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1

Twenty-first century challenges for biomaterials  

PubMed Central

During the 1960s and 1970s, a first generation of materials was specially developed for use inside the human body. These developments became the basis for the field of biomaterials. The devices made from biomaterials are called prostheses. Professor Bill Bonfield was one of the first to recognize the importance of understanding the mechanical properties of tissues, especially bone, in order to achieve reliable skeletal prostheses. His research was one of the pioneering efforts to understand the interaction of biomaterials with living tissues. The goal of all early biomaterials was to ‘achieve a suitable combination of physical properties to match those of the replaced tissue with a minimal toxic response in the host’. By 1980, there were more than 50 implanted prostheses in clinical use made from 40 different materials. At that time, more than three million prosthetic parts were being implanted in patients worldwide each year. A common feature of most of the 40 materials was biological ‘inertness’. Almost all materials used in the body were single-phase materials. Most implant materials were adaptations of already existing commercial materials with higher levels of purity to eliminate release of toxic by-products and minimize corrosion. This article is a tribute to Bill Bonfield's pioneering efforts in the field of bone biomechanics, biomaterials and interdisciplinary research. It is also a brief summary of the evolution of bioactive materials and the opportunities for tailoring the composition, texture and surface chemistry of them to meet five important challenges for the twenty-first century. PMID:20484227

Hench, Larry L.; Thompson, Ian

2010-01-01

2

Twenty-first Century Ethical Challenges for Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foreseeable social and technological changes will force us to reevaluate our thinking about ethically appropriate ways to fulfill our mission of using psychology to advance human health and welfare in the twenty-first century. Three categories of challenge related to societal and technological changes have become particularly evident. First,…

Koocher, Gerald P.

2007-01-01

3

The twenty-first century challenges to sexuality and religion.  

PubMed

Clergy and religious leaders are facing a wide variety of sexual needs and concerns within their faith communities. Conflicts over sexual issues are growing across the entire spectrum of religious denominations, and clerics remain ill prepared to deal with them. As religious communities work to remain influential in public policy debates, clergy and the institutions that train them need to be properly prepared for twenty-first century challenges that impact sexuality and religion. Clergy are often the first point of contact for sexual problems and concerns of their faith community members-complex issues centered on morals, spirituality, and ethics. Yet, there still exists a significant lack of sexual curricula in the programs that are educating our future religious leaders. The resulting paucity of knowledge leaves these leaders unprepared to address the needs and concerns of their congregants. However, with accurate, relevant human sexuality curricula integrated into theological formation programs, future leaders will be equipped to competently serve their constituencies. This paper provides a rationale for the need for such training, an overview of the faith- and theology-based history of a pilot training project, and a description of how the Christian faith and the social sciences intersect in a training pilot project's impetus and process. PMID:23070841

Turner, Yolanda; Stayton, William

2014-04-01

4

Computational biomedicine: a challenge for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

With the relentless increase of computer power and the widespread availability of digital patient-specific medical data, we are now entering an era when it is becoming possible to develop predictive models of human disease and pathology, which can be used to support and enhance clinical decision-making. The approach amounts to a grand challenge to computational science insofar as we need to be able to provide seamless yet secure access to large scale heterogeneous personal healthcare data in a facile way, typically integrated into complex workflows-some parts of which may need to be run on high performance computers-in a facile way that is integrated into clinical decision support software. In this paper, we review the state of the art in terms of case studies drawn from neurovascular pathologies and HIV/AIDS. These studies are representative of a large number of projects currently being performed within the Virtual Physiological Human initiative. They make demands of information technology at many scales, from the desktop to national and international infrastructures for data storage and processing, linked by high performance networks. PMID:22491121

Coveney, Peter V; Shublaq, Nour W

2012-01-01

5

Twenty-first-century science.  

PubMed Central

Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

Greenwood, M R

1995-01-01

6

World Grant Universities: Meeting the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today American higher education urgently needs bold thinking coupled with innovative actions if the United States is to meet the challenges of the 21st century--thinking and doing that goes beyond requests for more funding and accountability and beyond the tendency to look at what individual institutions do well and can contribute to global…

Simon, Lou Anna K.

2010-01-01

7

U.S. drinking water challenges in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed Central

The access of almost all 270 million U.S. residents to reliable, safe drinking water distinguishes the United States in the twentieth century from that of the nineteenth century. The United States is a relatively water-abundant country with moderate population growth; nonetheless, current trends are sufficient to strain water resources over time, especially on a regional basis. We have examined the areas of public water infrastructure, global climate effects, waterborne disease (including emerging and resurging pathogens), land use, groundwater, surface water, and the U.S. regulatory history and its horizon. These issues are integrally interrelated and cross all levels of public and private jurisdictions. We conclude that U.S. public drinking water supplies will face challenges in these areas in the next century and that solutions to at least some of them will require institutional changes. PMID:11834462

Levin, Ronnie B; Epstein, Paul R; Ford, Tim E; Harrington, Winston; Olson, Erik; Reichard, Eric G

2002-01-01

8

Interdisciplinarity for the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

, Bettina Dahl Søndergaard, and Lenni Haapasalo Interdisciplinarity for the Twenty-First Century and at Work: Prolegomena for Rethinking the Concept of Interdisciplinarity Wolff-Michael Roth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Gideon, Rudy A.

9

DISEASE EMERGENCE IN BIRDS: CHALLENGES FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) conjunctivitis is an example of the rapid geographic spread that can result from disease emergence in naive populations. That event was neither novel nor transient relative to its occurrence or effects. Disease emergence and reemergence are hallmarks of the latter part of the twentieth century (Center for Disease Control 1994, Levins et al. 1994, DaSilva and Laccarino

Milton Friend; Robert G. McLean; F. Joshua Dein

2001-01-01

10

American Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century: Social, Political and Economic Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 17 papers on higher education, organized into four parts, which address the higher education setting, external forces, the academic community, and central issues for the 21st century. Following an introduction by the editors, the papers are: (1) "Patterns in Higher Education Development" (Philip G. Altbach); (2) "The Ten…

Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Berdhal, Robert O., Ed.; Gumport, Patricia J., Ed.

11

Evolving the Nation's Energy Infrastructure: A Challenging System Issue for the Twenty-First Century; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Over the next several decades, a profound transformation of the global energy enterprise will occur driven largely by population growth and economic development. How this growing demand for energy is met poses one of the most complex and challenging issues of our time. The current national energy dialogue reflects the challenge in simultaneously considering the social, political, economic, and technical issues as the energy system is defined, technical targets are established, and programs and investments are implemented to meet those technical targets. This paper examines the general concepts and options for meeting this challenge.

Garrett, B.

2007-04-01

12

The Twenty-First Century Multiple Generation Workforce: Overlaps and Differences but Also Challenges and Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the issues around a multiple generational workforce and more specifically, the challenges and benefits for education providers and employers. Design/methodology/approach: Reviewing research papers, analysing academic texts, interrogating market intelligence and contextualising case studies, the…

Helyer, Ruth; Lee, Dionne

2012-01-01

13

Active Debris Removal - A Grand Engineering Challenge for the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 has reignited interest in using active debris removal to remediate the near-Earth orbital debris environment. A recent NASA study shows that, in order to stabilize the environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region for the next 200 years, active debris removal of about five large and massive (1 to more than 8 metric tons) objects per year is needed. To develop the capability to remove five of those objects per year in a cost-effective manner truly represents a grand challenge in engineering and technology development.

Liou, J.-C.

2011-01-01

14

Active Debris Removal - A Grand Engineering Challenge for the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 underlined the potential of an ongoing collision cascade effect (the Kessler Syndrome ) in the near-Earth orbital debris environment. A 2006 NASA analysis of the instability of the debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude) shows that the environment has reached a point where the debris population will continue to increase in the next 200 years, even without any future launches. The increase is driven by fragments generated via collisions among existing objects in LEO. In reality, the situation will be worse than this prediction because satellite launches will continue and unexpected major breakups may continue to occur. Mitigation measures commonly adopted by the international space community (such as the 25-year rule) will help, but will be insufficient to stop the population growth. To better preserve the near-Earth space environment for future generations, active debris removal (ADR) should be considered. The idea of active debris removal is not new. However, due to the monumental technical, resource, operational, legal, and political challenges associated with removing objects from orbit, it has not yet been widely considered feasible. The recent major breakup events and the environment modeling efforts have certainly reignited the interest in using active debris removal to remediate the environment. This trend is further highlighted by the National Space Policy of the United States of America, released by the White House in June 2010, where the President explicitly directs NASA and the Department of Defense to pursue research and development of technology and techniques, to mitigate and remove on-orbit debris, reduce hazards, and increase understanding of the current and future debris environment. A 2009 modeling study by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has shown that, in order to maintain the LEO debris population at a constant level for the next 200 years, an active debris removal of about five objects per year is needed. The targets identified for removal are those with the highest mass and collision probability products. Analyses from the study indicate that the majority of those objects are spent upper stages with masses ranging from 1 to more than 8 metric tons, residing in several altitude regions and concentrated in about 10 inclination bands. To remove five of those objects per year in a cost-effective manner truly represents a grand challenge in engineering and technology development. An end-to-end debris removal operation includes, in general terms, launches orbit rendezvous, precision tracking, stabilization (of the tumbling motion), capture, and deorbit of the targets. An ADR system deigned to remove a single object is not very cost-effective. Therefore, the repeatability of the removal system is almost a requirement. Some of the technologies involved in the ADR process do exist, but the difficulty is to make them more cost effective. Other technologies, such as ways to stabilize a massive tumbling upper stage and the capture mechanisms, are new and will require major innovative research and development efforts. This paper summarizes an updated assessment of the environment, including what needs to be done to control the population growth, and outlines the major engineering and technology challenges to carry out active debris removal to preserve the environment.

Liou, Jer-Chyi

2010-01-01

15

Chemistryclimate model simulations of twenty-first century stratospheric climate  

E-print Network

Chemistry­climate model simulations of twenty-first century stratospheric climate and circulation #12;Chemistry­Climate Model Simulations of Twenty-First Century Stratospheric Climate and Circulation, Washington, D.C. s Meteorological Service of Canada, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

16

An Educational Revolution to Support Change in the Classroom: Colombia and the Educational Challenges of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As developing countries strive to strengthen their educational institutions to meet the challenges of the economic and social demands of globalization, tension often arises between providing more access to traditional public education and reforming the quality of the education provided. With its Revolucion Educativa, Colombia offers an interesting…

Light, Daniel; Manso, Micaela; Noguera, Teresa

2009-01-01

17

Population in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changing trends in global population in the 21st century are examined. The fall of the fertility rate and resulting actual decline of population will be evident in the major Western countries and Japan by 2005–2015, spreading to others thereafter. Difficult economic and noneconomic problems, for example, aging populations, must be confronted. A 2.1 replacement fertility rate is the key.

Walt W. Rostow

2001-01-01

18

Schools for Survival in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citing the grim world picture presented in "The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century," the author urgently calls for schools to restructure curriculum and to teach students to deal with crisis and change. (SJL)

Hymovitz, Leon

1981-01-01

19

The challenges of teaching and learning about science in the twenty-first century: exploring the abilities and constraints of adolescent learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we critically examine skills that are necessary for the effective learning of science in adolescent populations. We argue that a focus on twenty-first-century skills among adolescents within the context of science instruction must be considered in light of research on cognitive and social development. We first review adolescents’ emerging abilities in terms of five domains identified by

Eric M. Anderman; Gale M. Sinatra; DeLeon L. Gray

2012-01-01

20

Vaccines for the twenty-first century society.  

PubMed

Vaccines have been one of the major revolutions in the history of mankind and, during the twentieth century, they eliminated most of the childhood diseases that used to cause millions of deaths. In the twenty-first century, vaccines will also play a major part in safeguarding people's health. Supported by the innovations derived from new technologies, vaccines will address the new needs of a twenty-first century society characterized by increased life expectancy, emerging infections and poverty in low-income countries. PMID:22051890

Rappuoli, Rino; Mandl, Christian W; Black, Steven; De Gregorio, Ennio

2011-12-01

21

Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

22

Creating an Academic Library for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Bruce Miller took up the position of head librarian at the University of California, Merced in 2001, the plan for the new library was to use the University of California (UC) system's rich base of support as a launching pad for something great and extraordinary: a model academic research library for the twenty-first century. This article…

Barclay, Donald A.

2007-01-01

23

Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010–2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number

Geoffrey P. Hammond

1996-01-01

24

Humanities: The Unexpected Success Story of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humanities within universities faced challenges in the latter half of the twentieth century as their value in the modern world was questioned. This paper argues that there is strong potential for the humanities to thrive in the twenty-first century university sector. It outlines some of the managerial implications necessary to ensure that this…

Davis, Virginia

2012-01-01

25

Designing Vaccines for the Twenty-First Century Society  

PubMed Central

The history of vaccination clearly demonstrates that vaccines have been highly successful in preventing infectious diseases, reducing significantly the incidence of childhood diseases and mortality. However, many infections are still not preventable with the currently available vaccines and they represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. In the twenty-first century, the innovation brought by novel technologies in antigen discovery and formulation together with a deeper knowledge of the human immune responses are paving the way for the development of new vaccines. Final goal will be to rationally design effective vaccines where conventional approaches have failed. PMID:24478777

Finco, Oretta; Rappuoli, Rino

2013-01-01

26

76 FR 21741 - Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement...Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act (the Act...discussed the advanced communications and video programming changes required by the...

2011-04-18

27

Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

2013-01-01

28

Evolving roles of life and health sciences librarians for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed Central

The twenty-first century will provide exciting challenges for life and health sciences librarians that will force us to redefine our position in the world of information. This rapidly changing environment influences the profession in a variety of ways including whom we serve and through what service, how and where we practice librarianship, and even the very composition of the profession itself. We must look at the changes in society and make the appropriate reciprocal changes in how we educate future librarians, how we market the profession, and how we develop the profession as a whole. We, as life and health sciences librarians, need to meet these challenges head on in order to continue the evolution of the profession well into the twenty-first century. PMID:9681173

Funk, C J

1998-01-01

29

76 FR 14856 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and...Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION:...

2011-03-18

30

THE HOLOCAUST ON SCREEN IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: NEW APPROACHES/ New Approaches/ New Films  

E-print Network

THE HOLOCAUST ON SCREEN IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: NEW APPROACHES/ NEW FILMS New Approaches/ New An International Conference on New Approaches to Representing the Holocaust in Cinema Held in Conjunction with Prof Ribbat (Universität Paderborn) #12;THE HOLOCAUST ON SCREEN IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: NEW APPROACHES

Hellebrand, Sybille

31

Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

32

American Marriage in the Early Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past century the U.S. family system has seen vast changes--in marriage and divorce rates, cohabitation, childbearing, sexual behavior, and women's work outside the home. Andrew Cherlin reviews these historic changes, noting that marriage remains the most common living arrangement for raising children, but that children, especially poor…

Cherlin, Andrew J.

2005-01-01

33

Tackling heart failure in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure, or congestive heart failure, is a condition in which the heart cannot supply the body's tissues with enough blood. The result is a cascade of changes that lead to severe fatigue, breathlessness and, ultimately, death. In the past quarter century, much progress has been made in understanding the molecular and cellular processes that contribute to heart failure, leading

James O. Mudd; David A. Kass

2008-01-01

34

Moral Psychology for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lawrence Kohlberg slayed the two dragons of twentieth-century psychology--behaviorism and psychoanalysis. His victory was a part of the larger cognitive revolution that shaped the world in which all of us study psychology and education today. But the cognitive revolution itself was modified by later waves of change, particularly an "affective…

Haidt, Jonathan

2013-01-01

35

Establishing the R&D Agenda for Twenty-First Century Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much ink has flowed over the past few years describing the need to incorporate twenty-first century skills into K-12 education. Preparing students to succeed as citizens, thinkers, and workers--the bedrock of any educational system--in this environment means arming them with more than a list of facts and important dates. Infusing twenty-first

Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret

2006-01-01

36

Teaching the Constitution to Twenty-First Century Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Civic education in public schools faces major challenges. Under No Child Left Behind, many schools have favored teaching math and English rather than civics, which undermines one of the purposes of public schools--to educate students to be responsible and active citizens in democracy. A second challenge comes inside the classroom: engaging the…

Jackson, Peggy S.; Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Haas, Nancy S.

2008-01-01

37

Preparing the Twenty-First Century Workforce: The Case of Curriculum Change in Radiation Protection Education in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advent of the global information society and a myriad of other rapidly changing variables are presenting many new and unique challenges for the twenty-first century workforce, and perhaps the most pressing of these challenges is actually meeting the needs for qualified workers to fill the positions in emerging and growing fields. One such…

Schmidt, Matthew; Easter, Matthew; Jonassen, David; Miller, William; Ionas, Gelu

2008-01-01

38

Adolescence and Adult Work in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes adolescent experiences in completing school and commencing adult work. Identifies the threats to preparing youth for adult work and describes the increasing national and international recognition of the significance of youth for economic and social development. Considers broad policy implications and details actions to address challenges

Shanahan, Michael J.; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Kruger, Helga

2002-01-01

39

76 FR 68117 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...MB Docket No. 11-43; FCC 11-126] Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 AGENCY: Federal...document concerning implementation of the Video Description elements of the...

2011-11-03

40

76 FR 56658 - Video Description Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. 11-43; FCC 11-126] Video Description Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 Action: Final...regulations for issues relating to the video description rules. The final...

2011-09-14

41

Alaska: A twenty-first-century petroleum province  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alaska, the least explored of all United States regions, is estimated to contain approximately 40% of total U.S. undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural-gas resources, based on the most recent U.S. Department of the Interior (U.S. Geological Survey and Minerals Management Service) estimates. Northern Alaska, including the North Slope and adjacent Beaufort and Chukchi continental shelves, holds the lion's share of the total Alaskan endowment of more than 30 billion barrels (4.8 billion m3) of oil and natural-gas liquids plus nearly 200 trillion cubic feet (5.7 trillion m3) of natural gas. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Multiple source-rock zones have charged several regionally extensive petroleum systems. Extensional and compressional structures provide ample structural objectives. In addition, recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite systems in Jurassic to Tertiary strata. Despite robust potential, northern Alaska remains a risky exploration frontier - a nexus of geologic complexity, harsh economic conditions, and volatile policy issues. Its role as a major petroleum province in this century will depend on continued technological innovations, not only in exploration and drilling operations, but also in development of huge, currently unmarketable natural-gas resources. Ultimately, policy decisions will determine whether exploration of arctic Alaska will proceed.

Bird, K.J.

2001-01-01

42

Prevention of Toxic Environmental Illness in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

Previous introductions of new technologies have frequently resulted in unanticipated occupational and environmental illness. Prevention of such illness in the twenty-first century requires stringent application of two fundamental principles of public health: evaluation of new technologies before their introduction, and surveillance of exposed persons after the introduction of new technologies. Failure to establish these basic preventive mechanisms in advance will inevitably result in the development ofnew toxic diseases in the twenty-first century.

Philip J. L

43

Data Analysis in the Twenty-First Century  

SciTech Connect

The 21st Century is characterized by complex multidisciplinary problems accompanied by massive datasets. 'We are drowning in data, but starving for knowledge', as the volumes of many commercial, industrial and scientific datasets have exceeded the terabyte range and are approaching petabytes and beyond. Statistical methodology has long been employed to find useful and usable information in data. More recently, data mining has harnessed the power of computer technology to find useful and usable patterns in such massive datasets. Although several data mining journals have joined the established statistical journals, no single journal provides an integrated treatment of statistical analysis methodology and data mining technology, particularly when applied to the solution of practical problems. This absence and the needs expressed above motivated the inauguration of John Wiley's new Journal on Statistical Analysis and Data Mining. The goals of this interdisciplinary journal are to encourage collaborations across disciplines, communication of data mining and statistical techniques to both novices and experts involved in the analysis of data from practical problems, and a principled and productive evaluation of analyses and solutions. The journal specifically encourages submission of works that have statistical rigor in the analysis of data, incorporate the most appropriate algorithms from data mining, and address the needs of applications. Applying data mining algorithms to practical problems is not sufficient, because we need to ensure that the results have a sound statistical basis, lest any decision based on these results lead to a catastrophe. Even data mining algorithms founded on sound statistical analysis are not sufficient, if they cannot solve a practical problem. Finally, employing a statistical analysis on a practical problem is not sufficient, unless it scales up to massive datasets. Statistical analysis and data mining are actually two sides of the sword that is sorely needed to conquer data overload in practical problems.

Goodman, A; Kamath, C; Kumar, V

2007-08-16

44

American marriage in the early twenty-first century.  

PubMed

During the past century the U.S. family system has seen vast changes--in marriage and divorce rates, cohabitation, childbearing, sexual behavior, and women's work outside the home. Andrew Cherlin reviews these historic changes, noting that marriage remains the most common living arrangement for raising children, but that children, especially poor and minority children, are increasingly likely to grow up in single-parent families and to experience family instability. Cherlin describes the economic and cultural forces that have transformed family life. Job market changes have drawn married women into the work force and deprived less-educated men of the blue-collar jobs by which they traditionally supported their families. And effective contraception and legalized abortion have eroded the norm of marriage before childbearing. Cherlin notes that sentiment in favor of marriage appears to be stronger in the United States than in other developed countries. The share of U.S. adults who are likely to marry is higher, but so is the share likely to divorce. U.S. children are also more likely to live in single-parent families at some time in their childhood. Although nearly all Americans, whether poor or well-to-do, hold to marriage as an ideal, today marriage is increasingly optional. To a greater extent than ever before, individuals can choose whether to form a family on their own, in a cohabiting relationship, or in a marriage. Given U.S. patterns of swift transitions into and out of marriage and high rates of single parenthood, American policymakers eager to promote marriage are unlikely to be able to raise U.S. family stability to levels typical of other developed countries. Consequently, a family policy that relies too heavily on marriage will not help the many children destined to live in single-parent and cohabiting families--many of them poor--during their formative years. Assistance must be directed to needy families, regardless of their household structure. Policymakers must craft a careful balance of marriage-based and marriage-neutral programs to provide adequate support to American children. PMID:16158729

Cherlin, Andrew J

2005-01-01

45

Families and elder care in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Although most Americans know that the U.S. population is aging, they are far less informed about the reality of providing elders with personal care, health care, and social support. Families-particularly women-have always been critical in providing elder care, but the entry of so many women into the paid labor force has made elder care increasingly difficult. Ann Bookman and Delia Kimbrel show how changes in both work and family life are complicating families' efforts to care for elderly relatives. Because almost 60 percent of elder caregivers today are employed, many forms of caregiving must now be "outsourced" to nonfamily members. And because elders are widely diverse by race and socioeconomic status, their families attach differing cultural meanings to care and have widely different resources with which to accomplish their care goals. Although the poorest elders have access to some subsidized services, and the wealthiest can pay for services, many middle-class families cannot afford services that allow elders to age in their homes and avoid even more costly institutional care. Six key groups--health care providers, nongovernmental community-based service providers, employers, government, families, and elders themselves--are engaged in elder care, but their efforts are often fragmented and uncoordinated. All six groups must be able to work in concert and to receive the resources they need. Both employer and government policies must be improved. Although large businesses have taken up the elder care challenge, most small and mid-sized firms still do not offer flexible work arrangements. Social Security and Medicare have provided critical support to families caring for elders, yet both face significant financial shortfalls. The Older American Act and the National Family Caregiver Support Program have broadened access to elder services, but need updating to address the needs of today's employed caregivers and elders who want to "age in place." And just over half of the nation's workforce is eligible for the unpaid leave benefits provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act. The authors close by reflecting on the need for a coordinated, cross-sector movement to create an "aging-friendly" society in the United States-a society that values well-being across the life span and supports citizens from diverse cultures and income levels as they age. PMID:22013631

Bookman, Ann; Kimbrel, Delia

2011-01-01

46

Twenty-first century science as a relational process: from eureka! to team science and a place for community psychology.  

PubMed

In this paper we maintain that twenty-first century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of twenty-first century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: (1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; (2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; (3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, twenty-first century transformation in science; (4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; (5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance twenty-first century science; and (6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the twenty-first century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer twenty-first century science. PMID:24496718

Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D; Matlin, Samantha L

2014-06-01

47

Adolescent Health and Well-Being in the Twenty-First Century: A Global Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the current health and well-being of adolescents around the world. Considers the implications for adolescent health and well-being in the twenty-first century of societal trends, including growing poverty and income disparities, the changing health care system, increased migration and urbanization, and new information technology.…

Call, Kathleen Thiede; Riedel, Aylin Altan; Hein, Karen; McLoyd, Vonnie; Petersen, Anne; Kipke, Michele

2002-01-01

48

Teaching Middle School Language Arts: Incorporating Twenty-First Century Literacies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Teaching Middle School Language Arts" is the first book on teaching middle school language arts for multiple intelligences and related twenty-first-century literacies in technologically and ethnically diverse communities. More than 670,000 middle school teachers (grades six through eight) are responsible for educating nearly 13 million students…

Small Roseboro, Anna J.

2010-01-01

49

Distance Education Technology: Higher Education Barriers during the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the twenty-first century, despite the expanded opportunities technology affords in student-access to higher education, most institutions of higher education are hesitant to offer technology-based distance education (TBDE). The prohibiting factors include cost, accessibility, faculty concerns, state mandates, academic administrative actions, and…

Owusu-Ansah, Angela; Neill, Patti; Haralson, Michele K.

2011-01-01

50

Library and information science : Skills for twenty-first century professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To review skills needed by library and information science (LIS) professionals in the twenty-first century and suggest a new approach to four key skills. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Considers the DNA skills approach of Hallam and Partridge and analyses the four skills using examples of innovative developments in library and information services. Findings – LIS professionals need a range of

Roxanne Missingham

2006-01-01

51

Career Learning and Development: A Social Constructivist Model for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK there have been several calls for new models "fit for purpose" for careers work in the twenty-first century and in response, this article presents a model for career learning and development. This brings together recent theory regarding the ways in which people make career decisions throughout their lives in rapidly changing, turbulent…

Bassot, Barbara

2012-01-01

52

Teaching and Learning in the Twenty-First Century: What Is an "Institute of Education" for?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As we begin the twenty-first century, schools and teachers are subject to enormous pressures for change. The revolution in digital technologies, the pressure to develop consistently high-performing schools systems, and the drive between excellence and equity all combine to raise profound questions about the nature of successful teaching and…

Husbands, Chris

2012-01-01

53

An Exploratory Study of the Achievement of the Twenty-First Century Skills in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey study of the achievement of twenty-first century skills in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The study employs a quantitative survey design. Findings: The findings indicate that the basic scientific and technological skills of reading critically and writing…

Ghaith, Ghazi

2010-01-01

54

Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,…

Murphy, Peter

2012-01-01

55

The New Cosmopolitan Monolingualism: On Linguistic Citizenship in Twenty-First Century Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the early years of the twenty-first century, being German has become a matter of linguistic competence and performance. An acute shift in citizenship statutes at the end of the 1990s brought about a peripatetic departure from Germany's "right of blood" ("ius sanguinis") toward a French-inspired "right of territory" ("ius soli"). Yet in the nine…

Gramling, David

2009-01-01

56

Forecasting Twenty-First Century Information Technology Skills: A Delphi Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As cities and regions seek to increase the stock of college educated citizens in order to compete in the twenty-first century knowledge-economy, colleges and universities are realizing increased enrollment. At the same time, much is being written about the skills needed by graduates for the new economy. These studies articulate skills in critical…

Young, Jackie A.

2012-01-01

57

Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive thinking; information,…

Lee, Wing On

2012-01-01

58

The Incomplete Rebellion: Mau Mau Movement in Twenty-First-Century Kenyan Popular Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the simultaneous and contradictory conceptions of Kenyan history by rereading popular representations of the Mau Mau war of Kenyan independence and its postindependence consequences. It examines twenty-first-century evocations and appropriations of Mau Mau in relation to earlier discourses in literature and politics. It discovers that contemporary artists and citizens deploy references to Mau Mau outside of its

Evan Mwangi

2010-01-01

59

The Incomplete Rebellion: Mau Mau Movement in Twenty-First-Century Kenyan Popular Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

: This paper concerns the simultaneous and contradictory conceptions of Kenyan history by rereading popular representations of the Mau Mau war of Kenyan independence and its postindependence consequences. It examines twenty-first-century evocations and appropriations of Mau Mau in relation to earlier discourses in literature and politics. It discovers that contemporary artists and citizens deploy references to Mau Mau outside of

Evan Mwangi

2010-01-01

60

Gaga for Google in the Twenty-First Century Advanced Placement Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The migration of online educational needs to tools like Google applications, coupled with the realization that today's twenty-first-century students are digital natives who have lived their entire lives exposed to current technology, forces educators to find ways to use technology to enhance traditional curriculum. In this article, the author…

Adams, Devon Christopher

2008-01-01

61

A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

Weis, Lois

2014-01-01

62

Twenty-First Century Science Informing a Sustainable Industry NOAATechnical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 164  

E-print Network

Twenty-First Century Science Informing a Sustainable Industry NOAATechnical Memorandum NOS NCCOS a Sustainable Industry Carol Seals Price and James A. Morris, Jr. Center for Coastal Fisheries and Habitat, Rensel and Associates, Arlington, WA Jeremy Spurway, Scottish EPA, Scotland, UK Barry Hargrave (retired

63

Golf science research at the beginning of the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, there are 30,000 golf courses and 55 million people who play golf worldwide. In the USA alone, the value of golf club memberships sold in the 1990s was US$3.2 billion. Underpinning this significant human activity is a wide variety of people researching and applying science to sustain and develop the game. The 11

M. R. Farrally; A. J. Cochran; D. J. Crews; M. J. Hurdzan; R. J. Price; J. T. Snow; P. R. Thomas

2003-01-01

64

Remobilization of southern African desert dune systems by twenty-first century global warming.  

PubMed

Although desert dunes cover 5 per cent of the global land surface and 30 per cent of Africa, the potential impacts of twenty-first century global warming on desert dune systems are not well understood. The inactive Sahel and southern African dune systems, which developed in multiple arid phases since the last interglacial period, are used today by pastoral and agricultural systems that could be disrupted if climate change alters twenty-first century dune dynamics. Empirical data and model simulations have established that the interplay between dune surface erodibility (determined by vegetation cover and moisture availability) and atmospheric erosivity (determined by wind energy) is critical for dunefield dynamics. This relationship between erodibility and erosivity is susceptible to climate-change impacts. Here we use simulations with three global climate models and a range of emission scenarios to assess the potential future activity of three Kalahari dunefields. We determine monthly values of dune activity by modifying and improving an established dune mobility index so that it can account for global climate model data outputs. We find that, regardless of the emission scenario used, significantly enhanced dune activity is simulated in the southern dunefield by 2039, and in the eastern and northern dunefields by 2069. By 2099 all dunefields are highly dynamic, from northern South Africa to Angola and Zambia. Our results suggest that dunefields are likely to be reactivated (the sand will become significantly exposed and move) as a consequence of twenty-first century climate warming. PMID:15988522

Thomas, David S G; Knight, Melanie; Wiggs, Giles F S

2005-06-30

65

Twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over Upper Indus Basin of Himalayan region of Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is based on both the recent and the predicted twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over the mountainous Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which are influenced by snow and glacier melting. Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) data for the periods 1976–2005, 2006–2035, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100 with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) data for the periods of 2041–2050 and 2071–2080 with RCP8.5 are used for climatic projection and, after bias correction, the same data are used as an input to the University of British Columbia (UBC) hydrological model for river flow projections. The projections of all of the future periods were compared with the results of 1976–2005 and with each other. Projections of future changes show a consistent increase in air temperature and precipitation. However, temperature and precipitation increase is relatively slow during 2071–2100 in contrast with 2041–2070. Northern parts are more likely to experience an increase in precipitation and temperature in comparison to the southern parts. A higher increase in temperature is projected during spring and winter over southern parts and during summer over northern parts. Moreover, the increase in minimum temperature is larger in both scenarios for all future periods. Future river flow is projected by both models to increase in the twenty first century (CCAM and RegCM) in both scenarios. However, the rate of increase is larger during the first half while it is relatively small in the second half of the twenty first century in RCP4.5. The possible reason for high river flow during the first half of the twenty first century is the large increase in temperature, which may cause faster melting of snow, while in the last half of the century there is a decreasing trend in river flow, precipitation, and temperature (2071–2100) in comparison to 2041–2070 for RCP4.5. Generally, for all future periods, the percentage of increased river flow is larger in winter than in summer, while quantitatively large river flow was projected, particularly during the summer monsoon. Due to high river flow and increase in precipitation in UIB, water availability is likely to be increased in the twenty first century and this may sustain water demands.

Ali, Shaukat; Li, Dan; Congbin, Fu; Khan, Firdos

2015-01-01

66

A Comparison of Concept Age Gains of Kindergarten Children in Traditional and Twenty-First Century Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine whether kindergarten students in a "twenty-first century classroom" would have a greater gain in concept age than students in a traditional kindergarten classroom. Subjects were students, randomly assigned, in two kindergarten classrooms. The twenty-first century classroom incorporates five computers into the…

Grubb, Patricia W.

67

Why American business demands twenty-first century skills: an industry perspective.  

PubMed

Public education is the key to individual and business prosperity. With a vested stake in education, educators, employers, parents, policymakers, and the public should question how this nation's public education system is faring. Knowing that recent international assessments have shown little or no gains in American students' achievement, the author asserts the clear need for change. As both a large American corporate employer and a provider of technology for schools, Dell is concerned with ensuring that youth will thrive in their adult lives. Changing workplace expectations lead to a new list of skills students will need to acquire before completing their schooling. Through technology, Dell supports schools in meeting educational goals, striving to supply students with the necessary skills, referred to as twenty-first century skills. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills, of which Dell is a member, has led an initiative to define what twenty-first century learning should entail. Through extensive research, the partnership has built a framework outlining twenty-first century skills: analytical thinking, communication, collaboration, global awareness, and technological and economic literacy. Dell and the partnership are working state by state to promote the integration of these skills into curricula, professional development for teachers, and classroom environments. The authors describe two current initiatives, one in Virginia, the other in Texas, which both use technology to help student learning. All stakeholders can take part in preparing young people to compete in the global economy. Educators and administrators, legislators, parents, and employers must play their role in helping students be ready for what the workforce and the world has in store for them. PMID:17017253

Bruett, Karen

2006-01-01

68

Twenty-first century learning after school: the case of 4-H.  

PubMed

Founded in the early 1900s, the 4-H Youth Development program can serve as a model for out-of-school programs of the twenty-first century. The 4-H pledge, repeated by its members--over 7 million, ranging in age from five to twenty--articulates its core values: "I pledge: My head to clearer thinking, My heart to greater loyalty, My hands to larger service, and My health to better living for my club, my community, my country, and my world." The 4-H Development movement was created to provide opportunities for rural children, to help them become constructive adults. Through an emphasis on "learning by doing," 4-H teaches children the habits of lifelong learning. Historically, 4-H has tapped into university-level advancements, extending such knowledge to youth and thereby giving them early access to scientific discoveries and technological progress. Members apply this learning in their communities through hands-on projects crossing a wide-range of pertinent topics. Research shows that 4-H members are more successful in school than other children and develop a wide range of skills essential in the twenty-first century. Thus, the author makes the case that the foundation of 4-H is exceptionally relevant in today's complex world, perhaps even more so than a century ago. 4-H is a leader in youth development, making it a natural model for twenty-first century after-school programs. Expanding on the 4-H pledge, the author outlines the principles a successful youth development program would have: an emphasis on leadership skills, a feeling of connection and belonging, a forum for exploring career opportunities, and a component of meaningful community service. PMID:17017263

Kress, Cathann

2006-01-01

69

Microreactors for peptide synthesis: looking through the eyes of twenty first century !!!  

