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1

Twenty-first century challenges for biomaterials  

PubMed Central

During the 1960s and 1970s, a first generation of materials was specially developed for use inside the human body. These developments became the basis for the field of biomaterials. The devices made from biomaterials are called prostheses. Professor Bill Bonfield was one of the first to recognize the importance of understanding the mechanical properties of tissues, especially bone, in order to achieve reliable skeletal prostheses. His research was one of the pioneering efforts to understand the interaction of biomaterials with living tissues. The goal of all early biomaterials was to ‘achieve a suitable combination of physical properties to match those of the replaced tissue with a minimal toxic response in the host’. By 1980, there were more than 50 implanted prostheses in clinical use made from 40 different materials. At that time, more than three million prosthetic parts were being implanted in patients worldwide each year. A common feature of most of the 40 materials was biological ‘inertness’. Almost all materials used in the body were single-phase materials. Most implant materials were adaptations of already existing commercial materials with higher levels of purity to eliminate release of toxic by-products and minimize corrosion. This article is a tribute to Bill Bonfield's pioneering efforts in the field of bone biomechanics, biomaterials and interdisciplinary research. It is also a brief summary of the evolution of bioactive materials and the opportunities for tailoring the composition, texture and surface chemistry of them to meet five important challenges for the twenty-first century. PMID:20484227

Hench, Larry L.; Thompson, Ian

2010-01-01

2

Twenty-first Century Ethical Challenges for Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foreseeable social and technological changes will force us to reevaluate our thinking about ethically appropriate ways to fulfill our mission of using psychology to advance human health and welfare in the twenty-first century. Three categories of challenge related to societal and technological changes have become particularly evident. First,…

Koocher, Gerald P.

2007-01-01

3

Constraints, Dangers, and Challenges of the Twenty-First Century. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document groups together the ideas about the difficulties, dangers, and challenges of the 21st century expressed by the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century. In discussing constraints created by contemporary world history, the paper suggests that the development of the world economy and society is at present…

Blondel, Daniele

4

Some astronomical challenges for the twenty-first century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses some of the scientific puzzles that astronomers may face in the next century. Four areas in astronomy are discussed in detail. These include cosmology and galaxy formation, active galaxies and quasars, supernovae and stellar remnants, and the formation of stars and planets. A variety of observatories on the Moon are proposed to attack these astronomical challenges.

Burns, Jack O.

1992-01-01

5

Computational biomedicine: a challenge for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

With the relentless increase of computer power and the widespread availability of digital patient-specific medical data, we are now entering an era when it is becoming possible to develop predictive models of human disease and pathology, which can be used to support and enhance clinical decision-making. The approach amounts to a grand challenge to computational science insofar as we need to be able to provide seamless yet secure access to large scale heterogeneous personal healthcare data in a facile way, typically integrated into complex workflows-some parts of which may need to be run on high performance computers-in a facile way that is integrated into clinical decision support software. In this paper, we review the state of the art in terms of case studies drawn from neurovascular pathologies and HIV/AIDS. These studies are representative of a large number of projects currently being performed within the Virtual Physiological Human initiative. They make demands of information technology at many scales, from the desktop to national and international infrastructures for data storage and processing, linked by high performance networks. PMID:22491121

Coveney, Peter V; Shublaq, Nour W

2012-01-01

6

Twenty-first-century science.  

PubMed Central

Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

Greenwood, M R

1995-01-01

7

World Grant Universities: Meeting the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today American higher education urgently needs bold thinking coupled with innovative actions if the United States is to meet the challenges of the 21st century--thinking and doing that goes beyond requests for more funding and accountability and beyond the tendency to look at what individual institutions do well and can contribute to global…

Simon, Lou Anna K.

2010-01-01

8

U.S. drinking water challenges in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed Central

The access of almost all 270 million U.S. residents to reliable, safe drinking water distinguishes the United States in the twentieth century from that of the nineteenth century. The United States is a relatively water-abundant country with moderate population growth; nonetheless, current trends are sufficient to strain water resources over time, especially on a regional basis. We have examined the areas of public water infrastructure, global climate effects, waterborne disease (including emerging and resurging pathogens), land use, groundwater, surface water, and the U.S. regulatory history and its horizon. These issues are integrally interrelated and cross all levels of public and private jurisdictions. We conclude that U.S. public drinking water supplies will face challenges in these areas in the next century and that solutions to at least some of them will require institutional changes. PMID:11834462

Levin, Ronnie B; Epstein, Paul R; Ford, Tim E; Harrington, Winston; Olson, Erik; Reichard, Eric G

2002-01-01

9

Twenty-First-Century Kids, Twenty-First-Century Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inspired by a new generation of librarians and children, Walter reconsiders the legacy passed on by the matriarchs of children's services and examines more recent trends and challenges growing out of changes in educational philosophy and information technology. This thoroughly researched book includes the current issues and trends of: (1)…

Walter, Virginia A.

2010-01-01

10

Disease emergence in birds: challenges for the twenty-first century  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The paper by Hartup et al. (2001) on House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) conjunctivitis is an example of the rapid geographic spread that can result from disease emergence in na??ve populations. That event was neither novel nor transient relative to its occurrence or effects. Disease emergence and reemergence are hallmarks of the latter part of the twentieth century (Center for Disease Control 1994, Levins et al. 1994, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999, Gratz 1999). Current examples involving domestic animals include the problems in Europe with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or a??mad cow diseasea??) (Brown 2001) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) (Kitching 1999). Human health has been affected by diseases caused by an array of viruses (Morse 1993, Nichol et al. 1993, Murphy and Nathanson 1994), bacteria (Dennis 1998, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999), rickettsia (Walker and Dumier 1996, Azad et al. 1997), protozoans (Tuerrant 1997, Saini et al. 2000), and metazoan parasites (Hildreth et al. 1991, Gubler 1998), as well as other causes. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has received the most notoriety of those diseases (Hahn et al. 2000, Schwartlander et al. 2000). A similar pattern exists on a global scale for free-ranging wildlife populations (Table 1) (Friend 1994, 1995; Epstein et al. 1998, Daszak et al. 2000). However, in comparison to disease emergence affecting humans and domestic animals, response to emerging diseases of wildlife is generally superficial. We present concepts and data to support our contention that failure to adequately address disease emergence in free-ranging wildlife is resulting in a diminished capability to achieve and sustain desired geographic distributions and population abundance for species of wild birds, including some threatened and endangered avifauna. For clarity, we define disease and disease emergence in the context of our use of those terms because they are the focus of our comments. Disease is any departure from health (Guralnik 1982); that is, dysfunction contributing to physiological, physical, reproductive, behavioral, or other impairment that reduces the probability of survival of individuals. If enough individuals are affected, the collective effects can reduce the sustainability of the population. Although disease can result from exposure to a wide variety of physical, chemical, and biological agents and other conditions, we focus this paper on microbes and parasites and to overt mortality caused by them. Thus, disease effects presented only represent the proverbial a??tip of the iceberga?? relative to the challenges wild avifauna face from disease. Our perspective of disease emergence expands the earlier definitions of emerging diseases by others (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1994, Morse 1995) to include all species. Our comments are defined by the context of disease occurrences that have increased within the past three decades, or threaten to increase in the near future relative to populations affected, geographic distribution, or magnitude of effects.

Friend, M.; Mclean, R. G.; Dein, F. J.

2001-01-01

11

Evolving the Nation's Energy Infrastructure: A Challenging System Issue for the Twenty-First Century; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Over the next several decades, a profound transformation of the global energy enterprise will occur driven largely by population growth and economic development. How this growing demand for energy is met poses one of the most complex and challenging issues of our time. The current national energy dialogue reflects the challenge in simultaneously considering the social, political, economic, and technical issues as the energy system is defined, technical targets are established, and programs and investments are implemented to meet those technical targets. This paper examines the general concepts and options for meeting this challenge.

Garrett, B.

2007-04-01

12

Rethinking Schools and School Leadership for the Twenty-First Century: Changes and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses, for consideration by school leaders, six changes (economic and societal contexts, educational reform, "educational business," tensions between autonomy and recentralization, technology, and use and misuse of information) and six challenges (leading with moral purpose, leading reengineering, leading development of core competencies,…

Davies, Brent

2002-01-01

13

Active Debris Removal - A Grand Engineering Challenge for the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 has reignited interest in using active debris removal to remediate the near-Earth orbital debris environment. A recent NASA study shows that, in order to stabilize the environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region for the next 200 years, active debris removal of about five large and massive (1 to more than 8 metric tons) objects per year is needed. To develop the capability to remove five of those objects per year in a cost-effective manner truly represents a grand challenge in engineering and technology development.

Liou, J.-C.

2011-01-01

14

New challenges for telephone survey research in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Telephone surveys are critical for examining cross-sectional characteristics of population subgroups, tracking trends in prevalence of conditions and risk behaviors over time, identifying risk factors associated with multiple health conditions, and assessing the effects of interventions. Technology has aided telephone research through advances such as computer-assisted telephone interviewing. However, technology such as answering machines and caller ID has contributed to declines in response rates and has increased costs of conducting telephone surveys. The exponential increase in cell phone utilization presents a challenge to the tradition of random digit dial (RDD) surveys of households. Because telephone surveys are used by other industries such as marketing and public opinion polling, the marketplace may help drive innovation and adaptation. Cell phones have made telephone communication an even greater part of the everyday culture and could make potential telephone survey respondents even more accessible to public health researchers. PMID:17094769

Kempf, Angela M; Remington, Patrick L

2007-01-01

15

Active Debris Removal - A Grand Engineering Challenge for the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 underlined the potential of an ongoing collision cascade effect (the Kessler Syndrome ) in the near-Earth orbital debris environment. A 2006 NASA analysis of the instability of the debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude) shows that the environment has reached a point where the debris population will continue to increase in the next 200 years, even without any future launches. The increase is driven by fragments generated via collisions among existing objects in LEO. In reality, the situation will be worse than this prediction because satellite launches will continue and unexpected major breakups may continue to occur. Mitigation measures commonly adopted by the international space community (such as the 25-year rule) will help, but will be insufficient to stop the population growth. To better preserve the near-Earth space environment for future generations, active debris removal (ADR) should be considered. The idea of active debris removal is not new. However, due to the monumental technical, resource, operational, legal, and political challenges associated with removing objects from orbit, it has not yet been widely considered feasible. The recent major breakup events and the environment modeling efforts have certainly reignited the interest in using active debris removal to remediate the environment. This trend is further highlighted by the National Space Policy of the United States of America, released by the White House in June 2010, where the President explicitly directs NASA and the Department of Defense to pursue research and development of technology and techniques, to mitigate and remove on-orbit debris, reduce hazards, and increase understanding of the current and future debris environment. A 2009 modeling study by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has shown that, in order to maintain the LEO debris population at a constant level for the next 200 years, an active debris removal of about five objects per year is needed. The targets identified for removal are those with the highest mass and collision probability products. Analyses from the study indicate that the majority of those objects are spent upper stages with masses ranging from 1 to more than 8 metric tons, residing in several altitude regions and concentrated in about 10 inclination bands. To remove five of those objects per year in a cost-effective manner truly represents a grand challenge in engineering and technology development. An end-to-end debris removal operation includes, in general terms, launches orbit rendezvous, precision tracking, stabilization (of the tumbling motion), capture, and deorbit of the targets. An ADR system deigned to remove a single object is not very cost-effective. Therefore, the repeatability of the removal system is almost a requirement. Some of the technologies involved in the ADR process do exist, but the difficulty is to make them more cost effective. Other technologies, such as ways to stabilize a massive tumbling upper stage and the capture mechanisms, are new and will require major innovative research and development efforts. This paper summarizes an updated assessment of the environment, including what needs to be done to control the population growth, and outlines the major engineering and technology challenges to carry out active debris removal to preserve the environment.

Liou, Jer-Chyi

2010-01-01

16

Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) Facing the Twenty-First Century: Challenges and Contributions. Presidential Address.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines challenges to comparative and international education in the areas of epistemological approaches, research methodology, philosophical considerations, and dissemination of findings; the field's contributions in questioning assumptions about school-society relationships, identifying the benefits and dangers of "borrowing" educational…

Arnove, Robert F.

2001-01-01

17

An Educational Revolution to Support Change in the Classroom: Colombia and the Educational Challenges of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As developing countries strive to strengthen their educational institutions to meet the challenges of the economic and social demands of globalization, tension often arises between providing more access to traditional public education and reforming the quality of the education provided. With its Revolucion Educativa, Colombia offers an interesting…

Light, Daniel; Manso, Micaela; Noguera, Teresa

2009-01-01

18

Youth Civic Engagement in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes results of discussions among social scientists reflecting on issues and opportunities related to youth civic engagement in the twenty-first century. Identifies specific forces, such as globalization, that must be considered by educators and policymakers. Outlines responsibilities of schools, governments, the commercial sector, community…

Youniss, James; Bales, Susan; Christman-Best, Verona; Diversi, Marcelo; McLaughlin, Milbrey; Silbereisen, Rainer

2002-01-01

19

Creating an Academic Library for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Bruce Miller took up the position of head librarian at the University of California, Merced in 2001, the plan for the new library was to use the University of California (UC) system's rich base of support as a launching pad for something great and extraordinary: a model academic research library for the twenty-first century. This article…

Barclay, Donald A.

2007-01-01

20

Why the American Public Supports Twenty-First Century Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American attitudes toward the need for teaching twenty-first century skills appear as strong as the socioeconomic research being done that shows how critical these skills are for students' future access to the middle class and the country's economic competitiveness. In 2003, the AOL Time Warner Foundation (now the Time Warner Foundation) set out…

Sacconaghi, Michele

2006-01-01

21

In Search of Literature for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the author's eighth-grade students went on a yearlong search to find the literature of the twenty-first century. Describes how the students read widely, chose their own books, evaluated them according to topic questions loosely based on the theme of breaking stereotypes, kept and shared journals, and carried out projects of their…

Murphy, Elaine

2001-01-01

22

Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010–2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number

Geoffrey P. Hammond

1996-01-01

23

Social Justice and Sociology: Agendas for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's peoples face daunting challenges in the twenty-first century. While apologists herald the globaliza-tion of capitalism, many people on our planet experience recurring economic exploitation, immiseration, and envi-ronmental crises linked to capitalism's spread. Across the globe social movements continue to raise the issues of social justice and democracy. Given the new century's serious challenges, sociologists need to rediscover their

Joe R. Feagin

24

76 FR 21741 - Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement...Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act (the Act...discussed the advanced communications and video programming changes required by the...

2011-04-18

25

Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

2013-01-01

26

THE PROSPECTS FOR MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

E-print Network

THE PROSPECTS FOR MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SAMUEL R. BUSS, ALEXANDER S the future devel- opments of mathematical logic in the twenty-first century. The areas of recursion theory a panel discussion on "The Prospects for Mathematical Logic in the Twenty-First Century". The panel dis

Shore, Richard A.

27

THE PROSPECTS FOR MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

E-print Network

THE PROSPECTS FOR MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY of mathematical logic in the twenty-first century. The areas of rec* *ursion theory, proof theory and logic on "The Prospects for Mathematical Logic in the Twenty-First Century". The panel dis- cussions included

Shore, Richard A.

28

Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

Staniforth, Mark

2008-12-01

29

Critical Debates Brazil's International Relations at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

George F. Kennan, in his book Around the Cragged Hill: A Personal and Political Philosophy (1993), places Brazil in the category of “monster country” for its geography and demography, its economic and political potential, and the magnitude of its problems and challenges. Brazil’s twenty-first-century challenges include, but are not limited to, the security of its borders, drug trafficking, inflation, and

José A. da Cruz

30

Children's environmental health in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

In the twenty-first century, the global burden of disease trends are the result of complex interaction among rapid industrialization and urbanization, unsustainable use of natural resources, and population growth. In addition, global environmental changes due to climate change, ozone depletion, desertification/deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and increased used of some biotechnologies are having an important impact on human health. Many other factors also play an important role in the population's health response to global environmental threats, including poverty, malnutrition, poor sanitation, and infectious diseases. Worldwide, the burden of environmental disease is much higher for children than adults, especially in young children under 5 years of age. Quantification of the burden of diseases attributable to environment shows that environmental risk factors can contribute to more than one-third of the disease burden in children, a fraction of disease that could be prevented. Children are often exposed to multiple environmental threats combined with other behavioral, social, and economic risk factors. Many of the environmental health risk factors are shared among children's home, school, and community. Therefore, an integrated approach should be considered in order to create healthy environments for children. The promotion of safe environments for children has to involve decision makers, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), families, and various sectors including health, education, housing, environment, agriculture, industry, transport, and energy. Multiple initiatives have been proposed from collection, evaluation, and dissemination of information on children's health and the potential environmental threats to research, monitoring, risk assessment, and policies to improve the environmental conditions and ultimately children's growth and development. PMID:18991913

Pronczuk, Jenny; Surdu, Simona

2008-10-01

31

THE PROSPECTS FOR MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

E-print Network

THE PROSPECTS FOR MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SAMUEL R. BUSS, ALEXANDER S the future devel- opments of mathematical logic in the twenty-#12;rst century. The areas of recursion theory a panel discussion on \\The Prospects for Mathematical Logic in the Twenty-First Century". The panel dis

Shore, Richard A.

32

Twenty?first century learning: communities, interaction and ubiquitous computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and ubiquitous computing. It will also present work conducted by

Amy S. C. Leh; Barbara Kouba; Dirk Davis

2005-01-01

33

Twenty-First Century Literacy: A Matter of Scale from Micro to Mega  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-first century technologies require educators to look for new ways to teach literacy skills. Current communication methods are combinations of traditional and newer, network-driven forms. This article describes the changes twenty-first century technologies cause in the perception of time, size, distance, audience, and available data, and…

Brown, Abbie; Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.

2010-01-01

34

Preparing Students for a Twenty-First Century Global Workplace in an Era of Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study is to thoroughly examine a school district's plan for developing, implementing, and monitoring a strategic plan for adequately preparing students with twenty-first century skills or the marketable skills students will need in order to contribute to the dynamic twenty-first century workplace while meeting federal and state…

Cognetta, Sebastian

2010-01-01

35

SST Forcings and Sahel Rainfall Variability in Simulations of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outlook for Sahel precipitation in coupled simulations of the twenty-first century is very uncertain, with different models disagreeing even on the sign of the trends. Such disagreement is especially surprising in light of the robust response of the same coupled models to the twentieth-century forcings. This study presents a statistical analysis of the preindustrial, twentieth-century and twenty-first-century A1B scenario

M. Biasutti; I. M. Held; A. H. Sobel; A. Giannini

2008-01-01

36

Wireless communications in the twenty-first century: a perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless communications are expected to be the dominant mode of access technology in the next century. Besides voice, a new range of services such as multimedia, high-speed data, etc. are being offered for delivery over wireless networks. Mobility will be seamless, realizing the concept of persons being in contact anywhere, at any time. Two developments are likely to have a

MANSOOR SHAFI; AKIRA HASHIMOTO; MASAHIRO UMEHIRA; SHIGEAKI OGOSE; TAKEHIRO MURASE

1997-01-01

37

American Marriage in the Early Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past century the U.S. family system has seen vast changes--in marriage and divorce rates, cohabitation, childbearing, sexual behavior, and women's work outside the home. Andrew Cherlin reviews these historic changes, noting that marriage remains the most common living arrangement for raising children, but that children, especially poor…

Cherlin, Andrew J.

2005-01-01

38

Moral Psychology for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lawrence Kohlberg slayed the two dragons of twentieth-century psychology--behaviorism and psychoanalysis. His victory was a part of the larger cognitive revolution that shaped the world in which all of us study psychology and education today. But the cognitive revolution itself was modified by later waves of change, particularly an "affective…

Haidt, Jonathan

2013-01-01

39

The American dentists: ethics, technology and education for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Throughout the twentieth century, dentistry has been answering a powerful call to embrace science-driven oral health care, and align dental education with interdisciplinary biomedical training. Now, as we enter the twenty-first century, "evidence-based practice" has raised new challenges for scientific collaboration and professional education. Central to this new landscape is the task of realigning the vision of oral health science to provide a more comprehensive view of how dental science and technology can best serve the health of expanding populations, the underserved and global cultures. This article discusses examples of how educational challenges are beginning to be addressed, and how new technologies like teledentistry, while helping solve certain problems of outreach, raise their own challenging ethical questions of professional obligation and responsibility. PMID:20222216

Dolan, Brian

2009-01-01

40

The Urban Landscape: Educating for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines present and projected national trends to outline challenges in public education. Focuses on the growth of minority populations and likely consequences of poverty and inadequate education. Describes the crisis of the declining number of minority teachers. Identifies ways that universities can act as partners in confronting educational…

Becum, Leonard C.; And Others

1989-01-01

41

Preparing the Twenty-First Century Workforce: The Case of Curriculum Change in Radiation Protection Education in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advent of the global information society and a myriad of other rapidly changing variables are presenting many new and unique challenges for the twenty-first century workforce, and perhaps the most pressing of these challenges is actually meeting the needs for qualified workers to fill the positions in emerging and growing fields. One such…

Schmidt, Matthew; Easter, Matthew; Jonassen, David; Miller, William; Ionas, Gelu

2008-01-01

42

Alaska: A twenty-first-century petroleum province  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alaska, the least explored of all United States regions, is estimated to contain approximately 40% of total U.S. undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural-gas resources, based on the most recent U.S. Department of the Interior (U.S. Geological Survey and Minerals Management Service) estimates. Northern Alaska, including the North Slope and adjacent Beaufort and Chukchi continental shelves, holds the lion's share of the total Alaskan endowment of more than 30 billion barrels (4.8 billion m3) of oil and natural-gas liquids plus nearly 200 trillion cubic feet (5.7 trillion m3) of natural gas. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Multiple source-rock zones have charged several regionally extensive petroleum systems. Extensional and compressional structures provide ample structural objectives. In addition, recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite systems in Jurassic to Tertiary strata. Despite robust potential, northern Alaska remains a risky exploration frontier - a nexus of geologic complexity, harsh economic conditions, and volatile policy issues. Its role as a major petroleum province in this century will depend on continued technological innovations, not only in exploration and drilling operations, but also in development of huge, currently unmarketable natural-gas resources. Ultimately, policy decisions will determine whether exploration of arctic Alaska will proceed.

Bird, K.J.

2001-01-01

43

76 FR 68117 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MB Docket No. 11-43; FCC 11-126] Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 AGENCY: Federal...document concerning implementation of the Video Description elements of the...

2011-11-03

44

76 FR 56658 - Video Description Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 11-43; FCC 11-126] Video Description Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 Action: Final...regulations for issues relating to the video description rules. The final...

2011-09-14

45

Consumer-Friendly and Environmentally-Sound Electricity Rates for the Twenty-First Century By Lee S. Friedman  

E-print Network

1 Consumer-Friendly and Environmentally-Sound Electricity Rates for the Twenty-First Century By Lee as very capable research assistants on this project. #12;2 Consumer-Friendly and Environmentally, they would cause dire consequences as we face the environmental challenges caused by greenhouse gas emissions

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

46

Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive thinking; information,…

Lee, Wing On

2012-01-01

47

Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

Hawkins, Paul Henry

2010-01-01

48

Teaching and Learning in the Twenty-First Century: What Is an "Institute of Education" for?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As we begin the twenty-first century, schools and teachers are subject to enormous pressures for change. The revolution in digital technologies, the pressure to develop consistently high-performing schools systems, and the drive between excellence and equity all combine to raise profound questions about the nature of successful teaching and…

Husbands, Chris

2012-01-01

49

Simulated Arctic Ocean Freshwater Budgets in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries  

E-print Network

Simulated Arctic Ocean Freshwater Budgets in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries MARIKA M, in final form 25 April 2006) ABSTRACT The Arctic Ocean freshwater budgets in climate model integrations. 1985). The primary fresh- water inputs to the Arctic Ocean are river discharge, chiefly from

50

Career Learning and Development: A Social Constructivist Model for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK there have been several calls for new models "fit for purpose" for careers work in the twenty-first century and in response, this article presents a model for career learning and development. This brings together recent theory regarding the ways in which people make career decisions throughout their lives in rapidly changing, turbulent…

Bassot, Barbara

2012-01-01

51

Predictors of persistence among Twenty-first Century Scholars program enrollees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indiana's Twenty-first Century Scholars program substantially increases the number of low income students who prepare for, enroll in, and attend college. Identifying factors influencing attrition is crucial to providing effective interventions that help students complete the program and receive the necessary college funding. The purpose of this study was to predict group membership in one of two groups, enrollees persisting

Sharon Louise McNeany

2006-01-01

52

Simulated Arctic Ocean Freshwater Budgets in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic Ocean freshwater budgets in climate model integrations of the twentieth and twenty-first century are examined. An ensemble of six members of the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) is used for the analysis, allowing the anthropogenically forced trends over the integration length to be assessed. Mechanisms driving trends in the budgets are diagnosed, and the implications of

Marika M. Holland; Joel Finnis; Mark C. Serreze

2006-01-01

53

Adolescent Health and Well-Being in the Twenty-First Century: A Global Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the current health and well-being of adolescents around the world. Considers the implications for adolescent health and well-being in the twenty-first century of societal trends, including growing poverty and income disparities, the changing health care system, increased migration and urbanization, and new information technology.…

Call, Kathleen Thiede; Riedel, Aylin Altan; Hein, Karen; McLoyd, Vonnie; Petersen, Anne; Kipke, Michele

2002-01-01

54

Update Your Classroom with Learning Objects and Twenty-First-Century Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning objects are instructional materials found on the Internet that can be used to illustrate, support, supplement, or assess student learning. Small in size, they can provide instruction that is just enough, just in time, just for you. Is it time to move your classroom into the twenty-first century? In this article, the author explores what…

Cramer, Susan R.

2007-01-01

55

Critical Needs for the Twenty First Century: The Role of the Geosciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Geological Institute and its Member Societies have prepared a concise document for U.S. policy makers about the critical needs of the United States and the rest of the world at the beginning of the twenty first century and how the geosciences can help. In particular, the document is meant for a new Administration and a new Congress in

L. Rowan; P. P. Leahy; M. Zoback

2008-01-01

56

Learning through Media at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the developments in educational media in Slovenia as it prepares for the twenty-first century. Initiated by the Ministry of Education and Sport and the National Education Institute, the program Computer Literacy was introduced which contributed in big changes in the introduction and use of modern media and information technology in the educational process. The programme is a

Nusa Dragan; Ivan Lorenic; Tomaz Skulj; Anka Zupan

2000-01-01

57

The architecture of higher education. University spatial models at the start of the twenty first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the essential urban and architectural support as a base and reflection of the link between University and Society. When the phenomenon of the proliferation of Universities and campi continues to grow, this issue assumes a new centrality.At the start of the twenty first century, it is useful to review the role that Architecture has played within the

Pablo Campos Calvo-Sotelo

2001-01-01

58

A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

Weis, Lois

2014-01-01

59

Teaching Middle School Language Arts: Incorporating Twenty-First Century Literacies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Teaching Middle School Language Arts" is the first book on teaching middle school language arts for multiple intelligences and related twenty-first-century literacies in technologically and ethnically diverse communities. More than 670,000 middle school teachers (grades six through eight) are responsible for educating nearly 13 million students…

Small Roseboro, Anna J.

2010-01-01

60

Does Chicano Rap Empower the Twenty-First Century Immigrants Rights Movement in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between Chicano rap and the Twenty-First Century Immigrants' Rights Movement proves that music can be a powerful instrument to communicating the voice of a social movement. Through the rap lyrics of Chicano artists, including Kid Frost, Cypress Hill, Control Machete, Lil'Rob, Proper Dos, Akwid, and Kinto Sol, I analyze the frustrations and demands of undocumented Mexican immigrants and

Alejandra Lopez

2008-01-01

61

Leadership for Twenty-First-Century Schools and Student Achievement: Lessons Learned from Three Exemplary Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to understand ways exemplary award winning secondary school leaders have transformed their schools for twenty-first-century education and student achievement. This article presents three diverse case studies and identifies ways that each school's leader and leadership team reconfigured its culture and…

Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.

2013-01-01

62

Twenty-first-century projections of North Atlantic tropical storms from CMIP5 models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing potential changes in North Atlantic (NA) tropical storm (TS) activity this century is of paramount societal and economic significance, and the topic of intense scientific research. We explore projections of NA TS changes over the twenty-first century by applying a statistical downscaling methodology to a suite of experiments with the latest state-of-the-art global coupled climate models. We also apply a methodology to partition the dominant sources of uncertainty in the TS projections. We find that over the first half of the twenty-first century radiative forcing changes act to increase NA TS frequency; this increase arises from radiative forcings other than increasing CO2 (probably aerosols). However, NA TS trends over the entire twenty-first century are of ambiguous sign. We find that for NA TS frequency, in contrast to sea surface temperature (SST), the largest uncertainties are driven by the chaotic nature of the climate system and by the climate response to radiative forcing. These results highlight the need to better understand the processes controlling patterns of SST change in response to radiative forcing and internal climate variability to constrain estimates of future NA TS activity. Coordinated experiments isolating forcing agents in projections should improve our understanding, and would enable better assessment of future TS activity.

Villarini, Gabriele; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

2012-08-01

63

Modeling international cooperation in human space exploration for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The policy process of international cooperation in space exploration. including optimistic and pessimistic scenarios for the twenty-first century, is modeled and examined in this study. In the optimistic scenario, international cooperation involves a balanced and interdependent distribution of capabilities between states, their respective national space agencies and communities of space scientists and space engineers. Cooperation is characterized by interstate participation in critical path components and joint research and development. In the pessimistic scenario, international cooperation is structured and dominated politically and economically by powerful states vis-a-vis weaker states. Cooperation is limited to coordination of separate nationally approved projects and augmentation of capabilities in noncritical path components. On the basis of these two scenarios, policy predictions and implications relevant to exploration missions in the twenty-first century, such as a human-tended lunar base and human missions to Mars, are presented and discussed. PMID:11542592

Sadeh, E; Lester, J P; Sadeh, W Z

1998-10-01

64

Exemplary ‘friends and allies’? Unpacking UK–US relations in the early twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the general Anglo-American relationship from 2000 to the end of 2005 is critically analysed. This in-depth evaluation of an important era in recent twenty-first century UK–US relations is accomplished through unpacking the relationship into its different aspects. Drawing on the established interpretive ‘schools’ of Anglo-American relations, ‘evangelical’, ‘functional’ and ‘terminal’ dimensions of UK–US relations are examined in

Adam D. M. Svendsen

2011-01-01

65

Becoming numerate with information and communications technologies in the twenty?first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article draws on data from a three?year Australian Research Council?funded study that examined the ways in which young children become numerate in the twenty?first century. We were interested in the authentic problem?solving contexts that we believe are required to create meaningful learning. This being so, our basic tenet was that such experiences should involve the use of information and

Nicola Yelland; Anna Kilderry

2010-01-01

66

A Comparison of Concept Age Gains of Kindergarten Children in Traditional and Twenty-First Century Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine whether kindergarten students in a "twenty-first century classroom" would have a greater gain in concept age than students in a traditional kindergarten classroom. Subjects were students, randomly assigned, in two kindergarten classrooms. The twenty-first century classroom incorporates five computers into the…

Grubb, Patricia W.

67

Estimates of twenty-first century sea-level changes for Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we establish a framework for estimating future regional sea-level changes for Norway. Following recently published works, we consider how different physical processes drive non-uniform sea-level changes by accounting for spatial variations in (1) ocean density and circulation (2) ice and ocean mass changes and associated gravitational effects on sea level and (3) vertical land motion arising from past surface loading change and associated gravitational effects on sea level. An important component of past and present sea-level change in Norway is glacial isostatic adjustment. Central to our study, therefore, is a reassessment of vertical land motion using a far larger set of new observations from a permanent GNSS network. Our twenty-first century sea-level estimates are split into two parts. Firstly, we show regional projections largely based on findings from the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4) and dependent on the emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1. These indicate that twenty-first century relative sea-level changes in Norway will vary between -0.2 to 0.3 m (1-sigma ± 0.13 m). Secondly, we explore a high-end scenario, in which a global atmospheric temperature rise of up to 6 °C and emerging collapse for some areas of the Antarctic ice sheets are assumed. Using this approach twenty-first century relative sea-level changes in Norway are found to vary between 0.25 and 0.85 m (min/max ± 0.45 m). We attach no likelihood to any of our projections owing to the lack of understanding of some of the processes that cause sea-level change.

Simpson, Matthew J. R.; Breili, Kristian; Kierulf, Halfdan P.

2014-03-01

68

The Changing Geography of the U.S. Water Budget: Twentieth-Century Patterns and Twenty-First-Century Projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent changes in temperature and precipitation patterns have dramatic effects on the availability of surface water for natural vegetation, streamflow, agricultural production, and human consumption. We use a combination of historical observational climate data and water budget equations to develop time-series and maps of twentieth-century water variables within the contiguous United States and compare these with anticipated twenty-first-century patterns projected

C. Mark Cowell; Michael A. Urban

2010-01-01

69

Social security reform in the twenty-first century: the United States.  

