating and cooling, has increased from 26.6°C in the 1950s to 27.1°C in the last decade and it is projected to increase to ~28.5°C by 2100. Based on climate model simulations, the area of the DWP is projected to remain constant during the twenty-first century. Analysis of the paleoclimate model intercomparison project (PMIP I and II) simulations for the Last Glacial maximum and the Mid-Holocene periods show a very similar behaviour, with a larger OWP in periods of elevated tropical SST, and an almost constant DWP associated with a varying T H . The constancy of the DWP area, despite shifts in the background SST, is shown to be the result of a near exact matching between increases in the integrated convective heating within the DWP and the integrated radiative cooling outside the DWP as SST changes. Although the area of the DWP remains constant, the total tropical atmospheric heating is a strong function of the SST. For example the net heating has increased by about 10% from 1950 to 2000 and it is projected to increase by a further 20% by 2100. Such changes must be compensated by a more vigorous atmospheric circulation, with growth in convective heating within the warm pool, and an increase of subsiding air and stability outside the convective warm pool and an increase of vertical shear at the DWP boundaries. This finding is contrary to some conclusions from other studies but in accord with others. We discuss the similarities and differences at length.

Hoyos, Carlos D.; Webster, Peter J.

2012-04-01

120

Address Given by Jacques Delors, Chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, to the 140th Session of the Executive Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this speech, the chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century describes education as a pathway into the 21st Century. He suggests that if education is to become central in contributing to human progress, policymakers must learn from the experiences of the past 20 years, take the variety of situations into…

Delors, Jacques

121

Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century--radon, smoking, and lung cancer risks  

SciTech Connect

Recognition that radon and its daughter products may accumulate to high levels in homes and in the workplace has led to concern about the potential lung cancer risk resulting from indoor domestic exposure. While such risks can be estimated with current dosimetric and epidemiological models for excess relative risks, it must be recognized that these models are based on data from occupational exposure and from underground miners' mortality experience. Several assumptions are required to apply risk estimates from an occupational setting to the indoor domestic environment. Analyses of the relevant data do not lead to a conclusive description of the interaction between radon daughters and cigarette smoking for the induction of lung cancer. The evidence compels the conclusion that indoor radon daughter exposure in homes represents a potential life-threatening public health hazard, particularly in males, and in cigarette smokers. Resolution of complex societal interactions will require public policy decisions involving the governmental, scientific, financial, and industrial sectors. These decisions impact the home, the workplace, and the marketplace, and they extend beyond the constraints of science. Risk identification, assessment, and management require scientific and engineering approaches to guide policy decisions to protect the public health. Mitigation and control procedures are only beginning to receive attention. Full acceptance for protection against what could prove to be a significant public health hazard in the twenty-first century will certainly involve policy decisions, not by scientists, but rather by men and women of government and law.

Fabrikant, J.I. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1990-06-01

122

Prehistorically modified soils of central Amazonia: a model for sustainable agriculture in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Terra Preta soils of central Amazonia exhibit approximately three times more soil organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus and 70 times more charcoal compared to adjacent infertile soils. The Terra Preta soils were generated by pre-Columbian native populations by chance or intentionally adding large amounts of charred residues (charcoal), organic wastes, excrements and bones. In this paper, it is argued that generating new Terra Preta sites ('Terra Preta nova') could be the basis for sustainable agriculture in the twenty-first century to produce food for billions of people, and could lead to attaining three Millennium Development Goals: (i) to combat desertification, (ii) to sequester atmospheric CO2 in the long term, and (iii) to maintain biodiversity hotspots such as tropical rainforests. Therefore, large-scale generation and utilization of Terra Preta soils would decrease the pressure on primary forests that are being extensively cleared for agricultural use with only limited fertility and sustainability and, hence, only providing a limited time for cropping. This would maintain biodiversity while mitigating both land degradation and climate change. However, it should not be overlooked that the infertility of most tropical soils (and associated low population density) is what could have prevented tropical forests undergoing large-scale clearance for agriculture. Increased fertility may increase the populations supported by shifting cultivation, thereby maintaining and increasing pressure on forests. PMID:17255028

Glaser, Bruno

2007-02-28

123

The era of the wandering mind? Twenty-first century research on self-generated mental activity  

PubMed Central

The first decade of the twenty-first century was characterized by renewed scientific interest in self-generated mental activity (activity largely generated by the individual, rather than in direct response to experimenters’ instructions or specific external sensory inputs). To understand this renewal of interest, we interrogated the peer-reviewed literature from 2003 to 2012 (i) to explore recent changes in use of terms for self-generated mental activity; (ii) to investigate changes in the topics on which mind wandering research, specifically, focuses; and (iii) to visualize co-citation communities amongst researchers working on self-generated mental activity. Our analyses demonstrated that there has been a dramatic increase in the term “mind wandering” from 2006, and a significant crossing-over of psychological investigations of mind wandering into cognitive neuroscience (particularly in relation to research on the default mode and default mode network). If our article concludes that this might, indeed, be the “era of the wandering mind,” it also calls for more explicit reflection to be given by researchers in this field to the terms they use, the topics and brain regions they focus on, and the research literatures that they implicitly foreground or ignore. PMID:24391606

Callard, Felicity; Smallwood, Jonathan; Golchert, Johannes; Margulies, Daniel S.

2013-01-01

124

Rethinking the Twentieth Century Denigration of Traditional Chinese Science and Medicine in the Twenty-first Century  

E-print Network

Rethinking the Twentieth Century Denigration of Traditional Chinese Science and Medicine progress of knowledge. When Chinese studies of the natural world, her rich medieval traditions of alchemy tradition of natural studies and medicine has accrued in volume after unrelenting volume of Joseph Needham

Elman, Benjamin

125

Childish Pleasures and Adult Fears: Reflections on becoming Literate in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the Skills for Life strategy came new professional qualifications for teachers of literacy to adults. Having learned to be literate themselves in the mid-to-late twentieth century, how ready are these teachers to take on the challenges of preparing their learners for the literacies of the new millennium? This paper comes out of doctoral…

Jackson, Cath

2010-01-01

126

Clubfoot in the twentieth century: where we were and where we may be going in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

In the twentieth century clubfoot was one of the commonest congenital deformities of the musculoskeletal system with an incidence in some races as low as 0.6 and in others as high as 6.8 per thousand live births (Polynesia). Males have the deformity twice as often as females. In the early 1900s forceful correction of the deformity as espoused by Hugh Owen Thomas was in vogue. In the 1930s Joseph Hiram Kite, like Hippocrates (400 BC), recommended repeated gentle manipulations to achieve a correction. Instead of bandages Kite used serial plaster casts to maintain the correction. During the late 1940s Ignatio Ponseti developed his technique of correction through the normal arc of the subtalar joint. In a clubfoot the soft tissues are more resistant to pressure than the bones. With this concept in mind soft tissue procedures were developed in which the capsules and ligaments were released surgically. With safer pediatric anesthesia the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s saw surgical approaches that were more and more aggressive even including a complete subtalar release. The improved imaging modalities and computer graphics of the 1980s led to a better understanding of the pathoanatomy. Long-term follow-up studies demonstrating malcorrection, overcorrection, pain, and stiffness dampened the enthusiasm for very aggressive surgery. The main problem with surgery is that clubfoot wounds heal by a patching up process called repair. The losses are made good not with the original tissue but with a material that is biologically simple, cheap, and handy - connective tissue scar! As the century drew to a close there was a major swing of the pendulum to the Ponseti method. Surgeons are now learning the limitations of this method. Finally, the author tries to imagine what may happen in the future prevention, classification, and treatment of clubfoot with all the advances in cell biology, molecular biology, biomechanics, biomaterials, surgery, orthotics, and evidence-based medicine. PMID:21946867

Carroll, Norris C

2012-01-01

127

Title of submission: SpiderCrab and the Emergent Object: Designing for the Twenty -first Century Category of submission: Design Research Study  

E-print Network

SpiderCrab in the context of Emergent Objects 2 (EO2), a portfolio of sub-projects funded by the EPSRC1 Cover Page Title of submission: SpiderCrab and the Emergent Object: Designing for the Twenty -first Century Category of submission: Design Research Study Name and full contact address (surface, fax

Hogg, David

128

Baltic Sea climate in the late twenty-first century: a dynamical downscaling approach using two global models and two emission scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regional ocean circulation model was used to project Baltic Sea climate at the end of the twenty-first century. A set of four scenario simulations was performed utilizing two global models and two forcing scenarios. To reduce model biases and to spin up future salinity the so-called ?-change approach was applied. Using a regional coupled atmosphere–ocean model 30-year climatological monthly

H. E. Markus Meier

2006-01-01

129

The House, the Street, Global Society: Latin American Families and Childhood in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the colonial period (1492 to approximately 1826), children have constituted a large proportion of the population of Latin America, with approximately thirty to fifty percent under age twenty in the eighteenth century. Public health campaigns in the early twentieth century improved child survival rates and resulted in the substantial expansion of the proportion under age twenty by the 1960s.

Elizabeth Anne Kuznesof

2005-01-01

130

Qualities Required of Education Today To Meet Foreseeable Demands in the Twenty-first Century. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of education in preparing young people to face the demands of the 21st century is the focus of this final report of a round table and symposium. The report of the round table focuses on formulating a philosophy of education for the 21st century, the increasing globalization of the world, and the development of a new view of learning for…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

131

Twenty-First Century Police Training: Recruits' Problem-Solving Skills Following Scenario-Based Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the diverse requirements of 21st-century police work and the increasing emphasis on community-policing philosophy, the Los Angeles Police Department has implemented changes within its academy curricula and methods of instruction, including the use of adult-learning concepts, a community policing problem-solving model known as…

Perry, Lee R.

2012-01-01

132

Scott Shuler's "Music and Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Retrospective"--Review and Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predicting the future is a challenging task for music education, requiring both retrospection, analysis of current events, and foresight. This article examines several predictions from 2001 and challenges music educators to consider factors that may influence the future of teaching music in society.

McLain, Barbara Payne

2014-01-01

133

A New Paradigm Is Needed for Medical Education in the Mid-Twenty-First Century and Beyond: Are We Ready?  

PubMed Central

The twentieth century witnessed profound changes in medical education. All these changes, however, took place within the existing framework, suggested by Flexner a century ago. The present paper suggests that we are approaching a singularity point, where we shall have to change the paradigm and be prepared for an entirely new genre of medical education. This suggestion is based upon analysis of existing and envisaged trends: first, in technology, such as availability of information and sophisticated simulations; second, in medical practice, such as far-reaching interventions in life and death that create an array of new moral dilemmas, as well as a change in patient mix in hospitals and a growing need of team work; third, in the societal attitude toward higher education. The structure of the future medical school is delineated in a rough sketch, and so are the roles of the future medical teacher. It is concluded that we are presently not prepared for the approaching changes, neither from practical nor from attitudinal points of view, and that it is now high time for both awareness of and preparation for these changes. PMID:25120918

Benor, Dan E.

2014-01-01

134

Orientations and Trends of British Higher Education Reform in the Early Twenty-First Century: A Peaceful and Promising Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is to explore the higher education reform (HER) in the UK between 2000 and 2008. The influential factors of this reform can be divided into two categories: the inter- nals and the externals. Amongst those, the most impressive and influential factor is the challenge and pressure from the advanced developed countries and the newly developed countries form Asia.

Fwu-Yuan Weng

135

The Conceptions of Work in the Accounting Profession in the Twenty-First Century from the Experiences of Practitioners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accounting profession, which has commercialised its services extensively in the past two to three decades, is facing the challenges of change. An early and concerted response to the changes in the scope of work was the emphasis on developing generic skills in accounting higher education. This study recognises the relevance of accounting…

Sin, Samantha; Reid, Anna; Dahlgren, Lars Owe

2011-01-01

136

Meaningful Measurement: The Role of Assessments in Improving High School Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the chapters presented in this volume, leading experts describe some of the assessment challenges in greater detail and provide federal recommendations on how to address them. In "College and Work Readiness as a Goal of High Schools: The Role of Standards, Assessments, and Accountability," John Tanner of the Center for Innovative Measures at…

Pinkus, Lyndsay M., Ed.

2009-01-01

137

Climate change, land use change, and China’s food security in the twenty-first century: an integrated perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food security in China, the world’s most populous country, has long been a concern because of the challenges of population\\u000a growth, water shortages, and loss of cropland through urbanization, soil degradation, and climate change. Here, we present\\u000a an integrated analysis of China’s food demand and supply under IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1, A2, B1, and\\u000a B2 in 2020,

Fulu Tao; Masayuki Yokozawa; Jiyuan Liu; Zhao Zhang

2009-01-01

138

Regional projections of glacier volume and runoff in response to twenty-first century climate scenarios (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in mass contained by mountain glaciers and ice caps can modify the Earth's hydrological cycle on multiple scales. On a global scale, the mass loss from glaciers contributes to sea level rise. On regional and local scales, glacier melt-water is an important contributor to and modulator of river flow. In this study we use an elevation-dependent glacier mass balance model to project annual volume changes and monthly runoff from all mountain glaciers and ice caps in the world (excluding those in the Antarctic periphery) for the 21st century forced by temperature and precipitation scenarios from 14 global climate models. The largest contributors to projected total volume loss are the glaciers in the Canadian and Russian Arctic, Alaska and glaciers peripheral to Greenland ice sheet. Although small contributors to global volume loss, glaciers in Central Europe, low-latitude South America, Caucasus, North Asia, and Western Canada and US are projected to lose more than 75% of their volume by 2100. The magnitude and sign of trends in annual runoff totals differ considerably among regions depending on the balance between enhanced melt and the reduction of the glacier reservoir by glacier retreat and shrinkage. Most regions show strong declines in glacier runoff indicating that the effect of glacier shrinkage is more dominant than increased melting rates. Some high-latitude regions (Arctic Canada North, Russian Arctic and Greenland) exhibit increases in runoff totals. Iceland and Svalbard show an increase in runoff followed by a multi-decadal decrease in annual runoff.

Radic, V.; Bliss, A. K.; Hock, R.

2013-12-01

139

Carl Gustav Jung, Quantum Physics and the Spiritual Mind: A Mystical Vision of the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

We describe similarities in the ontology of quantum physics and of Carl Gustav Jung’s psychology. In spite of the fact that physics and psychology are usually considered as unrelated, in the last century, both of these disciplines have led at the same time to revolutionary changes in the Western understanding of the cosmic order, discovering a non-empirical realm of the universe that doesn’t consist of material things but of forms. These forms are real, even though they are invisible, because they have the potential to appear in the empirical world and act in it. We present arguments that force us to believe, that the empirical world is an emanation out of a cosmic realm of potentiality, whose forms can appear as physical structures in the external world and as archetypal concepts in our mind. Accordingly, the evolution of life now appears no longer as a process of the adaptation of species to their environment, but as the adaptation of minds to increasingly complex forms that exist in the cosmic potentiality. The cosmic connection means that the human mind is a mystical mind. PMID:25379259

Valadas Ponte, Diogo; Schäfer, Lothar

2013-01-01

140

Carl gustav jung, quantum physics and the spiritual mind: a mystical vision of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

We describe similarities in the ontology of quantum physics and of Carl Gustav Jung's psychology. In spite of the fact that physics and psychology are usually considered as unrelated, in the last century, both of these disciplines have led at the same time to revolutionary changes in the Western understanding of the cosmic order, discovering a non-empirical realm of the universe that doesn't consist of material things but of forms. These forms are real, even though they are invisible, because they have the potential to appear in the empirical world and act in it. We present arguments that force us to believe, that the empirical world is an emanation out of a cosmic realm of potentiality, whose forms can appear as physical structures in the external world and as archetypal concepts in our mind. Accordingly, the evolution of life now appears no longer as a process of the adaptation of species to their environment, but as the adaptation of minds to increasingly complex forms that exist in the cosmic potentiality. The cosmic connection means that the human mind is a mystical mind. PMID:25379259

Valadas Ponte, Diogo; Schäfer, Lothar

2013-12-01

141

Energy prices will play an important role in determining global land use in the twenty first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global land use research to date has focused on quantifying uncertainty effects of three major drivers affecting competition for land: the uncertainty in energy and climate policies affecting competition between food and biofuels, the uncertainty of climate impacts on agriculture and forestry, and the uncertainty in the underlying technological progress driving efficiency of food, bioenergy and timber production. The market uncertainty in fossil fuel prices has received relatively less attention in the global land use literature. Petroleum and natural gas prices affect both the competitiveness of biofuels and the cost of nitrogen fertilizers. High prices put significant pressure on global land supply and greenhouse gas emissions from terrestrial systems, while low prices can moderate demands for cropland. The goal of this letter is to assess and compare the effects of these core uncertainties on the optimal profile for global land use and land-based GHG emissions over the coming century. The model that we develop integrates distinct strands of agronomic, biophysical and economic literature into a single, intertemporally consistent, analytical framework, at global scale. Our analysis accounts for the value of land-based services in the production of food, first- and second-generation biofuels, timber, forest carbon and biodiversity. We find that long-term uncertainty in energy prices dominates the climate impacts and climate policy uncertainties emphasized in prior research on global land use.

Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Hertel, Thomas W.

2013-03-01

142

Responses of dune activity and desertification in China to global warming in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most areas of arid and semiarid China are covered by aeolian sand dunes, sand sheets, and desert steppes, and the existence of the nearly 80 million people who live in this region could be seriously jeopardized if climate change increases desertification. However, the expected trends in desertification during the 21st century are poorly understood. In the present study, we selected the ECHAM4 and HadCM3 global climate models (after comparing them with the results of the GFDL-R30, CGCM2, and CSIRO-Mk2b models) and used simulations of a dune mobility index under IPCC SRES climate scenarios A1FI, A2a, A2b, A2c, B1a, B2a, and B2b to estimate future trends in dune activity and desertification in China. Although uncertainties in climate predictions mean that there is still far to go before we can develop a comprehensive dune activity estimation system, HadCM3 simulations with most greenhouse forcing scenarios showed decreased desertification in most western region of arid and semiarid China by 2039, but increased desertification thereafter, whereas ECHAM4 simulation results showed that desertification will increase during this period. Inhabitants of thecentral region will benefit from reversed desertification from 2010 to 2099, whereas inhabitants of the eastern region will suffer from increased desertification from 2010 to 2099. From 2010 to 2039, most regions will not be significantly affected by desertification, but from 2040 to 2099, the environments of the western and eastern regions will deteriorate due to the significant effects of global warming (particularly the interaction between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration), leading to decreased livestock and grain yields and possibly threatening China's food security.

Wang, Xunming; Yang, Yi; Dong, Zhibao; Zhang, Caixia

2009-06-01

143

Gaps in residency training should be addressed to better prepare doctors for a twenty-first-century delivery system.  

PubMed

Many observers have been concerned about a mismatch between the knowledge, skills, and professional values of newly trained physicians and the requirements of current and future medical practice. We surveyed and interviewed Kaiser Permanente's clinical department chiefs for internal medicine, pediatrics, general surgery, and obstetrics/gynecology to ascertain their views of the perceived gaps in the readiness of newly trained physicians. Nearly half of those surveyed reported deficiencies among new physicians in managing routine conditions or performing simple procedures often encountered in office-based practice. A third of the chiefs noted deficiencies in coordinating care for patients. Filling these and other training gaps will require changes at many levels-from residency programs to Medicare reimbursement policies-to better prepare new physicians for the challenges of working in a health care system evolving to emphasize accountability, quality outcomes, cost control, and information technology. PMID:22068407

Crosson, Francis J; Leu, Jean; Roemer, Beth M; Ross, Murray N

2011-11-01

144

A person-focused model of care for the twenty-first century: a system-of-systems perspective.  

PubMed

The US health care system is challenged to provide high-quality care and is burdened with unsustainable expenditures, making it difficult for health care participants (patients, payers, providers, caregivers) to create value. This communication presents the theoretical foundation for a person-focused model of care that addresses a number of these challenges. The model integrates aspects of prior models of chronic care with new empiric findings and complex adaptive system (CAS) theory. The model emphasizes the relationship among all health care stakeholders. The health care delivery process is examined in terms of the role of each stakeholder and the value each adds to and receives from the process. The authors present pilot results illustrating the implications of CAS theory in regard to multi-morbidity, disease management programs, multi-morbid households, and person- and household-focused care. The model incorporates the physical, mental, and social dimensions of health, and operationalizes an individual patient's health as a CAS, identifying CASs for each of the other stakeholders as well. Health care can then be conceptualized as a system-of-systems with a person's health as its output. Deploying the model need not require major infrastructure investments or changes. It can be implemented by repurposing, aligning, and better integrating currently available interventions. The authors believe that the model creates not only survival value (health) but also purposeful value. The model offers a unifying focus for all participants in the health care delivery process, thereby constructing a health care system that is structurally person-focused and meaningful for all participants. PMID:24720637

Greene, Robert A; Dasso, Edwin; Ho, Sam; Genaidy, Ash M

2014-06-01

145

[Primary care pediatrics in the public health system of the twenty-first century. SESPAS report 2012].  

PubMed

Today in our country, the primary care pediatrician is the first contact between children and adolescents with the health system, being also a highly resolving specialist that addresses over 90% of the health needs of this population, monitors growth and development and participates in all activities of prevention, health promotion and health education within primary care teams with nurses and family doctors. Witnessing rapid and profound demographic, social, cultural, scientific and technological changes as well as the demands and expectations of health care for citizens, which should enhance the value and response capacity of primary care. These changes also affect infant morbidity and health care priorities in child and adolescent, posing new challenges for primary care practice and reinforce the role of the pediatrician in primary care. Primary care is not only the gateway to the health system. Primary care teams have to take responsibility for the care of people assigned to coordinate the necessary resources and advising citizens on their health problems and his itinerary care by the health system. It identifies the need to foster teamwork within the health department involved nursing staff to take care activities in this age group. It aims to foster a model based on cooperation and complementarity. A recent systematic review recommended maintaining the figure of the pediatrician in primary care teams and strengthen their specific role as first point of contact with the child's health care system, found significant benefits for children. PMID:22196036

Domínguez Aurrecoechea, Begoña; Valdivia Jiménez, Carlos

2012-03-01

146

Sources of uncertainty in projections of twenty-first century westerly wind changes over the Amundsen Sea, West Antarctica, in CMIP5 climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of changes in winds over the Amundsen Sea has been shown to be a potentially key mechanism in explaining rapid loss of ice from major glaciers in West Antarctica, which is having a significant impact on global sea level. Here, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model data are used to assess twenty-first century projections in westerly winds over the Amundsen Sea ( U AS ). The importance of model uncertainty and internal climate variability in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenario projections are quantified and potential sources of model uncertainty are considered. For the decade 2090-2099 the CMIP5 models show an ensemble mean twenty-first century response in annual mean U AS of 0.3 and 0.7 m s-1 following the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios respectively. However, as a consequence of large internal climate variability over the Amundsen Sea, it takes until around 2030 (2065) for the RCP8.5 response to exceed one (two) standard deviation(s) of decadal internal variability. In all scenarios and seasons the model uncertainty is large. However the present-day climatological zonal wind bias over the whole South Pacific, which is important for tropical teleconnections, is strongly related to inter-model differences in projected change in U AS (more skilful models show larger U AS increases). This relationship is significant in winter (r = -0.56) and spring (r = -0.65), when the influence of the tropics on the Amundsen Sea region is known to be important. Horizontal grid spacing and present day sea ice extent are not significant sources of inter-model spread.

Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Turner, John; Hosking, J. Scott; Phillips, Tony

2014-10-01

147

Australia and India: Facing the Twenty-First Century Skills Challenge. Conference Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The governments of India and Australia are working to enhance cooperation on training, at both official and industry level. As part of the exchange of ideas, Francesca Beddie, General Manager, Research, National Centre for Vocational Education Research, visited India in August 2009 at the invitation of the Australia-India Council. This paper…

Beddie, Francesca M.

2009-01-01

148

Childhood obesity prevention: compelling challenge of the twenty?first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a worldwide increase in the prevalence of children who are obese that is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions. These obese children have associated significant co?morbidities. In the past 30 years the proportion of children in the United States who are obese or overweight has tripled; 15%, or approximately nine million, are obese. Ethnic minority communities with lower socioeconomic

Luba Zuk Levy; Karen Petty

2008-01-01

149

Public Health in East and Southeast Asia: Challenges and Opportunities in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

Potential screening methods for stomach cancer includescreening methods, such as for early detection of breast cancerscreening methods for reducing mortality rates, additional screening strategies for lung cancer (

Detels, Roger; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Tan, Chorh Chuan

2012-01-01

150

Public Health in East and Southeast Asia: Challenges and Opportunities in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer:cancer are, primarily, eliminating shared major lifestyle factors (including smoking, poor nutrition,nutrition, 22, 79 –105, 207, 259, 269, 276; advertising, 24, 94; cancer,

Detels, Roger; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Tan, Chorh Chuan

2012-01-01

151

National Models for Continuing Professional Development: The Challenges of Twenty-First-Century Knowledge Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If teacher quality is the most critical factor in improving educational outcomes, then why is so little attention drawn to the knowledge and evidence base available to support teachers in improving the quality of their professional knowledge? This paper draws together findings from a range of sources to propose national models for continuing…

Leask, Marilyn; Younie, Sarah

2013-01-01

152

Water security in one blue planet: twenty-first century policy challenges for science.  

PubMed

Water-related risks threaten society at the local, national and global scales in our inter-connected and rapidly changing world. Most of the world's poor are deeply water insecure and face intolerable water-related risks associated with complex hydrology. Most of the world's wealthy face lower water-related risks and less complex hydrology. This inverse relationship between hydrological complexity and wealth contributes to a divided world. This must be addressed if global water security is to be achieved. Using a risk-based framework provides the potential to link the current policy-oriented discourse on water security to a new and rigorous science-based approach to the description, measurement, analysis and management of water security. To provide the basis for this science-based approach, we propose an encompassing definition rooted in risk science: water security is a tolerable level of water-related risk to society. Water security policy questions need to be framed so that science can marshal interdisciplinary data and evidence to identify solutions. We join a growing group of scientists in asserting a bold vision for science leadership, calling for a new and comprehensive understanding of the planet's water system and society's water needs. PMID:24080615

Grey, D; Garrick, D; Blackmore, D; Kelman, J; Muller, M; Sadoff, C

2013-11-13

153

Subjects to Citizens: Adult Learning and the Challenges of Democracy in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theme 1 of the "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" boldly proclaimed that active citizenship and full participation of all citizens was the necessary foundation for "the creation of a learning society committed to social justice and general well-being" (UNESCO, 1997, p. 4). The "Declaration" advocated that future societies create "greater…

Welton, Michael

2013-01-01

154

Lights, camera, action research: The effects of didactic digital movie making on students' twenty-first century learning skills and science content in the middle school classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and ISTE NET*S, along with the framework from the Partnership for 21st Century Learning Standards, our society demands students not only to learn curriculum, but to think critically, problem solve effectively, and become adept at communicating and collaborating. Didactic digital movie making in the science classroom may be one way that these twenty-first century learning skills may be implemented. An action research study using a mixed-methods approach to collect data was used to investigate if didactic moviemaking can help eighth grade students learn physical science content while incorporating 21st century learning skills of collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills through their group production. Over a five week period, students researched lessons, wrote scripts, acted, video recorded and edited a didactic movie that contained a narrative plot to teach a science strand from the Arizona State Standards in physical science. A pretest/posttest science content test and KWL chart was given before and after the innovation to measure content learned by the students. Students then took a 21st Century Learning Skills Student Survey to measure how much they perceived that communication, collaboration, problem solving and critical thinking were taking place during the production. An open ended survey and a focus group of four students were used for qualitative analysis. Three science teachers used a project evaluation rubric to measure science content and production values from the movies. Triangulating the science content test, KWL chart, open ended questions and the project evaluation rubric, it appeared that science content was gained from this project. Students felt motivated to learn and had positive experience. Students also felt that the repetition of production and watching their movies helped them remember science. Students also perceived that creating the didactic digital movie helped them use collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills throughout their production.