PubMed

The twenty first century has witnessed several advances in synthetic chemistry, among them microreactors. It is expected that these devices will have a considerable impact on synthetic organic chemistry since they offer a wide range of applications in various fields. Perhaps the synthesis of peptides deserves mention in this regard as these molecules are emerging as therapeutics and offer several advantages over the so-called small molecules. This minireview does not aim to address microreactors in detail, but explains various peptide synthesis methods that involve microfluidic techniques, highlighting the need for further improvement and expansion of microdevices/microreactors. PMID:24961648

Ramesh, Suhas; Cherkupally, Prabhakar; de la Torre, Beatriz G; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Albericio, Fernando

2014-09-01

70

Improved Views of the Moon in the Early Twenty First Century: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The twenty first century was an exciting epoch in planetary exploration, when a large number of lunar scientific achievements were accomplished. New missions in the first decade of the twenty first century have herald a new and exciting phase in lunar exploration, including LRO, LCROSS, the dual GRAIL orbiters, Kaguya, Chandrayaan 1, and the Chang'e series. Here we review the most significant advances in our understanding of lunar geoscience, including the assessment of water ice at lunar poles, the detection of new elements and minerals relating to exposed interior materials, the calculation of highly accurate gravity models, and the detection of subsurface interfaces probably related to basaltic strata formed in distinct episodes. In this paper we emphasize the importance of integrated approaches to the analysis of these large yield of new lunar data, through comparison and integration. By integrating a range of diverse technologies and approaches, this paper reviews new understanding of lunar processes, including the confirmation of the presence of water ice at the poles, the interactions between solar wind and surface oxides, and an improved model of lunar interior structures.

Yang, Hongwei; Zhao, Wenjin

2015-02-01

71

Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015. Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The opportunities for space science in the period from 1995 to 2015 are discussed. A perspective on progress in the six disciplines (the planet Earth; planetary and lunar exploration; solar system space physics; astronomy and astrophysics; fundamental physics and chemistry; and life sciences) of space science are reviewed. The prospectives for major achievements by 1995 from missions already underway or awaiting new starts are included. A set of long range goals for these disciplines are presented for the first two decades of the twenty-first century. Broad themes for future scientific pursuits are presented and some examples of high-priority missions for the turn of the century are highlighted. A few recommendations are cited for each discipline to suggest how these themes might be developed.

1988-01-01

72

Social security reform in the twenty-first century: the United States.  

PubMed

The paper reviews the history of the Social Security system in the United States in the twentieth century and discusses options for the twenty-first. Because of the steady aging of the U.S. population and the impending retirement of the large baby boom cohort, the Social Security program now is in long-term actuarial deficit. The standard twentieth century approach to this actuarial deficit would be to raise payroll taxes enough to pay for anticipated future benefit increases, but for several reasons that approach may not be so popular this time around. The author's preferred approach is a gradual trimming of long-term benefit growth, plus "add on" individual accounts to provide new saving, for the economy and for the retirement system. The paper also criticizes proposals for Social Security reform made by President Clinton and a committee appointed by President Bush, generally because these proposals do not provide enough new saving. PMID:12503330

Gramlich, Edward M

2002-01-01

73

76 FR 4838 - Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 [CG Docket...Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010...Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed...

2011-01-27

74

Why the twenty-first century tropical Pacific trend pattern cannot significantly influence ENSO amplitude?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the climate is highly expected to change due to global warming, it is unclear whether the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) will be more or less active in the future. One may argue that this uncertainty is due to the intrinsic uncertainties in current climate models or the strong natural long-term modulation of ENSO. Here, we propose that the global warming trend cannot significantly modify ENSO amplitude due to weak feedback between the global warming induced tropical climate change and ENSO. By analyzing Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and observation data, we found that the zonal dipole pattern of sea surface temperature [SST; warming in the eastern Pacific and cooling in the western Pacific or vice versa; `Pacific zonal mode' (PZM)] is highly correlated to change in ENSO amplitude. Additionally, this PZM is commonly identified in control experiments (pre-industrial conditions), twentieth century observations, and twenty-first century scenario experiments [representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5 W m-2 (RCP 4.5, 8.5)]. PZM provides favorable conditions for the intensification of ENSO by strengthening air-sea coupling and modifying ENSO pattern. On the other hand, the twenty-first century SST trend pattern, which is different from PZM, is not favorable towards changing ENSO amplitude. Furthermore, we performed an intermediate ocean-atmosphere coupled model simulations, in which the SST trend pattern and PZM are imposed as an external anomalous heat flux or prescribed as a basic state. It was concluded that the SST trend pattern forcing insignificantly changes ENSO amplitude, and the PZM forcing intensifies ENSO amplitude.

An, Soon-Il; Choi, Jung

2015-01-01

75

Low Fertility at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

In the past few decades, demographic concerns have shifted from rapid population growth fueled by high fertility to concerns of population decline produced by very low, sub-replacement fertility levels. Once considered a problem unique to Europe or developed nations, concerns now center on the global spread of low fertility. Nearly half of the world's population now lives in countries with fertility at or below replacement levels. Further, by the mid-twenty-first century three of four countries now described as developing are projected to reach or slip below replacement fertility. We review the research on low fertility through the predominant frameworks and theories used to explain it. These explanations range from decomposition and proximate determinant frameworks to grand theories on the fundamental causes underlying the pervasiveness and spread of low fertility. We focus on the ability of theory to situate previous and future findings and conclude with directions for furthur research. PMID:20376287

Morgan, S. Philip; Taylor, Miles G.

2010-01-01

76

Expecting motherhood? Stratifying reproduction in twenty-first century Scottish abortion practice  

PubMed Central

This article illustrates how Scottish health professionals involved in contemporary abortion provision construct stratified expectations about women’s reproductive decision-making. Drawing on 42 semi-structured interviews I reveal the contingent discourses through which health professionals constitute the ‘rationality’ of the female subject who requests abortion. Specifically, I illustrate how youth, age, parity and class are mobilised as criteria through which to distinguish ‘types’ of patient whose requests for abortion are deemed particularly understandable or particularly problematic. I conceptualise this process of differentiation as a form of ‘stratified reproduction’ (Colen, 1995; Ginsburg and Rapp, 1995) and argue that it is significant for two reasons. Firstly, it illustrates the operation of dominant discourses concerning abortion and motherhood in twenty-first century Britain. Secondly, it extends the forms of critique which feminist scholarship has, to date, developed of the regulation of abortion provision in the UK.

Beynon-Jones, Siân M.

2015-01-01

77

Uncertainty in Twenty-First-Century CMIP5 Sea Level Projections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The representative concentration pathway (RCP) simulations included in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) quantify the response of the climate system to different natural and anthropogenic forcing scenarios. These simulations differ because of 1) forcing, 2) the representation of the climate system in atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs), and 3) the presence of unforced (internal) variability. Global and local sea level rise projections derived from these simulations, and the emergence of distinct responses to the four RCPs depend on the relative magnitude of these sources of uncertainty at different lead times. Here, the uncertainty in CMIP5 projections of sea level is partitioned at global and local scales, using a 164-member ensemble of twenty-first-century simulations. Local projections at New York City (NYSL) are highlighted. The partition between model uncertainty, scenario uncertainty, and internal variability in global mean sea level (GMSL) is qualitatively consistent with that of surface air temperature, with model uncertainty dominant for most of the twenty-first century. Locally, model uncertainty is dominant through 2100, with maxima in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. The model spread is driven largely by 4 of the 16 AOGCMs in the ensemble; these models exhibit outlying behavior in all RCPs and in both GMSL and NYSL. The magnitude of internal variability varies widely by location and across models, leading to differences of several decades in the local emergence of RCPs. The AOGCM spread, and its sensitivity to model exclusion and/or weighting, has important implications for sea level assessments, especially if a local risk management approach is utilized.

Little, Christopher M.; Horton, Radley M.; Kopp, Robert E.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Yip, Stan

2015-01-01

78

Robust twenty-first-century projections of ElNiño and related precipitation variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ElNiño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in rainfall, severe weather, agricultural production, ecosystems and disease in many parts of the world. Given that further human-forced changes in the Earth's climate system seem inevitable, the possibility exists that the character of ENSO and its impacts might change over the coming century. Although this issue has been investigated many times during the past 20years, there is very little consensus on future changes in ENSO, apart from an expectation that ENSO will continue to be a dominant source of year-to-year variability. Here we show that there are in fact robust projected changes in the spatial patterns of year-to-year ENSO-driven variability in both surface temperature and precipitation. These changes are evident in the two most recent generations of climate models, using four different scenarios for CO2 and other radiatively active gases. By the mid- to late twenty-first century, the projections include an intensification of both El-Niño-driven drying in the western Pacific Ocean and rainfall increases in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Experiments with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model reveal that robust projected changes in precipitation anomalies during ElNiño years are primarily determined by a nonlinear response to surface global warming. Uncertain projected changes in the amplitude of ENSO-driven surface temperature variability have only a secondary role. Projected changes in key characteristics of ENSO are consequently much clearer than previously realized.

Power, Scott; Delage, François; Chung, Christine; Kociuba, Greg; Keay, Kevin

2013-10-01

79

Psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis: role of patient advocacy organisations in the twenty first century  

PubMed Central

All the psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis patient advocacy organisations are devoted to promoting public awareness and patient education; supporting access to effective treatments and physicians committed to the welfare of patients; working with physicians and other organisations to facilitate development of new treatments; and supporting research for more effective treatments and a cure for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. They have participated in the remaking of health politics in the late twentieth century. This was an era in which small patient support and advocacy groups were transformed into sophisticated national health organisations integral to the formation of national health policy and research, treatment, and education funding by working with physicians, legislators, pharmaceutical companies, third party payors, and the media. As we enter the twenty first century, some of these groups have done critical surveys of patients and physicians to discern needs that are redirecting their programming and reshaping directions in the field. Many national leagues have united to form international organisations. Although differences in their national healthcare systems, the age of their organisations, and the diseases they cover are reflected in the focus of their individual activities, much unites them. Whatever their size, as their roles have come to be recognised in the healthcare community, the patient advocacy organisations welcome being invited to the decision making table. This report describes a sampling of these organisations. PMID:15708949

Zimmerman, G; Savage, L; Chandler, D; Maccarone, B

2005-01-01

80

Robust twenty-first-century projections of El Niño and related precipitation variability.  

PubMed

The El?Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in rainfall, severe weather, agricultural production, ecosystems and disease in many parts of the world. Given that further human-forced changes in the Earth's climate system seem inevitable, the possibility exists that the character of ENSO and its impacts might change over the coming century. Although this issue has been investigated many times during the past 20?years, there is very little consensus on future changes in ENSO, apart from an expectation that ENSO will continue to be a dominant source of year-to-year variability. Here we show that there are in fact robust projected changes in the spatial patterns of year-to-year ENSO-driven variability in both surface temperature and precipitation. These changes are evident in the two most recent generations of climate models, using four different scenarios for CO2 and other radiatively active gases. By the mid- to late twenty-first century, the projections include an intensification of both El-Niño-driven drying in the western Pacific Ocean and rainfall increases in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Experiments with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model reveal that robust projected changes in precipitation anomalies during El?Niño years are primarily determined by a nonlinear response to surface global warming. Uncertain projected changes in the amplitude of ENSO-driven surface temperature variability have only a secondary role. Projected changes in key characteristics of ENSO are consequently much clearer than previously realized. PMID:24121439

Power, Scott; Delage, François; Chung, Christine; Kociuba, Greg; Keay, Kevin

2013-10-24

81

Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate  

E-print Network

Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators 19th to early 21st century behavior of Alaskan glaciers. Weather station temperature data document of glaciers to this regional climate change, a comprehensive analysis was made of the recent behavior

82

Mediterranean Sea response to climate change in an ensemble of twenty first century scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean climate is expected to become warmer and drier during the twenty-first century. Mediterranean Sea response to climate change could be modulated by the choice of the socio-economic scenario as well as the choice of the boundary conditions mainly the Atlantic hydrography, the river runoff and the atmospheric fluxes. To assess and quantify the sensitivity of the Mediterranean Sea to the twenty-first century climate change, a set of numerical experiments was carried out with the regional ocean model NEMOMED8 set up for the Mediterranean Sea. The model is forced by air-sea fluxes derived from the regional climate model ARPEGE-Climate at a 50-km horizontal resolution. Historical simulations representing the climate of the period 1961-2000 were run to obtain a reference state. From this baseline, various sensitivity experiments were performed for the period 2001-2099, following different socio-economic scenarios based on the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. For the A2 scenario, the main three boundary forcings (river runoff, near-Atlantic water hydrography and air-sea fluxes) were changed one by one to better identify the role of each forcing in the way the ocean responds to climate change. In two additional simulations (A1B, B1), the scenario is changed, allowing to quantify the socio-economic uncertainty. Our 6-member scenario simulations display a warming and saltening of the Mediterranean. For the 2070-2099 period compared to 1961-1990, the sea surface temperature anomalies range from +1.73 to +2.97 °C and the SSS anomalies spread from +0.48 to +0.89. In most of the cases, we found that the future Mediterranean thermohaline circulation (MTHC) tends to reach a situation similar to the eastern Mediterranean Transient. However, this response is varying depending on the chosen boundary conditions and socio-economic scenarios. Our numerical experiments suggest that the choice of the near-Atlantic surface water evolution, which is very uncertain in General Circulation Models, has the largest impact on the evolution of the Mediterranean water masses, followed by the choice of the socio-economic scenario. The choice of river runoff and atmospheric forcing both have a smaller impact. The state of the MTHC during the historical period is found to have a large influence on the transfer of surface anomalies toward depth. Besides, subsurface currents are substantially modified in the Ionian Sea and the Balearic region. Finally, the response of thermosteric sea level ranges from +34 to +49 cm (2070-2099 vs. 1961-1990), mainly depending on the Atlantic forcing.

Adloff, Fanny; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence; Jordà, Gabriel; Aznar, Roland; Déqué, Michel; Herrmann, Marine; Marcos, Marta; Dubois, Clotilde; Padorno, Elena; Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique; Gomis, Damià

2015-02-01

83

Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could…

Reynolds, David R.

84

Dynamic consent: a patient interface for twenty-first century research networks  

PubMed Central

Biomedical research is being transformed through the application of information technologies that allow ever greater amounts of data to be shared on an unprecedented scale. However, the methods for involving participants have not kept pace with changes in research capability. In an era when information is shared digitally at the global level, mechanisms of informed consent remain static, paper-based and organised around national boundaries and legal frameworks. Dynamic consent (DC) is both a specific project and a wider concept that offers a new approach to consent; one designed to meet the needs of the twenty-first century research landscape. At the heart of DC is a personalised, digital communication interface that connects researchers and participants, placing participants at the heart of decision making. The interface facilitates two-way communication to stimulate a more engaged, informed and scientifically literate participant population where individuals can tailor and manage their own consent preferences. The technical architecture of DC includes components that can securely encrypt sensitive data and allow participant consent preferences to travel with their data and samples when they are shared with third parties. In addition to improving transparency and public trust, this system benefits researchers by streamlining recruitment and enabling more efficient participant recontact. DC has mainly been developed in biobanking contexts, but it also has potential application in other domains for a variety of purposes. PMID:24801761

Kaye, Jane; Whitley, Edgar A; Lund, David; Morrison, Michael; Teare, Harriet; Melham, Karen

2015-01-01

85

Critical Needs for the Twenty First Century: The Role of the Geosciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Geological Institute and its Member Societies have prepared a concise document for U.S. policy makers about the critical needs of the United States and the rest of the world at the beginning of the twenty first century and how the geosciences can help. In particular, the document is meant for a new Administration and a new Congress in the United States. The geoscience community identified seven critical needs, which are: energy and climate; water; waste disposal; natural hazards; infrastructure, raw materials; and education and the geoscience workforce. Each critical need is described with an explanation of how the geosciences could help address each need. After each summary, the document provides a list of policy directions that policy makers could consider to address these needs with help from the geosciences. The three key policy recommendations are: 1. Establish a natural resource advisor within the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy; 2. Invest in mapping, monitoring, assessments and state and federal surveys of natural resources and 3. Invest in research and develop to understand Earth processes.

Rowan, L.; Leahy, P. P.; Zoback, M.

2008-12-01

86

Dynamic consent: a patient interface for twenty-first century research networks.  

PubMed

Biomedical research is being transformed through the application of information technologies that allow ever greater amounts of data to be shared on an unprecedented scale. However, the methods for involving participants have not kept pace with changes in research capability. In an era when information is shared digitally at the global level, mechanisms of informed consent remain static, paper-based and organised around national boundaries and legal frameworks. Dynamic consent (DC) is both a specific project and a wider concept that offers a new approach to consent; one designed to meet the needs of the twenty-first century research landscape. At the heart of DC is a personalised, digital communication interface that connects researchers and participants, placing participants at the heart of decision making. The interface facilitates two-way communication to stimulate a more engaged, informed and scientifically literate participant population where individuals can tailor and manage their own consent preferences. The technical architecture of DC includes components that can securely encrypt sensitive data and allow participant consent preferences to travel with their data and samples when they are shared with third parties. In addition to improving transparency and public trust, this system benefits researchers by streamlining recruitment and enabling more efficient participant recontact. DC has mainly been developed in biobanking contexts, but it also has potential application in other domains for a variety of purposes. PMID:24801761

Kaye, Jane; Whitley, Edgar A; Lund, David; Morrison, Michael; Teare, Harriet; Melham, Karen

2015-02-01

87

Effects of long-term variability on projections of twenty-first century dynamic sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea-level rise is one of the most pressing aspects of anthropogenic global warming with far-reaching consequences for coastal societies. However, sea-level rise did and will strongly vary from coast to coast. Here we investigate the long-term internal variability effects on centennial projections of dynamic sea level (DSL), the local departure from the globally averaged sea level. A large ensemble of global warming integrations has been conducted with a climate model, where each realization was forced by identical CO2 increase but started from different atmospheric and oceanic initial conditions. In large parts of the mid- and high latitudes, the ensemble spread of the projected centennial DSL trends is of the same order of magnitude as the globally averaged steric sea-level rise, suggesting that internal variability cannot be ignored when assessing twenty-first-century DSL trends. The ensemble spread is considerably reduced in the mid- to high latitudes when only the atmospheric initial conditions differ while keeping the oceanic initial state identical; indicating that centennial DSL projections are strongly dependent on ocean initial conditions.

Bordbar, Mohammad H.; Martin, Thomas; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

2015-04-01

88

Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

1992-01-01

89

On the twenty-first-century wet season projections over the Southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper reconciles the difference in the projections of the wet season over the Southeastern United States (SEUS) from a global climate model (the Community Climate System Model Version 3 [CCSM3]) and from a regional climate model (the Regional Spectral Model [RSM]) nested in the CCSM3. The CCSM3 projects a dipole in the summer precipitation anomaly: peninsular Florida dries in the future climate, and the remainder of the SEUS region becomes wetter. The RSM forced with CCSM3 projects a universal drying of the SEUS in the late twenty-first century relative to the corresponding twentieth-century summer. The CCSM3 pattern is attributed to the “upped-ante” mechanism, whereby the atmospheric boundary layer moisture required for convection increases in a warm, statically stable global tropical environment. This criterion becomes harder to meet along convective margins, which include peninsular Florida, resulting in its drying. CCSM3 also projects a southwestward expansion of the North Atlantic subtropical high that leads to further stabilizing of the atmosphere above Florida, inhibiting convection. The RSM, because of its high (10-km grid) resolution, simulates diurnal variations in summer rainfall over SEUS reasonably well. The RSM improves upon CCSM3 through the RSM’s depiction of the diurnal variance of precipitation, which according to observations accounts for up to 40 % of total seasonal precipitation variance. In the future climate, the RSM projects a significant reduction in the diurnal variability of convection. The reduction is attributed to large-scale stabilization of the atmosphere in the CCSM3 projections.

Selman, Christopher; Misra, Vasu; Stefanova, Lydia; Dinapoli, Steven; Smith, Thomas J., III

2013-01-01

90

Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

1992-09-01

91

Theme Issue. The Evolving World of Management Development: Salute to the Twenty-first Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes six articles on the challenges for management development in the 21st century in the German-speaking nations (Avery, Donnenberg, Gick, Hilb), Baltic States (Manning, Poljeva), East Africa (Mitiku, Wallace), South Africa (McFarlin, Coster, Mogale-Pretorius), Vietnam (McDaniel, Schermerhorn, Cuoc), and Australia and New Zealand (Avery,…

Safavi, Farrokh, Ed.

1999-01-01

92

Professional Capabilities for Twenty-First Century Creative Careers: Lessons from Outstandingly Successful Australian Artists and Designers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artists and designers are positioned at the centre of the twenty-first century creative economy. In order to recognise and make the most of the opportunities afforded by this new era, artists and designers still require the creativity, disciplinary depth of knowledge and technical skills traditionally possessed by professionals in these…

Bridgstock, Ruth

2013-01-01

93

THE IMPACT OF TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CLIMATE CHANGE ON WILDLAND FIRE DANGER IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

THE IMPACT OF TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CLIMATE CHANGE ON WILDLAND FIRE DANGER IN THE WESTERN UNITED from the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) is used to assess changes in wildland fire danger across), under whose auspices this work was performed. 1. Introduction Wildland fire statistics

Westerling, Anthony L.

94

A Commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," in which Isaac I. Bejar and E. Aurora Graf propose the application of a test design--the duplex design (which was proposed in 1988 by Bock and Mislevy) for application in current accountability assessments.…

Brandt, Steffen

2010-01-01

95

From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong…

McWilliam, Erica

2011-01-01

96

Critical Pedagogy in the Twenty-First Century: A New Generation of Scholars. Critical Constructions: Studies on Education and Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book simultaneously provides multiple analyses of critical pedagogy in the twenty-first century while showcasing the scholarship of this new generation of critical scholar-educators. Needless to say, the writers herein represent just a small subset of a much larger movement for critical transformation and a more humane, less Eurocentric, less…

Malott, Curry Stephenson, Ed.; Porfilio, Bradley, Ed.

2011-01-01

97

Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

2010-01-01

98

Review of Twenty-First Century Portable Electronic Devices for Persons with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of portable electronic devices by persons with moderate intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders is gaining increased research attention. The purpose of this review was to synthesize twenty-first century literature (2000-2010) focusing on these technologies. Twenty-one studies were identified which evaluated use of: (a) handheld…

Mechling, Linda C.

2011-01-01

99

Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly, over the past…

Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

2011-01-01

100

A Shift to Inquiry: The Heart of Effective Teaching and Professional Development for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how an experienced teacher navigates the demands of curriculum to implement her inquiry-centered teaching and learning philosophy, and how administrators along the way supported her during this change. Interviews with this classroom teacher surface suggestions for twenty-first-century professional development and support,…

Bartolini, Vicki; Worth, Karen; Jensen LaConte, Judy E.

2014-01-01

101

The Twenty-First Century and Legal Studies in Business: Preparing Students to Perform in a Globally Competitive Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article first examines the dynamic role business education must play in a flat world economy. Second, it explains how legal courses in the business curricula already equip students with portable twenty-first-century skills and relevant academic content. The article then advocates the acceptance of the Boyer Model of Scholarship, which defines…

Burke, Debra D.; Johnson, Ronald A.; Kemp, Deborah J.

2010-01-01

102

Scenarios for the risk of hunger in the twenty-first century using Shared Socioeconomic Pathways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are being developed internationally for cross-sectoral assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. These are five scenarios that include both qualitative and quantitative information for mitigation and adaptation challenges to climate change. In this study, we quantified scenarios for the risk of hunger in the 21st century using SSPs, and clarified elements that influence future hunger risk. There were two primary findings: (1) risk of hunger in the 21st-century greatly differed among five SSPs; and (2) population growth, improvement in the equality of food distribution within a country, and increases in food consumption mainly driven by income growth greatly influenced future hunger risk and were important elements in its long-term assessment.

Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko

2015-01-01

103

The Renaissance of Word-of-Mouth Marketing: A 'New' Standard in Twenty-First Century Marketing Management?!  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the importance of word of mouth for marketing management in the twenty-first century will be discussed. After a short introduction, there will be a focus on the demarcations and problems of traditional marketing. Then, in the third section, word of mouth (WOM) and word-of-mouth marketing (WOMM) as a ‘new’ standard in modern marketing are described. The fourth

Norbert H. Meiners; Ulf Schwarting; Bernd Seeberger

2010-01-01

104

Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian model of…

Cole, Mike

2013-01-01

105

Twenty-first century changes in the hydrology, glaciers, and permafrost of the Susitna Basin, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In South-Central Alaska, the Susitna River is the site of a proposed hydroelectric dam. The catchment of the reservoir in the upper Susitna watershed (13,289 km^2, 450-4000 m a.s.l.) is 4% glacierized and is characterized by sparse vegetation, discontinuous permafrost, and little human development. Glaciers, permafrost, and the water cycle are expected to change in response to anticipated future atmospheric warming by the end of this century, thus impacting water yields to the hydroelectric reservoir. We aim to quantify future changes in glacier wastage, surface- and groundwater, permafrost, and evapotranspiration. We apply the physically-based hydrological model WaSiM using daily air temperature and precipitation data from station observations and gridded climate products. The model is calibrated with runoff and glacier mass balance measurements from the 1980s and validated with measurements from ongoing field campaigns which started in spring 2012. With the past and present data, the model is able to match both the magnitude and timing of observed river discharge. However, the scarcity of meteorological observations from the upper Susitna basin presents a major challenge to simulating the catchment hydrology. We present methods for extrapolation of the spatially-sparse long-term data across the catchment, with particular emphasis on high-elevation precipitation. To project future changes in river runoff, we run WaSiM with air temperature and precipitation downscaled from global climate models and compare results from several emission scenarios (selected from CMIP5). We discuss the anticipated changes in basin hydrology as the climate warms, permafrost thaws, and glaciers shrink.

Bliss, A. K.; Braun, J. L.; Daanen, R. P.; Hock, R.; Liljedahl, A.; Wolken, G. J.; Zhang, J.

2013-12-01

106

Taking Up Space: Museum Exploration in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Museums have become a crucible for questions of the role that traditional art and art history should play in contemporary art. Friedrich Nietzsche argued in the nineteenth century that museums can be no more than mausoleums for effete (fine) art. Over the course of the twentieth century, however, curators dispelled such blanket pessimism by…

Sutton, Tiffany

2007-01-01

107

A Portrait of the PETE Major: Re-Touched for the Early Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The literature on those who choose to become PE teachers received healthy attention in the late twentieth century but has been largely ignored since. Querying those PETE majors in first decade of the new century enables PETE faculty to have updated and pertinent knowledge of their charges. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to…

McCullick, Bryan A.; Lux, Karen M.; Belcher, Donald G.; Davies, Nigel

2012-01-01

108

Twenty-first century skills for students: hands-on learning after school builds school and life success.  

PubMed

At the core of the movement for twenty-first century skills are students. The growing efforts to increase programs leveraging out-of-school time are focused on giving American youth everything they need to compete in this increasingly complex world. The author is one of many students who have been well served by initiatives imparting twenty-first century skills during after-school hours. Now a senior at Boston Latin School, the author has been helped along the way by Citizen Schools, an after-school education program focused on hands-on learning apprenticeships and homework help. While enrolled in the program as a middle school student, the author took part in projects that exemplified hands-on, inquiry-based learning that helped her develop twenty-first century skills. For example, along with dozens of other students, she advanced her data analysis skills by analyzing statistics about Boston Public high schools, which also helped her select and enroll in one of the city's premier exam schools. Also, she and her peers worked with corporate attorneys who served as writing coaches and whose expertise the author drew from in producing a published essay and greatly improving her writing skills. The author now finds that the public speaking, leadership, organizational, social, and management abilities she built through her participation in Citizen Schools are a great asset to her in high school. The confidence with which she tackles her responsibilities can also be traced back to her experiences in the program. As she looks toward college, the author reflects and realizes that being actively involved in a quality after-school program put her on track for a successful future. PMID:17017266

Cabral, Leide

2006-01-01

109

Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a 'beyond 4°C world' in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The range of future climate-induced sea-level rise remains highly uncertain with continued concern that large increases in the twenty-first century cannot be ruled out. The biggest source of uncertainty is the response of the large ice sheets of Greenland and west Antarctica. Based on our analysis, a pragmatic estimate of sea-level rise by 2100, for a temperature rise of 4°C or more over the same time frame, is between 0.5 m and 2 m--the probability of rises at the high end is judged to be very low, but of unquantifiable probability. However, if realized, an indicative analysis shows that the impact potential is severe, with the real risk of the forced displacement of up to 187 million people over the century (up to 2.4% of global population). This is potentially avoidable by widespread upgrade of protection, albeit rather costly with up to 0.02 per cent of global domestic product needed, and much higher in certain nations. The likelihood of protection being successfully implemented varies between regions, and is lowest in small islands, Africa and parts of Asia, and hence these regions are the most likely to see coastal abandonment. To respond to these challenges, a multi-track approach is required, which would also be appropriate if a temperature rise of less than 4°C was expected. Firstly, we should monitor sea level to detect any significant accelerations in the rate of rise in a timely manner. Secondly, we need to improve our understanding of the climate-induced processes that could contribute to rapid sea-level rise, especially the role of the two major ice sheets, to produce better models that quantify the likely future rise more precisely. Finally, responses need to be carefully considered via a combination of climate mitigation to reduce the rise and adaptation for the residual rise in sea level. In particular, long-term strategic adaptation plans for the full range of possible sea-level rise (and other change) need to be widely developed. PMID:21115518

Nicholls, Robert J; Marinova, Natasha; Lowe, Jason A; Brown, Sally; Vellinga, Pier; de Gusmão, Diogo; Hinkel, Jochen; Tol, Richard S J

2011-01-13

110

Russia and Latin America at the dawn of the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia's relations with Latin America can be traced back to the nineteenth century. Today, in the post-Cold War era, the Russian Federation has pushed for a renewed presence in the region, as US influence diminishes, adding to an increasing multilateralism in the Americas. The rise of leftist governments has prompted Latin American governments to look for allies outside the Western

W. Alejandro Sanchez

2010-01-01

111

Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Flynn effect" is a surprising finding, identified by James R. Flynn, that IQ test scores have significantly increased from one generation to the next over the past century. Flynn now brings us an exciting new book which aims to make sense of this rise in IQ scores and considers what this tells us about our intelligence, our minds and society.…

Flynn, James R.

2012-01-01

112

Project-Based Learning: A Critical Pedagogy for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Dewey's notion of the school as a "social laboratory" influenced educational policy a century ago when the United States underwent a "great transformation" in its educational history toward mass schooling, resulting partly from the "high school movement", where the focus was on "schooling for life". Project-based learning, which builds on…

Maida, Carl A.

2011-01-01

113

Ahead of the game : Developing academic library staff for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper looks at issues and trends in the building of a learning organisation for the coming century. There is initial consideration of the concept of the “hybrid library”, a phrase descriptive of the current evolutionary stage as perceived by British academic libraries, and some analysis of what this implies for the future skills requirement of information workers. Mechanisms for

Alasdair Paterson

1999-01-01

114

Multinationals and Global Capitalism: From the Nineteenth to the Twenty First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides an essential historical framework for understanding global business. The author shows how entrepreneurs built a global economy in the nineteenth century by creating firms that pursued resources and markets across borders. It demonstrates how firms shifted strategies as the first global economy disintegrated in the political and economic chaos between the two world wars, and how they

Geoffrey Jones

115

"Working-Class" Education: Notions of Widening Participation in the Nineteenth and Twenty-First Centuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that working-class widening participation in education is not necessarily new. While it can be argued that it was established in the late twentieth century as a concept and government strategy, aspects of its origins can be traced back to movements such as the mechanics' institute movement, first established by the 1850s.…

Robinson, Denise; Walker, Martyn

2013-01-01

116

Accelerated Life Testing and Service Lifetime Prediction for PV Technologies in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this paper are to (1) discuss the necessity for conducting accelerated life testing (ALT) in the early stages of developing new photovoltaic (PV) technologies, (2) elucidate the crucial importance for combining ALT with real-time testing (RTT) in terrestrial environments for promising PV technologies for the 21st century, and (3) outline the essential steps for making a service

A. W. Czanderna; G. J. Jorgensen

1999-01-01

117

Museum period rooms for the twenty-first century: salvaging ambition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late twentieth century, many museums dismantled and disposed of their period rooms. Current trends, however, reveal a revival, driven by the popularity of historic interiors with the public, by the desire of museums to attract new audiences and by their need to address questions of local, social and national identity. Recent initiatives are proving controversial. This article surveys

Julius Bryant

2009-01-01

118

The idea of the library in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed Central

The fundamental idea of the library must change. The nineteenth-century idea of the library as the embalming of dead genius and the twentieth-century idea of the library as the repository for second-hand knowledge must give way to the idea of the library as the owner and the librarian as the manager of first-hand knowledge. In the coming era of knowledge capitalism, those individuals and organizations will flourish who are able to apply knowledge to create knowledge and to organize it to produce knowledge. The roles of present-day librarians and libraries will begin to differentiate sharply over the next decade. Some must seize the opportunity to participate in the transformation of libraries into online knowledge servers. Images PMID:7703930

Matheson, N W

1995-01-01

119

The idea of the library in the twenty-first century*  

PubMed Central

The fundamental idea of the library must change. The nineteenth-century idea of the library as the embalming of dead genius and the twentieth-century idea of the library as the repository for secondhand knowledge must give way to the idea of the library as the owner and the librarian as the manager of first-hand knowledge. In the coming era of knowledge capitalism, those individuals and organizations will flourish who are able to apply knowledge to create knowledge and to organize it to produce knowledge. The roles of present-day librarians and libraries will begin to differentiate sharply over the next decade. Some must seize the opportunity to participate in the transformation of libraries into online knowledge servers. PMID:23509431

Matheson, Nina W.

2012-01-01

120

WILD SALMON RESTORATION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: FORECASTING THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

EPA Science Inventory

Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforst have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

121

Twenty-First Century Research Needs in Electrostatic Processes Applied to Industry and Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the early century Nobel Prize winning (1923) experiments with charged oil droplets, resulting in the discovery of the elementary electronic charge by Robert Millikan, to the early 21st century Nobel Prize (2002) awarded to John Fenn for his invention of electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and its applications to proteomics, electrostatic processes have been successfully applied to many areas of industry and medicine. Generation, transport, deposition, separation, analysis, and control of charged particles involved in the four states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma are of interest in many industrial and biomedical processes. In this paper, we briefly discuss some of the applications and research needs involving charged particles in industrial and medical applications including: (1) Generation and deposition of unipolarly charged dry powder without the presence of ions or excessive ozone, (2) Control of tribocharging process for consistent and reliable charging, (3) Thin film (less than 25 micrometers) powder coating and Powder coating on insulative surfaces, (4) Fluidization and dispersion of fine powders, (5) Mitigation of Mars dust, (6) Effect of particle charge on the lung deposition of inhaled medical aerosols, (7) Nanoparticle deposition, and (8) Plasma/Corona discharge processes. A brief discussion on the measurements of charged particles and suggestions for research needs are also included.

Mazumder, M. K.; Sims, R. A.; Biris, A. S.; Srirama, P. K.; Saini, D.; Yurteri, C. U.; Trigwell, S.; De, S.; Sharma, R.

2005-01-01

122

Winds of Change: Charting the Course for IT in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spring of 2005, the author, the retiring president of EDUCAUSE, was asked to be the keynote speaker at the EDUCAUSE Western Regional Conference. The conference theme was "Winds of Change: Charting the Course for Technology in Challenging Times." What that brought to his mind was the era of the great sailing ships of the eighteenth and…

Hawkins, Brian L.