PubMed

The paper reviews the history of the Social Security system in the United States in the twentieth century and discusses options for the twenty-first. Because of the steady aging of the U.S. population and the impending retirement of the large baby boom cohort, the Social Security program now is in long-term actuarial deficit. The standard twentieth century approach to this actuarial deficit would be to raise payroll taxes enough to pay for anticipated future benefit increases, but for several reasons that approach may not be so popular this time around. The author's preferred approach is a gradual trimming of long-term benefit growth, plus "add on" individual accounts to provide new saving, for the economy and for the retirement system. The paper also criticizes proposals for Social Security reform made by President Clinton and a committee appointed by President Bush, generally because these proposals do not provide enough new saving. PMID:12503330

Gramlich, Edward M

2002-01-01

70

Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015. Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The opportunities for space science in the period from 1995 to 2015 are discussed. A perspective on progress in the six disciplines (the planet Earth; planetary and lunar exploration; solar system space physics; astronomy and astrophysics; fundamental physics and chemistry; and life sciences) of space science are reviewed. The prospectives for major achievements by 1995 from missions already underway or awaiting new starts are included. A set of long range goals for these disciplines are presented for the first two decades of the twenty-first century. Broad themes for future scientific pursuits are presented and some examples of high-priority missions for the turn of the century are highlighted. A few recommendations are cited for each discipline to suggest how these themes might be developed.

1988-01-01

71

Why the twenty-first century tropical Pacific trend pattern cannot significantly influence ENSO amplitude?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the climate is highly expected to change due to global warming, it is unclear whether the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) will be more or less active in the future. One may argue that this uncertainty is due to the intrinsic uncertainties in current climate models or the strong natural long-term modulation of ENSO. Here, we propose that the global warming trend cannot significantly modify ENSO amplitude due to weak feedback between the global warming induced tropical climate change and ENSO. By analyzing Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and observation data, we found that the zonal dipole pattern of sea surface temperature [SST; warming in the eastern Pacific and cooling in the western Pacific or vice versa; `Pacific zonal mode' (PZM)] is highly correlated to change in ENSO amplitude. Additionally, this PZM is commonly identified in control experiments (pre-industrial conditions), twentieth century observations, and twenty-first century scenario experiments [representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5 W m-2 (RCP 4.5, 8.5)]. PZM provides favorable conditions for the intensification of ENSO by strengthening air-sea coupling and modifying ENSO pattern. On the other hand, the twenty-first century SST trend pattern, which is different from PZM, is not favorable towards changing ENSO amplitude. Furthermore, we performed an intermediate ocean-atmosphere coupled model simulations, in which the SST trend pattern and PZM are imposed as an external anomalous heat flux or prescribed as a basic state. It was concluded that the SST trend pattern forcing insignificantly changes ENSO amplitude, and the PZM forcing intensifies ENSO amplitude.

An, Soon-Il; Choi, Jung

2014-07-01

72

Assessing twenty-first century skills through a teacher created video game for high school biology students  

Microsoft Academic Search

As twenty?first century skills become a greater focus in K?12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today’s students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi?experimental, qualitative design assessed the twenty?first century skills of digital age literacy, inventive thinking, high

Leonard A. Annetta; Shawn Holmes

2010-01-01

73

Low Fertility at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

In the past few decades, demographic concerns have shifted from rapid population growth fueled by high fertility to concerns of population decline produced by very low, sub-replacement fertility levels. Once considered a problem unique to Europe or developed nations, concerns now center on the global spread of low fertility. Nearly half of the world's population now lives in countries with fertility at or below replacement levels. Further, by the mid-twenty-first century three of four countries now described as developing are projected to reach or slip below replacement fertility. We review the research on low fertility through the predominant frameworks and theories used to explain it. These explanations range from decomposition and proximate determinant frameworks to grand theories on the fundamental causes underlying the pervasiveness and spread of low fertility. We focus on the ability of theory to situate previous and future findings and conclude with directions for furthur research. PMID:20376287

Morgan, S. Philip; Taylor, Miles G.

2010-01-01

74

Taxonomy, biodiversity and their publics in twenty-first-century DNA barcoding.  

PubMed

We examine the crafting of publics in the global Barcoding of Life Initiative (BOLI)--seen as crucial for re-invigorating, and democratizing, early-twenty-first-century taxonomic sciences and hence for actually achieving biodiversity protection. Our approach to the issue of publics differs from that of conventional public understanding of or engagement with science work. Combining science and technology studies with critical political theory allows us to examine the discursive and material formation of publics occurring within the science of DNA barcoding. Co-productionist theory suggests BOLI to be actively crafting its prospective publics imaginatively, as an integral part of its self-composition as public science. Drawing on the work of Laclau's On Populist Reason, we examine how such normatively weighted abstract publics are necessarily chronically incomplete, with an unavoidable tension between the universal and the particular. PMID:20977186

Ellis, Rebecca; Waterton, Claire; Wynne, Brian

2010-07-01

75

Twenty-first century learning in states: the case of the Massachusetts educational system.  

PubMed

A current crisis in education is leaving students less prepared to succeed in the working world than any generation before them. Increasingly complex external, nonacademic pressures have an impact on many of today's students, often causing them to drop out of school. Only 76 percent of Massachusetts high school students graduate, and only 29 percent earn a college degree. National figures are worse. Most educational institutions share a common goal to support students in becoming skilled, productive, successful members of society, but the author argues that this goal is not being met. Despite the constant changes in the world, educational practices have remained static. Most public schools are not adapting to meet the shifting needs of students. Universities are not able to prepare the right mix of prospective employees for the demands of the job market; for example, schools are graduating only 10 percent of the needed engineers. Institutions of higher learning cannot keep up with employers' needs in an evolving global market: strong math, science, and writing abilities; critical thinking skills; and the ability to work in teams. The author draws on exemplary efforts at work in his home state of Massachusetts--whose improvements in student achievement outcomes have been some of the best in the nation--to suggest there is promise in twenty-first century learning. Middle school students involved in a NASA-funded project write proposals, work in teams, and engage in peer review. Older students participate in enhanced, hands-on cooperative school-to-work and after-school programs. Schools are starting to offer expanded day learning, increasing the number of hours they are engaged in formal learning. Yet such programs have not reached significant levels of scale. The author calls for a major shift in education to help today's students be successful in the twenty-first century. PMID:17017262

Driscoll, David P

2006-01-01

76

A Gathering of Great Minds: Designing Twenty-First Century Education with Twentieth Century Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the 21st century turns five and a half and looks forward to summer vacation, the higher education community seems poised to undertake an endeavor of epic proportions: the remodeling of the American approach to college student learning. To begin building structures and designing strategies for 21st century education, the "Greater Expectations: A…

Taylor, Kari B.

2005-01-01

77

Robust twenty-first-century projections of El Niño and related precipitation variability.  

PubMed

The El?Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in rainfall, severe weather, agricultural production, ecosystems and disease in many parts of the world. Given that further human-forced changes in the Earth's climate system seem inevitable, the possibility exists that the character of ENSO and its impacts might change over the coming century. Although this issue has been investigated many times during the past 20?years, there is very little consensus on future changes in ENSO, apart from an expectation that ENSO will continue to be a dominant source of year-to-year variability. Here we show that there are in fact robust projected changes in the spatial patterns of year-to-year ENSO-driven variability in both surface temperature and precipitation. These changes are evident in the two most recent generations of climate models, using four different scenarios for CO2 and other radiatively active gases. By the mid- to late twenty-first century, the projections include an intensification of both El-Niño-driven drying in the western Pacific Ocean and rainfall increases in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Experiments with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model reveal that robust projected changes in precipitation anomalies during El?Niño years are primarily determined by a nonlinear response to surface global warming. Uncertain projected changes in the amplitude of ENSO-driven surface temperature variability have only a secondary role. Projected changes in key characteristics of ENSO are consequently much clearer than previously realized. PMID:24121439

Power, Scott; Delage, François; Chung, Christine; Kociuba, Greg; Keay, Kevin

2013-10-24

78

Psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis: role of patient advocacy organisations in the twenty first century  

PubMed Central

All the psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis patient advocacy organisations are devoted to promoting public awareness and patient education; supporting access to effective treatments and physicians committed to the welfare of patients; working with physicians and other organisations to facilitate development of new treatments; and supporting research for more effective treatments and a cure for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. They have participated in the remaking of health politics in the late twentieth century. This was an era in which small patient support and advocacy groups were transformed into sophisticated national health organisations integral to the formation of national health policy and research, treatment, and education funding by working with physicians, legislators, pharmaceutical companies, third party payors, and the media. As we enter the twenty first century, some of these groups have done critical surveys of patients and physicians to discern needs that are redirecting their programming and reshaping directions in the field. Many national leagues have united to form international organisations. Although differences in their national healthcare systems, the age of their organisations, and the diseases they cover are reflected in the focus of their individual activities, much unites them. Whatever their size, as their roles have come to be recognised in the healthcare community, the patient advocacy organisations welcome being invited to the decision making table. This report describes a sampling of these organisations. PMID:15708949

Zimmerman, G; Savage, L; Chandler, D; Maccarone, B

2005-01-01

79

Organizing knowledge in the Isis bibliography from Sarton to the early twenty-first century.  

PubMed

This essay explores various ways in which bibliographies have exhibited "sociality." Bibliographies are both products of the social contexts that have created them and engines of social interaction in scholarly communities. By tracing the history of the Isis Bibliography, the longest-running and most comprehensive bibliography in its field, this essay explains how different Isis classification systems have been tied to major twentieth-century cataloging efforts. By looking at classification, the essay also attends to the ways in which aspects of the Isis Bibliography in different decades have reflected social mores of their period. Finally, it demonstrates how critical the Isis Bibliography was in the formation of the discipline of history of science and goes on to discuss how that disciplinary connection is evolving in the twenty-first century. By thinking of the bibliography as a network of scholars, not just scholarly works, the essay asks us to reflect on the nature and purpose of bibliography in the digital age. PMID:24341264

Weldon, Stephen P

2013-09-01

80

Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could…

Reynolds, David R.

81

Climates of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries Simulated by the NCAR Climate System Model.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Climate System Model, a coupled global climate model without `flux adjustments' recently developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, was used to simulate the twentieth-century climate using historical greenhouse gas and sulfate aerosol forcing. This simulation was extended through the twenty-first century under two newly developed scenarios, a business-as-usual case (ACACIA-BAU, CO2 710 ppmv in 2100) and a CO2 stabilization case (STA550, CO2 540 ppmv in 2100). Here we compare the simulated and observed twentieth-century climate, and then describe the simulated climates for the twenty-first century. The model simulates the spatial and temporal variations of the twentieth-century climate reasonably well. These include the rapid rise in global and zonal mean surface temperatures since the late 1970s, the precipitation increases over northern mid- and high-latitude land areas, ENSO-induced precipitation anomalies, and Pole-midlatitude oscillations (such as the North Atlantic oscillation) in sea level pressure fields. The model has a cold bias (2°-6°C) in surface air temperature over land, overestimates of cloudiness (by 10%-30%) over land, and underestimates of marine stratus clouds to the west of North and South America and Africa.The projected global surface warming from the 1990s to the 2090s is 1.9°C under the BAU scenario and 1.5°C under the STA550 scenario. In both cases, the midstratosphere cools due to the increase in CO2, whereas the lower stratosphere warms in response to recovery of the ozone layer. As in other coupled models, the surface warming is largest at winter high latitudes (5.0°C from the 1990s to the 2090s) and smallest (1.0°C) over the southern oceans, and is larger over land areas than ocean areas. Globally averaged precipitation increases by 3.5% (3.0%) from the 1990s to the 2090s in the BAU (STA550) case. In the BAU case, large precipitation increases (up to 50%) occur over northern mid- and high latitudes and over India and the Arabian Peninsula. Marked differences occur between the BAU and STA550 regional precipitation changes resulting from interdecadal variability. Surface evaporation increases at all latitudes except for 60°-90°S. Water vapor from increased tropical evaporation is transported into mid- and high latitudes and returned to the surface through increased precipitation there. Changes in soil moisture content are small (within ±3%). Total cloud cover changes little, although there is an upward shift of midlevel clouds. Surface diurnal temperature range decreases by about 0.2°-0.5°C over most land areas. The 2-8-day synoptic storm activity decreases (by up to 10%) at low latitudes and over midlatitude oceans, but increases over Eurasia and Canada. The cores of subtropical jets move slightly up- and equatorward. Associated with reduced latitudinal temperature gradients over mid- and high latitudes, the wintertime Ferrel cell weakens (by 10%-15%). The Hadley circulation also weakens (by 10%), partly due to the upward shift of cloudiness that produces enhanced warming in the upper troposphere.

Dai, Aiguo; Wigley, T. M. L.; Boville, B. A.; Kiehl, J. T.; Buja, L. E.

2001-02-01

82

AMEE 2010 symposium: medical student education in the twenty-first century - a new Flexnerian era?  

PubMed

As we mark the 100th anniversary of the Flexner report which revolutionized the process of medical education, there is again concern that we face a critical need for change in the process of medical education in order to meet the needs of learners, teachers, and patients. In this symposium, panelists shared perspectives on medical education reform from throughout the world, including The Future of Medical Education in Canada, the role of regulators in contributing to reform, the evolution of accreditation standards, the current state of medical education in Southeast Asia, and the perspectives of a medical student on medical education reform. In the "Audience discussion" section, themes emerged surrounding medical education as a social good, the need for governmental support of medical education, the cost of medical education and the rise of for-profit medical schools, and embracing a broader view of health professional education. There remain remarkable parallels in calls for reform in medical education at the turn of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries but education which is patient-centered and actively involves the voices of our patients and our students is likely to be a hallmark. PMID:21696279

Hemmer, Paul A; Busing, Nick; Boulet, John R; Burdick, William P; McKillop, James; Irby, David; Ann Farmer, Elizabeth; Duvivier, Robbert

2011-01-01

83

Fungal symbioses in bryophytes: new insights in the Twenty First century. Phytotaxa 9  

E-print Network

Fungal symbioses are one of the key attributes of land plants. The twenty first century has witnessed the increasing use of molecular data complemented by cytological studies in understanding the nature of bryophyte-fungal associations and unravelling the early evolution of fungal symbioses at the foot of the land plant tree. Isolation and resynthesis experiments have shed considerable light on host ranges and very recently have produced an incisive insight into functional relationships. Fungi with distinctive cytology embracing short-lived intracellular fungal lumps, intercellular hyphae and thick-walled spores in Treubia and Haplomitrium are currently being identified as belonging to a more ancient group of fungi than the glomeromycetes, previously assumed to be the most primitive fungi forming symbioses with land plants. Glomeromycetes, like those in lower tracheophytes, are widespread in complex and simple thalloid liverworts. Limited molecular identification of these as belonging to the derived clade Glomus Group A has led to the suggestion of host swapping from tracheophytes. Ascomycetes, all identified to date as Rhizoscyphus ericae and having an extremely wide host range extending into the Ericales, occur in the rhizoids of a range of leafy liverwort families that are sister to the Schistochilaceae, where the fungus induces rhizoid branching and septation. Dating of the Schistochilaceae suggests that these liverwort rhizoid associations predated ericoid mycorrhizas. A more restricted distribution of basidiomycetes, all identified as members of the genus Sebacina, is interpreted as a secondary acquisition

Martin I. Bidartondo; Roberto Ligrone; Jeffrey G. Duckett

2010-01-01

84

Critical Needs for the Twenty First Century: The Role of the Geosciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Geological Institute and its Member Societies have prepared a concise document for U.S. policy makers about the critical needs of the United States and the rest of the world at the beginning of the twenty first century and how the geosciences can help. In particular, the document is meant for a new Administration and a new Congress in the United States. The geoscience community identified seven critical needs, which are: energy and climate; water; waste disposal; natural hazards; infrastructure, raw materials; and education and the geoscience workforce. Each critical need is described with an explanation of how the geosciences could help address each need. After each summary, the document provides a list of policy directions that policy makers could consider to address these needs with help from the geosciences. The three key policy recommendations are: 1. Establish a natural resource advisor within the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy; 2. Invest in mapping, monitoring, assessments and state and federal surveys of natural resources and 3. Invest in research and develop to understand Earth processes.

Rowan, L.; Leahy, P. P.; Zoback, M.

2008-12-01

85

Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

1992-09-01

86

Theme Issue. The Evolving World of Management Development: Salute to the Twenty-first Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes six articles on the challenges for management development in the 21st century in the German-speaking nations (Avery, Donnenberg, Gick, Hilb), Baltic States (Manning, Poljeva), East Africa (Mitiku, Wallace), South Africa (McFarlin, Coster, Mogale-Pretorius), Vietnam (McDaniel, Schermerhorn, Cuoc), and Australia and New Zealand (Avery,…

Safavi, Farrokh, Ed.

1999-01-01

87

From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong…

McWilliam, Erica

2011-01-01

88

Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

2010-01-01

89

Thinking Like Twenty-First Century Learners: An Exploration of Blog Use in a Skills-Based Counselor Education Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-first century learners and millennial generation students have integrated technology into their personal lives; there is a growing expectation for technology to be integrated into their classroom experiences as well. Incorporating technology, including the use of blogs, into teaching and learning is receiving attention in the literature.…

Buono, Lisa L.

2011-01-01

90

A Commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," in which Isaac I. Bejar and E. Aurora Graf propose the application of a test design--the duplex design (which was proposed in 1988 by Bock and Mislevy) for application in current accountability assessments.…

Brandt, Steffen

2010-01-01

91

Professional Capabilities for Twenty-First Century Creative Careers: Lessons from Outstandingly Successful Australian Artists and Designers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artists and designers are positioned at the centre of the twenty-first century creative economy. In order to recognise and make the most of the opportunities afforded by this new era, artists and designers still require the creativity, disciplinary depth of knowledge and technical skills traditionally possessed by professionals in these…

Bridgstock, Ruth

2013-01-01

92

Scenarios for Education in the Twenty-First Century: Synthesis of an Unfinished Dialogue and Questions for Further Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a synthesis of an unfinished dialogue on Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) scenarios for education in the twenty-first century and on the position of education that these scenarios question. The first part of this article brings together some of the core considerations put forward by the members…

Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education, 2004

2004-01-01

93

Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly, over the past…

Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

2011-01-01

94

THE IMPACT OF TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CLIMATE CHANGE ON WILDLAND FIRE DANGER IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

THE IMPACT OF TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CLIMATE CHANGE ON WILDLAND FIRE DANGER IN THE WESTERN UNITED from the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) is used to assess changes in wildland fire danger across), under whose auspices this work was performed. 1. Introduction Wildland fire statistics

Westerling, Anthony L.

95

A Shift to Inquiry: The Heart of Effective Teaching and Professional Development for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how an experienced teacher navigates the demands of curriculum to implement her inquiry-centered teaching and learning philosophy, and how administrators along the way supported her during this change. Interviews with this classroom teacher surface suggestions for twenty-first-century professional development and support,…

Bartolini, Vicki; Worth, Karen; Jensen LaConte, Judy E.

2014-01-01

96

The Challenge of the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two representatives in United States House of Representatives look at population trends and aging in America, describing the role they would like federal government to take in the future. Discusses issues related to older workers, retirement, local efforts, Medicare, preventive medicine, long-term care, and rights of the elderly. (NB)

Wyden, Ron; DeFazio, Peter

1988-01-01

97

An Outlook for the Twenty First Century as to Launch Operations, Facilities, and Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion of launch systems for the 21st century is presented. The following launch systems are mentioned: the European Ariane family; the Japanese H-1 and H-2; the U.S.'s Titan, Delta, Atlas, and Space Shuttle; the Chinese Long March 4; and the USSR's Mir, Proton, and Zenit. Systems currently under investigation, including the Assured Crew Return Vehicle, Personnel Launch Systems, and Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO), are discussed. Automated operations, low Earth orbit, and reliability are addressed. Standards that were acceptable for ballistic missiles will not be acceptable for future launch vehicles. The achievement of significantly higher levels of reliability is seen as the challenge.

Loftus, Joseph P., Jr.

1991-01-01

98

The Changing Role of Live Entertainment at English Seaside Resorts at the Beginning of the Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to explore the role of live entertainment in the continuing fortunes and life of English seaside resorts at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Based primarily on an analysis of key reports and in-depth interviews with various informed-source local government practitioners at seven seaside resorts in England, it focuses on the place of live entertainment in both

Chris Bull; Steve Hayler

2009-01-01

99

Transformative pedagogy, leadership and school organisation for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy: the case of Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class ‘brand’, it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly, over the past 13 years, the government has been laying a policy platform

Clive Dimmock; Jonathan W. P. Goh

2011-01-01

100

Scaling the Lexicon Fortress: The United States Supreme Court’s Use of Dictionaries in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article examines the Court’s use of dictionaries in the first decade of the twenty-first century, building on previous research by Professor Kirchmeier and Judge Thumma regarding the Supreme Court’s history of using dictionaries. See Samuel A. Thumma & Jeffrey L. Kirchmeier, The Lexicon Has Become a Fortress: The United States Supreme Court’s Use of Dictionaries, 47 Buff. L. Rev.

Jeffrey L. Kirchmeier; Samuel A. Thumma

2010-01-01

101

Twenty-first century learning in school systems: the case of the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township, Indianapolis, Indiana.  

PubMed

To empower students with skills such as information and technological literacy, global awareness and cultural competence, self-direction, and sound reasoning, teachers must master these skills themselves. This chapter examines how the Digital Age Literacy Initiative of the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township in Indianapolis, Indiana, which is funded by the Lilly Endowment, incorporated twenty-first century learning through a systemic approach involving teacher training and the use of data. The authors explain the district's content, process, and context goals toward accomplishing its mission of empowering students with the necessary twenty-first century skills to succeed in the digital age. The district places a strong emphasis on professional development for teachers. To support the necessary teacher learning and therefore sustain the work of the initiative, the district has adopted action research, self-assessment, and an online professional development network. To support teachers in implementing new strategies, master teachers serve as digital age literacy coaches. The chapter discusses the initiative's focus on evidence of progress. Through a partnership with the Metiri Group of California, the district has built a range of assessments including online inventories and twenty-first century skill rubrics. For example, the Mankato Survey collected teacher and student data around access, ability, and use of technology in the classroom in 2001 and then in 2004. This research showed significant gains in some technologies across all grade levels and consistent gains in nearly all technologies for middle and high school students. As it moves into the next phase of implementing the Digital Age Literacy Initiative, the district embraces the systemic shifts in school culture necessary to institutionalize twenty-first century learning. PMID:17017261

Capuano, Marcia; Knoderer, Troy

2006-01-01

102

Title of submission: SpiderCrab and the Emergent Object: Designing for the Twenty -first Century Category of submission: Design Research Study  

E-print Network

1 Cover Page Title of submission: SpiderCrab and the Emergent Object: Designing for the Twenty: Designing for the Twenty-first Century Abstract This paper presents the development of the robotic prototype/AHRC `Designing for the Twenty-first Century' initiative. We report first on explorations across EO2 into how

Hogg, David

103

Twenty-first century changes in the hydrology, glaciers, and permafrost of the Susitna Basin, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In South-Central Alaska, the Susitna River is the site of a proposed hydroelectric dam. The catchment of the reservoir in the upper Susitna watershed (13,289 km^2, 450-4000 m a.s.l.) is 4% glacierized and is characterized by sparse vegetation, discontinuous permafrost, and little human development. Glaciers, permafrost, and the water cycle are expected to change in response to anticipated future atmospheric warming by the end of this century, thus impacting water yields to the hydroelectric reservoir. We aim to quantify future changes in glacier wastage, surface- and groundwater, permafrost, and evapotranspiration. We apply the physically-based hydrological model WaSiM using daily air temperature and precipitation data from station observations and gridded climate products. The model is calibrated with runoff and glacier mass balance measurements from the 1980s and validated with measurements from ongoing field campaigns which started in spring 2012. With the past and present data, the model is able to match both the magnitude and timing of observed river discharge. However, the scarcity of meteorological observations from the upper Susitna basin presents a major challenge to simulating the catchment hydrology. We present methods for extrapolation of the spatially-sparse long-term data across the catchment, with particular emphasis on high-elevation precipitation. To project future changes in river runoff, we run WaSiM with air temperature and precipitation downscaled from global climate models and compare results from several emission scenarios (selected from CMIP5). We discuss the anticipated changes in basin hydrology as the climate warms, permafrost thaws, and glaciers shrink.

Bliss, A. K.; Braun, J. L.; Daanen, R. P.; Hock, R.; Liljedahl, A.; Wolken, G. J.; Zhang, J.

2013-12-01

104

A Portrait of the PETE Major: Re-Touched for the Early Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The literature on those who choose to become PE teachers received healthy attention in the late twentieth century but has been largely ignored since. Querying those PETE majors in first decade of the new century enables PETE faculty to have updated and pertinent knowledge of their charges. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to…

McCullick, Bryan A.; Lux, Karen M.; Belcher, Donald G.; Davies, Nigel

2012-01-01

105

Taking Up Space: Museum Exploration in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Museums have become a crucible for questions of the role that traditional art and art history should play in contemporary art. Friedrich Nietzsche argued in the nineteenth century that museums can be no more than mausoleums for effete (fine) art. Over the course of the twentieth century, however, curators dispelled such blanket pessimism by…

Sutton, Tiffany

2007-01-01

106

Twenty-first century skills for students: hands-on learning after school builds school and life success.  

PubMed

At the core of the movement for twenty-first century skills are students. The growing efforts to increase programs leveraging out-of-school time are focused on giving American youth everything they need to compete in this increasingly complex world. The author is one of many students who have been well served by initiatives imparting twenty-first century skills during after-school hours. Now a senior at Boston Latin School, the author has been helped along the way by Citizen Schools, an after-school education program focused on hands-on learning apprenticeships and homework help. While enrolled in the program as a middle school student, the author took part in projects that exemplified hands-on, inquiry-based learning that helped her develop twenty-first century skills. For example, along with dozens of other students, she advanced her data analysis skills by analyzing statistics about Boston Public high schools, which also helped her select and enroll in one of the city's premier exam schools. Also, she and her peers worked with corporate attorneys who served as writing coaches and whose expertise the author drew from in producing a published essay and greatly improving her writing skills. The author now finds that the public speaking, leadership, organizational, social, and management abilities she built through her participation in Citizen Schools are a great asset to her in high school. The confidence with which she tackles her responsibilities can also be traced back to her experiences in the program. As she looks toward college, the author reflects and realizes that being actively involved in a quality after-school program put her on track for a successful future. PMID:17017266

Cabral, Leide

2006-01-01

107

Community College Issues: A Research Agenda for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on input from practitioners at 42 two-year colleges in the Western Interstate Commission on Higher Education region, this document outlines the research agenda of the Western Center for Community College Development (WCCCD) for the next century. Introductory sections describe the role of focused research, the WCCCD, methodology used in…

Reed, Lester W., Jr.

108

Twenty-FirstCenturyGraduateEducationinClinical Psychology:AFourLevelMatrixModel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical psychology is positioned to play key roles in mental and physical health issues of 21st century America. In this regard, however, the present Boulder model of educating clinical psychologists is not preparing our graduates to meet the diverse demands of either today's or tomorrow's marketplaces. Accordingly, we introduce a new, four level \\

C. R. Snyder; Timothy R. Elliott

109

Exhuming caliban : gothic and madness in late twentieth and twenty-first - century Caribbean literary fictions  

E-print Network

anxieties, resentments and desires of powerless Europeans who descended from an abused and ignored ancientanxiety, uncertainty, guilt, wonder, rage and desire. Not unlike the ancientanxieties, rage, resentment and desires that haunted his psyche as they did many other eighteenth – century descendants of ancient

Escudero, Andrew Mario

2012-01-01

110

"Working-Class" Education: Notions of Widening Participation in the Nineteenth and Twenty-First Centuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that working-class widening participation in education is not necessarily new. While it can be argued that it was established in the late twentieth century as a concept and government strategy, aspects of its origins can be traced back to movements such as the mechanics' institute movement, first established by the 1850s.…

Robinson, Denise; Walker, Martyn

2013-01-01

111

The prospects for mathematical logic in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The four authors present their speculations about the future developments,of mathematical,logic in the twenty-rst century. The areas of recursion theory, proof theory and logic for computer science, model theory, and set theory are discussed independently. We can only see a short distance ahead, but we

Samuel R. Buss; Alexander S. Kechris; Anand Pillay; Richard A. Shore

2001-01-01

112

Perspectives of Northern Sea Route and Northwest Passage in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of modern climate models to simulate ice season length in the Arctic, its recent changes and navigation season on Arctic marine routes along the Eurasian and the North American coastlines is evaluated using satellite ice cover observations for 1979?2007. Simulated mean sea ice season duration fits remarkably well to satellite observations and so do the simulated 20th century

V. C. Khon; I. I. Mokhov; Mojib Latif; Vladimir Semenov; Wonsun Park

2010-01-01

113

Project-Based Learning: A Critical Pedagogy for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Dewey's notion of the school as a "social laboratory" influenced educational policy a century ago when the United States underwent a "great transformation" in its educational history toward mass schooling, resulting partly from the "high school movement", where the focus was on "schooling for life". Project-based learning, which builds on…

Maida, Carl A.

2011-01-01

114

Strategies for Effective Teaching in the Twenty-First Century: A Supplement for Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The long-range goal of Louisiana's teacher professional accountability programs is to enhance student learning by providing opportunities for teachers to strengthen skill areas and by identifying those aspects of teaching performance that may need improvement. "Strategies for Effective Teaching in the 21st Century" is intended to be used by school…

Louisiana Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

115

Information Technology for the Twenty-First Century: A Bold Investment in America's Future. Implementation Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the implementation plan for the Information Technology for the 21st Century (IT[squared]) initiative. With this initiative, the Federal Government is making an important re-commitment to fundamental research in information technology. The initiative proposes $366 million in increased investments in computing, information, and…

Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC. National Science and Technology Council.

116

Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a 'beyond 4°C world' in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The range of future climate-induced sea-level rise remains highly uncertain with continued concern that large increases in the twenty-first century cannot be ruled out. The biggest source of uncertainty is the response of the large ice sheets of Greenland and west Antarctica. Based on our analysis, a pragmatic estimate of sea-level rise by 2100, for a temperature rise of 4°C or more over the same time frame, is between 0.5 m and 2 m--the probability of rises at the high end is judged to be very low, but of unquantifiable probability. However, if realized, an indicative analysis shows that the impact potential is severe, with the real risk of the forced displacement of up to 187 million people over the century (up to 2.4% of global population). This is potentially avoidable by widespread upgrade of protection, albeit rather costly with up to 0.02 per cent of global domestic product needed, and much higher in certain nations. The likelihood of protection being successfully implemented varies between regions, and is lowest in small islands, Africa and parts of Asia, and hence these regions are the most likely to see coastal abandonment. To respond to these challenges, a multi-track approach is required, which would also be appropriate if a temperature rise of less than 4°C was expected. Firstly, we should monitor sea level to detect any significant accelerations in the rate of rise in a timely manner. Secondly, we need to improve our understanding of the climate-induced processes that could contribute to rapid sea-level rise, especially the role of the two major ice sheets, to produce better models that quantify the likely future rise more precisely. Finally, responses need to be carefully considered via a combination of climate mitigation to reduce the rise and adaptation for the residual rise in sea level. In particular, long-term strategic adaptation plans for the full range of possible sea-level rise (and other change) need to be widely developed. PMID:21115518

Nicholls, Robert J; Marinova, Natasha; Lowe, Jason A; Brown, Sally; Vellinga, Pier; de Gusmão, Diogo; Hinkel, Jochen; Tol, Richard S J

2011-01-13

117

The idea of the library in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed Central

The fundamental idea of the library must change. The nineteenth-century idea of the library as the embalming of dead genius and the twentieth-century idea of the library as the repository for second-hand knowledge must give way to the idea of the library as the owner and the librarian as the manager of first-hand knowledge. In the coming era of knowledge capitalism, those individuals and organizations will flourish who are able to apply knowledge to create knowledge and to organize it to produce knowledge. The roles of present-day librarians and libraries will begin to differentiate sharply over the next decade. Some must seize the opportunity to participate in the transformation of libraries into online knowledge servers. Images PMID:7703930

Matheson, N W

1995-01-01

118

The Individual and Community in Twentieth and Twenty-first-Century Pauline Scholarship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rudolf Bultmann’s existential approach to New Testament theology found many supporters in the twentieth century. It also provoked a forceful response from his student Ernst Käsemann, who insisted that Bultmann’s individualizing interpretation, especially of Paul, was defective on exegetical, theological and philosophical grounds, because it ignored Paul’s cosmic and communal theology. The debate between these two scholars has been furthered

Ben C. Dunson

2010-01-01

119

The prospects for mathematical logic in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The four authors present their speculations about the future developmentsof mathematical logic in the twenty-rst century. The areas of recursiontheory, proof theory and logic for computer science, model theory, and set theory arediscussed independently.We can only see a short distance ahead, but wecan see plenty there that needs to be done.A. Turing, 1950.x1. Introduction. The annual meeting of the

Samuel R. Buss; Alexander S. Kechris; Anand Pillay; Richard A. Shore

2002-01-01

120

Anthropogenic-induced changes in twenty-first century summertime hydroclimatology of the Northeastern US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential changes in summertime hydroclimatology over the northeastern (NE) region of the USA induced by increases in greenhouse\\u000a gas (GHG) concentrations are investigated using a state-of-the-art regional climate modeling system. Results for a higher\\u000a emissions scenario illustrate changes that may occur if dependence on fossil fuels continues over the coming century. Summertime\\u000a precipitation is projected to decrease across much of

Bruce T. Anderson; Katharine Hayhoe; Xin-Zhong Liang

2010-01-01

121

Estimating the potential for twenty-first century sudden climate change.  