Ochsner, Karl

155

Regional and global projections of twenty-first century glacier mass changes in response to climate scenarios from global climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large component of present-day sea-level rise is due to the melt of glaciers other than the ice sheets. Recent projections of their contribution to global sea-level rise for the twenty-first century range between 70 and 180 mm, but bear significant uncertainty due to poor glacier inventory and lack of hypsometric data. Here, we aim to update the projections and improve quantification of their uncertainties by using a recently released global inventory containing outlines of almost every glacier in the world. We model volume change for each glacier in response to transient spatially-differentiated temperature and precipitation projections from 14 global climate models with two emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) prepared for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The multi-model mean suggests sea-level rise of 155 ± 41 mm (RCP4.5) and 216 ± 44 mm (RCP8.5) over the period 2006-2100, reducing the current global glacier volume by 29 or 41 %. The largest contributors to projected global volume loss are the glaciers in the Canadian and Russian Arctic, Alaska, and glaciers peripheral to the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Although small contributors to global volume loss, glaciers in Central Europe, low-latitude South America, Caucasus, North Asia, and Western Canada and US are projected to lose more than 80 % of their volume by 2100. However, large uncertainties in the projections remain due to the choice of global climate model and emission scenario. With a series of sensitivity tests we quantify additional uncertainties due to the calibration of our model with sparsely observed glacier mass changes. This gives an upper bound for the uncertainty range of ±84 mm sea-level rise by 2100 for each projection.

Radi?, Valentina; Bliss, Andrew; Beedlow, A. Cody; Hock, Regine; Miles, Evan; Cogley, J. Graham

2014-01-01

156

Sub-Saharan Northern African climate at the end of the twenty-first century: forcing factors and climate change processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional climate model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, is forced with increased atmospheric CO2 and anomalous SSTs and lateral boundary conditions derived from nine coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models to produce an ensemble set of nine future climate simulations for northern Africa at the end of the twenty-first century. A well validated control simulation, agreement among ensemble members, and a physical understanding of the future climate change enhance confidence in the predictions. The regional model ensembles produce consistent precipitation projections over much of northern tropical Africa. A moisture budget analysis is used to identify the circulation changes that support future precipitation anomalies. The projected midsummer drought over the Guinean Coast region is related partly to weakened monsoon flow. Since the rainfall maximum demonstrates a southward bias in the control simulation in July-August, this may be indicative of future summer drying over the Sahel. Wetter conditions in late summer over the Sahel are associated with enhanced moisture transport by the West African westerly jet, a strengthening of the jet itself, and moisture transport from the Mediterranean. Severe drought in East Africa during August and September is accompanied by a weakened Indian monsoon and Somali jet. Simulations with projected and idealized SST forcing suggest that overall SST warming in part supports this regional model ensemble agreement, although changes in SST gradients are important over West Africa in spring and fall. Simulations which isolate the role of individual climate forcings suggest that the spatial distribution of the rainfall predictions is controlled by the anomalous SST and lateral boundary conditions, while CO2 forcing within the regional model domain plays an important secondary role and generally produces wetter conditions.

Patricola, C. M.; Cook, K. H.

2011-09-01

157

Lessons from Four "Bronze Muses" or How the Rhetoric of Nineteenth Century African-American Women Can Inform Writing Instruction in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considering the rhetorical strategies four 19th-century black women employed to address various audiences can be helpful in the continuing struggle to find effective means of teaching writing to college students. These four women used a variety of strategies to reach audiences which were, to one degree or another, hostile to them because of their…

Logan, Shirley W.

158

Variations in northern hemisphere snowfall: An analysis of historical trends and the projected response to anthropogenic forcing in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snowfall is an important feature of the Earth's climate system that has the ability to influence both the natural world and human activity. This dissertation examines past and future changes in snowfall related to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Snowfall observations for North America, derived snowfall products for the Northern Hemisphere, and simulations performed with 13 coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models are analyzed. The analysis of the spatial pattern of simulated annual trends on a grid point basis from 1951 to 1999 indicates that a transition zone exists above 60° N latitude across the Northern Hemisphere that separates negative trends in annual snowfall in the mid-latitudes and positive trends at higher latitudes. Regional analysis of observed annual snowfall indicates that statistically significant trends are found in western North America, Japan, and southern Russia. A majority of the observed historical trends in annual snowfall elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere, however, are not statistically significant and this result is consistent with model simulations. Projections of future snowfall indicate the presence of a similar transition zone between negative and positive snowfall trends that corresponds with the area between the -10 to -15°C isotherms of the multi-model mean temperature of the late twentieth century in each of the fall, winter, and spring seasons. Redistributions of snowfall throughout the entire snow season are likely -- even in locations where there is little change in annual snowfall. Changes in the fraction of precipitation falling as snow contribute to decreases in snowfall across most Northern Hemisphere regions, while changes in precipitation typically contribute to increases in snowfall. Snowfall events less than or equal to 5 cm are found to decrease in the future across most of the Northern Hemisphere, while snowfall events greater than or equal to 20 cm increase in some locations, such as northern Quebec. A signal-to-noise analysis reveals that the projected changes in snowfall are likely to become apparent during the twenty-first century for most locations in the Northern Hemisphere.

Krasting, John P.

159

Using a global climate model to evaluate the influences of water vapor, snow cover and atmospheric aerosol on warming in the Tibetan Plateau during the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine trends in climate variables and their interrelationships over the Tibetan Plateau using global climate model simulations\\u000a to elucidate the mechanisms for the pattern of warming observed over the plateau during the latter half of the twentieth century\\u000a and to investigate the warming trend during the twenty-first century under the SRES A1B scenario. Our analysis suggests a\\u000a 4°C warming

Imtiaz Rangwala; James R. Miller; Gary L. Russell; Ming Xu

2010-01-01

160

Using a global climate model to evaluate the influences of water vapor, snow cover and atmospheric aerosol on warming in the Tibetan Plateau during the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine trends in climate variables and their interrelationships over the Tibetan Plateau using global climate model simulations to elucidate the mechanisms for the pattern of warming observed over the plateau during the latter half of the twentieth century and to investigate the warming trend during the twenty-first century under the SRES A1B scenario. Our analysis suggests a 4°C warming

Imtiaz Rangwala; James R. Miller; Gary L. Russell; Ming Xu

2009-01-01

161

Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) projected twenty-first century warming over Southern Africa: Role of Local Feedbacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The warming rates projected by an ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparion Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models (GCMs) over southern Africa (south of 10 degrees latitude) are investigated. The low resolution GCMs forced by four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) have been interpolated to a common resolution using a bilinear interpolation scheme. Warming is defined in terms of absolute differences in annual-mean near-surface air temperatures between two twenty-year time slices (2046-2065 and 2081-2100) and the historical period 1986-2005. In all RCPs, CMIP5 models project a higher warming rate over the southwestern parts centred around the arid Kalahari and Namib deserts and extending towards northern South Africa, eastern Namibia, western Botswana and southern Angola. The higher warming rates over these areas outpace global warming by up to a factor 2 in some GCMs. The projected warming is associated with an increase in heat waves. There is notable consensus across the models with little intermodel spread, suggesting a strong robustness of the projections. The spatial pattern and magnitude of the projected temperature increase relative to global warming is quite similar across the two selected time slices in the twenty-first century. Mechanisms underlying the enhanced warming are investigated. A positive soil moisture-temperature feedback is suggested to contribute to the accelerated temperature increase. A decrease in soil moisture is projected by the GCMs over the area of highest warming. The reduction in soil wetness reduces evapotranspiration rates over the area where evaporation is dependent on available soil moisture. The reduction is evapotranspiration affects the partitioning of turbulent energy fluxes from the soil surface into the atmosphere and translates into an increase of the Bowen ratio featuring an increase in sensible relative to latent heat flux. An increase in sensible heat flux leads to an increase in near-surface temperature. The increase in temperature leads to a higher vapour pressure deficit and evaporative demand and evapotranspiration from the dry soils, possibly leading to a further decrease in soil moisture. A precipitation-soil moisture feedback is also suggested. A decrease in mean precipitation and an increase in drought conditions are projected over the area of enhanced warming. The reduced precipitation results in drier soils. The drier soil translates to reduced evapotranspiration for cloud and rainfall formation. However, the role played by the soil moisture-precipitation feedback loop is still inconclusive and characterized by some degree of uncertainty given that the strength of the local moisture recycling has not been explicitly quantified. An alternative mechanism involving the impact of soil moisture anomalies on boundary-layer stability and precipitation formation will be investigated.

Shongwe, Mxolisi; Ntsangwane, Lucky

2014-05-01

162

Bridging the climate-induced water gap in the twenty-first century: adaptation support based on water supply, demand, adaptation and financing.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity affects large parts of the world. Over the course of the twenty-first century, water demand is likely to increase due to population growth and associated food production, and increased economic activity, while water supply is projected to decrease in many regions due to climate change. Despite recent studies that analyze the effect of climate change on water scarcity, e.g. using climate projections under representative concentration pathways (RCP) of the fifth assessment report of the IPCC (AR5), decision support for closing the water gap between now and 2100 does not exist at a meaningful scale and with a global coverage. In this study, we aimed (i) to assess the joint impact of climatic and socio-economic change on water scarcity, (ii) to integrate impact and potential adaptation in one workflow, (iii) to prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity based on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) to deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. To enable the combination of global coverage with local relevance, we aggregated all results for 1604 water provinces (food producing units) delineated in this study, which is five times smaller than previous food producing units. Water supply was computed using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological and water resources model, parameterized at 5 arcminutes for the whole globe, excluding Antarctica and Greenland. We ran PCR-GLOBWB with a daily forcing derived from five different GCM models from the CMIP5 (GFDL-ESM2M, Hadgem2-ES, IPSL-CMA5-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) that were bias corrected using observation-based WATCH data between 1960-1999. For each of the models all four RCPs (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) were run, producing the ensemble of 20 future projections. The blue water supply was aggregated per month and per water province. Industrial, domestic and irrigation water demands were computed for a limited number of realistic combinations of a shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and RCPs. Our Water And Climate Adaptation Model (WatCAM) was used to compute the water gap based on reservoir capacity, water supply, and water demand. WatCam is based on the existing ModSim (Labadie, 2010) water allocation model, and facilitated the evaluation of nine technological and infrastructural adaptation measures to assess the investments needed to bridge the future water gap. Regional environmental and socio-economic effects of these investments, such as environmental flows or downstream effects, were evaluated. A scheme was developed to evaluate the strategies on robustness and flexibility under climate change and scenario uncertainty, and each measure was linked to possibilities for investment and financing mechanisms. The WatCAM is available as a web modeling service from www.water2invest.com, and enables user specified adaptation measures and the creation of an ensemble of water gap forecasts.

Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jaïrus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Vitolo, Claudia; Schmitz, Oliver; Meijer, Karen; Van Aalst, Maaike; Bierkens, Marc

2014-05-01

163

[President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC) Review of the Information Technology for the Twenty-First Century Initiative and Its Implementation Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of its ongoing mission, the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC) has completed an initial review of the Information Technology for the 21st Century (IT[squared]) initiative and its implementation plan put forward by the participating federal agencies. This letter conveys the initial conclusions of that review.…

National Coordination Office for Information Technology Research and Development, Arlington, VA.

164

Deweyan Darwinism for the Twenty-First Century: Toward an Educational Method for Critical Democratic Engagement in the Era of the Institute of Education Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our society's preoccupation with making educational policy and practice "scientific" is attested to by the stated mission of the Institute of Education Sciences: "to provide rigorous evidence on which to ground education practice and policy." Early in the twentieth century, John Dewey also advocated for a vision of education guided by science, and…

Seltzer-Kelly, Deborah

2008-01-01

165

India in the Twenty-first Century: The Challenge of Population Growth. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contains a course outline for a five-hour graduate class focusing on the issue of population in India. Students examine contributing factors to population growth, along with studying characteristics of, and efforts to, control population growth. The significance of ethnic diversity in India also is addressed. Group discussion and group…

La Fleur, Mary Ann

166

Mental health of adolescents reared in institutional care in Turkey: challenges and hope in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study are (i) to describe and compare the epidemiology of emotional/behavioral problems and associated risk/protective factors among nationally representative samples of institutionally reared and similarly aged community-based adolescents brought up in their natural homes by means of youth self-reports, caregiver/parent, and teacher informants; and (ii) to identify mental health service needs and utilization. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 2005 through April 2006 using an equal probability cluster sample of 11-18 year old adolescents in institutional care settings (N = 350; 163 males, 187 females) and results were compared with similarly aged community sample of youth living in their natural homes (N = 2,206). The Sociodemographic Information Form, Youth Self Report (YSR), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) by caregivers for institutional sample and parents for the community sample, and Teacher's Report Form (TRF) were used to obtain standardized data on demographic characteristics, emotional/behavioral problems, and risk/protective factors. The prevalence of problems behaviors by YSR, caregiver/parent CBCL, and TRF were: 47, 15.1, 20.5% for the institutional versus 10.1, 7.5 and, 9.5% for the community samples, respectively (p < 0.05). Youth self-reports were fourfold, and all informant reports were twofold higher for institutional versus community comparisons. Furthermore, institutional sample had consistently higher rates, not only of Externalizing, but Internalizing, Social Problems, Attention Problems, and Thought Problems, as well as discrete DSM-oriented scales, suggesting that labeling of institutional youth as simply aggressive and delinquent contributes to their further marginalization and does not comprehensively address their mental health needs. In terms of protective factors, we found that: perceived social support, high competency scores, supportive caregiving, getting along well with peers and relatives (positive relationships), and problem solving skills were significantly protective of mental health. On the other hand fatalistic beliefs, cigarette and alcohol use were significantly associated with increased risk for problem behaviors (p < 0.05). The primary reason for institutional placement was family disruption (68.9%), poverty (15.7%), abandonment (8.4%), and physical or sexual abuse (5.4%). Only 31.2% of the youth were in fact true orphans (loss of one or both parents). It is therefore remarkable that in terms of service use, despite consistently high prevalence of problem behaviors across all informant sources, only 2.4% of the youth had received any speciality mental health services during institutional care. In conclusion, there is a pressing need to transform the social and health care policy and to provide family and community-based alternatives for youth currently in institutional care in Turkey. Before this goal is achieved, it is necessary to address their mental health needs urgently and comprehensively. The highest rates of problems by youth self-report also support the view that the youths' own voices ought to be heard and need to inform the reform process regarding their future care. PMID:19644732

Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Münir, Kerim

2010-02-01

167

Prosperity, Sustainable Employment and Social Justice: Challenges for the German Labor Market in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the effects of German labor market reforms on the competitiveness and performance of the German economy. The contribution starts with giving some background information on the rationale behind the reforms and stresses the specific structure of the German economy. We then describe the salient effects of the reforms for…

Möller, Joachim

2014-01-01

168

Accelerators in our past, present, and future: A challenge to radiological protection in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

The foundations of many of the subdisciplines of radiological protection laid in accelerator laboratories began with the invention of accelerators. This paper suggests that the discipline of accelerator radiological protection has played and will continue play a more significant part in our lives than is generally recognized. A brief review of some existing uses of accelerators by society is given, and a few probable future uses are described. These future applications will result in the exposure of accelerator (or {open_quotes}mixed{close_quotes}) radiation fields to an increased population. Consequently, what are perceived to be the rather specialized concerns of today`s accelerator health physicists will -- by necessity -- become of general interest to all health physicists.

Thomas, R.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

1993-09-01

169

Hypersegregation in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

We used metropolitan-level data from the 2000 U.S. census to analyze the hypersegregation of four groups from whites: blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans. While blacks were hypersegregated in 29 metropolitan areas and Hispanics were hypersegregated in 2, Asians and Native Americans were not hypersegregated in any. There were declines in the number of metropolitan areas with black hypersegregation, although levels of segregation experienced by blacks remained significantly higher than those of the other groups, even after a number of factors were controlled. Indeed, although socioeconomic differences among the groups explain some of the difference in residential patterns more generally, they have little association with hypersegregation in particular, indicating the overarching salience of race in shaping residential patterns in these highly divided metropolitan areas. PMID:15074123

Wilkes, Rima; Iceland, John

2004-02-01

170

Twenty-first century health care.  

PubMed

A dynamic, proactive health-care environment is beckoning. Fueled by consumer-led awareness, digital television, the Internet and a preoccupation with preventative health maintenance, it will define a new genre of products. In a series of provocative statements, this visionary article explores what the future may hold for diagnostics and medical devices. PMID:10387620

Pearson, M

1999-04-01

171

Departmentalization and Twenty-First Century Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between school organizational style and student outcomes. The research questions that guided this study were, "Is there a difference in mathematical performance of fourth graders who receive departmentalized instruction as compared to fourth grade students who receive…

Watts, Toy Coles

2012-01-01

172

Education in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this book, several Hoover Institution scholars search for the answers to failures in U.S. schools and examine the debate over what works and what does not work. Such widely debated topics as national examinations, accountability, performance, and school funding are discussed. The importance of education to both the individual and society as a…

Lazear, Edward P., Ed.

173

The Twenty-First-Century Professoriate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not long ago, most academic insiders felt confident in saying, "the faculty 'are' the university." The faculty may still be the university, but who are the faculty? From public community colleges to private research universities, America has created the most powerful machine for the development of human capital in the history of the world. Yet an…

Plater, William M.

2008-01-01

174

Power Cables in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a variety of viewpoints from engineers within the power cable industry as to how current trends in the cable industry will influence future cable designs, particularly with polymeric insulation, lapped dielectrics, and improved diagnostic techniques. The use of high-temperature superconductors and designer polymers as well as the possible availability of conducting polymeric materials is also considered. The

T. J. HAMMONS

2003-01-01

175

The Casualties of the Twenty-First-Century Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses academic freedom that is currently under threat at many public two-year schools, which serve almost one-half of the nation's first-year college students. The growing reliance on part-time faculty exacerbates the problem, with many adjuncts feeling muzzled for fear of losing their jobs. The problem of academic freedom at…

Wilson, David McKay

2010-01-01

176

Eating disorders in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The first description of anorexia nervosa appeared in the literature over three hundred years ago. Since then, much has been learned about eating disorders, including the different presentations, medical complications, prognosis, and treatment strategies. In spite of this knowledge, the prevalence of eating disorders continues to grow. As well, eating disorders are seen in increasing frequency among males, children, and adults, and from all cultures and ethnicities. Of particular concern, is that patients with eating disorders often first present because of a complication such as amenorrhea, syncope, or abdominal pain, without disclosing the eating disorder. Therefore, all physicians should be aware of the various presentations of eating disorders, including the medical complications and risks, and be able to screen for a possible eating disorder. The major medical complications are due to the decreased caloric intake which leads to a hypometabolic state. While most complications are reversible with recovery, some, such as bone loss, may not be. Of particular concern during recovery is the possible development of a refeeding syndrome which occurs as the body goes from a catabolic to an anabolic state, causing hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, which can lead to delirium, coma and death. Of further concern is that eating disorders have the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric disorders at 5.6% per decade. This article will review the changing demographics, medical complications, treatment options, and prognosis of eating disorders. PMID:22036757

Weiselberg, E C; Gonzalez, M; Fisher, M

2011-12-01

177

Schooling for Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Venezuela's Bolivarian Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global dominance of neoliberal policy prescriptions in recent decades has been well documented, with particular implications for educational systems. These include reduced public expenditure and provision, the promotion of individual (parental) choice, competition, increased user-pays and the privatisation of education. Against this…

Griffiths, Tom G.

2010-01-01

178

Virtual Reality: Teaching Tool of the Twenty-First Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual reality-based procedural and surgical simulations promise to revolutionize medical training. A wide range of simulations representing diverse content areas and varied implementation strategies are under development or in early use. The new systems will make broad-based training experiences available for students at all levels without risks…

Hoffman, Helene; Vu, Dzung

1997-01-01

179

Teaching Privacy in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What would Benjamin Franklin's Facebook page look like? Would he be "friends" with William Pierce, James Madison, or Alexander Hamilton? Would there have been a separate Facebook group for the framers of the Constitution, where they would have posted comments on the wall regarding the different stipulations that needed inclusion in the document?…

Edbrooke, Odette; Ambrose, Meg Leta

2012-01-01

180

Clostridium difficile infection in the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming gram-positive bacillus, and the leading cause of antibiotic-associated nosocomial diarrhea and colitis in the industrialized world. With the emergence of a hypervirulent strain of C. difficile (BI/NAP1/027), the epidemiology of C. difficile infection has rapidly changed in the last decade. C. difficile infection, once thought to be an easy to treat bacterial infection, has evolved into an epidemic that is associated with a high rate of mortality, causing disease in patients thought to be low-risk. In this review, we discuss the changing face of C .difficile infection and the novel treatment and prevention strategies needed to halt this ever growing epidemic.

Ghose, Chandrabali

2013-01-01

181

Linked Courses at the Twenty-First Century Metropolitan University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, the authors argue that linked-course learning communities serve students at nonresidential metropolitan public universities by increasing their academic achievement, reducing their attrition, and engaging them in the project of public education. They use a winter 2004 research project to argue that linked courses create supportive…

Cargill, Kima; Kalikoff, Beth

2007-01-01

182

Supporting Informed Learners in the Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article elaborates the concept of informed learning and locates it in educational, workplace, and community settings. Drawing on existing research into people’s experience of information literacy, it identifies critical experiences of informed learners in each of these three settings. It also explores the support required in educational, community, and workplace contexts, which makes informed learning possible. Recognizing strong implications

Christine Bruce; Hilary Hughes; Mary M. Somerville

2012-01-01

183

Formal Operations from a Twenty-First Century Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reflects on Piaget's 1972 article, "Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood," addressed to questions regarding what he alleged to be the final, most advanced level of cognition in his developmental stage theory--formal operations, as described in his 1958 volume coauthored with Inhelder, "The growth of logical thinking from…

Kuhn, Deanna

2008-01-01

184

AIR QUALITY MODELING FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes recent and evolving advances in the science of numerical air quality simulation modeling. Emphasis is placed on new developments in particulate matter modeling and atmospheric chemistry, diagnostic modeling tools, and integrated modeling systems. New...

185

Access Denied? Twenty-First-Century Technology in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers how developments in technologies have transformed the kind of social interaction possible over the Internet, making it feasible to undertake discourse and dialogue without having to rely solely on text-based mediation. This represents a fundamental change to learning, shifting from passive acquisition of someone else's…

Male, Trevor; Burden, Kevin

2014-01-01

186

Applications of carbon nanotubes in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes, which consist of rolled graphene sheets built from sp(2) hybridized carbon atoms, are now attracting scientists from various disciplines due to their fascinating physico-chemical properties. In this account, we will review the recent progress on the synthetic techniques for the large-scale production of carbon nanotubes, especially focusing on the floating-catalyst method used in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. We will also describe effective purification methods avoiding structural damage, and discuss the electrochemical applications of these systems including the fabrication of: (i) lithium-ion secondary batteries; (ii) lead-acid batteries; (iii) electric double-layer capacitors; (iv) fuel cells; and (v) multifunctional fillers in polymer composites. We foresee that carbon nanotubes will find numerous applications and take an important place in the development of emerging technologies in the near future. PMID:15370479

Endo, Morinobu; Hayashi, Takuaya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Milred S

2004-10-15

187

Communications Security for the Twenty-first Century  

E-print Network

. Instead, NBS issued a public solicitation for a cryptographic algorithm. IBM responded. The com- pany, which for- bid inventors from publicly discussing their work, were placed on their patent applications algorithm. The secrecy orders on the patent applications were lifted, and an American Council of Education

Russo, Bernard

188

Families and Elder Care in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most Americans know that the U.S. population is aging, they are far less informed about the reality of providing elders with personal care, health care, and social support. Families--particularly women--have always been critical in providing elder care, but the entry of so many women into the paid labor force has made elder care…

Bookman, Ann; Kimbrel, Delia

2011-01-01

189

Teaching Thinking: An Agenda for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers ideas and strategies for teaching thinking in schools. Sixteen chapters and a concluding discussion, each preceded by an introductory article, are written by experts recognized in their fields. The chapters include: (1) "Reading and Thinking with History and Science Text" (Isabel L. Beck and Janice A. Dole; (2) "Developing…

Collins, Cathy, Ed.; Mangieri, John N., Ed.

190

Two-generation programs in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Most of the authors in this issue of Future of Children focus on a single strategy for helping both adults and children that could become a component of two-generation programs. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, on the other hand, look at actual programs with an explicit two-generation focus that have been tried in the past or are currently under way. These explicitly two-generation programs have sought to build human capital across generations by combining education or job training for adults with early childhood education for their children. Chase-Lansdale and Brooks-Gunn explain the theories behind these programs and review the evidence for their efficacy. A first wave of such programs in the 1980s and 1990s produced mostly disappointing results, but the evaluations they left behind pointed to promising new directions. More recently, a second wave of two-generation programs--the authors dub them "Two-Generation 2.0"--has sought to rectify the flaws of earlier efforts, largely by building strong connections between components for children and adults, by ensuring that children and adults receive services of equal duration and intensity, and by incorporating advances in both education and workforce development. These Two-Generation 2.0 programs are still in their infancy, and we have yet to see clear evidence that they can achieve their goals or be implemented cost-effectively at scale. Nonetheless, Chase-Lansdale and Brooks-Gunn write, the theoretical justification for these programs is strong, their early results are promising, and the time is ripe for innovation, experimentation, and further study. PMID:25518701

Chase-Lansdale, Lindsay; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2014-01-01

191

The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr?1) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3?) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr?1 to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40–70 Tg N yr?1 to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr?1) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 102–103 years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced. PMID:23713126

Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A.; Cape, J. Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J.; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N.; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F.; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

2013-01-01

192

Hospitals for health in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The following article illustrates the crucial importance for the future of hospitals of in-house education, and of the team approach to resolving problems, through concerted efforts on the part of all the hospital personnel. PMID:10183803

Nakajima, H

1991-01-01

193

Facilitated Communication and Its Legitimacy--Twenty-First Century Developments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By 2001, Facilitated Communication (FC) had largely been empirically discredited as an effective intervention for previously uncommunicative persons with disabilities, especially those with autism and related disorders. Key empirical findings consistently showed that the facilitator and not the client initiated communication. I analyze the extant…

Mostert, Mark P.

2010-01-01

194

Environmental permitting strategies for the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

Recent trends in economic markets have caused mining companies to look harder at reducing costs for collecting information, performing studies, and conducting other necessary activities to complete environmental permitting. In some cases, it may be in the operator's best interest to delay permitting and related expenditures to the extent possible. In most cases, however, agency mandates and the need to continue operations require that permits be obtained and maintained in the most expedient and economical way possible. This paper explores some basic approaches to environmental permitting which are intended to strategically guide the permitting process through the maze of requirements in a relatively straightforward manner. Through application of common sense and KISS (Keep it simple, stupid) the authors have found that permitting can be conducted in a quicker fashion than most applicants experience. The authors explore and explain some of these basic principles by drawing on their own experiences in the Arizona Aquifer Protection Permit and other environmental permit programs.

Munson, B.E.; Wallis, C.M.

1999-07-01

195

Disease prevention and wellness in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Primary care physicians should continue their efforts in disease prevention and also should expand their scope of service to support patients' interests in wellness and health optimization. Taking on this role will require additional time and continuing education, but by knowledgeably helping patients to maximize their health, physicians will provide a needed service, contribute to the health of their patients, and reap the rewards of a stronger doctor-patient bond. PMID:18928824

Zoorob, Roger; Morelli, Vincent

2008-12-01

196

Toward the Twenty-First Century: Students' Views on Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in a summer leadership training course responded to questions about aspects of leadership in the year 2000, including leader characteristics, leadership training, preparation for leadership, leadership roles, effects of technological advancement, environmental changes, lifestyles, parent roles, international relations and communications,…

Meriweather, Suzanne; Karnes, Frances

1989-01-01

197

Strategy after oil in the twenty first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

When talking about energy, the basic question a person might ask, what is energy. One definition is, `Doing work requires the capacity to do work, this capacity is called energy.` But, in economical terms, energy is `The driving force, the universal factor, that enables people to convert natural resources to useful goods and services.` In fact, energy is the heartbeat

AlBitar

1996-01-01

198

Capital in the twenty-first century: a critique.  