2007-01-01

123

Schools for the twenty-first century: school design and educational transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Building Schools for the Future programme has been established to ensure that English secondary schools are designed or redesigned to allow for educational transformation. The programme represents the biggest single UK government investment in school buildings for over 50 years. For this reason, it poses a major challenge to those involved in the design of educational buildings. Inspiration is

Roine Leiringer; Paula Cardellino

2011-01-01

124

Schools for the twenty?first century: school design and educational transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Building Schools for the Future programme has been established to ensure that English secondary schools are designed or redesigned to allow for educational transformation. The programme represents the biggest single UK government investment in school buildings for over 50 years. For this reason, it poses a major challenge to those involved in the design of educational buildings. Inspiration is

Roine Leiringer; Paula Cardellino

2010-01-01

125

Clinical Research Training: Scientific Literacy for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about the vitality and future of clinical research, including the rapid translation of findings to benefit patients, have been the focus of considerable debate and discussion within and beyond general internal medicine. Challenges to the current enterprise include constraints on research funding, financial pressures on academic medical centers that have diminished institutional support for protected time, and the intrinsic

Carolyn M. Clancy

2008-01-01

126

Higher Education and Knowledge Sharing: From Ivory Tower to Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge is the driving force of a knowledge economy. Therefore, the way knowledge is shared and created and the way these actions are managed could lead to either a competitive advantage for an organisation or it could lead to its demise. Managing especially academics' knowledge to the benefit of all can be even a greater challenge to any…

Buckley, Sheryl

2012-01-01

127

From Bureaucracy to Profession: Remaking the Educational Sector for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Jal Mehta examines the challenges faced by American schooling and the reasons for persistent failure of American school reforms to achieve successful educational outcomes at scale. He concludes that many of the problems faced by American schools are artifacts of the bureaucratic form in which the education sector as a whole was…

Mehta, Jal

2013-01-01

128

Canopy research in the twenty-first century: a review of Arboreal Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

After thirty years of development , canopy science is still an emerging frontier of exploration promising not only adventure and scientific discovery but also solutions to global challenges. Important environmental issues such as climate change, biodiversity conservation, and whole forest interactions have inspired data collection within canopies as well as above and below canopies, and catalyzing large-scale ecological monitoring. But

MARGARET D. LOWMAN

129

Twenty-first century reversal of the surface ozone seasonal cycle over the northeastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changing emissions can alter the surface O3 seasonal cycle, as detected from northeastern U.S. (NE) observations during recent decades. Under continued regional precursor emission controls (-72% NE NOx by 2100), the NE surface O3 seasonal cycle reverses (to a winter maximum) in 21st century transient chemistry-climate simulations. Over polluted regions, regional NOx largely controls the shape of surface O3 seasonal cycles. In the absence of regional NOx controls, climate warming contributes to a higher surface O3 summertime peak over the NE. A doubling of the global CH4 abundance by 2100 partially offsets summertime surface O3 decreases attained via NOx reductions and contributes to raising surface O3 during December-March when the O3 lifetime is longer. The similarity between surface O3 seasonal cycles over the NE and the Intermountain West by 2100 indicates a NE transition to a region representative of baseline surface O3 conditions.

Clifton, O. E.; Fiore, A. M.; Correa, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.

2014-10-01

130

Intelligent machines in the twenty-first century: foundations of inference and inquiry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The last century saw the application of Boolean algebra to the construction of computing machines, which work by applying logical transformations to information contained in their memory. The development of information theory and the generalization of Boolean algebra to Bayesian inference have enabled these computing machines, in the last quarter of the twentieth century, to be endowed with the ability to learn by making inferences from data. This revolution is just beginning as new computational techniques continue to make difficult problems more accessible. Recent advances in our understanding of the foundations of probability theory have revealed implications for areas other than logic. Of relevance to intelligent machines, we recently identified the algebra of questions as the free distributive algebra, which will now allow us to work with questions in a way analogous to that which Boolean algebra enables us to work with logical statements. In this paper, we examine the foundations of inference and inquiry. We begin with a history of inferential reasoning, highlighting key concepts that have led to the automation of inference in modern machine-learning systems. We then discuss the foundations of inference in more detail using a modern viewpoint that relies on the mathematics of partially ordered sets and the scaffolding of lattice theory. This new viewpoint allows us to develop the logic of inquiry and introduce a measure describing the relevance of a proposed question to an unresolved issue. Last, we will demonstrate the automation of inference, and discuss how this new logic of inquiry will enable intelligent machines to ask questions. Automation of both inference and inquiry promises to allow robots to perform science in the far reaches of our solar system and in other star systems by enabling them not only to make inferences from data, but also to decide which question to ask, which experiment to perform, or which measurement to take given what they have learned and what they are designed to understand.

Knuth, Kevin H.

2003-01-01

131

Retinal imaging in the twenty-first century: state of the art and future directions.  

PubMed

Assessment of chorioretinal disease is dependent on the ability to visualize pathologic changes occurring in the posterior segment of the eye using optical instruments, termed ophthalmoscopy. Ophthalmoscopy, in turn, has been enhanced greatly by the development of techniques that allow recording of these changes, termed retinal imaging. As well as documenting pathologic features, retinal and fundal imaging facilitates the identification of morphologic features not visible to the clinician on biomicroscopy. As such, advances in retinal imaging have proven fundamental to many paradigm shifts in our understanding and treatment of ocular disease. In the 1950s, with the advent of electronic flashes and 35-mm cameras, the field of modern fundus photography was born. Similarly, in the 1960s and 1970s, the introduction of fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography revolutionized our ability to assess the integrity of the chorioretinal vasculature. More recently, in the 1990s, the introduction of a wholly new form of noninvasive cross-sectional imaging, optical coherence tomography, has greatly facilitated use of emerging pharmacotherapies in diagnosing and monitoring chorioretinal disease. In this translational science review, we provide an overview of current, state-of-the-art retinal imaging technologies, as well as highlight many emerging imaging technologies that we believe are likely to transform the provision of eye care in the 21st century. PMID:25282252

Keane, Pearse A; Sadda, Srinivas R

2014-12-01

132

Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms.  

PubMed

Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms--such as corals and some plankton--will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13 models of the ocean-carbon cycle to assess calcium carbonate saturation under the IS92a 'business-as-usual' scenario for future emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. In our projections, Southern Ocean surface waters will begin to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite, a metastable form of calcium carbonate, by the year 2050. By 2100, this undersaturation could extend throughout the entire Southern Ocean and into the subarctic Pacific Ocean. When live pteropods were exposed to our predicted level of undersaturation during a two-day shipboard experiment, their aragonite shells showed notable dissolution. Our findings indicate that conditions detrimental to high-latitude ecosystems could develop within decades, not centuries as suggested previously. PMID:16193043

Orr, James C; Fabry, Victoria J; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Doney, Scott C; Feely, Richard A; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Gruber, Nicolas; Ishida, Akio; Joos, Fortunat; Key, Robert M; Lindsay, Keith; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Matear, Richard; Monfray, Patrick; Mouchet, Anne; Najjar, Raymond G; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Rodgers, Keith B; Sabine, Christopher L; Sarmiento, Jorge L; Schlitzer, Reiner; Slater, Richard D; Totterdell, Ian J; Weirig, Marie-France; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Yool, Andrew

2005-09-29

133

Ocean heat transport into the Arctic in the twentieth and twenty-first century in EC-Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean heat transport into the Arctic and the heat budget of the Barents Sea are analyzed in an ensemble of historical and future climate simulations performed with the global coupled climate model EC-Earth. The zonally integrated northward heat flux in the ocean at 70°N is strongly enhanced and compensates for a reduction of its atmospheric counterpart in the twenty first century. Although an increase in the northward heat transport occurs through all of Fram Strait, Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait and Barents Sea Opening, it is the latter which dominates the increase in ocean heat transport into the Arctic. Increased temperature of the northward transported Atlantic water masses are the main reason for the enhancement of the ocean heat transport. The natural variability in the heat transport into the Barents Sea is caused to the same extent by variations in temperature and volume transport. Large ocean heat transports lead to reduced ice and higher atmospheric temperature in the Barents Sea area and are related to the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The net ocean heat transport into the Barents Sea grows until about year 2050. Thereafter, both heat and volume fluxes out of the Barents Sea through the section between Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya are strongly enhanced and compensate for all further increase in the inflow through the Barents Sea Opening. Most of the heat transported by the ocean into the Barents Sea is passed to the atmosphere and contributes to warming of the atmosphere and Arctic temperature amplification. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are enhanced. Net surface long-wave and solar radiation are enhanced upward and downward, respectively and are almost compensating each other. We find that the changes in the surface heat fluxes are mainly caused by the vanishing sea ice in the twenty first century. The increasing ocean heat transport leads to enhanced bottom ice melt and to an extension of the area with bottom ice melt further northward. However, no indication for a substantial impact of the increased heat transport on ice melt in the Central Arctic is found. Most of the heat that is not passed to the atmosphere in the Barents Sea is stored in the Arctic intermediate layer of Atlantic water, which is increasingly pronounced in the twenty first century.

Koenigk, Torben; Brodeau, Laurent

2014-06-01

134

CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation  

SciTech Connect

Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

2011-04-01

135

Projection of wildfire activity in southern California in the mid-twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate area burned in southern California at mid-century (2046-2065) for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B scenario. We develop both regressions and a parameterization to predict area burned in three ecoregions, and apply present-day (1981-2000) and future meteorology from the suite of general circulation models to these fire prediction tools. The regressions account for the impacts of both current and antecedent meteorological factors on wildfire activity and explain 40-46 % of the variance in area burned during 1980-2009. The parameterization yields area burned as a function of temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity, and includes the impact of Santa Ana wind and other geographical factors on wildfires. It explains 38 % of the variance in area burned over southern California as a whole, and 64 % of the variance in southwestern California. The parameterization also captures the seasonality of wildfires in three ecoregions of southern California. Using the regressions, we find that area burned likely doubles in Southwestern California by midcentury, and increases by 35 % in the Sierra Nevada and 10 % in central western California. The parameterization suggests a likely increase of 40 % in area burned in southwestern California and 50 % in the Sierra Nevada by midcentury. It also predicts a longer fire season in southwestern California due to warmer and drier conditions on Santa Ana days in November. Our method provides robust estimates of area burned at midcentury, a key metric which can be used to calculate the fire-related effects on air quality, human health, and the associated costs.

Yue, Xu; Mickley, Loretta J.; Logan, Jennifer A.

2014-10-01

136

A twenty-first century California observing network for monitoring extreme weather events  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During Northern Hemisphere winters, the West Coast of North America is battered by extratropical storms. The impact of these storms is of paramount concern to California, where aging water supply and flood protection infrastructures are challenged by increased standards for urban flood protection, an unusually variable weather regime, and projections of climate change. Additionally, there are inherent conflicts between releasing water to provide flood protection and storing water to meet requirements for water supply, water quality, hydropower generation, water temperature and flow for at-risk species, and recreation. In order to improve reservoir management and meet the increasing demands on water, improved forecasts of precipitation, especially during extreme events, is required. Here we describe how California is addressing their most important and costliest environmental issue – water management – in part, by installing a state-of-the-art observing system to better track the area’s most severe wintertime storms.

White, A.B.; Anderson, M.L.; Dettinger, M.D.; Ralph, F.M.; Hinojosa, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Hartman, R.K.; Reynolds, D.W.; Johnson, L.E.; Schneider, T.L.; Cifelli, R.; Toth, Z.; Gutman, S.I.; King, C.W.; Gehrke, F.; Johnston, P.E.; Walls, C.; Mann, D.; Gottas, D.J.; Coleman, T.

2013-01-01

137

Pleistocene rewilding: an optimistic agenda for twenty-first century conservation.  

PubMed

Large vertebrates are strong interactors in food webs, yet they were lost from most ecosystems after the dispersal of modern humans from Africa and Eurasia. We call for restoration of missing ecological functions and evolutionary potential of lost North American megafauna using extant conspecifics and related taxa. We refer to this restoration as Pleistocene rewilding; it is conceived as carefully managed ecosystem manipulations whereby costs and benefits are objectively addressed on a case-by-case and locality-by-locality basis. Pleistocene rewilding would deliberately promote large, long-lived species over pest and weed assemblages, facilitate the persistence and ecological effectiveness of megafauna on a global scale, and broaden the underlying premise of conservation from managing extinction to encompass restoring ecological and evolutionary processes. Pleistocene rewilding can begin immediately with species such as Bolson tortoises and feral horses and continue through the coming decades with elephants and Holarctic lions. Our exemplar taxa would contribute biological, economic, and cultural benefits to North America. Owners of large tracts of private land in the central and western United States could be the first to implement this restoration. Risks of Pleistocene rewilding include the possibility of altered disease ecology and associated human health implications, as well as unexpected ecological and sociopolitical consequences of reintroductions. Establishment of programs to monitor suites of species interactions and their consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem health will be a significant challenge. Secure fencing would be a major economic cost, and social challenges will include acceptance of predation as an overriding natural process and the incorporation of pre-Columbian ecological frameworks into conservation strategies. PMID:17080364

Josh Donlan, C; Berger, Joel; Bock, Carl E; Bock, Jane H; Burney, David A; Estes, James A; Foreman, Dave; Martin, Paul S; Roemer, Gary W; Smith, Felisa A; Soulé, Michael E; Greene, Harry W

2006-11-01

138

End-Permian Mass Extinction in the Oceans: An Ancient Analog for the Twenty-First Century?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greatest loss of biodiversity in the history of animal life occurred at the end of the Permian Period (˜252 million years ago). This biotic catastrophe coincided with an interval of widespread ocean anoxia and the eruption of one of Earth's largest continental flood basalt provinces, the Siberian Traps. Volatile release from basaltic magma and sedimentary strata during emplacement of the Siberian Traps can account for most end-Permian paleontological and geochemical observations. Climate change and, perhaps, destruction of the ozone layer can explain extinctions on land, whereas changes in ocean oxygen levels, CO2, pH, and temperature can account for extinction selectivity across marine animals. These emerging insights from geology, geochemistry, and paleobiology suggest that the end-Permian extinction may serve as an important ancient analog for twenty-first century oceans.

Payne, Jonathan L.; Clapham, Matthew E.

2012-05-01

139

Training maternal and child health epidemiologists: leaders for the twenty first century.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the structure, implementation and outcomes of the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology (MCHEPI) program at the University of Illinois School of Public Health (UIC-SPH) and discusses the successes and challenges in developing MCH Epidemiology leaders for the local, state, and national public health workforce. The MCHEPI program at UIC-SPH offers both the MPH and PhD degree and is based on six key components: integration across school divisions, competency-based training, tailored curricula, practica/dissertations with public health agencies, personal leadership training and development, and socialization. Based on data from the 1998-2012 cohorts, all former and current MCHEPI MPH students (n = 28) have participated in practica with local or state public health agencies and former and current MCHEPI doctoral students at the dissertation stage (12 out of 15) have partnered with local, state or national public health agencies in conducting their dissertations. The alumni of the MCHEPI MPH program (n = 25) appear to serve in higher level positions in their second compared to their first placements post-graduation. All MCHEPI doctoral alumni (n = 8) serve at the emerging senior level or senior scientist level upon graduation, in local, state and federal agencies, or in academe. Explicit linkage of MCHEPI students to practice through tailored curricula, practica, and dissertations with public health agencies, and the development of an identity as a member of the MCHEPI field appear to be important to the generation of epidemiology leaders for the MCH workforce. Leadership development is a lifelong process and as such, snapshots of current students and alumni at any one point in time do not provide the entire picture of the impact of MCH epidemiology training programs. Examining the trajectories of emerging leaders over time is essential for evaluating the true success of Maternal and Child Health Bureau workforce and training investments. PMID:24985696

Handler, Arden; Klaus, Jaime; Rankin, Kristin; Rosenberg, Deborah

2015-02-01

140

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: WILL THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LEAD OR FOLLOW?  

PubMed Central

Developing countries, particularly the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, should accommodate their national systems of innovation to the worldwide intellectual property (IP) regime emerging after the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in a way that maximizes global economic welfare in the foreseeable future. As many developed countries’ experience demonstrates, badly configured, over-protectionist IP regimes stifle innovation by making inputs to future innovation too costly and too cumbersome to sustain over time. More carefully considered IP regimes, however, are an important way to protect innovative small- and medium-sized firms from predatory, larger competitors. The challenge is for emerging economies to capture the benefits of IP without importing the serious problems that developed countries have themselves failed to solve. Emerging economies can attain this balance by pursuing a policy of counter-harmonization in which they take advantage of existing exemptions in international agreements governing IP to establish regional, local, and international practices that promote more innovative, flexible uses of IP. Such practices include a research exemption for experimental uses of IP, government imposed nonexclusive licensing, anti-blocking provisions, an essential facilities doctrine, and compulsory licenses. Additional tools include an ex ante regime of compensatory liability rules for small scale innovation and sensible exceptions, particularly for science as well as general fair use provisions, to the exclusive rights of domestic copyright laws. Emerging economies will have to overcome strong economic pressure to accept more restrictive IP regimes as part of free trade agreements as well as a lack of technical expertise and internal government coordination. However, emerging economies have already accrued enough experience to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of various IP schemes and their own ability to tailor IP to local needs. Developing countries will need to take advantage of that experience and defend innovative practices at international dispute resolution forums. Through creative, determined efforts, the developing countries can avoid other countries’ IP excesses while establishing the kind of IP norms that address the real conditions of creativity and innovation in today’s digitally empowered universe of scientific discourse. PMID:21423816

Reichman, Jerome H.

2010-01-01

141

Report by Jacques Delors, Chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, First Session (Paris, France, March 2-4, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century reviewed commission discussions on education in the 21st century. The growing interdependence of the modern world is discussed including the results of the U.S. economic ideology of the Ronald Reagan era on the world economy, and the collapse of…

Delors, Jacques

142

Address Given by Jacques Delors, Chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, to the 140th Session of the Executive Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this speech, the chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century describes education as a pathway into the 21st Century. He suggests that if education is to become central in contributing to human progress, policymakers must learn from the experiences of the past 20 years, take the variety of situations into…

Delors, Jacques

143

Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century--radon, smoking, and lung cancer risks.  

PubMed

Recognition that radon and its daughter products may accumulate to high levels in homes and in the workplace has led to concern about the potential lung cancer risk resulting from indoor domestic exposure. While such risks can be estimated with current dosimetric and epidemiological models for excess relative risks, it must be recognized that these models are based on data from occupational exposure and from underground miners' mortality experience. Several assumptions are required to apply risk estimates from an occupational setting to the indoor domestic environment. Analyses of the relevant data do not lead to a conclusive description of the interaction between radon daughters and cigarette smoking for the induction of lung cancer. The evidence compels the conclusion that indoor radon daughter exposure in homes represents a potential life-threatening public health hazard, particularly in males, and in cigarette smokers. Resolution of complex societal interactions will require public policy decisions involving the governmental, scientific, financial, and industrial sectors. These decisions impact the home, the workplace, and the marketplace, and they extend beyond the constraints of science. Risk identification, assessment, and management require scientific and engineering approaches to guide policy decisions to protect the public health. Mitigation and control procedures are only beginning to receive attention. Full acceptance for protection against what could prove to be a significant public health hazard in the twenty-first century will certainly involve policy decisions, not by scientists, but rather by men and women of government and law. PMID:2401265

Fabrikant, J I

1990-06-01

144

The era of the wandering mind? Twenty-first century research on self-generated mental activity  

PubMed Central

The first decade of the twenty-first century was characterized by renewed scientific interest in self-generated mental activity (activity largely generated by the individual, rather than in direct response to experimenters’ instructions or specific external sensory inputs). To understand this renewal of interest, we interrogated the peer-reviewed literature from 2003 to 2012 (i) to explore recent changes in use of terms for self-generated mental activity; (ii) to investigate changes in the topics on which mind wandering research, specifically, focuses; and (iii) to visualize co-citation communities amongst researchers working on self-generated mental activity. Our analyses demonstrated that there has been a dramatic increase in the term “mind wandering” from 2006, and a significant crossing-over of psychological investigations of mind wandering into cognitive neuroscience (particularly in relation to research on the default mode and default mode network). If our article concludes that this might, indeed, be the “era of the wandering mind,” it also calls for more explicit reflection to be given by researchers in this field to the terms they use, the topics and brain regions they focus on, and the research literatures that they implicitly foreground or ignore. PMID:24391606

Callard, Felicity; Smallwood, Jonathan; Golchert, Johannes; Margulies, Daniel S.

2013-01-01

145

Rethinking the Twentieth Century Denigration of Traditional Chinese Science and Medicine in the Twenty-first Century  

E-print Network

Rethinking the Twentieth Century Denigration of Traditional Chinese Science and Medicine progress of knowledge. When Chinese studies of the natural world, her rich medieval traditions of alchemy tradition of natural studies and medicine has accrued in volume after unrelenting volume of Joseph Needham

Elman, Benjamin

146

Navigating Multiple Worlds in the Twenty-First Century: Authoring and Editing the Story of One Japanese Kid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the middle of the twentieth century waves of immigration have increased heterogeneity in American classrooms and contributed to new challenges and problems for both teachers and learners. These trends in the United States are, in fact, part of a global phenomenon of large-scale movement of people (Garcia Coll & Marks, 2009; Suarez-Orozco,…

Damrow, Amy L.

2011-01-01

147

Factors contributing to diurnal temperature range trends in twentieth and twenty-first century simulations of the CCCma coupled model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trends in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) are examined in the late twentieth and the twenty-first centuries in a coupled climate model representing the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface systems. Consistent with past studies, the DTR decreases during this time. These decreases are concentrated in middle latitudes, with much smaller changes occurring in the low latitudes. Strong seasonal characteristics to this pattern exist, although these are different in either hemisphere. In the model integrations, variations in the DTR are much more sensitive to changes in feedbacks than in direct forcings. The DTR is found to be insensitive to the scattering of sunlight by sulfate aerosols and the increased mean temperature. Instead, variations in the DTR arise mostly from changes in clouds and in soil moisture. Consequently, the decreasing trends stem from increases in the reflection of solar radiation by clouds moderated by decreases in soil moisture, mostly through its effect on the ground heat capacity. Both factors contribute about equally to the DTR trend. The exception to this relation occurs in the middle latitudes during winter, when snow cover reduces the influence of changes in solar radiation and soil moisture. Decreases during this season are a consequence of the artificial tendency in the model for the DTR to be very small when the mean temperature is near the freezing point. While the accuracy of these conclusions depends upon the model's ability to represent the relevant processes, the results highlight the importance of clouds and land surface processes to the DTR and its long-term change. The importance of soil moisture found here implies that changes in the physiological response of vegetation and in land use could have important effects on the DTR.

Stone, D. A.; Weaver, A. J.

2002-11-01

148

Music education in the twenty-first century: a cross-cultural comparison of German and American music education towards a new concept of international dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative Music Education is often considered to be an unnecessary subject because there seem to be more important issues for research than studying music education in various countries. Comparative music education is not a luxury, but rather a necessity in the twenty-first century. Scholars and music teachers in many countries are struggling with similar problems such as teacher training, performance-based

Alexandra Kertz-Welzel

2008-01-01

149

Anthropogenic Forcing and Decadal Climate Variability in Sensitivity Experiments of Twentieth- and Twenty-First-Century Climate.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology is formulated to evaluate the possible changes in decadal-timescale (10-20-yr period) surface temperature variability and associated low-frequency fluctuations of anthropogenic forcing and changes in climate base state due to the forcing in simulations of twentieth- and twenty-first-century climate in a global coupled climate model without flux adjustment. The two climate change experiments both start in the year 1900. The first uses greenhouse gas radiative forcing (represented by equivalent CO2) observed during the twentieth century, and extends greenhouse gas forcing to the year 2035 by increasing CO2 1% yr1 compound after 1990 (CO2-only experiment). The second includes the same greenhouse gas forcing as the first, but adds the effects of time-varying geographic distributions of monthly sulfate aerosol radiative forcing represented by a change in surface albedo (CO2 + sulfates experiment). The climate change experiments are compared with a 135-yr control experiment with no change in external forcing. Climate system responses in the CO2-only and CO2 + sulfates experiments in this particular model are marked not only by greater warming at high latitudes in the winter hemisphere, but also by a global El Niño-like pattern in surface temperature, precipitation, and sea level pressure. This pattern is characterized by a relatively greater increase of SST in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific in comparison with the west, a shift of precipitation maxima from the western Pacific to the central Pacific, mostly decreases of Asian-Australian monsoon strength, lower pressure over the eastern tropical Pacific, deeper midlatitude troughs in the North and South Pacific, and higher pressure over Australasia. Time series analysis of globally averaged temperature and an EOF analysis of surface temperature are consistent with previous results in that enhanced low-frequency variability with periods greater than around 20 yr is introduced into the model coupled climate system with a comparable timescale to the forcing. To examine the possible effects of the associated changes in base state on decadal timescale variability (10-20-yr periods), the surface temperature time series are filtered to retain only variability on that timescale. The El Niño-like pattern of decadal variability seen in the observations is present in each of the model experiments (control, CO2 only, and CO2 + sulfates), but the magnitude decreases significantly in the CO2-only experiment. This decrease is associated with changes in the base-state climate that include a reduction in the magnitude (roughly 5%-20% or more) of wind stress and ocean currents in the upper 100 m in most ocean basins and a weakening of meridional overturning (about 50%) in the Atlantic. These weakened circulation features contribute to decreasing the amplitude of global decadal surface temperature variability as seen in a previous sea-ice sensitivity study with this model. Thus the superposition of low-frequency variability patterns in the radiative forcing increases climate variability for periods comparable to those of the forcing (greater than about 20 yr). However, there are decreases in the amplitude of future decadal (10-20-yr period) variability in these experiments due to changes of the base-state climate as a consequence of increases in that forcing.

Meehl, Gerald A.; Washington, Warren M.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Bettge, Thomas W.; Strand, Warren G., Jr.

2000-11-01

150

Student voices: Re-conceptualising and re-positioning Australian library and information science education for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the preliminary research findings of the sub-study group of a larger undertaking, the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) priority project Re-conceptualising and Re-positioning Australian Library and Information Science Education for the Twenty-first Century. It examines student experiences of library and information science (LIS) education across both the tertiary and vocational education sectors in Australia. The

Barbara Combes; Jo Hanisch; Mary Carroll; Hilary Hughes

2011-01-01

151

The Twenty-First Century Teachers Act. Hearings Before the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session (Los Angeles, CA, March 3, 1990; Washington, DC, March 15, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the text of proposed House bills--"The Augustus F. Hawkins Early Childhood and Elementary Teacher Preparation and Retraining Act of 1990" (H.R. 3909) and "The Twenty-First Century Teacher Act" (H.R. 4130)--and the complete transcript of the hearings on "The Twenty-First Century Teachers Act" held in Los Angeles, California,…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

152

Twenty-First Century Police Training: Recruits' Problem-Solving Skills Following Scenario-Based Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the diverse requirements of 21st-century police work and the increasing emphasis on community-policing philosophy, the Los Angeles Police Department has implemented changes within its academy curricula and methods of instruction, including the use of adult-learning concepts, a community policing problem-solving model known as…

Perry, Lee R.

2012-01-01

153

From Villain to Superhero: The Evolution of the Lawyer Stereotype in Nineteenth through the Twenty-First Century Novel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis analyzes the evolution of the lawyer character from the novels of the early 19th century through those of the modern day. The representation of the lawyer character illustrates the contemporary view of lawyers in society and also provides a framework of the relationship between the lawyer and the common man.

Carolyn A. Morway

2009-01-01

154

Protecting Parole Board Legitimacy in the Twenty-first Century: The Role of Victims' Rights and Influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis of the 20th-century victims' rights movement concludes that through state and federal legislative enactments made during an especially punitive social climate, victims shifted the priorities of parole boards from meeting the historically individualized needs of inmates to responding to the demands from victims that offenders should serve more time in prison. Reprioritizing victims' interests to the same

Joel M. Caplan

2012-01-01

155

Organizations, Regulation, and Economic Behavior: Regulatory Dynamics and Forms from the Nineteenth to Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current scholarship suggests that instead of fueling deregulation and a race to the bottom, globalization and neoliberalism often go hand in hand with the expansion of regulatory rules and agents. We sur- vey efforts to address this paradox. Building on analyses of nineteenth- and twentieth-century regulation, research on the current period has produced two critical analytical advances. It has developed

Marc Schneiberg; Tim Bartley

2008-01-01

156

Scott Shuler's "Music and Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Retrospective"--Review and Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predicting the future is a challenging task for music education, requiring both retrospection, analysis of current events, and foresight. This article examines several predictions from 2001 and challenges music educators to consider factors that may influence the future of teaching music in society.

McLain, Barbara Payne

2014-01-01

157

Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alaska's climate is changing and one of the most significant indications of this change has been the late 19th to early 21st century behavior of Alaskan glaciers. Weather station temperature data document that air temperatures throughout Alaska have been increasing for many decades. Since the mid-20th century, the average change is an increase of ?????2.0????C. In order to determine the magnitude and pattern of response of glaciers to this regional climate change, a comprehensive analysis was made of the recent behavior of hundreds of glaciers located in the eleven Alaskan mountain ranges and three island areas that currently support glaciers. Data analyzed included maps, historical observations, thousands of ground-and-aerial photographs and satellite images, and vegetation proxy data. Results were synthesized to determine changes in length and area of individual glaciers. Alaskan ground photography dates from 1883, aerial photography dates from 1926, and satellite photography and imagery dates from the early 1960s. Unfortunately, very few Alaskan glaciers have any mass balance observations. In most areas analyzed, every glacier that descends below an elevation of ?????1500??m is currently thinning and/or retreating. Many glaciers have an uninterrupted history of continuous post-Little-Ice-Age retreat that spans more than 250??years. Others are characterized by multiple late 19th to early 21st century fluctuations. Today, retreating and/or thinning glaciers represent more than 98% of the glaciers examined. However, in the Coast Mountains, St. Elias Mountains, Chugach Mountains, and the Aleutian Range more than a dozen glaciers are currently advancing and thickening. Many currently advancing glaciers are or were formerly tidewater glaciers. Some of these glaciers have been expanding for more than two centuries. This presentation documents the post-Little-Ice-Age behavior and variability of the response of many Alaskan glaciers to changing regional climate. ?? 2006.

Molnia, B.F.

2007-01-01

158

Haitian crisis, 1991--1994: An opportunity for a shift in U.S. twenty-first century foreign policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The premise of this study is that the 1991-1994 crisis of Haiti following the end of the Cold War can be viewed as a catalyst for change in the focus of 21st century U.S. foreign policy. This policy shifted from selective commitments and conservative interpretations of national interests to broad commitments and globalized applications of national values.^ The 1991-1994 Haitian

Patricia Anne Hardy-Jackson

1997-01-01

159

High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in students' choice of competition category were studied. Mixed methods analysis of survey returns from 172 Olympiad participants from 31 countries showed that students' career aspirations were affected most by their teachers, personal interests, and parents, respectively. Students also indicated that they believed that their participation in the Olympiad reinforced their plan to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major at college and assisted them in developing and improving their twenty-first century skills. Furthermore, female students' responses indicated that their project choices were less likely to be in the engineering category and more likely to be in the environment or energy categories. Findings are discussed in the light of increasing the awareness of the role and importance of Science Olympiads in STEM career choice and finding ways to attract more female students into engineering careers.

Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

2014-11-01

160

A New Paradigm Is Needed for Medical Education in the Mid-Twenty-First Century and Beyond: Are We Ready?  

PubMed Central

The twentieth century witnessed profound changes in medical education. All these changes, however, took place within the existing framework, suggested by Flexner a century ago. The present paper suggests that we are approaching a singularity point, where we shall have to change the paradigm and be prepared for an entirely new genre of medical education. This suggestion is based upon analysis of existing and envisaged trends: first, in technology, such as availability of information and sophisticated simulations; second, in medical practice, such as far-reaching interventions in life and death that create an array of new moral dilemmas, as well as a change in patient mix in hospitals and a growing need of team work; third, in the societal attitude toward higher education. The structure of the future medical school is delineated in a rough sketch, and so are the roles of the future medical teacher. It is concluded that we are presently not prepared for the approaching changes, neither from practical nor from attitudinal points of view, and that it is now high time for both awareness of and preparation for these changes. PMID:25120918

Benor, Dan E.

2014-01-01

161

Consumer-Friendly and Environmentally-Sound Electricity Rates for the Twenty-First Century By Lee S. Friedman  

E-print Network

as a substantial deterrent to the reduction of greenhouse gases, as through vehicle electrification. It considers that will be attractive to large numbers of residential customers with smart meters. One family of rate structures called, they would cause dire consequences as we face the environmental challenges caused by greenhouse gas emissions

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

162

The Conceptions of Work in the Accounting Profession in the Twenty-First Century from the Experiences of Practitioners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accounting profession, which has commercialised its services extensively in the past two to three decades, is facing the challenges of change. An early and concerted response to the changes in the scope of work was the emphasis on developing generic skills in accounting higher education. This study recognises the relevance of accounting…

Sin, Samantha; Reid, Anna; Dahlgren, Lars Owe

2011-01-01

163

Meaningful Measurement: The Role of Assessments in Improving High School Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the chapters presented in this volume, leading experts describe some of the assessment challenges in greater detail and provide federal recommendations on how to address them. In "College and Work Readiness as a Goal of High Schools: The Role of Standards, Assessments, and Accountability," John Tanner of the Center for Innovative Measures at…

Pinkus, Lyndsay M., Ed.

2009-01-01

164

Regional projections of glacier volume and runoff in response to twenty-first century climate scenarios (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in mass contained by mountain glaciers and ice caps can modify the Earth's hydrological cycle on multiple scales. On a global scale, the mass loss from glaciers contributes to sea level rise. On regional and local scales, glacier melt-water is an important contributor to and modulator of river flow. In this study we use an elevation-dependent glacier mass balance model to project annual volume changes and monthly runoff from all mountain glaciers and ice caps in the world (excluding those in the Antarctic periphery) for the 21st century forced by temperature and precipitation scenarios from 14 global climate models. The largest contributors to projected total volume loss are the glaciers in the Canadian and Russian Arctic, Alaska and glaciers peripheral to Greenland ice sheet. Although small contributors to global volume loss, glaciers in Central Europe, low-latitude South America, Caucasus, North Asia, and Western Canada and US are projected to lose more than 75% of their volume by 2100. The magnitude and sign of trends in annual runoff totals differ considerably among regions depending on the balance between enhanced melt and the reduction of the glacier reservoir by glacier retreat and shrinkage. Most regions show strong declines in glacier runoff indicating that the effect of glacier shrinkage is more dominant than increased melting rates. Some high-latitude regions (Arctic Canada North, Russian Arctic and Greenland) exhibit increases in runoff totals. Iceland and Svalbard show an increase in runoff followed by a multi-decadal decrease in annual runoff.

Radic, V.; Bliss, A. K.; Hock, R.

2013-12-01

165

Carl gustav jung, quantum physics and the spiritual mind: a mystical vision of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

We describe similarities in the ontology of quantum physics and of Carl Gustav Jung's psychology. In spite of the fact that physics and psychology are usually considered as unrelated, in the last century, both of these disciplines have led at the same time to revolutionary changes in the Western understanding of the cosmic order, discovering a non-empirical realm of the universe that doesn't consist of material things but of forms. These forms are real, even though they are invisible, because they have the potential to appear in the empirical world and act in it. We present arguments that force us to believe, that the empirical world is an emanation out of a cosmic realm of potentiality, whose forms can appear as physical structures in the external world and as archetypal concepts in our mind. Accordingly, the evolution of life now appears no longer as a process of the adaptation of species to their environment, but as the adaptation of minds to increasingly complex forms that exist in the cosmic potentiality. The cosmic connection means that the human mind is a mystical mind. PMID:25379259

Valadas Ponte, Diogo; Schäfer, Lothar

2013-12-01

166

Carl Gustav Jung, Quantum Physics and the Spiritual Mind: A Mystical Vision of the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

We describe similarities in the ontology of quantum physics and of Carl Gustav Jung’s psychology. In spite of the fact that physics and psychology are usually considered as unrelated, in the last century, both of these disciplines have led at the same time to revolutionary changes in the Western understanding of the cosmic order, discovering a non-empirical realm of the universe that doesn’t consist of material things but of forms. These forms are real, even though they are invisible, because they have the potential to appear in the empirical world and act in it. We present arguments that force us to believe, that the empirical world is an emanation out of a cosmic realm of potentiality, whose forms can appear as physical structures in the external world and as archetypal concepts in our mind. Accordingly, the evolution of life now appears no longer as a process of the adaptation of species to their environment, but as the adaptation of minds to increasingly complex forms that exist in the cosmic potentiality. The cosmic connection means that the human mind is a mystical mind. PMID:25379259

Valadas Ponte, Diogo; Schäfer, Lothar

2013-01-01

167

Energy prices will play an important role in determining global land use in the twenty first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global land use research to date has focused on quantifying uncertainty effects of three major drivers affecting competition for land: the uncertainty in energy and climate policies affecting competition between food and biofuels, the uncertainty of climate impacts on agriculture and forestry, and the uncertainty in the underlying technological progress driving efficiency of food, bioenergy and timber production. The market uncertainty in fossil fuel prices has received relatively less attention in the global land use literature. Petroleum and natural gas prices affect both the competitiveness of biofuels and the cost of nitrogen fertilizers. High prices put significant pressure on global land supply and greenhouse gas emissions from terrestrial systems, while low prices can moderate demands for cropland. The goal of this letter is to assess and compare the effects of these core uncertainties on the optimal profile for global land use and land-based GHG emissions over the coming century. The model that we develop integrates distinct strands of agronomic, biophysical and economic literature into a single, intertemporally consistent, analytical framework, at global scale. Our analysis accounts for the value of land-based services in the production of food, first- and second-generation biofuels, timber, forest carbon and biodiversity. We find that long-term uncertainty in energy prices dominates the climate impacts and climate policy uncertainties emphasized in prior research on global land use.

Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Hertel, Thomas W.

2013-03-01

168

Responses of dune activity and desertification in China to global warming in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most areas of arid and semiarid China are covered by aeolian sand dunes, sand sheets, and desert steppes, and the existence of the nearly 80 million people who live in this region could be seriously jeopardized if climate change increases desertification. However, the expected trends in desertification during the 21st century are poorly understood. In the present study, we selected the ECHAM4 and HadCM3 global climate models (after comparing them with the results of the GFDL-R30, CGCM2, and CSIRO-Mk2b models) and used simulations of a dune mobility index under IPCC SRES climate scenarios A1FI, A2a, A2b, A2c, B1a, B2a, and B2b to estimate future trends in dune activity and desertification in China. Although uncertainties in climate predictions mean that there is still far to go before we can develop a comprehensive dune activity estimation system, HadCM3 simulations with most greenhouse forcing scenarios showed decreased desertification in most western region of arid and semiarid China by 2039, but increased desertification thereafter, whereas ECHAM4 simulation results showed that desertification will increase during this period. Inhabitants of thecentral region will benefit from reversed desertification from 2010 to 2099, whereas inhabitants of the eastern region will suffer from increased desertification from 2010 to 2099. From 2010 to 2039, most regions will not be significantly affected by desertification, but from 2040 to 2099, the environments of the western and eastern regions will deteriorate due to the significant effects of global warming (particularly the interaction between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration), leading to decreased livestock and grain yields and possibly threatening China's food security.

Wang, Xunming; Yang, Yi; Dong, Zhibao; Zhang, Caixia

2009-06-01

169

A person-focused model of care for the twenty-first century: a system-of-systems perspective.  

PubMed

The US health care system is challenged to provide high-quality care and is burdened with unsustainable expenditures, making it difficult for health care participants (patients, payers, providers, caregivers) to create value. This communication presents the theoretical foundation for a person-focused model of care that addresses a number of these challenges. The model integrates aspects of prior models of chronic care with new empiric findings and complex adaptive system (CAS) theory. The model emphasizes the relationship among all health care stakeholders. The health care delivery process is examined in terms of the role of each stakeholder and the value each adds to and receives from the process. The authors present pilot results illustrating the implications of CAS theory in regard to multi-morbidity, disease management programs, multi-morbid households, and person- and household-focused care. The model incorporates the physical, mental, and social dimensions of health, and operationalizes an individual patient's health as a CAS, identifying CASs for each of the other stakeholders as well. Health care can then be conceptualized as a system-of-systems with a person's health as its output. Deploying the model need not require major infrastructure investments or changes. It can be implemented by repurposing, aligning, and better integrating currently available interventions. The authors believe that the model creates not only survival value (health) but also purposeful value. The model offers a unifying focus for all participants in the health care delivery process, thereby constructing a health care system that is structurally person-focused and meaningful for all participants. PMID:24720637

Greene, Robert A; Dasso, Edwin; Ho, Sam; Genaidy, Ash M

2014-06-01

170

[Primary care pediatrics in the public health system of the twenty-first century. SESPAS report 2012].  

PubMed

Today in our country, the primary care pediatrician is the first contact between children and adolescents with the health system, being also a highly resolving specialist that addresses over 90% of the health needs of this population, monitors growth and development and participates in all activities of prevention, health promotion and health education within primary care teams with nurses and family doctors. Witnessing rapid and profound demographic, social, cultural, scientific and technological changes as well as the demands and expectations of health care for citizens, which should enhance the value and response capacity of primary care. These changes also affect infant morbidity and health care priorities in child and adolescent, posing new challenges for primary care practice and reinforce the role of the pediatrician in primary care. Primary care is not only the gateway to the health system. Primary care teams have to take responsibility for the care of people assigned to coordinate the necessary resources and advising citizens on their health problems and his itinerary care by the health system. It identifies the need to foster teamwork within the health department involved nursing staff to take care activities in this age group. It aims to foster a model based on cooperation and complementarity. A recent systematic review recommended maintaining the figure of the pediatrician in primary care teams and strengthen their specific role as first point of contact with the child's health care system, found significant benefits for children. PMID:22196036

Domínguez Aurrecoechea, Begoña; Valdivia Jiménez, Carlos

2012-03-01

171

The past is a guide to the future? Comparing Middle Pliocene vegetation with predicted biome distributions for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

During the Middle Pliocene, the Earth experienced greater global warmth compared with today, coupled with higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations. To determine the extent to which the Middle Pliocene can be used as a 'test bed' for future warming, we compare data and model-based Middle Pliocene vegetation with simulated global biome distributions for the mid- and late twenty-first century. The best agreement is found when a Middle Pliocene biome reconstruction is compared with a future scenario using 560 ppmv atmospheric CO2. In accordance with palaeobotanical data, all model simulations indicate a generally warmer and wetter climate, resulting in a northward shift of the taiga-tundra boundary and a spread of tropical savannah and woodland in Africa and Australia at the expense of deserts. Our data-model comparison reveals differences in the distribution of polar vegetation, which indicate that the high latitudes during the Middle Pliocene were still warmer than its predicted modern analogue by several degrees. However, our future scenarios do not consider multipliers associated with 'long-term' climate sensitivity. Changes in global temperature, and thus biome distributions, at higher atmospheric CO2 levels will not have reached an equilibrium state (as is the case for the Middle Pliocene) by the end of this century. PMID:18854302

Salzmann, U; Haywood, A M; Lunt, D J

2009-01-13

172

Transforming the Twenty-First-Century Campus to Enhance the Net-Generation Student Learning Experience: Using Evidence-Based Design to Determine What Works and Why in Virtual/Physical Teaching Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The twenty-first century has seen the rapid emergence of wireless broadband and mobile communications devices which are inexorably changing the way people communicate, collaborate, create and transfer knowledge. Yet many higher education campus learning environments were designed and built in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries prior to…

Fisher, Kenn; Newton, Clare

2014-01-01

173

Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

Wurtele, Sandy K.

2009-01-01

174

Chemical Communication in Crustaceans: Research Challenges for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chemical signals play an important role during various life stages of crustaceans. Settling of larvae, parent–offspring communication,\\u000a mate finding, mate choice, aggressive contests, and dominance hierarchies are all mediated by chemical signals. Enormous advances\\u000a have been made on understanding the function of chemical signals in crustaceans and we are on the doorstep of major advances\\u000a in chemical characterization of pheromones.

Martin Thiel; Thomas Breithaupt

175

Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers suggestions for expanding the focus of child-directed efforts and also includes recommendations for alternative approaches

Sandy K. Wurtele

2009-01-01

176

The Twenty-First Century Workforce: A Contemporary Challenge for Technology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than at any time in recent history, technology education has taken on an important role in American education. The emergence of economic issues and the essential role of technology in the global economy have highlighted the omission of technology in K-12 school programs. When business and industry began recognizing the role of education and…

Bybee, Rodger W.; Starkweather, Kendall N.

2006-01-01

177

National Models for Continuing Professional Development: The Challenges of Twenty-First-Century Knowledge Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If teacher quality is the most critical factor in improving educational outcomes, then why is so little attention drawn to the knowledge and evidence base available to support teachers in improving the quality of their professional knowledge? This paper draws together findings from a range of sources to propose national models for continuing…

Leask, Marilyn; Younie, Sarah

2013-01-01

178

Teacher Education Policy in Ireland and the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In line with the principles of the Bologna Process, teacher education systems across Europe are converging along a common path. Taking the Republic of Ireland (Ireland) as a case study, this paper examines the European agenda in relation to teacher education and asks how individual nation states are coping with the demands of greater comparability…

Harford, Judith

2010-01-01

179

Childhood obesity prevention: compelling challenge of the twenty?first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a worldwide increase in the prevalence of children who are obese that is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions. These obese children have associated significant co?morbidities. In the past 30 years the proportion of children in the United States who are obese or overweight has tripled; 15%, or approximately nine million, are obese. Ethnic minority communities with lower socioeconomic

Luba Zuk Levy; Karen Petty

2008-01-01

180

Water security in one blue planet: twenty-first century policy challenges for science.  

PubMed

Water-related risks threaten society at the local, national and global scales in our inter-connected and rapidly changing world. Most of the world's poor are deeply water insecure and face intolerable water-related risks associated with complex hydrology. Most of the world's wealthy face lower water-related risks and less complex hydrology. This inverse relationship between hydrological complexity and wealth contributes to a divided world. This must be addressed if global water security is to be achieved. Using a risk-based framework provides the potential to link the current policy-oriented discourse on water security to a new and rigorous science-based approach to the description, measurement, analysis and management of water security. To provide the basis for this science-based approach, we propose an encompassing definition rooted in risk science: water security is a tolerable level of water-related risk to society. Water security policy questions need to be framed so that science can marshal interdisciplinary data and evidence to identify solutions. We join a growing group of scientists in asserting a bold vision for science leadership, calling for a new and comprehensive understanding of the planet's water system and society's water needs. PMID:24080615

Grey, D; Garrick, D; Blackmore, D; Kelman, J; Muller, M; Sadoff, C

2013-11-13

181

Childhood Obesity Prevention: Compelling Challenge of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a worldwide increase in the prevalence of children who are obese that is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions. These obese children have associated significant co-morbidities. In the past 30 years the proportion of children in the United States who are obese or overweight has tripled; 15%, or approximately nine million, are obese.…

Levy, Luba Zuk; Petty, Karen

2008-01-01

182

Australia and India: Facing the Twenty-First Century Skills Challenge. Conference Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The governments of India and Australia are working to enhance cooperation on training, at both official and industry level. As part of the exchange of ideas, Francesca Beddie, General Manager, Research, National Centre for Vocational Education Research, visited India in August 2009 at the invitation of the Australia-India Council. This paper…

Beddie, Francesca M.

2009-01-01

183

Analysis of the Great Plains Low-Level Jet and Midwest Warm Season Precipitation in CMIP5 Simulations of the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convective precipitation over the central portion of the United States during the summer is an important source of water for the region. Precipitation in the central U.S. is critical for agriculture, industry, natural ecosystems, and municipal water supplies. Climate change presents a direct threat to the supply of water in the region, especially during periods of drought. It has been suggested that climate change will bring more frequent periods of severe drought coupled with periods of extreme rainfall. An important dynamical driver of summertime precipitation in this region is the Great Plains Low Level Jet (GPLLJ). The GPLLJ is a nocturnal jet responsible for transporting a large amount of water vapor deep into the central U.S. from the Gulf of Mexico. Convergence north of the GPLLJ maximum contributes towards convective precipitation events in the upper Midwest. There is uncertainty in how climate change might impact the intensity of the GPLLJ, and thus precipitation, primarily because GCMs vary in their representation of the jet and the associated convective precipitation. Here we present an analysis of the GPLLJ and precipitation for 27 CMIP5 simulations from the twenty-first century RCP4.5 emissions scenario. We analyze the warm season climate for three ten-year periods (early mid and late-century) to determine how the GPLLJ and precipitation will likely be influenced with climate change. We focus on the dynamics and thermodynamics that contribute to precipitation change in the Midwest and how well individual models represent these processes. Finally, we explore how the frequency of drought and heavy precipitation events may change throughout the remainder of the century.

Snyder, P. K.; Harding, K. J.; Liess, S.

2012-12-01

184

Projected impact of twenty-first century ENSO changes on rainfall over Central America and northwest South America from CMIP5 AOGCMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the importance that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has on rainfall over the tropical Americas, future changes in ENSO characteristics and teleconnections are important for regional hydroclimate. Projected changes to the ENSO mean state and characteristics, and the resulting impacts on rainfall anomalies over Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador during the twenty-first century are explored for several forcing scenarios using a suite of coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Mean-state warming of eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, drying of Central America and northern Colombia, and wetting of southwest Colombia and Ecuador are consistent with previous studies that used earlier versions of the AOGCMs. Current and projected future characteristics of ENSO (frequency, duration, amplitude) show a wide range of values across the various AOGCMs. The magnitude of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies are currently underestimated by most of the models, but the model ensembles generally simulate the correct sign of the anomalies across the seasons around the peak ENSO effects. While the models capture the broad present-day ENSO-related rainfall anomalies, there is not a clear sense of projected future changes in the precipitation anomalies.

Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Clark, Martyn P.

2014-06-01

185

Projected impact of twenty-first century ENSO changes on rainfall over Central America and northwest South America from CMIP5 AOGCMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the importance that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has on rainfall over the tropical Americas, future changes in ENSO characteristics and teleconnections are important for regional hydroclimate. Projected changes to the ENSO mean state and characteristics, and the resulting impacts on rainfall anomalies over Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador during the twenty-first century are explored for several forcing scenarios using a suite of coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Mean-state warming of eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, drying of Central America and northern Colombia, and wetting of southwest Colombia and Ecuador are consistent with previous studies that used earlier versions of the AOGCMs. Current and projected future characteristics of ENSO (frequency, duration, amplitude) show a wide range of values across the various AOGCMs. The magnitude of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies are currently underestimated by most of the models, but the model ensembles generally simulate the correct sign of the anomalies across the seasons around the peak ENSO effects. While the models capture the broad present-day ENSO-related rainfall anomalies, there is not a clear sense of projected future changes in the precipitation anomalies.

Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Clark, Martyn P.

2015-03-01

186

Lights, camera, action research: The effects of didactic digital movie making on students' twenty-first century learning skills and science content in the middle school classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and ISTE NET*S, along with the framework from the Partnership for 21st Century Learning Standards, our society demands students not only to learn curriculum, but to think critically, problem solve effectively, and become adept at communicating and collaborating. Didactic digital movie making in the science classroom may be one way that these twenty-first century learning skills may be implemented. An action research study using a mixed-methods approach to collect data was used to investigate if didactic moviemaking can help eighth grade students learn physical science content while incorporating 21st century learning skills of collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills through their group production. Over a five week period, students researched lessons, wrote scripts, acted, video recorded and edited a didactic movie that contained a narrative plot to teach a science strand from the Arizona State Standards in physical science. A pretest/posttest science content test and KWL chart was given before and after the innovation to measure content learned by the students. Students then took a 21st Century Learning Skills Student Survey to measure how much they perceived that communication, collaboration, problem solving and critical thinking were taking place during the production. An open ended survey and a focus group of four students were used for qualitative analysis. Three science teachers used a project evaluation rubric to measure science content and production values from the movies. Triangulating the science content test, KWL chart, open ended questions and the project evaluation rubric, it appeared that science content was gained from this project. Students felt motivated to learn and had positive experience. Students also felt that the repetition of production and watching their movies helped them remember science. Students also perceived that creating the didactic digital movie helped them use collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills throughout their production.

Ochsner, Karl

187

Regional and global projections of twenty-first century glacier mass changes in response to climate scenarios from global climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large component of present-day sea-level rise is due to the melt of glaciers other than the ice sheets. Recent projections of their contribution to global sea-level rise for the twenty-first century range between 70 and 180 mm, but bear significant uncertainty due to poor glacier inventory and lack of hypsometric data. Here, we aim to update the projections and improve quantification of their uncertainties by using a recently released global inventory containing outlines of almost every glacier in the world. We model volume change for each glacier in response to transient spatially-differentiated temperature and precipitation projections from 14 global climate models with two emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) prepared for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The multi-model mean suggests sea-level rise of 155 ± 41 mm (RCP4.5) and 216 ± 44 mm (RCP8.5) over the period 2006-2100, reducing the current global glacier volume by 29 or 41 %. The largest contributors to projected global volume loss are the glaciers in the Canadian and Russian Arctic, Alaska, and glaciers peripheral to the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Although small contributors to global volume loss, glaciers in Central Europe, low-latitude South America, Caucasus, North Asia, and Western Canada and US are projected to lose more than 80 % of their volume by 2100. However, large uncertainties in the projections remain due to the choice of global climate model and emission scenario. With a series of sensitivity tests we quantify additional uncertainties due to the calibration of our model with sparsely observed glacier mass changes. This gives an upper bound for the uncertainty range of ±84 mm sea-level rise by 2100 for each projection.

Radi?, Valentina; Bliss, Andrew; Beedlow, A. Cody; Hock, Regine; Miles, Evan; Cogley, J. Graham

2014-01-01

188

Why 'class' is too soft a category to capture the explosiveness of social inequality at the beginning of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

We can distinguish four positions on the continuing, or maybe even increasing, relevance of the category of class at the beginning of the twenty-first century depending on the extent to which they accord central importance to (1) the reproduction or (2) the transformation of social classes with regard to (3) the distribution of goods without bads or (4) the distribution of goods and bads. One could say that Dean Curran introduces the concept of 'risk-class' to radicalize the class distribution of risk and charts who will able to occupy areas less exposed to risk and who will have little choice but to occupy areas that are exposed to the brunt of the fact of the risk society. As he mentioned it is important to note that this social structuring of the distribution of bads will be affected not only by class, but also by other forms of social structuration of disadvantage, such as gender and race. In order to demonstrate that the distribution of bads is currently exacerbating class differences in life chances, however, Curran concentrates exclusively on phenomena of individual risks. In the process, he overlooks the problem of systemic risks in relation of the state, science, new corporate roles, management the mass media, law, mobile capital and social movements; at the same time, his conceptual frame of reference does not really thematize the interdependence between individual and systemic risks. Those who reduce the problematic of risk to that of the life chances of individuals are unable to grasp the conflicting social and political logics of risk and class conflicts. Or, to put it pointedly: 'class' is too soft a category to capture the explosiveness of social inequality in world risk society. PMID:23488700

Beck, Ulrich

2013-03-01

189

Sub-Saharan Northern African climate at the end of the twenty-first century: forcing factors and climate change processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional climate model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, is forced with increased atmospheric CO2 and anomalous SSTs and lateral boundary conditions derived from nine coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models to produce an ensemble set of nine future climate simulations for northern Africa at the end of the twenty-first century. A well validated control simulation, agreement among ensemble members, and a physical understanding of the future climate change enhance confidence in the predictions. The regional model ensembles produce consistent precipitation projections over much of northern tropical Africa. A moisture budget analysis is used to identify the circulation changes that support future precipitation anomalies. The projected midsummer drought over the Guinean Coast region is related partly to weakened monsoon flow. Since the rainfall maximum demonstrates a southward bias in the control simulation in July-August, this may be indicative of future summer drying over the Sahel. Wetter conditions in late summer over the Sahel are associated with enhanced moisture transport by the West African westerly jet, a strengthening of the jet itself, and moisture transport from the Mediterranean. Severe drought in East Africa during August and September is accompanied by a weakened Indian monsoon and Somali jet. Simulations with projected and idealized SST forcing suggest that overall SST warming in part supports this regional model ensemble agreement, although changes in SST gradients are important over West Africa in spring and fall. Simulations which isolate the role of individual climate forcings suggest that the spatial distribution of the rainfall predictions is controlled by the anomalous SST and lateral boundary conditions, while CO2 forcing within the regional model domain plays an important secondary role and generally produces wetter conditions.

Patricola, C. M.; Cook, K. H.

2011-09-01

190

Lessons from Four "Bronze Muses" or How the Rhetoric of Nineteenth Century African-American Women Can Inform Writing Instruction in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considering the rhetorical strategies four 19th-century black women employed to address various audiences can be helpful in the continuing struggle to find effective means of teaching writing to college students. These four women used a variety of strategies to reach audiences which were, to one degree or another, hostile to them because of their…

Logan, Shirley W.

191

Twenty-first century vaccinomics innovation systems: capacity building in the global South and the role of Product Development Partnerships (PDPs).  

PubMed

The availability of sequence information from publicly available complete genomes and data intensive sciences, together with next-generation sequencing technologies offer substantial promise for innovation in vaccinology and global public health in the beginning of the 21st century. This article presents an innovation analysis for the nascent field of vaccinomics by describing one of the major challenges in this endeavor: the need for capacities in "vaccinomics innovation systems" to support the developing countries involved in the creation and testing of new vaccines. In particular, we discuss the need for understanding how institutional frameworks can enhance capacities as intrinsic to a systems approach to health technology development. We focus our attention on the global South, meaning the technically less advanced and developing nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This focus is timely and appropriate because the challenge for innovation in postgenomics medicine is markedly much greater in these regions where basic infrastructures are often underresourced and new or the anticipated institutional relationships can be fragile. Importantly, we examine the role of Product Development Partnerships (PDPs) as a 21st century organizational innovation that contributes to strengthening fragile institutions and capacity building. For vaccinomics innovation systems to stand the test of time in a context of global public health, local communities, knowledge, and cultures need to be collectively taken into account at all stages in programs for vaccinomics-guided vaccine development and delivery in the global South where the public health needs for rational vaccine development are urgent. PMID:21732822

Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Upton, Mary

2011-09-01

192

Bridging the climate-induced water gap in the twenty-first century: adaptation support based on water supply, demand, adaptation and financing.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity affects large parts of the world. Over the course of the twenty-first century, water demand is likely to increase due to population growth and associated food production, and increased economic activity, while water supply is projected to decrease in many regions due to climate change. Despite recent studies that analyze the effect of climate change on water scarcity, e.g. using climate projections under representative concentration pathways (RCP) of the fifth assessment report of the IPCC (AR5), decision support for closing the water gap between now and 2100 does not exist at a meaningful scale and with a global coverage. In this study, we aimed (i) to assess the joint impact of climatic and socio-economic change on water scarcity, (ii) to integrate impact and potential adaptation in one workflow, (iii) to prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity based on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) to deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. To enable the combination of global coverage with local relevance, we aggregated all results for 1604 water provinces (food producing units) delineated in this study, which is five times smaller than previous food producing units. Water supply was computed using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological and water resources model, parameterized at 5 arcminutes for the whole globe, excluding Antarctica and Greenland. We ran PCR-GLOBWB with a daily forcing derived from five different GCM models from the CMIP5 (GFDL-ESM2M, Hadgem2-ES, IPSL-CMA5-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) that were bias corrected using observation-based WATCH data between 1960-1999. For each of the models all four RCPs (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) were run, producing the ensemble of 20 future projections. The blue water supply was aggregated per month and per water province. Industrial, domestic and irrigation water demands were computed for a limited number of realistic combinations of a shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and RCPs. Our Water And Climate Adaptation Model (WatCAM) was used to compute the water gap based on reservoir capacity, water supply, and water demand. WatCam is based on the existing ModSim (Labadie, 2010) water allocation model, and facilitated the evaluation of nine technological and infrastructural adaptation measures to assess the investments needed to bridge the future water gap. Regional environmental and socio-economic effects of these investments, such as environmental flows or downstream effects, were evaluated. A scheme was developed to evaluate the strategies on robustness and flexibility under climate change and scenario uncertainty, and each measure was linked to possibilities for investment and financing mechanisms. The WatCAM is available as a web modeling service from www.water2invest.com, and enables user specified adaptation measures and the creation of an ensemble of water gap forecasts.

Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jaïrus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Vitolo, Claudia; Schmitz, Oliver; Meijer, Karen; Van Aalst, Maaike; Bierkens, Marc

2014-05-01

193

[President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC) Review of the Information Technology for the Twenty-First Century Initiative and Its Implementation Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of its ongoing mission, the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC) has completed an initial review of the Information Technology for the 21st Century (IT[squared]) initiative and its implementation plan put forward by the participating federal agencies. This letter conveys the initial conclusions of that review.…

National Coordination Office for Information Technology Research and Development, Arlington, VA.

194

Preparing Technicians for the Twenty-First Century in Agriculture, Agribusiness, and Natural Resources. Summary Report of a Conference (Columbus, Ohio, April 15-16, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains summaries of various portions of a conference dealing with preparing technicians for various agricultural occupations as well as the texts of several papers presented at the conference. The keynote address, "Technology for the 21st Century" by John A. Conrads, is presented together with the following reaction panel papers:…

Mokma, Arnold L., Ed.; Barrick, Kirby, Ed.

195

The Informal Reading-"Thinking" Inventory: Twenty-First-Century Assessment Formats for Discovering Reading and Writing Needs--and Strengths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss the Informal Reading-"Thinking" Inventory (IR-TI), an informal reading inventory built on an easily recognized legacy model that also branches out into new realms. The IR-TI provides tools for assessing reading the lines, reading between the lines, and reading beyond the lines. This is a 21st-century

Manzo, Ula; Manzo, Anthony V.

2013-01-01

196

Grain, meat and vegetables to feed Paris: where did and do they come from? Localising Paris food supply areas from the eighteenth to the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food supply to a large metropolis such as Paris involves huge fluxes of goods, which considerably impact the surrounding\\u000a rural territories. Here, we present an attempt to localise Paris food supply areas, over a period of two centuries (1786,\\u000a 1886, 2006), based on the analysis of data from transportation and production statistics for cereals, animal products, and\\u000a fruits and

G. Billen; S. Barles; P. Chatzimpiros; J. Garnier

197

Simulating changes to the sediment transport regime of the Waipaoa River, New Zealand, driven by climate change in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional sediment transport model (TUGS) and a climate-driven hydrological model (HydroTrend) are used to predict changes to the sediment transport regime of the Waipaoa River that may occur in response to forecast 21st Century variations in climate. Climate change may reduce the mean flow in the Waipaoa River at Matawhero by an average of 13% in the 2030s and

B. Gomez; Y. Cui; A. J. Kettner; D. H. Peacock; J. P. M. Syvitski

2009-01-01

198

Cardinal John Henry Newman and 'the ideal state and purpose of a university': nurse education, research and practice development for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Cardinal John Henry Newman's book, The Idea of a University, first published in the mid nineteenth century, is often invoked as the epitome of the liberal Enlightenment University in discussions and debates about the role and purpose of nurse education. In this article I will examine Newman's book in greater detail and with a more critical eye than is generally the case in the writing of nurse academics. In particular, I will focus on the claims that Newman was a champion of the Enlightenment University of the nineteenth century, that he promoted the idea of 'disinterested' universal knowledge for its own sake, that he was an early advocate of the pursuit of knowledge through scientific research, and the supposition that he would have welcomed the discipline of nursing into the University. In each case, I will suggest that these claims are based on an extremely selective reading of Newman's work. I will conclude by employing the example of practice development to propose an alternative way for nursing to find its place in the modern University that does not involve a retreat into what I will argue is an outdated and nostalgic view of the aims and purpose of higher education. PMID:22530857

Rolfe, Gary

2012-06-01

199

Faculty Work in Schools of Education: Rethinking Roles and Rewards for the Twenty-First Century. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers points out problems and challenges that face schools, colleges, and departments of education as change agents try to reform them. After "Introduction: Reforming Schools, Colleges, and Departments of Education" (William G. Tierney), nine papers include: (1) "The Public Responsibility of Public Schools of Education"…

Tierney, William G., Ed.

200

Aligning American Higher Education with a Twenty-First-Century Public Agenda. Examining the National Purposes of American Higher Education: A Leadership Approach to Policy Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today higher education faces the challenge of reconsidering and realigning its public agenda to serve better an era in which educated people, the knowledge they produce, and the innovation and entrepreneurial skills they possess have become the keys to economic prosperity, national security, and social well-being. The imperatives of expanding…

Duderstadt, James J.

2009-01-01

201

Emerging Synergisms Between Drugs and Physiologically-Patterned Weak Magnetic Fields: Implications for Neuropharmacology and the Human Population in the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

Synergisms between pharmacological agents and endogenous neurotransmitters are familiar and frequent. The present review describes the experimental evidence for interactions between neuropharmacological compounds and the classes of weak magnetic fields that might be encountered in our daily environments. Whereas drugs mediate their effects through specific spatial (molecular) structures, magnetic fields mediate their effects through specific temporal patterns. Very weak (microT range) physiologically-patterned magnetic fields synergistically interact with drugs to strongly potentiate effects that have classically involved opiate, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and nitric oxide pathways. The combinations of the appropriately patterned magnetic fields and specific drugs can evoke changes that are several times larger than those evoked by the drugs alone. These novel synergisms provide a challenge for a future within an electromagnetic, technological world. They may also reveal fundamental, common physical mechanisms by which magnetic fields and chemical reactions affect the organism from the level of fundamental particles to the entire living system. PMID:19305744

Whissell, P.D; Persinger, M.A

2007-01-01

202

The politics of Piketty: what political science can learn from, and contribute to, the debate on Capital in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Thomas Piketty's imposing volume has brought serious economics firmly into the mainstream of public debate on inequality, yet political science has been mostly absent from this debate. This article argues that political science has an essential contribution to make to this debate, and that Piketty's important and powerful book lacks a clear political theory. It develops this argument by first assessing and critiquing the changing nature of political science and its account of contemporary capitalism, and then suggesting how Piketty's thesis can be complemented, extended and challenged by focusing on the ways in which politics and collective action shape the economy and the distribution of income and wealth. Although Capital's principal message is that 'capital is back' and that without political interventions active political interventions will continue to grow, a political economy perspective would suggest another rather more fundamental critique: the very economic forces Piketty describes are embedded in institutional arrangements which can only be properly understood as political phenomena. In a sense capital itself - the central concept of the book - is almost meaningless without proper consideration of its political foundations. Even if the fact of capital accumulation may respond to an economic logic, the process is embedded in a very political logic. The examples of housing policy and the regulation, and failure to regulate, financial markets are used to illustrate these points. PMID:25516346

Hopkin, Jonathan

2014-12-01

203

Lifespan Engagement and the Question of Relevance: Challenges for Music Education Research in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scope of music education research has expanded significantly over the last 50 years. Nevertheless, many studies remain atomistic, with limited contexts for questions, methods, findings and implications. Such approaches may seek to validate instructional strategies within an established music education system, rather than developing a continuum…

Myers, David

2008-01-01

204

Prosperity, Sustainable Employment and Social Justice: Challenges for the German Labor Market in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the effects of German labor market reforms on the competitiveness and performance of the German economy. The contribution starts with giving some background information on the rationale behind the reforms and stresses the specific structure of the German economy. We then describe the salient effects of the reforms for…

Möller, Joachim

2014-01-01

205

Public Service Broadcasting: The Challenges of the Twenty-first Century. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication No. 111.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a review of key research on public broadcasting and a synthesis of the actuality of public service broadcasting today in the face of increasing globalization, with case studies from 16 countries. Following the General Introduction (Pierre Juneau), the report is divided into two parts. Part 1--"Public Service Television in the…

Atkinson, Dave; Raboy, Marc, Ed.

206

Twenty-First-Century Adolescents, Writing, and New Media: Meeting the Challenge with Game Controllers and Laptops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's youth come to the English language arts class with a diverse range of ideas and experiences that give them the ability to develop and blossom into proficient and talented writers for multiple audiences; constant engagement with new media and digital literacies provides them multiple opportunities and multiple channels through which to…

Gerber, Hannah R.; Price, Debra P.

2011-01-01

207

Catalan in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue devoted to Catalonia--one of the most successful and longstanding language movements in Europe--gives a unique opportunity to understand some of the complex social dynamics engendered as language revival unfolds and to appreciate the value of in-depth interviewing, focus groups, and ethnographic work in making sometimes subtle…

Urla, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

208

The Twenty-First-Century Professoriate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not long ago, most academic insiders felt confident in saying, "the faculty 'are' the university." The faculty may still be the university, but who are the faculty? From public community colleges to private research universities, America has created the most powerful machine for the development of human capital in the history of the world. Yet an…

Plater, William M.

2008-01-01

209

Twenty-first century mast cell stabilizers  

PubMed Central

Mast cell stabilizing drugs inhibit the release of allergic mediators from mast cells and are used clinically to prevent allergic reactions to common allergens. Despite the relative success of the most commonly prescribed mast cell stabilizer, disodium cromoglycate, in use for the preventative treatment of bronchial asthma, allergic conjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis, there still remains an urgent need to design new substances that are less expensive and require less frequent dosing schedules. In this regard, recent developments towards the discovery of the next generation of mast cell stabilizing drugs has included studies on substances isolated from natural sources, biological, newly synthesized compounds and drugs licensed for other indications. The diversity of natural products evaluated range from simple phenols, alkaloids, terpenes to simple amino acids. While in some cases their precise mode of action remains unknown it has nevertheless sparked interest in the development of synthetic derivatives with improved pharmacological properties. Within the purely synthetic class of inhibitors, particular attention has been devoted to the inhibition of important signalling molecules including spleen TK and JAK3. The statin class of cholesterol-lowering drugs as well as nilotinib, a TK inhibitor, are just some examples of clinically used drugs that have been evaluated for their anti-allergic properties. Here, we examine each approach under investigation, summarize the test data generated and offer suggestions for further preclinical evaluation before their therapeutic potential can be realized. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Histamine Pharmacology Update. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-1 PMID:23441583

Finn, D F; Walsh, J J

2013-01-01

210

Twenty-first century health care.  

PubMed

A dynamic, proactive health-care environment is beckoning. Fueled by consumer-led awareness, digital television, the Internet and a preoccupation with preventative health maintenance, it will define a new genre of products. In a series of provocative statements, this visionary article explores what the future may hold for diagnostics and medical devices. PMID:10387620

Pearson, M

1999-04-01

211

Transportation in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

New energy-efficient and environmentally-sound magnetically levitated (maglev) transportation systems are being developed that have the potential to supplement and extend the intercity portion of our transportation system, and to alleviate part of the commuter congestion on our highways. Prototype passenger-carrying maglev vehicles are now operating in Japan and Germany. The capabilities of these systems, described in science fiction over two decades ago, are no longer speculative. They will be capable of transporting 100--150 passengers per vehicles or 1500 passengers per train at speeds of 250--350 mph. While performing many of the same functions of short-haul aircraft, these electrically powered vehicles: do not emit pollutants along the route; use about 1/3 the energy per passenger mile of modern aircraft; do not contact the guideway and therefore minimize maintenance; are silent except for the noise of air passing over the body. This paper assesses current maglev technology. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Coffey, H.T.

1991-01-01

212

Transportation in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

New energy-efficient and environmentally-sound magnetically levitated (maglev) transportation systems are being developed that have the potential to supplement and extend the intercity portion of our transportation system, and to alleviate part of the commuter congestion on our highways. Prototype passenger-carrying maglev vehicles are now operating in Japan and Germany. The capabilities of these systems, described in science fiction over two decades ago, are no longer speculative. They will be capable of transporting 100--150 passengers per vehicles or 1500 passengers per train at speeds of 250--350 mph. While performing many of the same functions of short-haul aircraft, these electrically powered vehicles: do not emit pollutants along the route; use about 1/3 the energy per passenger mile of modern aircraft; do not contact the guideway and therefore minimize maintenance; are silent except for the noise of air passing over the body. This paper assesses current maglev technology. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Coffey, H.T.

1991-12-01

213

Departmentalization and Twenty-First Century Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between school organizational style and student outcomes. The research questions that guided this study were, "Is there a difference in mathematical performance of fourth graders who receive departmentalized instruction as compared to fourth grade students who receive…

Watts, Toy Coles

2012-01-01

214

Educating for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his first inaugural speech, President Obama declared that "our schools fail too many" and an essential component of laying "a new foundation for growth" will be "to transform our schools and colleges and universities to meet the demands of a new age." Concerns about our nation's position in the global education race have led to a focus on…

Ramaley, Judith A.