PubMed

I investigate the potential for sudden climate change during the current century. This investigation takes into account evidence from the Earth's history, from climate models and our understanding of the physical processes governing climate shifts. Sudden alterations to climate forcing seem to be improbable, with sudden changes instead most likely to arise from climate feedbacks. Based on projections from models validated against historical events, dramatic changes in ocean circulation appear unlikely. Ecosystem-climate feedbacks clearly have the potential to induce sudden change, but are relatively poorly understood at present. More probable sudden changes are large increases in the frequency of summer heatwaves and changes resulting from feedbacks involving hydrology. These include ice sheet decay, which may be set in motion this century. The most devastating consequences are likely to occur further in the future, however. Reductions in subtropical precipitation are likely to be the most severe hydrologic effects this century, with rapid changes due to the feedbacks of relatively well-understood large-scale circulation patterns. Water stress may become particularly acute in the Southwest US and Mexico, and in the Mediterranean and Middle East, where rainfall decreases of 10-25% (regionally) and up to 40% (locally) are projected. PMID:17666384

Shindell, Drew

2007-11-15

122

South African management development in the twenty-first century : Moving toward an Africanized model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the challenges of management development in post-apartheid South Africa. The main issue is how to compensate for apartheid’s negative legacy and bring large numbers of the previously disfranchised black majority into the corporate mainstream. Achieving this goal will require South African firms to develop aggressive affirmative action programs and to embrace leadership and training approaches that better reflect African

Dean B. McFarlin; Edward A. Coster; Connie Mogale-Pretorius

1999-01-01

123

Schools for the Twenty-First Century: School Design and Educational Transformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Building Schools for the Future programme has been established to ensure that English secondary schools are designed or redesigned to allow for educational transformation. The programme represents the biggest single UK government investment in school buildings for over 50 years. For this reason, it poses a major challenge to those involved in…

Leiringer, Roine; Cardellino, Paula

2011-01-01

124

Why the Changing American Economy Calls for Twenty-First Century Learning: Answers to Educators' Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As American educators struggle to meet the unprecedented challenge of preparing all students to master the skills embodied in state learning standards, some wonder whether their efforts make economic sense. After all, the newspapers are full of reports of jobs being outsourced to lower-wage countries and jobs being done by computers. If more and…

Levy, Frank; Murnane, Richard J.

2006-01-01

125

Changes in Thought on Higher Education for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reforms and developments of China's higher education at a time when it faces two great challenges--the world's science/technology revolution and China's social market economy--are, on the whole, replete with achievements and fraught with difficulties and show great changes, but they are unbalanced. Everyone feels that these reforms and…

Maoyuan, Pan

2007-01-01

126

Continuous process improvement: manufacturing optics in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

User requirements and economics demand that large optics components will have to be produced to more stringent tolerances and lower costs. While manufacturing and testing technology have been improving rapidly, the challenge will continue to be how to integrate technology improvements into industrial processes. This paper describes Itek's approach to continuous process improvement in optical manufacturing. Specific examples of process

Jerrold Zimmerman

1994-01-01

127

From Bureaucracy to Profession: Remaking the Educational Sector for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Jal Mehta examines the challenges faced by American schooling and the reasons for persistent failure of American school reforms to achieve successful educational outcomes at scale. He concludes that many of the problems faced by American schools are artifacts of the bureaucratic form in which the education sector as a whole was…

Mehta, Jal

2013-01-01

128

Winds of Change: Charting the Course for IT in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spring of 2005, the author, the retiring president of EDUCAUSE, was asked to be the keynote speaker at the EDUCAUSE Western Regional Conference. The conference theme was "Winds of Change: Charting the Course for Technology in Challenging Times." What that brought to his mind was the era of the great sailing ships of the eighteenth and…

Hawkins, Brian L.

2007-01-01

129

Twenty-first century reversal of the surface ozone seasonal cycle over the northeastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

emissions can alter the surface O3 seasonal cycle, as detected from northeastern U.S. (NE) observations during recent decades. Under continued regional precursor emission controls (-72% NE NOx by 2100), the NE surface O3 seasonal cycle reverses (to a winter maximum) in 21st century transient chemistry-climate simulations. Over polluted regions, regional NOx largely controls the shape of surface O3 seasonal cycles. In the absence of regional NOx controls, climate warming contributes to a higher surface O3 summertime peak over the NE. A doubling of the global CH4 abundance by 2100 partially offsets summertime surface O3 decreases attained via NOx reductions and contributes to raising surface O3 during December-March when the O3 lifetime is longer. The similarity between surface O3 seasonal cycles over the NE and the Intermountain West by 2100 indicates a NE transition to a region representative of baseline surface O3 conditions.

Clifton, O. E.; Fiore, A. M.; Correa, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.

2014-10-01

130

Continuous process improvement: manufacturing optics in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

User requirements and economics demand that large optics components will have to be produced to more stringent tolerances and lower costs. While manufacturing and testing technology have been improving rapidly, the challenge will continue to be how to integrate technology improvements into industrial processes. This paper describes Itek's approach to continuous process improvement in optical manufacturing. Specific examples of process innovations show how evolutionary upgrading of the process has resulted in improved performance and reduced costs.

Zimmerman, Jerrold

1994-02-01

131

Projection of wildfire activity in southern California in the mid-twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate area burned in southern California at mid-century (2046-2065) for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B scenario. We develop both regressions and a parameterization to predict area burned in three ecoregions, and apply present-day (1981-2000) and future meteorology from the suite of general circulation models to these fire prediction tools. The regressions account for the impacts of both current and antecedent meteorological factors on wildfire activity and explain 40-46 % of the variance in area burned during 1980-2009. The parameterization yields area burned as a function of temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity, and includes the impact of Santa Ana wind and other geographical factors on wildfires. It explains 38 % of the variance in area burned over southern California as a whole, and 64 % of the variance in southwestern California. The parameterization also captures the seasonality of wildfires in three ecoregions of southern California. Using the regressions, we find that area burned likely doubles in Southwestern California by midcentury, and increases by 35 % in the Sierra Nevada and 10 % in central western California. The parameterization suggests a likely increase of 40 % in area burned in southwestern California and 50 % in the Sierra Nevada by midcentury. It also predicts a longer fire season in southwestern California due to warmer and drier conditions on Santa Ana days in November. Our method provides robust estimates of area burned at midcentury, a key metric which can be used to calculate the fire-related effects on air quality, human health, and the associated costs.

Yue, Xu; Mickley, Loretta J.; Logan, Jennifer A.

2014-10-01

132

A twenty-first century California observing network for monitoring extreme weather events  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During Northern Hemisphere winters, the West Coast of North America is battered by extratropical storms. The impact of these storms is of paramount concern to California, where aging water supply and flood protection infrastructures are challenged by increased standards for urban flood protection, an unusually variable weather regime, and projections of climate change. Additionally, there are inherent conflicts between releasing water to provide flood protection and storing water to meet requirements for water supply, water quality, hydropower generation, water temperature and flow for at-risk species, and recreation. In order to improve reservoir management and meet the increasing demands on water, improved forecasts of precipitation, especially during extreme events, is required. Here we describe how California is addressing their most important and costliest environmental issue – water management – in part, by installing a state-of-the-art observing system to better track the area’s most severe wintertime storms.

White, A. B.; Anderson, M. L.; Dettinger, M. D.; Ralph, F. M.; Hinojosa, A.; Cayan, D. R.; Hartman, R. K.; Reynolds, D. W.; Johnson, L. E.; Schneider, T. L.; Cifelli, R.; Toth, Z.; Gutman, S. I.; King, C. W.; Gehrke, F.; Johnston, P. E.; Walls, C.; Mann, D.; Gottas, D. J.; Coleman, T.

2013-01-01

133

Simulating changes in the leaf unfolding time of 20 plant species in China over the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Recent shifts in phenology reflect the biological response to current climate change. Aiming to enhance our understanding of phenological responses to climate change, we developed, calibrated and validated spatio-temporal models of first leaf date (FLD) for 20 broadleaved deciduous plants in China. Using daily meteorological data from the Chinese Meteorological Administration and the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) created using three IPCC scenarios (A2, A1B and B1), we described the FLD time series of each species over the past 50 years, extrapolating from these results to simulate estimated FLD changes for each species during the twenty-first century. Model validation suggests that our spatio-temporal models can simulate FLD accurately with R² (explained variance) >0.60. Model simulations show that, from 1952 to 2007, the FLD in China advanced at a rate of -1.14 days decade?¹) on average. Furthermore, changes in FLD showed noticeable variation between regions, with clearer advances observed in the north than in the south of the country. The model indicates that the advances in FLD observed from 1952-2007 in China will continue over the twenty-first century, although significant differences among species and different climate scenarios are expected. The average trend of FLD advance in China during the twenty-first century is modeled as being -1.92 days decade?¹ under the A2 scenario, -1.10 days decade?¹ under the A1B scenario and -0.74 days decade?¹ under the B2 scenario. The spatial pattern of FLD change for the period 2011-2099 is modeled as being similar but showing some difference from patterns in the 1952-2007 period. At the interspecific level, early-leafing species were found to show a greater advance in FLD, while species with larger distributions tended to show a weaker advance in FLD. These simulated changes in phenology may have significant implications for plant distribution as well as ecosystem structure and function. PMID:23689929

Ge, Quansheng; Wang, Huanjiong; Dai, Junhu

2014-05-01

134

James Drane's More Humane Medicine: a new foundation for twenty-first century bioethics?  

PubMed

James Drane's More Humane Medicine: A Liberal Catholic Bioethics is an outstanding contribution to the study of bioethics in our day. Catholics and others who are interested in the issues discussed here will benefit from this masterful treatment. The author opens with a set of definitions, starting with what he means by a "more humane medicine." Drane contends that a more humane medicine has become necessary and desired, but not because the traditional medical ethic as "a self-declared and self-imposed ethic, outlining what noble service to others entails" is no longer valid. Rather he defines it as an advance on the traditional ethic; a "new foundation" based on a "lived set of obligations derived from a felt commitment to other persons ... an ethics based on the relationship between doctors and patients and essentially an ethics of virtue." Drane's work is a "liberal Catholic Bioethics" in which he challenges his own faith tradition, the Roman Catholic Church, on such topics as sexuality, birth control, abortion, cloning, stem cell research, aging and dying, and euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. The present article is a critical essay that analyzes the author's statements and conclusions. PMID:17162677

Mellon, Brad F

2006-12-01

135

Management of healthcare waste: developments in Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

In many Southeast Asian countries, significant challenges persist with regard to the proper management and disposal of healthcare waste. The amount of healthcare waste in these countries is continuously increasing as a result of the expansion of healthcare systems and services. In the past, healthcare waste, if it was treated at all, was mainly incinerated. In the last decade more comprehensive waste management systems were developed for Southeast Asian countries and implementation started. This also included the establishment of alternative healthcare waste treatment systems. The developments in the lower-middle-income countries are of special interest, as major investments are planned. Based upon sample projects, a short overview of the current development trends in the healthcare waste sector in Laos, Indonesia and Vietnam is provided. The projects presented include: (i) Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (development of the national environmental health training system to support the introduction of environmental health standards and improvement of healthcare waste treatment in seven main hospitals by introducing steam-based treatment technologies); (ii) Indonesia (development of a provincial-level healthcare waste-management strategy for Province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) and introduction of an advanced waste treatment system in a tertiary level hospital in Makassar); and (iii) Vietnam (development of a healthcare waste strategy for five provinces in Vietnam and a World Bank-financed project on healthcare waste in Vietnam). PMID:22993139

Kühling, Jan-Gerd; Pieper, Ute

2012-09-01

136

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: WILL THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LEAD OR FOLLOW?  

PubMed Central

Developing countries, particularly the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, should accommodate their national systems of innovation to the worldwide intellectual property (IP) regime emerging after the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in a way that maximizes global economic welfare in the foreseeable future. As many developed countries’ experience demonstrates, badly configured, over-protectionist IP regimes stifle innovation by making inputs to future innovation too costly and too cumbersome to sustain over time. More carefully considered IP regimes, however, are an important way to protect innovative small- and medium-sized firms from predatory, larger competitors. The challenge is for emerging economies to capture the benefits of IP without importing the serious problems that developed countries have themselves failed to solve. Emerging economies can attain this balance by pursuing a policy of counter-harmonization in which they take advantage of existing exemptions in international agreements governing IP to establish regional, local, and international practices that promote more innovative, flexible uses of IP. Such practices include a research exemption for experimental uses of IP, government imposed nonexclusive licensing, anti-blocking provisions, an essential facilities doctrine, and compulsory licenses. Additional tools include an ex ante regime of compensatory liability rules for small scale innovation and sensible exceptions, particularly for science as well as general fair use provisions, to the exclusive rights of domestic copyright laws. Emerging economies will have to overcome strong economic pressure to accept more restrictive IP regimes as part of free trade agreements as well as a lack of technical expertise and internal government coordination. However, emerging economies have already accrued enough experience to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of various IP schemes and their own ability to tailor IP to local needs. Developing countries will need to take advantage of that experience and defend innovative practices at international dispute resolution forums. Through creative, determined efforts, the developing countries can avoid other countries’ IP excesses while establishing the kind of IP norms that address the real conditions of creativity and innovation in today’s digitally empowered universe of scientific discourse. PMID:21423816

Reichman, Jerome H.

2010-01-01

137

End-Permian Mass Extinction in the Oceans: An Ancient Analog for the Twenty-First Century?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greatest loss of biodiversity in the history of animal life occurred at the end of the Permian Period (˜252 million years ago). This biotic catastrophe coincided with an interval of widespread ocean anoxia and the eruption of one of Earth's largest continental flood basalt provinces, the Siberian Traps. Volatile release from basaltic magma and sedimentary strata during emplacement of the Siberian Traps can account for most end-Permian paleontological and geochemical observations. Climate change and, perhaps, destruction of the ozone layer can explain extinctions on land, whereas changes in ocean oxygen levels, CO2, pH, and temperature can account for extinction selectivity across marine animals. These emerging insights from geology, geochemistry, and paleobiology suggest that the end-Permian extinction may serve as an important ancient analog for twenty-first century oceans.

Payne, Jonathan L.; Clapham, Matthew E.

2012-05-01

138

Evolution and modulation of tropical heating from the last glacial maximum through the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twentieth century observations show that during the last 50 years the sea-surface temperature (SST) of the tropical oceans has increased by ~0.5°C and the area of SST >26.5 and 28°C (arbitrarily referred to as the oceanic warm pool: OWP) by 15 and 50% respectively in association with an increase in green house gas concentrations, with non-understood natural variability or a combination of both. Based on CMIP3 projections the OWP is projected to double during twenty-first century in a moderate CO2 forcing scenario (IPCC A1B scenario). However, during the observational period the area of positive atmospheric heating (referred to as the dynamic warm pool, DWP), has remained constant. The threshold SST ( T H ), which demarks the region of net heating and cooling, has increased from 26.6°C in the 1950s to 27.1°C in the last decade and it is projected to increase to ~28.5°C by 2100. Based on climate model simulations, the area of the DWP is projected to remain constant during the twenty-first century. Analysis of the paleoclimate model intercomparison project (PMIP I and II) simulations for the Last Glacial maximum and the Mid-Holocene periods show a very similar behaviour, with a larger OWP in periods of elevated tropical SST, and an almost constant DWP associated with a varying T H . The constancy of the DWP area, despite shifts in the background SST, is shown to be the result of a near exact matching between increases in the integrated convective heating within the DWP and the integrated radiative cooling outside the DWP as SST changes. Although the area of the DWP remains constant, the total tropical atmospheric heating is a strong function of the SST. For example the net heating has increased by about 10% from 1950 to 2000 and it is projected to increase by a further 20% by 2100. Such changes must be compensated by a more vigorous atmospheric circulation, with growth in convective heating within the warm pool, and an increase of subsiding air and stability outside the convective warm pool and an increase of vertical shear at the DWP boundaries. This finding is contrary to some conclusions from other studies but in accord with others. We discuss the similarities and differences at length.

Hoyos, Carlos D.; Webster, Peter J.

2012-04-01

139

The era of the wandering mind? Twenty-first century research on self-generated mental activity  

PubMed Central

The first decade of the twenty-first century was characterized by renewed scientific interest in self-generated mental activity (activity largely generated by the individual, rather than in direct response to experimenters’ instructions or specific external sensory inputs). To understand this renewal of interest, we interrogated the peer-reviewed literature from 2003 to 2012 (i) to explore recent changes in use of terms for self-generated mental activity; (ii) to investigate changes in the topics on which mind wandering research, specifically, focuses; and (iii) to visualize co-citation communities amongst researchers working on self-generated mental activity. Our analyses demonstrated that there has been a dramatic increase in the term “mind wandering” from 2006, and a significant crossing-over of psychological investigations of mind wandering into cognitive neuroscience (particularly in relation to research on the default mode and default mode network). If our article concludes that this might, indeed, be the “era of the wandering mind,” it also calls for more explicit reflection to be given by researchers in this field to the terms they use, the topics and brain regions they focus on, and the research literatures that they implicitly foreground or ignore. PMID:24391606

Callard, Felicity; Smallwood, Jonathan; Golchert, Johannes; Margulies, Daniel S.

2013-01-01

140

Rethinking the Twentieth Century Denigration of Traditional Chinese Science and Medicine in the Twenty-first Century  

E-print Network

Rethinking the Twentieth Century Denigration of Traditional Chinese Science and Medicine progress of knowledge. When Chinese studies of the natural world, her rich medieval traditions of alchemy tradition of natural studies and medicine has accrued in volume after unrelenting volume of Joseph Needham

Elman, Benjamin

141

Navigating Multiple Worlds in the Twenty-First Century: Authoring and Editing the Story of One Japanese Kid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the middle of the twentieth century waves of immigration have increased heterogeneity in American classrooms and contributed to new challenges and problems for both teachers and learners. These trends in the United States are, in fact, part of a global phenomenon of large-scale movement of people (Garcia Coll & Marks, 2009; Suarez-Orozco,…

Damrow, Amy L.

2011-01-01

142

Twenty-first-century warming of a large Antarctic ice-shelf cavity by a redirected coastal current.  

PubMed

The Antarctic ice sheet loses mass at its fringes bordering the Southern Ocean. At this boundary, warm circumpolar water can override the continental slope front, reaching the grounding line through submarine glacial troughs and causing high rates of melting at the deep ice-shelf bases. The interplay between ocean currents and continental bathymetry is therefore likely to influence future rates of ice-mass loss. Here we show that a redirection of the coastal current into the Filchner Trough and underneath the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf during the second half of the twenty-first century would lead to increased movement of warm waters into the deep southern ice-shelf cavity. Water temperatures in the cavity would increase by more than 2 degrees Celsius and boost average basal melting from 0.2 metres, or 82 billion tonnes, per year to almost 4 metres, or 1,600 billion tonnes, per year. Our results, which are based on the output of a coupled ice-ocean model forced by a range of atmospheric outputs from the HadCM3 climate model, suggest that the changes would be caused primarily by an increase in ocean surface stress in the southeastern Weddell Sea due to thinning of the formerly consolidated sea-ice cover. The projected ice loss at the base of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf represents 80 per cent of the present Antarctic surface mass balance. Thus, the quantification of basal mass loss under changing climate conditions is important for projections regarding the dynamics of Antarctic ice streams and ice shelves, and global sea level rise. PMID:22575964

Hellmer, Hartmut H; Kauker, Frank; Timmermann, Ralph; Determann, Jürgen; Rae, Jamie

2012-05-10

143

High-resolution modelling of the Antarctic surface mass balance, application for the twentieth, twenty first and twenty second centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 75 % of the Antarctic surface mass gain occurs over areas below 2,000 m asl, which cover 40 % of the grounded ice-sheet. As the topography is complex in many of these regions, surface mass balance modelling is highly dependent on horizontal resolution, and studying the impact of Antarctica on the future rise in sea level requires physical approaches. We have developed a computationally efficient, physical downscaling model for high-resolution (15 km) long-term surface mass balance (SMB) projections. Here, we present results of this model, called SMHiL (surface mass balance high-resolution downscaling), which was forced with the LMDZ4 atmospheric general circulation model to assess Antarctic SMB variability in the twenty first and the twenty second centuries under two different scenarios. The higher resolution of SMHiL better reproduces the geographical patterns of SMB and increase significantly the averaged SMB over the grounded ice-sheet for the end of the twentieth century. A comparison with more than 3200 quality-controlled field data shows that LMDZ4 and SMHiL reproduce the observed values equally well. Nevertheless, field data below 2,000 m asl are too scarce to efficiently show the added value of SMHiL and measuring the SMB in these undocumented areas should be a future scientific priority. Our results suggest that running LMDZ4 at a finer resolution (15 km) may give a future increase in SMB in Antarctica that is about 30 % higher than by using its standard resolution (60 km) due to the higher increase in precipitation in coastal areas at 15 km. However, a part (˜15 %) of these discrepancies could be an artefact from SMHiL since it neglects the foehn effect and likely overestimates the precipitation increase. Future changes in the Antarctic SMB at low elevations will result from the competition between higher snow accumulation and runoff. For this reason, developing downscaling models is crucial to represent processes in sufficient detail and correctly model the SMB in coastal areas.

Agosta, Cécile; Favier, Vincent; Krinner, Gerhard; Gallée, Hubert; Fettweis, Xavier; Genthon, Christophe

2013-12-01

144

RECENT BOOKS, DISSERTATIONS AND THESES Allen, Anita, L. (2004). The new ethics: A guided tour of the twenty-first century moral landscape. New York  

E-print Network

of the twenty-first century moral landscape. New York: Miramax Books. Appel-Silbaugh, C. D. (2007). Acting out. Braxton, J. M., & Bayer, A. E. (2004). Addressing faculty and student classroom improprieties. San classroom cheating: Promoting integrity in assessment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Decoo, W. (2002

Kritsuk, Alexei

145

Music Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of German and American Music Education towards a New Concept of International Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparative Music Education is often considered to be an unnecessary subject because there seem to be more important issues for research than studying music education in various countries. Comparative music education is not a luxury, but rather a necessity in the twenty-first century. Scholars and music teachers in many countries are struggling…

Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

2008-01-01

146

Three Dialogs: A Framework for the Analysis and Assessment of Twenty-First-Century Literacy Practices, and Its Use in the Context of Game Design within "Gamestar Mechanic"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a framework for the analysis and assessment of twenty-first-century language and literacy practices in game and design-based contexts. It presents the framework in the context of game design within "Gamestar Mechanic", an innovative game-based learning environment where children learn the Discourse of game design. It…

Games, Ivan Alex

2008-01-01

147

Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Internal variability in projections of twenty-first century Arctic1  

E-print Network

of twenty-first century Arctic1 sea ice loss: Role of the large-scale atmospheric circulation2 Justin J summer Arctic sea ice loss and its relationship to6 the large-scale atmospheric circulation9 atmospheric model component's initial condition.10 September Arctic sea ice extent trends during

Deser, Clara

148

Zoos in the twenty-first century: Can't we find a better way to love nature?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a new millennium approaches, many forms of life on the planet and the environments in which they have evolved are increasingly threatened by human activities Wildlife is being marginalized, and native habitats are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. Equally disturbing is the impending demise of traditional human societies---peoples who have evolved outside of the confines and conditions of modern Western influence. The loss of these human and animal societies has occurred so rapidly that implications are largely unknown. Research on how modern Americans relate to animals, particularly wildlife, revealed a clear and disturbing incongruity best exemplified in the current paradigm of zoo exhibition and education. Although zoos purport to educate visitors about the ecology of natural environments and the universal plight of wildlife, research shows that people, particularly children, learn less about ecological principles in zoos with live animals than they do in non-living natural history exhibits. While designers employ a variety of visual techniques in natural history exhibition, environmental sound as an educational exhibit component is largely nonexistent. Many animal species communicate through sound, especially species in underwater environments. As the audio equivalent of a landscape, the soundscape is as important as any other habitat feature to the well-being of wildlife populations. Using recorded sounds of natural environments, an exhibition soundscape was designed and produced for Oceanario de Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal---the centerpiece of the 1998 World Exposition in Lisbon, Portugal. With programmed sound serving as a major component of natural history exhibition, a conceptual design of a novel zoo for the twenty-first century was described. The "NewZew" concept is based on a growing awareness that the best way to save species is to salvage, preserve, and restore their natural habitats---activities that are largely antithetical to current zoo practice. In introducing visitors to the lifeways of traditional societies and employing recent and emerging technologies, the NewZew educates its visitors about the wonders of life on earth without displaying live animals.

Dewey-Platt, Lauren Kay

149

Evaluation of the twenty-first century RCM simulations driven by multiple GCMs over the Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, human-induced climate change over the Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea region has been analyzed for the twenty-first century by performing regional climate model simulations forced with large-scale fields from three different global circulation models (GCMs). Climate projections have been produced with Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2, A1FI and B1 scenarios, which provide greater diversity in climate information for future period. The gradual increases for temperature are widely apparent during the twenty-first century for each scenario simulation, but ECHAM5-driven simulation generally has a weaker signal for all seasons compared to CCSM3 simulations except for the Fertile Crescent. The contrast in future temperature change between the winter and summer seasons is very strong for CCSM3-A2-driven and HadCM3-A2-driven simulations over Carpathians and Balkans, 4-5 °C. In addition, winter runoff over mountainous region of Turkey, which feeds many river systems including the Euphrates and Tigris, increases in second half of the century since the snowmelt process accelerates where the elevation is higher than 1,500 m. Moreover, analysis of daily temperature outputs reveals that the gradual decrease in daily minimum temperature variability for January during the twenty-first century is apparent over Carpathians and Balkans. Analysis of daily precipitation extremes shows that positive trend is clear during the last two decades of the twenty-first century over Carpathians for both CCSM3-driven and ECHAM5-driven simulations. Multiple-GCM driven regional climate simulations contribute to the quantification of the range of climate change over a region by performing detailed comparisons between the simulations.

Önol, Bar??; Bozkurt, Deniz; Turuncoglu, Ufuk Utku; Sen, Omer Lutfi; Dalfes, H. Nuzhet

2014-04-01

150

Reinventing Sexual Scripts: Sexuality and Social Change in the Twenty-First Century (The 2008 John H. Gagnon Distinguished Lecture on Sexuality, Modernity and Change)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the politics and practice of sexuality in the early twenty-first century. Drawing on a set of case\\u000a studies from diverse societies in different regions of the world, the author examines both the intersection of and the tension\\u000a between grassroots struggles for sexual freedom and transnational movements for sexual rights within the broader context of\\u000a ongoing global

Richard Parker

2010-01-01

151

Cyclones and their possible changes in the Arctic by the end of the twenty first century from regional climate model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of cyclones (frequency, intensity and size) and their changes in the Arctic region in a warmer climate have been analyzed with the use of the HIRHAM regional climate model simulations with SRES-A1B anthropogenic scenario for the twenty first century. The focus was on cyclones for the warm (April-September) and cold (October-March) seasons. The present-day cyclonic characteristics from HIRHAM simulations are in general agreement with those from ERA-40 reanalysis data. Differences noted for the frequency of cyclones are related with different spatial resolution in the model simulations and reanalysis data. Potential future changes in cyclone characteristics at the end of the twenty first century have been analyzed. According to the model simulations, the frequency of cyclones is increasing in warm seasons and decreasing in cold seasons for a warmer climate in the twenty first century, but these changes are statistically insignificant. Noticeable changes were detected for the intensity and size of cyclones for the both seasons. Significant increase was found for the frequency of weak cyclones during cold season. Further, a general increase in the frequency of small cyclones was calculated in cold seasons, while its frequency decreases in warm seasons.

Akperov, Mirseid; Mokhov, Igor; Rinke, Annette; Dethloff, Klaus; Matthes, Heidrun

2014-09-01

152

The House, the Street, Global Society: Latin American Families and Childhood in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the colonial period (1492 to approximately 1826), children have constituted a large proportion of the population of Latin America, with approximately thirty to fifty percent under age twenty in the eighteenth century. Public health campaigns in the early twentieth century improved child survival rates and resulted in the substantial expansion of the proportion under age twenty by the 1960s.

Elizabeth Anne Kuznesof

2005-01-01

153

Toward an American Political-Military Policy for the Middle East in the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study defines the Middle Eastern security environment into the next century and, by reexamining American national interests, establishes the scope of a future Middle Eastern political-military policy for the United States. Proceeding from an analysis...

L. B. Ware

1991-01-01

154

Types of social media (Web 2.0) used by Australian allied health professionals to deliver early twenty-first-century practice promotion and health care.  

PubMed

Types of social media (Web 2.0) usage associated with eight of Australia's major allied health professions (AHPs, n = 935) were examined. Australian AHPs are interacting with Web 2.0 technologies for personal use but are failing to implement such technologies throughout their health professions to deliver health care. Australian AHPs are willing to undertake online educational courses designed to up skill them about how Web 2.0 may be used for practice promotion and health care delivery in the early twenty-first century. Participants in this study indicated that educational courses that were offered online would be the preferred mode of delivery. PMID:21512953

Usher, Wayne

2011-01-01

155

Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as\\u000a part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models\\u000a RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing\\u000a present climate

Jose A. Marengo; Tercio Ambrizzi; Rosmeri P. da Rocha; Lincoln M. Alves; Santiago V. Cuadra; Maria C. Valverde; Roger R. Torres; Daniel C. Santos; Simone E. T. Ferraz

2010-01-01

156

From Villain to Superhero: The Evolution of the Lawyer Stereotype in Nineteenth through the Twenty-First Century Novel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis analyzes the evolution of the lawyer character from the novels of the early 19th century through those of the modern day. The representation of the lawyer character illustrates the contemporary view of lawyers in society and also provides a framework of the relationship between the lawyer and the common man.

Carolyn A. Morway

2009-01-01

157

From a Formalist to a Practical Aesthetic in Undergraduate Theatre Studies: Becoming Relevant in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a new century unfolds, the "downsizing" and continuing marginalization of the humanities, including theatre, in American higher education correspond to three trends in the academy. First, in response to the fiscal crises that began in the late 1970s, universities have increasingly turned to the private sector for financial support as federal…

Berkeley, Anne

2011-01-01

158

Language Hotspots: What (Applied) Linguistics and Education Should Do about Language Endangerment in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I outline the concept of "Language Hotspots", seeking to direct public and professional awareness of the global language extinction crisis. The loss of a single language leaves the science of linguistics impoverished and yet even few linguists realize that the vast majority of "language families" will likely be lost by the end of this century.…

Anderson, Gregory D. S.

2011-01-01

159

Education and the politics of selection: radical policies for those set to fail in the twenty?first century?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the longstanding question of policy for those referred to nearly half a century ago by the Crowther Report as the ‘bottom half’; those mainly working class children who, in a sense, are ‘selected for failure’. The issue of selection is a matter of concern in countries around the world and has been at the centre

Jack Demaine

2006-01-01

160

Scott Shuler's "Music and Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Retrospective"--Review and Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predicting the future is a challenging task for music education, requiring both retrospection, analysis of current events, and foresight. This article examines several predictions from 2001 and challenges music educators to consider factors that may influence the future of teaching music in society.

McLain, Barbara Payne

2014-01-01

161

Haitian crisis, 1991--1994: An opportunity for a shift in U.S. twenty-first century foreign policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The premise of this study is that the 1991-1994 crisis of Haiti following the end of the Cold War can be viewed as a catalyst for change in the focus of 21st century U.S. foreign policy. This policy shifted from selective commitments and conservative interpretations of national interests to broad commitments and globalized applications of national values.^ The 1991-1994 Haitian

Patricia Anne Hardy-Jackson

1997-01-01

162

Sustainable Living by the Bay : Improving Student Engagement in the Science Classroom for the Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Inspiring students to be self-motivated and engaged is a challenge for all school-based curriculum reformers. A cluster of\\u000a schools in the Melbourne Bayside area took up this challenge during the Australian Schools Innovations in Science, Technology\\u000a and Mathematics (ASISTM)-funded initiative entitled Sustainable Living by the Bay. In this chapter, we will be sharing our experience of the project with particular

Lyn Carter; Ranjith Dediwalage

163

A new paradigm is needed for medical education in the mid-twenty-first century and beyond: are we ready?  