PubMed

I set out and explain Piketty's model of the dynamics of capitalism based on two equations and the r?>?g inequality (his central contradiction of capitalism). I then take issue with Piketty's analysis of the rebuilding of inequality from the 1970s to the present on three grounds: First, his model is based on the (neo-classical) assumption that companies are essentially passive actors who invest the amount savers choose to accumulate at equilibrium output - leading to the counterintuitive result that companies respond to the secular fall in growth (and hence their product markets) from the 1970s on by increasing their investment relative to output; this does indeed imply increased inequality on Piketty's ? measure, the ratio of capital to output. I suggest a more realistic model in which businesses determine investment growth based on their expectations of output growth, with monetary policy bringing savings into line with business-determined investment; the implication of this model is that ? does not change at all. And in fact as other recent empirical work which I reference has noted, ? has not changed significantly over these recent decades. Hence Piketty's central analysis of the growth of contemporary inequality requires rethinking. Second, despite many references to the need for political economic analysis, Piketty's analysis of the growth of inequality in the period from the 1970s to the present is almost devoid of it, his explanatory framework being purely mathematical. I sketch what a political economic framework might look like during a period when politics was central to inequality. Third, inequality in fact rose on a variety of dimensions apart from ? (including poverty which Piketty virtually makes no reference to in this period), but it is unclear what might explain why inequality rose in these other dimensions. PMID:25516344

Soskice, David

2014-12-01

199

Old Main: Small Colleges in Twenty-First Century America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This perceptive and cogent account draws on key data and firsthand observations to tell the story of the small college in America. Defined as institutions that enroll between 500 and 3,000 full-time students, small colleges number about six hundred in the United States. Many are thriving, while some--whether through low enrollment, ballooning…

Schuman, Samuel

2005-01-01

200

Satellite communications systems move into the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the evolution of communication satellite systems and communications satellite technology from the 1960's\\u000a to the 1990's. The paper identifies the key attributes of satellite communications that has driven this evolution and now\\u000a drives the future directions such systems will take. The paper then discusses the future direction of communication satellite\\u000a systems including DBS, MSS, FSS and hybrid

Leonard S. Golding

1998-01-01

201

Clomiphene citrate in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Clomiphene citrate is the drug most commonly prescribed for ovulation induction. It is the first choice medication in normogonadotrophic oligo/amenorrhoeic infertility (WHO group 2), essentially associated with polycystic ovaries. Anovulatory women who are responsive to clomiphene citrate should be treated for at least six cycles and the treatment should probably be limited to a maximum of 12 cycles. It is necessary to monitor at least the first cycle with ultrasonography because of the risk of multiple pregnancy and the variable response of patients to different doses of clomiphene. In addition, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome should not be underestimated. More triplets and higher order pregnancies result from ovulation induction than from in vitro fertilization, and multiple pregnancy has many risks for both mother and babies. The role of empirical clomiphene in the treatment of unexplained infertility is debatable and the present data are inconclusive. Obesity, hyperandrogenaemia and insulin resistance are important factors in clomiphene-resistant patients. Failure to ovulate in response to clomiphene has been approached by either medical or surgical treatment. An effective alternative medical treatment is gonadotrophin injections. Treatment with metformin and the new generation of insulin-sensitizing drugs is under evaluation. The most widely used surgical treatment today is laparoscopic ovarian drilling, which appears to be as effective as gonadotrophin therapy. PMID:11591271

Nasseri, S; Ledger, W L

2001-01-01

202

Images of Community Colleges for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses widely held perceptions of the community college, focusing on issues related to student characteristics, elitism, and educational quality. Considers ways of changing public opinions about community colleges by fostering an image of comprehensiveness. Outlines the effect of specific institutional features on the image of a comprehensive…

Savage, Daniel D.

1989-01-01

203

A New Moon for the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty years of lunar sample studies supplemented by spotty remote sensing and geophysical data gave us the broad outline of the nature and geologic history of the Moon. Many cherished beliefs are now being questioned on the basis of global data returned by two bargain-basement missions sent to the Moon in the 1990s, Clementine and Lunar Prospector. These data are being integrated with new and old lunar sample data, to give us new, though still controversial, ideas about the nature of the Moon. Two articles in a special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets) illustrate the point. Brad Jolliff and his colleagues at Washington University in St. Louis, Jeff Gillis, Larry Haskin, Randy Korotev, and Mark Wieczorek (now at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) divide the Moon's crust into distinct geochemical provinces quite different from the traditional highlands (or terra) and maria. In a separate paper, Randy Korotev presents a detailed analysis of a common rock type among the samples returned by the Apollo missions. This rock type, nicknamed enigmatically "LKFM," was thought by many of us to represent the composition of the lower crust everywhere on the Moon. Korotev argues that it is confined to only one of Jolliff's provinces. If correct, this changes our estimates of the composition of the lunar crust, hence of the entire Moon. Although other lunar scientists will scrutinize these new views of the Moon, it is clear that some long-held ideas about the Moon might be modified significantly, if not tossed out completely.

Taylor, G. J.

2000-08-01

204

Renewal: Remaking America's Schools for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harold Kwalwasser has put together a call to action for education reform that makes a clear case for what has to be done in order to educate all children to their full potential. He visited forty high-performing and transforming school districts, charters, parochial, and private schools to understand why they have succeeded where others have…

Kwalwasser, Harold

2012-01-01

205

Challenges in 21st Century Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

Wilson, Thomas L.

2007-01-01

206

The Twenty-First NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication contains the proceedings of the Twenty-First NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held in Tampa, FL, April 26 through April 30, 1993. It provides some comprehensive general papers on the application of finite elements in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre-and postprocessing with other auxiliary programs and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

1993-01-01

207

Tin Oxide Chemistry from the Last Decade of the Nineteenth Century to the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century: Towards the Development of a Big-Picture Approach to the Teaching and Learning of Chemistry while Focussing on a Specific Compound or Class of Compounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discovery of the electron in 1897 deeply impacted the nature of chemistry in the twentieth century. A revolution in the theoretical structure of chemistry as well as in the instrumental tools used in chemical analysis occurred as a result of this discovery. The impact of this revolution on tin oxide chemistry over approximately a 100 year…

de Berg, Kevin C.

2010-01-01

208

Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting  

SciTech Connect

The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

Not Available

1988-04-01

209

77 FR 24632 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

In this document, the Commission announces that the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has approved, for a period of three years, the information collection associated with the Commission's document Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010, (Report and Order). This notice is......

2012-04-25

210

76 FR 20297 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

In this document, the Commission extends the comment and reply comment period deadlines. This action is taken in order to provide a limited extension to serve the public interest by allowing parties additional time to fully and carefully analyze the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking proposing to adopt rules that implement provisions in section 104 of the ``Twenty-first Century Communications and......

2011-04-12

211

21st Century Skills: The Challenges Ahead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The skills that students need for the 21st century are not really new, assert Rotherham and Willingham. Critical thinking, problem solving, information literacy, and global awareness have been important to human progress throughout history, at least among the elites in different societies. What is new is the extent to which individual and…

Rotherham, Andrew J.; Willingham, Daniel

2009-01-01

212

Poisson's ratio over two centuries: challenging hypotheses  

PubMed Central

This article explores Poisson's ratio, starting with the controversy concerning its magnitude and uniqueness in the context of the molecular and continuum hypotheses competing in the development of elasticity theory in the nineteenth century, moving on to its place in the development of materials science and engineering in the twentieth century, and concluding with its recent re-emergence as a universal metric for the mechanical performance of materials on any length scale. During these episodes France lost its scientific pre-eminence as paradigms switched from mathematical to observational, and accurate experiments became the prerequisite for scientific advance. The emergence of the engineering of metals followed, and subsequently the invention of composites—both somewhat separated from the discovery of quantum mechanics and crystallography, and illustrating the bifurcation of technology and science. Nowadays disciplines are reconnecting in the face of new scientific demands. During the past two centuries, though, the shape versus volume concept embedded in Poisson's ratio has remained invariant, but its application has exploded from its origins in describing the elastic response of solids and liquids, into areas such as materials with negative Poisson's ratio, brittleness, glass formation, and a re-evaluation of traditional materials. Moreover, the two contentious hypotheses have been reconciled in their complementarity within the hierarchical structure of materials and through computational modelling. PMID:24687094

Greaves, G. Neville

2013-01-01

213

Developing Creativity Ecosystems: Preparing College Students for Tomorrow's Innovation Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eileen Hulme, Ben Thomas, and Hal DeLaRosby argue for the importance of creativity as a learning outcome and challenge higher education to produce students capable of becoming the innovative leaders the twenty-first-century economy requires.

Hulme, Eileen; Thomas, Ben; DeLaRosby, Hal

2014-01-01

214

Grand Challenges for the 21st Century  

E-print Network

Chicago, Millennium Park 200 North Columbus Drive · Chicago, Illinois 60601 Summit Program #12;prese talks over a day and a half, with discussion panels following several of the talks and a wrap-up session the Chicago summit, a wrap-up report will be available online at www.iit.edu/grand_challenges. our experiences

Heller, Barbara

215

Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

House, James S.

2008-01-01

216

Goals and Objectives of the 21st Century Challenge Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The statewide goals and objectives of Tennessee's plan for educational excellence, the 21st Century Challenge, are outlined in this legislative committee report. The major initiatives under each goal will be implemented within 3 to 4 years. Goals and an example of the several objectives under each goal are: first grade readiness (e.g., require all…

Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

217

Next Century Challenges: Mobile Networking for "Smart Dust"  

E-print Network

Next Century Challenges: Mobile Networking for "Smart Dust" J. M. Kahn, R. H. Katz (ACM Fellow), K into a complete system. We review the key elements of the emer- gent technology of "Smart Dust" and outline and communica- tion capabilities, and a power supply. Berkeley's Smart Dust project, led by Professors Pister

Han, Richard Y.

218

Up to the Challenge: The Role of Career and Technical Education and 21st Century Skills in College and Career Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report highlights the demand for skills in the global economy and the ways in which educators can meet this demand by drawing on both career and technical education and the Partnership for 21st Century Skills' Framework for 21st Century Learning. Twenty-first century skills and career and technical education are essential in every state,…

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010

2010-01-01

219

Entering the 21st century: the challenges for development  

PubMed Central

By many people, the 20th century will be remembered as an era of great achievement in human endeavour, and of enormous economic growth and prosperity. Achievements in medical research, from eradicating infectious diseases to laser surgery; in engineering, from the transistor to space exploration; and in economic development have all contributed to greater well being in the world at the end of the 20th century. Among the challenges to development identified by the World Bank in the coming decades will be managing the twin processes of globalization and localization, as well as post-conflict reconstruction. These will form the backdrop of the Bank's main focus of creating a world free of poverty.

Wolfensohn, J. D.

1999-01-01

220

Challenging Technology, and Technology Infusion into 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparing for the space exploration challenges of the next century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Center for Integrated Space Micro-Systems (CISM) is chartered to develop advanced spacecraft systems that can be adapted for a large spectrum of future space missions. Enabling this task are revolutions in the miniaturization of electrical, mechanical, and computational functions. On the other hand, these revolutionary technologies usually have much lower readiness levels than those required by flight projects. The mission of the Advanced Micro Spacecraft (AMS) task in CISM is to bridge the readiness gap between advanced technologies and flight projects. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Chau, S. N.; Hunter, D. J.

2001-01-01

221

Bacteriophages as twenty-first century antibacterial tools for food and medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasing source of concern in all environments in which these drugs have been used.\\u000a More stringent regulations have led to a slow but sure decrease in antibiotic use in the food industry worldwide, but have\\u000a also stimulated the search for alternative antibacterial agents. In medicine, the number of people infected with pan-resistant\\u000a bacteria is driving research

Damien Maura; Laurent Debarbieux

2011-01-01

222

The Education of Humans and Transhumans in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously philosophers often approached the question of the contents of a liberal arts (or humanistic or general) education from a perspective based on cultural immersion or what the heritage of their special culture told them. Thus the importance of Confucius or Plato or of Buddhism or Christianity, to cite only four examples, in philosophies of education past. Our particular cultural

Charles Tandy

2005-01-01

223

Promise (Un)Fulfilled: Reframing Languages for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Change in higher education, as manifested in curriculum reform, can be particularly difficult as the structures of academia, such as rank and tradition, retard the process. Two recent reports from the Modern Language Association (MLA) strive to address needed curricular adaptations and offer a roadmap of considerations for modifications. The 2007…

Oxford, Raquel

2010-01-01

224

Structures and Strategies for Science Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to determine the ways in which teacher preparation programs will need to change to meet the needs of preparing STEM teachers in the near future, it is necessary to ascertain what STEM teacher preparation programs are actually doing in the present. This chapter presents a comparative analysis of six different science teacher education…

Larkin, Douglas B.

2014-01-01

225

Transforming Schooling through Technology: Twenty-First-Century Approaches to Participatory Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fifty years since the 100th anniversary of John Dewey's birth have marked the emergence of new technologies that afford a wealth of previously unknown approaches to learning, making it not only possible but practicable for Dewey's educational vision of participatory learning to be realized on a mass scale. This article discusses these…

Cunningham, Craig A.

2009-01-01

226

Emerging problems in the coastal zone for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued availability of some marine resources is threatened by the increased fluxes to the oceans of identifiable and measurable collections of pollutants, which include plant nutrients, plastics, environmental oestrogens, and organisms contained in ship-ballast waters. Characteristic of these societal discards that will guide research progress are long residence times; slow accumulation rates; increasing fluxes with time; and dissemination over

Edward D. Goldberg

1995-01-01

227

Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario  

PubMed Central

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH4, and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this reduction of non-CO2 GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties. PMID:10944197

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar

2000-01-01

228

Democracy and Education in the Twenty-First Century: Deweyan Pragmatism and the Question of Racism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why is John Dewey still such an important philosopher today? Writing from the perspective of the Cologne Program of Interactive Constructivism, Stefan Neubert tries in what follows to give one possible answer to this question. Neubert notes that Cologne constructivism considers Dewey in many respects as one of the most important predecessors of…

Neubert, Stefan

2010-01-01

229

Global response of glacier runoff to twenty-first century climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

hydrology of many important river systems in the world is influenced by the presence of glaciers in their upper reaches. We assess the global-scale response of glacier runoff to climate change, where glacier runoff is defined as all melt and rain water that runs off the glacierized area without refreezing. With an elevation-dependent glacier mass balance model, we project monthly glacier runoff for all mountain glaciers and ice caps outside Antarctica until 2100 using temperature and precipitation scenarios from 14 global climate models. We aggregate results for 18 glacierized regions. Despite continuous glacier net mass loss in all regions, trends in annual glacier runoff differ significantly among regions depending on the balance between increased glacier melt and reduction in glacier storage as glaciers shrink. While most regions show significant negative runoff trends, some regions exhibit steady increases in runoff (Canadian and Russian Arctic), or increases followed by decreases (Svalbard and Iceland). Annual glacier runoff is dominated by melt in most regions, but rain is a major contributor in the monsoon-affected regions of Asia and maritime regions such as New Zealand and Iceland. Annual net glacier mass loss dominates total glacier melt especially in some high-latitude regions, while seasonal melt is dominant in wetter climate regimes. Our results highlight the variety of glacier runoff responses to climate change and the need to include glacier net mass loss in assessments of future hydrological change.

Bliss, Andrew; Hock, Regine; Radi?, Valentina

2014-04-01

230

Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews recent literature concerning a wide range of processes through which climate change could potentially impact global-scale agricultural productivity, and presents projections of changes in relevant meteorological, hydrological and plant physiological quantities from a climate model ensemble to illustrate key areas of uncertainty. Few global-scale assessments have been carried out, and these are limited in their ability to capture the uncertainty in climate projections, and omit potentially important aspects such as extreme events and changes in pests and diseases. There is a lack of clarity on how climate change impacts on drought are best quantified from an agricultural perspective, with different metrics giving very different impressions of future risk. The dependence of some regional agriculture on remote rainfall, snowmelt and glaciers adds to the complexity. Indirect impacts via sea-level rise, storms and diseases have not been quantified. Perhaps most seriously, there is high uncertainty in the extent to which the direct effects of CO2 rise on plant physiology will interact with climate change in affecting productivity. At present, the aggregate impacts of climate change on global-scale agricultural productivity cannot be reliably quantified. PMID:20713397

Gornall, Jemma; Betts, Richard; Burke, Eleanor; Clark, Robin; Camp, Joanne; Willett, Kate; Wiltshire, Andrew

2010-01-01

231

A new energy security paradigm for the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers apossible energy future in which the impacts of climate change have been realized far earlier than most experts have previously expected. This has promoted a transition to cleaner energy technologies long before the depletion of fossil fuel resources. In this scenario, the peak in demand for fossil fuels occurs before the peak in supply and some nations are strongly promoting the development and deployment of clean energy technologies. In this scenario the countries of the world would fall into one of the three categories: (1) those willing and readily able to adjust in response to rapid and serious climate change, (2) those willing to adjust, but facing significant economic hardship without external assistance and protection, (3) and those unwilling and, perhaps unable to play a part in combating climate change. This paper considers how countries in the first two categories could respond by adjusting their foreign, trade and even military policies. Within a generation, the great powers might find themselves shifting from keeping trade routes open to constraining the same trade. Severe climate change impacts could even approach the timescale of technological innovation needed to respond to this crisis. This paper proposes that our world may need new military and foreign policy options as well as new energy technology options in the years to come.

Nuttall, W.J.; Manz, D.L. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Judge Business School

2008-10-15

232

Therapeutic antibodies for human diseases at the dawn of the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies are highly specific, naturally evolved molecules that recognize and eliminate pathogenic and disease antigens. The past 30 years of antibody research have hinted at the promise of new versatile therapeutic agents to fight cancer, autoimmune diseases and infection. Technology development and the testing of new generations of antibody reagents have altered our view of how they might be used

Inger Sandlie; Ole Henrik Brekke

2003-01-01

233

Austerity/Immiseration Capitalism and Islamophobia--or Twenty-First-Century Multicultural Socialism?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is in three parts. In part one, the author begins by examining the onset of austerity/immiseration capitalism in the United Kingdom. Austerity/immiseration capitalism has witnessed the decline of state multiculturalism and increasing attempts to deflect attention away from the failures of capitalism by playing the "race…

Cole, Mike

2014-01-01

234

Twenty first century trends in silicone hydrogel contact lens fitting: an international perspective.  

PubMed

Silicone hydrogel contact lenses were introduced into the market in 1999. To assess prescribing trends of this lens type since then, up to 1000 survey forms were sent to contact lens fitters in Australia, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK and the USA each year between 2000 and 2008. Practitioners were asked to record data relating to the first 10 contact lens fits or refits performed after receiving the survey form. Analysis of returned forms revealed a rapid increase in the prescribing of silicone hydrogel lenses over the survey period. In 2008, silicone hydrogel lenses represented 36% of all soft lenses prescribed. The categorization of the majority of lenses prescribed as 'refits' is primarily attributed to the mass conversion of lens wearers from hydrogel to silicone hydrogel lenses. Silicone hydrogels may soon represent the majority of soft contact lenses prescribed. PMID:20056474

Morgan, Philip B; Efron, Nathan; Helland, Magne; Itoi, Motozumi; Jones, Deborah; Nichols, Jason J; van der Worp, Eef; Woods, Craig A

2010-08-01

235

Oral rehydration therapy in the second decade of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Oral rehydration solution (ORS) was established as the cornerstone of therapy for dehydration secondary to acute infectious diarrhea approximately 40 years ago. The efficacy of ORS is based on the ability of glucose to stimulate Na and fluid absorption in the small intestine via a cyclic AMP-independent process. Despite the establishment that ORS is the primary reason for the substantial reduction in morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in children in developing countries, the use of ORS has lagged for many reasons. This review highlights efforts to establish a major reformulation of ORS following the demonstration that short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) stimulate colonic Na and fluid absorption by a cyclic AMP-independent mechanism. The addition of high-amylose maize starch (HAMS), a microbially-fermentable (or 'resistant') starch, to ORS results in delivery of non-absorbed carbohydrate to the colon where it is fermented to SCFA. To date, three randomized controlled trials with a HAMS-ORS in south India have demonstrated a substantial decrease in diarrhea duration in both adults and children hospitalized for acute diarrhea. Significant efforts are now underway to establish this dual-action, modified HAMS-hypoosmolar ORS solution as the standard ORS for the treatment of dehydration from acute diarrhea. PMID:24562469

Binder, Henry J; Brown, Ian; Ramakrishna, B S; Young, Graeme P

2014-03-01

236

Promoting Gender Equality at Work: Turning Vision into Reality for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains papers in which 12 experienced gender specialists examine the various developments and elements affecting women's participation as equal players in the workplace and propose actions and policies promoting sex equity in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Preface" (Mary Chinery-Hesse); "Introduction " (Eugenia…

Date-Bah, Eugenia, Ed.

237

Leadership Competence Educational Model for a Twenty-First Century Nursing Doctoral Education in Contemporary Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author proposes a nursing education model about leadership that can be used to improve the leadership skills of nursing doctoral students. This model is developed at the University of Michigan School of Nursing. In developing this model, the author had the opportunity to observe the University of Michigan, School of Nursing…

Terzioglu, Fusun

2011-01-01

238

Special Education for the Twenty-First Century: Integrating Learning Strategies and Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This critique of Edwin Ellis's Integrative Strategy Instruction model for integrating cognitive strategies into content area learning for students with learning disabilities comments on the model's similarities to other cognitive strategy training models, the role of mnemonic techniques in content area learning, and the need to incorporate…

Scruggs, Thomas E.; Mastropieri, Margo A.

1993-01-01

239

from the President How should innovation be defined in the twenty-first century?  

E-print Network

the portable cell phone, barcode technology, the wireless remote control, and smart electricity grids cell phone, barcode technology, and the wireless remote control. IIT faculty and students are advancing to create what does not now exist--and our graduates have a strong track record of coming up with new ideas

240

Community Learning Centers: A Reality for the Twenty-first Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides information about the creation and implementation of 12 community learning centers at selected high schools within the Lane Community College (Oregon) district. Community learning centers are founded on the belief that high schools are the center of education in communities and that community colleges should take…

Warford, Larry J.

241

Twenty-First Century Learning in States: The Case of the Massachusetts Educational System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission and vision statements of most educational institutions usually share the same lofty goal: to prepare students academically and socially for the opportunities they will face in their future adult lives. Unfortunately, this goal is not being met, and today's generation is facing a crisis going largely unnoticed. Today's graduates appear…

Driscoll, David P.

2006-01-01

242

INTRODUCTION In the twenty-first century, educational institutions at all levels face calls for  

E-print Network

28.6 (2002). 380. #12;2 and programs, library instruction of information literacy skills has to evaluate the teaching of information literacy concepts and skills" independently from institutional in education. Lichtenstein laments: Too often, librarians approach the design of information literacy programs

Oakleaf, Megan

243

"Imitatio" Revisited: Its Theoretical and Practical Implications into the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The instructional practice of imitation works most effectively as a developmental and remedial instrument within a writing-centered, student-centered pedagogy. In this context, imitation can accelerate natural language acquisition and encourage language competence and control, thus enabling student writers to focus their attention on particular…

Walborn, Eric D.

244

The Art of Negotiation: What the Twenty-First Century Business Student Should Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negotiation skills are vital for concluding international treaties on subjects ranging from arms agreements, and rights in outer space to trade agreements. Yet the importance of being able to negotiate effectively is not limited to international treaties or crises situations. Using negotiation exercises represents a student-centered approach to…

McClendon, Bill; Burke, Debra D.; Willey, Lorrie

2010-01-01

245

Global Learning as General Education for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Global awareness has emerged as a valued learning outcome in higher education. Students need repeated and on-going learning opportunities to develop the global competencies and habits of mind that are necessary to navigate our increasingly interconnected and complex world. This paper argues that situating an introductory global studies course into…

Reich, Jacqueline C.

2012-01-01

246

Nuclear weapons, proliferation, and terrorism: U.S. response in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

As the remaining superpower in the post-Cold War world, the US needs to re-evaluate its policy toward the growing threat to US national interests and the effects of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), specifically nuclear devices, and their use by terrorist groups against US interests abroad. As the world reacts to the implosion of the former Soviet Union, there are increased numbers of nations and possibly terrorist groups trying to become players in the international arena. This study describes the ease of obtaining the scientific knowledge, plans, and materials to enable a terrorist`s construction of a nuclear device. It also analyzes motivation of terrorist groups, concluding that a nuclear weapon, capable of inflicting violence in the extreme, fulfills the terrorist`s goal of violence in support of a political agenda or to inspire radical change. Given the guidance from the national level, this study proposes a series of policy options available to the NCA for application in an aggressive counterproliferation policy. Finally, the US must rapidly reorganize its counterproliferation structure and methods to streamline a more aggressive approach that is recognized and feared by potential nuclear terrorists; augment current political efforts with a clearly defined counterproliferation military mission and associated doctrine.

DeLawter, D.A.

1998-11-01

247

Accessing Canadian Federal Information: A Depository Program for the Twenty-First Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the current status and future of Canada's Depository Service Program (DSP) for government information. The first section discusses the depository model, including changes due to information technology and decentralization of government authority. Access and preservation are addressed in the second section, including the…

Gnassi, Bruno

248

Music Education for Life: Building Inclusive, Effective Twenty-First-Century Music Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines how to make music programs more inclusive and therefore enable music teachers to compete more effectively for enrollment. Fortunately, music affords teachers many compelling options to win the hearts and minds of students, and thereby to create a more musically literate and supportive public. The author suggests that music…

Shuler, Scott C.

2011-01-01

249

Are catenas relevant to soil maps and pedology in Iowa in the twenty-first century?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modern intensity of agriculture brings to question whether anthropogenic impacts on soil profiles and catenas in agricultural areas are minor or dominant pedogenic influences. Answering this question is crucial to evaluating the modern relevance of historic soil maps, which use the traditional catena model as their foundation. This study quantifies the magnitude of change within the soil profile and across the landscape that result from decadal scale agriculture. Four benchmark catenas located on the Des Moines Lobe in Iowa, USA, were re-examined to determine the changes that occurred in the soils over the intervening years. The first site was initially studied by Walker and Ruhe in the mid 1960's. Burras and Scholtes initially examined the second catena in the early 1980's, while the remaining two catenas were first studied in the early 1990's by Steinwand and Fenton, and the late 1990's by Konen. Thus, the catenas were re-sampled for this study roughly 50, 30, 20, and 15 years, respectively, after the initial study. In this part of Iowa, continuous row crop agriculture (primarily Zea mays and Glycine max) and extensive subsurface drainage are very common. All study sites are closed-basin catenas located within 40 km of each other with a parent material of Late Wisconsinan glacial till. Soil cores to a depth of approximately two meters were taken with a truck mounted Giddings hydraulic soil sampler at 27 to 30 meter intervals along one transect for each of the four catenas, resulting in a total of forty-eight cores. The soil cores were then brought to the laboratory where soil descriptions and laboratory analyses are being completed. Soil descriptions include information about horizon type and depth, Munsell color, texture, rock fragments, structure, consistence, clay films, roots, pores, presence of carbonates, and redoximorphic features. Laboratory analyses include bulk density, particle size, total carbon and nitrogen content, cation exchange capacity, stable aggregate content, and pH. The resulting data is being analyzed and compared to historic data and models of pedogenesis. Preliminary and anticipated results indicate that soil properties such as bulk density, pH, geometric mean particle size, structure, A-horizon thickness, carbon distribution, depth to carbonates, and redoximorphic features have been altered by agricultural land use over the past 50 years. This indicates that anthropogenic impacts due to agriculture are a significant pedogenic influence, which is decreasing the scientific value of historic soil maps.