2013-01-01

215

Young People's Health as a Challenge for Physical Education in Schools in the Twenty-First Century: The Case of Flanders (Belgium)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A lack of physical activity (PA) and the occurrence of overweight and obesity among school-aged youth have become a major societal problem. Arising from the general concern about the future generations' health, schools have been found to be potentially important settings to promote positive health behaviour, since all pupils can be…

Seghers, Jan; de Martelaer, Kristine; Cardon, Greet

2009-01-01

216

Young people's health as a challenge for physical education in schools in the twenty-first century: the case of Flanders (Belgium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A lack of physical activity (PA) and the occurrence of overweight and obesity among school-aged youth have become a major societal problem. Arising from the general concern about the future generations' health, schools have been found to be potentially important settings to promote positive health behaviour, since all pupils can be reached spending large amounts of time in the

Jan Seghers; Kristine de Martelaer; Greet Cardon

2009-01-01

217

University-Community Collaborations for the Twenty-First Century: Outreach Scholarship for Youth and Families. Michigan State University Series on Children, Youth, and Families, Vol. 4; Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 1119.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 22 essays and case studies in this book offer a theoretical and practical guide on outreach programs of colleges and universities. The chapters are: (1) "The New American Outreach University: Challenges and Options" (Richard M. Lerner, Lou Anna K. Simon); (2) "The Land-Grant Idea and the Evolving Outreach University" (James T. Bonnen); (3)…

Lerner, Richard M., Ed.; Simon, Lou Anna K., Ed.

218

Liquor Laws and Constitutional Conventions: A Legal History of the Twenty-first Amendment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1933 America decisively ended its ill-fated experiment in national prohibition by enacting the Twenty-first Amendment. This article tells the tale of America’s return to liquor from a legal perspective. It recounts the ebb and flow of the prohibitionist movements in the nineteenth century, the congressional debates over the Twenty-first Amendment, the state laws, popular votes, and constitutional conventions that

Ethan P Davis

2008-01-01

219

Development Imperatives for the Twenty-First Century in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development as a growth process is what every person, nation and state seeks from day to day. The issues of development and better welfare are generally important to the average man and woman, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Nigeria and other African countries need to instigate the principles and strategies that will bring about…

Arikpo, Arikpo B.; Etor, Robert B.; Usang, Ewa

2007-01-01

220

Environmental permitting strategies for the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

Recent trends in economic markets have caused mining companies to look harder at reducing costs for collecting information, performing studies, and conducting other necessary activities to complete environmental permitting. In some cases, it may be in the operator's best interest to delay permitting and related expenditures to the extent possible. In most cases, however, agency mandates and the need to continue operations require that permits be obtained and maintained in the most expedient and economical way possible. This paper explores some basic approaches to environmental permitting which are intended to strategically guide the permitting process through the maze of requirements in a relatively straightforward manner. Through application of common sense and KISS (Keep it simple, stupid) the authors have found that permitting can be conducted in a quicker fashion than most applicants experience. The authors explore and explain some of these basic principles by drawing on their own experiences in the Arizona Aquifer Protection Permit and other environmental permit programs.

Munson, B.E.; Wallis, C.M.

1999-07-01

221

Renewal: Remaking America's Schools for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harold Kwalwasser has put together a call to action for education reform that makes a clear case for what has to be done in order to educate all children to their full potential. He visited forty high-performing and transforming school districts, charters, parochial, and private schools to understand why they have succeeded where others have…

Kwalwasser, Harold

2012-01-01

222

Wanted: training competencies for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research paper is to describe the results and implications of the training professionals' competencies in the hospitality industry in the USA. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A qualitative implicit method, in-depth interviews using pictures were conducted with ten training professionals, where metaphors were widely used and links between concepts were identified. The qualitative software Atlas ti was

Valentini Kalargyrou; Robert H. Woods

2011-01-01

223

Urban Pedagogy: A Proposal for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The urban has been studied by students of geography, politics, aesthetics/culture, architects and politicians. Educational researchers in defining the urban as a field of research and practice have looked at schooling and its institutionalized role in cities. A wider discussion of the very character of urban experience and its relevance for…

Dobson, Stephen

2006-01-01

224

Turkey's energy overview beginning in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is at the crossroads of several volatile, strategically and economically important regions, including the awkward triangle of the Middle East, Central Asia and the Caucasus. With a young and growing population, low per capita electricity consumption, rapid urbanization and strong economic growth, Turkey, for nearly two decades, has been one of the fastest growing power markets in the world.

Ayhan Demirba?

2002-01-01

225

Teaching Thinking: An Agenda for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers ideas and strategies for teaching thinking in schools. Sixteen chapters and a concluding discussion, each preceded by an introductory article, are written by experts recognized in their fields. The chapters include: (1) "Reading and Thinking with History and Science Text" (Isabel L. Beck and Janice A. Dole; (2) "Developing…

Collins, Cathy, Ed.; Mangieri, John N., Ed.

226

The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr?1) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3?) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr?1 to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40–70 Tg N yr?1 to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr?1) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 102–103 years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced. PMID:23713126

Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A.; Cape, J. Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J.; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N.; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F.; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

2013-01-01

227

Seminar in Critical Inquiry Twenty-first Century Nuclear Systems  

SciTech Connect

Critical Inquiry, has not only been successful in increasing university student retention rate but also in improving student academic performance beyond the initial year of transition into the University. The seminar course herein reviewed is a balanced combination of student personal and academic skill development combined with a solid background in modern nuclear systems. It is a valid premise to assume that entering students as well as stakeholders of the general public demonstrate equal levels of capability. Nuclear systems is designed to give a broad and basic knowledge of nuclear power, medical, industrial, research, and military systems (nuclear systems) in 20-25 hours.

LeMone, D. V.

2002-02-25

228

Two-Generation Programs in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most of the authors in this issue of "Future of Children" focus on a single strategy for helping both adults and children that could become a component of two-generation programs. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, on the other hand, look at actual programs with an explicit two-generation focus that have been tried in the…

Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2014-01-01

229

Schooling for Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Venezuela's Bolivarian Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global dominance of neoliberal policy prescriptions in recent decades has been well documented, with particular implications for educational systems. These include reduced public expenditure and provision, the promotion of individual (parental) choice, competition, increased user-pays and the privatisation of education. Against this…

Griffiths, Tom G.

2010-01-01

230

Aeronautical technologies for the twenty-first century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study gives an overview of the future technologies in aeronautics. This collaborative effort relies upon the input of numerous experts from around the country. Specific issues covered include subsonic transport aircraft, high-speed civil transport aircraft short-haul aircraft, environmental issues, operational issues, aerodynamics, propulsion, materials and structures, avionics and control, and cognitive engineering. The appendices include bibliography, abbreviations and acronyms, and NASA fiscal year 1992 aeronautics funding (table) and participants. The forward states that over the last decade, foreign aircraft manufacturers have made significant inroads into the global aircraft market, to the detriment of U.S. interests. Recommendations are made to counter that trend.

1992-01-01

231

Global interdependence and eliminating war in the twenty first century  

E-print Network

alliances (to measure political interdependence). Using these two measures of the interdependence of nation-states, this study examines whether the dependence of a state's wealth on the international market and its level of political interconnectedness...

Durham, Monica

2013-02-22

232

Families and Elder Care in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most Americans know that the U.S. population is aging, they are far less informed about the reality of providing elders with personal care, health care, and social support. Families--particularly women--have always been critical in providing elder care, but the entry of so many women into the paid labor force has made elder care…

Bookman, Ann; Kimbrel, Delia

2011-01-01

233

Electron spectroscopy into the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global socioeconomic trends define the external envelope within which electron spectroscopy will develop in the coming decades. The signs are very positive that this field will be increasingly in demand as new methodology is developed, leading to advances in both basic science and applications to technology. Four fields of transcendent scientific opportunity are identified. All benefit from electron spectroscopy. Two

David A. Shirley; Barry L. Petersen; Malcolm Howells

1995-01-01

234

Professionalizing business district management for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore leading theories and concepts in professionalising the emerging field of business district management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In the context of globalization and localization, it discusses distinctive place-based elements of business improvement districts (BIDs), such as: law, nomenclature, assessment formulae, and branding; while suggesting and analyzing strategic international application of certain theories and concepts. Findings

Fayth A. Ruffin

2008-01-01

235

The Cybernetic Dream of the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few decades, several critics of modern science have been able to demonstrate that science is not a value-free instrument for ascertaining truth, as many believe, but is rather a mode of cognition whose very \\

Morris Berman

1986-01-01

236

Michele Dillon American Catholics in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

the increasing Hispanic presence in the Church is likely to alter the character of American Catholicism. Michele Studies 3001E Humanities and Social Sciences Building University of California at Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, California 93106-3130 #12;

Akhmedov, Azer

237

Undergraduate surgical education for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed Central

This article addresses the problems associated with current undergraduate surgical education and discusses the requirements necessary for its improvement during the third and fourth years of medical school. It asserts that, coincident with the emphasis on faculty research and publication and expanded resident patient care duties, teaching, particularly medical student teaching, has assumed a very low priority. Third-year medical students are attached to surgical teams, where their education is haphazard and disorganized. Furthermore, because any teaching that occurs is teacher oriented rather than student centered, knowledge is accumulated passively and is not well retained. Traditional evaluation using shelf multiple choice examinations and ward ratings by residents and faculty may provide inaccurate assessments of the students' performance. The undergraduate surgical education program should be directed by a faculty member who has been grounded in educational techniques and research and supported by a department chairman committed to bettering the program. In the clerkship, medical students should be assigned to faculty rather than to services and should be presented problems that require solution. Students also should be provided with the resources to solve the problems and should be given sufficient time to solve them. Some operating room experience and bedside teaching should occur during the clerkship. A variety of evaluation and testing methods based on the learning objectives of the clerkship should be used. Third-year students should not be promoted until they have demonstrated their acquisition of appropriate knowledge and skills.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1466617

Schwartz, R W; Donnelly, M B; Young, B; Nash, P P; Witte, F M; Griffen, W O

1992-01-01

238

Z Cam Stars in the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Z Cam (UGZ) stars are a small subset of dwarf novae that exhibit standstills in their light curves. Most modern literature and catalogs of cataclysmic variables quote the number of known Z Cams to be on the order of thirty or so systems. After a four-year observing campaign and an exhaustive examination of the data in the AAVSO International Database (AID) we have trimmed that number by a third. One of the reasons for the misclassification of some systems is the fact that the definition of what a Z Cam is has changed over the last eighty-five years. This has caused many stars formerly assumed to be Z Cams or rumored to be Z Cams to be eliminated from the final list. In this paper we present the results of our investigation into sixty-five stars listed at one time or another in the literature as Z Cams or possible Z Cams.

Simonsen, M.; Boyd, D.; Goff, W.; Krajci, T.; Menzies, K.; Otero, S.; Padovan, S.; Poyner, G.; Roe, J.; Sabo, R.; Sjoberg, G.; Staels, B.; Stubbings, R.; Toone, J.; Wils, P.

2014-05-01

239

Twenty-first Century Tools for Qualitative Data Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A way to support the educational ethnographer in developing a perspective on the art of qualitative research during an introductory course on qualitative research methods is explored through a study of how novice researchers begin to learn the elements and processes of qualitative research. A second purpose of the study is to investigate the use…

Wiley, Susan D.; And Others

240

United Kingdom: Skills Development for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learning and Skills Development Agency (LSDA), together with the British Council, provides the leadership for the UNEVOC centre in the United Kingdom (UK). LSDA is a strategic national agency whose mission is to improve the quality of post-16 education and training in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It does this by conducting research to…

Baines, John; Cohen, Judith; Martin, Stephen

2005-01-01

241

NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE TECHNOLOGIES SUSTAINABLE IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the application of separation technologies, in particular solvent extraction and ion exchange in the uranium nuclear fuel cycle. The history and decisions in selecting the technology are briefly discussed. The global trends in the energy sector are reviewed and the impact of other energy sources on the nuclear power industry both now and in the future is

H. Eccles

2000-01-01

242

Facilitated Communication and Its Legitimacy--Twenty-First Century Developments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By 2001, Facilitated Communication (FC) had largely been empirically discredited as an effective intervention for previously uncommunicative persons with disabilities, especially those with autism and related disorders. Key empirical findings consistently showed that the facilitator and not the client initiated communication. I analyze the extant…

Mostert, Mark P.

2010-01-01

243

A Library Communication Audit for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a case study relating to an internal communication audit conducted in a large academic library that assessed existing information channels during a period of organizational change in order to recommend improvements. A communications task force developed and administered a survey instrument and then analyzed data and reported…

Chalmers, Mardi; Liedtka, Theresa; Bednar, Carol

2006-01-01

244

Deep Ecology: Educational Possibilities for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents fundamentals of systems thinking and sustainability within an ecological theory to shape education to the needs of human development in relation to the environment. Emphasizes that effective learning is a system embedded in the web of life, giving humans the ability to see the interconnectedness of the environment, community, and the…

Capra, Fritjof

2003-01-01

245

Facilitated Communication and Its Legitimacy—Twenty-First Century Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 2001, Facilitated Communication (FC) had largely been empirically discredited as an effective intervention for previously uncommunicative persons with disabilities, especially those with autism and related disorders. Key empirical findings consistently showed that the facilitator and not the client initiated communication. I analyze the extant efficacy literature since 2001, noting that it reveals similar trends to past findings. However, the

Mark P. Mostert

2010-01-01

246

The Casualties of the Twenty-First-Century Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses academic freedom that is currently under threat at many public two-year schools, which serve almost one-half of the nation's first-year college students. The growing reliance on part-time faculty exacerbates the problem, with many adjuncts feeling muzzled for fear of losing their jobs. The problem of academic freedom at…

Wilson, David McKay

2010-01-01

247

Informal Learning: A Vision for the Twenty-First Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents two responses on the publication of the government's consultation paper on informal adult learning. Ball writes that the publication should be welcomed, not as a friend, and certainly not as either a change in the weather or the climate, but as an opportunity to speak up for the importance of adult learning. This consultative…

Davies, Peter; Ball, Malcolm

2008-01-01

248

Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia into the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

The 13th Conference on Australasian Vertebrate Evolution Palaeontology and Systematics (CAVEPS) took place in Perth, Western Australia, from 27 to 30 April 2011. This biennial meeting was jointly hosted by Curtin University, the Western Australian Museum, Murdoch University and the University of Western Australia. Researchers from diverse disciplines addressed many aspects of vertebrate evolution, including functional morphology, phylogeny, ecology and extinctions. New additions to the fossil record were reported, especially from hitherto under-represented ages and clades. Yet, application of new techniques in palaeobiological analyses dominated, such as dental microwear and geochronology, and technological advances, including computed tomography and ancient biomolecules. This signals a shift towards increased emphasis in interpreting broader evolutionary patterns and processes. Nonetheless, further field exploration for new fossils and systematic descriptions will continue to shape our understanding of vertebrate evolution in this little-studied, but most unusual, part of the globe. PMID:21715395

Nguyen, Jacqueline M. T.; Molak, Martyna; Black, Karen H.; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Travouillon, Kenny J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.

2011-01-01

249

The Soviet Union in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this article is how historians and others have understood Soviet history since the demise of the Soviet Union. It is argued that, despite the opening of archives, changes in interpretation have been driven as much by external political and disciplinary developments as by greater availability of data. Important external considerations have been the Cold War and the

Sheila Fitzpatrick

2007-01-01

250

Learning Environments for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the revolution in education demands the rethinking of school facilities. Emphasizes the importance of listening to the clients (students and teachers) when designing a new school, and outlines the potential that schools have to become intergenerational community centers. Focuses on the environment in facilitating learning. (RJM)

Taylor, Anne; Warden, Michael G.

1994-01-01

251

Teaching Privacy in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What would Benjamin Franklin's Facebook page look like? Would he be "friends" with William Pierce, James Madison, or Alexander Hamilton? Would there have been a separate Facebook group for the framers of the Constitution, where they would have posted comments on the wall regarding the different stipulations that needed inclusion in the document?…

Edbrooke, Odette; Ambrose, Meg Leta

2012-01-01

252

Twenty-first century brain banking: at the crossroads.  

PubMed

Brain banks form an increasingly important resource for research. In view of declining autopsy rates, brain banks are also gaining importance for medical diagnostics, quality control and teaching. In the case of neurodegenerative diseases, brain banks have become drivers of discovery and are yielding invaluable taxonomic references for neuropathologists. This article provides comments on two recent landmark papers in the field (Bell JE et al. Acta Neuropathol 2008. doi:10.1007/s00401-008-0358-8; Vonsattel JP et al. Acta Neuropathol 2008. doi:10.1007/s00401-007-0311-9). Professionalisation of brain banking standards, ethical principles safeguarding the running of a brain bank and a proposed code of conduct for brain bank staff are outlined and discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the need to enable sustainability of the human brain tissue resource in the face of increased financial pressures on medical institutions and raised public expectations towards ethical human brain banking in a globalised economic environment. It is proposed that brain banks undergo rigorous international audit as a prerequisite for their registration with the relevant national neuropathological society. This promises to be an important safeguard so that proper standards can be assured when tissue is handed out to commercial companies. Honesty, accountability and complete transparency are mandatory to allow long-lasting success of the brain banking operation by guaranteeing that the best possible use is made of the tissue. Preferred access by private tissue users must be avoided and money must never be allowed to buy access to a brain bank. Since brain banks operate internationally, any mistake made may be felt around the globe and could endanger the public's willingness to donate brains for research. The much-needed increase in the number of control brain donations will only be achievable if broad-based support from the general public can be won and maintained. PMID:18347804

Graeber, Manuel B

2008-05-01

253

Communications Security for the Twenty-first Century  

E-print Network

Agency (NSA) and the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) realized that noncom- batant adults needed to protect their sensitive, but unclassified, information. Though NSA is the usual government agency. Concern centered on whether NSA had placed a "trapdoor" in the algorithm (a shortcut to de- cryption

Russo, Bernard

254

Old Main: Small Colleges in Twenty-First Century America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This perceptive and cogent account draws on key data and firsthand observations to tell the story of the small college in America. Defined as institutions that enroll between 500 and 3,000 full-time students, small colleges number about six hundred in the United States. Many are thriving, while some--whether through low enrollment, ballooning…

Schuman, Samuel

2005-01-01

255

Two-generation programs in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Most of the authors in this issue of Future of Children focus on a single strategy for helping both adults and children that could become a component of two-generation programs. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, on the other hand, look at actual programs with an explicit two-generation focus that have been tried in the past or are currently under way. These explicitly two-generation programs have sought to build human capital across generations by combining education or job training for adults with early childhood education for their children. Chase-Lansdale and Brooks-Gunn explain the theories behind these programs and review the evidence for their efficacy. A first wave of such programs in the 1980s and 1990s produced mostly disappointing results, but the evaluations they left behind pointed to promising new directions. More recently, a second wave of two-generation programs--the authors dub them "Two-Generation 2.0"--has sought to rectify the flaws of earlier efforts, largely by building strong connections between components for children and adults, by ensuring that children and adults receive services of equal duration and intensity, and by incorporating advances in both education and workforce development. These Two-Generation 2.0 programs are still in their infancy, and we have yet to see clear evidence that they can achieve their goals or be implemented cost-effectively at scale. Nonetheless, Chase-Lansdale and Brooks-Gunn write, the theoretical justification for these programs is strong, their early results are promising, and the time is ripe for innovation, experimentation, and further study. PMID:25518701

Chase-Lansdale, Lindsay; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2014-01-01

256

The Twenty-First Century University: Some Reservations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that the university is in the process of transformation and that interpretations of data intended to show the features of this reinvented university are not completely satisfactory. Suggests that previously published views may be too optimistic and hierarchical, and that an egalitarian if pluralistic university structure and…

Wasser, Henry

2001-01-01

257

Mobile learning for the twenty-first century librarian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to present a review of selected mobile learning literature and programmatic approaches for librarians interested in developing mobile digital library services in order to equip readers with a framework for understanding and appreciating mobile digital librarianship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review is culled from distance learning, medical informatics and medical librarianship, internet social studies, and

Jim Hahn

2008-01-01

258

Oceanography, the new Frontier for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the discipline of oceanography and some of its specific areas of concern. Describes the major resources of the oceans and reflects on how these may be utilized and shared by nations in the future. (JR)

Marshall, Nelson

1973-01-01

259

The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr(-1)) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3(-)) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr(-1) to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40-70 Tg N yr(-1) to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr(-1)) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 10(2)-10(3) years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced. PMID:23713126

Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A; Cape, J Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

2013-07-01

260

77 FR 24632 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 14 [CG...Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act...

2012-04-25

261

76 FR 20297 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 6...Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act...

2011-04-12

262

Fire Safety Challenges in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twentieth century was a time of great change and growth in society as well as in fire safety. As we begin a new century, it is important to reflect on these changes, as well as the fire safety challenges in the future.These challenges go beyond the day to day work of fire protection engineers. This paper reviews challenges that

Craig L. Beyler

2001-01-01

263

Challenges in 21st Century Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

Wilson, Thomas L.

2007-01-01

264

PRESS RELEASE The Twenty-First Annual Gandhi Peace Festival  

E-print Network

PRESS RELEASE The Twenty-First Annual Gandhi Peace Festival WHO: The Gandhi Peace Festival Committee WHAT: The Annual Gandhi Peace Festival is a community oriented festival based in Hamilton these issues. Such discussions are the first steps to empowering people. The Gandhi Peace Festival is focused

Hitchcock, Adam P.

265

The Twenty-First NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication contains the proceedings of the Twenty-First NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held in Tampa, FL, April 26 through April 30, 1993. It provides some comprehensive general papers on the application of finite elements in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre-and postprocessing with other auxiliary programs and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

1993-01-01

266

BACK TO THE VILLAGE? AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF AN ANDEAN COMMUNITY IN THE EARLY TWENTY-FIRST  

E-print Network

1 BACK TO THE VILLAGE? AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF AN ANDEAN COMMUNITY IN THE EARLY TWENTY? An ethnographic study of an Andean community in the early Twenty-first Century. Thesis abstract: This thesis is an ethnographic study of Taulli, a "Peruvian peasant community" (PPC) in the highland region of Ayacucho. PPCs

Sheldon, Nathan D.

267

Poisson's ratio over two centuries: challenging hypotheses  

PubMed Central

This article explores Poisson's ratio, starting with the controversy concerning its magnitude and uniqueness in the context of the molecular and continuum hypotheses competing in the development of elasticity theory in the nineteenth century, moving on to its place in the development of materials science and engineering in the twentieth century, and concluding with its recent re-emergence as a universal metric for the mechanical performance of materials on any length scale. During these episodes France lost its scientific pre-eminence as paradigms switched from mathematical to observational, and accurate experiments became the prerequisite for scientific advance. The emergence of the engineering of metals followed, and subsequently the invention of composites—both somewhat separated from the discovery of quantum mechanics and crystallography, and illustrating the bifurcation of technology and science. Nowadays disciplines are reconnecting in the face of new scientific demands. During the past two centuries, though, the shape versus volume concept embedded in Poisson's ratio has remained invariant, but its application has exploded from its origins in describing the elastic response of solids and liquids, into areas such as materials with negative Poisson's ratio, brittleness, glass formation, and a re-evaluation of traditional materials. Moreover, the two contentious hypotheses have been reconciled in their complementarity within the hierarchical structure of materials and through computational modelling. PMID:24687094

Greaves, G. Neville

2013-01-01

268

Poisson's ratio over two centuries: challenging hypotheses.  

PubMed

This article explores Poisson's ratio, starting with the controversy concerning its magnitude and uniqueness in the context of the molecular and continuum hypotheses competing in the development of elasticity theory in the nineteenth century, moving on to its place in the development of materials science and engineering in the twentieth century, and concluding with its recent re-emergence as a universal metric for the mechanical performance of materials on any length scale. During these episodes France lost its scientific pre-eminence as paradigms switched from mathematical to observational, and accurate experiments became the prerequisite for scientific advance. The emergence of the engineering of metals followed, and subsequently the invention of composites-both somewhat separated from the discovery of quantum mechanics and crystallography, and illustrating the bifurcation of technology and science. Nowadays disciplines are reconnecting in the face of new scientific demands. During the past two centuries, though, the shape versus volume concept embedded in Poisson's ratio has remained invariant, but its application has exploded from its origins in describing the elastic response of solids and liquids, into areas such as materials with negative Poisson's ratio, brittleness, glass formation, and a re-evaluation of traditional materials. Moreover, the two contentious hypotheses have been reconciled in their complementarity within the hierarchical structure of materials and through computational modelling. PMID:24687094

Greaves, G Neville

2013-03-20

269

Developing Creativity Ecosystems: Preparing College Students for Tomorrow's Innovation Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eileen Hulme, Ben Thomas, and Hal DeLaRosby argue for the importance of creativity as a learning outcome and challenge higher education to produce students capable of becoming the innovative leaders the twenty-first-century economy requires.

Hulme, Eileen; Thomas, Ben; DeLaRosby, Hal

2014-01-01

270

Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

House, James S.

2008-01-01

271

One of the major challenges in the twenty-first century is the development of cleaner, sustainable means of energy conversion and storage in order to address the problems  

E-print Network

batteries which could be used for hybrid or pure electric cars and help cut carbon emissions. Developing. Developing cleaner lithium batteries to power electric cars Rechargeable lithium batteries represent a leap and laptops. However, the future development of improved lithium batteries for hybrid and pure electric

Burton, Geoffrey R.

272

Next Century Challenges: Mobile Networking for "Smart Dust"  

E-print Network

Next Century Challenges: Mobile Networking for "Smart Dust" J. M. Kahn, R. H. Katz (ACM Fellow), K into a complete system. We review the key elements of the emer- gent technology of "Smart Dust" and outline and communica- tion capabilities, and a power supply. Berkeley's Smart Dust project, led by Professors Pister

Kahn, Joseph M.

273

Goals and Objectives of the 21st Century Challenge Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The statewide goals and objectives of Tennessee's plan for educational excellence, the 21st Century Challenge, are outlined in this legislative committee report. The major initiatives under each goal will be implemented within 3 to 4 years. Goals and an example of the several objectives under each goal are: first grade readiness (e.g., require all…

Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

274

Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

None

1996-01-26

275

Entering the 21st century: the challenges for development  

PubMed Central

By many people, the 20th century will be remembered as an era of great achievement in human endeavour, and of enormous economic growth and prosperity. Achievements in medical research, from eradicating infectious diseases to laser surgery; in engineering, from the transistor to space exploration; and in economic development have all contributed to greater well being in the world at the end of the 20th century. Among the challenges to development identified by the World Bank in the coming decades will be managing the twin processes of globalization and localization, as well as post-conflict reconstruction. These will form the backdrop of the Bank's main focus of creating a world free of poverty.

Wolfensohn, J. D.

1999-01-01

276

66 MegaChallengesMegaChallenges for the 21for the 21stst CenturyCentury  

E-print Network

to "Sapient," the level of full use of symbolic reasoning integrated with meaning/empathy (human brain is "new is Life? (e.g., quantitative systems biotechnology) · Key Broader Challenges to Humanity: ­ Sustainable growth on earth · Global sustainable energy/environment & mid-term survival · "yin sustainability," e

Andras, Peter

277

Challenging Technology, and Technology Infusion into 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparing for the space exploration challenges of the next century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Center for Integrated Space Micro-Systems (CISM) is chartered to develop advanced spacecraft systems that can be adapted for a large spectrum of future space missions. Enabling this task are revolutions in the miniaturization of electrical, mechanical, and computational functions. On the other hand, these revolutionary technologies usually have much lower readiness levels than those required by flight projects. The mission of the Advanced Micro Spacecraft (AMS) task in CISM is to bridge the readiness gap between advanced technologies and flight projects. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Chau, S. N.; Hunter, D. J.

2001-01-01

278

STEM education: A deficit framework for the twenty first century? A sociocultural socioscientific response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ubiquitous of STEM education initiatives in recent years has created a bandwagon that has moved at nearly light speed. The impulse of the science education community and policy-makers is to grab hold for dear life or be marginalized from subsequent discussions about the necessity and consequences of using STEM initiatives to prepare and inform our next generation of citizens. This commentary questions the prudence of STEM-related science education goals, as typically represented and discussed in the literature, and likens the current practice to a deficit framework. A sociocultural perspective framed through socioscientific considerations is offered as an alternative conceptualization as well as surplus model to hegemonic STEM practices.

Zeidler, Dana L.

2014-06-01

279

Twenty First Century Water Asset Accounting:Implications Report (WERF Report INFR6R12b)  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is an important first step towards developing water industry standards and accounting protocols for green infrastructure that could be adopted by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) to promote green infrastructure investment. Green infrastructure, the ...

280

76 FR 55585 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...is not exempt'' from these rules.\\56\\ The comments of The Walt Disney Company (``Disney''), as parent company of ESPN...132\\ See, e.g., Comments of the Walt Disney Company (``Disney'') at 4 (``Disney...

2011-09-08

281

Native American Demographic and Tribal Survival into the Twenty-first Century  

E-print Network

" (Merbs 1992, 36). New diseases which impacted native populations in the Western Hemisphere include small pox, measles, the bubonic plague, cholera, typhoid, diphtheria, scarlet fever, various forms of influenza and whooping cough,3 malaria, and yellow...—known as the Trail of Tears—because of measles, cholera, whooping cough, dysentery, and other diseases. However, the hardships of the journeys accentuated the mortality of these diseases while pro ducing their own mortality. The removals were planned...

Thornton, Russell

2006-03-01

282

Implementing Pro-Work Policies for Older Americans in the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

, gender, or year of birth. A History of Anti-work Policies Mandatory retirement was the most visible anti of older workers since World War II constitute a "social problem." On the contrary, the ability to enjoy

Huang, Jianyu

283

Twenty-first Century Lattice Gauge Theory: Results from the QCD Lagrangian  

SciTech Connect

Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) reduces the strong interactions, in all their variety, to an elegant nonabelian gauge theory. It clearly and elegantly explains hadrons at short distances, which has led to its universal acceptance. Since its advent, however, many of its long-distance, emergent properties have been believed to be true, without having been demonstrated to be true. This paper reviews a variety of results in this regime that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian. This body of work sheds light on the origin of hadron masses, its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, as well as on other intriguing features such as the phase structure of QCD. In addition, nonperturbative QCD is quantitatively important to many aspects of particle physics (especially the quark flavor sector), nuclear physics, and astrophysics. This review also surveys some of the most interesting connections to those subjects.

Kronfeld, Andreas S.; /Fermilab

2012-03-01

284

The Two Major Epidemics of the Twenty-First Century: Obesity and Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a well-known fact that severe obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease,\\u000a hypertension, and other diseases. Epidemiological studies have suggested that obesity is also associated with increased risk\\u000a of several cancer types. The number of people who are suffering from severe obesity is growing, and clinical data suggest\\u000a that severely obese patients belong

Orit Kaidar-Person; Gil Bar-Sela; Benjamin Person

285

Micrographia of the twenty-first century: from camera obscura to 4D microscopy  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the evolutionary and revolutionary developments of microscopic imaging are overviewed with a perspective on origins. From Alhazen’s camera obscura, to Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek’s two-dimensional optical micrography, and on to three- and four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy, these developments over a millennium have transformed humans’ scope of visualization. The changes in the length and time scales involved are unimaginable, beginning with the visible shadows of candles at the centimetre and second scales, and ending with invisible atoms with space and time dimensions of sub-nanometre and femtosecond. With these advances it has become possible to determine the structures of matter and to observe their elementary dynamics as they unfold in real time. Such observations provide the means for visualizing materials behaviour and biological function, with the aim of understanding emergent phenomena in complex systems. PMID:20123754

Zewail, Ahmed H.

2010-01-01

286

Historical climatology, Climatic Change , and implications for climate science in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical climatology is the use of documentary evidence for the reconstruction of past climate. This paper gives a brief\\u000a personal view of the development of the discipline from early times to the present day. Although several papers have been\\u000a published on the importance of carefully analysing and evaluating all historical sources before they are used in climate reconstructions,\\u000a several of

A. E. J. Ogilvie

2010-01-01

287

Linguistics and Micro-RhetoricA Twenty-First Century Encounter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly linguists look to usage for explanations of how patterns of forms come to acquire grammatical status. This search leads linguistics closer to the realm of inquiry traditionally occupied by rhetoric, the study of the effective uses of language. It is proposed here that a view of language as temporal brings these two disciplines closer, and that, in fact, (usage-based)

Paul J. Hopper

2007-01-01

288

Training in the Twenty-First Century: Where Do We Go from Here?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven trends are emerging in the corporate training and development sector of human resource development (HRD). First, there is an increasing corporate commitment for training. Employers are viewing training today as an essential element in their competitive business strategies. Second, customer service training is becoming the competitive weapon…

Spikes, W. Franklin, III

289

Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

Humans have hunted wildlife in Central Africa for millennia. Today, however, many species are being rapidly extirpated and sanctuaries for wildlife are dwindling. Almost all Central Africa's forests are now accessible to hunters. Drastic declines of large mammals have been caused in the past 20 years by the commercial trade for meat or ivory. We review a growing body of empirical data which shows that trophic webs are significantly disrupted in the region, with knock-on effects for other ecological functions, including seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Plausible scenarios for land-use change indicate that increasing extraction pressure on Central African forests is likely to usher in new worker populations and to intensify the hunting impacts and trophic cascade disruption already in progress, unless serious efforts are made for hunting regulation. The profound ecological changes initiated by hunting will not mitigate and may even exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change for the region. We hypothesize that, in the near future, the trophic changes brought about by hunting will have a larger and more rapid impact on Central African rainforest structure and function than the direct impacts of climate change on the vegetation. Immediate hunting regulation is vital for the survival of the Central African rainforest ecosystem. PMID:23878333

Abernethy, K. A.; Coad, L.; Taylor, G.; Lee, M. E.; Maisels, F.

2013-01-01

290

Beyond asbestos and environmental litigation: Coverage disputes in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in the 1970s, first asbestos, and thereafter environmental, coverage litigation involving general liability policies substantially dominated the field of insurance coverage disputes. These areas of insurance coverage litigation have now fully matured. Although litigation in these areas will continue into the foreseeable future, other types of coverage disputes have begun to appear in significant numbers. This article will analyze these other types of coverage disputes that are gaining prominence as the next millennium approaches. Coverage disputes involving general liability policies have arisen in the following notable areas: (1) pharmaceutical drug and medical devices (including latex-induced injuries and diseases); (2) tobacco; (3) electromagnetic fields; (4) solvents; (5) noise-induced hearing loss; (6) repetitive stress injuries; (7) employment; (8) sick building syndrome; (9) lead poisoning; (10) construction defects; (11) intellectual property; and (12) computer-related techno-torts. This wide range of discrete areas of law, for the most part, defies classification. Nevertheless, some generalizations can be made and parallels can be drawn when this developing body of law is viewed from a broader perspective.

Medaglia, M.E.; Mebren, P.A. von

1998-10-01

291

Vocational Training Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discussing vocational education begins with a brief historical overview highlighting the need for close links between vocational training and employment. The history of vocational training is described in traditional societies, industrial companies, the period following World War II, and the recent economic and cultural crisis of…

Pair, Claude

292

Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

Stachokas, George

2009-01-01

293

Libraries and the Future: Essays on the Library in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays collected in this volume present the personal visions of several individuals, mostly librarians and other information professionals, on what the library might look like 25 or 30 years from now. The contributors represent a wide variety of libraries and related institutions on four continents. The essays collected are: "Introduction:…

Lancaster, Frederick Wilfrid, Ed.

294

Twenty-first century brain banking. Processing brains for research: the Columbia University methods  

PubMed Central

Carefully categorized postmortem human brains are crucial for research. The lack of generally accepted methods for processing human postmortem brains for research persists. Thus, brain banking is essential; however, it cannot be achieved at the cost of the teaching mission of the academic institution by routing brains away from residency programs, particularly when the autopsy rate is steadily decreasing. A consensus must be reached whereby a brain can be utilizable for diagnosis, research, and teaching. The best diagnostic categorization possible must be secured and the yield of samples for basic investigation maximized. This report focuses on integrated, novel methods currently applied at the New York Brain Bank, Columbia University, New York, which are designed to reach accurate neuropathological diagnosis, optimize the yield of samples, and process fresh-frozen samples suitable for a wide range of modern investigations. The brains donated for research are processed as soon as possible after death. The prosector must have a good command of the neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and the protocol. One half of each brain is immersed in formalin for performing the thorough neuropathologic evaluation, which is combined with the teaching task. The contralateral half is extensively dissected at the fresh state. The anatomical origin of each sample is recorded using the map of Brodmann for the cortical samples. The samples are frozen at ?160°C, barcode labeled, and ready for immediate disbursement once categorized diagnostically. A rigorous organization of freezer space, coupled to an electronic tracking system with its attached software, fosters efficient access for retrieval within minutes of any specific frozen samples in storage. This report describes how this achievement is feasible with emphasis on the actual processing of brains donated for research. PMID:17985145

del Amaya, Maria Pilar; Keller, Christian E.