PubMed

The twentieth century witnessed profound changes in medical education. All these changes, however, took place within the existing framework, suggested by Flexner a century ago. The present paper suggests that we are approaching a singularity point, where we shall have to change the paradigm and be prepared for an entirely new genre of medical education. This suggestion is based upon analysis of existing and envisaged trends: first, in technology, such as availability of information and sophisticated simulations; second, in medical practice, such as far-reaching interventions in life and death that create an array of new moral dilemmas, as well as a change in patient mix in hospitals and a growing need of team work; third, in the societal attitude toward higher education. The structure of the future medical school is delineated in a rough sketch, and so are the roles of the future medical teacher. It is concluded that we are presently not prepared for the approaching changes, neither from practical nor from attitudinal points of view, and that it is now high time for both awareness of and preparation for these changes. PMID:25120918

Benor, Dan E

2014-07-01

164

The Conceptions of Work in the Accounting Profession in the Twenty-First Century from the Experiences of Practitioners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accounting profession, which has commercialised its services extensively in the past two to three decades, is facing the challenges of change. An early and concerted response to the changes in the scope of work was the emphasis on developing generic skills in accounting higher education. This study recognises the relevance of accounting…

Sin, Samantha; Reid, Anna; Dahlgren, Lars Owe

2011-01-01

165

Climate change, land use change, and China’s food security in the twenty-first century: an integrated perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food security in China, the world’s most populous country, has long been a concern because of the challenges of population\\u000a growth, water shortages, and loss of cropland through urbanization, soil degradation, and climate change. Here, we present\\u000a an integrated analysis of China’s food demand and supply under IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1, A2, B1, and\\u000a B2 in 2020,

Fulu Tao; Masayuki Yokozawa; Jiyuan Liu; Zhao Zhang

2009-01-01

166

Regional projections of glacier volume and runoff in response to twenty-first century climate scenarios (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in mass contained by mountain glaciers and ice caps can modify the Earth's hydrological cycle on multiple scales. On a global scale, the mass loss from glaciers contributes to sea level rise. On regional and local scales, glacier melt-water is an important contributor to and modulator of river flow. In this study we use an elevation-dependent glacier mass balance model to project annual volume changes and monthly runoff from all mountain glaciers and ice caps in the world (excluding those in the Antarctic periphery) for the 21st century forced by temperature and precipitation scenarios from 14 global climate models. The largest contributors to projected total volume loss are the glaciers in the Canadian and Russian Arctic, Alaska and glaciers peripheral to Greenland ice sheet. Although small contributors to global volume loss, glaciers in Central Europe, low-latitude South America, Caucasus, North Asia, and Western Canada and US are projected to lose more than 75% of their volume by 2100. The magnitude and sign of trends in annual runoff totals differ considerably among regions depending on the balance between enhanced melt and the reduction of the glacier reservoir by glacier retreat and shrinkage. Most regions show strong declines in glacier runoff indicating that the effect of glacier shrinkage is more dominant than increased melting rates. Some high-latitude regions (Arctic Canada North, Russian Arctic and Greenland) exhibit increases in runoff totals. Iceland and Svalbard show an increase in runoff followed by a multi-decadal decrease in annual runoff.

Radic, V.; Bliss, A. K.; Hock, R.

2013-12-01

167

Energy prices will play an important role in determining global land use in the twenty first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global land use research to date has focused on quantifying uncertainty effects of three major drivers affecting competition for land: the uncertainty in energy and climate policies affecting competition between food and biofuels, the uncertainty of climate impacts on agriculture and forestry, and the uncertainty in the underlying technological progress driving efficiency of food, bioenergy and timber production. The market uncertainty in fossil fuel prices has received relatively less attention in the global land use literature. Petroleum and natural gas prices affect both the competitiveness of biofuels and the cost of nitrogen fertilizers. High prices put significant pressure on global land supply and greenhouse gas emissions from terrestrial systems, while low prices can moderate demands for cropland. The goal of this letter is to assess and compare the effects of these core uncertainties on the optimal profile for global land use and land-based GHG emissions over the coming century. The model that we develop integrates distinct strands of agronomic, biophysical and economic literature into a single, intertemporally consistent, analytical framework, at global scale. Our analysis accounts for the value of land-based services in the production of food, first- and second-generation biofuels, timber, forest carbon and biodiversity. We find that long-term uncertainty in energy prices dominates the climate impacts and climate policy uncertainties emphasized in prior research on global land use.

Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Hertel, Thomas W.

2013-03-01

168

Carl Gustav Jung, Quantum Physics and the Spiritual Mind: A Mystical Vision of the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

We describe similarities in the ontology of quantum physics and of Carl Gustav Jung’s psychology. In spite of the fact that physics and psychology are usually considered as unrelated, in the last century, both of these disciplines have led at the same time to revolutionary changes in the Western understanding of the cosmic order, discovering a non-empirical realm of the universe that doesn’t consist of material things but of forms. These forms are real, even though they are invisible, because they have the potential to appear in the empirical world and act in it. We present arguments that force us to believe, that the empirical world is an emanation out of a cosmic realm of potentiality, whose forms can appear as physical structures in the external world and as archetypal concepts in our mind. Accordingly, the evolution of life now appears no longer as a process of the adaptation of species to their environment, but as the adaptation of minds to increasingly complex forms that exist in the cosmic potentiality. The cosmic connection means that the human mind is a mystical mind. PMID:25379259

Valadas Ponte, Diogo; Schäfer, Lothar

2013-01-01

169

Responses of dune activity and desertification in China to global warming in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most areas of arid and semiarid China are covered by aeolian sand dunes, sand sheets, and desert steppes, and the existence of the nearly 80 million people who live in this region could be seriously jeopardized if climate change increases desertification. However, the expected trends in desertification during the 21st century are poorly understood. In the present study, we selected the ECHAM4 and HadCM3 global climate models (after comparing them with the results of the GFDL-R30, CGCM2, and CSIRO-Mk2b models) and used simulations of a dune mobility index under IPCC SRES climate scenarios A1FI, A2a, A2b, A2c, B1a, B2a, and B2b to estimate future trends in dune activity and desertification in China. Although uncertainties in climate predictions mean that there is still far to go before we can develop a comprehensive dune activity estimation system, HadCM3 simulations with most greenhouse forcing scenarios showed decreased desertification in most western region of arid and semiarid China by 2039, but increased desertification thereafter, whereas ECHAM4 simulation results showed that desertification will increase during this period. Inhabitants of thecentral region will benefit from reversed desertification from 2010 to 2099, whereas inhabitants of the eastern region will suffer from increased desertification from 2010 to 2099. From 2010 to 2039, most regions will not be significantly affected by desertification, but from 2040 to 2099, the environments of the western and eastern regions will deteriorate due to the significant effects of global warming (particularly the interaction between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration), leading to decreased livestock and grain yields and possibly threatening China's food security.

Wang, Xunming; Yang, Yi; Dong, Zhibao; Zhang, Caixia

2009-06-01

170

A person-focused model of care for the twenty-first century: a system-of-systems perspective.  

PubMed

The US health care system is challenged to provide high-quality care and is burdened with unsustainable expenditures, making it difficult for health care participants (patients, payers, providers, caregivers) to create value. This communication presents the theoretical foundation for a person-focused model of care that addresses a number of these challenges. The model integrates aspects of prior models of chronic care with new empiric findings and complex adaptive system (CAS) theory. The model emphasizes the relationship among all health care stakeholders. The health care delivery process is examined in terms of the role of each stakeholder and the value each adds to and receives from the process. The authors present pilot results illustrating the implications of CAS theory in regard to multi-morbidity, disease management programs, multi-morbid households, and person- and household-focused care. The model incorporates the physical, mental, and social dimensions of health, and operationalizes an individual patient's health as a CAS, identifying CASs for each of the other stakeholders as well. Health care can then be conceptualized as a system-of-systems with a person's health as its output. Deploying the model need not require major infrastructure investments or changes. It can be implemented by repurposing, aligning, and better integrating currently available interventions. The authors believe that the model creates not only survival value (health) but also purposeful value. The model offers a unifying focus for all participants in the health care delivery process, thereby constructing a health care system that is structurally person-focused and meaningful for all participants. PMID:24720637

Greene, Robert A; Dasso, Edwin; Ho, Sam; Genaidy, Ash M

2014-06-01

171

Sources of uncertainty in projections of twenty-first century westerly wind changes over the Amundsen Sea, West Antarctica, in CMIP5 climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of changes in winds over the Amundsen Sea has been shown to be a potentially key mechanism in explaining rapid loss of ice from major glaciers in West Antarctica, which is having a significant impact on global sea level. Here, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model data are used to assess twenty-first century projections in westerly winds over the Amundsen Sea ( U AS ). The importance of model uncertainty and internal climate variability in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenario projections are quantified and potential sources of model uncertainty are considered. For the decade 2090-2099 the CMIP5 models show an ensemble mean twenty-first century response in annual mean U AS of 0.3 and 0.7 m s-1 following the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios respectively. However, as a consequence of large internal climate variability over the Amundsen Sea, it takes until around 2030 (2065) for the RCP8.5 response to exceed one (two) standard deviation(s) of decadal internal variability. In all scenarios and seasons the model uncertainty is large. However the present-day climatological zonal wind bias over the whole South Pacific, which is important for tropical teleconnections, is strongly related to inter-model differences in projected change in U AS (more skilful models show larger U AS increases). This relationship is significant in winter (r = -0.56) and spring (r = -0.65), when the influence of the tropics on the Amundsen Sea region is known to be important. Horizontal grid spacing and present day sea ice extent are not significant sources of inter-model spread.

Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Turner, John; Hosking, J. Scott; Phillips, Tony

2014-10-01

172

Academic tenure and higher education in the United States: implications for the dental education workforce in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

This article reviews the literature related to the evolution and implementation of academic tenure (AT) in U.S. higher education. It is intended to highlight AT implications for the recruitment, retention, and development of the dental education workforce in the twenty-first century and the need for this workforce to implement change in dental education. The dental education workforce is shrinking, and a further decrease is projected, yet the demand for dental education is increasing. AT is becoming increasingly controversial, and the proportion of tenured to nontenured (i.e., contingent) faculty is declining within an already shrinking faculty pool. Confusion regarding the definition of scholarship and its relationship to research and publishing further confounds discussions about AT. Whether the principles of academic freedom and due process require tenure for their preservation in a democratic society is open to question. In view of competing time demands and increasing pressure to publish and apply for grants, factors including the seven-year probationary period for tenure, the decreased availability of tenured positions, and the often perceived inequities between tenured and contingent (i.e., nontenured track) faculty may pose an obstacle to faculty recruitment and retention. These factors may severely limit the diversity and skill mix of the dental education workforce, resulting in a decrease in staffing flexibility that appears to be needed in the twenty-first century. Politics, increasing dependence on grant funding by some institutions, resistance to change, and insufficient mentoring are all stimulating discussions about the future of tenure and its implications for U.S. dental education. PMID:17389570

Peterson, Melanie R

2007-03-01

173

Twenty-first Century Discipline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an approach to student discipline which is based on getting students to take responsibility for their own behavior, rather than forcing obedience. Strategies are suggested which offer practical alternatives to less effective control-oriented methods. (IAH)

Bluestein, Jane

1989-01-01

174

The past is a guide to the future? Comparing Middle Pliocene vegetation with predicted biome distributions for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

During the Middle Pliocene, the Earth experienced greater global warmth compared with today, coupled with higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations. To determine the extent to which the Middle Pliocene can be used as a 'test bed' for future warming, we compare data and model-based Middle Pliocene vegetation with simulated global biome distributions for the mid- and late twenty-first century. The best agreement is found when a Middle Pliocene biome reconstruction is compared with a future scenario using 560 ppmv atmospheric CO2. In accordance with palaeobotanical data, all model simulations indicate a generally warmer and wetter climate, resulting in a northward shift of the taiga-tundra boundary and a spread of tropical savannah and woodland in Africa and Australia at the expense of deserts. Our data-model comparison reveals differences in the distribution of polar vegetation, which indicate that the high latitudes during the Middle Pliocene were still warmer than its predicted modern analogue by several degrees. However, our future scenarios do not consider multipliers associated with 'long-term' climate sensitivity. Changes in global temperature, and thus biome distributions, at higher atmospheric CO2 levels will not have reached an equilibrium state (as is the case for the Middle Pliocene) by the end of this century. PMID:18854302

Salzmann, U; Haywood, A M; Lunt, D J

2009-01-13

175

Public Health in East and Southeast Asia: Challenges and Opportunities in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

regula- tion of alcohol pricing, marketing, and distributionaffordability, and marketing of alcohol in developingmarketing during peak airtimes and should disallow or restrict advertis- ing of harmful products, such as alcohol and

Detels, Roger; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Tan, Chorh Chuan

2012-01-01

176

Challenges for management development in the German-speaking nations for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Close inspection reveals subtle differences in managerial style and culture within Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Foreign management development (MD) practitioners are more likely to be impressed by the management and cultural similarities within the German-speaking nations, especially when contrasted with the North American model. While many of the MD techniques used in the German-speaking areas will be familiar to North

Gayle Avery; Otmar Donnenberg; Wolfgang Gick; Martin Hilb

1999-01-01

177

Public Health in East and Southeast Asia: Challenges and Opportunities in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

More liberal attitudes toward sex, market reforms, increaseda huge potential market for com- mercial sex, while millionssex ratios are likely to persist in China for the near term, which will disrupt marriage markets

Detels, Roger; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Tan, Chorh Chuan

2012-01-01

178

Chemical Communication in Crustaceans: Research Challenges for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chemical signals play an important role during various life stages of crustaceans. Settling of larvae, parent–offspring communication,\\u000a mate finding, mate choice, aggressive contests, and dominance hierarchies are all mediated by chemical signals. Enormous advances\\u000a have been made on understanding the function of chemical signals in crustaceans and we are on the doorstep of major advances\\u000a in chemical characterization of pheromones.

Martin Thiel; Thomas Breithaupt

179

Schooling in Northern Ireland: Meeting the challenges of the twenty first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political developments since the Good Friday Agreement (1998) have initiated and encouraged a process of change along a range of dimensions with the intention of creating a more inclusive society in Northern Ireland, which is reflective of wider global trends. Education policy is a significant element in this process. This paper highlights the ways in which current policy is attempting

Martin Hagan

2003-01-01

180

Challenges and possibilities for understanding men's health in twenty-first century forensic psychiatric care.  

PubMed

Forensic psychiatric care in Sweden constitutes a specific institutional environment in health care in terms of gender and power relationships. This context emphasizes safety and protection in an environment where men constitute a majority of the patients and staff. It involves relationships among men's health, constructions of masculinities, and issues regarding equality between women's and men's caring work. The aim of this theoretical article is to problematize men's health in relation to constructions of masculinities. Our analysis shows how the perception of health is involved in the construction of masculinities and how this plays out in daily interactions between caregivers and patients. PMID:25072214

Kumpula, Esa; Ekstrand, Per

2014-08-01

181

What Happened to the African Renaissance?: The Challenges of Development in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essay discusses the trajectory of the African renaissance as an idea and a project, a task that in essence entails examining Africa's postcolonial development paradigms, performances, and prospects. It is argued that this idea represents a recurrent yearning for a usable future aching deep in the consciousness of a people with painful memories of suffering, struggle, and survival against

Paul Tiyambe Zeleza

2009-01-01

182

Public Health in East and Southeast Asia: Challenges and Opportunities in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

by air pollution, also contribute to 12% of all deaths inmature death (see chapter 8). The impacts of air pollution,deaths are due to two environmen- tal factors: unsafe water, including poor sanitation and hygiene, and air pollution.

Detels, Roger; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Tan, Chorh Chuan

2012-01-01

183

Public Health in East and Southeast Asia: Challenges and Opportunities in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

to im- prove prevention of lung cancer among nonsmokingChinese) and Thailand. Lung Cancer Prevention Worldwide, upPrevention strategies against smoking are likely to be the most cost-effective means to reduce Cancer / 157 lung cancer

Detels, Roger; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Tan, Chorh Chuan

2012-01-01

184

National Models for Continuing Professional Development: The Challenges of Twenty-First-Century Knowledge Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If teacher quality is the most critical factor in improving educational outcomes, then why is so little attention drawn to the knowledge and evidence base available to support teachers in improving the quality of their professional knowledge? This paper draws together findings from a range of sources to propose national models for continuing…

Leask, Marilyn; Younie, Sarah

2013-01-01

185

Childhood Obesity Prevention: Compelling Challenge of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a worldwide increase in the prevalence of children who are obese that is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions. These obese children have associated significant co-morbidities. In the past 30 years the proportion of children in the United States who are obese or overweight has tripled; 15%, or approximately nine million, are obese.…

Levy, Luba Zuk; Petty, Karen

2008-01-01

186

Childhood obesity prevention: compelling challenge of the twenty?first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a worldwide increase in the prevalence of children who are obese that is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions. These obese children have associated significant co?morbidities. In the past 30 years the proportion of children in the United States who are obese or overweight has tripled; 15%, or approximately nine million, are obese. Ethnic minority communities with lower socioeconomic

Luba Zuk Levy; Karen Petty

2008-01-01

187

Public Folklore in the Twenty-first Century: New Challenges for the Discipline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “cultural traditions” is generally applied to practices, art forms, and objects that represent the presence of the past in contemporary life. If something is traditional, we assume it is valued, perhaps even revered, by the culture from which it derives. “Tradition” refers to persistence through time, to continuity and consistency of form and\\/or function, and to the way

Robert Louis Stevenson

188

Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

Wurtele, Sandy K.

2009-01-01

189

Creating health and health promoting hospitals: a worthy challenge for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

States that it seems self-evident that a hospital should be a healing environment, a healthy place to work, should not harm the health of the environment and should contribute to and be a source of health in the community, but argues that hospitals have not paid a great deal of attention to many of these issues until recently. Suggests that in recent years, a new and broader understanding of health promotion has led to a re-examination of the ways in which hospitals can be both healthy and health-promoting. Begins by exploring the broader concepts of health promotion that lay the foundation for the creation of healthy and health-promoting hospitals and provides some examples of how these approaches are being applied. PMID:10537852

Hancock, T

1999-01-01

190

Regionalizing Postsecondary Education for the Twenty-First Century: Promising Innovations and Capacity Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, separate sections examine the anchoring ingredients of the regional strategies through which two-year colleges are responding to local, regional, and in some cases broader needs deemed critical to generating and sustaining economic productivity and other forms of social and civic capital. First, drawing on recent European…

Phelps, L. Allen

2012-01-01

191

Transforming the Twenty-First-Century Campus to Enhance the Net-Generation Student Learning Experience: Using Evidence-Based Design to Determine What Works and Why in Virtual/Physical Teaching Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The twenty-first century has seen the rapid emergence of wireless broadband and mobile communications devices which are inexorably changing the way people communicate, collaborate, create and transfer knowledge. Yet many higher education campus learning environments were designed and built in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries prior to…

Fisher, Kenn; Newton, Clare

2014-01-01

192

Northern African climate at the end of the twenty-first century: an integrated application of regional and global climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for simulating future climate on regional space scales is developed and applied to northern Africa. Simulation with a regional model allows for the horizontal resolution needed to resolve the region’s strong meridional gradients and the optimization of parameterizations and land-surface model. The control simulation is constrained by reanalysis data, and realistically represents the present day climate. Atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) output provides SST and lateral boundary condition anomalies for 2081-2100 under a business-as-usual emissions scenario, and the atmospheric CO2 concentration is increased to 757 ppmv. A nine-member ensemble of future climate projections is generated by using output from nine AOGCMs. The consistency of precipitation projections for the end of the twenty-first century is much greater for the regional model ensemble than among the AOGCMs. More than 77% of ensemble members produce the same sign rainfall anomaly over much of northern Africa. For West Africa, the regional model projects wetter conditions in spring, but a mid-summer drought develops during June and July, and the heat stoke risk increases across the Sahel. Wetter conditions resume in late summer, and the likelihood of flooding increases. The regional model generally projects wetter conditions over eastern Central Africa in June and drying during August through September. Severe drought impacts parts of East Africa in late summer. Conditions become wetter in October, but the enhanced rainfall does not compensate for the summertime deficit. The risk of heat stroke increases over this region, although the threat is not projected to be as great as in the Sahel.

Patricola, Christina M.; Cook, Kerry H.

2010-07-01

193

Regional and global projections of twenty-first century glacier mass changes in response to climate scenarios from global climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large component of present-day sea-level rise is due to the melt of glaciers other than the ice sheets. Recent projections of their contribution to global sea-level rise for the twenty-first century range between 70 and 180 mm, but bear significant uncertainty due to poor glacier inventory and lack of hypsometric data. Here, we aim to update the projections and improve quantification of their uncertainties by using a recently released global inventory containing outlines of almost every glacier in the world. We model volume change for each glacier in response to transient spatially-differentiated temperature and precipitation projections from 14 global climate models with two emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) prepared for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The multi-model mean suggests sea-level rise of 155 ± 41 mm (RCP4.5) and 216 ± 44 mm (RCP8.5) over the period 2006-2100, reducing the current global glacier volume by 29 or 41 %. The largest contributors to projected global volume loss are the glaciers in the Canadian and Russian Arctic, Alaska, and glaciers peripheral to the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Although small contributors to global volume loss, glaciers in Central Europe, low-latitude South America, Caucasus, North Asia, and Western Canada and US are projected to lose more than 80 % of their volume by 2100. However, large uncertainties in the projections remain due to the choice of global climate model and emission scenario. With a series of sensitivity tests we quantify additional uncertainties due to the calibration of our model with sparsely observed glacier mass changes. This gives an upper bound for the uncertainty range of ±84 mm sea-level rise by 2100 for each projection.

Radi?, Valentina; Bliss, Andrew; Beedlow, A. Cody; Hock, Regine; Miles, Evan; Cogley, J. Graham

2014-01-01

194

Variations in northern hemisphere snowfall: An analysis of historical trends and the projected response to anthropogenic forcing in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snowfall is an important feature of the Earth's climate system that has the ability to influence both the natural world and human activity. This dissertation examines past and future changes in snowfall related to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Snowfall observations for North America, derived snowfall products for the Northern Hemisphere, and simulations performed with 13 coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models are analyzed. The analysis of the spatial pattern of simulated annual trends on a grid point basis from 1951 to 1999 indicates that a transition zone exists above 60° N latitude across the Northern Hemisphere that separates negative trends in annual snowfall in the mid-latitudes and positive trends at higher latitudes. Regional analysis of observed annual snowfall indicates that statistically significant trends are found in western North America, Japan, and southern Russia. A majority of the observed historical trends in annual snowfall elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere, however, are not statistically significant and this result is consistent with model simulations. Projections of future snowfall indicate the presence of a similar transition zone between negative and positive snowfall trends that corresponds with the area between the -10 to -15°C isotherms of the multi-model mean temperature of the late twentieth century in each of the fall, winter, and spring seasons. Redistributions of snowfall throughout the entire snow season are likely -- even in locations where there is little change in annual snowfall. Changes in the fraction of precipitation falling as snow contribute to decreases in snowfall across most Northern Hemisphere regions, while changes in precipitation typically contribute to increases in snowfall. Snowfall events less than or equal to 5 cm are found to decrease in the future across most of the Northern Hemisphere, while snowfall events greater than or equal to 20 cm increase in some locations, such as northern Quebec. A signal-to-noise analysis reveals that the projected changes in snowfall are likely to become apparent during the twenty-first century for most locations in the Northern Hemisphere.

Krasting, John P.

195

Using a global climate model to evaluate the influences of water vapor, snow cover and atmospheric aerosol on warming in the Tibetan Plateau during the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine trends in climate variables and their interrelationships over the Tibetan Plateau using global climate model simulations\\u000a to elucidate the mechanisms for the pattern of warming observed over the plateau during the latter half of the twentieth century\\u000a and to investigate the warming trend during the twenty-first century under the SRES A1B scenario. Our analysis suggests a\\u000a 4°C warming

Imtiaz Rangwala; James R. Miller; Gary L. Russell; Ming Xu

2010-01-01

196

76 FR 20297 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 AGENCY: Federal...Twenty-first Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010.'' DATES...Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010''...

2011-04-12

197

77 FR 24632 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 AGENCY: Federal...Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010, (Report and...Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010''...

2012-04-25

198

Ushering in the Twenty First Century: Emphasis on the Rural South. Proceedings of the Professional Agricultural Workers Conference (44th, Tuskegee, Alabama, December 7-9, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume includes material by providers and users of technical agricultural assistance on ways to improve the quality of life for clientele served by land-grant colleges and Tuskegee University. The conference theme involved issues emerging for rural Southern farms as they enter the 21st century. In examining alternatives for the future, the…

Williams, Thomas T., Ed.

199

The Informal Reading-"Thinking" Inventory: Twenty-First-Century Assessment Formats for Discovering Reading and Writing Needs--and Strengths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss the Informal Reading-"Thinking" Inventory (IR-TI), an informal reading inventory built on an easily recognized legacy model that also branches out into new realms. The IR-TI provides tools for assessing reading the lines, reading between the lines, and reading beyond the lines. This is a 21st-century

Manzo, Ula; Manzo, Anthony V.

2013-01-01

200

Simulating changes to the sediment transport regime of the Waipaoa River, New Zealand, driven by climate change in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional sediment transport model (TUGS) and a climate-driven hydrological model (HydroTrend) are used to predict changes to the sediment transport regime of the Waipaoa River that may occur in response to forecast 21st Century variations in climate. Climate change may reduce the mean flow in the Waipaoa River at Matawhero by an average of 13% in the 2030s and

B. Gomez; Y. Cui; A. J. Kettner; D. H. Peacock; J. P. M. Syvitski

2009-01-01

201

Grain, meat and vegetables to feed Paris: where did and do they come from? Localising Paris food supply areas from the eighteenth to the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food supply to a large metropolis such as Paris involves huge fluxes of goods, which considerably impact the surrounding\\u000a rural territories. Here, we present an attempt to localise Paris food supply areas, over a period of two centuries (1786,\\u000a 1886, 2006), based on the analysis of data from transportation and production statistics for cereals, animal products, and\\u000a fruits and

G. Billen; S. Barles; P. Chatzimpiros; J. Garnier

202

Do Not Bequeath a Shamble. The Child in the Twenty-First Century: Innocent Hostage to Mindless Oppression or Children as Messengers to the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, which projects a global image of the future of the world, the Montessori approach to education is advanced as a way of preparing coming generations to meet the challenges of the future. (Author/RH)

McDermott, John J.

1980-01-01

203

Faculty Work in Schools of Education: Rethinking Roles and Rewards for the Twenty-First Century. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers points out problems and challenges that face schools, colleges, and departments of education as change agents try to reform them. After "Introduction: Reforming Schools, Colleges, and Departments of Education" (William G. Tierney), nine papers include: (1) "The Public Responsibility of Public Schools of Education"…

Tierney, William G., Ed.

204

Mental health of adolescents reared in institutional care in Turkey: challenges and hope in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study are (i) to describe and compare the epidemiology of emotional\\/behavioral problems and associated\\u000a risk\\/protective factors among nationally representative samples of institutionally reared and similarly aged community-based\\u000a adolescents brought up in their natural homes by means of youth self-reports, caregiver\\/parent, and teacher informants; and\\u000a (ii) to identify mental health service needs and utilization. A cross-sectional survey

Nese Erol; Zeynep Simsek; Kerim Münir

2010-01-01

205

Prosperity, Sustainable Employment and Social Justice: Challenges for the German Labor Market in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the effects of German labor market reforms on the competitiveness and performance of the German economy. The contribution starts with giving some background information on the rationale behind the reforms and stresses the specific structure of the German economy. We then describe the salient effects of the reforms for…

Möller, Joachim

2014-01-01

206

Communicating race and culture in the twenty-first century: discourse and the post-racial\\/post-cultural challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the US presidential race of 2008 which resulted in the election of the nation's first Black president, the media, scholars, and the general public began to describe the US as ‘post-racial.’ This essay considers the ways in which ‘post-racial’ is a euphemism for ‘post-cultural’ within a framework of erasing Black cultural elements of identity, memory, and heritage in order

Christel N. Temple

2010-01-01

207

Accelerators in our past, present, and future: A challenge to radiological protection in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

The foundations of many of the subdisciplines of radiological protection laid in accelerator laboratories began with the invention of accelerators. This paper suggests that the discipline of accelerator radiological protection has played and will continue play a more significant part in our lives than is generally recognized. A brief review of some existing uses of accelerators by society is given, and a few probable future uses are described. These future applications will result in the exposure of accelerator (or {open_quotes}mixed{close_quotes}) radiation fields to an increased population. Consequently, what are perceived to be the rather specialized concerns of today`s accelerator health physicists will -- by necessity -- become of general interest to all health physicists.

Thomas, R.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

1993-09-01

208

Transportation in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

New energy-efficient and environmentally-sound magnetically levitated (maglev) transportation systems are being developed that have the potential to supplement and extend the intercity portion of our transportation system, and to alleviate part of the commuter congestion on our highways. Prototype passenger-carrying maglev vehicles are now operating in Japan and Germany. The capabilities of these systems, described in science fiction over two decades ago, are no longer speculative. They will be capable of transporting 100--150 passengers per vehicles or 1500 passengers per train at speeds of 250--350 mph. While performing many of the same functions of short-haul aircraft, these electrically powered vehicles: do not emit pollutants along the route; use about 1/3 the energy per passenger mile of modern aircraft; do not contact the guideway and therefore minimize maintenance; are silent except for the noise of air passing over the body. This paper assesses current maglev technology. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Coffey, H.T.

1991-12-01

209

Transportation in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

New energy-efficient and environmentally-sound magnetically levitated (maglev) transportation systems are being developed that have the potential to supplement and extend the intercity portion of our transportation system, and to alleviate part of the commuter congestion on our highways. Prototype passenger-carrying maglev vehicles are now operating in Japan and Germany. The capabilities of these systems, described in science fiction over two decades ago, are no longer speculative. They will be capable of transporting 100--150 passengers per vehicles or 1500 passengers per train at speeds of 250--350 mph. While performing many of the same functions of short-haul aircraft, these electrically powered vehicles: do not emit pollutants along the route; use about 1/3 the energy per passenger mile of modern aircraft; do not contact the guideway and therefore minimize maintenance; are silent except for the noise of air passing over the body. This paper assesses current maglev technology. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Coffey, H.T.

1991-01-01

210

A twenty first century approach to inspection  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years, visual inspection tooling has changed dramatically. Driven by both the consumer and industrial vision markets, CCD technology is advancing in pace with computer technology. Just ten years ago, cameras were mostly tube type, very expensive, black and white and large in diameter. There were few practical inspection uses. Times have changed. High resolution images are now achievable through a 1 millimeter probe. Very high resolution cameras are available in 6 millimeter diameter. Advancements in robotic, remote positioning now allows one to access previously inaccessible locations. Visual recognition of deposits is now a reality. A recent trip to Mars is testimony to this. Visual inspection is becoming one of the most worthwhile, cost effective technologies for inspections in the world. Current visual technology, and the advancements to come, will save companies billions of dollars.

Lewis, R.K. [R. Brooks Associates, Inc., Williamson, NY (United States)

1998-12-31

211

Education in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this book, several Hoover Institution scholars search for the answers to failures in U.S. schools and examine the debate over what works and what does not work. Such widely debated topics as national examinations, accountability, performance, and school funding are discussed. The importance of education to both the individual and society as a…

Lazear, Edward P., Ed.

212

Transportation in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

New energy-efficient and environmentally-sound magnetically levitated (maglev) transportation systems are being developed that have the potential to supplement and extend the intercity portion of our transportation system, and to alleviate part of the commuter congestion on our highways. Prototype passenger-carrying maglev vehicles are now operating in Japan and Germany. The capabilities of these systems, described in science fiction over two

Coffey

1991-01-01

213

Twenty-first century health care.  

PubMed

A dynamic, proactive health-care environment is beckoning. Fueled by consumer-led awareness, digital television, the Internet and a preoccupation with preventative health maintenance, it will define a new genre of products. In a series of provocative statements, this visionary article explores what the future may hold for diagnostics and medical devices. PMID:10387620

Pearson, M

1999-04-01

214

Beardsley for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beardsley's "Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of Criticism" continues to provide a valuable resource for those of one who takes questions about value and evaluation to be central to the philosophical enterprise, even if one chooses to focus on the philosophy of art more or less independently of the aesthetic. Nevertheless, Beardsley's…

Feagin, Susan L.

2010-01-01

215

Governance in the Twenty-First-Century University: Approaches to Effective Leadership and Strategic Management. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume explores approaches to effective leadership and strategic management in the 21st century university by considering the perceptions and attitudes of university leaders toward the institutional structures and organizational cultures from which universities are led and managed. The differences between treating universities as businesses…

Gayle, Dennis John; Tewarie, Bhoendradatt; White, A. Quinton, Jr.

216

Twenty-First Century Challenges. Proceedings of the Golden Anniversary Conference on Graduate Study in Adult Education (Columbus, Ohio, October 17-18, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains eight papers presented at a conference held to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the graduate school of adult education at Ohio State University. After a foreword by David Boggs, the following papers are included: "Reflections on the Commission of Professors of Adult Education" (Burton Kreitlow);…

Boggs, David L., Ed.

217

Preparing Adolescents for the Twenty-First Century. Challenges Facing Europe and the United States. Johann Jacobs Foundation Conference Series, Volume 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 11 papers based on presentations at a 1994 conference held in Marbach, Germany, and a 1995 conference in Geneva, Switzerland, focusing on frontiers in the education of young adolescents in European countries and the United States. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Klaus J. Jacobs); "Meeting the Essential…

Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.; Hamburg, David A., Ed.

218

University-Community Collaborations for the Twenty-First Century: Outreach Scholarship for Youth and Families. Michigan State University Series on Children, Youth, and Families, Vol. 4; Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 1119.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 22 essays and case studies in this book offer a theoretical and practical guide on outreach programs of colleges and universities. The chapters are: (1) "The New American Outreach University: Challenges and Options" (Richard M. Lerner, Lou Anna K. Simon); (2) "The Land-Grant Idea and the Evolving Outreach University" (James T. Bonnen); (3)…

Lerner, Richard M., Ed.; Simon, Lou Anna K., Ed.