Richter, Jennifer; Burras, C. Lee

2014-05-01

250

Leading Change: Jesuit Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored perceptions of possible future scenarios for Jesuit higher education in the United States by the year 2030. This study focused on two questions, (a) How do leaders perceive the future of Jesuit higher education? and (b) What key factors identified by these leaders will lead to the most desirable outcome for Jesuit higher…

Lowdon, Melissa

2010-01-01

251

ULTRACLEAN FUELS PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: ADVANCES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

SciTech Connect

Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

Fox, E.

2013-06-17

252

Living Divided No More: A Journey into Health in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article begins to explore the idea of health. It begins to ask questions about where the idea of health comes from, what it means to different people in different places and why it should matter. As society has been increasingly confronted with the realities of a more economically and technologically driven global society, health has evolved…

Carter, Erin

2011-01-01

253

Historical climatology, Climatic Change , and implications for climate science in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical climatology is the use of documentary evidence for the reconstruction of past climate. This paper gives a brief\\u000a personal view of the development of the discipline from early times to the present day. Although several papers have been\\u000a published on the importance of carefully analysing and evaluating all historical sources before they are used in climate reconstructions,\\u000a several of

A. E. J. Ogilvie

2010-01-01

254

The Adventurous School: Vision, Community and Curriculum for Primary Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Adventurous School" tells the uplifting stories of three primary schools who took charge of renewing their vision, their place in the community and their curriculum to become environments where children, teachers, parents and partners thrived. The book takes the reader through each school's five year journey and gives real-life practical…

Reed, Jane; Maskell, Kathy; Allinson, David; Bailey, Rosemary; Bates, Fernanda; Davies, Sian; Gallimore, Catherine

2012-01-01

255

From Crisis to Opportunity: French and Foreign Language Studies in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to falling enrollments in French and a diminishing pool of high school teachers, faculty at Auburn University tried to turn the tide through a series of curricular and advocacy initiatives. They introduced new French majors in education and in international trade and a collaborative major with the Consumer Affairs Department in French…

Spencer, Samia I.

2003-01-01

256

Authenticity in Learning for the Twenty-First Century: Bridging the Formal and the Informal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper attempts to bridge informal and formal learning by leveraging on affordance structures associated with informal environments to help learners develop social, cognitive, and metacognitive dispositions that can be applied to learning in classrooms. Most studies focus on either learning in formal or informal contexts, but this study seeks…

Hung, David; Lee, Shu-Shing; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

2012-01-01

257

Advocacy for malaria prevention, control, and research in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Until recent years, public interest and political investment in malaria prevention, control, and research have been stagnant. The global malaria agenda is now experiencing an unprecedented time of public and political will and momentum. At the heart of this favorable period lies a nascent, but increasingly sophisticated, global advocacy effort that has contributed to new and expanded malaria funding, programs, and technology. This paper reviews the elements of malaria's rise to political and public prominence, tracks the increase in funding and policy commitments to malaria over the past decade, and comments on an evolving policymaking progress, increasing transparency and accountability in program governance, and the impact of philanthropic investments in malaria advocacy. In addition, the principles of sound advocacy are described along with the mechanisms that will underlie sustained pro-political momentum for malaria research, resources, and results. "Today, we have begun to write the final chapter in the history of malaria. We have raised hopes and expectations of our people--we must not let them down. We cannot afford to let them down." --His Excellency Olusegan Obasanjo, President of Nigeria, Abuja Summit 2000. PMID:18165508

Bates, Nicole; Herrington, James

2007-12-01

258

Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

Humans have hunted wildlife in Central Africa for millennia. Today, however, many species are being rapidly extirpated and sanctuaries for wildlife are dwindling. Almost all Central Africa's forests are now accessible to hunters. Drastic declines of large mammals have been caused in the past 20 years by the commercial trade for meat or ivory. We review a growing body of empirical data which shows that trophic webs are significantly disrupted in the region, with knock-on effects for other ecological functions, including seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Plausible scenarios for land-use change indicate that increasing extraction pressure on Central African forests is likely to usher in new worker populations and to intensify the hunting impacts and trophic cascade disruption already in progress, unless serious efforts are made for hunting regulation. The profound ecological changes initiated by hunting will not mitigate and may even exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change for the region. We hypothesize that, in the near future, the trophic changes brought about by hunting will have a larger and more rapid impact on Central African rainforest structure and function than the direct impacts of climate change on the vegetation. Immediate hunting regulation is vital for the survival of the Central African rainforest ecosystem. PMID:23878333

Abernethy, K. A.; Coad, L.; Taylor, G.; Lee, M. E.; Maisels, F.

2013-01-01

259

Globalisation and Societal Culture: Redefining Schooling and School Leadership in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concept of globalization and explores the relationship between globalization and societal culture. States the transfer between systems must be more culturally sensitive. Offers a list of cultural dimensions to gauge the influence of cultures. Argues that greater cultural sensitivity is necessary when raising issues on school reform…

Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

2000-01-01

260

Educating the Creative Workforce: New Directions for Twenty-First Century Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article sets out reasons for arguing that creativity is not garnish to the roast of industry or of education--i.e. the reasoning behind Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi's insistence that creativity is not only about elites but involves everyone. This article investigates three key domains--scholarship, commerce and learning--to argue the importance…

McWilliam, Erica; Haukka, Sandra

2008-01-01

261

Christoph Buchel v. Mass MoCA: A "Tilted Arc" for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tension among the different models for understanding the relation between the artist and the artwork is brought most explosively to light when legal battles erupt between artists and institutions. This can be found in both the "Tilted Arc" controversy of the 1980s and in a recent dispute involving the Swiss installation artist Christoph Buchel…

Gover, K. E.

2012-01-01

262

Seamless Transition in the Twenty-First Century: Partnering to Survive and Thrive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative efforts appear to have great potential for increasing effectiveness and efficiency in the fiscally constrained environment of higher education. However, they represent a relatively new organizational arrangement about which we know very little. To better understand this new arrangement, it is helpful to consider the conditions that…

Hoffman-Johnson, Gail

2007-01-01

263

A library for the fifteenth through the twenty-first centuries.  

PubMed Central

The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), began developing a program for a new library in 1977, started the design in 1985, began construction in 1988, and opened the library in September 1990. The primary objectives were to design and build a facility that would house print collections under optimal conditions, allow for ten years' growth, be flexible enough to permit future reconfiguration, support present and future technologies, and provide beautiful spaces in which to study. The planning process is summarized, planning concepts are outlined, and considerations for the electronic library are briefly reviewed. Images PMID:2039900

Cooper, R S

1991-01-01

264

Unruly Bodies: The Rhetorical Domestication of Twenty-First-Century Veterans of War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Veterans of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with visually identifiable injuries possess "unruly" bodies that render the story of war in efficient, emotional terms. The injured veteran's explicit connection of war with injury motivates state and mainstream news discourse that domesticates veterans' bodies, managing representations of injured veterans…

Achter, Paul

2010-01-01

265

Twenty-first century doctoral education: online with a focus on nursing education.  

PubMed

The acute shortage of doctorally prepared nursing faculty has prompted the nursing profession to look to new and creative ways of delivering doctoral-level preparation to currently employed nurse educators. The development of an online PhD program, based on recommended benchmark guidelines for a "best practice" approach to Internet-based education, led to a program evaluation matrix for formative and summative student advising and program review. In addition, efforts to seek the student voice in formative as well as summative evaluation provided a well-rounded plan to monitor program outcomes based on recommended benchmark guidelines. The results of first-year student feedback and perceptions reflect that online PhD program delivery promotes high quality professional socialization, mentoring, and student-faculty interaction. The online education experience has served as a stimulus for the incorporation of new learning into the student workplace setting, provides opportunity for educational access not previously available, and builds strong personal and professional relationships among nurse educators. PMID:18240740

Leners, Debra Woodard; Wilson, Vicki W; Sitzman, Kathleen L

2007-01-01

266

Twenty-First Century Skills and School Programs: Implementation at a Suburban Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under-utilization of human potential coupled with the need to maintain alignment with the demands imposed by globalization (e.g. sustainable development, citizenship, self-actualization, ability to respond to the emergence of cutting-edge technologies) have led to calls for policy and practice reorientations in the field of education. In response,…

Uduigwome, George Esele

2012-01-01

267

Project Kaleidoscope 2.0: Leadership for Twenty-First Century STEM Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been over twenty years since the publication of reports calling for increased efforts to reform undergraduate STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education. There are more STEM classrooms today that utilize "pedagogies of engagement" than there were twenty years ago; however, these kinds of learning environments are…

Elrod, Susan

2010-01-01

268

North Atlantic Ocean Wave Climate Change Scenarios for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the observed relationships between sea level pressure (SLP) and significant wave height (SWH) as represented by regression models, climate change scenarios of SWH in the North Atlantic were constructed by means of redundancy analysis (for seasonal means and 90th percentiles of SWH) and nonstationary generalized extreme value analysis (for seasonal extreme SWH). SWH scenarios are constructed using output from

Xiaolan L. Wang; Francis W. Zwiers; Val R. Swail

2004-01-01

269

Global Warming in the Twenty-First Century: An Alternative Scenario  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH4, and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this reduction of non-CO2 GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties.

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar; Travis, Larry (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

270

Introductory Programming Languages at Australian Universities at the Beginning of the Twenty First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introductory programming instructors in Australian universities are choosing the programming language they teach primarily based on a perception of industry demand. This paper examines if this perception is justifiable, and offers instructors of all programming languages an insight into the issue of academic and industry balance, now and into the future.

Michael De Raadt; Richard Watson; Mark A. Toleman

2003-01-01

271

Strengthening Media Education in the Twenty-First Century: Opportunities for the State of Pennsylvania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article defines media education and places it in the context of contemporary research on the arts, culture, and economic and social development. The author reviews current instructional settings where media analysis and media production activities are now occurring in K-12 education in Pennsylvania. This article then describes how other…

Hobbs, Renee

2005-01-01

272

A double-edged sword: twenty-first century workplace trends and gender equality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to uncover the hidden gender consequences of three current trends in the workplace, the increase in knowledge work, information and communication technology (ICT) and work-life balance policies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper synthesizes and analyses existing empirical evidence from research on knowledge work, work-life balance and boundary, women's work and careers. Findings –

Doris Ruth Eikhof

2012-01-01

273

Planning for the Twenty-First Century: The California State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the DELTA (Direct Electronic Learning Teaching Alternative) project at California State University that was developed to promote distance education methods to prepare for future needs. Computer networks, the role of library and information science education, media access, collaborative work, and instructional resources are discussed.…

Sutton, Stuart A.

1996-01-01

274

Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century: Recent Advances in Economic Theory and Undergraduate Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate economics lags behind cutting-edge economic theory. The author briefly reviews six related advances that profoundly extend and deepen economic analysis: game-theoretic modeling, collective-action problems, information economics and contracting, social preference theory, conceptualizing rationality, and institutional theory. He offers…

Ferguson, William D.

2011-01-01

275

The Humanities Are Not a Luxury: A Manifesto for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The humanities are at the heart of knowing about the human condition; they are not a luxury. The erosion of support for the humanities and the perennial anxiety about the state of the humanities are systemic. The author contends that until people acknowledge this fact, they will keep lurching from one point to another, unable to recognize the…

Smith, Martha Nell

2011-01-01

276

Dance Education Matters: Rebuilding Postsecondary Dance Education for Twenty-First Century Relevance and Resonance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postsecondary dance education is at a crucial juncture in its history in academe. Emerging from women's physical education programs in the 1930s, the profession's realignment with the arts broadly and arts-based education specifically has been characterized by ambitious goals and steady growth through the 1990s. However, a number of critical…

Risner, Doug

2010-01-01

277

Science and Pseudoscience: A Course for the Citizen of the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course for general education students focusing on current topics in science, titled pseudoscience. Includes the course's goals, objectives, problems, instructional methods, and results of student performance. (DS)

Howes, Ruth; Watson, James, Jr.

1981-01-01

278

Online business education in the twenty-first century: an analysis of potential target markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of online business education seems quite bright. Three-fifths of the 1,700 US institutions of higher learning that are engaged in distance education – 55 percent of which offer credit-bearing business courses – already use some form of Internet-based technology. Nonetheless, there have been no large-scale studies of potential online business students in terms of their traits and desires.

Joel R. Evans; Ilene M. Haase

2001-01-01

279

Why technology matters: the humanities in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computing and digitisation are transforming not only the conditions of work for human- ists, but also the ways in which humanists think and their disciplines are configured. The digital world both enables and compels new ways of thinking. And, significantly, it is just as transformative of teaching as it is of scholarship. Indeed, the most interesting thing about the new

Stanley N. Katz

2005-01-01

280

A Review on Stereoscopic 3D: Home Entertainment for the Twenty First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, stereoscopic developed very rapidly and employed in many different fields such as entertainment. Due to the importance of entertainment aspect of stereoscopic 3D (S3D) applications, a review of the current state of S3D development in entertainment technology is conducted. In this paper, a novel survey of the stereoscopic entertainment aspects is presented by discussing the significant development of a 3D cinema, the major development of 3DTV, the issues related to 3D video content and 3D video games. Moreover, we reviewed some problems that can be caused in the viewers' visual system from watching stereoscopic contents. Some stereoscopic viewers are not satisfied as they are frustrated from wearing glasses, have visual fatigue, complain from unavailability of 3D contents, and/or complain from some sickness. Therefore, we will discuss stereoscopic visual discomfort and to what extend the viewer will have an eye fatigue while watching 3D contents or playing 3D games. The suggested solutions in the literature for this problem are discussed.

Karajeh, Huda; Maqableh, Mahmoud; Masa'deh, Ra'ed

2014-12-01

281

Reducing health disparities in the twenty-first century: opportunities for nursing research.  

PubMed

This article highlights selected components of the National Institute of Nursing Research's (NINR) Strategic Plan on Reducing Health Disparities. Building on its long history of supporting research devoted to improving minority health, NINR has expanded its opportunities and efforts related to health disparities and enhancing the research career development of minority investigators. Given the increased emphasis on reducing and, ultimately, eliminating health disparities, nurse researchers are encouraged to explore the various opportunities provided by NINR when addressing health inequalities. PMID:12085025

Phillips, Janice; Grady, Patricia A

2002-01-01

282

Adapting the International System of Units to the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

We review the proposal of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (Comité International des Poids et Mesures, CIPM), currently being considered by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (Conférences Générales des Poids et Mesures, CGPM), to revise the International System of Units (Le Système International d'Unitès, SI). The proposal includes new definitions for four of the seven base units of the SI, and a new form of words to present the definitions of all the units. The objective of the proposed changes is to adopt definitions referenced to constants of nature, taken in the widest sense, so that the definitions may be based on what are believed to be true invariants. In particular, whereas in the current SI the kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole are linked to exact numerical values of the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram, the magnetic constant (permeability of vacuum), the triple-point temperature of water and the molar mass of carbon-12, respectively, in the new SI these units are linked to exact numerical values of the Planck constant, the elementary charge, the Boltzmann constant and the Avogadro constant, respectively. The new wording used expresses the definitions in a simple and unambiguous manner without the need for the distinction between base and derived units. The importance of relations among the fundamental constants to the definitions, and the importance of establishing a mise en pratique for the realization of each definition, are also discussed. PMID:21930556

Mills, Ian M; Mohr, Peter J; Quinn, Terry J; Taylor, Barry N; Williams, Edwin R

2011-10-28

283

Critical Digital Literacies: Following Feminist Composition Theories into Twenty-First Century Contact Zones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines how the interests of feminist composition theory, digital media, and new literacies studies intersect within the research context of the first-year writing classroom. Specifically, this project examines what happens to the "contact zone" (Pratt 1991; Bizzell 1994) of first-year composition when we introduce digital…

Blackburn, Jessica B.

2010-01-01

284

'Health-for-All' in the twenty-first century: a global perspective.  

PubMed

Changes in the broad determinants of health since the Alma Ata Conference in 1978 necessitate a renewed examination of the underlying principles and focus of the Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy. The PHC approach has been adopted by most countries and has led to improved access to certain basic health services. However, the health gains in other areas are less encouraging. Some elements of the PHC approach, for example, the effective implementation of equity-oriented health policies and the need to improve management principles within health services, have yet to be fully implemented. Moreover, to address the underlying determinants of health status, the World Health Organization's (WHO) renewed global health policy will have to include certain issues that were not considered at Alma Ata. For example, the health impacts of global recession and globalization and the need for human-centered sustainable development strategies were not considered at Alma Ata. A renewed global health policy will also have to consider demographic, epidemiological, environmental and technological changes that have emerged since 1978. It is important that WHO's renewed policy be based on sound evidence, a commitment to ethical principles and broad use of partnerships for health at global, national and local levels. One implication of this new context of health development for the renewed health policy will be that 'thinking globally and acting locally' will have to complemented by stronger global action to protect local and national health. PMID:9153989

Yach, D

1997-01-01

285

How to Use Pragmatism Pragmatically? Suggestions for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This purpose of this paper is to indicate how one should understand John Dewey's attention to and appreciation for the methods and views of modern science. Against the idea that Dewey is a believer in the methods and views of modern science--which would make his philosophy into a form of positivism or scientism--the author argues that Dewey's…

Biesta, Gert J. J.

2009-01-01

286

New Directions: Federal Education Policy in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributors to this collection examine how today's federal education programs work and show how, instead of working for school improvement, these programs have begun to function as obstacles to the efforts of reform-minded states and schools. The following essays are included: (1) "Overview: Thirty-Four Years of Dashed Hopes" (Chester E. Finn,…

Kanstoroom, Marci, Ed.; Finn, Chester E., Jr., Ed.

287

STEM education: A deficit framework for the twenty first century? A sociocultural socioscientific response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ubiquitous of STEM education initiatives in recent years has created a bandwagon that has moved at nearly light speed. The impulse of the science education community and policy-makers is to grab hold for dear life or be marginalized from subsequent discussions about the necessity and consequences of using STEM initiatives to prepare and inform our next generation of citizens. This commentary questions the prudence of STEM-related science education goals, as typically represented and discussed in the literature, and likens the current practice to a deficit framework. A sociocultural perspective framed through socioscientific considerations is offered as an alternative conceptualization as well as surplus model to hegemonic STEM practices.

Zeidler, Dana L.

2014-06-01

288

Ceremony Earth: Digitizing Silko's Novel for Students of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students the author has taught get frustrated when they read Leslie Silko's canonical Native American novel, "Ceremony". Not only do they struggle with Silko's disruptions of linear temporality and her collapsing of binary oppositions, but they also struggle with the novel's geographic and cultural location. To help students better understand…

Mott, Rick

2011-01-01

289

TRADE REFORM, THE WTO AND CHINA's FOOD ECONOMY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of the paper is to address the policy changes that accompany China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and evaluate the various impacts of the agreement. To do so, we review the contours of past policies and describe the nature of the promises it has made to the WTO. We show that China's WTO commitments are

Jikun Huang; Scott Rozelle

2003-01-01

290

Impact of enhanced geothermal systems on US energy supply in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Recent national focus on the value of increasing US supplies of indigenous renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well distributed nationally. A panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of geothermal becoming a major supplier of primary energy for US base-load generation capacity by 2050. Primary energy produced from both conventional hydrothermal and enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS) was considered on a national scale. This paper summarizes the work of the panel which appears in complete form in a 2006 MIT report, 'The future of geothermal energy' parts 1 and 2. In the analysis, a comprehensive national assessment of US geothermal resources, evaluation of drilling and reservoir technologies and economic modelling was carried out. The methodologies employed to estimate geologic heat flow for a range of geothermal resources were utilized to provide detailed quantitative projections of the EGS resource base for the USA. Thirty years of field testing worldwide was evaluated to identify the remaining technology needs with respect to drilling and completing wells, stimulating EGS reservoirs and converting geothermal heat to electricity in surface power and energy recovery systems. Economic modelling was used to develop long-term projections of EGS in the USA for supplying electricity and thermal energy. Sensitivities to capital costs for drilling, stimulation and power plant construction, and financial factors, learning curve estimates, and uncertainties and risks were considered. PMID:17272236

Tester, Jefferson W; Anderson, Brian J; Batchelor, Anthony S; Blackwell, David D; DiPippo, Ronald; Drake, Elisabeth M; Garnish, John; Livesay, Bill; Moore, Michal C; Nichols, Kenneth; Petty, Susan; Toksoz, M Nafi; Veatch, Ralph W; Baria, Roy; Augustine, Chad; Murphy, Enda; Negraru, Petru; Richards, Maria

2007-04-15

291

Teaching World History in the Twenty-First Century: A Resource Book  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practical handbook is designed to help anyone who is preparing to teach a world history course--or wants to teach it better. It opens with Peter Stearns's essay "Where Did World History Come From?" and closes with Jerry Bentley's annotated bibliographic guide to the essential content knowledge for teaching world history. In between,…

Roupp, Heidi, Ed.

2009-01-01

292

Training in the Twenty-First Century: Where Do We Go from Here?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven trends are emerging in the corporate training and development sector of human resource development (HRD). First, there is an increasing corporate commitment for training. Employers are viewing training today as an essential element in their competitive business strategies. Second, customer service training is becoming the competitive weapon…

Spikes, W. Franklin, III

293

Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

2014-01-01

294

76 FR 56658 - Video Description Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

In this document, the Commission announces that the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has approved, for a period of three years, the information collection requirements contained in the regulations for issues relating to the video description rules. The final information collection requirements were approved on September 8, 2011 by OMB. The Commission received OMB preapproval for the proposed......

2011-09-14

295

Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

Not Available

1992-12-31

296

Seekers after Truth? Images of Postgraduate Research and Researchers in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western cultural practices contribute to our understanding of the purpose of higher education and how we are to conduct ourselves in educational contexts. In this article, entitled "Seekers after truth?", I analyse recent works of popular fiction which draw on and contribute to the idea that postgraduate research is a process of locating and…

Kelly, Frances

2012-01-01

297

Assessing quality in cardiac surgery: why this is necessary in the twenty-first century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cost and high-profile nature of coronary surgery means that this is an area of close public scrutiny. As much pioneering work in data collection and risk analyses has been carried out by cardiac surgeons, substantial information exists and the correct interpretation of that data is identified as an important issue. This paper considers the background and history of risk-adjustment in cardiac surgery, the uses of quality data, examines the observed/expected mortality ratio and looks at issues such as cost and reactions to outliers. The conclusion of the study is that the continuation of accurate data collection by the whole operative team and a strong commitment to constantly improving quality is crucial to its meaningful application.

Swain, J. A.; Hartz, R. S.

2000-01-01

298

Fermilab Industrial Affiliates roundtable on research technology in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

This collection of articles presents views on the future of physics research by leading experts in the field. Topics discussed include particle physics, the Superconducting Super Collider, and the development of new superconducting materials. The articles have been abstracted and indexed separately.

Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Fenner, R.B. (eds.)

1987-05-01

299

Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

Stachokas, George

2009-01-01

300

Relevant and Effective Theological Education in the Context of Twenty-First Century South Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay considers Christian theological education in South Asia highlighting pertinent issues in pedagogical content, form, method, and praxis. Debunking the notion of students as "empty bottles" to be filled, and criticizing the top-down model of education, the paper argues that theological education is an ongoing and interactive process in…

Raja, Joshva; Rajkumar, Peniel Jesudason Rufus

2010-01-01

301

North American Climate in CMIP5 Experiments: Part III: Assessment of Twenty-First-Century Projections*  

E-print Network

HU,f XIANAN JIANG,g NATHANIEL JOHNSON,h KRISTOPHER B. KARNAUSKAS,i JAMES KINTER,j,k BENJAMIN KIRTMAN and Atmospheric Sciences, St. Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri s Department of Geography, University

302

Contrasting patterns of early twenty-first-century glacier mass change in the Himalayas.  

PubMed

Glaciers are among the best indicators of terrestrial climate variability, contribute importantly to water resources in many mountainous regions and are a major contributor to global sea level rise. In the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya region (HKKH), a paucity of appropriate glacier data has prevented a comprehensive assessment of current regional mass balance. There is, however, indirect evidence of a complex pattern of glacial responses in reaction to heterogeneous climate change signals. Here we use satellite laser altimetry and a global elevation model to show widespread glacier wastage in the eastern, central and south-western parts of the HKKH during 2003-08. Maximal regional thinning rates were 0.66?±?0.09 metres per year in the Jammu-Kashmir region. Conversely, in the Karakoram, glaciers thinned only slightly by a few centimetres per year. Contrary to expectations, regionally averaged thinning rates under debris-mantled ice were similar to those of clean ice despite insulation by debris covers. The 2003-08 specific mass balance for our entire HKKH study region was -0.21?±?0.05?m?yr(-1) water equivalent, significantly less negative than the estimated global average for glaciers and ice caps. This difference is mainly an effect of the balanced glacier mass budget in the Karakoram. The HKKH sea level contribution amounts to one per cent of the present-day sea level rise. Our 2003-08 mass budget of -12.8?±?3.5 gigatonnes (Gt) per year is more negative than recent satellite-gravimetry-based estimates of -5?±?3?Gt?yr(-1) over 2003-10 (ref. 12). For the mountain catchments of the Indus and Ganges basins, the glacier imbalance contributed about 3.5% and about 2.0%, respectively, to the annual average river discharge, and up to 10% for the Upper Indus basin. PMID:22914167

Kääb, Andreas; Berthier, Etienne; Nuth, Christopher; Gardelle, Julie; Arnaud, Yves

2012-08-23

303

Seeing the Light: Religious Colleges in Twenty-First-Century America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samuel Schuman examines the place of religious colleges and universities, particularly evangelical Protestant institutions, in contemporary American higher education. Many faith-based schools are flourishing. They have rigorous academic standards, impressive student recruitment, ambitious philanthropic goals, and well-maintained campuses and…

Schuman, Samuel

2009-01-01

304

The New Face of Genetics: Creating A Multimedia Educational Tool for the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study of certain genetic conditions, it is important to understand the specific "dysmorphology" associated with them. This describes the unique anatomical manifestations of the genetic condition. Traditionally, students learn about dysmorphology by reading text descriptions or looking at photographs of affected individuals. The New Face of Genetics is a film project that aims to teach students dysmorphology by featuring people who have specific genetic conditions. The goal is to enhance students' understanding of these conditions as well as to impart the humanity and beauty of the people who appear in the film. Students will have the opportunity to see dysmorphic features on the animated human form as well as meet individuals who are living with genetic difference. The target audience includes genetic counseling students and other medical professionals. Three short films were made in this format to demonstrate how this type of educational tool can be made. The featured conditions were Marfan syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome and Joubert syndrome. Future work will be carried out by other genetic counseling students who will make additional films based on our templates. A compendium of approximately 20 films will be eventually completed and released to genetic counseling programs and medical schools.

Fan, Audrey

305

Registers, Schools and Scales: Comments on Language and Identity in Twenty-First Century Catalonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monolingual speakers of a national language continue to be the ideal figures on which national identities and senses of community are built. Yet this longstanding equation between nation and language is being contested by other ideologies. Alternatives are emerging from such disparate social locations as the European Union, now advocating for…

Gal, Susan

2013-01-01

306

Planning for Change: Building a Library for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the planning process and discusses important issues impacting the design of a new library building at DePaul University, Illinois. Planning for the changing demands of students, curricula, and information technology is discussed and samples from the planning document are included. (EA)

Hudson, Anne S.