2007-01-01

295

Reforming Chinese Characters in the PRC and Japan: New Directions in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a comparative evaluation of Chinese character reform in the People's Republic of China and Japan, with a particular focus on the latest changes announced in 2009 to the existing script policies in the two countries. The first Chinese script reform took place in 1956 and the first Japanese script reform in 1946, both for the…

Premaratne, Dilhara D.

2012-01-01

296

The Community College in the Twenty-First Century. A Systems Approach;.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The thesis of the book is that the problems community colleges face were inherent from the beginning and became more prominent because the particular vantage points from which the schools were viewed prohibited the taking of any action on the problems. Chapter one presents a portrait of what the colleges have become, establishing the governing…

Cain, Michael Scott

297

Considering Student Veterans on the Twenty-First-Century College Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new GI Bill offers the best educational benefits for veterans in the history of the nation. While many campus officials believe a surge of student veterans is under way, 2012 is the first year of college eligibility for veterans who enlisted specifically for the Post 9-11 GI Bill benefits signed into law in the summer of 2008. Further, the…

Vacchi, David T.

2012-01-01

298

Nuclear weapons, proliferation, and terrorism: U.S. response in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

As the remaining superpower in the post-Cold War world, the US needs to re-evaluate its policy toward the growing threat to US national interests and the effects of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), specifically nuclear devices, and their use by terrorist groups against US interests abroad. As the world reacts to the implosion of the former Soviet Union, there are increased numbers of nations and possibly terrorist groups trying to become players in the international arena. This study describes the ease of obtaining the scientific knowledge, plans, and materials to enable a terrorist`s construction of a nuclear device. It also analyzes motivation of terrorist groups, concluding that a nuclear weapon, capable of inflicting violence in the extreme, fulfills the terrorist`s goal of violence in support of a political agenda or to inspire radical change. Given the guidance from the national level, this study proposes a series of policy options available to the NCA for application in an aggressive counterproliferation policy. Finally, the US must rapidly reorganize its counterproliferation structure and methods to streamline a more aggressive approach that is recognized and feared by potential nuclear terrorists; augment current political efforts with a clearly defined counterproliferation military mission and associated doctrine.

DeLawter, D.A.

1998-11-01

299

Spinning Straw into Gold: A Community College Library's Twenty First Century Transformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a library renovation project in a community college that involved using existing space and reorganizing it to support the way students learn both individually and collaboratively. The article also looks at the importance of the academic library as place.

McKay, Devin

2011-01-01

300

Partnerships in Education. Preparing Teachers for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers a selection of 14 conference papers that present a variety of innovative partnerships for the preparation of teachers and school administrators. Part 1, "Teacher Preparation Partnerships," presents 4 papers: (1) "Ten Years of the Hawaii School/University Partnership" (J.P. Dolly, P.A. Whitesell, and A.P. Port); (2) "The Colton…

Reyhner, Jon, Ed.

301

Leadership Competence Educational Model for a Twenty-First Century Nursing Doctoral Education in Contemporary Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author proposes a nursing education model about leadership that can be used to improve the leadership skills of nursing doctoral students. This model is developed at the University of Michigan School of Nursing. In developing this model, the author had the opportunity to observe the University of Michigan, School of Nursing…

Terzioglu, Fusun

2011-01-01

302

Globalisation and Societal Culture: Redefining Schooling and School Leadership in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concept of globalization and explores the relationship between globalization and societal culture. States the transfer between systems must be more culturally sensitive. Offers a list of cultural dimensions to gauge the influence of cultures. Argues that greater cultural sensitivity is necessary when raising issues on school reform…

Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

2000-01-01

303

The Internet and Local Online Databases: A "Novum Organum" for Twenty-First-Century Library Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In using conventional print, CD-ROM and online resources, librarians are still middlepersons between publishers and users. By exploiting Internet and World Wide Web online technology and developing local databases, libraries can tap new information sources and make them available to local audiences and others dispersed around the world in an…

Webb, Terry

304

Leading Change: Jesuit Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored perceptions of possible future scenarios for Jesuit higher education in the United States by the year 2030. This study focused on two questions, (a) How do leaders perceive the future of Jesuit higher education? and (b) What key factors identified by these leaders will lead to the most desirable outcome for Jesuit higher…

Lowdon, Melissa

2010-01-01

305

Registers, Schools and Scales: Comments on Language and Identity in Twenty-First Century Catalonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monolingual speakers of a national language continue to be the ideal figures on which national identities and senses of community are built. Yet this longstanding equation between nation and language is being contested by other ideologies. Alternatives are emerging from such disparate social locations as the European Union, now advocating for…

Gal, Susan

2013-01-01

306

Global response of glacier runoff to twenty-first century climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrology of many important river systems in the world is influenced by the presence of glaciers in their upper reaches. We assess the global-scale response of glacier runoff to climate change, where glacier runoff is defined as all melt and rain water that runs off the glacierized area without refreezing. With an elevation-dependent glacier mass balance model, we project monthly glacier runoff for all mountain glaciers and ice caps outside Antarctica until 2100 using temperature and precipitation scenarios from 14 global climate models. We aggregate results for 18 glacierized regions. Despite continuous glacier net mass loss in all regions, trends in annual glacier runoff differ significantly among regions depending on the balance between increased glacier melt and reduction in glacier storage as glaciers shrink. While most regions show significant negative runoff trends, some regions exhibit steady increases in runoff (Canadian and Russian Arctic), or increases followed by decreases (Svalbard and Iceland). Annual glacier runoff is dominated by melt in most regions, but rain is a major contributor in the monsoon-affected regions of Asia and maritime regions such as New Zealand and Iceland. Annual net glacier mass loss dominates total glacier melt especially in some high-latitude regions, while seasonal melt is dominant in wetter climate regimes. Our results highlight the variety of glacier runoff responses to climate change and the need to include glacier net mass loss in assessments of future hydrological change.

Bliss, Andrew; Hock, Regine; Radi?, Valentina

2014-04-01

307

Securing Field Learning Using a Twenty-First Century Cook's Tour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of incorporating digital video into a traditional Cook's Tour as part of a 7-day road trip around the east coast of New Zealand's North Island over a 4-year period. Student-generated video diaries summarized landscape features and processes at fieldsites, empowering students through active learning…

Fuller, Ian C.; France, Derek

2015-01-01

308

Educating the Creative Workforce: New Directions for Twenty-First Century Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article sets out reasons for arguing that creativity is not garnish to the roast of industry or of education--i.e. the reasoning behind Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi's insistence that creativity is not only about elites but involves everyone. This article investigates three key domains--scholarship, commerce and learning--to argue the importance…

McWilliam, Erica; Haukka, Sandra

2008-01-01

309

Christoph Buchel v. Mass MoCA: A "Tilted Arc" for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tension among the different models for understanding the relation between the artist and the artwork is brought most explosively to light when legal battles erupt between artists and institutions. This can be found in both the "Tilted Arc" controversy of the 1980s and in a recent dispute involving the Swiss installation artist Christoph Buchel…

Gover, K. E.

2012-01-01

310

Reproductive medicine: the ethical issues in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Reproductive medicine has developed to such an extent that numerous moral questions arise about the boundaries of applications of new reproductive technology. It is possible to imagine a future in which 'designer babies' are created and in which cloning, sex selection and male pregnancy become the instruments of individual desire or social policy. In this article, the concept of 'natural' is explored but rejected as an insufficient moral criterion for deciding these complex questions. A case is made for the criterion of welfare of the child and for the concept of the child as gift rather than product. PMID:11897913

Campbell, Alastair V

2002-02-01

311

Ericksonian Approaches to Counseling: Toward an Assimilated Paradigm of Practice for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces rationale for integrating Ericksonian therapy, an approach that is congruent with current practice demands of accountability, efficiency, and efficacy, into mental health counseling. Presents framework for including such interventions as multilevel communication, reframing resistance, and use of flow and transformation of perceptions.…

Jenkins, Todd D.; Forrest, Alan W.

1999-01-01

312

Indigenizing the Future: Why We Must Think Spatially in the Twenty-first Century  

E-print Network

planet increasingly "mailed" and characterized by a homogeneous commodity culture disconnected from unique peoples and places, Deloria suggested the feasibility of an indig enous map to the summum bonum. Long before the term globalization became... peoples' worldviews of history are not sepa rated from the entire geological and biological history, nor are they separated from the environment to which they belong. Our human history is, so to speak, a part of a larger natural history. Although...

Wildcat, Daniel R.

2006-03-01

313

Based on Shakespeare: Twenty-First Century American Film Adaptations of Shakespeare  

E-print Network

Hate About You and She’s the Man……….21 Chapter Two: Matters of Geography: Othello Moves to the Basketball Court…………………………………75 Chapter Three: From Scotland, GB to Scotland, PA: (Im)mobility in Scotland, PA…………………………...108 Conclusion: Moving Forward... Hodgdon’s “Race-ing Othello, Re-engendering White-Out, II” in Shakespeare, the Movie, II: Popularizing the Plays on Film, TV, Video, and DVD for a discussion of “O”. Concerning Scotland, PA see Elizabeth Deitchman’s “White Trash Shakespeare: Taste...

Sutliff-Benusis, Alicia

2011-12-31

314

Austerity/Immiseration Capitalism and Islamophobia--or Twenty-First-Century Multicultural Socialism?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is in three parts. In part one, the author begins by examining the onset of austerity/immiseration capitalism in the United Kingdom. Austerity/immiseration capitalism has witnessed the decline of state multiculturalism and increasing attempts to deflect attention away from the failures of capitalism by playing the "race…

Cole, Mike

2014-01-01

315

Synthesizing Family, Career, and Culture: A Model for Counseling in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Career and work constitute a major portion of most people's lives; families have an impact on people's careers; and their culture determines a great deal about how they approach family and work. The family counseling, career, and multicultural literature has given little attention to these dynamics. This text provides a multifaceted framework for…

Evans, Kathy M., Ed.; Rotter, Joseph C., Ed.; Gold, Joshua M., Ed.

316

From outside lane to inside track: sport management research in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Major changes have taken place in sport in recent years, which has consequently led to the emergence and development of an associated sport management literature. To date, this literature has been confined to the margins of management theory and research, although the development of sport has been such that a multitude of opportunities now exist for academics and

Simon Chadwick

2009-01-01

317

A Communitarian Critique of the Warfare State: Implications for the Twenty-First-Century University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contends that the relatively recent academic movement known as communitarianism can serve as a policy guide that could work catalytically on American cultural development of the sort that would loosen the tight military-industrial connection and in so doing aid the dismantling of the "warfare state." After chronicling the development…

Theobald, Paul; Knotwell, Jim

2007-01-01

318

‘Framing’ Lifelong Learning in the Twenty-First Century: Towards a Way of Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two contrasting inter-related humanist forms of discourse of lifelong learning are evident in the literature. The first, dominated\\u000a by politicians and employers, appears to interpret lifelong learning as a means to improve competitiveness and productivity regarding what is done in practice within a global economy; the other, led mainly\\u000a by academics, is represented as the very means continually resolve the

Kevin J. Flint; David Needham

319

The Art of Negotiation: What the Twenty-First Century Business Student Should Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negotiation skills are vital for concluding international treaties on subjects ranging from arms agreements, and rights in outer space to trade agreements. Yet the importance of being able to negotiate effectively is not limited to international treaties or crises situations. Using negotiation exercises represents a student-centered approach to…

McClendon, Bill; Burke, Debra D.; Willey, Lorrie

2010-01-01

320

Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews recent literature concerning a wide range of processes through which climate change could potentially impact global-scale agricultural productivity, and presents projections of changes in relevant meteorological, hydrological and plant physiological quantities from a climate model ensemble to illustrate key areas of uncertainty. Few global-scale assessments have been carried out, and these are limited in their ability to capture the uncertainty in climate projections, and omit potentially important aspects such as extreme events and changes in pests and diseases. There is a lack of clarity on how climate change impacts on drought are best quantified from an agricultural perspective, with different metrics giving very different impressions of future risk. The dependence of some regional agriculture on remote rainfall, snowmelt and glaciers adds to the complexity. Indirect impacts via sea-level rise, storms and diseases have not been quantified. Perhaps most seriously, there is high uncertainty in the extent to which the direct effects of CO2 rise on plant physiology will interact with climate change in affecting productivity. At present, the aggregate impacts of climate change on global-scale agricultural productivity cannot be reliably quantified. PMID:20713397

Gornall, Jemma; Betts, Richard; Burke, Eleanor; Clark, Robin; Camp, Joanne; Willett, Kate; Wiltshire, Andrew

2010-01-01

321

An integrated chronostratigraphic data system for the twenty-first century  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Research in stratigraphy is increasingly multidisciplinary and conducted by diverse research teams whose members can be widely separated. This developing distributed-research process, facilitated by the availability of the Internet, promises tremendous future benefits to researchers. However, its full potential is hindered by the absence of a development strategy for the necessary infrastructure. At a National Science Foundation workshop convened in November 2001, thirty quantitative stratigraphers and database specialists from both academia and industry met to discuss how best to integrate their respective chronostratigraphic databases. The main goal was to develop a strategy that would allow efficient distribution and integration of existing data relevant to the study of geologic time. Discussions concentrated on three major themes: database standards and compatibility, strategies and tools for information retrieval and analysis of all types of global and regional stratigraphic data, and future directions for database integration and centralization of currently distributed depositories. The result was a recommendation to establish an integrated chronostratigraphic database, to be called Chronos, which would facilitate greater efficiency in stratigraphic studies (http://www.chronos.org/) . The Chronos system will both provide greater ease of data gathering and allow for multidisciplinary synergies, functions of fundamental importance in a variety of research, including time scale construction, paleoenvironmental analysis, paleoclimatology and paleoceanography. Beyond scientific research, Chronos will also provide educational and societal benefits by providing an accessible source of information of general interest (e.g., mass extinctions) and concern (e.g., climatic change). The National Science Foundation has currently funded a three-year program for implementing Chronos.. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Sikora, P.J.; Ogg, J.G.; Gary, A.; Cervato, C.; Gradstein, F.; Huber, B.T.; Marshall, C.; Stein, J.A.; Wardlaw, B.

2006-01-01

322

Educators Quest to Confront the World of the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three cultural categories studied by Margaret Mead: pre-figurative (slow-changing); cofigurative (moderately changing); and post-figurative (rapidly changing). Schools must help our young persons recognize different ways of life throughout the world. We can no longer assume that our own practices, beliefs, and standards are superior to…

Hunter, Eagan

1989-01-01

323

Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The duplex design by Bock and Mislevy for school-based testing is revisited and evaluated as a potential platform in test-based accountability assessments today. We conclude that the model could be useful in meeting the many competing demands of today's test-based accountability assessments, although many research questions will need to be…

Bejar, Isaac I.; Graf, E. Aurora

2010-01-01

324

Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Humans have hunted wildlife in Central Africa for millennia. Today, however, many species are being rapidly extirpated and sanctuaries for wildlife are dwindling. Almost all Central Africa's forests are now accessible to hunters. Drastic declines of large mammals have been caused in the past 20 years by the commercial trade for meat or ivory. We review a growing body of empirical data which shows that trophic webs are significantly disrupted in the region, with knock-on effects for other ecological functions, including seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Plausible scenarios for land-use change indicate that increasing extraction pressure on Central African forests is likely to usher in new worker populations and to intensify the hunting impacts and trophic cascade disruption already in progress, unless serious efforts are made for hunting regulation. The profound ecological changes initiated by hunting will not mitigate and may even exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change for the region. We hypothesize that, in the near future, the trophic changes brought about by hunting will have a larger and more rapid impact on Central African rainforest structure and function than the direct impacts of climate change on the vegetation. Immediate hunting regulation is vital for the survival of the Central African rainforest ecosystem. PMID:23878333

Abernethy, K A; Coad, L; Taylor, G; Lee, M E; Maisels, F

2013-01-01

325

Access to Space: A Strategy for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States (US) launch infrastructure is at a crisis point. Human access to space embodied in the Space Shuttle is due to be phased out by 2010. Currently, there are no heavy lift, 100 ton class launchers to support the US national vision for space exploration. Medium and large expendable launch providers, Boeing's Delta IV, and Lockheed-Martin's Atlas V

Simon P. Worden; Jess Sponable

2006-01-01

326

Dance Education Matters: Rebuilding Postsecondary Dance Education for Twenty-First Century Relevance and Resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postsecondary dance education is at a crucial juncture in its history in academe. Emerging from women's physical education programs in the 1930s, the profession's realignment with the arts broadly and arts-based education specifically has been characterized by ambitious goals and steady growth through the 1990s. However, a number of critical developments over the past decade have displaced many previous gains

Doug Risner

2010-01-01

327

Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

2014-01-01

328

Literacy for the Twenty-First Century: Research, Policy, Practices, and the National Adult Literacy Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on results from secondary analyses of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and implications of these analyses for policy, practice, and further research on adult literacy. Part I contains an introduction and three additional chapters that provide a substantive summary of the NALS and its purposes: "Introduction: Adult…

Smith, M. Cecil, Ed.

329

Twenty-First Century Progress Toward the Global Control of Human Hookworm Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hookworms are bloodsucking nematodes that afflict up to 740 million persons in tropical and subtropical regions, with Asia\\u000a and sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting particularly high infection rates. Prevalence, intensity, and pathology often vary considerably\\u000a at both the regional and local level, and may be influenced by coinfection with other parasitic infections such as malaria.\\u000a Immunoepidemiological studies suggest that hookworms manipulate the

Richard Bungiro; Michael Cappello

2011-01-01

330

ULTRACLEAN FUELS PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: ADVANCES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

SciTech Connect

Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

Fox, E.

2013-06-17

331

Teaching World History in the Twenty-First Century: A Resource Book  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practical handbook is designed to help anyone who is preparing to teach a world history course--or wants to teach it better. It opens with Peter Stearns's essay "Where Did World History Come From?" and closes with Jerry Bentley's annotated bibliographic guide to the essential content knowledge for teaching world history. In between,…

Roupp, Heidi, Ed.

2009-01-01

332

Worldwide Test Reviewing at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article sets the stage for the description of a variety of approaches to test reviewing worldwide. It describes the importance of test reviewing as a protection of the public and of society and also the benefits of this activity for test users, who must choose measures to use in particular situations with particular clients at a particular…

Geisinger, Kurt F.

2012-01-01

333

Killing kids: recession and survival in twenty-first-century Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's lesson is on killing one another. Life is a game. Get desperate and fight. Become an adult of value.1 Deeply engrossed in their private conversations, the thirty-six junior-high stu- dents of Class B fail to notice the military presence along the highway on which their excursion bus is traveling. That this is no ordinary school outing becomes shockingly apparent

ANDREA G ARAI

334

Competing Views of Embryos for the Twenty-First Century: Textbooks and Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It might seem that an embryo is an embryo, and that there would be a fact of the matter. That seems especially true with respect to the way embryos are presented in textbooks, including high school biology textbooks. This paper looks at three co-existing, competing, and often conflicting views of embryos. Then with a close study of twentieth…

Maienschein, Jane; Wellner, Karen

2013-01-01

335

How to Understand the Gene in the Twenty-First Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely acknowledged in the literature on philosophy of biology and, more recently, among biologists themselves that the gene concept is currently in crisis. This crisis concerns the so-called "classical molecular concept", according to which a gene is a DNA segment encoding one functional product, which can be either a RNA molecule or a…

Meyer, Lia Midori Nascimento; Bomfim, Gilberto Cafezeiro; El-Hani, Charbel Nino

2013-01-01

336

Major Long-Term Factors Influencing Dental Education in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores broad trends such as advances in oral sciences and the increasing old-age population and their effects on dental education. Asserts that these trends will ultimately result in the merging of dental and medical education. Also addresses the integration of scientific and clinical dental approaches, the problem of dental faculty isolation,…

Cohen, M. Michael, Jr.

2002-01-01

337

"Made in Germany": The Politics of Teaching German Popular Culture in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In North American universities, pop culture increasingly appears in the German Studies classroom to "spice up" the curriculum. But what is conveyed and taught and how is it inserted into the curriculum and into the US cultural context? This article explores three examples of popular culture in the German Studies classroom: representations of the…

Kahnke, Corinna; Stehle, Maria

2011-01-01

338

SALMON RECOVERY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: BREACHING THE BASIC BARRIERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far ...

339

Cultivating Inquiry-Driven Learners: A College Education for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inquiry-driven learners anticipate, embrace, and adapt to disruptive change. Clifton Conrad and Laura Dunek advance a transformative purpose of a college education. They invite stakeholders from across higher education to engage in vigorous dialogue about the aims of a college education--and how to realize those aims. Increasingly influenced by…

Conrad, Clifton; Dunek, Laura

2012-01-01

340

Twenty-First Century Vocational Education in the United Kingdom: What Would Dickens Think?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines the reasons why the United Kingdom's approach to vocational education is more confused and impoverished than ever, despite its central importance to contemporary society. Instead of celebrating skill and vocational knowledge, the United Kingdom has embroiled itself in tortuous debates about parity of esteem, while…

Unwin, Lorna

2004-01-01

341

The Changing Water Paradigm: A Look at Twenty-first Century Water Resources Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security (the Pacific Institute) has recently posted several new publications on their Website. This resource, written by Peter Gleick and originally published in Water International [(25)1:127-138, 2000], examines the current shifts in water resource management (.pdf format).

342

New Directions: Federal Education Policy in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributors to this collection examine how today's federal education programs work and show how, instead of working for school improvement, these programs have begun to function as obstacles to the efforts of reform-minded states and schools. The following essays are included: (1) "Overview: Thirty-Four Years of Dashed Hopes" (Chester E. Finn,…

Kanstoroom, Marci, Ed.; Finn, Chester E., Jr., Ed.

343

Agroclimatic potential across central Siberia in an altered twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. Forests are predicted to shift northwards in a warmer climate and are likely to be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. We analyzed potential climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia believing that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models determining crop range

N M Tchebakova; E I Parfenova; G I Lysanova; A J Soja

2011-01-01

344

Impact of enhanced geothermal systems on US energy supply in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Recent national focus on the value of increasing US supplies of indigenous renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well distributed nationally. A panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of geothermal becoming a major supplier of primary energy for US base-load generation capacity by 2050. Primary energy produced from both conventional hydrothermal and enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS) was considered on a national scale. This paper summarizes the work of the panel which appears in complete form in a 2006 MIT report, 'The future of geothermal energy' parts 1 and 2. In the analysis, a comprehensive national assessment of US geothermal resources, evaluation of drilling and reservoir technologies and economic modelling was carried out. The methodologies employed to estimate geologic heat flow for a range of geothermal resources were utilized to provide detailed quantitative projections of the EGS resource base for the USA. Thirty years of field testing worldwide was evaluated to identify the remaining technology needs with respect to drilling and completing wells, stimulating EGS reservoirs and converting geothermal heat to electricity in surface power and energy recovery systems. Economic modelling was used to develop long-term projections of EGS in the USA for supplying electricity and thermal energy. Sensitivities to capital costs for drilling, stimulation and power plant construction, and financial factors, learning curve estimates, and uncertainties and risks were considered. PMID:17272236

Tester, Jefferson W; Anderson, Brian J; Batchelor, Anthony S; Blackwell, David D; DiPippo, Ronald; Drake, Elisabeth M; Garnish, John; Livesay, Bill; Moore, Michal C; Nichols, Kenneth; Petty, Susan; Toksoz, M Nafi; Veatch, Ralph W; Baria, Roy; Augustine, Chad; Murphy, Enda; Negraru, Petru; Richards, Maria

2007-04-15

345

Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century: Recent Advances in Economic Theory and Undergraduate Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate economics lags behind cutting-edge economic theory. The author briefly reviews six related advances that profoundly extend and deepen economic analysis: game-theoretic modeling, collective-action problems, information economics and contracting, social preference theory, conceptualizing rationality, and institutional theory. He offers…

Ferguson, William D.

2011-01-01

346

Natural Hazards: Geology, Engineering, Agriculture, and Sociopolitical\\/Humanitarian Considerations for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dangers from natural hazards have been characterized quantitatively by national and international committees of geoscientists based on technical advances in geochemistry and geophysics (sensu lato). The current status of knowledge on natural hazards is reviewed with particular emphasis on comet\\/asteroid impact, earthquakes, and volcanoes. All these hazards are survivable by the world's population if appropriate measures are taken over the

Joseph V. Smith

2000-01-01

347

A view of quality trends in South America in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting in the 1980s, South America went through dramatic political and economic changes. Military governments were replaced by democratic governments. These governments, forced by a severe crisis and the requirements of an increasingly competitive global economy, implemented, in the early 1990s, economic reforms based on free market principles and created the Mercosur. The major countries in this new and dynamic

Marcos E. J. Bertin

1999-01-01

348

Fermilab Industrial Affiliates roundtable on research technology in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

This collection of articles presents views on the future of physics research by leading experts in the field. Topics discussed include particle physics, the Superconducting Super Collider, and the development of new superconducting materials. The articles have been abstracted and indexed separately.

Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Fenner, R.B. (eds.)

1987-05-01

349

Engaging the Creative Arts to Meet the Needs of Twenty-First-Century Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As we navigate through a new form of economic era where science, technology, knowledge and services will replace consumer goods as drivers of growth, and the workplace will increasingly value creative abilities, there appears a need for an educational paradigm shift. However, within an Australian context of increasing school accountability, a…

Scholes, Laura; Nagel, Michael C.

2012-01-01

350

The New Face of Genetics: Creating A Multimedia Educational Tool for the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study of certain genetic conditions, it is important to understand the specific "dysmorphology" associated with them. This describes the unique anatomical manifestations of the genetic condition. Traditionally, students learn about dysmorphology by reading text descriptions or looking at photographs of affected individuals. The New Face of Genetics is a film project that aims to teach students dysmorphology by featuring people who have specific genetic conditions. The goal is to enhance students' understanding of these conditions as well as to impart the humanity and beauty of the people who appear in the film. Students will have the opportunity to see dysmorphic features on the animated human form as well as meet individuals who are living with genetic difference. The target audience includes genetic counseling students and other medical professionals. Three short films were made in this format to demonstrate how this type of educational tool can be made. The featured conditions were Marfan syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome and Joubert syndrome. Future work will be carried out by other genetic counseling students who will make additional films based on our templates. A compendium of approximately 20 films will be eventually completed and released to genetic counseling programs and medical schools.

Fan, Audrey

351

Leading by Learning: New Directions in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose--The paper aims to provide a theoretically-based set of skills and practices that develop organizational members and leaders while building organizational capacity. Design/methodology/approach--The paper advances four arguments about learning and leading, drawing on classical and contemporary scholarship of organizational learning theory…

Collinson, Vivienne

2008-01-01

352

Standards-Based Reform: Panacea for the Twenty-First Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of accountability for student achievement stands at the forefront of American education. Educators, parents, and business representatives have joined forces to support improvements in hopes of requiring children to attain the knowledge and develop the skills necessary for life. As a result, high standards, assessments, and benchmarks…

Malone, Bobby G.; Nelson, Jacquelyn S.

2006-01-01

353

Twenty-first Century Australian Women and IT: Exercising the power of choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the Australian literature relating to female under-representation in the information technology (IT) sphere of careers and education. This summary of the current body of literature presented through the lens of the nature of the discipline includes emerging theories that explore the masculinization of the discipline, followed by a discussion of the lack of a sustainable impact on

Catherine Lang

2007-01-01

354

Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century: Radon, smoking and lung cancer risks  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the relationship between indoor radon exposure, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. The author explains the sources of radon, the tissues at risk, the human populations most likely to be affected, and the estimates of lung cancer in the population. 6 refs., 2 tabs. (TEM)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1988-04-01

355

Unruly Bodies: The Rhetorical Domestication of Twenty-First-Century Veterans of War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Veterans of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with visually identifiable injuries possess "unruly" bodies that render the story of war in efficient, emotional terms. The injured veteran's explicit connection of war with injury motivates state and mainstream news discourse that domesticates veterans' bodies, managing representations of injured veterans…

Achter, Paul

2010-01-01

356

Amphibian declines in the twenty-first century: why we need assisted reproductive technologies.  

PubMed

Each amphibian species is evolutionarily distinct, having developed highly specialized and diverse reproductive strategies in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. These unique reproductive patterns and mechanisms, key to species propagation, have only been explored in a limited number of laboratory models. Although the development of applied reproductive technologies for amphibians has proven useful for a few threatened species, the real benefit of this technology has been new insights into the reproductive adaptations, behavior, endocrinology, and physiological mechanisms that have evolved over millions of years. As the basic fundamental database on amphibian reproductive physiology has grown, so has the applied benefit for species conservation. In particular, technologies such as non-invasive fecal and urinary hormone assays, hormone treatments for induced breeding or gamete collection, in vitro fertilization, and the ability to establish genome resource banks have all played important roles in monitoring or managing small populations of captive species. Amphibians have the ability to produce a large excess of germplasm (up to 10,000 ovulated eggs in a single reproductive event) that if not collected and preserved, would represent a wasted valuable resource. We discuss the current state of knowledge in assisted reproductive technologies for amphibians and why their extinction crisis means these available tools can no longer be implemented as small-scale, last-ditch efforts. The reproductive technologies must be established early as a key component of large-scale species recovery. PMID:25091914

Clulow, John; Trudeau, Vance L; Kouba, Andrew J

2014-01-01

357

Urine as a Specimen to Diagnose Infections in Twenty-First Century: Focus on Analytical Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Urine as a clinical specimen to diagnose infections has been used since ancient times. Many rapid technologies to assist diagnosis of infections are currently in use. Alongside traditional enzyme immunoassays (EIA), new technologies have emerged. Molecular analysis of transrenal DNA to diagnose infections is also a rapidly growing field. The majority of EIAs utilize the detection of excreted sugar compounds of the outer microbial cell-wall shed into the bloodstream and excreted into the urine. This mini-review focuses on current knowledge on rapid urinary antigen detection tests to diagnose most common infections, and highlights their diagnostic utility. The past and the future of urinalysis are also briefly discussed. The analysis of the literature shows that some methods are not quantitative, and analytical sensitivity may remain suboptimal. In addition, the performance criteria and technical documentation of some commercial tests are insufficient. Clinical microbiologists and physicians should be alert to assay limitations. PMID:22566927

Tuuminen, Tamara

2012-01-01

358

SUSTAINABLE OCEAN SYSTEMS During the twenty-first century, issues concerned with environmental and energy sustainability  

E-print Network

research and teaching universities in the United States, Cornell has played and will continue to play a leading role in analyzing the environmental and energy problems confronting society. Among the environmental sciences represented at Cornell, those focusing on the ocean have received little recognition

Angenent, Lars T.

359

Critical Issues in Language and Education Planning in Twenty First Century in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language and education planning issues and democratic policy implementation in the post-apartheid era in South Africa encompass a range of language-related issues and dilemmas that have counterparts in many countries, within the emerging global education system. The issues in South Africa were and continue to be shaped by the historical legacy of…

Brook Napier, Diane

2011-01-01

360

The Humanities Are Not a Luxury: A Manifesto for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The humanities are at the heart of knowing about the human condition; they are not a luxury. The erosion of support for the humanities and the perennial anxiety about the state of the humanities are systemic. The author contends that until people acknowledge this fact, they will keep lurching from one point to another, unable to recognize the…

Smith, Martha Nell

2011-01-01

361

Online business education in the twenty-first century: an analysis of potential target markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of online business education seems quite bright. Three-fifths of the 1,700 US institutions of higher learning that are engaged in distance education – 55 percent of which offer credit-bearing business courses – already use some form of Internet-based technology. Nonetheless, there have been no large-scale studies of potential online business students in terms of their traits and desires.

Joel R. Evans; Ilene M. Haase

2001-01-01

362

Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

Not Available

1992-12-31

363

A Review on Stereoscopic 3D: Home Entertainment for the Twenty First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, stereoscopic developed very rapidly and employed in many different fields such as entertainment. Due to the importance of entertainment aspect of stereoscopic 3D (S3D) applications, a review of the current state of S3D development in entertainment technology is conducted. In this paper, a novel survey of the stereoscopic entertainment aspects is presented by discussing the significant development of a 3D cinema, the major development of 3DTV, the issues related to 3D video content and 3D video games. Moreover, we reviewed some problems that can be caused in the viewers' visual system from watching stereoscopic contents. Some stereoscopic viewers are not satisfied as they are frustrated from wearing glasses, have visual fatigue, complain from unavailability of 3D contents, and/or complain from some sickness. Therefore, we will discuss stereoscopic visual discomfort and to what extend the viewer will have an eye fatigue while watching 3D contents or playing 3D games. The suggested solutions in the literature for this problem are discussed.

Karajeh, Huda; Maqableh, Mahmoud; Masa'deh, Ra'ed

2014-12-01

364

Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms-such as corals and some plankton-will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13

James C. Orr; Victoria J. Fabry; Olivier Aumont; Laurent Bopp; Scott C. Doney; Richard A. Feely; Anand Gnanadesikan; Nicolas Gruber; Akio Ishida; Fortunat Joos; Robert M. Key; Keith Lindsay; Ernst Maier-Reimer; Richard Matear; Patrick Monfray; Anne Mouchet; Raymond G. Najjar; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Keith B. Rodgers; Christopher L. Sabine; Jorge L. Sarmiento; Reiner Schlitzer; Richard D. Slater; Ian J. Totterdell; Marie-France Weirig; Yasuhiro Yamanaka; Andrew Yool

2005-01-01

365

Micrographia of the twenty-first century: from camera obscura to 4D microscopy.  

PubMed

In this paper, the evolutionary and revolutionary developments of microscopic imaging are overviewed with a perspective on origins. From Alhazen's camera obscura, to Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek's two-dimensional optical micrography, and on to three- and four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy, these developments over a millennium have transformed humans' scope of visualization. The changes in the length and time scales involved are unimaginable, beginning with the visible shadows of candles at the centimetre and second scales, and ending with invisible atoms with space and time dimensions of sub-nanometre and femtosecond. With these advances it has become possible to determine the structures of matter and to observe their elementary dynamics as they unfold in real time. Such observations provide the means for visualizing materials behaviour and biological function, with the aim of understanding emergent phenomena in complex systems. PMID:20123754

Zewail, Ahmed H

2010-03-13

366

The Machinate Literary Animal: Butlerian Science for the Twenty-first Century  

E-print Network

for this reason that it provides a therapeutic alternative to the “trauma” of crossing (in the overthrowing of habit) that Danielle Nielsen identi- fies as a key evolutionary trope in The Way of All Flesh. See David Amigoni, “Charles Darwin’s Centenary... to reach into the evolutionary future and transform it. An early champion of Darwin who subsequently became a vocal critic of the theory of natural selection, Samuel Butler was at once part of the popular scientific community busy making sense of natu...

Neill, Anna

2014-12-01

367

The emergence of true machine intelligence in the twenty-first century (abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up until recently, humans and computers have used radically different strategies in their intelligent decision making. For example, in chess, a human chess master memorizes about 50,000 situations and then uses his or her neural-net based pattern recognition capabilities to recognize which of these situations is most applicable to the current board position. In contrast, the computer chess master typically

Raymond Kurzweil

1993-01-01

368

Teaching with Joy: Educational Practices for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This edited collection addresses the growing need for ideas and methods conducive to holistic educational practices and aims to encourage more personal growth in students too often distracted by the background noise of war, violence, racism, and environmental deterioration. The contributors are working teachers and professors who have integrated a…

Shelton-Colangelo, Sharon, Ed.; Mancuso, Carolina, Ed.; Duvall, Mimi, Ed.