219

Meeting the Challenges of the Global Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

astering the challenges of the 21st century will require governments and citizens everywhere to see, think, and act globally—in ways never de- manded of them before. In previous centuries, the course of history was determined largely by events in only a few regions, particularly Europe and North America. The world's continents existed mostly apart, not influencing each other a great

Stephen J. Flanagan

220

Southern Ocean warming and increased ice shelf basal melting in the twenty-first and twenty-second centuries based on coupled ice-ocean finite-element modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We utilise a global finite-element sea ice-ocean model (FESOM), focused on the Antarctic marginal seas, to analyse projections of ice shelf basal melting in a warmer climate. Ice shelf-ocean interaction is described using a three-equation system with a diagnostic computation of temperature and salinity at the ice-ocean interface. A tetrahedral mesh with a minimumhorizontal resolution of 4 km and hybrid vertical coordinates is used. Ice shelf draft, cavity geometry, and global ocean bathymetry have been derived from the RTopo-1 data set. The model is forced with the atmospheric output from two climate models: (1) the Hadley Centre Climate Model (HadCM3) and (2) Max Planck Institute’s ECHAM5/MPI-OM coupled climate model. Results from experiments forced with their twentieth century output are used to evaluate the modelled present-day ocean state. Sea ice coverage is largely realistic in both simulations; modelled ice shelf basal melt rates compare well with observations in both cases, but are consistently smaller for ECHAM5/MPI-OM. Projections for future ice shelf basal melting are computed using atmospheric output for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios E1 and A1B. In simulations forced with ECHAM5 data, trends in ice shelf basal melting are small. In contrast, decreasing convection along the Antarctic coast in HadCM3 scenarios leads to a decreasing salinity on the continental shelf and to intrusions of warm deep water of open ocean origin. In the case of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf (FRIS), this water reaches deep into the cavity, so that basal melting increases by a factor of 4 to 6 compared to the present value of about 90 Gt/year. By the middle of the twenty-second century, FRIS becomes the dominant contributor to total ice shelf basal mass loss in these simulations. Our results indicate that the surface freshwater fluxes on the continental shelves may be crucial for the future of especially the large cold water ice shelves in the Southern Ocean.

Timmermann, Ralph; Hellmer, Hartmut H.

2013-10-01

221

An Eighteenth Century "Excellence Challenge."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiences of three 18th-century working class writers illustrate how elements of pure chance contributed to their success or lack of advancement. Their stories raise questions about the motives behind and the issues raised by today's policy initiatives to address poverty. (SK)

Jones, Bill

2003-01-01

222

Blood Wings: Feeling War in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

suicides and suicide events among military and veterans’ families,suicide epidemic” follow servicemembers home to their waiting familiesfamilies, and the larger civilian population, as rising rates of military suicide,

Sanfilippo, Brenda

2014-01-01

223

Libraries and Information Technology: Towards the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors envisage a new future for libraries, one in which they assume a very proactive role, pushing, as well as pulling information back into the Web, in a manner similar to that in which a private electricity producer feeds back surplus power into the grid as well as taking electricity when needed. (Author)

Allen, Matthew; Retzlaff, Lothar

1998-01-01

224

Energy issues in Asia in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper combines and revises two papers, one written for the Twenty-Sixth Pugwash Workshop, Study on Nuclear Forces, that was held in Geneva on 8-9 February 1997, and one written for Harvard University's Center for Science and International Affairs\\/Japan Atomic Industrial Forum joint seminar on the future of nuclear issues, held in Boston on 24-25 February. The paper includes results

Ryukichi Imai

1997-01-01

225

Teaching Thinking: An Agenda for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers ideas and strategies for teaching thinking in schools. Sixteen chapters and a concluding discussion, each preceded by an introductory article, are written by experts recognized in their fields. The chapters include: (1) "Reading and Thinking with History and Science Text" (Isabel L. Beck and Janice A. Dole; (2) "Developing…

Collins, Cathy, Ed.; Mangieri, John N., Ed.

226

Twenty-First Century Tools for Vocabulary Management and Indexing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates how a Web-based information architecture can support sophisticated thesaurus management, authority control and indexing. Examines what resources are available to assist in normalizing Web terminology; methods and tools that can be used for normalizing terms across languages and disciplines; how terminology can assist in Web searching;…

Clarke, David; Yancey, Trish

2001-01-01

227

Chemistryclimate model simulations of twenty-first century stratospheric climate  

E-print Network

to an overall global cooling of the stratosphere in the simulations (0.59 6 0.07 K decade21 at 10 hPa), ozone cooling above. The rate of warming correlates with the rate of ozone recovery projected by the models and cooling from the growing abundance of GHGs is, in most models, balanced by adiabatic warming from stronger

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

228

The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr?1) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3?) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr?1 to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40–70 Tg N yr?1 to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr?1) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 102–103 years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced. PMID:23713126

Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A.; Cape, J. Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J.; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N.; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F.; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

2013-01-01

229

Philippe Pinel in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The myth of Pinel, the Revolutionary republican “chainbreaker,” has been definitively discredited by historians.1 Yet today it is alive and well in France and abroad. Two novels have recently appeared that show the persistent hold of this\\u000a myth on the French imagination. In Dans la nuit de Bicêtre [In the Darkness of Bicêtre] (Paris: Gallimard, 2006) Marie Didier invents an

Dora B. Weiner

230

Professionalizing business district management for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore leading theories and concepts in professionalising the emerging field of business district management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In the context of globalization and localization, it discusses distinctive place-based elements of business improvement districts (BIDs), such as: law, nomenclature, assessment formulae, and branding; while suggesting and analyzing strategic international application of certain theories and concepts. Findings

Fayth A. Ruffin

2008-01-01

231

Teaching Twenty-First Century Citizenship: Social Psychological Foundations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends collective cooperative action in the public interest will be necessary to solve future social and environmental problems. Proposes that the social studies curriculum shift its value orientation from individualistic self-interest to a justice-based, global model. Advocates teaching citizenship that stresses self-restraint and investigates…

Brandhorst, Allan R.

1990-01-01

232

Brand management perspectives in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to define the tasks of product managers from the perspective of professional brand managers and to point out the gaps between their short- and long-term tasks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper conducted two studies: the first utilized a focus group in order to define the tasks of brand managers. In the second study,

Ram Herstein; Moti Zvilling

2011-01-01

233

Transportation Reform for the Twenty-First Century: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1956 President Dwight Eisenhower signed the Federal-Aid Highway Act, creating the Interstate Highway Program, the largest public works pro- gram in our nation's history. But today, a decade after the completion of this vast network of highways, the country's transportation policy is languishing. At its creation, the public agreed that this immense federal program was essential for the health,

Bruce Katz; Robert Puentes

234

Sustainable Aquaculture in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many efforts to create a conceptual framework for understanding and defining sustainable aquaculture. A recent consensus or stakeholder view (Caffey et al., 1998) approached sustainability from three perspectives: environmental, economic, and sociological. Often, stakeholder views are snapshot or present oriented. The multiple variables affecting sustainability and viability are considered from a here-and-now perspective rather than considering the

William A. Wurts

2000-01-01

235

United Kingdom: Skills Development for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learning and Skills Development Agency (LSDA), together with the British Council, provides the leadership for the UNEVOC centre in the United Kingdom (UK). LSDA is a strategic national agency whose mission is to improve the quality of post-16 education and training in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It does this by conducting research to…

Baines, John; Cohen, Judith; Martin, Stephen

2005-01-01

236

Deep Ecology: Educational Possibilities for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents fundamentals of systems thinking and sustainability within an ecological theory to shape education to the needs of human development in relation to the environment. Emphasizes that effective learning is a system embedded in the web of life, giving humans the ability to see the interconnectedness of the environment, community, and the…

Capra, Fritjof

2003-01-01

237

AIR QUALITY MODELING FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes recent and evolving advances in the science of numerical air quality simulation modeling. Emphasis is placed on new developments in particulate matter modeling and atmospheric chemistry, diagnostic modeling tools, and integrated modeling systems. New...

238

The Casualties of the Twenty-First-Century Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses academic freedom that is currently under threat at many public two-year schools, which serve almost one-half of the nation's first-year college students. The growing reliance on part-time faculty exacerbates the problem, with many adjuncts feeling muzzled for fear of losing their jobs. The problem of academic freedom at…

Wilson, David McKay

2010-01-01

239

Subgross breast pathology in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Subgross studies on breast morphology in cleared thick sections are informative, but lengthy protocols could clash with diagnostic timescales and interfere with immunohistochemistry (IHC) or molecular analysis. We sought to speed up staining and tissue clearing to improve compatibility with diagnostic needs without detriment to histology or other assays. Thick sections (2-3 mm) of normal human breast tissue and whole mouse mammary glands were stained with alum-carmine, aceto-carmine, Harris's haematoxylin, cresyl violet, neutral red, thionin, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), ethidium bromide (EB), or propidium iodide (PI) and cleared in xylene (refractive index ? = 1.50), benzyl alcohol/benzyl benzoate (BABB; ? = 1.59), xylene-BABB (X-BABB), thiodiglycol (2,2'-thiodiethanol, ? = 1.52) or anethole (? = 1.56). Tissue was then paraffin embedded for IHC for ER, PR, E-cadherin, CD31 or cytokeratin 7. Haematoxylin and alum-carmine are excellent non-fluorescent subgross stains giving strong nuclear staining and minimal background. DAPI and EB permeate thick sections poorly but PI penetrates well, with a high signal-to-noise ratio after clearing in BABB or X-BABB. Other clearing agents were less effective, including thiodiglycol. Anethole's unpleasant odour precluded further evaluation. All evaluated clearing agents preserved comparable immunoreactivity for all markers. PI is a promising stain for subgross breast studies, compatible with BABB clearing. The hope that the water-miscible thioalcohol, thiodiglycol, might accelerate tissue clearing was not realised. There is scope for further streamlining to make subgross techniques more acceptable in combined research/diagnostic settings. PMID:22460856

Smith, William A; Going, James J

2012-05-01

240

Global interdependence and eliminating war in the twenty first century  

E-print Network

of eliminating war by studying the relationship between war propensity and global interdependence. For the purposes of this study, two indicators of interdependence are used: annual international trade (an indicator of economic interdependence) and political...

Durham, Monica

2013-02-22

241

Z Cam Stars in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

Z Cam stars are a small subset of dwarf novae that exhibit standstills in their light curves. Most modern literature and catalogs of cataclysmic variables quote the number of known Z Cams to be on the order of 30 or so systems. After a four-year observing campaign and an exhaustive examination of the data in the AAVSO International Database we have trimmed that number by a third. One of the reasons for the misclassification of some systems is the fact that the definition of what a Z Cam is has changed over the last 85 years to what it is today. This has caused many stars formerly assumed to be Z Cams or rumored to be Z Cams to be eliminated from the final list. In this paper we present the results of our investigation into 65 stars listed at one time or another in the literature as Z Cams or possible Z Cams.

Simonsen, Mike; Goff, Bill; Krajci, Tom; Menzies, Kenneth; Otero, Sebastian; Padovan, Stefano; Poyner, Gary; Roe, James; Sabo, Richard; Sjoberg, George; Staels, Bart; Stubbings, Rod; Toone, John; Wils, Patrick

2014-01-01

242

Developing Aerospace Leaders for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Editorial Abstract: Why is the Developing Aerospace Leaders (DAL) initiative needed? Dr. Thirtle points to a lack of unifying vision and the growth of occupationalism in the Air Force. In this article, reminiscent of Carl Builder's book The Icarus Syndrome, he states DAL's ob­ jectives and explains why it is necessary to recapture the \\

M IKE THIRTLE

243

Talent management for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Most firms have no formal programs for anticipating and fulfilling talent needs, relying on an increasingly expensive pool of outside candidates that has been shrinking since it was created from the white-collar layoffs of the 1980s. But the advice these companies are getting to solve the problem--institute large-scale internal development programs--is equally ineffective. Internal development was the norm back in the 1950s, and every management-development practice that seems novel today was routine in those years--from executive coaching to 360-degree feedback to job rotation to high-potential programs. However, the stable business environment and captive talent pipelines in which such practices were born no longer exist. It's time for a fundamentally new approach to talent management. Fortunately, companies already have such a model, one that has been well honed over decades to anticipate and meet demand in uncertain environments: supply chain management. Cappelli, a professor at the Wharton School, focuses on four practices in particular. First, companies should balance make-versus-buy decisions by using internal development programs to produce most--but not all--of the needed talent, filling in with outside hiring. Second, firms can reduce the risks in forecasting the demand for talent by sending smaller batches of candidates through more modularized training systems in much the same way manufacturers now employ components in just-in-time production lines. Third, companies can improve their returns on investment in development efforts by adopting novel cost-sharing programs. Fourth, they should seek to protect their investments by generating internal opportunities to encourage newly trained managers to stick with the firm. Taken together, these principles form the foundation for a new paradigm in talent management: a talent-on-demand system. PMID:18411966

Cappelli, Peter

2008-03-01

244

Blood Wings: Feeling War in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

the rise of video games, the most popular of all mediaVideo Games Invaded Hollywood. East Sussex: Yellow Ant Media,video games’ formal dynamism emphasizes the social contexts of production and reception in ways that other media

Sanfilippo, Brenda

2014-01-01

245

Global Security Concerns: Anticipating the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most important and intellectually fascinating areas of investigation for the student of political affairs concerns the attempt to understand why man makes war. This ancient field of inquiry may be addressed at such various levels as the philoso...

K. P. Magyar

1996-01-01

246

Twenty-first century pathology sign-out.  

PubMed

It is difficult to imagine a field that is changing as rapidly as pathology. A convergence of factors including not only scientific and technological advances but also changes in business models is transforming the field, particularly in the area of cancer diagnostics. The authors examine 8 themes, or "forces of change," in pathology and speculate on how these will affect pathology sign-out and the future role of pathologists in patient care. PMID:23078664

Tomlins, Scott; Robinson, Daniel; Penny, Robert J; Hess, Jay L

2012-12-01

247

Teaching Privacy in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What would Benjamin Franklin's Facebook page look like? Would he be "friends" with William Pierce, James Madison, or Alexander Hamilton? Would there have been a separate Facebook group for the framers of the Constitution, where they would have posted comments on the wall regarding the different stipulations that needed inclusion in the document?…

Edbrooke, Odette; Ambrose, Meg Leta

2012-01-01

248

Environmental permitting strategies for the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

Recent trends in economic markets have caused mining companies to look harder at reducing costs for collecting information, performing studies, and conducting other necessary activities to complete environmental permitting. In some cases, it may be in the operator's best interest to delay permitting and related expenditures to the extent possible. In most cases, however, agency mandates and the need to continue operations require that permits be obtained and maintained in the most expedient and economical way possible. This paper explores some basic approaches to environmental permitting which are intended to strategically guide the permitting process through the maze of requirements in a relatively straightforward manner. Through application of common sense and KISS (Keep it simple, stupid) the authors have found that permitting can be conducted in a quicker fashion than most applicants experience. The authors explore and explain some of these basic principles by drawing on their own experiences in the Arizona Aquifer Protection Permit and other environmental permit programs.

Munson, B.E.; Wallis, C.M.

1999-07-01

249

Michele Dillon American Catholics in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

Studies, UCSB, and the Walter H. Capps Center for the Study of Ethics, Religion, and Public Life at UCSB Byrne Tipton Distinguished Visting Professor in Catholic Studies www.religion.ucsb.edu D e p a r t m e n

Akhmedov, Azer

250

The Entrepreneurial University in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Burton Clark's 1998 monograph, "Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: Organizational Pathways of Transformation," has become seminal in the literature on entrepreneurialism in universities. In this paper I re-examine the validity of Clark's analysis through an interview study of one of his original entrepreneurial universities, namely Warwick…

Taylor, Mark P.

2012-01-01

251

Communications Security for the Twenty-first Century  

E-print Network

Agency (NSA) and the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) realized that noncom- batant adults needed to protect their sensitive, but unclassified, information. Though NSA is the usual government agency. Concern centered on whether NSA had placed a "trapdoor" in the algorithm (a shortcut to de- cryption

Russo, Bernard

252

Two-Generation Programs in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most of the authors in this issue of "Future of Children" focus on a single strategy for helping both adults and children that could become a component of two-generation programs. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, on the other hand, look at actual programs with an explicit two-generation focus that have been tried in the…

Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2014-01-01

253

Bridging the cold war and the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was originally a part of Los Alamos Laboratory. In 1949, AT&T agreed to manage Sandia, which they did for the next 44 years. During those Cold War years, Sandia was the prime weapons engineering laboratory for Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore. As such, it bore prime responsibility for designing and adapting nuclear

Carl J. Mora

1998-01-01

254

Schooling for Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Venezuela's Bolivarian Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global dominance of neoliberal policy prescriptions in recent decades has been well documented, with particular implications for educational systems. These include reduced public expenditure and provision, the promotion of individual (parental) choice, competition, increased user-pays and the privatisation of education. Against this…

Griffiths, Tom G.

2010-01-01

255

Applications of carbon nanotubes in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes, which consist of rolled graphene sheets built from sp(2) hybridized carbon atoms, are now attracting scientists from various disciplines due to their fascinating physico-chemical properties. In this account, we will review the recent progress on the synthetic techniques for the large-scale production of carbon nanotubes, especially focusing on the floating-catalyst method used in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. We will also describe effective purification methods avoiding structural damage, and discuss the electrochemical applications of these systems including the fabrication of: (i) lithium-ion secondary batteries; (ii) lead-acid batteries; (iii) electric double-layer capacitors; (iv) fuel cells; and (v) multifunctional fillers in polymer composites. We foresee that carbon nanotubes will find numerous applications and take an important place in the development of emerging technologies in the near future. PMID:15370479

Endo, Morinobu; Hayashi, Takuaya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Milred S

2004-10-15

256

My Students at the Dawn of Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

For eighteen fall semesters students have assembled in my classes. These students who have graced my life have gone on to serve in the pastoral ministry, both senior and associate, and the mission field. A few have earned doctorates and assumed teaching positions. These students have taught me a great deal and I want to reflect on some of that

Henry W. Spaulding II

257

Addressing the Challenges Facing the Distributed, 21st Century  

E-print Network

Addressing the Challenges Facing the Distributed, 21st Century Business Through Telework Practical Methods for Transforming Organizational DNA through New Ways of Working Alan Greenberg & Andy Nilssen.........................................................................................................................4 Business Issues Facing the 21st Century Enterprise

Narasayya, Vivek

258

TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL RREL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM - ABSTRACT PROCEEDINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

Tho Twenty-first Annual Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) Research Symposium was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 4-7, 1995. he purpose of this Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed projects funded by the U...

259

The Twenty-First NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication contains the proceedings of the Twenty-First NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held in Tampa, FL, April 26 through April 30, 1993. It provides some comprehensive general papers on the application of finite elements in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre-and postprocessing with other auxiliary programs and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

1993-01-01

260

Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting  

SciTech Connect

The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

Not Available

1988-04-01

261

Eighteenth Century Law, Twenty-First Century Problems: Jones, GPS Tracking, and the Future of Privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, law enforcement officers began investigating Antoine Jones, a Washington, D.C. nightclub owner, for suspected drug trafficking. After gathering information through stakeouts, cameras, and a wiretap on Jones’ phone, the officers obtained a warrant to place a Global Positioning System (GPS) tracker on Jones’ wife’s car, which Jones possessed and used regularly. However, the officers failed to comply with

Lauren Millcarek

2012-01-01

262

One of the major challenges in the twenty-first century is the development of cleaner, sustainable means of energy conversion and storage in order to address the problems  

E-print Network

the installation of solar panels, domestic Direct Current (DC) power networks and battery storage systems of solar panels to benefit from them when the sun is not powerful by storing excess energy in batteries, so hydrogen powered aircraft In many ways hydrogen is an ideal transport fuel - it is available everywhere

Burton, Geoffrey R.

263

Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

None

1996-01-26

264

Developing Creativity Ecosystems: Preparing College Students for Tomorrow's Innovation Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eileen Hulme, Ben Thomas, and Hal DeLaRosby argue for the importance of creativity as a learning outcome and challenge higher education to produce students capable of becoming the innovative leaders the twenty-first-century economy requires.

Hulme, Eileen; Thomas, Ben; DeLaRosby, Hal

2014-01-01

265

Next Century Challenges: Scalable Coordination in Sensor Networks Deborah Estrin  

E-print Network

Introduction Integrated low-power sensing devices will permit remote ob- ject monitoring and tracking in many devices. Networking these sensors|empowering them with the ability to coordinate amongst themselvesNext Century Challenges: Scalable Coordination in Sensor Networks Deborah Estrin Ramesh Govindan

Shihada, Basem

266

Next Century Challenges: Scalable Coordination in Sensor Networks Deborah Estrin  

E-print Network

, small robotic devices). Networking these sensors-mpowering them with the ability to coordinate amongst Introduction Integrated low-power sensing devices will permit remote ob- ject monitoring and tracking in manyNext Century Challenges: Scalable Coordination in Sensor Networks Deborah Estrin Ramesh Govindan

Han, Richard Y.

267

Next Century Challenges: Scalable Coordination in Sensor Networks Deborah Estrin  

E-print Network

, small robotic devices). Networking these sensors---empowering them with the ability to coordinate Introduction Integrated low­power sensing devices will permit remote ob­ ject monitoring and tracking in manyNext Century Challenges: Scalable Coordination in Sensor Networks Deborah Estrin Ramesh Govindan

Heidemann, John

268

New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

Kassing, Gayle

2010-01-01

269

Forensic Medicine in the Next Century: Some Ethical Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors, after having defined the concepts of ethics, morality, and legality, debate the main ethical problems that forensic medicine will face in the next century. The authors foresee that the technological advancement will present imposing challenges, including those concerning genetic manipulation and the keeping of confidentiality regarding electronic files. On the other hand, old problems will recur, the most

José G. V. Taborda; Julio Arboleda-Flórez

1999-01-01

270

Untreatable infections?--The challenge of the 21st century.  

PubMed

The triumph of antibiotics over bacterial pathogens that has occurred in the latter half of this century looks increasingly threatened as we approach the new millennium. Increasing resistance in important pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Shigella, and Streptococcus pneumoniae threatens the lives of millions. The increasing problems with drug resistance in (C. diphtheriae, Salmonella typhi and the pneumococcus in Vietnam are presented as examples of the challenge confronting tropical countries. PMID:9886138

Parry, C M

1998-06-01

271

Fifty Years of Progress and Challenges for the Next Century  

E-print Network

Environmental Engineering Conference, the last Environmental Engineering Conference of the 20th century, to take a glance back at the accomplishments of environmental engineering and science over the past 50 years and to consider the challenges environmental... numerous aqueducts, some still in use today, to provide cities with an adequate supply of fresh water. They also recognized the hazardous nature of asbestos and mercury. ? In ancient Jerusalem, solid waste was disposed of by dumping it over a wall...

Randtke, S. J.

2000-02-02

272

Challenging Technology, and Technology Infusion into 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparing for the space exploration challenges of the next century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Center for Integrated Space Micro-Systems (CISM) is chartered to develop advanced spacecraft systems that can be adapted for a large spectrum of future space missions. Enabling this task are revolutions in the miniaturization of electrical, mechanical, and computational functions. On the other hand, these revolutionary technologies usually have much lower readiness levels than those required by flight projects. The mission of the Advanced Micro Spacecraft (AMS) task in CISM is to bridge the readiness gap between advanced technologies and flight projects. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Chau, S. N.; Hunter, D. J.

2001-01-01

273

The Changing Face of English Universities: Reinventing Collegiality for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we examine the creation and expansion of the English university system. We show how the enormous increase in student numbers, which began with the Robbins Report (1963), led to successive governments cutting universities' funding and compelling them to act more like business enterprises than educational institutions. In turn,…

Burnes, Bernard; Wend, Petra; By, Rune Todnem

2014-01-01

274

Why American Business Demands Twenty-First Century Skills: An Industry Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A solid global strategy must be part of every organization's DNA. For Dell, this means expanding into new countries where it can use its direct model to provide value to customers and create more productive, healthier communities. It also means hiring employees who think and act globally and have a commitment to learn how to work with cultures…

Bruett, Karen

2006-01-01

275

Strengthening Media Education in the Twenty-First Century: Opportunities for the State of Pennsylvania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article defines media education and places it in the context of contemporary research on the arts, culture, and economic and social development. The author reviews current instructional settings where media analysis and media production activities are now occurring in K-12 education in Pennsylvania. This article then describes how other…

Hobbs, Renee

2005-01-01

276

Twenty-First Century Academic Feminism in the United States: Utopian Visions and Practical Actions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic feminists must confront class structure within the academy and women's studies. Changes in the academic work environment include: funding cuts, rapid growth of non-tenure-track faculty, and overproduction of Ph.D.s relative to jobs available (which exemplifies the class structure of academic feminists). Education is a social institution,…

Laslett, Barbara; Brenner, Johanna

2000-01-01

277

Fermilab Industrial Affiliates roundtable on research technology in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

This collection of articles presents views on the future of physics research by leading experts in the field. Topics discussed include particle physics, the Superconducting Super Collider, and the development of new superconducting materials. The articles have been abstracted and indexed separately.

Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Fenner, R.B. (eds.)

1987-05-01

278

Identifying Real Dichotomies Underlying the False Dichotomy: Twenty-First Century Mediation in an Eclectic Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some people (lawyers, scholars, judges, dispute resolvers, policymakers) are more concerned about fidelity to procedural protocols while others are more concerned with the substantive rules governing disputes and substantive outcomes. Those in the dispute resolution community preferring facilitation tend to be proceduralists. For them, the observance of proper procedure is a high goal, perhaps the dominant goal. They reason, often

Jeffrey W. Stempel

2000-01-01

279

The Global University for the Twenty-First Century. A Strategic Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This strategic plan addresses the internationalization of activities of American colleges and universities offering programs in food, agricultural, and natural resources disciplines. Internationalization is enhanced by appropriate university roles in economic development, humanitarian assistance, augmentation of global food security, and…

National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

280

Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Sustaining a Culture of Excellence in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) continue to provide a substantial role in the black community and in\\u000a higher education by providing a culture of excellence. Yet, their role in higher education is the center of many academic\\u000a and political debates. Defining this role has been thwarted with questions of HBCUs relevance in society, in the African–American\\u000a community, and in

Nia Imani Cantey; Robert Bland; LaKerri R. Mack; Danielle Joy-Davis

281

Intra-minority Intergroup Relations in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent projections indicate that by the year 2050, racial minorities will comprise more than 50 percent of the U.S. population. That is, the United States is expected to become a majority-minority nation. This essay adopts a social psychological approach to consider how these dramatic demographic changes may affect both racial minorities and white Americans. Specifically, drawing from theoretical work on

Jennifer A. Richeson; Maureen A. Craig

2011-01-01

282

Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

2014-01-01

283

Vietnam: the environment for management development in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

With its expanding economy, ambitious population, and location at the center of the Asia-Pacific Rim, Vietnam has discovered an increasingly important need to develop its managerial talents. In both government, state-owned enterprises, and the rapidly growing private sector, organizations face the need to raise management skills to levels found elsewhere in the world.This paper examines the emerging environment for management

Drew O. McDaniel; John R. Schermerhorn Jr; Huynh The Cuoc

1999-01-01

284

Emerging trends in Australian and New Zealand management development practices in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having shaken off the formal mantles of their British forebears, Australians and New Zealanders are eagerly embracing the latest management development (MD) approaches, adopting and adapting North American and European methods. Recent government reports highlight the need for both basic and advanced MD, increasing the receptivity of the business community for fresh, imported MD programs. Successful localisation of overseas offerings

Gayle Avery; André Everett; Anne Finkelde; Kolleen Wallace

1999-01-01

285

Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms-such as corals and some plankton-will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13

James C. Orr; Victoria J. Fabry; Olivier Aumont; Laurent Bopp; Scott C. Doney; Richard A. Feely; Anand Gnanadesikan; Nicolas Gruber; Akio Ishida; Fortunat Joos; Robert M. Key; Keith Lindsay; Ernst Maier-Reimer; Richard Matear; Patrick Monfray; Anne Mouchet; Raymond G. Najjar; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Keith B. Rodgers; Christopher L. Sabine; Jorge L. Sarmiento; Reiner Schlitzer; Richard D. Slater; Ian J. Totterdell; Marie-France Weirig; Yasuhiro Yamanaka; Andrew Yool

2005-01-01

286

Twenty-First Century Australian Women and IT: Exercising the Power of Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the Australian literature relating to female under-representation in the information technology (IT) sphere of careers and education. This summary of the current body of literature presented through the lens of the nature of the discipline includes emerging theories that explore the masculinization of the discipline,…

Lang, Catherine

2007-01-01

287

Water and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century: The Middle East and California  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Throughout the world, population pressures, irrigation demands, and growing resource needs are increasing competition for\\u000a fresh water. Nowhere is this more evident than in the arid Middle East, where the scarcity of water has played a central role\\u000a in defining the political relationships of the region for thousands of years. In the Middle East, ideological, religious,\\u000a and geographical disputes go

Peter H. Gleick

288

Coupled Model Simulations of the West African Monsoon System: Twentieth and Twenty-First-Century Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of coupled GCMs to correctly simulate the climatology and a prominent mode of variability of the West African monsoon is evaluated, and the results are used to make informed decisions about which models may be producing more reliable projections of future climate in this region. The integrations were made available by the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and

Kerry H. Cook; Edward K. Vizy

2006-01-01

289

Twenty-first Century Australian Women and IT: Exercising the power of choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the Australian literature relating to female under-representation in the information technology (IT) sphere of careers and education. This summary of the current body of literature presented through the lens of the nature of the discipline includes emerging theories that explore the masculinization of the discipline, followed by a discussion of the lack of a sustainable impact on

Catherine Lang

2007-01-01

290

The Architecture of Higher Education. University Spatial Models at the Start of the Twenty First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines trends in university architecture through history and the current Spanish model, asserting that good architecture produces a good university. Discusses function, culture, and character as they relate to university education and architecture. (EV)

Calvo-Sotelo, Pablo Campos

2001-01-01

291

Science and Pseudoscience: A Course for the Citizen of the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course for general education students focusing on current topics in science, titled pseudoscience. Includes the course's goals, objectives, problems, instructional methods, and results of student performance. (DS)

Howes, Ruth; Watson, James, Jr.

1981-01-01

292

Killing kids: recession and survival in twenty-first-century Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's lesson is on killing one another. Life is a game. Get desperate and fight. Become an adult of value.1 Deeply engrossed in their private conversations, the thirty-six junior-high stu- dents of Class B fail to notice the military presence along the highway on which their excursion bus is traveling. That this is no ordinary school outing becomes shockingly apparent

ANDREA G ARAI

293

Based on Shakespeare: Twenty-First Century American Film Adaptations of Shakespeare  

E-print Network

Semenza 102. Film studios also had a hard time with the realistic content, particularly after the high school shooting in Columbine, CO. Miramax dropped the film because of the correlations between fiction and reality. “O” was picked up by Lionsgate. 44... productions and the size of the audiences for them but also by the nature of the 5 See Gregory Semenza’s “Shakespeare after Columbine: Teen Violence in Tim Blake Nelson’s “O” in College Literature and Barbara...

Sutliff-Benusis, Alicia

2011-12-31

294

Human Insecurity in Twenty-First Century China: The Vulnerability of Women to HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the formidable global source of human insecurity HIV\\/AIDS, to argue that gender perspectives should become an integral part of mainstream human security discourse. The proposition of the paper is that while discussions on human security have attempted to encompass threats to humanity as a whole, interpretations of such threats have primarily been male-oriented and have largely failed

Anna Hayes

295

A double-edged sword: twenty-first century workplace trends and gender equality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to uncover the hidden gender consequences of three current trends in the workplace, the increase in knowledge work, information and communication technology (ICT) and work-life balance policies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper synthesizes and analyses existing empirical evidence from research on knowledge work, work-life balance and boundary, women's work and careers. Findings –

Doris Ruth Eikhof

2012-01-01

296

A State of Islam: Modernity and Muslim Life in Twenty-First Century Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the modern era religion and religious identity is complex: it is spoken of in conjunction with national or ethnic identity,\\u000a and aspects of it incorporate (or are often mistaken for) cultural identity. An Australian Muslim sees him- or her-self in\\u000a a multiplicity of ways beyond merely a person who takes on an Islamic identity and is referred to as

Nasya Bahfen

297

Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

Stachokas, George

2009-01-01

298

Beyond asbestos and environmental litigation: Coverage disputes in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in the 1970s, first asbestos, and thereafter environmental, coverage litigation involving general liability policies substantially dominated the field of insurance coverage disputes. These areas of insurance coverage litigation have now fully matured. Although litigation in these areas will continue into the foreseeable future, other types of coverage disputes have begun to appear in significant numbers. This article will analyze these other types of coverage disputes that are gaining prominence as the next millennium approaches. Coverage disputes involving general liability policies have arisen in the following notable areas: (1) pharmaceutical drug and medical devices (including latex-induced injuries and diseases); (2) tobacco; (3) electromagnetic fields; (4) solvents; (5) noise-induced hearing loss; (6) repetitive stress injuries; (7) employment; (8) sick building syndrome; (9) lead poisoning; (10) construction defects; (11) intellectual property; and (12) computer-related techno-torts. This wide range of discrete areas of law, for the most part, defies classification. Nevertheless, some generalizations can be made and parallels can be drawn when this developing body of law is viewed from a broader perspective.