1992-01-01

307

Antibiotic discovery in the twenty-first century: current trends and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

New antibiotics are necessary to treat microbial pathogens that are becoming increasingly resistant to available treatment. Despite the medical need, the number of newly approved drugs continues to decline. We offer an overview of the pipeline for new antibiotics at different stages, from compounds in clinical development to newly discovered chemical classes. Consistent with historical data, the majority of antibiotics

Stefano Donadio; Sonia Maffioli; Paolo Monciardini; Margherita Sosio; Daniela Jabes

2010-01-01

308

Desiderata for Controlled Medical Vocabularies in the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

Builders of medical informatics applications need controlled medical vocabularies to support their applications and it is to their advantage to use available standards. In order to do so, however, these standards need to address the requirements of their intended users. Over the past decade, medical informatics researchers have begun to articulate some of these requirements. This paper brings together some of the common themes which have been described, including: vocabulary content, concept orientation, concept permanence, nonsemantic concept identifiers, poly-hierarchy, formal definitions, rejection of “not elsewhere classified” terms, multiple granularities, multiple consistent views, context representation, graceful evolution, and recognized redundancy. Standards developers are beginning to recognize and address these desiderata and adapt their offerings to meet them. PMID:9865037

Cimino, James.J.

2012-01-01

309

Spinning Straw into Gold: A Community College Library's Twenty First Century Transformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a library renovation project in a community college that involved using existing space and reorganizing it to support the way students learn both individually and collaboratively. The article also looks at the importance of the academic library as place.

McKay, Devin

2011-01-01

310

Why American Business Demands Twenty-First Century Learning: A Company Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's knowledge economy requires that the citizenry and workforce be able to harness information and communication technologies in order to remain competitive on a global scale. As a result of new demands, the notion of digital literacy has become less a luxury and more an imperative for many countries, gaining significant momentum in the past…

Knox, Allyson

2006-01-01

311

Twenty-first Century Lattice Gauge Theory: Results from the QCD Lagrangian  

SciTech Connect

Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) reduces the strong interactions, in all their variety, to an elegant nonabelian gauge theory. It clearly and elegantly explains hadrons at short distances, which has led to its universal acceptance. Since its advent, however, many of its long-distance, emergent properties have been believed to be true, without having been demonstrated to be true. This paper reviews a variety of results in this regime that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian. This body of work sheds light on the origin of hadron masses, its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, as well as on other intriguing features such as the phase structure of QCD. In addition, nonperturbative QCD is quantitatively important to many aspects of particle physics (especially the quark flavor sector), nuclear physics, and astrophysics. This review also surveys some of the most interesting connections to those subjects.

Kronfeld, Andreas S.; /Fermilab

2012-03-01

312

The Twenty-First Century University and the Concept of Lifelong Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, major universities and governmental and nongovernmental organizations around the world have been engaged in discussions about implementing the principles of lifelong learning as fundamental principles of individual education. Until about a decade ago, adult education in Montenegro (whose development resembled that of adult…

Milic, Sasa

2013-01-01

313

Family Policies for an Aging Society: Moving to the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that increasing longevity suggests the value of a life course focus in family policy. Gerontologists can make a contribution by documenting and describing the gaps between needs and resources of families at all life stages, developing family indicators of social change, and sensitizing the public to the unintended consequences of current…

Moen, Phyllis; Forest, Kay B.

1995-01-01

314

Aging and Lifelong Disabilities: Partnership for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains presentations from the Wingspread Conference, a conference held in June 1987 to examine issues posed by the increasing longevity of older Americans with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. An executive summary and the following papers are included: (1) "Aging and Lifelong Disabilities: Problems and Prospects"…

Ansello, Edward F.; Rose, Thomas

315

Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy--- A new energy agenda for the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy, which utilizes the natural heat contained in the earth's crust, can provide a widely available source of nonpolluting energy. It can help mitigate the continued warming of the earth through the ''greenhouse effect,'' and the accelerating destruction of forests and crops by acid rain, two of the major environmental consequences of our ever-increasing use of fossil fuels for heating and power generation. In addition, HDR, as a readily available source of indigenous energy, can reduce our nation's dependence on imported oil, enhancing national security and reducing our trade deficit. The earth's heat represents an almost unlimited source of energy that can begin to be exploited within the next decade through the HDR heat-mining concept being actively developed in the United States and in several other countries. On a national scale, we can begin to develop this new energy source, using it directly for geothermal power or indirectly in hybrid geothermal/fossil-fueled systems, in diverse applications such as: baseload power generation, direct heat use, feedwater heating in conventional power plants, and pumped storage/load leveling power generation. This report describes the nature of the HDR resource and the technology required to implement the heat-mining concept in several applications. An assessment of the requirements for establishing HDR feasibility is presented in the context of providing a commercially competitive energy source. 37 refs., 6 figs.

Tester, J.W.; Brown, D.W.; Potter, R.M.

1989-07-01

316

"Made in Germany": The Politics of Teaching German Popular Culture in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In North American universities, pop culture increasingly appears in the German Studies classroom to "spice up" the curriculum. But what is conveyed and taught and how is it inserted into the curriculum and into the US cultural context? This article explores three examples of popular culture in the German Studies classroom: representations of the…

Kahnke, Corinna; Stehle, Maria

2011-01-01

317

A Communitarian Critique of the Warfare State: Implications for the Twenty-First-Century University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contends that the relatively recent academic movement known as communitarianism can serve as a policy guide that could work catalytically on American cultural development of the sort that would loosen the tight military-industrial connection and in so doing aid the dismantling of the "warfare state." After chronicling the development…

Theobald, Paul; Knotwell, Jim

2007-01-01

318

Dance Education Matters: Rebuilding Postsecondary Dance Education for Twenty-First Century Relevance and Resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postsecondary dance education is at a crucial juncture in its history in academe. Emerging from women's physical education programs in the 1930s, the profession's realignment with the arts broadly and arts-based education specifically has been characterized by ambitious goals and steady growth through the 1990s. However, a number of critical developments over the past decade have displaced many previous gains

Doug Risner

2010-01-01

319

Micrographia of the twenty-first century: from camera obscura to 4D microscopy  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the evolutionary and revolutionary developments of microscopic imaging are overviewed with a perspective on origins. From Alhazen’s camera obscura, to Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek’s two-dimensional optical micrography, and on to three- and four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy, these developments over a millennium have transformed humans’ scope of visualization. The changes in the length and time scales involved are unimaginable, beginning with the visible shadows of candles at the centimetre and second scales, and ending with invisible atoms with space and time dimensions of sub-nanometre and femtosecond. With these advances it has become possible to determine the structures of matter and to observe their elementary dynamics as they unfold in real time. Such observations provide the means for visualizing materials behaviour and biological function, with the aim of understanding emergent phenomena in complex systems. PMID:20123754

Zewail, Ahmed H.

2010-01-01

320

Teacher Education for the Twenty-First Century. An Agenda for Improving Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ideas that emerged from the "Teach America I": Teacher Preparation for the New American School conference (Washington, D.C., June 14-16, 1992) and a proposed program for teacher education are documented in this report. The conference was composed of teams of educators from 35 selected Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU)…

American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

321

Native American Demographic and Tribal Survival into the Twenty-first Century  

E-print Network

" (Merbs 1992, 36). New diseases which impacted native populations in the Western Hemisphere include small pox, measles, the bubonic plague, cholera, typhoid, diphtheria, scarlet fever, various forms of influenza and whooping cough,3 malaria, and yellow...—known as the Trail of Tears—because of measles, cholera, whooping cough, dysentery, and other diseases. However, the hardships of the journeys accentuated the mortality of these diseases while pro ducing their own mortality. The removals were planned...

Thornton, Russell

2006-03-01

322

Developing Media Literacy in Cyberspace: Pedagogy and Critical Learning for the Twenty-First-Century Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By joining bodies of research in media theory, cultural studies, and critical pedagogy, this book offers a vision of learning that values social empowerment over technical skills. An inquiry into the existence and range of models equipped to cultivate critical teaching and learning in the Internet-supported classroom, the book argues that media…

Frechette, Julie D.

323

Considering Student Veterans on the Twenty-First-Century College Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new GI Bill offers the best educational benefits for veterans in the history of the nation. While many campus officials believe a surge of student veterans is under way, 2012 is the first year of college eligibility for veterans who enlisted specifically for the Post 9-11 GI Bill benefits signed into law in the summer of 2008. Further, the…

Vacchi, David T.

2012-01-01

324

Reproductive medicine: the ethical issues in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Reproductive medicine has developed to such an extent that numerous moral questions arise about the boundaries of applications of new reproductive technology. It is possible to imagine a future in which 'designer babies' are created and in which cloning, sex selection and male pregnancy become the instruments of individual desire or social policy. In this article, the concept of 'natural' is explored but rejected as an insufficient moral criterion for deciding these complex questions. A case is made for the criterion of welfare of the child and for the concept of the child as gift rather than product. PMID:11897913

Campbell, Alastair V

2002-02-01

325

Micrographia of the twenty-first century: from camera obscura to 4D microscopy.  

PubMed

In this paper, the evolutionary and revolutionary developments of microscopic imaging are overviewed with a perspective on origins. From Alhazen's camera obscura, to Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek's two-dimensional optical micrography, and on to three- and four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy, these developments over a millennium have transformed humans' scope of visualization. The changes in the length and time scales involved are unimaginable, beginning with the visible shadows of candles at the centimetre and second scales, and ending with invisible atoms with space and time dimensions of sub-nanometre and femtosecond. With these advances it has become possible to determine the structures of matter and to observe their elementary dynamics as they unfold in real time. Such observations provide the means for visualizing materials behaviour and biological function, with the aim of understanding emergent phenomena in complex systems. PMID:20123754

Zewail, Ahmed H

2010-03-13

326

Standards-Based Reform: Panacea for the Twenty-First Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of accountability for student achievement stands at the forefront of American education. Educators, parents, and business representatives have joined forces to support improvements in hopes of requiring children to attain the knowledge and develop the skills necessary for life. As a result, high standards, assessments, and benchmarks…

Malone, Bobby G.; Nelson, Jacquelyn S.

2006-01-01

327

Implementing Pro-Work Policies for Older Americans in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

-work aspect of the United States labor market prior to 1986, when the federal Age Discrimination in Employment that many of these policies have changed--changes which are not only economically sound but also consistent their pay check plus the net change (the decline) in their pension wealth.1 This is not to suggest

Huang, Jianyu

328

Futurework: Trends and Challenges for Work in the 21st Century  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by the US Department of Labor (DOL), this report explores the social impact of the new economy and the role of the "twenty-first century work-place" in America. Futurework cites three elements necessary for the stability of American workers: "rising economic security over a lifetime," "a work and family balance," and "workplaces that are safe and fair." Using numerous charts, tables, and graphs, the report examines topics such as workforce diversity, wage growth, changing workplaces, technology and globalization, and future trends affecting working conditions and worker morale. The report may be downloaded by chapter in .pdf format. Additional resources at the site include a number of full-text conference papers (in HTML or .pdf formats) and related links. [MD

2000-01-01

329

New Challenges for Higher Education: Global and Asia-Pacific Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With rapid socio-economic changes, twenty-first century higher education is facing major challenges to its governance systems, curriculum, mission focus, external relations, research, and financing. A theoretical framework to analyze these post-massification challenges is suggested, with a focus on the Asia-Pacific region as well as global issues.…

Shin, Jung Cheol; Harman, Grant

2009-01-01

330

2010 Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. Twenty First Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First mandated by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1989 (S.L. 1989; C. 752; S. 80), the Critical Success Factors report has evolved into the major accountability document for the North Carolina Community College System. This twenty first annual report on the critical success factors is the result of a process undertaken to streamline and…

North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

331

Who Will Challenge Our Youth? Preparing Our Youth for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urges young people to concentrate on building new bridges of hope and renewal to the 21st century, noting the work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Encourages youths to challenge their peers to prepare for the new century by striving to change social inequalities and reaching across artificial barriers to ensure that each member of society shares fully…

Davis, Lloyd

1999-01-01

332

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: PARADIGMS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES  

EPA Science Inventory

In: Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges: Abstract Book: SETAC 21st Annual Meeting, 12-16 November 2000, Nashville, TN.. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL. Pp. p. 180. Bioavailability and rates...

333

Developing Sexual Agency: Rethinking Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Theories for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neo-liberal society asserts that adults should be independent and responsible for themselves, and that children and adolescents\\u000a should be dependent on their parents. The earlier construction of the concept of adolescence makes this seem obviously true.\\u000a Yet if we remember that “adolescence” was part of a project of gender, race, and class construction, it becomes easier to\\u000a ask whether adolescence

Valerie D. Lehr

2008-01-01

334

Next century challenges: scalable coordination in sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Networked sensors-those that coordinate amongst them- selves to achieve a larger sensing task-will revolutionize information gathering and processing both in urban envi- ronments and in inhospitable terrain. The sheer numbers of these sensors and the expected dynamics in these environ- ments present unique challenges in the design of unattended autonomous sensor networks. These challenges lead us to hypothesize that sensor

Deborah Estrin; Ramesh Govindan; John S. Heidemann; Satish Kumar

1999-01-01

335

Challenges of Urban Education: Sociological Perspectives for the Next Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers in this collection discuss the challenges facing urban education and the sociology of urban education. The more comprehensive perspective presented in this document can contribute to the improvement of city schools and the empowerment of urban students. Following an introduction, "Challenges of the New Sociology of Urban Education"…

McClafferty, Karen A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.; Mitchell, Theodore R., Ed.

336

The Century-Long Challenge of Global Carbon Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time scale of the global carbon management is a century, not a decade and not a millennium. A century is the ratio of 1000 billion metric tons of carbon [Gt(C)] to 10 Gt(C)/yr. 1000 Gt(C) is the future emissions that will lead to approximately a doubling of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, 280 ppm, assuming the total net ocean plus terrestrial sink remains at half the strength of this source - since 2.1 Gt (C) = 1 ppm, and the concentration today is already 370 ppm. Doubling is the most widely used boundary between acceptable and unacceptable Greenhouse-related environmental disruption, or, in the language of the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the onset of "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." And 10 Gt(C)/yr is a conservative estimate of the average annual fossil-fuel carbon source over the century; it is now between 6 and 7 Gt(C). Conventional oil and gas are not sufficiently abundant to generate a serious Greenhouse problem on their own. Well before their cumulative carbon emissions reach 1000 Gt(C), both are expected to become non-competitive as a result of growing costs of access (costs related to resources being very deep underground, or below very deep water, or very remote, or very small.) But several times 1000 Gt(C) of coal resources will probably be competitive with non-fossil fuel alternatives, as will "unconventional" oil and gas resources, such as tar sands. The world will not be saved from a serious Greenhouse problem by fossil fuel depletion. There are four mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous interference with the climate system. Fossil fuels can cease to dominate the global energy system well before the end of the century, yielding large market share to some combination of renewable energy and nuclear (fission and fusion) energy sources. Fossil fuels can continue to dominate, but most of the carbon in the century's fossil fuels can be prevented from reaching the atmosphere (fossil-carbon sequestration). Carbon can be removed directly from the air by biological or chemical processes. Or the climate system can become so well understood that effective compensating actions can be implemented. If human beings implement none of these strategies, we will have chosen, in effect, to adapt to climate change. Not unlikely will be a mix of all four mitigation strategies plus adaptation. In recent years, as the intrinsic complexity and monumental scale of global carbon management has become better appreciated, new coalitions supportive of policies intended to mitigate climate change have emerged.

Socolow, R.

2002-05-01

337

Biotechnology, Bioethics and Law: Europe's 21st Century Challenge &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in biotechnology make possible many things which even a few years ago would have seemed unimaginable. However, the steady advance of biotechnological innovation raises difficult questions for ethicists and regulators. In the thirty-fourth Chorley Lecture Noelle Lenoir analyses the European response to these challenges and calls upon European leaders to honour their commitment to human dignity and to give

Noëlle Lenoir

2006-01-01

338

On the challenge of a century lifespan satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a review of the main issues affecting satellite survivability, including a discussion on the technologies to mitigate the risks and to enhance system reliability. The feasibility of a 100-year lifespan space mission is taken as the guiding thread for the discussion. Such a mission, defined with a few preliminary requirements, could be used to deliver messages to our descendants regardless of the on-ground contingencies. After the analysis of the main threats for long endurance in space, including radiation, debris and micrometeoroids, atmospheric drag and thermal environment, the available solutions are investigated. A trade-off study analyses orbital profiles from the point of view of radiation, thermal stability and decay rate, providing best locations to maximize lifespan. Special attention is also paid to on-board power, in terms of energy harvesting and accumulation, highlighting the limitations of current assets, i.e. solar panels and batteries, and revealing possible future solutions. Furthermore, the review includes electronics, non-volatile memories and communication elements, which need extra hardening against radiation and thermal cycling if extra-long endurance is required. As a result of the analysis, a century-lifetime mission is depicted by putting together all the reviewed concepts. The satellite, equipped with reliability enhanced elements and system-level solutions such as smart hibernation policies, could provide limited but still useful performance after a 100-year flight.

Gonzalo, Jesús; Domínguez, Diego; López, Deibi

2014-10-01

339

McClintock’s challenge in the 21st century  

PubMed Central

In 1950, Barbara McClintock published a Classic PNAS article, “The origin and behavior of mutable loci in maize,” which summarized the evidence leading to her discovery of transposition. The article described a number of genome alterations revealed through her studies of the Dissociation locus, the first mobile genetic element she identified. McClintock described the suite of nuclear events, including transposon activation and various chromosome aberrations and rearrangements, that unfolded in the wake of genetic crosses that brought together two broken chromosomes 9. McClintock left future generations with the challenge of understanding how genomes respond to genetic and environmental stresses by mounting adaptive responses that frequently include genome restructuring. PMID:23150590

Fedoroff, Nina V.

2012-01-01

340

McClintock's challenge in the 21st century.  

PubMed

In 1950, Barbara McClintock published a Classic PNAS article, "The origin and behavior of mutable loci in maize," which summarized the evidence leading to her discovery of transposition. The article described a number of genome alterations revealed through her studies of the Dissociation locus, the first mobile genetic element she identified. McClintock described the suite of nuclear events, including transposon activation and various chromosome aberrations and rearrangements, that unfolded in the wake of genetic crosses that brought together two broken chromosomes 9. McClintock left future generations with the challenge of understanding how genomes respond to genetic and environmental stresses by mounting adaptive responses that frequently include genome restructuring. PMID:23150590

Fedoroff, Nina V

2012-12-11

341

Climate change, thermal comfort and energy: Meeting the design challenges of the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the dual challenge of designing sustainable low-energy buildings while still providing thermal comfort under warmer summer conditions produced by anthropogenic climate change—a key challenge for building designers in the 21st century. The main focus is towards buildings that are ‘free running’ for some part of the summer, either being entirely naturally ventilated or mixed-mode (where mechanical cooling

Michael J. Holmes; Jacob N. Hacker

2007-01-01

342

On Pliability and Progress: Challenging Current Conceptions of Eighteenth-Century French Educational Thought  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining the educational writings of three of the eighteenth-century's most innovative thinkers, the Abbe de Saint-Pierre, Morelly and Helvetius, this article challenges the currently accepted view that it was a belief in human pliability which gave rise to the contemporary groundbreaking faith in the power of education to improve society. The…

Gilead, Tal

2009-01-01

343

Cataract blindness--challenges for the 21st century.  

PubMed Central

Cataract prevalence increases with age. As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The challenges are to prevent or delay cataract formation, and treat that which does occur. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to cataract formation. However, reducing ocular exposure to UV-B radiation and stopping smoking are the only interventions that can reduce factors that affect the risk of cataract. The cure for cataract is surgery, but this is not equally available to all, and the surgery which is available does not produce equal outcomes. Readily available surgical services capable of delivering good vision rehabilitation must be acceptable and accessible to all in need, no matter what their circumstances. To establish and sustain these services requires comprehensive strategies that go beyond a narrow focus on surgical technique. There must be changes in government priorities, population education, and an integrated approach to surgical and management training. This approach must include supply of start-up capital equipment, establishment of surgical audit, resupply of consumables, and cost-recovery mechanisms. Considerable innovation is required. Nowhere is this more evident than in the pursuit of secure funding for ongoing services. PMID:11285671

Brian, G.; Taylor, H.

2001-01-01

344

Permafrost: An International Approach to 21th Century Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whereas glaciers are easily discernible to the human eye and satellites, permafrost terrains and their physical components are not easily detected from the surface without supplemental knowledge and measurements. In the Northern Hemisphere, approximately 17 million km2 of exposed land contains some extent of permafrost or ground that remains frozen for more than two years. The vast majority, or 11 million km2, of permafrost terrain has temperatures of 5° C or below, with perennially frozen ground underlying essentially all ground surfaces to considerable depths. Permafrost in the remaining regions, including mid-latitude mountains, is both warmer and is spatially variable (discontinuous). As climate warms the uppermost permafrost is subjected to increase thaw with resulting ground subsidence, accelerated erosion, and related biogeochemical modifications. The challenging questions to geocryologists, modelers and the public relate to the rate of change and the spatial variability of the projected thaw, particularly in the warmer zones where actual areal and subareal distribution of permafrost is poorly known. An international network of active layer measurements and borehole sites now exists under the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), but requires additional sites for representative coverage. This Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) is coordinated by the 24-member, International Permafrost Association. At the Eighth International Conference on Permafrost (ICOP) in Zurich in July 2003, the IPA Council agreed on the scope of new activities for the next five years, many of which will be undertaken in cooperation with other international organizations (e.g. WCRP/CliC; ICSI, IASC, SCAR, IGU, IUGS). Examples of the activities of the IPA Working Groups are: 1. Antarctic Permafrost and Periglacial Environments (active layer processes, maps, database). 2. Coastal and Offshore Permafrost (sediment and organic transfers, subsea permafrost dynamics). 3. Cryosol (Antarctic soil map, soil database). 4. Glacier and Permafrost Hazards in High Mountains (interaction of ice and permafrost on slopes). 5. Isotopes and Geochemistry of Permafrost (paleo-reconstruction, modern processes). 6. Mapping and Modelling of Mountain Permafrost (standardize map legends and maps, multi-dimensional models). 7. Periglacial Processes and Environments (past and present processes, field manual of measurements). 8. Permafrost and Climate (monitoring, impact assessments, inter-comparisons of models). 9. Permafrost Astrobiology (survivability of life on planets and analogous Earth environments). 10. Permafrost Engineering (case studies, climate impacts on infrastructure). The Data Committee facilitates recovery of data, web access, and CD data production. These activities will provide added insight into past, present and future occurrences and responses of permafrost to climate change. They can contribute to activities of the International Polar Year. Results will be reported at the Ninth ICOP in Fairbanks, Alaska, in summer 2008. Current information is available on the IPA web site and in annual issues of Frozen Ground.

Brown, J.

2003-12-01

345

Teaching about the Genocide of the Roma and Sinti during the Holocaust: Chances and Challenges in Europe Today  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents several projects, initiated during the first decade of the twenty-first century, that aim to make the history of the genocide of the Roma more known within the educational field. Some general challenges we face in teaching about the history of a group that is both the largest minority in Europe and, according to the European…

Polak, Karen

2013-01-01

346

Physical principles of electrospinning (Electrospinning as a nano-scale technology of the twenty-first century)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of electrospinning is briefly introduced at the beginning of the article. The fundaments of the process are then analysed physically to be translated into a successful technology. Self-organisation of fluid in electrospinning is perceived as a consequence of various instabilities, based on electrohydrodynamics and, thus, highlighted as a key factor, theorising the subject successfully to elevate it to

D. Lukáš; A. Sarkar; L. Martinová; K. Vodsedálková; D. Lubasová; J. Chaloupek; P. Pokorný; P. Mikeš; J. Chvojka; M. Komárek

2009-01-01

347

Women Secondary Head Teachers: Alive and Well in Birmingham at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Far from being an "endangered species" (Edwards & Lyons, 1994), moving towards extinction, women secondary head teachers are alive and well in Birmingham. While the national picture in England and Wales showed 29.8 per cent of secondary head teachers were women in 2005, this research identifies extensive regional differences. In Birmingham 41 per…

Fuller, Kay

2009-01-01

348

Toward a Feminist Ballet Pedagogy: Teaching Strategies for Ballet Technique Classes in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classical ballet technique is commonly taught through the use of authoritarian practices and normalizing aesthetic values, but the construction of the ballet dancer as a docile subject in opposition to an all-knowing instructor might impede ballet's progression. In this article I explore my development of a feminist or democratic ballet…

Alterowitz, Gretchen

2014-01-01

349

The next great American station : Union Station and Downtown Los Angeles in the twenty-first century  

E-print Network

Ideas about a city are powerful forces, and have lasting impacts on the built environment. While not every vision is realized in the built form, every aspect of urban development is the reflection of a vision about what ...

Dunsmore, Jaymes Phillip

2012-01-01

350

Breaking the Mold of Preservice and Inservice Teacher Education: Innovative and Successful Practices for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unique collection of chapters takes the reader on a tour to explore innovative preservice and inservice teacher education practices from many regions of the United States, Canada and the world. Each of the chapters offers an authentic, documentary account of successful initiatives that break the traditional mold of teacher education. Section…

Cohan, Audrey, Ed.; Honigsfeld, Andrea, Ed.

2011-01-01

351

Molecular Papanicolaou tests in the twenty-first century: Molecular analyses with fluid-based Papanicolaou technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of performing molecular analyses at the deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and protein levels of cervical cytologic examination with a methanol fluid-based Papanicolaou specimen collection system. Study Design: Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid and total ribonucleic acid were extracted from cell pellets obtained from the residual fluid-based Papanicolaou specimen collection buffer after clinical processing.

W. Michael Lin; Raheela Ashfaq; Eugenia A. Michalopulos; Anirban Maitra; Adi F. Gazdar; Carolyn Y. Muller

2000-01-01

352

Collecting the People: Textualizing Epics in Philippine History from the Sixteenth Century to the Twenty-First  

E-print Network

Pornography, and Youth: Ideology and Spectatorship during the Early Marcos Years,” in his White Love and Other Events in Filipino History,Pornography, and Youth: Ideology and Spectatorship during the Early Marcos Years,” in his White Love and Other Events in Filipino History (

Reilly, Brandon Joseph

2013-01-01

353

Application of nanomedicine in emergency medicine; Point-of-care testing and drug delivery in twenty - first century  

PubMed Central

Abstract The application of emerging nanotechnology to the practice of medicine represents a frontier of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine has been defined as a science which emphasizes the use of nanoscale tools in conjunction with background knowledge of the human body for medical diagnosis and treatment. Application of nanomedicine in EM may give EM providers the opportunity to diagnose and treat life-threatening diseases in a shorter period of time. These applications include diagnostic utilities, preventive medicine, targeted pharmacotherapy, and tissue regeneration. PMID:23351236

2012-01-01

354

Adult Discrimination against Children: The Case of Abstinence-Only Education in Twenty-First-Century USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses abstinence-only education programmes and discourses within the frame of theories of adult discrimination against children. To begin with, a definition of abstinence-only programmes and of the political context in which they were created will be provided. These programmes will then be analysed through the lens of children's…

Greslé-Favier, Claire

2013-01-01

355

Coming of age in twenty-first century america: Public attitudes towards the importance and timing of transitions to adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines age norms on seven important transitions to adulthood. Americans rank finishing school as the most important\\u000a hallmark of becoming an adult. This is followed closely by obtaining full-time employment, being able to support a family,\\u000a and being financially independent. Among these seven standards of achieving adulthood the average transition age runs over\\u000a a 5.3 year span, from

Tom W. Smith

2004-01-01

356

76 FR 4838 - Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...verification from any practicing professional who has direct knowledge of...individual's disability. (i) Such professionals would include, but not be limited...physician. (ii) Any of these professionals must be able to attest to...

2011-01-27

357

Constructing Knowledge in the Twenty-First Century: I-LEARN and Using Information as a Tool for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be efficient and effective learners in the information age, individuals must be able to engage successfully with a wide variety of information types and formats. Becoming lifelong learners in a world in which information flows freely and defies the boundaries of traditional disciplines and subject areas, children and youth in particular must…

Neuman, Delia

2011-01-01

358

Tracking the Mind's Eye: A New Technology for Researching Twenty-First-Century Writing and Reading Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the nature of eye-tracking technology and its use in the study of discourse processes, particularly reading. It then suggests several areas of research in composition studies, especially at the intersection of writing, reading, and digital media, that can benefit from the use of this technology. (Contains 2 figures.)