2006-01-01

369

Twenty-First Century Learning in States: The Case of the Massachusetts Educational System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission and vision statements of most educational institutions usually share the same lofty goal: to prepare students academically and socially for the opportunities they will face in their future adult lives. Unfortunately, this goal is not being met, and today's generation is facing a crisis going largely unnoticed. Today's graduates appear…

Driscoll, David P.

2006-01-01

370

Obesity and liver disease: the epidemic of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Obesity is a rapidly growing health problem that is associated with more than 65 comorbidities and results in substantially increased all-cause mortality. The increase of obesity has played an important role in the increasing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common cause of liver disease in the United States. Understanding the prevalence, comorbidities, and pathogenesis of obesity provides an essential foundation for clinicians who care for individuals with NAFLD. PMID:24274861

Corey, Kathleen E; Kaplan, Lee M

2014-02-01

371

Seeing the Light: Religious Colleges in Twenty-First-Century America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samuel Schuman examines the place of religious colleges and universities, particularly evangelical Protestant institutions, in contemporary American higher education. Many faith-based schools are flourishing. They have rigorous academic standards, impressive student recruitment, ambitious philanthropic goals, and well-maintained campuses and…

Schuman, Samuel

2009-01-01

372

"Imitatio" Revisited: Its Theoretical and Practical Implications into the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The instructional practice of imitation works most effectively as a developmental and remedial instrument within a writing-centered, student-centered pedagogy. In this context, imitation can accelerate natural language acquisition and encourage language competence and control, thus enabling student writers to focus their attention on particular…

Walborn, Eric D.

373

Creating an Educational Theatre Program for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that justifications for art and culture recently have changed from one of basic freedom of expression and communication of an inner vision ("art for art's sake"), to one of utilitarianism and entrepreneurialism. On a very basic level, theatre in school settings works with young people inside the context of a community…

Woodson, Stephani Etheridge

2004-01-01

374

Revisiting Susan Isaacs--A Modern Educator for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Susan Sutherland Isaacs (1885-1948) was arguably the most influential child psychologist and educator of her British generation. Her work was studied by eminent contemporary academics, psychologists, philosophers and politicians. Her influence was international. She reached across the world to a generation of teacher educators who passed on her…

Willan, Jenny

2009-01-01

375

Reading and Society in Russia in the First Years of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the changes in the attitude of Russia's reading public in terms of frequency and intensiveness and the factors that influence these changes. In comparison with the situation in the late Soviet era and with the perestroika years, the picture of mass reading by Russians over the 1990s and, especially, in the first years of the…

Dubin, B. V.; Zorkaia, N. A.

2010-01-01

376

Living Divided No More: A Journey into Health in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article begins to explore the idea of health. It begins to ask questions about where the idea of health comes from, what it means to different people in different places and why it should matter. As society has been increasingly confronted with the realities of a more economically and technologically driven global society, health has evolved…

Carter, Erin

2011-01-01

377

Twenty-First Century Skills and School Programs: Implementation at a Suburban Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under-utilization of human potential coupled with the need to maintain alignment with the demands imposed by globalization (e.g. sustainable development, citizenship, self-actualization, ability to respond to the emergence of cutting-edge technologies) have led to calls for policy and practice reorientations in the field of education. In response,…

Uduigwome, George Esele

2012-01-01

378

Project Kaleidoscope 2.0: Leadership for Twenty-First Century STEM Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been over twenty years since the publication of reports calling for increased efforts to reform undergraduate STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education. There are more STEM classrooms today that utilize "pedagogies of engagement" than there were twenty years ago; however, these kinds of learning environments are…

Elrod, Susan

2010-01-01

379

Déjà vu: leprosy and immigration discourse in the twenty-first century United States.  

PubMed

Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, continues to be feared and poorly understood in the United States, where knowledge of the disease is limited and prevalence is low. The presence of leprosy among immigrants, however, provides fuel for those with an anti-immigration agenda. In recent years, there have been several examples of popular media distortions of statistics and of information on leprosy's properties and contagiousness. As in previous eras of U.S. history, public fears about leprosy seem to be related to anti-immigration or nativist sentiment, which often mask underlying concerns about the potential economic threat of immigrant populations. In this article, I analyse the role of the U.S. media and other stakeholders who may have an interest in generating public fear associated with leprosy, in presenting and at times manipulating data about the disease to create an association between leprosy and undocumented immigration. PMID:20496566

White, Cassandra

2010-03-01

380

Zebrafish ? As an Integrative Model for Twenty-first Century Toxicity Testing  

EPA Science Inventory

The zebrafish embryo is a useful small model for investigating vertebrate development because of its transparency, low cost, transgenic and morpholino capabilities, conservation of cell signaling, and concordance with mammalian developmental phenotypes. From these advantages, the...

381

Twenty First Century Cyberbullying Defined: An Analysis of Intent, Repetition and Emotional Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent and impact that cyberbullying has on the undergraduate college student and provide a current definition for the event. A priori power analysis guided this research to provide an 80 percent probability of detecting a real effect with medium effect size. Adequate research power was essential to…

Walker, Carol Marie

2012-01-01

382

Developing an Interdisciplinary, Distributed Graduate Course for Twenty-First Century Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graduate programs have placed an increasing emphasis on the importance of interdisciplinary education, but barriers to interdisciplinary training still remain. We present a new model for interdisciplinary, cross-institution graduate teaching that combines the best of local teaching, distance learning, and experiential learning to provide students…

Wagner, Helene H.; Murphy, Melanie A.; Holderegger, Rolf; Waits, Lisette

2012-01-01

383

Promoting the Health of Adolescents: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three parts of this book, "The Adolescent, Health, and Society,""Topical Areas for Promoting Health," and "The Future of Adolescent Health Promotion: Next Steps," offer a new framework for examining the status of adolescent health in the United States. Contributing authors have provided the following chapters: (1) "Adolescent Health Promotion:…

Millstein, Susan G., Ed.; And Others

384

The epidemiology of firearm violence in the twenty-first century United States.  

PubMed

This brief review summarizes the basic epidemiology of firearm violence, a large and costly public health problem in the United States for which the mortality rate has remained unchanged for more than a decade. It presents findings for the present in light of recent trends. Risk for firearm violence varies substantially across demographic subsets of the population and between states in patterns that are quite different for suicide and homicide. Suicide is far more common than homicide and its rate is increasing; the homicide rate is decreasing. As with other important health problems, most cases of fatal firearm violence arise from large but low-risk subsets of the population; risk and burden of illness are not distributed symmetrically. Compared with other industrialized nations, the United States has uniquely high mortality rates from firearm violence. PMID:25533263

Wintemute, Garen J

2015-03-18

385

The Human Flesh Search Engine: Democracy, Censorship, and Political Participation in Twenty-First Century China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Human Flesh Search Engine is a recent, unique phenomenon on the Chinese internet. Comprising of thousands of forum, micro-blog, and entertainment websites and mobilizing the overwhelming number of Chinese internet users, or netizens, the search engine is able to quickly find obscure information and identify seemingly anonymous internet personalities. These websites allow netizens to have their voices heard in

Vincent Capone

2012-01-01

386

From Crisis to Opportunity: French and Foreign Language Studies in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to falling enrollments in French and a diminishing pool of high school teachers, faculty at Auburn University tried to turn the tide through a series of curricular and advocacy initiatives. They introduced new French majors in education and in international trade and a collaborative major with the Consumer Affairs Department in French…

Spencer, Samia I.

2003-01-01

387

Friendly and Beautiful: Environmental Aesthetics in Twenty-First-Century Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, environmental control systems have been more often suppressed than expressed, hidden from casual observers\\u000a and building users, rarely featured as architectural design elements, or considered aesthetically. While the impact of the\\u000a overall form of a building on its thermal environmental performance may not always be apparent, the mutual influences of shape,\\u000a form and orientation should be evident to

Sherine Mohy El Dine Wahba; Dine Wahba

2010-01-01

388

The Retirement Life Course in America at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

As the baby boom cohorts expand the number of U.S. retirees, population estimates of the employment, withdrawal and reentry behaviors of older Americans’ remain scarce. How long do people work? How frequently is retirement reversed? How many years are people retired? What is the modal age of retirement? And, how do the patterns for women compare to those for men? Using the 1992–2004 Health and Retirement Study, we estimate multistate working life tables to update information on the age-graded regularities of the retirement life course of men and women in the United States. We find that at age 50 men can expect to spend half of their remaining lives working for pay, while women can expect to spend just one-third. Half of all men and women have left the labor force by ages 63 and 61, respectively. Although the majority of retirement exits are final, variation in the nature and duration of the retirement process is substantial, as about a third of men’s and women’s exits are reversed. By quantifying these patterns for men and women, we provide a sound empirical basis for evaluating policy designed to address the financial pressures population aging places on public and private pension systems. PMID:21170285

Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.; Hardy, Melissa A.

2010-01-01

389

Critical Digital Literacies: Following Feminist Composition Theories into Twenty-First Century Contact Zones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines how the interests of feminist composition theory, digital media, and new literacies studies intersect within the research context of the first-year writing classroom. Specifically, this project examines what happens to the "contact zone" (Pratt 1991; Bizzell 1994) of first-year composition when we introduce digital…

Blackburn, Jessica B.

2010-01-01

390

Ceremony Earth: Digitizing Silko's Novel for Students of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students the author has taught get frustrated when they read Leslie Silko's canonical Native American novel, "Ceremony". Not only do they struggle with Silko's disruptions of linear temporality and her collapsing of binary oppositions, but they also struggle with the novel's geographic and cultural location. To help students better understand…

Mott, Rick

2011-01-01

391

The Global University for the Twenty-First Century. A Strategic Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This strategic plan addresses the internationalization of activities of American colleges and universities offering programs in food, agricultural, and natural resources disciplines. Internationalization is enhanced by appropriate university roles in economic development, humanitarian assistance, augmentation of global food security, and…

National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

392

Hispanic fertility, immigration, and race in the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

In this paper we systematically describe the connection between immigration and fertility in light of the increasing nativist reaction to Hispanic groups. We follow a life-course perspective to directly link migration and fertility transitions. The analysis combines original qualitative and quantitative data collected in Durham/Chapel Hill, NC as well as national level information from the Current Population Survey. The qualitative data provides a person-centered approach to the connection between migration and fertility that we then extend in quantitative analyses. Results demonstrate that standard demographic measures that treat migration and fertility as separate processes considerably distort the childbearing experience of immigrant women, inflating fertility estimates for Hispanics as a whole. Once this connection is taken into consideration the fertility levels of Hispanic women are much lower than those reported with standard measures and the fertility-specific contribution of Hispanics to U.S. population growth is much reduced. PMID:23066430

Parrado, Emilio A.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

2012-01-01

393

A State of Islam: Modernity and Muslim Life in Twenty-First Century Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the modern era religion and religious identity is complex: it is spoken of in conjunction with national or ethnic identity,\\u000a and aspects of it incorporate (or are often mistaken for) cultural identity. An Australian Muslim sees him- or her-self in\\u000a a multiplicity of ways beyond merely a person who takes on an Islamic identity and is referred to as

Nasya Bahfen

394

A new energy security paradigm for the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers apossible energy future in which the impacts of climate change have been realized far earlier than most experts have previously expected. This has promoted a transition to cleaner energy technologies long before the depletion of fossil fuel resources. In this scenario, the peak in demand for fossil fuels occurs before the peak in supply and some nations are strongly promoting the development and deployment of clean energy technologies. In this scenario the countries of the world would fall into one of the three categories: (1) those willing and readily able to adjust in response to rapid and serious climate change, (2) those willing to adjust, but facing significant economic hardship without external assistance and protection, (3) and those unwilling and, perhaps unable to play a part in combating climate change. This paper considers how countries in the first two categories could respond by adjusting their foreign, trade and even military policies. Within a generation, the great powers might find themselves shifting from keeping trade routes open to constraining the same trade. Severe climate change impacts could even approach the timescale of technological innovation needed to respond to this crisis. This paper proposes that our world may need new military and foreign policy options as well as new energy technology options in the years to come.

Nuttall, W.J.; Manz, D.L. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Judge Business School

2008-10-15

395

Technology and Ethical/Moral Dilemmas of Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to plan a relevant, professional development conference for the faculty of a small, private, suburban college in upstate, New York. The Provost and Senior Vice-President led a college-wide committee of faculty, administrators, and staff in a survey method to discover the priorities of the faculty, in further…

Clark, Lisa D.

2012-01-01

396

THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS MS CURRICULUM FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: BREADTH, DEPTH, AND INTEGRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the interim results of the work of the joint ACM\\/AIS Curriculum Committee on IS Curricula. This Curriculum Committee was appointed in January 1998 with the charge to recommend curriculum guidelines for MS programs in Information Systems. The paper describes the design and presents the answers to frequently asked questions about the curriculum. The design of the curriculum

John T. Gorgone; Paul Gray; Gordon B. Davis

1998-01-01

397

A Review of Uncertainties in Global Temperature Projections over the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

for Atmospheric Research,l Boulder, Colorado c Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom Kingdom f Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom g School of Geosciences, University, Manchester, United Kingdom (Manuscript received 27 June 2007, in final form 24 October 2007) ABSTRACT

398

Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario  

PubMed Central

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH4, and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this reduction of non-CO2 GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties. PMID:10944197

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar

2000-01-01

399

The Changing Water Paradigm A Look at Twenty-first Century Water Resources Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources management approaches around the world are changing dramatically. This ìchanging water paradigmî has many components, including a shift away from sole, or even pri- mary, reliance on finding new sources of supply to address perceived new demands, a growing emphasis on incorporating ecological values into water policy, a re-emphasis on meeting basic human needs for water services, and

Peter H. Gleick

2000-01-01

400

Student Workers: Essential Partners in the Twenty-First Century Academic Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a case study that best illustrates the value of student workers in university libraries, focusing particularly on how this kind of creative endeavor benefits everyone involved--the library, the students, the faculty, and at the end of the project: the university community. (Contains 1 table.)

Logan, Firouzeh

2012-01-01

401

Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy--- A new energy agenda for the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy, which utilizes the natural heat contained in the earth's crust, can provide a widely available source of nonpolluting energy. It can help mitigate the continued warming of the earth through the ''greenhouse effect,'' and the accelerating destruction of forests and crops by acid rain, two of the major environmental consequences of our ever-increasing use of fossil fuels for heating and power generation. In addition, HDR, as a readily available source of indigenous energy, can reduce our nation's dependence on imported oil, enhancing national security and reducing our trade deficit. The earth's heat represents an almost unlimited source of energy that can begin to be exploited within the next decade through the HDR heat-mining concept being actively developed in the United States and in several other countries. On a national scale, we can begin to develop this new energy source, using it directly for geothermal power or indirectly in hybrid geothermal/fossil-fueled systems, in diverse applications such as: baseload power generation, direct heat use, feedwater heating in conventional power plants, and pumped storage/load leveling power generation. This report describes the nature of the HDR resource and the technology required to implement the heat-mining concept in several applications. An assessment of the requirements for establishing HDR feasibility is presented in the context of providing a commercially competitive energy source. 37 refs., 6 figs.

Tester, J.W.; Brown, D.W.; Potter, R.M.

1989-07-01

402

Contrasting patterns of early twenty-first-century glacier mass change in the Himalayas.  

PubMed

Glaciers are among the best indicators of terrestrial climate variability, contribute importantly to water resources in many mountainous regions and are a major contributor to global sea level rise. In the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya region (HKKH), a paucity of appropriate glacier data has prevented a comprehensive assessment of current regional mass balance. There is, however, indirect evidence of a complex pattern of glacial responses in reaction to heterogeneous climate change signals. Here we use satellite laser altimetry and a global elevation model to show widespread glacier wastage in the eastern, central and south-western parts of the HKKH during 2003-08. Maximal regional thinning rates were 0.66?±?0.09 metres per year in the Jammu-Kashmir region. Conversely, in the Karakoram, glaciers thinned only slightly by a few centimetres per year. Contrary to expectations, regionally averaged thinning rates under debris-mantled ice were similar to those of clean ice despite insulation by debris covers. The 2003-08 specific mass balance for our entire HKKH study region was -0.21?±?0.05?m?yr(-1) water equivalent, significantly less negative than the estimated global average for glaciers and ice caps. This difference is mainly an effect of the balanced glacier mass budget in the Karakoram. The HKKH sea level contribution amounts to one per cent of the present-day sea level rise. Our 2003-08 mass budget of -12.8?±?3.5 gigatonnes (Gt) per year is more negative than recent satellite-gravimetry-based estimates of -5?±?3?Gt?yr(-1) over 2003-10 (ref. 12). For the mountain catchments of the Indus and Ganges basins, the glacier imbalance contributed about 3.5% and about 2.0%, respectively, to the annual average river discharge, and up to 10% for the Upper Indus basin. PMID:22914167

Kääb, Andreas; Berthier, Etienne; Nuth, Christopher; Gardelle, Julie; Arnaud, Yves

2012-08-23

403

A library for the fifteenth through the twenty-first centuries.  

PubMed Central

The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), began developing a program for a new library in 1977, started the design in 1985, began construction in 1988, and opened the library in September 1990. The primary objectives were to design and build a facility that would house print collections under optimal conditions, allow for ten years' growth, be flexible enough to permit future reconfiguration, support present and future technologies, and provide beautiful spaces in which to study. The planning process is summarized, planning concepts are outlined, and considerations for the electronic library are briefly reviewed. Images PMID:2039900

Cooper, R S

1991-01-01

404

Promise (Un)Fulfilled: Reframing Languages for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Change in higher education, as manifested in curriculum reform, can be particularly difficult as the structures of academia, such as rank and tradition, retard the process. Two recent reports from the Modern Language Association (MLA) strive to address needed curricular adaptations and offer a roadmap of considerations for modifications. The 2007…

Oxford, Raquel

2010-01-01

405

Transatlantic Recognition Issues: Seeking New Directions in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the US and European higher education systems have long histories of transatlantic cooperation, a tradition that it is important to preserve and enhance even in the context of increased competition and important systemic reforms in both North America and Europe. The Bologna Process has led to several systemic reforms in European higher…

Hunt, E. Stephen

2009-01-01

406

Adapting the International System of Units to the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

We review the proposal of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (Comité International des Poids et Mesures, CIPM), currently being considered by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (Conférences Générales des Poids et Mesures, CGPM), to revise the International System of Units (Le Système International d'Unitès, SI). The proposal includes new definitions for four of the seven base units of the SI, and a new form of words to present the definitions of all the units. The objective of the proposed changes is to adopt definitions referenced to constants of nature, taken in the widest sense, so that the definitions may be based on what are believed to be true invariants. In particular, whereas in the current SI the kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole are linked to exact numerical values of the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram, the magnetic constant (permeability of vacuum), the triple-point temperature of water and the molar mass of carbon-12, respectively, in the new SI these units are linked to exact numerical values of the Planck constant, the elementary charge, the Boltzmann constant and the Avogadro constant, respectively. The new wording used expresses the definitions in a simple and unambiguous manner without the need for the distinction between base and derived units. The importance of relations among the fundamental constants to the definitions, and the importance of establishing a mise en pratique for the realization of each definition, are also discussed. PMID:21930556

Mills, Ian M; Mohr, Peter J; Quinn, Terry J; Taylor, Barry N; Williams, Edwin R

2011-10-28

407

Developing Media Literacy in Cyberspace: Pedagogy and Critical Learning for the Twenty-First-Century Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By joining bodies of research in media theory, cultural studies, and critical pedagogy, this book offers a vision of learning that values social empowerment over technical skills. An inquiry into the existence and range of models equipped to cultivate critical teaching and learning in the Internet-supported classroom, the book argues that media…

Frechette, Julie D.

408

Promoting Gender Equality at Work: Turning Vision into Reality for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains papers in which 12 experienced gender specialists examine the various developments and elements affecting women's participation as equal players in the workplace and propose actions and policies promoting sex equity in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Preface" (Mary Chinery-Hesse); "Introduction " (Eugenia…

Date-Bah, Eugenia, Ed.

409

Media Literacy Pedagogy: Critical and New/Twenty-First-Century Literacies Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a conceptualization of media literacy pedagogy in light of National Education Technology Plan efforts, which name teaching as one of five essential areas to build an education system that can increase as well as sustain the United States' economic growth and prosperity in the global economy. In particular, two distinct…

Westbrook, Nalova

2011-01-01

410

Assessing quality in cardiac surgery: why this is necessary in the twenty-first century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cost and high-profile nature of coronary surgery means that this is an area of close public scrutiny. As much pioneering work in data collection and risk analyses has been carried out by cardiac surgeons, substantial information exists and the correct interpretation of that data is identified as an important issue. This paper considers the background and history of risk-adjustment in cardiac surgery, the uses of quality data, examines the observed/expected mortality ratio and looks at issues such as cost and reactions to outliers. The conclusion of the study is that the continuation of accurate data collection by the whole operative team and a strong commitment to constantly improving quality is crucial to its meaningful application.

Swain, J. A.; Hartz, R. S.

2000-01-01

411

Global Learning as General Education for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Global awareness has emerged as a valued learning outcome in higher education. Students need repeated and on-going learning opportunities to develop the global competencies and habits of mind that are necessary to navigate our increasingly interconnected and complex world. This paper argues that situating an introductory global studies course into…

Reich, Jacqueline C.

2012-01-01

412

SBWR design update: Passively safe, nuclear power generation for the twenty first century  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the current state of design, development and testing of a new generation of Boiling Water Reactors, the SBWR. The SBWR is a plant that will be significantly simpler to build, operate and maintain compared to operating plants. In this paper, the design and performance of the reference 670 MWe SBWR is summarized, the economics of SBWR power generation is addressed and the current developments in component testing and integrated system testing are given. This paper specifically discusses the current innovations and key reference design features of the SBWR including the RPV, depressurization system, pressure suppression system, flammability control system (based on passive autocatalytic recombiners), gravity driven cooling system, the passive containment cooling system, isolation condenser system and other unique engineered safety features that rely on gravity or stored energy to ensure core cooling, decay heat removal, and ATWS mitigation. The component and integrated system development testing summarized includes key results of recently concluded PANTHERS condenser tests conducted at SIET in Italy, GIRAFFE non-condensable gas testing by Toshiba in Japan, and the ongoing testing at the PANDA facility at PSI in Switzerland.

Upton, H.A.; Torbeck, J.E.; Billig, P.F.; Duncan, J.D.; Herzog, M. [General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

1996-07-01

413

Futurework: Trends and Challenges for Work in the 21st Century  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by the US Department of Labor (DOL), this report explores the social impact of the new economy and the role of the "twenty-first century work-place" in America. Futurework cites three elements necessary for the stability of American workers: "rising economic security over a lifetime," "a work and family balance," and "workplaces that are safe and fair." Using numerous charts, tables, and graphs, the report examines topics such as workforce diversity, wage growth, changing workplaces, technology and globalization, and future trends affecting working conditions and worker morale. The report may be downloaded by chapter in .pdf format. Additional resources at the site include a number of full-text conference papers (in HTML or .pdf formats) and related links. [MD

2000-01-01

414

2010 Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. Twenty First Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First mandated by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1989 (S.L. 1989; C. 752; S. 80), the Critical Success Factors report has evolved into the major accountability document for the North Carolina Community College System. This twenty first annual report on the critical success factors is the result of a process undertaken to streamline and…

North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

415

Strategic Paradigm Shifts in the Antimicrobial Drug Discovery Process of the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers of global infections produced by bacterial strains that are resistant to single and multiple antimicrobial drugs are on the rise. Concomitant with this alarming upward trend, there is a clear downward trend in the intent and determination of pharmaceutical companies to develop novel antimicrobials. One of the pressing goals to confront the twenty first century's public health challenges

Luis E. N. Quadri

2007-01-01

416

New Challenges for Higher Education: Global and Asia-Pacific Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With rapid socio-economic changes, twenty-first century higher education is facing major challenges to its governance systems, curriculum, mission focus, external relations, research, and financing. A theoretical framework to analyze these post-massification challenges is suggested, with a focus on the Asia-Pacific region as well as global issues.…

Shin, Jung Cheol; Harman, Grant

2009-01-01

417

Heteromorphic Self-Incompatibility In Primula : Twenty-First Century Tools Promise To Unravel A Classic Nineteenth Century Model System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on heteromorphic self-incompatibility systems has a long and prestigious history particularly in the Primula genus. This being said, the rise of attractive alternative model systems, coincident with the development of molecular techniques,\\u000a led to a significant hiatus in this field. As a result, our comprehension of these systems at the molecular level lags dramatically\\u000a behind that of several other

A. McCubbin

418

Who Will Challenge Our Youth? Preparing Our Youth for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urges young people to concentrate on building new bridges of hope and renewal to the 21st century, noting the work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Encourages youths to challenge their peers to prepare for the new century by striving to change social inequalities and reaching across artificial barriers to ensure that each member of society shares fully…

Davis, Lloyd

1999-01-01

419

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: PARADIGMS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES  

EPA Science Inventory

In: Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges: Abstract Book: SETAC 21st Annual Meeting, 12-16 November 2000, Nashville, TN.. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL. Pp. p. 180. Bioavailability and rates...

420

Sustainable Water Systems for Agriculture and 21 Century Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability and pollution of freshwater water supplies will be the dominant issues for the global society in the 21 century. With increasing population and climate change scenarios, the demand for water will continue to increase for agriculture, especially irrigation, and other economic uses to meet food, fiber and energy-security needs of the society. At the same time, there is good

Ramesh Kanwar

2009-01-01

421

Twenty-first nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study, August 6-10, 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twenty-first in a series of nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) intercomparison (NAD) studies was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during August 6-10, 1984. The Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode was used to simulate three criticality accidents with different radiation fields. Participants from five organizations measured neutron doses between 0.53 and

R. E. Swaja; G. E. Ragan; C. S. Sims

1985-01-01

422

Next century challenges: scalable coordination in sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Networked sensors-those that coordinate amongst them- selves to achieve a larger sensing task-will revolutionize information gathering and processing both in urban envi- ronments and in inhospitable terrain. The sheer numbers of these sensors and the expected dynamics in these environ- ments present unique challenges in the design of unattended autonomous sensor networks. These challenges lead us to hypothesize that sensor

Deborah Estrin; Ramesh Govindan; John S. Heidemann; Satish Kumar

1999-01-01

423

Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as “new,” “emerging,” or “evolving” pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses,

John N. Sofos

2008-01-01

424

Challenges of Urban Education: Sociological Perspectives for the Next Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers in this collection discuss the challenges facing urban education and the sociology of urban education. The more comprehensive perspective presented in this document can contribute to the improvement of city schools and the empowerment of urban students. Following an introduction, "Challenges of the New Sociology of Urban Education"…

McClafferty, Karen A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.; Mitchell, Theodore R., Ed.

425

MOS Scaling: Transistor Challenges for the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional scaling of gate oxide thickness, source\\/drain extension (SDE), junction depths, and gate lengths have enabled MOS gate dimensions to be reduced from 10?m in the 1970's to a present day size of 0.1?m. To enable transistor scaling into the 21 st century, new solutions such as high dielectric constant materials for gate insulation and shallow, ultra low resistivity junctions

Scott Thompson; Paul Packan

1998-01-01

426

The Century-Long Challenge of Global Carbon Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time scale of the global carbon management is a century, not a decade and not a millennium. A century is the ratio of 1000 billion metric tons of carbon [Gt(C)] to 10 Gt(C)/yr. 1000 Gt(C) is the future emissions that will lead to approximately a doubling of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, 280 ppm, assuming the total net ocean plus terrestrial sink remains at half the strength of this source - since 2.1 Gt (C) = 1 ppm, and the concentration today is already 370 ppm. Doubling is the most widely used boundary between acceptable and unacceptable Greenhouse-related environmental disruption, or, in the language of the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the onset of "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." And 10 Gt(C)/yr is a conservative estimate of the average annual fossil-fuel carbon source over the century; it is now between 6 and 7 Gt(C). Conventional oil and gas are not sufficiently abundant to generate a serious Greenhouse problem on their own. Well before their cumulative carbon emissions reach 1000 Gt(C), both are expected to become non-competitive as a result of growing costs of access (costs related to resources being very deep underground, or below very deep water, or very remote, or very small.) But several times 1000 Gt(C) of coal resources will probably be competitive with non-fossil fuel alternatives, as will "unconventional" oil and gas resources, such as tar sands. The world will not be saved from a serious Greenhouse problem by fossil fuel depletion. There are four mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous interference with the climate system. Fossil fuels can cease to dominate the global energy system well before the end of the century, yielding large market share to some combination of renewable energy and nuclear (fission and fusion) energy sources. Fossil fuels can continue to dominate, but most of the carbon in the century's fossil fuels can be prevented from reaching the atmosphere (fossil-carbon sequestration). Carbon can be removed directly from the air by biological or chemical processes. Or the climate system can become so well understood that effective compensating actions can be implemented. If human beings implement none of these strategies, we will have chosen, in effect, to adapt to climate change. Not unlikely will be a mix of all four mitigation strategies plus adaptation. In recent years, as the intrinsic complexity and monumental scale of global carbon management has become better appreciated, new coalitions supportive of policies intended to mitigate climate change have emerged.

Socolow, R.

2002-05-01

427

The 21st Century Principal: Opportunities and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an interview with "Principal," U.S. Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley and NAESP Executive Director Vincent Ferrandino agreed that schools should become community centers. Principals' major challenges include welcoming and involving the community, envisioning improvements, building consensus, valuing teamwork, and pursuing professional and…

Principal, 2000

2000-01-01

428

Biotechnology, Bioethics and Law: Europe's 21st Century Challenge &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in biotechnology make possible many things which even a few years ago would have seemed unimaginable. However, the steady advance of biotechnological innovation raises difficult questions for ethicists and regulators. In the thirty-fourth Chorley Lecture Noelle Lenoir analyses the European response to these challenges and calls upon European leaders to honour their commitment to human dignity and to give

Noëlle Lenoir

2006-01-01

429

Key challenges for toxicologists in the 21st century.  

PubMed

The application of genomic technology to toxicology (toxicogenomics) has allowed the simultaneous identification of modified gene expression in response to a toxicant to be established for thousands of mammalian genes. This, together with the development of proteomics, metabonomics and our increasing understanding of individual human polymorphisms, will enable toxicologists in the next century to identify those individuals at particular risk from specific toxins, pesticides and pharmaceutical drugs. However, these new opportunities will prove fruitless unless toxicologists address some of the major issues that presently confront their discipline. If anything, the new technologies impose a greater demand on toxicologists to exercise expert judgement on the meaning of their data, and to apply 'common sense' when balancing risks and benefits. PMID:11395155

Smith, L L

2001-06-01

430

On the challenge of a century lifespan satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a review of the main issues affecting satellite survivability, including a discussion on the technologies to mitigate the risks and to enhance system reliability. The feasibility of a 100-year lifespan space mission is taken as the guiding thread for the discussion. Such a mission, defined with a few preliminary requirements, could be used to deliver messages to our descendants regardless of the on-ground contingencies. After the analysis of the main threats for long endurance in space, including radiation, debris and micrometeoroids, atmospheric drag and thermal environment, the available solutions are investigated. A trade-off study analyses orbital profiles from the point of view of radiation, thermal stability and decay rate, providing best locations to maximize lifespan. Special attention is also paid to on-board power, in terms of energy harvesting and accumulation, highlighting the limitations of current assets, i.e. solar panels and batteries, and revealing possible future solutions. Furthermore, the review includes electronics, non-volatile memories and communication elements, which need extra hardening against radiation and thermal cycling if extra-long endurance is required. As a result of the analysis, a century-lifetime mission is depicted by putting together all the reviewed concepts. The satellite, equipped with reliability enhanced elements and system-level solutions such as smart hibernation policies, could provide limited but still useful performance after a 100-year flight.

Gonzalo, Jesús; Domínguez, Diego; López, Deibi

2014-10-01

431

Alzheimer's disease: the challenge of the second century.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) was first described a little more than 100 years ago. It is the most common cause of dementia with an estimated prevalence of 30 million people worldwide, a number that is expected to quadruple in 40 years. There currently is no effective treatment that delays the onset or slows the progression of AD. However, major scientific advances in the areas of genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, and neuroscience over the past 25 years have changed the way we think about AD. This review discusses some of the challenges to translating these basic molecular and cellular discoveries into clinical therapies. Current information suggests that if the disease is detected before the onset of overt symptoms, it is possible that treatments based on knowledge of underlying pathogenesis can and will be effective. PMID:21471435

Holtzman, David M; Morris, John C; Goate, Alison M

2011-04-01

432

McClintock’s challenge in the 21st century  

PubMed Central

In 1950, Barbara McClintock published a Classic PNAS article, “The origin and behavior of mutable loci in maize,” which summarized the evidence leading to her discovery of transposition. The article described a number of genome alterations revealed through her studies of the Dissociation locus, the first mobile genetic element she identified. McClintock described the suite of nuclear events, including transposon activation and various chromosome aberrations and rearrangements, that unfolded in the wake of genetic crosses that brought together two broken chromosomes 9. McClintock left future generations with the challenge of understanding how genomes respond to genetic and environmental stresses by mounting adaptive responses that frequently include genome restructuring. PMID:23150590

Fedoroff, Nina V.

2012-01-01

433

McClintock's challenge in the 21st century.  

PubMed

In 1950, Barbara McClintock published a Classic PNAS article, "The origin and behavior of mutable loci in maize," which summarized the evidence leading to her discovery of transposition. The article described a number of genome alterations revealed through her studies of the Dissociation locus, the first mobile genetic element she identified. McClintock described the suite of nuclear events, including transposon activation and various chromosome aberrations and rearrangements, that unfolded in the wake of genetic crosses that brought together two broken chromosomes 9. McClintock left future generations with the challenge of understanding how genomes respond to genetic and environmental stresses by mounting adaptive responses that frequently include genome restructuring. PMID:23150590

Fedoroff, Nina V

2012-12-11

434

Climate change, thermal comfort and energy: Meeting the design challenges of the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the dual challenge of designing sustainable low-energy buildings while still providing thermal comfort under warmer summer conditions produced by anthropogenic climate change—a key challenge for building designers in the 21st century. The main focus is towards buildings that are ‘free running’ for some part of the summer, either being entirely naturally ventilated or mixed-mode (where mechanical cooling

Michael J. Holmes; Jacob N. Hacker

2007-01-01

435

Hybrid and Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory 21st Century Automotive Challenge April 17-19, 2009  

E-print Network

electric and hybrid cars in the American consumer marketplace." Competition participants included teams vehicle technology you need to match your lifestyle ­ electric, solar electric, hybrid, pluggable hybridHybrid and Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory 21st Century Automotive Challenge April 17-19, 2009

Lee, Dongwon

436

Sustainable energy development: a challenge for Asia and the Pacific region in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main challenge to energy policy makers in the 21st century is how to develop and manage adequate, affordable and reliable energy services on a sustainable manner to fuel social and economic development. About 60 per cent of the world's two billion population, who do not have access to modern energy services, live in Asia and the Pacific region. The

Pranesh Chandra Saha

2003-01-01

437

On Pliability and Progress: Challenging Current Conceptions of Eighteenth-Century French Educational Thought  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining the educational writings of three of the eighteenth-century's most innovative thinkers, the Abbe de Saint-Pierre, Morelly and Helvetius, this article challenges the currently accepted view that it was a belief in human pliability which gave rise to the contemporary groundbreaking faith in the power of education to improve society. The…

Gilead, Tal

2009-01-01

438

Preparing the Workforce for the 21st Century: The Nurse Educator's Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of synopses of selected presentations on the nurse educator's challenge in preparing the workforce for the 21st century that were made during the 1998 meeting of the Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing. In her paper "Redesigning Health Care Delivery," Karlene Kerfoot described changes in health care delivery systems…

Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

439

Permafrost: An International Approach to 21th Century Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whereas glaciers are easily discernible to the human eye and satellites, permafrost terrains and their physical components are not easily detected from the surface without supplemental knowledge and measurements. In the Northern Hemisphere, approximately 17 million km2 of exposed land contains some extent of permafrost or ground that remains frozen for more than two years. The vast majority, or 11 million km2, of permafrost terrain has temperatures of 5° C or below, with perennially frozen ground underlying essentially all ground surfaces to considerable depths. Permafrost in the remaining regions, including mid-latitude mountains, is both warmer and is spatially variable (discontinuous). As climate warms the uppermost permafrost is subjected to increase thaw with resulting ground subsidence, accelerated erosion, and related biogeochemical modifications. The challenging questions to geocryologists, modelers and the public relate to the rate of change and the spatial variability of the projected thaw, particularly in the warmer zones where actual areal and subareal distribution of permafrost is poorly known. An international network of active layer measurements and borehole sites now exists under the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), but requires additional sites for representative coverage. This Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) is coordinated by the 24-member, International Permafrost Association. At the Eighth International Conference on Permafrost (ICOP) in Zurich in July 2003, the IPA Council agreed on the scope of new activities for the next five years, many of which will be undertaken in cooperation with other international organizations (e.g. WCRP/CliC; ICSI, IASC, SCAR, IGU, IUGS). Examples of the activities of the IPA Working Groups are: 1. Antarctic Permafrost and Periglacial Environments (active layer processes, maps, database). 2. Coastal and Offshore Permafrost (sediment and organic transfers, subsea permafrost dynamics). 3. Cryosol (Antarctic soil map, soil database). 4. Glacier and Permafrost Hazards in High Mountains (interaction of ice and permafrost on slopes). 5. Isotopes and Geochemistry of Permafrost (paleo-reconstruction, modern processes). 6. Mapping and Modelling of Mountain Permafrost (standardize map legends and maps, multi-dimensional models). 7. Periglacial Processes and Environments (past and present processes, field manual of measurements). 8. Permafrost and Climate (monitoring, impact assessments, inter-comparisons of models). 9. Permafrost Astrobiology (survivability of life on planets and analogous Earth environments). 10. Permafrost Engineering (case studies, climate impacts on infrastructure). The Data Committee facilitates recovery of data, web access, and CD data production. These activities will provide added insight into past, present and future occurrences and responses of permafrost to climate change. They can contribute to activities of the International Polar Year. Results will be reported at the Ninth ICOP in Fairbanks, Alaska, in summer 2008. Current information is available on the IPA web site and in annual issues of Frozen Ground.