Medaglia, M.E.; Mebren, P.A. von

1998-10-01

299

Urine as a Specimen to Diagnose Infections in Twenty-First Century: Focus on Analytical Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Urine as a clinical specimen to diagnose infections has been used since ancient times. Many rapid technologies to assist diagnosis of infections are currently in use. Alongside traditional enzyme immunoassays (EIA), new technologies have emerged. Molecular analysis of transrenal DNA to diagnose infections is also a rapidly growing field. The majority of EIAs utilize the detection of excreted sugar compounds of the outer microbial cell-wall shed into the bloodstream and excreted into the urine. This mini-review focuses on current knowledge on rapid urinary antigen detection tests to diagnose most common infections, and highlights their diagnostic utility. The past and the future of urinalysis are also briefly discussed. The analysis of the literature shows that some methods are not quantitative, and analytical sensitivity may remain suboptimal. In addition, the performance criteria and technical documentation of some commercial tests are insufficient. Clinical microbiologists and physicians should be alert to assay limitations. PMID:22566927

Tuuminen, Tamara

2012-01-01

300

Reading and Society in Russia in the First Years of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the changes in the attitude of Russia's reading public in terms of frequency and intensiveness and the factors that influence these changes. In comparison with the situation in the late Soviet era and with the perestroika years, the picture of mass reading by Russians over the 1990s and, especially, in the first years of the…

Dubin, B. V.; Zorkaia, N. A.

2010-01-01

301

Prospects for the automobile: sputtering toward the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

America has 130 million licensed drivers with over 100 million cars, logging over 1 trillion miles of travel every year. The American automobile fleet accounts for more than 90% of all personal transportation and not without its costs. Automobiles have become the greatest threat to the lives of Americans between the ages of 15 and 35; autos generate about half

1980-01-01

302

from the President How should innovation be defined in the twenty-first century?  

E-print Network

the portable cell phone, barcode technology, the wireless remote control, and smart electricity grids cell phone, barcode technology, and the wireless remote control. IIT faculty and students are advancing to create what does not now exist--and our graduates have a strong track record of coming up with new ideas

303

School Leadership in the Twenty-First Century: Different Approaches to Common Problems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies the major themes that emerge from the five selected articles in this special issue. Collectively, they demonstrate some trends occurring in the area of school leadership, but also show that individual countries are looking at these trends in different ways. It is an example of what might be called thinking globally but…

Townsend, Tony

2011-01-01

304

Calories for Sale: Food Marketing to Children in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Budgets for marketing to children have spiked well into the billions, an escalation that mirrors the rise in childhood obesity rates. Children are targets for a maelstrom of marketing for all sorts of products enabled by sophisticated technology and minimal government regulation. Despite the fact that recent studies document links between food advertising and childhood obesity, a significant proportion of

Susan Linn; Courtney L. Novosat

2008-01-01

305

Critical Media Literacy: Crucial Policy Choices for a Twenty-First-Century Democracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of critical media literacy expands the notion of literacy to include different forms of mass communication and popular culture, as well as deepens the potential of literacy education to critically analyze relationships between media and audiences, information and power. The authors argue that critical media literacy is crucial for…

Kellner, Douglas; Share, Jeff

2007-01-01

306

Is Moral Education Working? Extracts from the Diary of a Twenty-First Century Moral Educator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article takes the form of a set of edited diary entries containing reflections on incidents drawn mainly from the author's professional life as a university professor and as a consultant to a disadvantaged multi-ethnic secondary school in the north of England. The form of the article allows a wide range of issues to be touched on, including…

Halstead, J. Mark

2011-01-01

307

Synthesizing Family, Career, and Culture: A Model for Counseling in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Career and work constitute a major portion of most people's lives; families have an impact on people's careers; and their culture determines a great deal about how they approach family and work. The family counseling, career, and multicultural literature has given little attention to these dynamics. This text provides a multifaceted framework for…

Evans, Kathy M., Ed.; Rotter, Joseph C., Ed.; Gold, Joshua M., Ed.

308

The New Logic of Migration in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

. The same applies to Castro's long-standing regime in Cuba. Four types of political repulsion thus force factors and mixed factors, which will be analysed in succession. Politico-Religious Factors Political of repulsion, several types appear: international wars, domestic civil wars or conflicts, political decisions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

309

Leadership Competence Educational Model for a Twenty-First Century Nursing Doctoral Education in Contemporary Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author proposes a nursing education model about leadership that can be used to improve the leadership skills of nursing doctoral students. This model is developed at the University of Michigan School of Nursing. In developing this model, the author had the opportunity to observe the University of Michigan, School of Nursing…

Terzioglu, Fusun

2011-01-01

310

Space Station user traffic model analysis for mission payload servicing into the twenty-first century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station-based Customer Servicing Facility service bay requirements for service accommodation to the Initial Orbit Capability (IOC) and far-term Station Accommodation Test Sets (SETS) missions are analyzed using the developed mission traffic model. Analysis results are presented which indicate that one servicing bay will be sufficient to accommodate IOC customer servicing requirements. Growth servicing requirements indicate that an additional servicing bay will be needed for accommodation of the far-term SATS mission payloads. Even though the level of total mission accommodation is below 100 percent for one bay at IOC and two bays during growth operations, the levels are such that operational work-around exists so that additional servicing bays will not be required.

Gould, G. J.

1986-01-01

311

Textiles and Clothing Business Professionals for the Twenty-First Century: Moving Toward Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile and clothing programs of the future, including instruction, extension, and research, will be influenced to some extent by the needs of national and international fashion-related business and industry as well as by the customerlclients whose needs are served by those businesses and industries. By identifying some possible futures of the textile and clothing industries\\/businesses and their clients, we will

Carol Anne Dickson

1984-01-01

312

ASAS Centennial Paper: Lactation biology for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of general aspects of mam- mary gland function, including metabolic pathways and hormonal regulation of mammary gland development and lactation, in livestock species was obtained several decades ago. As basic biological information of growth factor action, apoptotic mechanisms, and signal trans- duction events has exploded, the mouse became the model of choice for studying fundamental mechanisms regulating mammary function.

J. J. Loor; W. S. Cohick

2010-01-01

313

Technology for Evaluating Marine Ecosystems in the Early Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring, monitoring, and predicting oceanic and coastal conditions are widely acknowledged as essential activities in support\\u000a of long-term ecosystem-based fishery management efforts. Efforts are underway to build new administrative and technical infrastructures\\u000a to support collecting oceanographic data, assimilate it into models, and ensure its availability to the public, managers,\\u000a and scientists in a timely fashion. In large part, however, the

Dale Vance Holliday

314

The Relationship between Business and Higher Education: A Perspective on the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the effects of the new information age and new technologies on business and higher education was originally given as the keynote address at EDUCOM '87. Highlights include new organizational patterns; a new paradigm for lifelong learning; the necessity for integrating research and instruction; hypermedia; simulation; and artificial…

Sculley, John

1988-01-01

315

Considering Student Veterans on the Twenty-First-Century College Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new GI Bill offers the best educational benefits for veterans in the history of the nation. While many campus officials believe a surge of student veterans is under way, 2012 is the first year of college eligibility for veterans who enlisted specifically for the Post 9-11 GI Bill benefits signed into law in the summer of 2008. Further, the…

Vacchi, David T.

2012-01-01

316

Putting the Alternative Case: A Twenty-First-Century Vision for England's Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September 2011, the author published "School Wars: the battle for Britain's education." Since then she has been travelling around the country engaging in intense debates with parents, teachers, politicians and students about the current state of state education. It has been an interesting experience for it has brought her, a passionate believer…

Benn, Melissa

2012-01-01

317

Reproductive medicine: the ethical issues in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Reproductive medicine has developed to such an extent that numerous moral questions arise about the boundaries of applications of new reproductive technology. It is possible to imagine a future in which 'designer babies' are created and in which cloning, sex selection and male pregnancy become the instruments of individual desire or social policy. In this article, the concept of 'natural' is explored but rejected as an insufficient moral criterion for deciding these complex questions. A case is made for the criterion of welfare of the child and for the concept of the child as gift rather than product. PMID:11897913

Campbell, Alastair V

2002-02-01

318

SALMON RECOVERY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: BREACHING THE BASIC BARRIERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far ...

319

Twenty-First Century Science Informing a Sustainable Industry NOAATechnical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 164  

E-print Network

................................................................................................. 10 Dissolved Oxygen Undersecretary of Commerce and Administrator National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Holly Bamford Assistant Administrator National Ocean Service #12;Mention of trade names or commercial products does

320

Family Therapy at the Beginning of the Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume marks a watershed in the development of couple and family therapy. We have entered an era in which the most prominent models of practice no longer primarily accentuate disparate, broad visions of how families operate and how people change, as they did a generation ago, but instead draw from a core set of well-established strategies to create pragmatic,

Jay L. Lebow

321

Critical Digital Literacies: Following Feminist Composition Theories into Twenty-First Century Contact Zones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines how the interests of feminist composition theory, digital media, and new literacies studies intersect within the research context of the first-year writing classroom. Specifically, this project examines what happens to the "contact zone" (Pratt 1991; Bizzell 1994) of first-year composition when we introduce digital…

Blackburn, Jessica B.

2010-01-01

322

Dance Education Matters: Rebuilding Postsecondary Dance Education for Twenty-First Century Relevance and Resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postsecondary dance education is at a crucial juncture in its history in academe. Emerging from women's physical education programs in the 1930s, the profession's realignment with the arts broadly and arts-based education specifically has been characterized by ambitious goals and steady growth through the 1990s. However, a number of critical developments over the past decade have displaced many previous gains

Doug Risner

2010-01-01

323

Music education in the twenty-first century: a psychological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from Hargreaves' (1986a) review of the relationship between developmental psychology and music education, we characterise the mid-1980s as a point at which the different main strands of music psychology - cognitive, developmental, and social - began to unfold. We move to the present day and beyond, suggesting that a major change has been the incorporation of a social perspective:

David J. Hargreaves; Nigel A. Marshall; Adrian C. North

2003-01-01

324

Reforming Chinese Characters in the PRC and Japan: New Directions in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a comparative evaluation of Chinese character reform in the People's Republic of China and Japan, with a particular focus on the latest changes announced in 2009 to the existing script policies in the two countries. The first Chinese script reform took place in 1956 and the first Japanese script reform in 1946, both for the…

Premaratne, Dilhara D.

2012-01-01

325

Worldwide Test Reviewing at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article sets the stage for the description of a variety of approaches to test reviewing worldwide. It describes the importance of test reviewing as a protection of the public and of society and also the benefits of this activity for test users, who must choose measures to use in particular situations with particular clients at a particular…

Geisinger, Kurt F.

2012-01-01

326

76 FR 14856 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...important service; for instance, CBS, Fox, PBS, TCM, and TNT all provide description...description rules, these are ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC. 47 CFR 79.3(b)(1...Specifically, affiliates of ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC that are located in the 25...

2011-03-18

327

76 FR 55585 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8\\ See infra para. 14 (ESPN and Fox News exempted); see also CVAA at Title...NPRM, supra note 2, at para. 4. CBS, Fox, and TNT, for instance, all provide description...2000 rules, which designated ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC affiliates, licensed to the...

2011-09-08

328

Toward a Sociology of Environmental Flows: A New Agenda for Twenty-First-Century Environmental Sociology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging sociology of networks and flows, as it can be found in the works of Castells and Urry among others, offers promising perspectives for environmental sociology in rethinking its principle object of study: nature and environment. The sociology of flow perspective takes us beyond the nation-state, helps us to rethink global dynamics, puts an emphasis on the `material dimension¿

A. P. J. Mol; G. Spaargaren

2006-01-01

329

The Community College in the Twenty-First Century. A Systems Approach;.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The thesis of the book is that the problems community colleges face were inherent from the beginning and became more prominent because the particular vantage points from which the schools were viewed prohibited the taking of any action on the problems. Chapter one presents a portrait of what the colleges have become, establishing the governing…

Cain, Michael Scott

330

Becoming a head teacher: the perspectives of new head teachers in twenty?first?century England  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National College for School Leadership in England commissioned an evaluation and impact study of their new programme for recently appointed head teachers, the Headteacher Induction Programme (HIP). The early stages of this research study sought to elicit from new head teachers who were starting on the programme their own views of their needs and priorities. This paper draws from

Chris Holligan; Ian Menter; Merryn Hutchings; Maggie Walker

2006-01-01

331

Technology and Ethical/Moral Dilemmas of Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to plan a relevant, professional development conference for the faculty of a small, private, suburban college in upstate, New York. The Provost and Senior Vice-President led a college-wide committee of faculty, administrators, and staff in a survey method to discover the priorities of the faculty, in further…

Clark, Lisa D.

2012-01-01

332

Ceremony Earth: Digitizing Silko's Novel for Students of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students the author has taught get frustrated when they read Leslie Silko's canonical Native American novel, "Ceremony". Not only do they struggle with Silko's disruptions of linear temporality and her collapsing of binary oppositions, but they also struggle with the novel's geographic and cultural location. To help students better understand…

Mott, Rick

2011-01-01

333

The Human Flesh Search Engine: Democracy, Censorship, and Political Participation in Twenty-First Century China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Human Flesh Search Engine is a recent, unique phenomenon on the Chinese internet. Comprising of thousands of forum, micro-blog, and entertainment websites and mobilizing the overwhelming number of Chinese internet users, or netizens, the search engine is able to quickly find obscure information and identify seemingly anonymous internet personalities. These websites allow netizens to have their voices heard in

Vincent Capone

2012-01-01

334

The Changing Water Paradigm: A Look at Twenty-first Century Water Resources Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security (the Pacific Institute) has recently posted several new publications on their Website. This resource, written by Peter Gleick and originally published in Water International [(25)1:127-138, 2000], examines the current shifts in water resource management (.pdf format).

335

Unruly Bodies: The Rhetorical Domestication of Twenty-First-Century Veterans of War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Veterans of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with visually identifiable injuries possess "unruly" bodies that render the story of war in efficient, emotional terms. The injured veteran's explicit connection of war with injury motivates state and mainstream news discourse that domesticates veterans' bodies, managing representations of injured veterans…

Achter, Paul

2010-01-01

336

Engaging the Creative Arts to Meet the Needs of Twenty-First-Century Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As we navigate through a new form of economic era where science, technology, knowledge and services will replace consumer goods as drivers of growth, and the workplace will increasingly value creative abilities, there appears a need for an educational paradigm shift. However, within an Australian context of increasing school accountability, a…

Scholes, Laura; Nagel, Michael C.

2012-01-01

337

Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duplex design by Bock and Mislevy for school-based testing is revisited and evaluated as a potential platform in test-based accountability assessments today. We conclude that the model could be useful in meeting the many competing demands of today's test-based accountability assessments, although many research questions will need to be answered in future studies. The term theory of accountability refers

Isaac I. Bejar; E. Aurora Graf

2010-01-01

338

Global response of glacier runoff to twenty-first century climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

hydrology of many important river systems in the world is influenced by the presence of glaciers in their upper reaches. We assess the global-scale response of glacier runoff to climate change, where glacier runoff is defined as all melt and rain water that runs off the glacierized area without refreezing. With an elevation-dependent glacier mass balance model, we project monthly glacier runoff for all mountain glaciers and ice caps outside Antarctica until 2100 using temperature and precipitation scenarios from 14 global climate models. We aggregate results for 18 glacierized regions. Despite continuous glacier net mass loss in all regions, trends in annual glacier runoff differ significantly among regions depending on the balance between increased glacier melt and reduction in glacier storage as glaciers shrink. While most regions show significant negative runoff trends, some regions exhibit steady increases in runoff (Canadian and Russian Arctic), or increases followed by decreases (Svalbard and Iceland). Annual glacier runoff is dominated by melt in most regions, but rain is a major contributor in the monsoon-affected regions of Asia and maritime regions such as New Zealand and Iceland. Annual net glacier mass loss dominates total glacier melt especially in some high-latitude regions, while seasonal melt is dominant in wetter climate regimes. Our results highlight the variety of glacier runoff responses to climate change and the need to include glacier net mass loss in assessments of future hydrological change.

Bliss, Andrew; Hock, Regine; Radi?, Valentina

2014-04-01

339

Bacteriophages as twenty-first century antibacterial tools for food and medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasing source of concern in all environments in which these drugs have been used.\\u000a More stringent regulations have led to a slow but sure decrease in antibiotic use in the food industry worldwide, but have\\u000a also stimulated the search for alternative antibacterial agents. In medicine, the number of people infected with pan-resistant\\u000a bacteria is driving research

Damien Maura; Laurent Debarbieux

2011-01-01

340

Implications of global climate change for snowmelt hydrology in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most of the global land area poleward of about 40° latitude, snow plays an important role in the water cycle. The (seasonal) timing of runoff in these areas is especially sensitive to projected losses of snowpack associated with warming trends, whereas projected (annual) runoff volume changes are primarily associated with precipitation changes, and to a lesser extent, with changes

Jennifer C. Adam; Alan F. Hamlet; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

2009-01-01

341

Dance Education Matters: Rebuilding Postsecondary Dance Education for Twenty-First Century Relevance and Resonance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postsecondary dance education is at a crucial juncture in its history in academe. Emerging from women's physical education programs in the 1930s, the profession's realignment with the arts broadly and arts-based education specifically has been characterized by ambitious goals and steady growth through the 1990s. However, a number of critical…

Risner, Doug

2010-01-01

342

The Retirement Life Course in America at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the baby boom cohorts expand the number of U.S. retirees, population estimates of the employment, withdrawal and reentry\\u000a behaviors of older Americans’ remain scarce. How long do people work? How frequently is retirement reversed? How many years\\u000a are people retired? What is the modal age of retirement? And, how do the patterns for women compare to those for men?

David F. WarnerMark; Mark D. Hayward; Melissa A. Hardy

2010-01-01

343

Athena, Hercules and Nausica: Three dimensions of chemical engineering in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the material and economic needs of mankind, the task of chemical engineers is not only to advance knowledge (Athena) for new or better chemical technology, but also to apply that knowledge to new or better products and processes (Hercules). Toward those ends, some useful tools are provided by classical and statistical thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, molecular simulations and, perhaps most

John M. Prausnitz

2007-01-01

344

Deforestation driven by urban population growth and agricultural trade in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing atmospheric carbon emissions from tropical deforestation is at present considered a cost-effective option for mitigating climate change. However, the forces associated with tropical forest loss are uncertain. Here we use satellite-based estimates of forest loss for 2000 to 2005 (ref. 2) to assess economic, agricultural and demographic correlates across 41 countries in the humid tropics. Two methods of analysis-linear

Ruth S. Defries; Thomas Rudel; Maria Uriarte; Matthew Hansen

2010-01-01

345

Twenty-first-century Russian actor training: Active Analysis in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actor training in Europe, Russia and the US is still dominated by the many branches of the Stanislavskian ‘family tree’. But how has this tradition evolved in Moscow and what fresh insights does it have to offer? Written from the perspective of a practitioner, this paper interrogates two strands of Russian actor training in the Stanislavskian tradition. The first section

David Jackson

2011-01-01

346

[Critical issue in the twenty-first century: a composite crisis around population].  

PubMed

The author examines global population trends and their consequences. He suggests that the population explosion has led to a deterioration of the global environment, a decline in the availability of adequate food supplies, and a general collapse of peace and public order. The need for a global population plan to help solve the crises that will inevitably occur over the next 30 years is stressed. PMID:12292236

Kuroda, T

1996-05-01

347

The Two Major Epidemics of the Twenty-First Century: Obesity and Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a well-known fact that severe obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease,\\u000a hypertension, and other diseases. Epidemiological studies have suggested that obesity is also associated with increased risk\\u000a of several cancer types. The number of people who are suffering from severe obesity is growing, and clinical data suggest\\u000a that severely obese patients belong

Orit Kaidar-Person; Gil Bar-Sela; Benjamin Person

348

Twenty-First Century Skills and School Programs: Implementation at a Suburban Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under-utilization of human potential coupled with the need to maintain alignment with the demands imposed by globalization (e.g. sustainable development, citizenship, self-actualization, ability to respond to the emergence of cutting-edge technologies) have led to calls for policy and practice reorientations in the field of education. In response,…

Uduigwome, George Esele

2012-01-01

349

Scholarship in Psychology: A Paradigm for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a five-part definition of scholarship in psychology. Includes original research (creation of knowledge), integration of knowledge (synthesis and reorganization), application of knowledge, the scholarship of pedagogy; and the scholarship of teaching in psychology. Contains 10 references. (MMU)

Halpern, Diane F.; Smothergill, Daniel W.; Allen, Mary; Baker, Suzanne; Baum, Cynthia; Best, Deborah; Ferrari, Joseph; Gersinger, Kurt F.; Gilden, Eugene R.; Hester, Maureen; Keith-Spiegel, Patricia; Kierniesky, Nicholas C.; McGovern, Thomas V.; McKeachie, Wilbert J.; Prokasy, William F.; Szuchman, Lenore T.; Vasta, Ross; Weaver, Kenneth A.

1998-01-01

350

Beyond Technology for Technology's Sake: Advancing Multiliteracies in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to emerging technologies from Web 2.0 to podcasting, the nature of literacy is changing. Teachers who apply these technologies in their classrooms do more than motivate students with the latest cool tool; they prepare students with multiliteracies and for the realities of the technological world. Therefore, teachers must go beyond implementing…

Borsheim, Carlin; Merritt, Kelly; Reed, Dawn

2008-01-01

351

"Made in Germany": The Politics of Teaching German Popular Culture in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In North American universities, pop culture increasingly appears in the German Studies classroom to "spice up" the curriculum. But what is conveyed and taught and how is it inserted into the curriculum and into the US cultural context? This article explores three examples of popular culture in the German Studies classroom: representations of the…

Kahnke, Corinna; Stehle, Maria

2011-01-01

352

A library for the fifteenth through the twenty-first centuries.  

PubMed Central

The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), began developing a program for a new library in 1977, started the design in 1985, began construction in 1988, and opened the library in September 1990. The primary objectives were to design and build a facility that would house print collections under optimal conditions, allow for ten years' growth, be flexible enough to permit future reconfiguration, support present and future technologies, and provide beautiful spaces in which to study. The planning process is summarized, planning concepts are outlined, and considerations for the electronic library are briefly reviewed. Images PMID:2039900

Cooper, R S

1991-01-01

353

Twenty First Century Cyberbullying Defined: An Analysis of Intent, Repetition and Emotional Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent and impact that cyberbullying has on the undergraduate college student and provide a current definition for the event. A priori power analysis guided this research to provide an 80 percent probability of detecting a real effect with medium effect size. Adequate research power was essential to…

Walker, Carol Marie

2012-01-01

354

Thinking for the future: global corporate responsibility in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reflects on the kinds of responsibility businesses today must exercise in order to be part of the solution to the problems of a globalising world. These problems are to a large extent rooted in the dynamics of a globalization that is driven by business objectives and operations. They are brought to the fore of global consciousness by civil

Jane Collier; Lilian Wanderley

2005-01-01

355

Spinning Straw into Gold: A Community College Library's Twenty First Century Transformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a library renovation project in a community college that involved using existing space and reorganizing it to support the way students learn both individually and collaboratively. The article also looks at the importance of the academic library as place.

McKay, Devin

2011-01-01

356

Biological weapons and bioterrorism in the first years of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates four recent developments in biological-weapons politics and bioterrorism. First is American opposition to finalization of a verification protocol for the Biological Weapons Convention; second, a successful attempt at mass-casualty terrorism; third, an ongoing investigation into the bioterrorist capabilities of the al Qaeda network; and, fourth, a series of fatal anthrax attacks in the United States. The first of these evaluations is informed by interviews conducted between 2000 and 2002 with policy principals in the United States and elsewhere. PMID:16859345

Leitenberg, Milton

2002-09-01

357

Global capitalism and twenty-first century fascism: a UC case study  

E-print Network

Davos WEF 2011: wealth inequality is the “Most seriousdavos/8283310/Davos-WEF-2011-Wealth- inequality-is-the-most-inequalities fuelled the chronic problem of over-accumulation. The concentration of the planet’s wealth

Robinson, William I; Barrera, Mario

2012-01-01

358

Disintegration and ReIntegration: Logistics of the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional hierarchical model of command and control that served through the U.S. Industrial Revolution has undergone significant change in the past decade. Part of the changes have been prompted by global alliances of business partners. Other changes are the result of new enabling information technology that dramatically alters the role of information in the corporation. Still other changes are

Bernard J. La Londe; Richard F. Powers

1993-01-01

359

Simone's funeral: Egyptian lives, Jewish deaths in twenty-first-century Cairo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August of 2006, the Jewish community of Cairo, Egypt buried one of its own in the ancient cemetery of Bassatine. Without enough Jews still alive to perform the prescribed rites, the resulting funeral mirrored both the life and death of the Jewish community itself. In thinking about the interplay between historical research and personal experience, this essay details the

Shane Minkin

2012-01-01

360

Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario  

PubMed Central

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH4, and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this reduction of non-CO2 GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties. PMID:10944197

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar

2000-01-01

361

Intergenerational Practice: Mentoring and Social Capital for Twenty-First Century Communities of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aiming to elucidate the relationship between social capital and intergenerational practice within mentoring, this article presents data from a case study of the School Volunteer Program in Western Australia. Drawing on situated learning theory and the concept of community of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998; Wenger, McDermott, & Snyder,…

Cumming-Potvin, Wendy Marie; MacCallum, Judith

2010-01-01

362

Responsibility and Composition's Future in the Twenty-First Century: Reframing "Accountability"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Accountability" is widely used in discussions about what should be happening in school, but it is not an appropriate guiding concept for assessments designed to improve teaching and learning. This article examines discussions about assessment for internal and external purposes; it then outlines an alternative frame for assessment that has…

Adler-Kassner, Linda; Harrington, Susanmarie

2010-01-01

363

Creative brainstorming and integrative thinking: skills for twenty-first century managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce examples and methods of incorporating creative brainstorming and integrative thinking skills into training programs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper discusses an innovative training program as a case study to demonstrate the application of creative brainstorming and thinking skills into the design of the program. Findings – Interdisciplinary thinking, engagement, flexibility, individual

Fahri Karakas; Mustafa Kavas

2008-01-01

364

From Scans to Sutures: Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-assisted surgery is the process of using medical images, such as CT scans, X-ray fluoroscopy, or 3D ultrasound, to improve patient care. A typical surgical procedure begins by acquiring and processing a CT scan with specially developed image-analysis software. A surgeon then performs a \\

R. E. Ellis

2005-01-01

365

Promoting the Health of Adolescents: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three parts of this book, "The Adolescent, Health, and Society,""Topical Areas for Promoting Health," and "The Future of Adolescent Health Promotion: Next Steps," offer a new framework for examining the status of adolescent health in the United States. Contributing authors have provided the following chapters: (1) "Adolescent Health Promotion:…

Millstein, Susan G., Ed.; And Others

366

Aging Population in the Twenty-First Century. Statistics for Health Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Panel on Statistics for an Aging Population was established in September 1984 under the aegis of the Committee on National Statistics and within the National Research Council to study the adequacy of current statistical information and methodology, pa...

D. M. Gilford

1988-01-01

367

SUSTAINABLE OCEAN SYSTEMS During the twenty-first century, issues concerned with environmental and energy sustainability  

E-print Network

a central role in global climate change, and predicting the responses of marine ecosystems to climate change and Technology (MOST) Program, and we can begin enrolling students as early as next summer. This opportunity and new deans in CALS and the Engineering College, this may be a unique time in Cornell's history to make

Angenent, Lars T.

368

Transatlantic Recognition Issues: Seeking New Directions in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the US and European higher education systems have long histories of transatlantic cooperation, a tradition that it is important to preserve and enhance even in the context of increased competition and important systemic reforms in both North America and Europe. The Bologna Process has led to several systemic reforms in European higher…

Hunt, E. Stephen

2009-01-01

369

Online Business Education in the Twenty-First Century: An Analysis of Potential Target Markets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the potential for online business education. Highlights include a background of distance education for higher education; the interest of corporate America in distance education; and results of a survey of Internet users that focused on potential customers for online business education and considered demographics, service expectations,…

Evans, Joel R.; Haase, Ilene M.

2001-01-01

370

Nuclear weapons, proliferation, and terrorism: U.S. response in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

As the remaining superpower in the post-Cold War world, the US needs to re-evaluate its policy toward the growing threat to US national interests and the effects of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), specifically nuclear devices, and their use by terrorist groups against US interests abroad. As the world reacts to the implosion of the former Soviet Union, there are increased numbers of nations and possibly terrorist groups trying to become players in the international arena. This study describes the ease of obtaining the scientific knowledge, plans, and materials to enable a terrorist`s construction of a nuclear device. It also analyzes motivation of terrorist groups, concluding that a nuclear weapon, capable of inflicting violence in the extreme, fulfills the terrorist`s goal of violence in support of a political agenda or to inspire radical change. Given the guidance from the national level, this study proposes a series of policy options available to the NCA for application in an aggressive counterproliferation policy. Finally, the US must rapidly reorganize its counterproliferation structure and methods to streamline a more aggressive approach that is recognized and feared by potential nuclear terrorists; augment current political efforts with a clearly defined counterproliferation military mission and associated doctrine.

DeLawter, D.A.

1998-11-01

371

Teaching with Joy: Educational Practices for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This edited collection addresses the growing need for ideas and methods conducive to holistic educational practices and aims to encourage more personal growth in students too often distracted by the background noise of war, violence, racism, and environmental deterioration. The contributors are working teachers and professors who have integrated a…

Shelton-Colangelo, Sharon, Ed.; Mancuso, Carolina, Ed.; Duvall, Mimi, Ed.

2006-01-01

372

Contrasting patterns of early twenty-first-century glacier mass change in the Himalayas.  

PubMed

Glaciers are among the best indicators of terrestrial climate variability, contribute importantly to water resources in many mountainous regions and are a major contributor to global sea level rise. In the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya region (HKKH), a paucity of appropriate glacier data has prevented a comprehensive assessment of current regional mass balance. There is, however, indirect evidence of a complex pattern of glacial responses in reaction to heterogeneous climate change signals. Here we use satellite laser altimetry and a global elevation model to show widespread glacier wastage in the eastern, central and south-western parts of the HKKH during 2003-08. Maximal regional thinning rates were 0.66?±?0.09 metres per year in the Jammu-Kashmir region. Conversely, in the Karakoram, glaciers thinned only slightly by a few centimetres per year. Contrary to expectations, regionally averaged thinning rates under debris-mantled ice were similar to those of clean ice despite insulation by debris covers. The 2003-08 specific mass balance for our entire HKKH study region was -0.21?±?0.05?m?yr(-1) water equivalent, significantly less negative than the estimated global average for glaciers and ice caps. This difference is mainly an effect of the balanced glacier mass budget in the Karakoram. The HKKH sea level contribution amounts to one per cent of the present-day sea level rise. Our 2003-08 mass budget of -12.8?±?3.5 gigatonnes (Gt) per year is more negative than recent satellite-gravimetry-based estimates of -5?±?3?Gt?yr(-1) over 2003-10 (ref. 12). For the mountain catchments of the Indus and Ganges basins, the glacier imbalance contributed about 3.5% and about 2.0%, respectively, to the annual average river discharge, and up to 10% for the Upper Indus basin. PMID:22914167

Kääb, Andreas; Berthier, Etienne; Nuth, Christopher; Gardelle, Julie; Arnaud, Yves

2012-08-23

373

Globalizing the Community College: Strategies for Change in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses the effects of globalization on community colleges, and the organizational responses to globalization. The author looks at seven community colleges that have undergone organizational change in response to globalization. For each college, he examines the effects of globalization in three areas: the economic domain, the cultural…

Levin, John S.

374

Hispanic fertility, immigration, and race in the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

In this paper we systematically describe the connection between immigration and fertility in light of the increasing nativist reaction to Hispanic groups. We follow a life-course perspective to directly link migration and fertility transitions. The analysis combines original qualitative and quantitative data collected in Durham/Chapel Hill, NC as well as national level information from the Current Population Survey. The qualitative data provides a person-centered approach to the connection between migration and fertility that we then extend in quantitative analyses. Results demonstrate that standard demographic measures that treat migration and fertility as separate processes considerably distort the childbearing experience of immigrant women, inflating fertility estimates for Hispanics as a whole. Once this connection is taken into consideration the fertility levels of Hispanic women are much lower than those reported with standard measures and the fertility-specific contribution of Hispanics to U.S. population growth is much reduced. PMID:23066430

Parrado, Emilio A.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

2012-01-01

375

Graduate education in clinical psychology for the twenty-first century: educating psychological health care providers.  

PubMed

This comment focuses on a topic that is implied but not explicated in C.R. Snyder and T.R. Elliott's article (this issue, PP. 1033-1054): The biopsychosocial model. I begin by discussing the status of health care, taking up in turn its tremendous problems and the negative effects of a system built on mind-body dualism. I argue for a transformation of the biomedical system to a biopsychosocial system. I then discuss the opportunities for psychology and the implications for training. PMID:15965917

Levant, Ronald F

2005-09-01

376

Toward the Twenty-first Century: Air Command and Staff College Curriculum from Theory to Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responding to a perceived need resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union, the dismantling of the Berlin Wall, and the end of the Cold War, the Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) at Maxwell Air Force Base (Alabama) revised its curriculum. Data for the descriptive study were gathered through interviews of the leadership of the school and…

Butler, Stephen L.