Anson, Chris M.; Schwegler, Robert A.

2012-01-01

359

Gilles Apap's Mozart cadenza and expanding musical competences of twenty-first-century musicians and music educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In western musical contexts at global and local levels, musicians are becoming increasingly involved in what might be termed multicode music making and are expanding their musical competences. In this article I consider the practical and cognitive implications of such an expanding of competences for music education at various levels. Combining ethnomusicological and music educationist perspectives, I ground the discussion

Michael Webb

2008-01-01

360

Adult Learning: "A Key for the Twenty-first Century": Reflections on the UNESCO Fifth International Conference 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the cultural and global context of the fifth International Conference on Adult Education; assesses the conference declaration and agenda for the future; and questions whether the recommendations are bold and radical enough to address wider intellectual and ideological issues. (SK)

Forrester, Keith

1998-01-01

361

Moving the Law School into the Twenty-First Century--Embedding Technology into Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past twenty years phenomenal developments in technology have changed the nature of education. Students now have access to a vast range of resources 24/7. This instant access has created a certain expectation on the part of the student and there must now be very few, if any, courses taught in higher education where the lecturer does not…

Steventon, Beverley; Panesar, Sukhninder; Wood, Jane

2014-01-01

362

Energy and material constraints concerning the rapid deployment of photovoltaic energy in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of my research was to determine if the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) projections of future photovoltaic (PV) capacity could be met by thin-film PV---specifically CIGS and CdTe technology---given material reserves in the Earth. I developed a model that calculated the amount of critical metals necessary to accommodate EPIA PV growth projections. I then compared the amount of materials that would be necessary to meet these projections with the amount of material available in geologic reserves according to the USGS. Based on my model I determined that the EPIA PV scenario would cause the exhaustion of global tellurium and indium reserves by the year 2023 and therefore cannot be met by CIGS and CdTe technology alone.

Gupta, Ajay K.

363

Rewriting the Job Description: The Teaching Profession in the Twenty-First Century. Education Outlook. No. 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Human capital" is quickly becoming the new site-based management, a popular strategy from the 1980s and 1990s that sought to increase autonomy in schools and spread decision making more widely. While few are sure what human capital means, everyone craves it, has a model to deliver it, and is quick to tout its restorative powers. It is trendy and…

Hess, Frederick M.

2009-01-01

364

Ameritocracy and infra?racial racism: racializing social and cultural reproduction theory in the twenty?first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that narratives forecasting spectacular mobility for Black people\\/people of color along with the growth of the Black middle class function as proof that America ‘works’ and that the American dream is obtainable for all. However, what is concealed within this ‘meritocratic’ discourse is that full acceptance into this society is restricted on the basis of racial identity

A. A. Akom

2008-01-01

365

Interdependencies of Agriculture and Rural Communities in the Twenty-First Century: The North Central Region. Conference Proceedings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Texts of 12 research papers are presented in this proceedings of a 1985 conference specifically focusing on the interdependence of agriculture and rural communities. Titles of Session I papers providing information on the current situation and trends in agriculture and rural communities are "An Overview of the Nonmetro Economy and the Role of…

Korsching, Peter F., Ed.; Gildner, Judith E., Ed.

366

Long-term climate response to stabilized and overshoot anthropogenic forcings beyond the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

From multi-ensembles of climate simulations using the Community Climate System Model version 3, global climate changes have\\u000a been investigated focusing on long-term responses to stabilized anthropogenic forcings. In addition to the standard forcing\\u000a scenarios for the current international assessment, an overshoot scenario, where radiative forcings are decreased from one\\u000a stabilized level to another, is also considered. The globally-averaged annual surface

Junichi Tsutsui; Yoshikatsu Yoshida; Dong-Hoon Kim; Hideyuki Kitabata; Keiichi Nishizawa; Norikazu Nakashiki; Koki Maruyama

2007-01-01

367

Marketing research: A state-of-the-art review and directions for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides observations on the state of the art in marketing research during 1987–1997. As such, it updates the\\u000a earlier state-of-the-art review by Malhotra (1988), which won theJournal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS) Best Article Award. The primary thrust of articles published in theJournal of Marketing Research during 1987–1997 is reviewed to determine important areas of research.

Naresh K. Malhotra; Mark Peterson; Susan Bardi Kleiser

1999-01-01

368

The trouble with civic: a snapshot of young people's civic and political engagements in twenty-first-century democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In much academic and policy literature about civic engagement, regardless of their political or social circumstances, youth across the globe are enjoined to engage in all the activities thought good for them in order to qualify for the moral label ‘good citizens’. Voting, watching the news, party activism, sending emails to government websites, attending meetings in the town hall, volunteering,

Shakuntala Banaji

2008-01-01

369

Kansas City southern railway twenty-first century planning. Master's thesis, 7 August 1998--4 June 1999  

SciTech Connect

Rail yards serve as major nodes that facilitate delivery of cargo to the consignee. The level of operational efficiency maintained within rail yards determines whether customers receive cargo late. Various external and internal factors can impede the operational efficiency of rail yards. The future growth of rail industry depends on how well it manages a potentially serious problem inherent to all railroads--rail congestion. This study reviews the processes that occur within the Knoche rail yard, which is located in Kansas City, Kansas. In an effort to improve the operational efficiency of the Knoche rail yard or to minimize congestion, the study will reveal the results of analyzing varying strategies to improve the operational efficiency of a single event, the rip track facility, within the Knoche rail yard. This study reveals that the operational efficiency of the Knoche rail yard may be enhanced if the following occur: (1) increase the rip track facility queue population from fifteen to twenty-two, and (2) spot bad order cars directly onto the two tracks leading into the rip track facility. Finally, the amount of double handling by switch engines daily may be decreased by as much as 96% within the rail yard.

Powell, R.A.

1999-07-01

370

Strengthening the “Spirit”: Increasing the utility of the B?2 bomber for twenty?first century conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future modifications of the B?2 Spirit bomber could greatly increase its combat effectiveness and operational utility. This article presents an overview of potential B?2 missions, employment concepts, and aircraft modifications that are consistent with the “visions” of future warfare, circa 2010 to 2025, reflected in a recent series of documents produced by elements of the Department of Defense. Force size,

Kurt Guthe

1998-01-01

371

Ameritocracy and Infra-Racial Racism: Racializing Social and Cultural Reproduction Theory in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that narratives forecasting spectacular mobility for Black people/people of color along with the growth of the Black middle class function as proof that America "works" and that the American dream is obtainable for all. However, what is concealed within this "meritocratic" discourse is that full acceptance into this society is…

Akom, A. A.

2008-01-01

372

The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Volume Two--The Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second volume of the Global 2000 study presents a technical report of detailed projections and analyses. It is a U.S. government effort to present a long-term global perspective on population, resources, and environment. The volume has four parts. Approximately half of the report, part one, deals with projections for the future in the areas…

Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

373

Estimation of the tourism climate in the Hunter Region, Australia, in the early twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing tourism-related climate information and evaluation are typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and do not include thermal perception and other climate parameters relevant for tourists. Here, we quantify climate based on the climate facets relevant to tourism (thermal, physical, aesthetical), and apply the results to the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS). This paper presents bioclimatic and tourism climatological conditions in the Hunter Region—one of Australia's most popular tourist destinations. In the Hunter Region, generally, temperatures below 15°C occur from April through October, temperatures less than 25°C are expected throughout the whole year, while humidity sits around 50%. As expected, large differences between air temperature and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) were clearly identified. The widest differences were seen in summer time rather than in the winter period. In addition, cold stress was observed less than 10% of the time in winter while around 40-60% of heat stress was observed in summer time. This correlates with the highest numbers of international visitors, who usually seek a warmer weather, at the beginning of summer time (November and December) and also to the number of domestic visitors, who tend to seek cooler places for recreation and leisure, in late summer (January-March). It was concluded that thermal bioclimate assessment such as PET and CTIS can be applied in the Hunter region, and that local governments and the tourism industry should take an integrated approach to providing more relevant weather and climate information for both domestic and international tourists in the near future.

Shiue, Ivy; Matzarakis, Andreas

2011-07-01

374

(Never) Mind the Gap!: Gender Equity in Social Studies Research on Technology in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Focusing on gender as an aspect of diversity, the purpose of this paper is to review social studies research on technology, and suggest a new direction, with gender redefined from a gap to be eliminated to a difference to be explored. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a literature review of research on gender, technology, and…

Crocco, Margaret S.; Cramer, Judith; Meier, Ellen B.

2008-01-01

375

Estimation of the tourism climate in the Hunter Region, Australia, in the early twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Existing tourism-related climate information and evaluation are typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and do not include thermal perception and other climate parameters relevant for tourists. Here, we quantify climate based on the climate facets relevant to tourism (thermal, physical, aesthetical), and apply the results to the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS). This paper presents bioclimatic and tourism climatological conditions in the Hunter Region-one of Australia's most popular tourist destinations. In the Hunter Region, generally, temperatures below 15°C occur from April through October, temperatures less than 25°C are expected throughout the whole year, while humidity sits around 50%. As expected, large differences between air temperature and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) were clearly identified. The widest differences were seen in summer time rather than in the winter period. In addition, cold stress was observed less than 10% of the time in winter while around 40-60% of heat stress was observed in summer time. This correlates with the highest numbers of international visitors, who usually seek a warmer weather, at the beginning of summer time (November and December) and also to the number of domestic visitors, who tend to seek cooler places for recreation and leisure, in late summer (January-March). It was concluded that thermal bioclimate assessment such as PET and CTIS can be applied in the Hunter region, and that local governments and the tourism industry should take an integrated approach to providing more relevant weather and climate information for both domestic and international tourists in the near future. PMID:20949286

Shiue, Ivy; Matzarakis, Andreas

2011-07-01

376

Crude oil and alternate energy production forecasts for the twenty-first century: The end of the hydrocarbon era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictions of production rates and ultimate recovery of crude oil are needed for intelligent planning and timely action to ensure the continuous flow of energy required by the world`s increasing population and expanding economies. Crude oil will be able to supply increasing demand until peak world production is reached. The energy gap caused by declining conventional oil production must then

John D. Edwards

1997-01-01

377

A library for the twenty-first century: the Galter Health Sciences Library's renovation and expansion project.  

PubMed Central

A renovation and expansion project at the Galter Health Sciences Library of Northwestern University strikes a balance between traditional and future libraries, library ambiance and high technology, old and new. When guided by a vision of future building use, renovation projects can succeed in meeting many institutional goals as a viable alternative to new library buildings. Issues addressed include planning considerations, architectural history, library design, building features, information technology considerations, and ideal library space design when new construction is not possible. Images PMID:9160155

Shedlock, J; Ross, F

1997-01-01

378

Becoming an Academic for the Twenty-First Century: What Will Count as Teaching Quality in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores quality in university teaching using a "futures" perspective. In a recent article by Blass and colleagues, a number of scenarios were developed to explore the type of higher education workforce that might be needed within the UK by 2035. In discussion of these scenarios--leading knowledge creation, responsive…

Jasemna, Anne; Blass, Eddie; Shelley, Steve

2013-01-01

379

Probabilistic Forecast for Twenty-First-Century Climate Based on Uncertainties in Emissions (Without Policy) and Climate Parameters  

E-print Network

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model is used to make probabilistic projections of climate change from 1861 to 2100. Since the model’s first projections were published in 2003, ...

Jacoby, Henry D.

380

Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT.  

PubMed

Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and labour productivity in general. PMID:25361702

Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

2014-11-01

381

The "Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation": A Quarter Century of Contribution, a Future of Challenge and Optimism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation" ("JEPC") is beginning its second quarter century of publication. Given the challenges education faced in 1990, when the journal began publishing, and the evolving challenges of 2015, it became important to answer two questions: (1) Has "JEPC" successfully…

Truscott, Stephen D.; Lopez, Emilia; Fish, Marian C.; Margolis, Howard

2015-01-01

382

Mental health of adolescents reared in institutional care in Turkey: challenges and hope in the twenty-first centur  

PubMed Central

The objectives of the study are (i) to describe and compare the epidemiology of emotional/behavioral problems and associated risk/protective factors among nationally representative samples of institutionally reared and similarly aged community-based adolescents brought up in their natural homes by means of youth self-reports, caregiver/parent, and teacher informants; and (ii) to identify mental health service needs and utilization. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 2005 through April 2006 using an equal probability cluster sample of 11–18 year old adolescents in institutional care settings (N = 350; 163 males, 187 females) and results were compared with similarly aged community sample of youth living in their natural homes (N = 2,206). The Sociodemographic Information Form, Youth Self Report (YSR), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) by caregivers for institutional sample and parents for the community sample, and Teacher's Report Form (TRF) were used to obtain standardized data on demographic characteristics, emotional/behavioral problems, and risk/protective factors. The prevalence of problems behaviors by YSR, caregiver/parent CBCL, and TRF were: 47, 15.1, 20.5% for the institutional versus 10.1, 7.5 and, 9.5% for the community samples, respectively (p < 0.05). Youth self-reports were fourfold, and all informant reports were twofold higher for institutional versus community comparisons. Furthermore, institutional sample had consistently higher rates, not only of Externalizing, but Internalizing, Social Problems, Attention Problems, and Thought Problems, as well as discrete DSM-oriented scales, suggesting that labeling of institutional youth as simply aggressive and delinquent contributes to their further marginalization and does not comprehensively address their mental health needs. In terms of protective factors, we found that: perceived social support, high competency scores, supportive caregiving, getting along well with peers and relatives (positive relationships), and problem solving skills were significantly protective of mental health. On the other hand fatalistic beliefs, cigarette and alcohol use were significantly associated with increased risk for problem behaviors (p < 0.05). The primary reason for institutional placement was family disruption (68.9%), poverty (15.7%), abandonment (8.4%), and physical or sexual abuse (5.4%). Only 31.2% of the youth were in fact true orphans (loss of one or both parents). It is therefore remarkable that in terms of service use, despite consistently high prevalence of problem behaviors across all informant sources, only 2.4% of the youth had received any speciality mental health services during institutional care. In conclusion, there is a pressing need to transform the social and health care policy and to provide family and community-based alternatives for youth currently in institutional care in Turkey. Before this goal is achieved, it is necessary to address their mental health needs urgently and comprehensively. The highest rates of problems by youth self-report also support the view that the youths' own voices ought to be heard and need to inform the reform process regarding their future care. PMID:19644732

Simsek, Zeynep; Münir, Kerim

2011-01-01

383

Steel industry of the future: Meeting the material challenges of the 21. century  

SciTech Connect

For over a century, the US steel industry has led the global market with advances in technology, product development, and marketing. Industry leaders recognize both the opportunities and challenges they face as they head into the 21st century, and that cooperative R and D is key to their success. In a unique partnership, steel industry leaders have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to focus on innovative technologies that will help to strengthen the competitive position of the US steel industry and, at the same time, further important national goals. This industry-led partnership, the Steel Industry of the Future, promotes technologies that optimize the use of energy and materials in operation and reduce wastes and energy-related emissions. Led by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and the Steel Manufacturers Association (SMA), industry leaders began by developing a unified vision for the next 20 years: to provide high-quality, value-added products to a wide array of customers in an environmentally friendly, cost-effective manner, while leading the world in innovation and technology. Continued global leadership in materials markets will require the combined resources of industry, universities, and government laboratories. The steel industry vision provided a framework for the next step in the Industries of the Future process, the development of a technology roadmap designed to facilitate collaborative R and D on advanced processes and technologies for the steel industry.

NONE

1999-02-01

384

Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States  

SciTech Connect

The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

2000-10-26

385

Counter-Memory and Race: An Examination of African American Scholars' Challenges to Early Twentieth Century K-12 Historical Discourses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how African American scholars during the early twentieth century employed the genre of curriculum writing to challenge existing discourses of race. Drawing from the findings of a qualitative document analysis of textbooks created by Carter G. Woodson and Charles H. Wesley, this article illustrates how these authors used texts…

Brown, Anthony L.

2010-01-01

386

The twenty-first century Armed Forces of the Philippines: orphan of counter-insurgency or military geared for the long war of the century?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the factors that account for the Armed Forces of the Philippines's (AFP) never-ending involvement in many wars of the third kind. It discusses the essence of counter-insurgency warfare or low-intensity conflict in the Philippine setting. The article then notes that the disruption in the US military assistance after 1992, the AFP's inability to modernize, and its continuous

Renato Cruz De Castro

2010-01-01

387

Emerging Technologies for the Detection of Rabies Virus: Challenges and Hopes in the 21st Century  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of rabies is routinely based on clinical and epidemiological information, especially when exposures are reported in rabies-endemic countries. Diagnostic tests using conventional assays that appear to be negative, even when undertaken late in the disease and despite the clinical diagnosis, have a tendency, at times, to be unreliable. These tests are rarely optimal and entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. In the course of the past three decades, the application of molecular biology has aided in the development of tests that result in a more rapid detection of rabies virus. These tests enable viral strain identification from clinical specimens. Currently, there are a number of molecular tests that can be used to complement conventional tests in rabies diagnosis. Indeed the challenges in the 21st century for the development of rabies diagnostics are not of a technical nature; these tests are available now. The challenges in the 21st century for diagnostic test developers are two-fold: firstly, to achieve internationally accepted validation of a test that will then lead to its acceptance by organisations globally. Secondly, the areas of the world where such tests are needed are mainly in developing regions where financial and logistical barriers prevent their implementation. Although developing countries with a poor healthcare infrastructure recognise that molecular-based diagnostic assays will be unaffordable for routine use, the cost/benefit ratio should still be measured. Adoption of rapid and affordable rabies diagnostic tests for use in developing countries highlights the importance of sharing and transferring technology through laboratory twinning between the developed and the developing countries. Importantly for developing countries, the benefit of molecular methods as tools is the capability for a differential diagnosis of human diseases that present with similar clinical symptoms. Antemortem testing for human rabies is now possible using molecular techniques. These barriers are not insurmountable and it is our expectation that if such tests are accepted and implemented where they are most needed, they will provide substantial improvements for rabies diagnosis and surveillance. The advent of molecular biology and new technological initiatives that combine advances in biology with other disciplines will support the development of techniques capable of high throughput testing with a low turnaround time for rabies diagnosis. PMID:19787037

Fooks, Anthony R.; Johnson, Nicholas; Freuling, Conrad M.; Wakeley, Philip R.; Banyard, Ashley C.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Marston, Denise A.; Dastjerdi, Akbar; Wright, Edward; Weiss, Robin A.; Müller, Thomas

2009-01-01

388

Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An International Conference entitled "Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges", was held in Syros island, Greece, from 27 to 30 June, 2005. There are many binary star systems whose components are so close together, that they interact in various ways. Stars in such systems do not pass through all stages of their evolution independently of each other; in fact their evolutionary path is significantly affected by their companions. Processes of interaction include gravitational effects, mutual irradiation, mass exchange, mass loss from the system, phenomena of extended atmospheres, semi-transparent atmospheric clouds, variable thickness disks and gas streams. The zoo of Close Binary Systems includes: Close Eclipsing Binaries (Detached, Semi-detached, Contact), High and Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, RS CVn systems, Pulsar Binaries and Symbiotic Stars. The study of these binaries triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and evolution of close binaries and the interaction effects displayed by these exciting objects. Close Binaries are classic examples of the fundamental contribution that stellar astrophysics makes to our general understanding of physical processes in the universe. Ground-based and space surveys will discover many new close binaries, which were previously unknown. In the future, new approaches will also be possible with highly efficient photometric searches looking for very shallow eclipses, such as those produced by Earth-like extra-solar planets. Contributions to this conference covered the latest achievements in the field and reflected the state of the art of the dynamically evolving area of binary star research. Link: http://www.springer.com/east/home/generic/search/results?SGWID=5-40109-22-173660047-0

Giménez, A.; Guinan, E.; Niarchos, P.; Rucinski, S.

2006-12-01

389

Challenges to Learning and Schooling in the Digital Networked World of the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, giving special attention to digital literacy as one…

Voogt, J.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

2013-01-01

390

"21st-Century" Skills: Not New, but a Worthy Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of business leaders, politicians, and educators are united around the idea that students need "21st-century skills" to be successful today. It's exciting to believe that one lives in times that are so revolutionary that they demand new and different abilities. But in fact, the skills students need in the 21st century are not new.…

Rotherham, Andrew J.; Willingham, Daniel T.

2010-01-01

391

RSA Opening Minds: A Curriculum for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the RSA Opening Minds competence framework, an innovative curriculum to meet the needs of young people as future employees, lifelong learners and as citizens of the twenty-first century.

Candy, Sara

2011-01-01

392

Microtechnology: The key to the technical challenges of the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

Through the ages each culture and civilization has expressed its values and world view in the form of monuments derived from its most advanced and valued technologies. From pyramids to cathedrals, skyscrapers and moon rockets, our technology has enabled us to leave our mark on the landscape and in the minds of our people. In the 21st century, the compelling technology will be that of the micro-world, enabling the fabrication of structures with features smaller than the wavelengths of light. Such structures will allow use to monitor and control electrical, chemical, and optical phenomena in ways never before imagined. As in the past we will continue to create monuments, but the technological monuments of the 21st century will likely be viewed through a microscope. This report provides a discussion of microtechnology in the 21st century.

Ceglio, N.M.

1993-08-01

393

Race and Ethnicity in America: Meeting the Challenge in the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In compiling this collection, the editor posed the question of the meaning of race and ethnicity in the United States at the threshold of the 21st century. The answers provided by the diverse authors as they wrote on issues of education, health, and employment are revealing and disturbing. Their contributions emphasize that race continues to exert…

Thomas, Gail E., Ed.

394

Behavioral Toxicology in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities for Behavioral Scientists  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Research Council of the National Academies of Science recently published a report of its vision of toxicity testing in the 21st Century. The report proposes that the current toxicity testing paradigm that depends upon whole-animal tests be replaced with a strategy ba...

395

Native American Christian Higher Education: Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The legacy of Christian higher education for Native Americans has been one of misunderstanding and missed opportunities since England's King James I decreed that an institution should be provided to educate the children of the Indians encountered by the Jamestown settlers in the early seventeenth century. This article briefly surveys the history…

Saggio, Joseph J.

2004-01-01

396

The New Challenge: From a Century of Statistics to an Age of Computer Science Department  

E-print Network

century [Galton, 1888], dazzled one of his students, Karl Pearson, generally considered the founder of modern statistics. The year 1911 saw publication of the third edition of Pearson's The Grammar of Sci of causation.'' This is how Pearson introduces the new topic: ``Beyond such discarded fundamentals as `matter

California at Los Angeles, University of

397

Space Research Programs in 21st Century And Challenges for Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning of 21st century, it is seen a discernible increase in space expenditure in all over the world especially in US, European Union, Russia, China, Japan, Korea, India and Argentina. On the other hand, in 2004 for the first time in Turkey space research and development activities gained priority in Turkish National Program. In this article, it is

E. Solakoglu; B. Hassoy

2007-01-01

398

The Psychologist Manager: Uniquely Qualified to Address 21st-Century Leadership Challenges?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes that the potential contribution of psychologists to the management profession is significant, distinct, and valuable in light of their humanistic training, high ethical standards, and networked—instead of warrior—leadership style. The article maintains that with appropriate preparation, the psychologist manager can be uniquely poised to aid in the transformation of business and management practices in the 21st century.

Louise Kelly; Jay M. Finkelman

2011-01-01

399

Los Alamos National Laboratory: 21st century solutions to urgent national challenges  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has been called upon to meet urgent national challenges for more than 65 years. The people, tools, and technologies at Los Alamos are a world class resource that has proved decisive through our history, and are needed in the future. We offer expertise in nearly every science, technology, and engineering discipline, a unique integrated capability for large-scale computing and experimentation, and the proven ability to deliver solutions involving the most complex and difficult technical systems. This white paper outlines some emerging challenges and why the nation needs Los Alamos, the premier National Security Science Laboratory, to meet these challenges.

Mcbranch, Duncan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

400

Development and Education. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Second Session (Dakar, Senegal, September 18-22, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the evolution of the different theories concerning education as a factor of development. It is important to see exactly how the struggle against scarcity and the production of material goods can be made more effective by allocating financial and human resources to the production and transmission of knowledge. The growth theory…

Blondel, Daniele

401

Disability sport is going back to its roots: rehabilitation of military personnel receiving sudden traumatic disabilities in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to investigate the recently forged links between the military and the National Paralympic Committees in Australia, Canada, Great Britain and the USA. To date there has been no published academic material on the explicit link between the Paralympic Games\\/disability sport and conflict situations. This is despite the fact that the Paralympic Games and their

Ian Brittain; Sarah Green

2012-01-01

402

Academic Integrity in the Twenty-First Century: A Teaching and Learning Imperative. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 33, Number 5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical examination of academic integrity in this monograph demonstrates that student academic conduct has always been strongly connected to faculty work, institutional structures, context, and organizational pressures. Student affairs professionals, faculty, and other campus constituents who have struggled with reducing academic misconduct…

Gallant, Tricia Bertram, Ed.

2008-01-01

403

When the fetus is alive but the mother is not: critical care somatic support as an accepted model of care in the twenty-first century?  

PubMed

There has been an increase in cases involving the maintenance of brain dead pregnant women on life support to allow for fetal growth toward viability and birth. This article provides an ethical analysis and discusses the critical care nursing needs of the maternal patient. PMID:19460668

Catlin, Anita J; Volat, Deborah

2009-06-01

404

The Relevance of Nomadic Forager Studies to Moral Foundations Theory: Moral Education and Global Ethics in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moral foundations theory (MFT) proposes the existence of innate psychological systems, which would have been subjected to selective forces over the course of evolution. One approach for evaluating MFT, therefore, is to consider the proposed psychological foundations in relation to the reconstructed Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness. This…

Fry, Douglas P.; Souillac, Geneviève

2013-01-01

405

Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Internal variability in projections of twenty-first century Arctic1  

E-print Network

. Wettstein 3 Clara Deser National Center for Atmospheric Research , Boulder, Colorado The National Center Corresponding author address: Dr. Justin J. Wettstein, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000

Deser, Clara

406

Angry Badgers: The Protests in Wisconsin Have Helped Revive an Old Progressive State of Being: "Badgerness" Has Been Reinvented for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The events in Wisconsin during February and March 2011 will long be considered remarkable in many ways. That includes the documenting of the protests. Perhaps at no previous time have so many journalists--paid and unpaid--gathered so much information about a protest movement and dispersed it in so many formats so quickly. Ubiquitous, touching, and…

Buhle, Mari Jo; Buhle, Paul

2011-01-01

407

Fair Use Education for the Twenty-First Century: A Comparative Study of Students' Use of an Interactive Tool to Guide Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Christine Greenhow, J. D. Walker, Dan Donnelly, and Brad Cohen describe the implementation and evaluation of the University of Minnesota's Fair Use Analysis (FUA) tool, an interactive online application intended to educate users and foster defensible fair use practice in accordance with copyright law by guiding users through a robust,…

Greenhow, Christine; Walker, J. D.; Donnelly, Dan; Cohen, Brad

2008-01-01

408

Photoacoustic, Photothermal, and Diffusion-Wave Sciences in the Twenty-First Century: Triumphs of the Past Set the Trends for the Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A handful of early breakthroughs in photoacoustic science and engineering since its modern-day (scientific) renaissance in the 1970s has defined directions in the development of the photoacoustic, photothermal, and diffusion-wave fields in the past 40 years that have shaped modern day developments and have led to an impressive range of vibrant and unique technologies in the third millennium (technological renaissance). A power-point presentation on the ICPPP-16 opening plenary talk focuses on the historical roots of what I perceive to be some of today's most successful and unique technologies, while readily acknowledging the impossibility to be all inclusive. It can be found under the url: http://cadift.mie.utoronto.ca/History_of_Photoacoustics-Photothermics.ppt. The thematic areas in question include historical reviews selected among the following topics: Piezoelectric photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) which, along with early gas-phase PA spectroscopic studies of biomaterials such as blood haemoglobin and progress in the physics of photon diffusion waves, has led to the modern-day explosion in biomedical photoacoustic imaging technologies with future trends for photoacoustic and ultrasound co-registered imagers; Thermoreflectance, piezoelectric, and gas-phase PA imaging of semiconductors which, along with developments in photocarrier diffusion wave physics, led to photocarrier radiometry, nanolayer diagnostics, carrierographic imaging of optoelectronic materials, and devices with industrial trends in solar cell inspection and control; Photoacoustic gas-phase and infrared radiometric probing and scanning imaging NDE which led to lock-in thermography and have spawned industrial and biomedical technologies; Thermal-wave interferometry and the quest for thermal coherence which led to thermal-wave cavities, the thermal-wave radar, and derivative depth profiling technologies, and, very recently, thermal coherence tomography. This review is meant to be a growing public record of work in progress, with new materials in the given thematic areas and other thematic areas being added as more information on the rich history of the field becomes available. Direct inputs to the author by the broader photoacoustic, photothermal, and diffusion-wave community are solicited and strongly encouraged to ensure that all landmark and seminal work that shaped the state of the science and art in the field receives fair and deserving exposure and the historical review becomes truly representative and comprehensive.

Mandelis, Andreas

2012-11-01

409

The Influence of Latvian Folk Music on Twentieth and Twenty-First Century Solo Trumpet Repertoire in the Works of Maija Einfelde and Romualds Kalsons  

E-print Network

transparent writing in his Six Latvian Folksong Arrangements. He takes a similar approach in his work commissioned for this paper A Dialogue Between Trumpet and Piano; it has plenty of humorous moments, yet there is also a serious side to it and with beautiful...

Porietis, Janis

2013-05-31

410

Teens in the Twenty-First Century Still Prefer People over Machines: Importance of Intervention Delivery Style in Adolescent HIV/STD Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To assess and compare youth satisfaction with two delivery approaches to a HIV/STD risk reduction intervention targeting adolescents: an on-site, face-to-face (FTF) approach versus a long distance interactive televised (DIT) approach. Methods: A convenience sample of 571 rural adolescents ages 12-16 years who participated in an HIV/STD…

Pendleton, Sara M.; Stanton, Bonita; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Marshall, Sharon; Pack, Robert; Burns, James; Gibson, Catherine; Wu, Ying; Li, Xiaoming; Cole, Matthew

2007-01-01

411

Strategic Computing Directions and Opportunities for University-Government-Industry Partnerships at the University of Saskatchewan: Preparing for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is intended to serve as a focus for developing a commitment for continuing investment in computer support for education, research, and administration at the University of Saskatchewan. Based on the assumption that effective utilization of computers, computer networks, and other telecommunications technology is essential to the…

Kavanagh, Robert N.; Pokraka, Edward S.

412

A Twenty-First Century Cancer Epidemic Caused by Obesity: The Involvement of Insulin, Diabetes, and Insulin-Like Growth Factors  

PubMed Central

Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the developed world. The progression from obesity to diabetes mellitus type 2, via metabolic syndrome, is recognised, and the significant associated increase in the risk of major human cancers acknowledged. We review the molecular basis of the involvement of morbidly high concentrations of endogenous or therapeutic insulin and of insulin-like growth factors in the progression from obesity to diabetes and finally to cancer. Epidemiological and biochemical studies establish the role of insulin and hyperinsulinaemia in cancer risk and progression. Insulin-like growth factors, IGF-1 and IGF-2, secreted by visceral or mammary adipose tissue have significant paracrine and endocrine effects. These effects can be exacerbated by increased steroid hormone production. Structural studies elucidate how each of the three ligands, insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2, interacts differently with isoforms A and B of the insulin receptor and with type I IGF receptor and explain how these protagonists contribute to diabetes-associated cancer. The above should inform appropriate treatment of cancers that arise in obese individuals and in those with diabetes mellitus type 2. Novel drugs that target the insulin and insulin-like growth factor signal transduction pathways are in clinical trial and should be effective if appropriate biomarker-informed patient stratification is implemented. PMID:23983688

Westley, Rosalyne L.; May, Felicity E. B.

2013-01-01

413

The Learning Society, the Unfinished Cosmopolitan, and Governing Education, Public Health and Crime Prevention at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "learning society" expresses principles of a universal humanity and a promise of progress that seem to transcend the nation. The paper indicates how this society is governed in the name of a cosmopolitan ideal that despite its universal pretensions embodies particular inclusions and exclusions. These occur through inscribing distinctions and…

Popkewitz, Thomas S.; Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth

2006-01-01

414

Twenty-First-Century Headteacher: Pedagogue, Visionary Leader or Both? Phase 1--A Reflection on the Historical Perspective and Critical Analysis of Contemporary Perception and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years the UK secondary educational landscape has witnessed significant change, with the introduction of an ever-extending spectrum of competing government initiatives and policies. This has resulted in the steady erosion of the traditionally recognized role of headteacher. This paper presents the results of a practitioner-based study…

Barrett-Baxendale, Denise; Burton, Diana

2009-01-01

415

An analysis of technology infusion in college and university career services offices in the southwest region of the United States in the twenty-first century  

E-print Network

The purposes of this study were to: (a) provide a recent analysis of technology infusion in career services offices (CSOs) in the southwest region of the United States, (b) address the three recommendations from the 1998 Charoensri study...

Vinson, Bonita Desiree McClain

2007-09-17

416

The Treasure House of a Nation? Literary Heritage, Curriculum and Devolution in Scotland and England in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In January 2012, Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond announced a radical measure that would see every Scottish school student study a Scottish text from a prescribed list. In 2010, Michael Gove announced that "Our literature is the best in the world" and that every pupil should study particular authors. The "cultural…

Elliott, Victoria

2014-01-01

417

Hoffman’s Hawk. A University of Kansas Jayhawk Carved During the Russian Revolution of 1917 Reappears at KU in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

of “Bolshevik Jayhawk” are given on the sculpture it? self. On each side of the base are penciled inscriptions. On the base of the left side of the Jay is the inscription “Sent to L. N. Flint, Alumni Secretary, by Conrad Hoffman, YMCA at a German Internment Camp in 1917.” On the Jay’s right side in... Scholarly Digital Initiatives Librarian, for drawing my attention to the article in the University Daily Kansan, which alerted me to the existence of the cargin; to Keah Cunningham for her fine photographic skills; and to Prof. Kenneth Steuer, historian at Western Michigan University, who...

Greenberg, Marc L.

2010-11-25

418

Preparing for the Twenty-First Century: A Report on Higher Education in California Requested by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide background information for a study of higher education in California to be conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, this report describes the essential elements of the system. Section 1 provides an overview of California, postsecondary education in the state, and higher education agencies and…

Condren, Clive P.

419

Internet Workshop and Blog Publishing: Meeting Student (and Teacher) Learning Needs to Achieve Best Practice in the Twenty-First-Century Social Studies Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social studies educators are responsible for successfully teaching students the knowledge, skills, and values necessary to be effective citizens. The National Council for the Social Studies urges educators to design technology-enhanced experiences that address social studies content and prepare students for effective citizenship. In this paper, we…

Frye, Elizabeth M.; Trathen, Woodrow; Koppenhaver, David A.

2010-01-01

420

Do Not Bequeath a Shamble. The Child in the Twenty-First Century: Innocent Hostage to Mindless Oppression or Messenger to the World?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reprint of a 1980 article argues that there is a unique global consciousness inherent in the "prepared environment" of Maria Montessori's student-centered, nurturing curriculum for young children. Maintains that war and peace, overpopulation, hunger, environmental problems, and other global concerns can be addressed through education. (MDM)

McDermott, John J.

1995-01-01

421

Enter Health Information Technology: Expanding Theories of the Doctor–Patient Relationship for the Twenty-First Century Health Care Delivery System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine’s landmark report To Err is Human (1999), health care industry leaders and policymakers have emphasized the central importance of improving the quality of\\u000a care and reducing the number of medical errors. More recently, various health information technologies (HIT) have been identified\\u000a by many as essential quality improvement tools. Indeed, over the past

Eric R. Wright

422

Do Differences in School Quality Matter More than We Thought? New Evidence on Educational Opportunity in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do schools reduce or perpetuate inequality by race and family income? Most studies conclude that schools play only a small role in explaining socioeconomic and racial disparities in educational outcomes, but they usually draw this conclusion based solely on test scores. We reconsider this finding using longitudinal data on test scores and…

Jennings, Jennifer L.; Deming, David; Jencks, Christopher; Lopuch, Maya; Schueler, Beth E.

2015-01-01

423

Report of the NIACE International Women's Day Conference, March 1992. Building on Achievements: Women's Education and Training into the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Introduction" (McCaffery, Edmond-Smith); "Celebrating Achievements" (Hancock); "Building for Future" (Coleman); "Women in Community" (Patel); "Education/Training for Older Women" (Cooper, Kennedy); "Women with Disabilities" (Goddard); "Open/Distance Learning" (Sargant); "Open College Networks" (Mager); "Staff Development Initiatives"…

McCaffery, Juliet; And Others

1992-01-01

424

RECENT BOOKS, DISSERTATIONS AND THESES Allen, Anita, L. (2004). The new ethics: A guided tour of the twenty-first century moral landscape. New York  

E-print Network

Abstracts International, 61 (6), 2205. (UMI No. 975431) Callahan, D. (2004). The cheating culture: Why more classroom cheating: Promoting integrity in assessment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Decoo, W. (2002). The anarchist in the library: How the clash between freedom and control is hacking the real world and crashing

Kritsuk, Alexei

425

The diagnosis of sepsis revisited - a challenge for young medical scientists in the 21st century  

PubMed Central

In 1991, a well-meaning consensus group of thought leaders derived a simple definition for sepsis which required the breach of only a few static thresholds. More than 20 years later, this simple definition has calcified to become the gold standard for sepsis protocols and research. Yet sepsis clearly comprises a complex, dynamic, and relational distortion of human life. Given the profound scope of the loss of life worldwide, there is a need to disengage from the simple concepts of the past. There is an acute need to develop 21st century approaches which engage sepsis in its true form, as a complex, dynamic, and relational pattern of death. PMID:24383420

2014-01-01

426

Blood lead in the 21st Century: The sub-microgram challenge  

PubMed Central

In the US the dominant sources of lead through much of the 20th Century (eg, vehicular emissions, plumbing, household paint) have been significantly diminished. The reductions in adult and pediatric average blood lead levels in the US have been extraordinary. Progress continues: the US Environmental Protection Agency recently developed a new air standard for lead. In the 21st Century, the average blood lead level in a society may be seen as a marker of the status of their public’s health. However, the threat of lead exposure remains a significant public health problem among subpopulation groups in the US and in many less developed countries. This paper examines some of the specific issues involved in the reduction of blood lead in a post-industrial era. These involve the control of the remaining exogenous primary sources, both general (eg, industrial emissions) and specific (eg, at-risk occupations), exogenous secondary sources (eg, contaminated urban soils, legacy lead-based paints), an endogenous source (ie, cumulative body lead burden) and emergent sources. PMID:22282686

Amaya, Maria A; Jolly, Kevin W; Pingitore, Nicholas E

2010-01-01

427

Aging and Cognitive Performance: Challenges and Implications for Physicians Practicing in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The demands of physician practice are growing. Some specialties face critical shortages and a significant percentage of physicians are aging. To improve health care it is paramount to understand and address challenges, including cognitive issues, facing aging physicians. In this article, we outline several issues related to cognitive performance…

Durning, Steven J.; Artino, Anthony R.; Holmboe, Eric; Beckman, Thomas J.; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

2010-01-01

428

Looking Toward the 21st Century: Challenges of Educational Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses challenges related to educational theory and practice, focusing on arenas for theoretical development (unifying the cognitive and the social, learning, the brain, transfer, reconceptualizing the nature versus nurture discussion, and social systems); theory and applications in synergy; and arenas for practical development (curriculum,…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

1999-01-01

429

Developmental neurotoxicity - challenges in the 21st century and in vitro opportunities.  

PubMed

In recent years neurodevelopmental problems in children have increased at a rate that suggests lifestyle factors and chemical exposures as likely contributors. When environmental chemicals contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) becomes an enormous concern. But how can it be tackled? Current animal test- based guidelines are prohibitively expensive, at $ 1.4 million per substance, while their predictivity for human health effects may be limited, and mechanistic data that would help species extrapolation are not available. A broader screening for substances of concern requires a reliable testing strategy, applicable to larger numbers of substances, and sufficiently predictive to warrant further testing. This review discusses the evidence for possible contributions of environmental chemicals to DNT, limitations of the current test paradigm, emerging concepts and technologies pertinent to in vitro DNT testing and assay evaluation, as well as the prospect of a paradigm shift based on 21st century technologies. PMID:24687333

Smirnova, Lena; Hogberg, Helena T; Leist, Marcel; Hartung, Thomas

2014-01-01

430

The globalization of tobacco use: 21 challenges for the 21st century.  

PubMed

The globalization of tobacco began more than 500 years ago, but the public health response to the death, disease, and economic disruption that it has caused is fewer than 50 years old. In this report, the authors briefly trace the history of tobacco use and commerce as it moved from the Americas in the late 15th century and then eastward. They then discuss the wide range of issues that must be addressed, and the equally wide range of expertise that is needed if the global health community is to be successful in reducing, and eventually eliminating, the rising tide of tobacco use, particularly in the low- and middle-income nations that are the target of the multinational tobacco industry. PMID:20097837

Glynn, Thomas; Seffrin, John R; Brawley, Otis W; Grey, Nathan; Ross, Hana

2010-01-01

431

Addressing the Challenges of a Quarter Century of Giscience Education: A Flexible Higher Education Curriculum Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide range of geographic information science (GIScience) educational programs currently exist, the oldest now over 25 years. Offerings vary from those specifically focussed on geographic information science, to those that utilise geographic information systems in various applications and disciplines. Over the past two decades, there have been a number of initiatives to design curricula for GIScience, including the NCGIA Core Curriculum, GIS&T Body of Knowledge and the Geospatial Technology Competency Model developments. The rapid developments in geospatial technology, applications and organisations have added to the challenges that higher educational institutions face in order to ensure that GIScience education is relevant and responsive to the changing needs of students and industry. This paper discusses some of the challenges being faced in higher education in general, and GIScience education in particular, and outlines a flexible higher education curriculum framework for GIScience.

Veenendaal, B.

2014-04-01

432

Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion: Materials Challenges for the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current focus of NASA s space fission effort is Fission Surface Power (FSP). FSP systems could be used to provide power anytime, anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars. FSP systems could be used at locations away from the lunar poles or in permanently shaded regions, with no performance penalty. A potential reference 40 kWe option has been devised that is cost-competitive with alternatives while providing more power for less mass. The potential reference system is readily extensible for use on Mars. At Mars the system could be capable of operating through global dust storms and providing year-round power at any Martian latitude. To ensure affordability, the potential near-term, 40 kWe reference concept is designed to use only well established materials and fuels. However, if various materials challenges could be overcome, extremely high performance fission systems could be devised. These include high power, low mass fission surface power systems; in-space systems with high specific power; and high performance nuclear thermal propulsion systems. This tutorial will provide a brief overview of space fission systems and will focus on materials challenges that, if overcome, could help enable advanced exploration and utilization of the solar system.

Houts, Mike

2008-01-01

433

Situational awareness for science funders: information challenges and solutions for funding agencies in the 21st century.  

PubMed

About 25 years ago, one of our colleagues joined the Wellcome Trust, the world's second largest private biomedical funder. At the time, computers and the Internet were not a regular part of everyday work routines. Today, a quarter of a century later, the Wellcome Trust and other forward thinking funders are leading the way in integrating software, systems, and information technology into their funding processes. While not all research funders have been technologically proactive--some have only recently switched to electronic applications and others still operate with largely document-based processes-almost all funders experience some level of difficulty when it comes to translating technological advances into operational efficiencies and strategic insights. Also, although there are exceptions, funders generally do not share notes. That is scary. It is a rich and perhaps troubling irony that even while they invest billions of dollars in groundbreaking research to solve some of the world's greatest challenges, many funders struggle to find effective solutions to what can seem like pedestrian information challenges: PMID:24597167

Higgs, Ashlea; Diwersy, Mario

2014-02-01

434

Propulsion technology challenges for turn-of-the-century commercial aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper highlights the efforts being performed or sponsored by NASA, in cooperation with the U.S. civil aviation industry, to address the propulsion system technological challenges that must be met in order to ensure a viable future for the industry. Both the subsonic and supersonic aeropropulsion programs are considered. Subsonic transport propulsion program elements, including ultra-high-bypass-ratio turbofans with attendant noise reduction efforts, high-efficiency cores, and combustor emissions reductions are discussed in terms of goals, technical issues, and problem solutions. Similarly, the high-speed research propulsion efforts addressing a high-speed commercial transport are reviewed in terms of environmental barrier issues, such as oxides of nitrogen and noise reduction, and the related economic issues.

Ziemianski, Joseph A.; Ball, Calvin L.

1993-01-01

435

Human resources for health--challenges for the 21st century.  

PubMed

A quality health workforce is critical for the development of health systems and the delivery of health services. Although significant resources have been devoted to this area, imbalances persist in most countries. There is a growing recognition that to address current demographic, epidemiological, technological and socioeconomic changes, approaches to human resources for health development must be more comprehensive. While education and training of health personnel is a crucial element, the areas of policy development, planning and management of human resources must receive appropriate attention. Health sector reform initiatives have not included human resources development as an integral part in their processes, which has led to failures of reforms in some cases. Human resources for health must have a more prominent place on the political agenda of countries. It is apparent that to meet current and future challenges, partnerships between the many actors must be established. PMID:9675806

Adams, O B; Hirschfeld, M

1998-01-01

436

Environmental ethics and professional practice: A case study of an environmental challenge for century 2000  

SciTech Connect

Objective resolution of environmental issues involves questions of facts and values, and, for environmental issues to be resolved ethically, a proper synthesis of environmental facts with questions of ethics must occur. In this case study, the proposal by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to use the Yucca Mountain site in southwest Nevada as a deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of the nation`s high-level nuclear waste is examined in part in the context of the {open_quotes}Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for Environmental Professionals{close_quotes} adopted by the National Association of Environmental Professionals (NAEP). Current plans are that a repository at the Yucca Mountain site would begin functioning in 2010 and would be sealed after about 150 years. The requirement that a geologic repository must isolate nuclear waste from the environment for at least 10,000 years poses unique challenges to environmental professionals. This case study also analyzes the challenges in terms of the implications of a new federal Executive Order on Ecosystem Management and corresponding internal orders within all federal agencies to conform to the Executive Order. The imposition of the principles and practices of ecosystem-based resource management on federal agencies provides an opportunity to also address, in the context of the DOE Yucca Mountain Project, (1) the ecosystem approach to environmental management, (2) concepts of holistic resource management planning, and (3) the concepts of sustainability and biodiversity. Within this framework there are important implications for environmental ethics and professional practice that must remain at the forefront of concerns of the NAEP over the next two decades.

Malone, C. [Nuclear Waste Project Office, Carson City, NV (United States)

1995-12-01

437

Tradition and Culture in the Millennium: Tribal Colleges and Universities. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of The David C. Anchin Research Center Series on Educational Policy in the 21st century: Opportunities, Challenges, and Solutions focuses on tribal colleges and universities. As a recent member of higher education community, tribal colleges and universities provide a unique perspective on higher education policy. Policies and…

Warner, Linda Sue, Ed.; Gipp, Gerald E., Ed.

2009-01-01

438

Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

2008-01-01

439

The Challenges of the 21st Century for Vocational Education and Training. International Conference on Vocational Education and Training Proceedings (Helsinki, Finland, August 24-28, 1997).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following are among the 52 papers included: "A Vision of Vocational Education and Training for the Approaching Millennium" (Mndebele); "Challenges for the 21st Century for Technical-Vocational Education and Training from Global, Regional and National Perspectives" (Basu); "A Customer-Oriented Approach for Curriculum Development in Vocational…

Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

440

Energy Research at UC Santa Barbara Energy is one of the most important challenges of the century. Energy research at the University of  

E-print Network

Energy Research at UC Santa Barbara Energy is one of the most important challenges of the century. Energy research at the University of California Santa Barbara (UC Santa Barbara) is largely focused on developing new technologies that increase energy efficiency, thereby reducing energy consumption. UC Santa

Akhmedov, Azer

441

Science Education and the Challenges Facing Its Integration into the 21st Century School System in a Globalized World: A Case of Igbo Nation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a study of historical foundations of science education in Igboland, its nature and scope as well as the challenges facing its integration into the 21st century school system in a globalized world. The authors found that there were many scientific activities in Igbo culture, but many problems hinder their integration into the basic…

Ezeudu, F. O.; Nkokelonye, C. U.; Ezeudu, S. A.

2013-01-01

442

Dentistry in the 21st century: challenges of a globalising world.  

PubMed

Oral health is - literally - vital to good general health, not least because the mouth is the sentinel of the body. Dentistry, the Cinderella of health care, faces immense challenges of globalisation. Governments, having spent freely on everything from defence to social security, face mountains of debts which make budget cutbacks essential. Simultaneously, most developed countries have to pay increasing costs of caring for rapidly ageing populations. Dentistry is being pulled two ways: wealthy members of society demand high-end expensive treatment, much of it cosmetic rather than necessary to deal with disease, whereas many millions of poor people in developing countries cannot afford basic dental treatment and may never see a dentist. Too many governments and dentists persist with the expensive and destructive regime of 'drill and fill (and bill)'. International advances in care may not reach the clinician's chair because treatment guidelines and payments are set locally. An international symposium to celebrate Mikako Hayashi becoming Professor of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology at Osaka University concluded that dentistry should move from an increasingly un-affordable curative model to a cost-effective evidence-based preventive model. The goal is to help people retain healthy natural teeth throughout their lives, as an essential part of enhancing their general health. PMID:25201627

Hayashi, Mikako; Haapasalo, Markus; Imazato, Satoshi; Lee, Jae Il; Momoi, Yasuko; Murakami, Shinya; Whelton, Helen; Wilson, Nairn

2014-12-01

443

Lightning protection: challenges, solutions and questionable steps in the 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides the special primary lightning protection of extremely high towers, huge office and governmental buildings, large industrial plants and resident parks most of the challenges were connected to the secondary lightning protection of sensitive devices in Information and Communication Technology. The 70 year history of Budapest School of Lightning Protection plays an important role in the research and education of lightning and development of lightning protection. Among results and solutions the Rolling Sphere designing method (RS) and the Probability Modulated Attraction Space (PMAS) theory are detailed. As a new field Preventive Lightning Protection (PLP) has been introduced. The PLP method means the use of special preventive actions only for the duration of the thunderstorm. Recently several non-conventional lightning protection techniques have appeared as competitors of the air termination systems formed of conventional Franklin rods. The questionable steps, non-conventional lightning protection systems reported in the literature are the radioactive lightning rods, Early Streamer Emission (ESE) rods and Dissipation Arrays (sometimes called Charge Transfer Systems).

Berta, István

2011-06-01

444

Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management, acquisition management and people. The new enhanced organizational capabilities coupled with more effective communications; oversight and decision-making processes are expected to help EM meet the 21. century challenges. This article will focus on some of the initiatives to develop and enhance organizational technical capabilities. Some of these development initiatives are a part of DOE corporate actions to respond to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendations 93-3 and 2004-1. Other development initiatives have been tailored to meet EM specific needs for organizational capabilities such as case studies analysis and cost estimating. (authors)

Fiore, J.J.; Rizkalla, E.I. [Office of Environmental Management, The United States Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

2007-07-01

445

Challenges and Opportunities in Early Childhood: Views of the CEOs of the Big Three--Twenty-First Annual Status Report on For Profit Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the viewpoints of the CEOs of the three largest for profit child care organizations in North America about trends in their field. The three individuals are: (1) David Lissy, CEO, Bright Horizons Family Solutions; (2) Felicia Thornton, CEO, Knowledge Universe Education, U.S. (parent company for Knowledge Learning Corporation);…

Neugebauer, Roger

2008-01-01

446

Education for the Twenty-first Century: Asia-Pacific Perspectives. [A Synthesis of Papers Presented at a Regional Symposium on Qualities Required of Education Today To Meet the Foreseeable Demands of the Twenty-first Century (Bangkok, Thailand, August 16-18, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of the political, social, cultural, and economic sectors will depend on the contributions of today's students. In rethinking education to cope with rapid change, innovation, technology, and research are indispensable tools of education. This book is a synthesis of ideas contained in papers presented at a symposium sponsored by UNESCO's…

Singh, Raja Roy

447

Education and outreach challenges for the 21st century -- Promoting source reduction and recycling in a changing America  

SciTech Connect

Promoting source reduction and recycling is become increasingly more challenging as the demographics of America change. By the middle of the next century, non-Hispanic whites will be a minority in a number of states, including California. More than 30 million people already speak a language other than English at home, and in some cities, such as San Francisco and Miami, more than 40% of residents speak a language other than English. Motivating residents to practice source reduction and recycling will require an increasing sensitivity to multi-culturalism and multi-lingual outreach will become essential. Designing public education programs that are successful will require significant changes in the way outreach is planned and implemented. The San Francisco Recycling Program has long worked on developing not just multi-lingual, but also multi-cultural outreach to motivate residents to reduce waste and recycle. The program conducts outreach in 6 languages, and has direct contact with more than 50,000 households a year, including using a multilingual phone bank operation that reaches 30,000 households a year. Other outreach programs include neighborhood campaigns with incentives; street signs; exhibits; door to door campaigns; direct mail; field trips, assembly programs and presentations for students; web sites; trilingual hotlines; and multilingual brochures delivered to every new mover. Given limited resources, partnerships have also been a major vehicle for expanding the program's outreach. For example, the San Francisco Recycling Program has spearheaded a regional waste prevention partnership that includes 110 cities and counties, 400 supermarkets and other private partners to promote source reduction. This program has had documented impact on shopping behavior in the Bay Area.

Assmann, D.O.

1999-07-01

448

Twenty-First Bowditch Lecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the discovery, physiological function and the three roles (the bridge, the gate, and the fence) of the junctions between epithelial cells. Experimental usefulness of epithelia in studying basic questions common to all cell membranes, such as extraction of channels and carriers, or origin of ion or nonelectrolyte selectivity, is…

Diamond, Jared M.

1977-01-01

449

Seven challenges for neuroscience.  

PubMed

Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuroscience has to become "big science" - we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with "rungs" linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such "data ladders" will help us to meet the third challenge - the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need. PMID:24139651

Markram, Henry

2013-01-01

450

Seven challenges for neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Summary Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuro-science has to become “big science” – we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with “rungs” linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such “data ladders” will help us to meet the third challenge – the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need. PMID:24139651

Markram, Henry

451

Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting. Volume 3, Primary system integrity; Aging research, products and applications; Structural and seismic engineering; Seismology and geology: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [comp.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-04-01

452

Soil improvement to match 21st century agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotechnology and genetic engineering promise a new explosion of agricultural productivity going into the twenty?first century. But according to reports from the United Nations and others, the soils of the world are continually being seriously degraded, some beyond repair, and others repairable only at high cost. It is doubtful if a superlative new agriculture can be successfully launched on seriously

Arthur Wallace

1994-01-01

453

Student Teaching Abroad: An Experience for 21st Century Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty first century teachers need to be proficient in technology, skilled as reflective practitioners, and able to reflect on diversity in a myriad of ways: learning styles, special needs, cultural differences, racial differences, developmentally appropriate differences, teaching styles, and personality differences of children, teachers, parents,…

Landerholm, Elizabeth; Chacko, Jacob B.