377

Twenty-First Century Vocational Education in the United Kingdom: What Would Dickens Think?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines the reasons why the United Kingdom's approach to vocational education is more confused and impoverished than ever, despite its central importance to contemporary society. Instead of celebrating skill and vocational knowledge, the United Kingdom has embroiled itself in tortuous debates about parity of esteem, while…

Unwin, Lorna

2004-01-01

378

The New Face of Genetics: Creating A Multimedia Educational Tool for the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study of certain genetic conditions, it is important to understand the specific "dysmorphology" associated with them. This describes the unique anatomical manifestations of the genetic condition. Traditionally, students learn about dysmorphology by reading text descriptions or looking at photographs of affected individuals. The New Face of Genetics is a film project that aims to teach students dysmorphology by featuring people who have specific genetic conditions. The goal is to enhance students' understanding of these conditions as well as to impart the humanity and beauty of the people who appear in the film. Students will have the opportunity to see dysmorphic features on the animated human form as well as meet individuals who are living with genetic difference. The target audience includes genetic counseling students and other medical professionals. Three short films were made in this format to demonstrate how this type of educational tool can be made. The featured conditions were Marfan syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome and Joubert syndrome. Future work will be carried out by other genetic counseling students who will make additional films based on our templates. A compendium of approximately 20 films will be eventually completed and released to genetic counseling programs and medical schools.

Fan, Audrey

379

Developing Media Literacy in Cyberspace: Pedagogy and Critical Learning for the Twenty-First-Century Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By joining bodies of research in media theory, cultural studies, and critical pedagogy, this book offers a vision of learning that values social empowerment over technical skills. An inquiry into the existence and range of models equipped to cultivate critical teaching and learning in the Internet-supported classroom, the book argues that media…

Frechette, Julie D.

380

Exhuming caliban : gothic and madness in late twentieth and twenty-first - century Caribbean literary fictions  

E-print Network

Night Women integrates Caribbean colonial madness and terrornight, once again, quasi–gothic conventions and features structure the supernatural possibility, horror, terrornight (69–71). Cliff’s applications of quasi–gothic conventions and features clearly structure the terror,

Escudero, Andrew Mario

2012-01-01

381

Micrographia of the twenty-first century: from camera obscura to 4D microscopy.  

PubMed

In this paper, the evolutionary and revolutionary developments of microscopic imaging are overviewed with a perspective on origins. From Alhazen's camera obscura, to Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek's two-dimensional optical micrography, and on to three- and four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy, these developments over a millennium have transformed humans' scope of visualization. The changes in the length and time scales involved are unimaginable, beginning with the visible shadows of candles at the centimetre and second scales, and ending with invisible atoms with space and time dimensions of sub-nanometre and femtosecond. With these advances it has become possible to determine the structures of matter and to observe their elementary dynamics as they unfold in real time. Such observations provide the means for visualizing materials behaviour and biological function, with the aim of understanding emergent phenomena in complex systems. PMID:20123754

Zewail, Ahmed H

2010-03-13

382

Democracy and Education in the Twenty-First Century: Deweyan Pragmatism and the Question of Racism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why is John Dewey still such an important philosopher today? Writing from the perspective of the Cologne Program of Interactive Constructivism, Stefan Neubert tries in what follows to give one possible answer to this question. Neubert notes that Cologne constructivism considers Dewey in many respects as one of the most important predecessors of…

Neubert, Stefan

2010-01-01

383

Media Literacy Pedagogy: Critical and New/Twenty-First-Century Literacies Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a conceptualization of media literacy pedagogy in light of National Education Technology Plan efforts, which name teaching as one of five essential areas to build an education system that can increase as well as sustain the United States' economic growth and prosperity in the global economy. In particular, two distinct…

Westbrook, Nalova

2011-01-01

384

Globalisation and Societal Culture: Redefining Schooling and School Leadership in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concept of globalization and explores the relationship between globalization and societal culture. States the transfer between systems must be more culturally sensitive. Offers a list of cultural dimensions to gauge the influence of cultures. Argues that greater cultural sensitivity is necessary when raising issues on school reform…

Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

2000-01-01

385

Health literacy: an essential skill for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of low health literacy and identify how this can have detrimental effects on citizens and their health. It looks at the current overload of information about health in today's society, how that leaves many confused and unsure of the correct advice to follow, and how governments and other

Ilona Kickbusch

2008-01-01

386

Noah and the spaceship: evolution for twenty-first century christians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution has increasingly become a topic of conflict between scientists and Christians, but Alexandre Meinesz’s recent book\\u000a How\\u000a Life\\u000a Began aims to provide a reconciliation between the two. Here I review his somewhat unorthodox perspective on major transitions,\\u000a alien origins and the meaning of life, with a critical focus on his account of the generation of multicellularity.

Ellen Clarke; Daniel Simberloff

2009-01-01

387

Innovating Science Policy: Restructuring S&T Policy for the Twenty-first Century super1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the next twenty years, accelerating scientific and technical developments will spawn immense changes to society that can be both crucially beneficial and tragically destructive. This trend, principally occurring outside of government control, is both helping the United States to improve defense and economic security and producing threats to national security. To deal with these increasingly technical issues, the nation's

James J. Richardson; Whitney B. Matson; Robert J. Peters

2004-01-01

388

The Fourth Amendment in the Twenty-First Century: Technology, Privacy, and Human Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police and local political officials in Tampa FL argued that the FaceIt system promotes safety, but privacy advocates objected to the city's recording or utilizing facial images without the victims' consent, some staging protests against the FaceIt system. Privacy objects seem to be far more widely shared than this small protest might suggest.

Andrew E. Taslitz

2002-01-01

389

Accessing Canadian Federal Information: A Depository Program for the Twenty-First Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the current status and future of Canada's Depository Service Program (DSP) for government information. The first section discusses the depository model, including changes due to information technology and decentralization of government authority. Access and preservation are addressed in the second section, including the…

Gnassi, Bruno

390

Perceptions on Appropriate Geography Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century Nigerian Citizen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the historical dimensions of school geography in Nigeria. Current reform suggestions include replacing geography education's theoretical orientation with more fieldwork and laboratory experience. Professional organizations could promote public awareness and increased funding. (MJP)

Okpala, Julie

1996-01-01

391

Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

Not Available

1992-12-31

392

CILIP: a twenty-first century association for the information profession?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role, purpose and effectiveness of CILIP in the UK. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper provides a review of key issues in relation to the library and information profession in the UK based on available documentary evidence. Findings – The paper establishes an evaluative framework for assessing the concept of professionalism,

Judith Broady-Preston

2006-01-01

393

Impacts of thermohaline circulation shutdown in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss climate impacts of a hypothetical shutdown of the thermohaline circulation (‘THC’) in the 2050s, using the climate\\u000a model HadCM3. Previous studies have generally focussed on the effects on pre-industrial climate. Here we take into account\\u000a increased greenhouse gas concentrations according to an IS92a emissions scenario. THC shutdown causes cooling of the Northern\\u000a Hemisphere of -1.7?C, locally stronger. Over

Michael Vellinga; Richard A. Wood

2008-01-01

394

Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

Humans have hunted wildlife in Central Africa for millennia. Today, however, many species are being rapidly extirpated and sanctuaries for wildlife are dwindling. Almost all Central Africa's forests are now accessible to hunters. Drastic declines of large mammals have been caused in the past 20 years by the commercial trade for meat or ivory. We review a growing body of empirical data which shows that trophic webs are significantly disrupted in the region, with knock-on effects for other ecological functions, including seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Plausible scenarios for land-use change indicate that increasing extraction pressure on Central African forests is likely to usher in new worker populations and to intensify the hunting impacts and trophic cascade disruption already in progress, unless serious efforts are made for hunting regulation. The profound ecological changes initiated by hunting will not mitigate and may even exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change for the region. We hypothesize that, in the near future, the trophic changes brought about by hunting will have a larger and more rapid impact on Central African rainforest structure and function than the direct impacts of climate change on the vegetation. Immediate hunting regulation is vital for the survival of the Central African rainforest ecosystem. PMID:23878333

Abernethy, K. A.; Coad, L.; Taylor, G.; Lee, M. E.; Maisels, F.

2013-01-01

395

Alienation from work: Marxist ideologies and twenty-first-century practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper responds to calls for research that takes into consideration the broader ideologies underpinning the employment relationship within capitalist societies by building and testing a model of work alienation. We examine how three work-related factors identified originally by Karl Marx act as precursors of alienation, that is, a disconnection of oneself from work, that are experienced in the modern

Amanda Shantz; Kerstin Alfes; Catherine Truss

2012-01-01

396

A new energy security paradigm for the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers apossible energy future in which the impacts of climate change have been realized far earlier than most experts have previously expected. This has promoted a transition to cleaner energy technologies long before the depletion of fossil fuel resources. In this scenario, the peak in demand for fossil fuels occurs before the peak in supply and some nations are strongly promoting the development and deployment of clean energy technologies. In this scenario the countries of the world would fall into one of the three categories: (1) those willing and readily able to adjust in response to rapid and serious climate change, (2) those willing to adjust, but facing significant economic hardship without external assistance and protection, (3) and those unwilling and, perhaps unable to play a part in combating climate change. This paper considers how countries in the first two categories could respond by adjusting their foreign, trade and even military policies. Within a generation, the great powers might find themselves shifting from keeping trade routes open to constraining the same trade. Severe climate change impacts could even approach the timescale of technological innovation needed to respond to this crisis. This paper proposes that our world may need new military and foreign policy options as well as new energy technology options in the years to come.

Nuttall, W.J.; Manz, D.L. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Judge Business School

2008-10-15

397

The age of extremes: Concentrated affluence and poverty in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization, rising income inequality, and increasing class segregation have produced a geographic concentration of affluence\\u000a and poverty throughout the world, creating a radical change in the geographic basis of human society. As the density of poverty\\u000a rises in the environment of the world’s poor, so will their exposure to crime, disease, violence. and family disruption. Meanwhile\\u000a the spatial concentration of

Douglas S. Massey

1996-01-01

398

Ericksonian Approaches to Counseling: Toward an Assimilated Paradigm of Practice for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces rationale for integrating Ericksonian therapy, an approach that is congruent with current practice demands of accountability, efficiency, and efficacy, into mental health counseling. Presents framework for including such interventions as multilevel communication, reframing resistance, and use of flow and transformation of perceptions.…

Jenkins, Todd D.; Forrest, Alan W.

1999-01-01

399

New Directions: Federal Education Policy in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributors to this collection examine how today's federal education programs work and show how, instead of working for school improvement, these programs have begun to function as obstacles to the efforts of reform-minded states and schools. The following essays are included: (1) "Overview: Thirty-Four Years of Dashed Hopes" (Chester E. Finn,…

Kanstoroom, Marci, Ed.; Finn, Chester E., Jr., Ed.

400

Training in the Twenty-First Century: Where Do We Go from Here?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven trends are emerging in the corporate training and development sector of human resource development (HRD). First, there is an increasing corporate commitment for training. Employers are viewing training today as an essential element in their competitive business strategies. Second, customer service training is becoming the competitive weapon…

Spikes, W. Franklin, III

401

Global Warming in the Twenty-First Century: An Alternative Scenario  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH4, and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this reduction of non-CO2 GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties.

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar; Travis, Larry (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

402

Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario  

E-print Network

gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH4, and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2-CO2 GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic

403

Global Warming in the Twenty-First Century: An Alternative Scenario.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH4, and N2O, not by the products ...

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, V. Oinas

2000-01-01

404

Teaching World History in the Twenty-First Century: A Resource Book  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practical handbook is designed to help anyone who is preparing to teach a world history course--or wants to teach it better. It opens with Peter Stearns's essay "Where Did World History Come From?" and closes with Jerry Bentley's annotated bibliographic guide to the essential content knowledge for teaching world history. In between,…

Roupp, Heidi, Ed.

2009-01-01

405

Indigenizing the Future: Why We Must Think Spatially in the Twenty-first Century  

E-print Network

to refer to mountains, plants, animals, rivers, and so forth, as our teachers or elders—it is realism. Three decades ago Deloria was keeping indigenous tradi tions of leadership alive when he implored readers to pay attention to the "pecu liar genius... of each continent—each river valley, the rugged mountains, the placid lakes," not merely to examine the obvious environmental problems, but more important, to find solutions.16 A big-picture indigenous realism suggests "wis dom" does indeed "sit...

Wildcat, Daniel R.

2006-03-01

406

Native American Demographic and Tribal Survival into the Twenty-first Century  

E-print Network

primary catego ries of Canadian Indians: (1) registered (status) Indians, i.e., those registered under the Act; and (2) non-registered (non-status) Indians, i.e., those who were either never registered under the Act or who gave up their registration... in North America north of Mexico; or, around 5 million if racially-mixed Native Americans in the 2000 U.S. Census are included and around 5.5 million if an additional 345,000 Canadians with some aboriginal ancestry are added (see U.S. Bureau...

Thornton, Russell

2006-03-01

407

Work Motivation Theory and Research at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract In the first Annual Review of Psychology chapter since 1977 devoted exclusively to work motivation, we examine progress made in theory and research on needs, traits, values, cognition, and affect as well as three bodies of literature dealing with the context of motivation: national culture, job design, and models of person-environment fit. We focus primarily on work reported

Gary P. Latham; Craig C. Pinder

2005-01-01

408

Registers, Schools and Scales: Comments on Language and Identity in Twenty-First Century Catalonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monolingual speakers of a national language continue to be the ideal figures on which national identities and senses of community are built. Yet this longstanding equation between nation and language is being contested by other ideologies. Alternatives are emerging from such disparate social locations as the European Union, now advocating for…

Gal, Susan

2013-01-01

409

Vocational Training Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discussing vocational education begins with a brief historical overview highlighting the need for close links between vocational training and employment. The history of vocational training is described in traditional societies, industrial companies, the period following World War II, and the recent economic and cultural crisis of…

Pair, Claude

410

How to Understand the Gene in the Twenty-First Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely acknowledged in the literature on philosophy of biology and, more recently, among biologists themselves that the gene concept is currently in crisis. This crisis concerns the so-called "classical molecular concept", according to which a gene is a DNA segment encoding one functional product, which can be either a RNA molecule or a…

Meyer, Lia Midori Nascimento; Bomfim, Gilberto Cafezeiro; El-Hani, Charbel Nino

2013-01-01

411

Sustaining engineering codes of ethics for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

How much responsibility ought a professional engineer to have with regard to supporting basic principles of sustainable development? While within the United States, professional engineering societies, as reflected in their codes of ethics, differ in their responses to this question, none of these professional societies has yet to put the engineer's responsibility toward sustainability on a par with commitments to public safety, health, and welfare. In this paper, we aim to suggest that sustainability should be included in the paramountcy clause because it is a necessary condition to ensure the safety, health, and welfare of the public. Part of our justification rests on the fact that to engineer sustainably means among many things to consider social justice, understood as the fair and equitable distribution of social goods, as a design constraint similar to technical, economic, and environmental constraints. This element of social justice is not explicit in the current paramountcy clause. Our argument rests on demonstrating that social justice in terms of both inter- and intra-generational equity is an important dimension of sustainability (and engineering). We also propose that embracing sustainability in the codes while recognizing the role that social justice plays may elevate the status of the engineer as public intellectual and agent of social good. This shift will then need to be incorporated in how we teach undergraduate engineering students about engineering ethics. PMID:21948241

Michelfelder, Diane; Jones, Sharon A

2013-03-01

412

Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews recent literature concerning a wide range of processes through which climate change could potentially impact global-scale agricultural productivity, and presents projections of changes in relevant meteorological, hydrological and plant physiological quantities from a climate model ensemble to illustrate key areas of uncertainty. Few global-scale assessments have been carried out, and these are limited in their ability to capture the uncertainty in climate projections, and omit potentially important aspects such as extreme events and changes in pests and diseases. There is a lack of clarity on how climate change impacts on drought are best quantified from an agricultural perspective, with different metrics giving very different impressions of future risk. The dependence of some regional agriculture on remote rainfall, snowmelt and glaciers adds to the complexity. Indirect impacts via sea-level rise, storms and diseases have not been quantified. Perhaps most seriously, there is high uncertainty in the extent to which the direct effects of CO2 rise on plant physiology will interact with climate change in affecting productivity. At present, the aggregate impacts of climate change on global-scale agricultural productivity cannot be reliably quantified. PMID:20713397

Gornall, Jemma; Betts, Richard; Burke, Eleanor; Clark, Robin; Camp, Joanne; Willett, Kate; Wiltshire, Andrew

2010-01-01

413

The Century-Long Challenge of Global Carbon Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time scale of the global carbon management is a century, not a decade and not a millennium. A century is the ratio of 1000 billion metric tons of carbon [Gt(C)] to 10 Gt(C)\\/yr. 1000 Gt(C) is the future emissions that will lead to approximately a doubling of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, 280 ppm, assuming the total net ocean

R. Socolow

2002-01-01

414

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: PARADIGMS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES  

EPA Science Inventory

In: Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges: Abstract Book: SETAC 21st Annual Meeting, 12-16 November 2000, Nashville, TN.. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL. Pp. p. 180. Bioavailability and rates...

415

The Social Practice of Learning: A Craft for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that the social practice of learning (SPL), involving life-long learning, meta-learning, deep reflection, and dialogue in a community, should be the distinguishing knowledge base of schools in the twenty-first century. This article also analyses the strategies and challenges of the recent education reforms in Singapore through…

Hung, David; Ng, Pak Tee; Koh, Thiam Seng; Lim, Seo Hong

2009-01-01

416

The Contribution of the National Laboratories in Meeting U.S. 21st Century Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Two pivotal National Academies reports, 'Making the Nation Safer and Rising Above the Gathering Storm, Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future (RAGS)', together with 'The National Quadrennial Defense Review, The Department of Defense Strategic R and D Plan', the report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the National Academy of Engineering's Grand Challenges delineate the major challenges we face as a nation in the 21st century. They assert that fundamental advances and a sustained effort in science, engineering, and technology are needed to address these challenges effectively. A partial listing of some 21st century challenges for which transformational R and D is needed is given.

Murray, C A

2008-08-12

417

Sustainable Water Systems for Agriculture and 21 Century Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability and pollution of freshwater water supplies will be the dominant issues for the global society in the 21 century. With increasing population and climate change scenarios, the demand for water will continue to increase for agriculture, especially irrigation, and other economic uses to meet food, fiber and energy-security needs of the society. At the same time, there is good

Ramesh Kanwar

2009-01-01

418

Early childhood education: Everyone's challenge for the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the 21st century the need for early childhood education will increase due to societal and family changes. The types of programs offered will be fewer but with more flexibility and collaboration. The goal will always remain the same, namely to prepare preschoolers for their formal education. The ideal curriculum should have a developmentally appropriate, hands?on, multisensory approach to learning

Marianne B. Power

1993-01-01

419

Challenges of Urban Education: Sociological Perspectives for the Next Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers in this collection discuss the challenges facing urban education and the sociology of urban education. The more comprehensive perspective presented in this document can contribute to the improvement of city schools and the empowerment of urban students. Following an introduction, "Challenges of the New Sociology of Urban Education"…

McClafferty, Karen A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.; Mitchell, Theodore R., Ed.

420

The Century-Long Challenge of Global Carbon Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time scale of the global carbon management is a century, not a decade and not a millennium. A century is the ratio of 1000 billion metric tons of carbon [Gt(C)] to 10 Gt(C)/yr. 1000 Gt(C) is the future emissions that will lead to approximately a doubling of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, 280 ppm, assuming the total net ocean plus terrestrial sink remains at half the strength of this source - since 2.1 Gt (C) = 1 ppm, and the concentration today is already 370 ppm. Doubling is the most widely used boundary between acceptable and unacceptable Greenhouse-related environmental disruption, or, in the language of the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the onset of "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." And 10 Gt(C)/yr is a conservative estimate of the average annual fossil-fuel carbon source over the century; it is now between 6 and 7 Gt(C). Conventional oil and gas are not sufficiently abundant to generate a serious Greenhouse problem on their own. Well before their cumulative carbon emissions reach 1000 Gt(C), both are expected to become non-competitive as a result of growing costs of access (costs related to resources being very deep underground, or below very deep water, or very remote, or very small.) But several times 1000 Gt(C) of coal resources will probably be competitive with non-fossil fuel alternatives, as will "unconventional" oil and gas resources, such as tar sands. The world will not be saved from a serious Greenhouse problem by fossil fuel depletion. There are four mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous interference with the climate system. Fossil fuels can cease to dominate the global energy system well before the end of the century, yielding large market share to some combination of renewable energy and nuclear (fission and fusion) energy sources. Fossil fuels can continue to dominate, but most of the carbon in the century's fossil fuels can be prevented from reaching the atmosphere (fossil-carbon sequestration). Carbon can be removed directly from the air by biological or chemical processes. Or the climate system can become so well understood that effective compensating actions can be implemented. If human beings implement none of these strategies, we will have chosen, in effect, to adapt to climate change. Not unlikely will be a mix of all four mitigation strategies plus adaptation. In recent years, as the intrinsic complexity and monumental scale of global carbon management has become better appreciated, new coalitions supportive of policies intended to mitigate climate change have emerged.

Socolow, R.

2002-05-01

421

African Higher Education: Challenges for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African higher education, at the beginning of the new millennium, faces unprecedented challenges. Not only is the demand for access unstoppable, especially in the context of Africa's traditionally low postsecondary attendance levels, but higher education is recognized as a key force for modernization and development. Africa's academic institutions…

Teferra, Damtew; Altbachl, Philip G.

2004-01-01

422

Biotechnology, Bioethics and Law: Europe's 21st Century Challenge &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in biotechnology make possible many things which even a few years ago would have seemed unimaginable. However, the steady advance of biotechnological innovation raises difficult questions for ethicists and regulators. In the thirty-fourth Chorley Lecture Noelle Lenoir analyses the European response to these challenges and calls upon European leaders to honour their commitment to human dignity and to give

Noëlle Lenoir

2006-01-01

423

Challenges in Building Digital Libraries for the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a decade of research and development, digital libraries are becoming operational systems and services. This paper summarizes\\u000a some of the challenges required for that transition. Digital libraries as systems are converging with digital libraries as\\u000a institutions, particularly as we consider the service aspects. They are enabling technologies for applications such as classroom\\u000a instruction, information retrieval, and electronic commerce. Because

Christine L. Borgman

2002-01-01

424

On the challenge of a century lifespan satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a review of the main issues affecting satellite survivability, including a discussion on the technologies to mitigate the risks and to enhance system reliability. The feasibility of a 100-year lifespan space mission is taken as the guiding thread for the discussion. Such a mission, defined with a few preliminary requirements, could be used to deliver messages to our descendants regardless of the on-ground contingencies. After the analysis of the main threats for long endurance in space, including radiation, debris and micrometeoroids, atmospheric drag and thermal environment, the available solutions are investigated. A trade-off study analyses orbital profiles from the point of view of radiation, thermal stability and decay rate, providing best locations to maximize lifespan. Special attention is also paid to on-board power, in terms of energy harvesting and accumulation, highlighting the limitations of current assets, i.e. solar panels and batteries, and revealing possible future solutions. Furthermore, the review includes electronics, non-volatile memories and communication elements, which need extra hardening against radiation and thermal cycling if extra-long endurance is required. As a result of the analysis, a century-lifetime mission is depicted by putting together all the reviewed concepts. The satellite, equipped with reliability enhanced elements and system-level solutions such as smart hibernation policies, could provide limited but still useful performance after a 100-year flight.

Gonzalo, Jesús; Domínguez, Diego; López, Deibi

2014-10-01

425

Biocurators and Biocuration: surveying the 21st century challenges  

PubMed Central

Curated databases are an integral part of the tool set that researchers use on a daily basis for their work. For most users, however, how databases are maintained, and by whom, is rather obscure. The International Society for Biocuration (ISB) represents biocurators, software engineers, developers and researchers with an interest in biocuration. Its goals include fostering communication between biocurators, promoting and describing their work, and highlighting the added value of biocuration to the world. The ISB recently conducted a survey of biocurators to better understand their educational and scientific backgrounds, their motivations for choosing a curatorial job and their career goals. The results are reported here. From the responses received, it is evident that biocuration is performed by highly trained scientists and perceived to be a stimulating career, offering both intellectual challenges and the satisfaction of performing work essential to the modern scientific community. It is also apparent that the ISB has at least a dual role to play to facilitate biocurators’ work: (i) to promote biocuration as a career within the greater scientific community; (ii) to aid the development of resources for biomedical research through promotion of nomenclature and data-sharing standards that will allow interconnection of biological databases and better exploit the pivotal contributions that biocurators are making. Database URL: http://biocurator.org PMID:22434828

Burge, Sarah; Attwood, Teresa K.; Bateman, Alex; Berardini, Tanya Z.; Cherry, Michael; O'Donovan, Claire; Xenarios, loannis; Gaudet, Pascale

2012-01-01

426

Cataract blindness--challenges for the 21st century.  

PubMed Central

Cataract prevalence increases with age. As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The challenges are to prevent or delay cataract formation, and treat that which does occur. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to cataract formation. However, reducing ocular exposure to UV-B radiation and stopping smoking are the only interventions that can reduce factors that affect the risk of cataract. The cure for cataract is surgery, but this is not equally available to all, and the surgery which is available does not produce equal outcomes. Readily available surgical services capable of delivering good vision rehabilitation must be acceptable and accessible to all in need, no matter what their circumstances. To establish and sustain these services requires comprehensive strategies that go beyond a narrow focus on surgical technique. There must be changes in government priorities, population education, and an integrated approach to surgical and management training. This approach must include supply of start-up capital equipment, establishment of surgical audit, resupply of consumables, and cost-recovery mechanisms. Considerable innovation is required. Nowhere is this more evident than in the pursuit of secure funding for ongoing services. PMID:11285671

Brian, G.; Taylor, H.

2001-01-01

427

Preparing Tomorrow's Scientists and Engineers for the Challenges of the 21st Century  

E-print Network

Preparing Tomorrow's Scientists and Engineers for the Challenges of the 21st Century Special. The main questions to be addressed are: How do we integrate research and education? What we, scientists Fradkov (IPME, Russian Academy of Sciences) Graham Goodwin (University of Newcastle) Vladimir Havlena

Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna

428

On Pliability and Progress: Challenging Current Conceptions of Eighteenth-Century French Educational Thought  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining the educational writings of three of the eighteenth-century's most innovative thinkers, the Abbe de Saint-Pierre, Morelly and Helvetius, this article challenges the currently accepted view that it was a belief in human pliability which gave rise to the contemporary groundbreaking faith in the power of education to improve society. The…

Gilead, Tal

2009-01-01

429

International Trends in Inclusive Education: The Continuing Challenge to Teach Each One and Everyone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusion began in the United States and Europe as a special education initiative on behalf of students with disabilities as early as the 1980s. Now, more than two decades later, schools in these countries are changing as educators, parents, politicians and communities try to prepare for the new challenges and promises of the twenty-first century.…

Ferguson, Dianne L.

2008-01-01

430

International trends in inclusive education: the continuing challenge to teach each one and everyone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion began in the United States and Europe as a special education initiative on behalf of students with disabilities as early as the 1980s. Now, more than two decades later, schools in these countries are changing as educators, parents, politicians and communities try to prepare for the new challenges and promises of the twenty?first century. Advances in technology, the global

Dianne L. Ferguson

2008-01-01

431

A "Dying Light" or a Newborn Enlightenment: Religion and Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laurence R. Veysey's The Emergence of the American University--one of the densely textured, lucidly written, always thoughtful accounts of the history of higher education?has been largely superseded, especially after the 1980s, in part by histories that unlike Veysey's, maintain close attention to religion, both during the period that he focused…

Schwehn, Mark

2005-01-01

432

Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015. Mission to Planet Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified program is outlined for studying the Earth, from its deep interior to its fluid envelopes. A system is proposed for measuring devices involving both space-based and in-situ observations that can accommodate simultaneously a large range of scientific needs. The scientific objectices served by this integrated infrastructure are cased into a framework of four grand themes. In summary these are: to determine the composition, structure, dynamics, and evolution of the Earth's crust and deeper interior; to establish and understand the structure, dynamics, and chemistry of the oceans, atmosphere, and cryosphere, and their interaction with the solid Earth; to characterize the history and dynamics of living organisms and their interaction with the environment; and to monitor and understand the interaction of human activities with the natural environment. A focus on these grand themes will help to understand the origin and fate of the planet, and to place it in the context of the solar system.

1988-01-01

433

Separate and Unequal: Twenty-First Century Segregation of Historically Black Colleges and Universities through Academic Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies discriminatory patterns within the curriculum of Historically Black Colleges and Universities. The current federal definition of Historically Black Colleges and Universities indicates that any institution founded prior to 1964, with the expressed purpose of educating Blacks, will be known as a Historically Black College or…

Satterfield, James

2008-01-01

434

Antes and Hoy DÍa: Plant knowledge and categorization as adaptations to life in Panama in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotanical studies often assume plant knowledge is shared by all members of an arbitrarily bounded human group. By describing\\u000a the uses and local categorization of plants in one village in rural Panama in a heteroglossic approach, the different knowledges\\u000a within a village are presented in one article. Plants used in the daily work of women and men, and the work

Nina K. MÜller-Schwarze; Nina K. Miiller-Schwarze

2006-01-01

435

Toward a Feminist Ballet Pedagogy: Teaching Strategies for Ballet Technique Classes in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classical ballet technique is commonly taught through the use of authoritarian practices and normalizing aesthetic values, but the construction of the ballet dancer as a docile subject in opposition to an all-knowing instructor might impede ballet's progression. In this article I explore my development of a feminist or democratic ballet…

Alterowitz, Gretchen

2014-01-01

436

Regional climate change experiments over southern South America. II: Climate change scenarios in the late twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analysis of climate change over southern South America as simulated by a regional climate model. The regional\\u000a model MM5 was nested within time-slice global atmospheric model experiments conducted by the HadAM3H model. The simulations\\u000a cover a 10-year period representing present-day climate (1981–1990) and two future scenarios for the SRESA2 and B2 emission\\u000a scenarios for the period 2081–2090.

Mario N. Nuñez; Silvina A. Solman; Maria Fernanda Cabré

2009-01-01

437

Back to the future: science and technology directions for radio telescopes of the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early days of radio astronomy showed incredibly diverse experimentation in ways to sample the electromagnetic spectrum at radio wavelengths. In addition to obtaining adequate sensitivity by building large collection areas, a primary goal also was to achieve sufficient angular resolution to localize radio sources for multi-wavelength identification. This led to many creative designs and the invention of aperture synthesis and VLBI. Some of the basic telescope types remain to the present day, now implemented across the entire radio spectrum from wavelengths of tens of meters to submillimeter wavelengths. In recent years, as always, there is still the drive for greater sensitivity but a primary goal is now to achieve very large fields of view to complement high resolution and frequency coverage, leading to a new phase of experimentation. This is the “back to the future” aspect of current research and development for next-generation radio telescopes. In this paper I summarize the scientific motivations for development of new technology and telescopes since about 1990 and going forward for the next decade and longer. Relevant elements include highly optimized telescope optics and feed antenna designs, innovative fabrication methods for large reflectors and dipole arrays, digital implementations, and hardware vs. software processing. The emphasis will be on meter and centimeter wavelength telescopes but I include a brief discussion of millimeter wavelengths to put the longer wavelength enterprises into perspective. I do not discuss submillimeter wavelengths because they are covered in other papers.

Cordes, James M.

2009-08-01

438

Water, Power, and Development in Twenty-First Century China: The Case of the South-North Water Transfer Project.  

E-print Network

??Through a mixed qualitative approach, this dissertation injects politics into an otherwise apolitical discussion of the largest water management project in human history, China's South-North… (more)

Crow-Miller, Brittany Leigh

2013-01-01

439

The next great American station : Union Station and Downtown Los Angeles in the twenty-first century  

E-print Network

Ideas about a city are powerful forces, and have lasting impacts on the built environment. While not every vision is realized in the built form, every aspect of urban development is the reflection of a vision about what ...

Dunsmore, Jaymes Phillip

2012-01-01

440

Twenty-First Century Learning in School Systems: The Case of the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township, Indianapolis, Indiana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In November 2000, the Lilly Endowment of Indianapolis, Indiana, issued a request for grant proposals from public school districts in Marion County, Indiana. It called for school districts to develop innovative, systemic, and transforming approaches to preparing students to thrive in an increasingly competitive, high-tech, global society. The…

Capuano, Marcia; Knoderer, Troy

2006-01-01

441

Clinical social work practice and technology: personal, practical, regulatory, and ethical considerations for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The world that social work exists in is no longer defined by traditional physical settings and boundaries, such as schools, agencies, or even offices. With the advent of the Internet and digital communications, social work now exists in a far more complex reality, with clients and social workers engaging across multiple platforms, and sometimes even unintentionally and without one another's awareness. The implications of this can be ethical, practical, regulatory, and personal. This article explores these areas of concern and suggests strategies professionals can use to navigate these complex issues related to technology and clinical practice. PMID:25321936

Dombo, Eileen A; Kays, Lisa; Weller, Katelyn

2014-10-01

442

Estimation of the tourism climate in the Hunter Region, Australia, in the early twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing tourism-related climate information and evaluation are typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and do not include thermal perception and other climate parameters relevant for tourists. Here, we quantify climate based on the climate facets relevant to tourism (thermal, physical, aesthetical), and apply the results to the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS). This paper presents bioclimatic and tourism climatological conditions in the Hunter Region—one of Australia's most popular tourist destinations. In the Hunter Region, generally, temperatures below 15°C occur from April through October, temperatures less than 25°C are expected throughout the whole year, while humidity sits around 50%. As expected, large differences between air temperature and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) were clearly identified. The widest differences were seen in summer time rather than in the winter period. In addition, cold stress was observed less than 10% of the time in winter while around 40-60% of heat stress was observed in summer time. This correlates with the highest numbers of international visitors, who usually seek a warmer weather, at the beginning of summer time (November and December) and also to the number of domestic visitors, who tend to seek cooler places for recreation and leisure, in late summer (January-March). It was concluded that thermal bioclimate assessment such as PET and CTIS can be applied in the Hunter region, and that local governments and the tourism industry should take an integrated approach to providing more relevant weather and climate information for both domestic and international tourists in the near future.