2013-01-01

454

Political Islam at the Close of the Twentieth Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussing the state of Islamist movements on the eve of the twenty-first century, Sudanese Islamist researcher and former diplomat 'Abd al-Wahhab al-Effendi chose the late Hasan al-Banna, founder of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt in 1928, as his \\

ESTHER WEBMAN

455

Managing Information for Development in the 21st Century: Prospects for African Libraries, Challenges to the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the role information can play in the development of African countries in the 21st century. It stresses that development information can only be guaranteed when libraries in Africa computerize their systems, form networks for resource sharing, and take advantage of the benefits of information technology (IT), especially CD-ROM…

Nwalo, Kenneth Ivo Ngozi

456

Peruvian Education at a Crossroads: Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peruvian education achieved notable successes in the late 20th century, with primary education reaching almost all children and secondary institutions enrolling about 80 percent of 12- to 16-year-olds. Public expenditure on education increased steadily in the 1990s but was still significantly less than the Latin American average. This report…

Wu, Kin Bing

457

Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O'Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

2014-05-01

458

Student Governance and Institutional Policy: Formation and Implementation. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and universities face a variety of challenges in meeting the needs of students, and one of the greatest is their ability to respond to student needs while protecting institutional and academic integrity. For those working with students, a primary example of this challenge is the involvement of students in shared decision-making, a process…

Miller, Michael T., Ed.; Nadler, Daniel P., Ed.

2006-01-01

459

Identifying 21st Century Capabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

Stevens, Robert

2012-01-01

460

Educational Reform in Ghana: The Leadership Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Leadership is a key commodity in twenty-first century organizations. This is especially true for school organizations. This paper aims to respond to six questions about head teachers and leadership of basic schools. Design/methodology/approach: Head teachers responded to survey items about proficiencies required for effective leadership…

Zame, Martin Y.; Hope, Warren C.; Respress, Trinetia

2008-01-01

461

The 21st Century: Meeting the Challenges to Business Education. National Business Education Association Yearbook, No. 37.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This yearbook examines six themes representative of the challenges to future business educators. "The Future We Create" (Arthur McEntee) discusses them: a thinking curriculum, opportunities for real-world learning, matching teaching and learning styles, teachers as knowledge facilitators, technology as a learning tool, and global thinking for a…

Villee, Pat A. Gallo, Ed.; Curran, Michael G., Ed.

462

Progress Toward Meeting the Propulsion Technology Challenges for a 21st Century High-Speed Civil Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ongoing NASA-funded and privately funded studies continue to indicate that an opportunity exists for a second generation supersonic commercial airliner, or High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), to become a key part of the 21st century international air transportation system. Long distance air travel is projected to increase at about 5 percent per annum over the next two decades. This projection suggests that by the year 2015, more than 600,000 passengers per day will be traveling long distances, predominantly over water. These routes would be among the most desirable for an HSCT as part of the international air transportation system. Beyond the year 2000, this portion of the air transportation market is projected to be the fastest growing segment.

Shaw, Robert J.; Koops, Leigh; Hines, Richard

1997-01-01

463

Challenger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy.

Allday, Jonathan

2002-09-01

464

Challenger  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

Allday, Jonathan

2002-01-01

465

Biological Sciences for the 21st Century: Meeting the Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Era of Global Change  

SciTech Connect

The symposium was held 10-12 May, 2007 at the Capitol Hilton Hotel in Washington, D. C. The 30 talks explored how some of today's key biological research developments (such as biocomplexity and complex systems analysis, bioinformatics and computational biology, the expansion of molecular and genomics research, and the emergence of other comprehensive or system wide analyses, such as proteomics) contribute to sustainability science. The symposium therefore emphasized the challenges facing agriculture, human health, sustainable energy, and the maintenance of ecosystems and their services, so as to provide a focus and a suite of examples of the enormous potential contributions arising from these new developments in the biological sciences. This symposium was the first to provide a venue for exploring how the ongoing advances in the biological sciences together with new approaches for improving knowledge integration and institutional science capacity address key global challenges to sustainability. The speakers presented new research findings, and identified new approaches and needs in biological research that can be expected to have substantial impacts on sustainability science.

Joel Cracraft; Richard O'Grady

2007-05-12

466

Livestock Protection Dogs in the 21st Century: Is an Ancient Tool Relevant to Modern Conservation Challenges?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Europe and North America share a similar history in the extirpation and subsequent recovery of large carnivore and ungulate species. Both continents face challenges and opportunities for managing human-wildlife conflict at the junction of livestock production and wildlife conservation. Predation of livestock and disease transmission between wildlife and livestock is an ongoing and escalating worldwide issue. In order to manage this conflict, producers need effective tools, and they have used livestock protection dogs (LPDs) for reducing predation for well over 2000 years. We review the history of the use of LPDs, including the loss of information on their use and the paucity of scientific research on their effectiveness. We discuss the potential for LPDs to be integral components in modern-day livestock husbandry and outline future directions to pursue.

Thomas Gehring (Central Michigan University;Department of Biology)

2010-04-07

467

Challenger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51L taken from camera site 39B-2/T3. From this camera position, a cloud of grey-brown smoke can be seen on the right side of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) on a line directly across from the letter 'U' in United States. This was the first visible sign that an SRB joint breach may have occured. On January 28, 1986 frigid overnight temperatures caused normally pliable rubber O-ring seals and putty that are designed to seal and establish joint integrity between the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) joint segments, to become hard and non- flexible. At the instant of SRB ignition, tremendous stresses and pressures occur within the SRB casing and especially at the joint attachmentment points. The failure of the O-rings and putty to 'seat' properly at motor ignition, caused hot exhaust gases to blow by the seals and putty. During Challenger's ascent, this hot gas 'blow by' ultimately cut a swath completely through the steel booster casing; and like a welder's torch, began cutting into the External Tank (ET). It is believed that the ET was compromised in several locations starting in the aft at the initial point where SRB joint failure occured. The ET hydrogen tank is believed to have been breached first, with continuous rapid incremental failure of both the ET and SRB. A chain reaction of events occurring in milliseconds culminated in a massive explosion. The orbiter Challenger was instantly ejected by the blast and went askew into the supersonic air flow. These aerodynamic forces caused structural shattering and complete destruction of the orbiter. Though it was concluded that the G-forces experienced during orbiter ejection and break-up were survivable, impact with the ocean surface was not. Tragically, all seven crewmembers perished.

1986-01-01

468

Fracture Toughness and Reliability in High-Temperature Structural Ceramics and Composites: Prospects and Challenges for the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of high fracture toughness and reliability in Si3N4, and SiC-based structural ceramics and ceramic matrix composites is reviewed. The potential of these ceramics and ceramic matrix composites for high temperature applications in defense and aerospace applications such as gas turbine engines, radomes, and other energy conversion hardware have been well recognized. Numerous investigations were pursued to improve fracture toughness and reliability by incorporating various reinforcements such as particulate-, whisker-, and continuous fiber into Si3N4 and SiC matrices. All toughening mechanisms, e.g. crack deflection, crack branching, crack bridging, etc., essentially redistribute stresses at the crack tip and increase the energy needed to propagate a crack through the composite material, thereby resulting in improved fracture toughness and reliability. Because of flaw insensitivity, continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) was found to have the highest potential for higher operating temperature and longer service conditions. However, the ceramic fibers should display sufficient high temperature strength and creep resistance at service temperatures above 1000 'C. The greatest challenge to date is the development of high quality ceramic fibers with associate coatings able to maintain their high strength in oxidizing environment at high temperature. In the area of processing, critical issues are, preparation of optimum matrix precursors, precursor infiltration into fiber array, and matrix densification at a temperature, where grain crystallization and fiber degradation do not occur. A broad scope of effort is required for improved processing and properties with a better understanding of all candidate composite systems.

Dutta, Sunil

1999-01-01

469

Project-Based Learning for the 21st Century: Skills for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project-Based Learning (PBL) is an innovative approach to learning that teaches a multitude of strategies critical for success in the twenty-first century. Students drive their own learning through inquiry, as well as work collaboratively to research and create projects that reflect their knowledge. From gleaning new, viable technology skills, to…

Bell, Stephanie

2010-01-01

470

Transforming a Curriculum Center for the 21st Century at Eastern Washington University Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher education is a vital component of Eastern Washington University's (EWU) mission and history. In 2006, after several years of decline in collections and usage of its curriculum center, EWU Libraries made a commitment to transform it into a center for twenty-first century educators. The center has changed greatly in a short time with five…

Miller, Julie; Meyer, Nadean

2008-01-01

471

The Salmonella Mutagenicity Assay: The Stethoscope of Genetic Toxicology for the 21 st Century  

EPA Science Inventory

OBJECTIVES: According to the 2007 National Research Council report Toxicology for the Twenty-first Century, modem methods ("omics," in vitro assays, high-throughput testing, computational methods, etc.) will lead to the emergence of a new approach to toxicology. The Salmonella ma...

472

Digital Learning: Strengthening and Assessing 21st Century Skills, Grades 5-8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive book offers a practical pathway for developing twenty-first-century skills while simultaneously strengthening content-area learning. "Digital Learning" contains a wealth of research-based practices to integrate the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) National Education Technology Standards (NETS) for both…

Serim, Ferdi

2012-01-01

473

Annual maximum 5-day rainfall total and maximum number of consecutive dry days over Central America and the Caribbean in the late twenty-first century projected by an atmospheric general circulation model with three different horizontal resolutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulated changes in annual maximum 5-day rainfall (RX5D) and annual maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) in Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean with three different horizontal resolution atmospheric global general circulation models (AGCMs) and quantified the uncertainty of the projections. The RX5Ds and CDDs were projected to increase in most areas in response to global warming. However, consistent changes were confined to small areas: for RX5D, both coastal zones of northern Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula; for CDD, the Pacific coastal zone of Mexico, the Yucatan Peninsula, and Guatemala. All three AGCMs projected that RX5Ds and CDDs averaged over only the land area and over the entire area (land and ocean) would increase. The dependence of RX5D probability density functions on the horizontal resolutions was complex. Precipitation unrelated to tropical cyclones was primarily responsible for the projected increases in the frequency of RX5Ds greater than 300 mm.

Nakaegawa, T.; Kitoh, A.; Murakami, H.; Kusunoki, S.

2014-04-01

474

Reinvisioning and redesigning "a library for the fifteenth through twenty-first centuries": a case study on loss of space from the Library and Center for Knowledge Management, University of California, San Francisco.  

PubMed

The University of California, San Francisco, is an academic health sciences campus that is part of a state public university system. Space is very limited at this urban campus, and the library building's 90,000 square feet represent extremely valuable real estate. A planning process spanning several years initially proposed creating new teaching space utilizing 10,000 square feet of the library. A collaborative campus-wide planning process eventually resulted in the design of a new teaching and learning center that integrates clinical skills, simulation, and technology-enhanced education facilties on one entire floor of the building (21,000 square feet). The planning process resulted in a project that serves the entire campus and strengthens the library's role in the education mission. The full impact of the project is yet unknown as construction is not complete. PMID:20098654

Persily, Gail L; Butter, Karen A

2010-01-01

475

The Evolutionary Dynamics of Education Systems: Exposition on Institutional Development. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Second Session (Dakar, Senegal, September 18-22, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the stages of educational development beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, when mass economies began to emerge, immediately after World War II. This essay covers the last 40 years that have been characterized by rapid change and the most fascinating acceleration in the history of humanity. During those four decades, education…

Carneiro, Roberto

476

Science and Technology for the Twenty-First Century: This Special Edition MIT Faculty Newsletter, addressed to President Obama, his administration, and the U.S. Congress, includes articles  

E-print Network

Arms Control Agreements AS A PHYSICIST WITH A long-stand- ing interest in arms control and a member; nuclear disarmament; the needs of science; infrastructure; energy; public health; the green initiative stated commitment to work towards eliminating nuclear proliferation and cre- ating a nuclear-free world

de Weck, Olivier L.

477

Access to affordable and reliable energy has been a cornerstone of the world's increasing prosperity and economic growth since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Our use of energy in the twenty-first century must also be  

E-print Network

prosperity and economic growth since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Our use of energy to create the foundation for this new industrial revolution. The talk will also discuss policies public. F E A T U R I N G A New Industrial Revolution for a Sustainable Energy Future SCOB 228 · Friday

478

The Stories We Hear, the Stories We Tell What Can the Life of Jane Barker (1652-1732) Tell Us about Women's Leadership in Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jane Barker--poet, novelist, farm manager, student and practitioner of medical arts--was not allowed to attend university because she was a woman. Yet she was Oxford-educated in the most modern of medical theories of her time. By the end of her life, unmarried by choice, Barker was writing for pay under her own name in an emerging genre--the…

Wilson, Carol Shiner

2009-01-01

479

Imaging or Imagining? A Neuroethics Challenge Informed by Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a twenty-first century partnership between bioethics and neuroscience, the modern field of neuroethics is emerging, and technologies enabling functional neuroimaging with unprecedented sensitivity have brought new ethical, social and legal issues to the forefront. Some issues, akin to those surrounding modern genetics, raise critical questions regarding prediction of disease, privacy and identity. However, with new and still-evolving insights into

Judy Illes; Eric Racine

2005-01-01

480

Evidence based herbal drug standardization approach in coping with challenges of holistic management of diabetes: a dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century  

PubMed Central

Plants by virtue of its composition of containing multiple constituents developed during its growth under various environmental stresses providing a plethora of chemical families with medicinal utility. Researchers are exploring this wealth and trying to decode its utility for enhancing health standards of human beings. Diabetes is dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century caused due to lack of insulin production or insulin physiological unresponsiveness. The chronic impact of untreated diabetes significantly affects vital organs. The allopathic medicines have five classes of drugs, or otherwise insulin in Type I diabetes, targeting insulin secretion, decreasing effect of glucagon, sensitization of receptors for enhanced glucose uptake etc. In addition, diet management, increased food fiber intake, Resistant Starch intake and routine exercise aid in managing such dangerous metabolic disorder. One of the key factors that limit commercial utility of herbal drugs is standardization. Standardization poses numerous challenges related to marker identification, active principle(s), lack of defined regulations, non-availability of universally acceptable technical standards for testing and implementation of quality control/safety standard (toxicological testing). The present study proposed an integrated herbal drug development & standardization model which is an amalgamation of Classical Approach of Ayurvedic Therapeutics, Reverse Pharmacological Approach based on Observational Therapeutics, Technical Standards for complete product cycle, Chemi-informatics, Herbal Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship and Pharmacophore modeling and, Post-Launch Market Analysis. Further studies are warranted to ensure that an effective herbal drug standardization methodology will be developed, backed by a regulatory standard guide the future research endeavors in more focused manner. PMID:23822656

2013-01-01

481

Evidence based herbal drug standardization approach in coping with challenges of holistic management of diabetes: a dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century.  

PubMed

Plants by virtue of its composition of containing multiple constituents developed during its growth under various environmental stresses providing a plethora of chemical families with medicinal utility. Researchers are exploring this wealth and trying to decode its utility for enhancing health standards of human beings. Diabetes is dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century caused due to lack of insulin production or insulin physiological unresponsiveness. The chronic impact of untreated diabetes significantly affects vital organs. The allopathic medicines have five classes of drugs, or otherwise insulin in Type I diabetes, targeting insulin secretion, decreasing effect of glucagon, sensitization of receptors for enhanced glucose uptake etc. In addition, diet management, increased food fiber intake, Resistant Starch intake and routine exercise aid in managing such dangerous metabolic disorder. One of the key factors that limit commercial utility of herbal drugs is standardization. Standardization poses numerous challenges related to marker identification, active principle(s), lack of defined regulations, non-availability of universally acceptable technical standards for testing and implementation of quality control/safety standard (toxicological testing). The present study proposed an integrated herbal drug development & standardization model which is an amalgamation of Classical Approach of Ayurvedic Therapeutics, Reverse Pharmacological Approach based on Observational Therapeutics, Technical Standards for complete product cycle, Chemi-informatics, Herbal Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship and Pharmacophore modeling and, Post-Launch Market Analysis. Further studies are warranted to ensure that an effective herbal drug standardization methodology will be developed, backed by a regulatory standard guide the future research endeavors in more focused manner. PMID:23822656

Chawla, Raman; Thakur, Pallavi; Chowdhry, Ayush; Jaiswal, Sarita; Sharma, Anamika; Goel, Rajeev; Sharma, Jyoti; Priyadarshi, Smruti Sagar; Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Arora, Rajesh

2013-01-01

482

Parallel Tracks, Same Terminus: The Role of Nineteenth-Century Newspapers and Railroads in the Settlement of Nebraska  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nebraskans of the early twenty-first century have had few encounters with railroads. Passenger trains are nearly extinct, and freights run over only a few main lines. But without the railroads that began to crisscross Nebraska in the 1860s, it may have taken years for significant settlement to reach throughout the territory that became a state in…

Berens, Charlyne; Mitchell, Nancy

2009-01-01

483

Releasing Your Inner Leader: Spinning 21st-Century Standards-Driven Evaluations and Professional Development into Stronger School Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simply put, professional development is evolving into something new and inspiring in the twenty-first century. Professional development is becoming more relevant, more reflective, and, most importantly, more social. Socially united groups give rise to a collective intelligence that bonds the members into a more ordered community. Collective social…

Starkey, Carolyn Jo

2012-01-01

484

Reexamining the Role of Gifted Education and Talent Development for the 21st Century: A Four-Part Theoretical Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why and how should a society devote special resources to the development of giftedness in young people for the twenty-first century? If we agree that the goals of gifted education and talent development are to maximize young people's opportunities for self-fulfillment and increase society's reservoir of creative problem solvers and producers of…

Renzulli, Joseph S.

2012-01-01

485

Enduring Visions of Instruction in Academic Libraries: A Review of a Spirited Early Twentieth-Century Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the most enduring, and engaging, questions within academic librarianship are those about students and research skills. The vocabulary employed for discussion has evolved, but essential questions--what skills do students need to be taught, who should teach them, and how?--have persisted from the nineteenth century into the twenty-first.…

Gunselman, Cheryl; Blakesley, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

486

Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century: The Role of Science and Engineering  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-first century security challenges are multi-polar and asymmetric. A few nations have substantial nuclear arsenals and active nuclear weapons programs that still threaten vital US national security directly or by supporting proliferation. Maintaining a credible US nuclear deterrent and containing further proliferation will continue to be critical to US national security. Overlaid against this security backdrop, the rising worldwide population and its effects on global climate, food, and energy resources are greatly complicating the degree and number of security challenges before policy makers.This new paradigm requires new ways to assure allies that the United States remains a trusted security partner and to deter potential adversaries from aggressive actions that threaten global stability. Every U.S. President since Truman has affirmed the role of nuclear weapons as a supreme deterrent and protector of last resort of U.S. national security interests. Recently, President Bush called for a nuclear deterrent consistent with the 'lowest number of nuclear weapons' that still protects U.S. interests. How can this be achieved? And how can we continue on a path of nuclear reductions while retaining the security benefits of nuclear deterrence? Science and engineering have a key role to play in a potential new paradigm for nuclear deterrence, a concept known as 'capability-based deterrence.'

Martz, Joseph C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ventura, Jonathan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

487

The Twenty-First LACUS Forum, 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-three papers on linguistic theory and language research, including a number of prize-winning essays, address these topics: aspects of discourse analysis; bilingualism; Chinese modal verbs; early bilingual speech; linguistic metatheory; music and accent discrepancy; diphthongs; hiatus; vowel patterns; suprasegmentals; neologisms; aspects of…

Powell, Mava Jo, Ed.

488

Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy.

Nuckolls, J.H.

1994-06-01

489

"The Question Which Has Puzzled, and Still Puzzles": How American Indian Authors Challenged Dominant Discourse about Native American Origins in the Nineteenth Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the ways American Indian authors, particularly three contemporary Anishinaabeg writers, engaged with the question of Native American origins during the racially polarized project of "imagining" the nation of the United States throughout the 19th century. In this article, the author argues that American Indian authors had a…

Howey, Meghan C. L.

2010-01-01

490

Challenges of Internet-Based Assessment: Measuring Career Decision-Making Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the twenty-first century, for a growing number of people around the world, the Internet is used not only for gathering information but also for self-help. The uses of the Internet are steadily growing, and it has become an inseparable part of everyday life for ordinary people (Barak, 1999; Barak & English, 2002; Gore & Leuwerke, 2000; Sampson,…

Kleiman, Tali; Gati, Itamar

2004-01-01

491

Institutional challenges and leadership competencies in Chinese Ministry of Education directed universities in implementing the 1999 Chinese action scheme for invigorating education towards the 21st century  

E-print Network

in Chinese Ministry of Education Directed Universities in Implementing the 1999 Chinese Action Scheme for Invigorating Education Towards the 21st Century. (December 2005) Xiaobo Yang, B.A., Peking University, China; M.Ed., Peking University, China... all my friends that encouraged and supported me through the years. Finally, I gratefully acknowledge the important support received from the National Academy of Educational Administration of China. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...

Yang, Xiaobo

2006-04-12

492

NASA/IEEE MSST 2004 Twelfth NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies in cooperation with the Twenty-First IEEE Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MSST2004, the Twelfth NASA Goddard / Twenty-first IEEE Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies has as its focus long-term stewardship of globally-distributed storage. The increasing prevalence of e-anything brought about by widespread use of applications based, among others, on the World Wide Web, has contributed to rapid growth of online data holdings. A study released by the School of Information Management and Systems at the University of California, Berkeley, estimates that over 5 exabytes of data was created in 2002. Almost 99 percent of this information originally appeared on magnetic media. The theme for MSST2004 is therefore both timely and appropriate. There have been many discussions about rapid technological obsolescence, incompatible formats and inadequate attention to the permanent preservation of knowledge committed to digital storage. Tutorial sessions at MSST2004 detail some of these concerns, and steps being taken to alleviate them. Over 30 papers deal with topics as diverse as performance, file systems, and stewardship and preservation. A number of short papers, extemporaneous presentations, and works in progress will detail current and relevant research on the MSST2004 theme.

Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

2004-01-01

493

Aerospace engineering curriculum for the 21st century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The second year of the study was devoted to completing the information-gathering phase of this redesign effort, using the conclusions from that activity to prepare the initial structure for the new curriculum, publicizing activities to a wider engineering forum, and preparing the department faculty (Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics at University of Cincinnati) for the roles they will play in the curriculum redesign and implementation. These activities are summarized briefly in this progress report. Attached is a paper resulting from the data acquisition of this effort, 'Educating Aerospace Engineers for the Twenty-First Century: Results of a Survey.'

Simitses, George J.

1995-01-01

494

Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). Sources of flexibility exist--and can be enhanced--across all of the physical and institutional elements of the power system, including system operations and markets, demand side resources and storage; generation; and transmission networks. Accessing flexibility requires significant planning to optimize investments and ensure that both short- and long-time power system requirements are met.

Not Available

2014-10-01

495

Beyond capital? The challenge for sociology in Britain.  

PubMed

This article offers a 'local', British, reading of Piketty's landmark book, Capital in the Twenty-First?Century, suggesting that the challenge it offers to sociological approaches to inequality is more fundamental than hitherto recognized. The variations in 'national trajectories' exposed by Piketty reveal Britain to be anomalous in terms of standard approaches to the path dependencies embedded in different welfare regimes. Using the recent work of Monica Prasad on 'settler capitalism' in the USA and the tax and debt-finance regime associated with it, the article suggests that colonialism and empire and its postwar unravelling has had deep consequences for British social stratification, albeit largely neglected by British sociologists. Finally, it points to the fact that the form of tax and debt-finance regime that has become reinforced in Britain is at the heart of recent radical reforms to higher education. These are the currently unexplicated conditions of our future practice as sociologists and, therefore, an obstacle to building a critical sociology on the foundations laid out by Piketty. PMID:25516341

Holmwood, John

2014-12-01

496

Opportunities and challenges for the life sciences community.  

PubMed

Twenty-first century life sciences have transformed into data-enabled (also called data-intensive, data-driven, or big data) sciences. They principally depend on data-, computation-, and instrumentation-intensive approaches to seek comprehensive understanding of complex biological processes and systems (e.g., ecosystems, complex diseases, environmental, and health challenges). Federal agencies including the National Science Foundation (NSF) have played and continue to play an exceptional leadership role by innovatively addressing the challenges of data-enabled life sciences. Yet even more is required not only to keep up with the current developments, but also to pro-actively enable future research needs. Straightforward access to data, computing, and analysis resources will enable true democratization of research competitions; thus investigators will compete based on the merits and broader impact of their ideas and approaches rather than on the scale of their institutional resources. This is the Final Report for Data-Intensive Science Workshops DISW1 and DISW2. The first NSF-funded Data Intensive Science Workshop (DISW1, Seattle, WA, September 19-20, 2010) overviewed the status of the data-enabled life sciences and identified their challenges and opportunities. This served as a baseline for the second NSF-funded DIS workshop (DISW2, Washington, DC, May 16-17, 2011). Based on the findings of DISW2 the following overarching recommendation to the NSF was proposed: establish a community alliance to be the voice and framework of the data-enabled life sciences. After this Final Report was finished, Data-Enabled Life Sciences Alliance (DELSA, www.delsall.org ) was formed to become a Digital Commons for the life sciences community. PMID:22401659

Kolker, Eugene; Stewart, Elizabeth; Ozdemir, Vural

2012-03-01

497

Paradata for 'Book Reviews: Wolfgang Lutz, Warren C. Sanderson and Sergei Scherbov (eds.) The End of World Population Growth in the 21st Century. New Challenges for Human Capital Formation and Sustainable Development, London and Sterling, VA: IIASA and Earthscan, 2004, X 341 pp.'  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This record contains paradata for the resource 'Book Reviews: Wolfgang Lutz, Warren C. Sanderson and Sergei Scherbov (eds.) The End of World Population Growth in the 21st Century. New Challenges for Human Capital Formation and Sustainable Development, London and Sterling, VA: IIASA and Earthscan, 2004, X 341 pp.'

498

Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the standards also require some form of governance to maintain and then extend the standard as the science evolves to meet new challenges. A standard that does have some governance is GeoSciML, a data transfer standard for geoscience map data. GeoSciML is currently being developed by a consortium of 7 countries under the auspices of the Commission for the Management of and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Perhaps other `ML' or ontology and vocabulary development `teams' need to look to their international domain specific specialty societies for endorsement and governance. But the issue goes beyond Earth and Space Sciences, as increasingly cross and intra disciplinary science requires machine to machine interaction with other science disciplines such as physics, chemistry and astronomy. For example, for geochemistry do we develop GeochemistryML or do we extend the existing Chemical Markup Language? Again, the question is who will provide the coordination of the development of the required schematic and semantic standards that underpin machine to machine global integration of science data. Is this a role for ICSU or CODATA or who? In order to address this issue, Geoscience Australia and CSIRO established the Solid Earth and Environmental Grid Community website to enable communities to `advertise' standards development and to provide a community TWIKI where standards can be developed in a globally `open' environment.

Wyborn, L. A.

2007-12-01

499

The 21st Century Learner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The profound changes of the 21st century are transforming America into what must become a learning society. Never before have museums, libraries and the whole of the non-formal sector of educational institutions faced such challenges and opportunities. The demand is great for fresh and innovative thinking to construct a bold, new learning network…

Sheppard, Beverly

500

Global Warming and 21st Century Drying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both precipitation and PET changes increase the percentage of global land area projected to experience at least moderate drying (PDSI standard deviation of < or = -1) by the end of the twenty-first century from 12 to 30 %. PET induced moderate drying is even more severe in the SPEI projections (SPEI standard deviation of > or = -1; 11 to 44 %), although this is likely less meaningful because much of the PET induced drying in the SPEI occurs in the aforementioned arid regions. Integrated accounting of both the supply and demand sides of the surface moisture balance is therefore critical for characterizing the full range of projected drought risks tied to increasing greenhouse gases and associated warming of the climate system.

Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

2014-01-01