Shiue, Ivy; Matzarakis, Andreas

2011-07-01

443

Moving the Law School into the Twenty-First Century--Embedding Technology into Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past twenty years phenomenal developments in technology have changed the nature of education. Students now have access to a vast range of resources 24/7. This instant access has created a certain expectation on the part of the student and there must now be very few, if any, courses taught in higher education where the lecturer does not…

Steventon, Beverley; Panesar, Sukhninder; Wood, Jane

2014-01-01

444

Governance and aid allocation in the International Development Association (IDA) : revisiting assessing aid in the twenty-first century  

E-print Network

This paper examines the relationship between governance and the foreign aid allocation of a World Bank agency, the International Development Association. In particular, the study investigates whether this major multilateral ...

Markgraf, Claire Teresa McCarville

2014-01-01

445

Gilles Apap's Mozart Cadenza and Expanding Musical Competences of Twenty-First-Century Musicians and Music Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In western musical contexts at global and local levels, musicians are becoming increasingly involved in what might be termed multicode music making and are expanding their musical competences. In this article I consider the practical and cognitive implications of such an expanding of competences for music education at various levels. Combining…

Webb, Michael

2008-01-01

446

A Plethora of ‘suitable enemies’: British racism at the dawn of the twenty-first century1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I begin by looking at older forms of British racism before addressing myself to some newer forms – anti-asylum-seeker racism, xeno-racism and Islamophobia. I argue that in contemporary Britain there are a plethora of ‘suitable enemies’. Given that contemporary British racism is multifaceted, and in order to set the scene for newer forms of racism, I begin

Mike Cole

2009-01-01

447

Invited Essay: A New System Of Politics: Government, Governance, And Political Decision Making In The Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present system of politics is based on the centrality of economics. This system is not capable of coming to grips with the problems confronting humanity. A culture-based system of politics is required to do this and prevent ecological disaster. This system would make it possible to reduce the demands human beings are making on the natural environment and situate

D. Paul Schafer

2005-01-01

448

Beyond conventional energy use: A regionally based end-use approach for the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United States, the dominant energy discourse is supply-oriented and focused on the large-scale use of fossil fuel and nuclear electricity energy resources. Fossil fuels and nuclear electricity are valued for the convenience, quality of life, and services that they provide. Despite these qualities, the laws of thermodynamics tell us that fossil fuels and nuclear electricity are not required for all end-use needs. Concentrated high quality energy sources such as fossil fuels and electricity are degraded when used for tasks such as water and space heating. The degraded energy is released into the environment as waste heat and pollution and contribute to scarcity in many realms. This dissertation suggests an alternative discourse on energy that calls on three frameworks of thinking: the nexus of relations, end-use analysis, and regional geography. The nexus of relations is a device for showing how different relations in society construct uses of energy that lead most naturally to scarcity and environmental degradation. End-use analysis is a framework for matching energy sources and end-uses based on thermodynamic quality, and regional geography is useful for identifying localized renewable energy sources and end-use needs. By combining these three approaches, a new framework has been created that matches thermodynamically appropriate renewable resources to end-use needs. This approach offers a new perspective on resource use that emphasizes how energy demands can be met, while minimizing scarcity and environmental degradation. To illustrate this regionally based end-use framework, a case study was conducted at three sites within Centre County, Pennsylvania. At each study site, the flux density of solar, wind, and water resources was evaluated and matched with local end-use needs. This exercise resulted in several findings: one, fossil fuel/nuclear electricity savings are possible at each study site; two, geographically-specific renewable resources can be used to displace thermodynamically inappropriate energy use; and three, the solution to scarcity and environmental degradation resides in local places. Such findings suggest that localized resources can be used to meet localized end-use needs. However, implementation of these findings requires more than the use of end-use analysis and regional geography. It requires a shift in energy discourse.

Feder, Deborah R.

449

Back to the future: science and technology directions for radio telescopes of the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early days of radio astronomy showed incredibly diverse experimentation in ways to sample the electromagnetic spectrum\\u000a at radio wavelengths. In addition to obtaining adequate sensitivity by building large collection areas, a primary goal also\\u000a was to achieve sufficient angular resolution to localize radio sources for multi-wavelength identification. This led to many\\u000a creative designs and the invention of aperture synthesis

James M. Cordes

2009-01-01

450

Back to the future: science and technology directions for radio telescopes of the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early days of radio astronomy showed incredibly diverse experimentation in ways to sample the electromagnetic spectrum at radio wavelengths. In addition to obtaining adequate sensitivity by building large collection areas, a primary goal also was to achieve sufficient angular resolution to localize radio sources for multi-wavelength identification. This led to many creative designs and the invention of aperture synthesis

James M. Cordes

2009-01-01

451

Twenty-First Century Learning in Schools: A Case Study of New Technology High School in Napa, California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When one walks into the classrooms at New Technology High School (NTHS) in Napa, California, he or she will see that students there are always at work: writing journals online, doing research on the Internet, meeting in groups to plan and make their Web sites and their digital media presentations, and evaluating their peers for collaboration and…

Pearlman, Bob

2006-01-01

452

Rewriting the Job Description: The Teaching Profession in the Twenty-First Century. Education Outlook. No. 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Human capital" is quickly becoming the new site-based management, a popular strategy from the 1980s and 1990s that sought to increase autonomy in schools and spread decision making more widely. While few are sure what human capital means, everyone craves it, has a model to deliver it, and is quick to tout its restorative powers. It is trendy and…

Hess, Frederick M.

2009-01-01

453

The Potential of Astrosociology in the Twenty-First Century: Developing an Emerging Field to Help Solve Social Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we move beyond the fiftieth anniversary of the dawn of the space age, a curious question looms in the background. Why has the discipline of sociology, and the other social sciences, formally ignored the study of social, cultural, and behavioral patterns related to space exploration (i.e., astrosocial phenomena)? There is a void, reminiscent of the false view of outer space as an empty vacuum, represented by sociology's failure to focus on outer space issues. The attempt to develop astrosociology as a reaction to this long-term reality initially met with some resistance and even ridicule. Simultaneously, however, the support for this new multidisciplinary social science field has grown more intense since the field's inception. As this author was trained as a sociologist, this essay concentrates on the sociological discipline's failure to recognize the void. Other types of social scientists can describe the realities of their own disciplines more accurately. In the present case, the study of astrosocial phenomena exists in unorganized forms within sociology and more notably external to it within the space community. Because most astrosocial phenomena presently exist in terrestrial environments, their ramifications for space-capable societies continue to manifest themselves in significant ways. This article addresses some of the issues related to the continued development of astrosociology and the benefits of doing so, using the important example of social problems as the focus.

Pass, Jim

2009-03-01

454

76 FR 4838 - Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...vocational rehabilitation counselor, audiologist, speech pathologist, educator...vocational rehabilitation counselor, audiologist, speech pathologist, educator, hearing...vocational rehabilitation counselor, audiologist, speech pathologist, educator,...

2011-01-27

455

Teaching for Understanding of Science in Context: Evidence from the Pilot Trials of the "Twenty First Century Science" Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The framework developed for the PISA 2006 science survey starts from everyday contexts in which citizens encounter scientific issues and knowledge claims. Recent curriculum changes in England, making possible the introduction of courses for 15- to 16-year olds with an explicit "scientific literacy" emphasis, are based on a very similar analysis,…

Ratcliffe, Mary; Millar, Robin

2009-01-01

456

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Review from a Surgeon's Perspective in the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) most commonly due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common type of disorder of sex development. This review will focus on CAH addressing historical and current surgical techniques with their anatomical foundations, with special attention to long-term results and outcomes on sexual function, patient satisfaction, patient attitude toward surgery, and ongoing controversies in management of these patients. PMID:24400298

Piaggio, Lisandro Ariel

2013-01-01

457

Nuclear energy strategy to preserve the industrial base into the twenty-first century. Research report, August 1992April 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Energy Strategy of 1991\\/1992 provides only the broadest of Outlines for a strategy to ensure a viable nuclear energy generation capability for electrical power. The FY 93 and FY 94 federal defense budgets provide minimum support to maintain a nuclear powered shipbuilding capability within the United States. These two industries are closely related and are vital strategic assets.

Naughton

1993-01-01

458

Making Sense of Twenty-First-Century Climate Change in the Altiplano: Observed Trends and CMIP3 Projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthesis is presented of the first phase in regionalizing climate projections for the Altiplano, an elevated central Andean plateau in Bolivia and Peru. A prerequisite to downscaling is analysis of the large-scale forcing provided by global, multimodel climate scenarios. Global climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) archive are employed to qualitatively evaluate the direction of change

Anji Seth; Jeanne Thibeault; Magali Garcia; Corinne Valdivia

2010-01-01

459

Tsotsitaal, global culture and local style: identity and recontextualisation in twenty?first century South African townships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tsotsitaal is a linguistic phenomenon which is inseparable from a style adopted by many youth living in urban townships in South Africa. The style is signalled by the unique and innovative lexicon of Tsotsitaal, and additionally indicated by clothing and other identity markers. Features of the style are ‘urban?ness’, consumerism (in terms of brand names) and cultural iconography, such as

Ellen Hurst

2009-01-01

460

Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and labour productivity in general.

Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

2014-11-01

461

(Never) Mind the gap! : Gender equity in social studies research on technology in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Focusing on gender as an aspect of diversity, the purpose of this paper is to review social studies research on technology, and suggest a new direction, with gender redefined from a gap to be eliminated to a difference to be explored. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper is a literature review of research on gender, technology, and social studies from

Margaret S. Crocco; Judith Cramer; Ellen B. Meier

2008-01-01

462

Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate  

E-print Network

few Alaskan glaciers have any mass balance observations. In most areas analyzed, every glacier that descends below an elevation of 1500 m is currently thinning and/or retreating. Many glaciers have island (Kodiak Island), one island archipelago (Alexan- der Archipelago), and one island chain (Aleutian

463

World Health Organization global oral health strategies for oral health promotion and disease prevention in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite great improvements in oral health in the past decades, oral disease remains a major public health problem worldwide.\\u000a The burden of oral disease is particularly high among the disadvantaged population groups in both developing and developed\\u000a countries. The pattern of oral disease reflects distinct risk profiles across countries that are related to living conditions,\\u000a lifestyles, environmental factors, and the

P. E. Petersen; S. Kwan

2009-01-01

464

U.S. Arts and Cultural Diplomacy: Post-Cold War Decline and the Twenty-First Century Debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the last years, the U.S. government significantly cut funding for cultural and arts diplomacy. While arts exchanges constitute a core component of public diplomacy in many countries, recently, the U.S. arts diplomacy has not been carried out properly by the government, nor by private or public sectors. Although the international image of the U.S. has shattered, the public is

Natalia Grincheva

2010-01-01

465

(Never) Mind the Gap!: Gender Equity in Social Studies Research on Technology in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Focusing on gender as an aspect of diversity, the purpose of this paper is to review social studies research on technology, and suggest a new direction, with gender redefined from a gap to be eliminated to a difference to be explored. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a literature review of research on gender, technology, and…

Crocco, Margaret S.; Cramer, Judith; Meier, Ellen B.

2008-01-01

466

Feel Good, Goodwill and India's Friendship Tour of Pakistan, 2004: Cricket, Politics and Diplomacy in Twenty-First-Century India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's cricket tour of Pakistan in early 2004 evoked a plethora of responses in Indian public life. From learned to laity people began to consider cricket as a means to various ends: a political instrument to generate electoral confidence, a diplomatic ploy to accelerate peace process, an economic means to ameliorate the neighbour's pecuniary distress, a cultural arena to assert

Kausik Bandyopadhyay

2008-01-01

467

The trouble with civic: a snapshot of young people's civic and political engagements in twenty-first-century democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In much academic and policy literature about civic engagement, regardless of their political or social circumstances, youth across the globe are enjoined to engage in all the activities thought good for them in order to qualify for the moral label ‘good citizens’. Voting, watching the news, party activism, sending emails to government websites, attending meetings in the town hall, volunteering,

Shakuntala Banaji

2008-01-01

468

Demographic Changes in the U.S. into the Twenty-First Century: Their Impact on Sport Marketing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues confronting sport marketers as U.S. demographics change include more older people, ethnic groups, working women, and minorities; television hours watched; and changes in family makeup. As the changes affect marketing, sport marketing will have to become more efficient in defining and reaching different markets. (SM)

Hofacre, Susan; And Others

1992-01-01

469

Campus Climate in the Twenty-First Century: Estimating Perceptions of Discrimination at a Racially Mixed Institution, 1994-2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have found that minority students do experience insensitive if not discriminatory behavior on college campuses, and students who experience such behavior report lower levels of social integration and institutional commitment. However, there are at least two limitations to much of the campus climate literature. First, virtually all…

Miller, Berkeley; Sujitparapitaya, Sutee

2010-01-01

470

Air Force Culture and Cohesion: Building an Air and Space Force for the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

THE US AIR FORCE has a cohesion problem. Dr. Donald B. Rice, former secretary of the Air Force, complained that officers identified with their weapon systems, not with the Air Force or any concept of service mission or doctrine. Carl Builder agrees. To Bu...

J. M. Smith

1998-01-01

471

Ameritocracy and Infra-Racial Racism: Racializing Social and Cultural Reproduction Theory in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that narratives forecasting spectacular mobility for Black people/people of color along with the growth of the Black middle class function as proof that America "works" and that the American dream is obtainable for all. However, what is concealed within this "meritocratic" discourse is that full acceptance into this society is…

Akom, A. A.

2008-01-01

472

Intercultural and cross-cultural assessment of self-esteem among youth in Twenty-first Century South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perceptions of self may differ from one cultural context to another. I explored this possibility in 191 South African children between 12 and 13 years of age. This paper is an extension of research on the appropriateness of Marsh\\/Shavelson model of self-concept for the nonWestern subjects. Responses to a standard Self-Description Questionnaire-1 (SDQ-1) revealed, the item-scale correlations and reliability

Adebowale Akande

1999-01-01

473

The regional integration that didn't happen: cooperation without integration in early twenty-first century East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decade ago, in the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis, numerous observers expected regional integration to take off in East Asia. What, meanwhile, has actually happened? This paper argues that while overall inter-state cooperation has certainly intensified in East Asia during this period, there has been no significant expansion of multilateral, as opposed to bi- or minilateral cooperation and

Douglas Webber

2010-01-01

474

Prophets, priests and kings: re-imagining ancient metaphors of diffused leadership for the twenty-first century organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper re-imagines the ancient Hebrew threefold leadership typology of prophets, priests and kings for the contemporary organization or community. The essence of what is here termed the “trioptic typology” is that leadership is ideally diffused throughout an organization with different individuals or groups performing functions or roles that correspond to these metaphors. Each of these metaphors is discussed in

Anthony L. Blair; Jo Ann Kunz; Steve Jeantet; Danny Kwon

2012-01-01

475

Zoos in the twenty-first century: Can't we find a better way to love nature?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a new millennium approaches, many forms of life on the planet and the environments in which they have evolved are increasingly threatened by human activities Wildlife is being marginalized, and native habitats are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. Equally disturbing is the impending demise of traditional human societies---peoples who have evolved outside of the confines and conditions of modern

Lauren Kay Dewey-Platt

1999-01-01

476

Financing Social Reproduction: The Gendered Relations of Debt and Mortgage Finance in Twenty-first-century America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses a gap in the international political economy (IPE) literature on housing finance by highlighting the ways in which the deepening of mortgage debt is part of a broader attempt to individualise and (re)privatise relations of social reproduction under neoliberalism. While the extension and deepening of debt has been underpinned by policies and discourses that assume the formal

Adrienne Roberts

2012-01-01

477

Theorizing racial discourse in the post?racist twenty?first century: the new human genetics and black people  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubting the fact that the social construction of race is sensitive, complex and controversial. For so many people, there is no difference between black and white people. For a few others, we are simply different in a number of different ways. Such racial discourse is neither confined to academic debate nor is it new to those who

Merry Osemwegie

2008-01-01

478

Fantasies of Maternal Unity in Twentieth- and Twenty-First-Century African Diasporic Women's Fiction and Science Fiction  

E-print Network

Irigaray, Julia Kristeva, Nancy Chodorow, Marianne Hirsch, Patricia Hil Collins, and Jesica Benjamin, among many others, draw from and reformulate Freudian and Lacanian models of psychosexual development. Several of these theorists as wel as scholars...

Lillvis, Kristen

2011-04-20

479

Kansas City southern railway twenty-first century planning. Master's thesis, 7 August 1998--4 June 1999  

SciTech Connect

Rail yards serve as major nodes that facilitate delivery of cargo to the consignee. The level of operational efficiency maintained within rail yards determines whether customers receive cargo late. Various external and internal factors can impede the operational efficiency of rail yards. The future growth of rail industry depends on how well it manages a potentially serious problem inherent to all railroads--rail congestion. This study reviews the processes that occur within the Knoche rail yard, which is located in Kansas City, Kansas. In an effort to improve the operational efficiency of the Knoche rail yard or to minimize congestion, the study will reveal the results of analyzing varying strategies to improve the operational efficiency of a single event, the rip track facility, within the Knoche rail yard. This study reveals that the operational efficiency of the Knoche rail yard may be enhanced if the following occur: (1) increase the rip track facility queue population from fifteen to twenty-two, and (2) spot bad order cars directly onto the two tracks leading into the rip track facility. Finally, the amount of double handling by switch engines daily may be decreased by as much as 96% within the rail yard.

Powell, R.A.

1999-07-01

480

College Admissions in Twenty-First-Century America: The Role of Grades, Tests, and Games of Chance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Rebecca Zwick confronts the controversy surrounding the use of standardized tests in college admissions. She examines the degree to which the SAT and its lesser known cousin, the ACT, limit access to college, particularly for racial and ethnic minorities, and considers two alternative admissions policies that do not involve tests:…

Zwick, Rebecca

2007-01-01

481

Educating outside the Lines: Bard College at Simon's Rock on a "New Pedagogy" for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Founded in 1966, and premised on the idea that motivated sixteen-year-olds are capable of college work, Bard College at Simon's Rock is an educational "experiment" from the sixties that has endured and prospered. "Educating Outside the Lines" looks at Simon's Rock as a pioneer of the early college movement that has begun to reshape the connections…

Yanoshak, Nancy, Ed.

2011-01-01

482

Management of a twenty-first century brain bank: experience in the BrainNet Europe consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collections of human postmortem brains gathered in brain banks have underpinned many significant developments in the understanding\\u000a of central nervous system (CNS) disorders and continue to support current research. Unfortunately, the worldwide decline in\\u000a postmortem examinations has had an adverse effect on research tissue procurement, particularly from control cases (non-diseased\\u000a brains). Recruitment to brain donor programmes partially addresses this problem

Jeanne E. Bell; Irina Alafuzoff; Safa Al-Sarraj; Thomas Arzberger; Nenad Bogdanovic; Herbert Budka; David T. Dexter; Peter Falkai; Isidro Ferrer; Elena Gelpi; Steven M. Gentleman; Giorgio Giaccone; Inge Huitinga; James W. Ironside; Natasja Klioueva; Gabor G. Kovacs; David Meyronet; Miklos Palkovits; Piero Parchi; Efstatios Patsouris; Richard Reynolds; Peter Riederer; Wolfgang Roggendorf; Danielle Seilhean; Andrea Schmitt; Peer Schmitz; Nathalie Streichenberger; Ameli Schwalber; Hans Kretzschmar

2008-01-01

483

Revisiting an Old Friend: The Practice and Promise of Cooperative Learning for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cooperative learning has long been at the disposal of school teachers. However, it is often misunderstood by some teachers as just another form of collaborative group work. This article revisits cooperative learning, including a sampling of its popular variations, with practical approaches toward effectively integrating it into classroom…

Schul, James E.

2011-01-01

484

Prevention in the Twenty-First Century: Promoting Health and Well-Being in Education and Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the science of prevention, with special attention to prevention research and applications in education and psychology, and the importance of prevention in Asian countries. One example that will be highlighted is the recently adopted Korean government policy on Internet addiction which addresses the problem from prevention to…

Romano, John L.

2014-01-01

485

Teaching about the Genocide of the Roma and Sinti during the Holocaust: Chances and Challenges in Europe Today  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents several projects, initiated during the first decade of the twenty-first century, that aim to make the history of the genocide of the Roma more known within the educational field. Some general challenges we face in teaching about the history of a group that is both the largest minority in Europe and, according to the European…

Polak, Karen

2013-01-01

486

Sustainable economic development: A criminal justice challenge for the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental challenges of the 21st century require co-operation between criminal justice experts and economists. Three different economics perspectives are relevant for the discipline of criminal justice in general and for adressing environmental problems in particular: neo-classical econoics, political economics and the economics of sustainable development. Criminal justice pays a role in the effort to attain sustainable development because the

Joan Hoffman

2000-01-01

487

Engine technology challenges for a 21st century high speed civil transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent NASA funded studies by Boeing and Douglas suggest an opportunity exists for a 21st Century High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) to become part of the international air transportation system. However, before this opportunity for high speed travel can be realized, certain environmental and and economic barrier issues must be overcome. These challenges are outlined. Research activities which NASA has planned to address these barrier issues and to provide a technology base to allow U.S. manufacturers to make an informed go/no go decision on developing the HSCT are discussed.

Shaw, Robert J.

1991-01-01

488

Understanding Global Change: the pedagogical challenge of the 21st century (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human impacts on natural systems, from climate change to habitat fragmentation, are some of the greatest challenges facing our world. Yet, outside of state standards, it is not well-known what educators teach in relation to global change and human impacts on natural systems. The recently released Next Generation Science Standards, which many states are in the process of adopting, emphasize the human components of global change. In order to address the challenges that educators face in their own understanding of these complex, cross-disciplinary topics, the National Center for Science Education, the UC Museum of Paleontology, and BSCS surveyed educators across the country to find out how and why they teach about global change. Results indicate that educators teach those topics in which they feel the most confident and have experienced the most professional development. Topics that many scientists often focus on in relation to global change, such as phenology, the spread of disease and even ocean acidification, were often left out of the classroom. These results indicate a disconnect between the scientific and educational communities in their understanding of global change issues, and call for high-quality resources and professional development to help prepare educators to teach their students about these 21st century challenges.

Berbeco, M.; McCaffrey, M.; White, L. D.; Stuhlsatz, M.

2013-12-01

489

Steel industry of the future: Meeting the material challenges of the 21. century  

SciTech Connect

For over a century, the US steel industry has led the global market with advances in technology, product development, and marketing. Industry leaders recognize both the opportunities and challenges they face as they head into the 21st century, and that cooperative R and D is key to their success. In a unique partnership, steel industry leaders have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to focus on innovative technologies that will help to strengthen the competitive position of the US steel industry and, at the same time, further important national goals. This industry-led partnership, the Steel Industry of the Future, promotes technologies that optimize the use of energy and materials in operation and reduce wastes and energy-related emissions. Led by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and the Steel Manufacturers Association (SMA), industry leaders began by developing a unified vision for the next 20 years: to provide high-quality, value-added products to a wide array of customers in an environmentally friendly, cost-effective manner, while leading the world in innovation and technology. Continued global leadership in materials markets will require the combined resources of industry, universities, and government laboratories. The steel industry vision provided a framework for the next step in the Industries of the Future process, the development of a technology roadmap designed to facilitate collaborative R and D on advanced processes and technologies for the steel industry.

NONE

1999-02-01

490

Pathways to Prosperity: Meeting the Challenge of Preparing Young Americans for the 21st Century  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most fundamental obligations of any society is to prepare its adolescents and young adults to lead productive and prosperous lives as adults. This means preparing all young people with a solid enough foundation of literacy, numeracy, and thinking skills for responsible citizenship, career development, and lifelong learning. For over a century, the United States led the world in equipping its young people with the education they would need to succeed. By the middle of the 19th century, as Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz write in their book, The Race between Education and Technology, âthe U.S. already had the most educated youth in the world.â At the turn of the 20th century, just as Europe was catching up, the rapid spread of the âhigh school movementâ helped the U.S. vault ahead again. Yet as we end the first decade of the 21st century, there are profoundly troubling signs that the U.S. is now failing to meet its obligation to prepare millions of young adults. Within the U.S. economy, there is a growing evidence of a âskills gapâ in which many young adults lack the skills and work ethic needed for many jobs that pay a middle-class wage. Simultaneously, there has been a dramatic decline in the ability of adolescents and young adults to find work. Indeed, the percentage of teens and young adults who have jobs is now at the lowest level since World War II. In what follows, we have chosen to focus on three essential elements of any long-term strategy to address the challenge outlined in the opening section of this report. The first element is the development of a broader vision of school reform that incorporates multiple pathways to carry young people from high school to adulthood. The second is the development of a much expanded role for employers in supporting these new pathways. The third is the development of a new social compact between society and its young people.

Education, Harvard G.

2011-04-11

491

Climate: Into the 21st Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toward the end of the twentieth century, it became evident to professionals working within the meterological arena that the world's climate system was showing signs of change that could not be adequately explained in terms of natural variation. Since that time there has been an increasing recognition that the climate system is changing as a result of human industries and lifestyles, and that the outcomes may prove catastrophic to the world's escalating population. Compiled by an international team formed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate: Into the 21st Century features an unrivalled collection of essays by the world's leading meteorological experts. These fully integrated contributions provide a perspective of the global climate system across the twentieth century, and describe some of the most arresting and extreme climatic events and their effects that have occurred during that time. In addition, the book traces the development of our capabilities to observe and monitor the climate system, and outlines our understanding of the predictability of climate on time-scales of months and longer. It concludes with a summary of the prospects for applying the twentieth century climate experience in order to benefit society in the twenty-first century. Lavishly illustrated in color, Climate is an accessible acccount of the challenges that climate poses at the start of the twenty-first century. Filled with fascinating facts and diagrams, it is written for a wide audience and will captivate the general reader interested in climate issues, and will be a valuable teaching resource. William Burroughs is a successful science author of books on climate, including Weather (Time Life, 2000), and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2001), Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997) and The Climate Revealed (1999), all published by Cambridge University Press.

Burroughs, William

2003-08-01

492

Water Resources and Sustainable Agriculture in 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global agriculture faces some unique challenges and opportunities for the rest of this century. The need for food, feed and fiber will continues to grow as the world population continue to increase in the future. Agricultural ecosystems are also expected to be the source of a significant portion of renewable energy and fuels around the world, without further compromising the integrity of the natural resources base. How can agriculture continue to provide these services to meet the growing needs of world population while sustaining the integrity of agricultural ecosystems and natural resources, the very foundation it depends on? In the last century, scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture resulted in significant increase in food, feed and fiber production globally, while the total amount of water, energy, fertilizers and other input used to achieve this growth remained the same or even decreased significantly in some parts of the world. Scientific and technical advances in understanding global and regional water and energy cycles, water resources management, soil and water conservation practices, weather prediction, plant breeding and biotechnology, and information and communication technologies contributed to this tremendous achievement. The projected increase in global population, urbanization, and changing lifestyles will continue the pressure on both agriculture and other managed and natural ecosystems to provide necessary goods and services for the rest of this century. To meet these challenges, we must obtain the requisite scientific and technical advances in the functioning of Earth's water, energy, carbon and biogeochemical cycles. We also need to apply the knowledge we gain and technologies we develop in assessing Earth's ecosystems' conditions, and their management and stewardship. In agricultural ecosystems, management of soil and water quality and quantity together with development of new varieties of plants based on advances in genomic, genetics, breeding and applied biotechnologies are a key to our ability to address these challenges. We must also continue to develop agronomic practices that sustain the integrity of natural resources and conserve energy on one-hand while maximizing agricultural production per unit area of land on the other hand. This will require managing agricultural ecosystems for their multiple functions and services together, instead of looking at each function/service in isolation. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the scientific and technical knowledge required for sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems and associated natural resources. We will describe the soil, water and energy research needs/priorities in agriculture. We will also provide some examples of recent accomplishments and future directions in developing decision support tools for assessing the impacts of weather and climate variations and change, and their risk to agricultural ecosystems. We will then focus on opportunities and challenges associated with measurement, monitoring and modeling of soil moisture and its use in management and operation of agricultural ecosystems. The overall intent of this presentation is to stimulate some discussion on future directions and priorities for soil, water and energy research in agricultural ecosystems, and how the knowledge we gain from this research can be conveyed to the users for risk assessment, decision making, and multi-service ecosystem management purposes.

Asrar, G.

2008-05-01

493

Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States  

SciTech Connect

The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

2000-10-26

494

Counter-Memory and Race: An Examination of African American Scholars' Challenges to Early Twentieth Century K-12 Historical Discourses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how African American scholars during the early twentieth century employed the genre of curriculum writing to challenge existing discourses of race. Drawing from the findings of a qualitative document analysis of textbooks created by Carter G. Woodson and Charles H. Wesley, this article illustrates how these authors used texts…

Brown, Anthony L.

2010-01-01

495

The Burden of Chronic Kidney Disease on Developing Nations: A 21st Century Challenge in Global Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic diseases present a significant challenge to 21st century global health policy. In developing nations, the growing prevalence of chronic diseases such as chronic kidney disease has severe implications on health and economic output. The rapid rise of common risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, especially among the poor, will result in even greater and more profound burdens

Rachel A. Nugent; Sana F. Fathima; Andrea B. Feigl; Dorothy Chyung

2011-01-01

496

Theoretical Challenges for Distance Education in the 21st Century: A Shift from Structural to Trans actional Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The premise of this article is that theoretical frameworks and models are essential to the long-term credibility and viability of a eld of practice. In order to assess the theoretical challenges facing the eld of distance education, the signicant theoretical contributions to distance education in the last century are briey reviewed. This review of distance educa- tion as a eld

Randy Garrison

497

NIH research funding and early career physician scientists: continuing challenges in the 21st century  

PubMed Central

Physician scientists (researchers with either M.D. or M.D.-Ph.D. degrees) have the unique potential to combine clinical perspectives with scientific insight, and their participation in biomedical research has long been an important topic for policymakers and educators. Given the recent changes in the research environment, an update and extension of earlier studies of this population was needed. Our findings show that physician scientists are less likely to take a major role in biomedical research than they were in the past. The number of physician scientists receiving postdoctoral research training and career development awards is at an all-time low. Physician scientists today, on average, receive their first major research award (R01 equivalent) at a later age than in the 1980s. The number of first-time R01-equivalent awards to physicians is at the same level as it was 30 yr ago, but physicians now represent a smaller percentage of the grant recipients. The long-term decline in the number of physicians entering research careers was temporarily halted during the period of substantial U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) budget growth (1998–2003). These gains are lost, however, in the subsequent years when NIH budgets failed to keep pace with rising costs.— Garrison, H. H., Deschamps, A. M. NIH research funding and early career physician scientists: continuing challenges in the 21st century. PMID:24297696

Garrison, Howard H.; Deschamps, Anne M.

2014-01-01

498

Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An International Conference entitled "Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges", was held in Syros island, Greece, from 27 to 30 June, 2005. There are many binary star systems whose components are so close together, that they interact in various ways. Stars in such systems do not pass through all stages of their evolution independently of each other; in fact their evolutionary path is significantly affected by their companions. Processes of interaction include gravitational effects, mutual irradiation, mass exchange, mass loss from the system, phenomena of extended atmospheres, semi-transparent atmospheric clouds, variable thickness disks and gas streams. The zoo of Close Binary Systems includes: Close Eclipsing Binaries (Detached, Semi-detached, Contact), High and Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, RS CVn systems, Pulsar Binaries and Symbiotic Stars. The study of these binaries triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and evolution of close binaries and the interaction effects displayed by these exciting objects. Close Binaries are classic examples of the fundamental contribution that stellar astrophysics makes to our general understanding of physical processes in the universe. Ground-based and space surveys will discover many new close binaries, which were previously unknown. In the future, new approaches will also be possible with highly efficient photometric searches looking for very shallow eclipses, such as those produced by Earth-like extra-solar planets. Contributions to this conference covered the latest achievements in the field and reflected the state of the art of the dynamically evolving area of binary star research. Link: http://www.springer.com/east/home/generic/search/results?SGWID=5-40109-22-173660047-0

Giménez, A.; Guinan, E.; Niarchos, P.; Rucinski, S.

2006-12-01

499

Arnold, Richard English Hymns of the Nineteenth Century: An Anthology  

E-print Network

, Reginald Restless Churches: How Canada's Churches Can Contribute to the Emerging Religious Renaissance Philosophy Can Tell Us About Terrorism Harrison, Trevor W. Canadian Society in the TwentyFirst Century

Morris, Joy

500

Child Care Responsibilities in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses child care needs and problems projected for the twenty-first century in terms of increased social sensitivity, role identity conflicts, vocational preparation, the nuclear family model, new roles for education, child care workers and the handicapped child. (MS)

Goocher, Buell E.

1976-01-01