Brown, J.

2003-12-01

440

Teaching about the Genocide of the Roma and Sinti during the Holocaust: Chances and Challenges in Europe Today  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents several projects, initiated during the first decade of the twenty-first century, that aim to make the history of the genocide of the Roma more known within the educational field. Some general challenges we face in teaching about the history of a group that is both the largest minority in Europe and, according to the European…

Polak, Karen

2013-01-01

441

Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015. Mission to Planet Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified program is outlined for studying the Earth, from its deep interior to its fluid envelopes. A system is proposed for measuring devices involving both space-based and in-situ observations that can accommodate simultaneously a large range of scientific needs. The scientific objectices served by this integrated infrastructure are cased into a framework of four grand themes. In summary these are: to determine the composition, structure, dynamics, and evolution of the Earth's crust and deeper interior; to establish and understand the structure, dynamics, and chemistry of the oceans, atmosphere, and cryosphere, and their interaction with the solid Earth; to characterize the history and dynamics of living organisms and their interaction with the environment; and to monitor and understand the interaction of human activities with the natural environment. A focus on these grand themes will help to understand the origin and fate of the planet, and to place it in the context of the solar system.

1988-01-01

442

Women Secondary Head Teachers: Alive and Well in Birmingham at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Far from being an "endangered species" (Edwards & Lyons, 1994), moving towards extinction, women secondary head teachers are alive and well in Birmingham. While the national picture in England and Wales showed 29.8 per cent of secondary head teachers were women in 2005, this research identifies extensive regional differences. In Birmingham 41 per…

Fuller, Kay

2009-01-01

443

Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and labour productivity in general.

Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

2014-11-01

444

Oilheat research agenda: A ten year blueprint for residential oilheat research and development in the Twenty-First Century  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a joint research agenda planned for the US Department of Energy and the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) under a cooperative effort between the Federal government and the private sector industries involved in oilheat marketing. The objective of the oilheat research program is to develop the technical basis for improved equipment designs and operating strategies based on an enhanced understanding of oil-burning fundamentals, heat transfer, and associated environmental factors. The program will continue to provide the oil-fueled heating equipment industry with the basis for developing a new, modern generation of equipment and provide the oil marketers, equipment installers, and consumers with improved knowledge of how best to install, maintain, and operate such equipment for maximum performance and minimum fuel use and environmental impact.

McDonald, R.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Batey, J.E. [Energy Research Center (United States)

1996-05-01

445

College Admissions in Twenty-First-Century America: The Role of Grades, Tests, and Games of Chance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Rebecca Zwick confronts the controversy surrounding the use of standardized tests in college admissions. She examines the degree to which the SAT and its lesser known cousin, the ACT, limit access to college, particularly for racial and ethnic minorities, and considers two alternative admissions policies that do not involve tests:…

Zwick, Rebecca

2007-01-01

446

Cutting-Edge Panacea of the Twenty-First Century: Workplace Spirituality for Higher Education Human Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to determine the level of spirituality in the workplace for faculty members at public universities in Jordan. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses a survey design as the basis for the research. Findings: The results indicate that participants perceived an overall moderate-to-high level of…

Khasawneh, Samer

2011-01-01

447

Campus Climate in the Twenty-First Century: Estimating Perceptions of Discrimination at a Racially Mixed Institution, 1994-2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have found that minority students do experience insensitive if not discriminatory behavior on college campuses, and students who experience such behavior report lower levels of social integration and institutional commitment. However, there are at least two limitations to much of the campus climate literature. First, virtually all…

Miller, Berkeley; Sujitparapitaya, Sutee

2010-01-01

448

Space science in the twenty-first century: Imperatives for the decades 1995 to 2015: Astronomy and astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The program of new initiatives for the era 1995 to 2015 focuses on improvements in capabilities in two areas: higher angular resolution and greater collecting areas. The expected 1995 status is outlined for radio astronomy, infrared and submillimeter astronomy, ultraviolet and optical wavelengths, X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic-ray astronomy, astrophysics, gravitational physics, NASA operational status, and international programs. New initiatives and practical considerations (budgetary requirements, international cooperation, cost-to-weight ratio, management, facilities, and instrumentation) are reviewed.

449

A transient climate change simulation with greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing: projected climate to the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential climatic consequences of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration and sulfate aerosol loading\\u000a are investigated for the years 1900 to 2100 based on five simulations with the CCCma coupled climate model. The five simulations\\u000a comprise a control experiment without change in GHG or aerosol amount, three independent simulations with increasing GHG and\\u000a aerosol forcing, and a simulation with

G. J. Boer; G. Flato; D. Ramsden

2000-01-01

450

Tracking the Mind's Eye: A New Technology for Researching Twenty-First-Century Writing and Reading Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the nature of eye-tracking technology and its use in the study of discourse processes, particularly reading. It then suggests several areas of research in composition studies, especially at the intersection of writing, reading, and digital media, that can benefit from the use of this technology. (Contains 2 figures.)

Anson, Chris M.; Schwegler, Robert A.

2012-01-01

451

Moving the Law School into the Twenty-First Century--Embedding Technology into Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past twenty years phenomenal developments in technology have changed the nature of education. Students now have access to a vast range of resources 24/7. This instant access has created a certain expectation on the part of the student and there must now be very few, if any, courses taught in higher education where the lecturer does not…

Steventon, Beverley; Panesar, Sukhninder; Wood, Jane

2014-01-01

452

Demographic Changes in the U.S. into the Twenty-First Century: Their Impact on Sport Marketing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues confronting sport marketers as U.S. demographics change include more older people, ethnic groups, working women, and minorities; television hours watched; and changes in family makeup. As the changes affect marketing, sport marketing will have to become more efficient in defining and reaching different markets. (SM)

Hofacre, Susan; And Others

1992-01-01

453

Problem Solving for the Twenty-First Century: Global Education Activities in the Social Studies Curriculum (K-12).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators are encouraged in this document to practice a multi-disciplinary approach in the classroom to prepare students for new management styles in an interrelated society. The first section on perceptions covers the following: information processing (planning, implementing, assessing); the learning process (exploration, invention, application);…

Peters, Richard

454

Governance and aid allocation in the International Development Association (IDA) : revisiting assessing aid in the twenty-first century  

E-print Network

This paper examines the relationship between governance and the foreign aid allocation of a World Bank agency, the International Development Association. In particular, the study investigates whether this major multilateral ...

Markgraf, Claire Teresa McCarville

2014-01-01

455

Educating outside the Lines: Bard College at Simon's Rock on a "New Pedagogy" for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Founded in 1966, and premised on the idea that motivated sixteen-year-olds are capable of college work, Bard College at Simon's Rock is an educational "experiment" from the sixties that has endured and prospered. "Educating Outside the Lines" looks at Simon's Rock as a pioneer of the early college movement that has begun to reshape the connections…

Yanoshak, Nancy, Ed.

2011-01-01

456

Making Sense of Twenty-First-Century Climate Change in the Altiplano: Observed Trends and CMIP3 Projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthesis is presented of the first phase in regionalizing climate projections for the Altiplano, an elevated central Andean plateau in Bolivia and Peru. A prerequisite to downscaling is analysis of the large-scale forcing provided by global, multimodel climate scenarios. Global climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) archive are employed to qualitatively evaluate the direction of change

Anji Seth; Jeanne Thibeault; Magali Garcia; Corinne Valdivia

2010-01-01

457

Ameritocracy and Infra-Racial Racism: Racializing Social and Cultural Reproduction Theory in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that narratives forecasting spectacular mobility for Black people/people of color along with the growth of the Black middle class function as proof that America "works" and that the American dream is obtainable for all. However, what is concealed within this "meritocratic" discourse is that full acceptance into this society is…

Akom, A. A.

2008-01-01

458

Twenty-First Century Learning in Schools: A Case Study of New Technology High School in Napa, California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When one walks into the classrooms at New Technology High School (NTHS) in Napa, California, he or she will see that students there are always at work: writing journals online, doing research on the Internet, meeting in groups to plan and make their Web sites and their digital media presentations, and evaluating their peers for collaboration and…

Pearlman, Bob

2006-01-01

459

Accountability in Grading Student Work: Securing Academic Standards in a Twenty-First Century Quality Assurance Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, using a student outcomes definition of academic standards, reports on academics' sense of standards as enacted through marking practices. Twelve lecturers from two UK universities were asked to "think aloud" as they graded written assignments followed by a semi-structured interview. The interview data were used to investigate the…

Bloxham, Sue; Boyd, Pete

2012-01-01

460

Estimation of the tourism climate in the Hunter Region, Australia, in the early twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing tourism-related climate information and evaluation are typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and do not include thermal perception and other climate parameters relevant for tourists. Here, we quantify climate based on the climate facets relevant to tourism (thermal, physical, aesthetical), and apply the results to the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS). This paper presents bioclimatic and tourism climatological conditions in the Hunter Region—one of Australia's most popular tourist destinations. In the Hunter Region, generally, temperatures below 15°C occur from April through October, temperatures less than 25°C are expected throughout the whole year, while humidity sits around 50%. As expected, large differences between air temperature and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) were clearly identified. The widest differences were seen in summer time rather than in the winter period. In addition, cold stress was observed less than 10% of the time in winter while around 40-60% of heat stress was observed in summer time. This correlates with the highest numbers of international visitors, who usually seek a warmer weather, at the beginning of summer time (November and December) and also to the number of domestic visitors, who tend to seek cooler places for recreation and leisure, in late summer (January-March). It was concluded that thermal bioclimate assessment such as PET and CTIS can be applied in the Hunter region, and that local governments and the tourism industry should take an integrated approach to providing more relevant weather and climate information for both domestic and international tourists in the near future.

Shiue, Ivy; Matzarakis, Andreas

2011-07-01

461

Estimation of the tourism climate in the Hunter Region, Australia, in the early twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing tourism-related climate information and evaluation are typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature\\u000a and precipitation and do not include thermal perception and other climate parameters relevant for tourists. Here, we quantify\\u000a climate based on the climate facets relevant to tourism (thermal, physical, aesthetical), and apply the results to the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme\\u000a (CTIS). This paper presents bioclimatic and tourism

Ivy Shiue; Andreas Matzarakis

2011-01-01

462

Water, Power, and Development in Twenty-First Century China: The Case of the South-North Water Transfer Project  

E-print Network

and controversial supply-side water management project, thiswater supply of her city, “The South-North Water Transfer Projectwater supply in and around Beijing as beneficiaries of a national development project

Crow-Miller, Brittany Leigh

2013-01-01

463

Fantasies of Maternal Unity in Twentieth- and Twenty-First-Century African Diasporic Women's Fiction and Science Fiction  

E-print Network

their depictions of the lasting links children create with their mothers that the power of the diasporic mother and, by proxy, the black family and community extends into the future. This project seeks to supplement the existing readings of diasporic women's texts...

Lillvis, Kristen

2011-04-20

464

Constructing Knowledge in the Twenty-First Century: I-LEARN and Using Information as a Tool for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be efficient and effective learners in the information age, individuals must be able to engage successfully with a wide variety of information types and formats. Becoming lifelong learners in a world in which information flows freely and defies the boundaries of traditional disciplines and subject areas, children and youth in particular must…

Neuman, Delia

2011-01-01

465

Kansas City southern railway twenty-first century planning. Master's thesis, 7 August 1998--4 June 1999  

SciTech Connect

Rail yards serve as major nodes that facilitate delivery of cargo to the consignee. The level of operational efficiency maintained within rail yards determines whether customers receive cargo late. Various external and internal factors can impede the operational efficiency of rail yards. The future growth of rail industry depends on how well it manages a potentially serious problem inherent to all railroads--rail congestion. This study reviews the processes that occur within the Knoche rail yard, which is located in Kansas City, Kansas. In an effort to improve the operational efficiency of the Knoche rail yard or to minimize congestion, the study will reveal the results of analyzing varying strategies to improve the operational efficiency of a single event, the rip track facility, within the Knoche rail yard. This study reveals that the operational efficiency of the Knoche rail yard may be enhanced if the following occur: (1) increase the rip track facility queue population from fifteen to twenty-two, and (2) spot bad order cars directly onto the two tracks leading into the rip track facility. Finally, the amount of double handling by switch engines daily may be decreased by as much as 96% within the rail yard.

Powell, R.A.

1999-07-01

466

Entrepreneurship Studies--An Ascending Academic Discipline in the Twenty-First Century. Entrepreneurial Studies in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Entrepreneurship is relatively new as a subject of formal study in universities. Its teaching can be traced back to 1947. Since then, the subject has caught on, and in the 1980s and 1990s, there was a veritable explosion in such offerings at universities in the United States. The subject came to Europe rather late, but here, too, courses and…

Volkmann, Christine

2004-01-01

467

Crude oil and alternate energy production forecasts for the twenty-first century: The end of the hydrocarbon era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictions of production rates and ultimate recovery of crude oil are needed for intelligent planning and timely action to ensure the continuous flow of energy required by the world`s increasing population and expanding economies. Crude oil will be able to supply increasing demand until peak world production is reached. The energy gap caused by declining conventional oil production must then

John D. Edwards

1997-01-01

468

The trouble with civic: a snapshot of young people's civic and political engagements in twenty-first-century democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In much academic and policy literature about civic engagement, regardless of their political or social circumstances, youth across the globe are enjoined to engage in all the activities thought good for them in order to qualify for the moral label ‘good citizens’. Voting, watching the news, party activism, sending emails to government websites, attending meetings in the town hall, volunteering,

Shakuntala Banaji

2008-01-01

469

The next great American station : Union Station and Downtown Los Angeles in the twenty-first century  

E-print Network

Ideas about a city are powerful forces, and have lasting impacts on the built environment. While not every vision is realized in the built form, every aspect of urban development is the reflection of a vision about what ...

Dunsmore, Jaymes Phillip

2012-01-01

470

Defusing the baby boomer time bomb: projections of after-tax income in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

There has been a major national policy debate over the prospective tax burden facing future generations of workers as a result of the impending retirement of the baby boom generation. However, the real determinant of well-being is after-tax income, not the tax rate on before-tax income. This study constructs a series of projections of after-tax income, for workers and families at different points in the income distribution, to examine the effects of several different trends. The author first calculates the extent to which after-tax income can be expected to decline as the result of the aging of the baby boomers, then calculates the impact on after-tax income for families at different points in the income distribution of a continuation of recent trends in wage inequality. He also constructs a category of "after-tax, after-health-care spending" income, which examines the impact of the continued rapid growth in health care costs. The findings suggest that the continuation of recent trends in inequality and health care cost growth will have a much larger effect on future living standards than will the aging of the baby boomers. PMID:11407170

Baker, D

2001-01-01

471

Taking another look with fluorescence microscopy: Image processing techniques in Langmuir monolayers for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence microscopy has become a powerful and standard complementary technique in the study of amphiphilic films at the air–water interface. For nearly three decades the coupling of traditional thermodynamic measurements with direct visualization has provided a better understanding of self-assembled Langmuir monolayers and their application in the study of the physical properties of membranes and interfaces. As an introduction we

Benjamin L. Stottrup; Andrew H. Nguyen; Erkan Tüzel

2010-01-01

472

Taking another look with fluorescence microscopy: image processing techniques in Langmuir monolayers for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Fluorescence microscopy has become a powerful and standard complementary technique in the study of amphiphilic films at the air-water interface. For nearly three decades the coupling of traditional thermodynamic measurements with direct visualization has provided a better understanding of self-assembled Langmuir monolayers and their application in the study of the physical properties of membranes and interfaces. As an introduction we provide a brief overview of this established technique and demonstrate its continued utility in the recent observation of novel phase behavior in monolayers of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC). We then focus our review on new analysis techniques which take advantage of the ability to store, process, and analyze large sets of images. We pay particular attention to efforts measuring the line tension between coexisting two dimensional fluid phases in the Langmuir monolayer. Using non-perturbative methods, we can measure fundamental mechanical properties of these two dimensional systems. Finally, we highlight the use of Model Convolution Microscopy as a new tool to provide insight on the experimental limits in these studies. PMID:20067758

Stottrup, Benjamin L; Nguyen, Andrew H; Tüzel, Erkan

2010-07-01

473

Prevention in the Twenty-First Century: Promoting Health and Well-Being in Education and Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the science of prevention, with special attention to prevention research and applications in education and psychology, and the importance of prevention in Asian countries. One example that will be highlighted is the recently adopted Korean government policy on Internet addiction which addresses the problem from prevention to…

Romano, John L.

2014-01-01

474

Sex ratio at birth in twenty-first century Greece: the role of ethnic and social groups.  

PubMed

The number of male per 100 female live births (defined as the sex ratio at birth, SRB) has been shown to be consistently stable in human populations irrespective of time and geographical location. All over the globe approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls and any significant deviation from this 'global average' is considered to be unnatural and is attributed to sex-selective under-reporting of births, sex-selective abortion, sex-selective infanticide or other man-made factors. The present paper uses data on civil registration from 2004-2011 to investigate the sex ratio at birth in modern Greece. It was found that the SRB is extremely masculine when the parents originate from the Indian sub-continent and China. The SRB is also unnaturally high (more than 113 boys per 100 girls) in the case of legitimate births born to Greek mothers who are illiterate. These findings are strong evidence that sex-selective abortions are taking place in Greece within population groups with a certain ethnic and social profile. Other parameters, such as age of mother at birth, birth order, legal status of birth and geographical location, were also investigated and they were found to play a role in the variation of SRB, but not to the extent education and ethnic group do. PMID:24849079

Gavalas, V; Rontos, K; Nagopoulos, N

2015-05-01

475

Accountability in grading student work: securing academic standards in a twenty-first century quality assurance context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article, using a student outcomes definition of academic standards, reports on academics’ sense of standards as enacted through marking practices. Twelve lecturers from two UK universities were asked to ‘think aloud’ as they graded written assignments followed by a semi-structured interview. The interview data were used to investigate the source of tutors’ standards, their sense of accountability for their

Sue Bloxham; Pete Boyd

2011-01-01

476

Adult Discrimination against Children: The Case of Abstinence-Only Education in Twenty-First-Century USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses abstinence-only education programmes and discourses within the frame of theories of adult discrimination against children. To begin with, a definition of abstinence-only programmes and of the political context in which they were created will be provided. These programmes will then be analysed through the lens of children's…

Greslé-Favier, Claire

2013-01-01

477

(Never) Mind the Gap!: Gender Equity in Social Studies Research on Technology in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Focusing on gender as an aspect of diversity, the purpose of this paper is to review social studies research on technology, and suggest a new direction, with gender redefined from a gap to be eliminated to a difference to be explored. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a literature review of research on gender, technology, and…

Crocco, Margaret S.; Cramer, Judith; Meier, Ellen B.

2008-01-01

478

A library for the twenty-first century: the Galter Health Sciences Library's renovation and expansion project.  

PubMed Central

A renovation and expansion project at the Galter Health Sciences Library of Northwestern University strikes a balance between traditional and future libraries, library ambiance and high technology, old and new. When guided by a vision of future building use, renovation projects can succeed in meeting many institutional goals as a viable alternative to new library buildings. Issues addressed include planning considerations, architectural history, library design, building features, information technology considerations, and ideal library space design when new construction is not possible. Images PMID:9160155

Shedlock, J; Ross, F

1997-01-01

479

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Review from a Surgeon’s Perspective in the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) most commonly due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common type of disorder of sex development. This review will focus on CAH addressing historical and current surgical techniques with their anatomical foundations, with special attention to long-term results and outcomes on sexual function, patient satisfaction, patient attitude toward surgery, and ongoing controversies in management of these patients. PMID:24400298

Piaggio, Lisandro Ariel

2013-01-01

480

Revisiting an Old Friend: The Practice and Promise of Cooperative Learning for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cooperative learning has long been at the disposal of school teachers. However, it is often misunderstood by some teachers as just another form of collaborative group work. This article revisits cooperative learning, including a sampling of its popular variations, with practical approaches toward effectively integrating it into classroom…

Schul, James E.

2011-01-01

481

Beyond conventional energy use: A regionally based end-use approach for the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United States, the dominant energy discourse is supply-oriented and focused on the large-scale use of fossil fuel and nuclear electricity energy resources. Fossil fuels and nuclear electricity are valued for the convenience, quality of life, and services that they provide. Despite these qualities, the laws of thermodynamics tell us that fossil fuels and nuclear electricity are not required for all end-use needs. Concentrated high quality energy sources such as fossil fuels and electricity are degraded when used for tasks such as water and space heating. The degraded energy is released into the environment as waste heat and pollution and contribute to scarcity in many realms. This dissertation suggests an alternative discourse on energy that calls on three frameworks of thinking: the nexus of relations, end-use analysis, and regional geography. The nexus of relations is a device for showing how different relations in society construct uses of energy that lead most naturally to scarcity and environmental degradation. End-use analysis is a framework for matching energy sources and end-uses based on thermodynamic quality, and regional geography is useful for identifying localized renewable energy sources and end-use needs. By combining these three approaches, a new framework has been created that matches thermodynamically appropriate renewable resources to end-use needs. This approach offers a new perspective on resource use that emphasizes how energy demands can be met, while minimizing scarcity and environmental degradation. To illustrate this regionally based end-use framework, a case study was conducted at three sites within Centre County, Pennsylvania. At each study site, the flux density of solar, wind, and water resources was evaluated and matched with local end-use needs. This exercise resulted in several findings: one, fossil fuel/nuclear electricity savings are possible at each study site; two, geographically-specific renewable resources can be used to displace thermodynamically inappropriate energy use; and three, the solution to scarcity and environmental degradation resides in local places. Such findings suggest that localized resources can be used to meet localized end-use needs. However, implementation of these findings requires more than the use of end-use analysis and regional geography. It requires a shift in energy discourse.

Feder, Deborah R.

482

Beyond conventional energy use: A regionally based end-use approach for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, the dominant energy discourse is supply-oriented and focused on the large-scale use of fossil fuel and nuclear electricity energy resources. Fossil fuels and nuclear electricity are valued for the convenience, quality of life, and services that they provide. Despite these qualities, the laws of thermodynamics tell us that fossil fuels and nuclear electricity are not required

Deborah R. Feder

2001-01-01

483

Regional climate change experiments over southern South America. II: Climate change scenarios in the late twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of climate change over southern South America as simulated by a regional climate model. The regional model MM5 was nested within time-slice global atmospheric model experiments conducted by the HadAM3H model. The simulations cover a 10-year period representing present-day climate (1981-1990) and two future scenarios for the SRESA2 and B2 emission scenarios for the period 2081-2090. There are a few quantitative differences between the two regional scenarios. The simulated changes are larger for the A2 than the B2 scenario, although with few qualitative differences. For the two regional scenarios, the warming in southern Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia and northeastern Argentina is particularly large in spring. Over the western coast of South America both scenarios project a general decrease in precipitation. Both the A2 and B2 simulations show a general increase in precipitation in northern and central Argentina especially in summer and fall and a general decrease in precipitation in winter and spring. In fall the simulations agree on a general decrease in precipitation in southern Brazil. This reflects changes in the atmospheric circulation during winter and spring. Changes in mean sea level pressure show a cell of increasing pressure centered somewhere in the southern Atlantic Ocean and southern Pacific Ocean, mainly during summer and fall in the Atlantic and in spring in the Pacific. In relation to the pressure distribution in the control run, this indicates a southward extension of the summer mean Atlantic and Pacific subtropical highs.

Nuñez, Mario N.; Solman, Silvina A.; Cabré, Maria Fernanda

2009-06-01

484

Toward a Feminist Ballet Pedagogy: Teaching Strategies for Ballet Technique Classes in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classical ballet technique is commonly taught through the use of authoritarian practices and normalizing aesthetic values, but the construction of the ballet dancer as a docile subject in opposition to an all-knowing instructor might impede ballet's progression. In this article I explore my development of a feminist or democratic ballet…

Alterowitz, Gretchen

2014-01-01

485

Regional climate change experiments over southern South America. II: Climate change scenarios in the late twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analysis of climate change over southern South America as simulated by a regional climate model. The regional\\u000a model MM5 was nested within time-slice global atmospheric model experiments conducted by the HadAM3H model. The simulations\\u000a cover a 10-year period representing present-day climate (1981–1990) and two future scenarios for the SRESA2 and B2 emission\\u000a scenarios for the period 2081–2090.

Mario N. Nuñez; Silvina A. Solman; Maria Fernanda Cabré

2009-01-01

486

Regional climate change experiments over southern South America. II: Climate change scenarios in the late twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analysis of climate change over southern South America as simulated by a regional climate model. The regional model MM5 was nested within time-slice global atmospheric model experiments conducted by the HadAM3H model. The simulations cover a 10-year period representing present-day climate (1981-1990) and two future scenarios for the SRESA2 and B2 emission scenarios for the period 2081-2090.

Mario N. Nuñez; Silvina A. Solman; Maria Fernanda Cabré

2009-01-01

487

Becoming an Academic for the Twenty-First Century: What Will Count as Teaching Quality in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores quality in university teaching using a "futures" perspective. In a recent article by Blass and colleagues, a number of scenarios were developed to explore the type of higher education workforce that might be needed within the UK by 2035. In discussion of these scenarios--leading knowledge creation, responsive…

Jasemna, Anne; Blass, Eddie; Shelley, Steve

2013-01-01

488

Rewriting the Job Description: The Teaching Profession in the Twenty-First Century. Education Outlook. No. 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Human capital" is quickly becoming the new site-based management, a popular strategy from the 1980s and 1990s that sought to increase autonomy in schools and spread decision making more widely. While few are sure what human capital means, everyone craves it, has a model to deliver it, and is quick to tout its restorative powers. It is trendy and…

Hess, Frederick M.

2009-01-01

489

A "Dying Light" or a Newborn Enlightenment: Religion and Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laurence R. Veysey's The Emergence of the American University--one of the densely textured, lucidly written, always thoughtful accounts of the history of higher education?has been largely superseded, especially after the 1980s, in part by histories that unlike Veysey's, maintain close attention to religion, both during the period that he focused…

Schwehn, Mark

2005-01-01

490

Separate and Unequal: Twenty-First Century Segregation of Historically Black Colleges and Universities through Academic Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies discriminatory patterns within the curriculum of Historically Black Colleges and Universities. The current federal definition of Historically Black Colleges and Universities indicates that any institution founded prior to 1964, with the expressed purpose of educating Blacks, will be known as a Historically Black College or…

Satterfield, James

2008-01-01

491

Challenges for Chemistry in the 21st Century: Report on the American Chemical Society Presidential Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Sunday morning, March 29, 1998, during the 215th American Chemical Society National Meeting in Dallas, TX, a special Presidential Event, "Challenges for Chemistry in the 21st Century", was held. It was sponsored by the American Chemical Society Committee on Science and Chemical and Engineering News as part of its 75th Anniversary. Six outstanding scientists spoke on the future of their chosen fields of study to a standing-room-only audience. The intensity and enthusiasm of these men and women were inspiring. Several common themes emerged. According to these experts, the next century will require greater education in science and technology for the public and greater emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches to science by scientists. The completion of the human genome project and technological advances, including the development of nanotechnology, will be the driving forces of research in chemistry.

Gettys, Nancy S.

1998-06-01

492

The Bowker Annual of Library and Book Trade Information. Twenty-First Edition. With Cumulative Index 1972-1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The twenty-first edition of the Bowker Annual serves as an almanac, handbook, and fact finder for the library and publishing fields. The first section, "Reports from National Associations and Agencies," summarizes the 1975 activities of 14 organizations. The second part, "Developments in Librarianship and Publishing," features articles on the…

Miele, Madeline, Ed.; And Others

493

Engine technology challenges for a 21st century high speed civil transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent NASA funded studies by Boeing and Douglas suggest an opportunity exists for a 21st Century High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) to become part of the international air transportation system. However, before this opportunity for high speed travel can be realized, certain environmental and and economic barrier issues must be overcome. These challenges are outlined. Research activities which NASA has planned to address these barrier issues and to provide a technology base to allow U.S. manufacturers to make an informed go/no go decision on developing the HSCT are discussed.

Shaw, Robert J.

1991-01-01

494

Advances and challenges for nutrient management in china in the 21st century.  

PubMed

Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via presentations, panel sessions, and field tours focused on latest technologies and policies available to increase nutrient use efficiency. Participants from the United States, Europe, Canada, and China discussed global trends and challenges, balancing food security and the environment in countries with struggling and emerging economics, nutrient management and transport at the catchment scale, new technologies for managing fertilizer and manure nutrients, and adaptive nutrient management practices for farm to watershed scales. A particular area of interest at the fourth INMS was nutrient management progress and challenges in China over the past 40 years. China's food security challenges and rapidly growing economy have led to major advances in agricultural production systems but also created severe nutrient pollution problems. This special collection of papers from the fourth INMS gives an overview of the remarkable progress China has made in nutrient management and highlights major challenges and changes in agri-environmental policies and practices needed today. Lessons learned in China are of value to both developing and developed countries facing the common task of providing adequate food for an expanding world population, while protecting air and water quality and restoring damaged ecosystems. PMID:24216346

Sims, J T; Ma, L; Oenema, O; Dou, Z; Zhang, F S

2013-07-01

495

The "Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation": A Quarter Century of Contribution, a Future of Challenge and Optimism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation" ("JEPC") is beginning its second quarter century of publication. Given the challenges education faced in 1990, when the journal began publishing, and the evolving challenges of 2015, it became important to answer two questions: (1) Has "JEPC" successfully…

Truscott, Stephen D.; Lopez, Emilia; Fish, Marian C.; Margolis, Howard

2015-01-01

496

Understanding Global Change: the pedagogical challenge of the 21st century (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human impacts on natural systems, from climate change to habitat fragmentation, are some of the greatest challenges facing our world. Yet, outside of state standards, it is not well-known what educators teach in relation to global change and human impacts on natural systems. The recently released Next Generation Science Standards, which many states are in the process of adopting, emphasize the human components of global change. In order to address the challenges that educators face in their own understanding of these complex, cross-disciplinary topics, the National Center for Science Education, the UC Museum of Paleontology, and BSCS surveyed educators across the country to find out how and why they teach about global change. Results indicate that educators teach those topics in which they feel the most confident and have experienced the most professional development. Topics that many scientists often focus on in relation to global change, such as phenology, the spread of disease and even ocean acidification, were often left out of the classroom. These results indicate a disconnect between the scientific and educational communities in their understanding of global change issues, and call for high-quality resources and professional development to help prepare educators to teach their students about these 21st century challenges.

Berbeco, M.; McCaffrey, M.; White, L. D.; Stuhlsatz, M.

2013-12-01

497

Steel industry of the future: Meeting the material challenges of the 21. century  

SciTech Connect

For over a century, the US steel industry has led the global market with advances in technology, product development, and marketing. Industry leaders recognize both the opportunities and challenges they face as they head into the 21st century, and that cooperative R and D is key to their success. In a unique partnership, steel industry leaders have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to focus on innovative technologies that will help to strengthen the competitive position of the US steel industry and, at the same time, further important national goals. This industry-led partnership, the Steel Industry of the Future, promotes technologies that optimize the use of energy and materials in operation and reduce wastes and energy-related emissions. Led by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and the Steel Manufacturers Association (SMA), industry leaders began by developing a unified vision for the next 20 years: to provide high-quality, value-added products to a wide array of customers in an environmentally friendly, cost-effective manner, while leading the world in innovation and technology. Continued global leadership in materials markets will require the combined resources of industry, universities, and government laboratories. The steel industry vision provided a framework for the next step in the Industries of the Future process, the development of a technology roadmap designed to facilitate collaborative R and D on advanced processes and technologies for the steel industry.

NONE

1999-02-01

498

Water Resources and Sustainable Agriculture in 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global agriculture faces some unique challenges and opportunities for the rest of this century. The need for food, feed and fiber will continues to grow as the world population continue to increase in the future. Agricultural ecosystems are also expected to be the source of a significant portion of renewable energy and fuels around the world, without further compromising the integrity of the natural resources base. How can agriculture continue to provide these services to meet the growing needs of world population while sustaining the integrity of agricultural ecosystems and natural resources, the very foundation it depends on? In the last century, scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture resulted in significant increase in food, feed and fiber production globally, while the total amount of water, energy, fertilizers and other input used to achieve this growth remained the same or even decreased significantly in some parts of the world. Scientific and technical advances in understanding global and regional water and energy cycles, water resources management, soil and water conservation practices, weather prediction, plant breeding and biotechnology, and information and communication technologies contributed to this tremendous achievement. The projected increase in global population, urbanization, and changing lifestyles will continue the pressure on both agriculture and other managed and natural ecosystems to provide necessary goods and services for the rest of this century. To meet these challenges, we must obtain the requisite scientific and technical advances in the functioning of Earth's water, energy, carbon and biogeochemical cycles. We also need to apply the knowledge we gain and technologies we develop in assessing Earth's ecosystems' conditions, and their management and stewardship. In agricultural ecosystems, management of soil and water quality and quantity together with development of new varieties of plants based on advances in genomic, genetics, breeding and applied biotechnologies are a key to our ability to address these challenges. We must also continue to develop agronomic practices that sustain the integrity of natural resources and conserve energy on one-hand while maximizing agricultural production per unit area of land on the other hand. This will require managing agricultural ecosystems for their multiple functions and services together, instead of looking at each function/service in isolation. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the scientific and technical knowledge required for sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems and associated natural resources. We will describe the soil, water and energy research needs/priorities in agriculture. We will also provide some examples of recent accomplishments and future directions in developing decision support tools for assessing the impacts of weather and climate variations and change, and their risk to agricultural ecosystems. We will then focus on opportunities and challenges associated with measurement, monitoring and modeling of soil moisture and its use in management and operation of agricultural ecosystems. The overall intent of this presentation is to stimulate some discussion on future directions and priorities for soil, water and energy research in agricultural ecosystems, and how the knowledge we gain from this research can be conveyed to the users for risk assessment, decision making, and multi-service ecosystem management purposes.

Asrar, G.

2008-05-01

499

The twenty-first century Armed Forces of the Philippines: orphan of counter-insurgency or military geared for the long war of the century?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the factors that account for the Armed Forces of the Philippines's (AFP) never-ending involvement in many wars of the third kind. It discusses the essence of counter-insurgency warfare or low-intensity conflict in the Philippine setting. The article then notes that the disruption in the US military assistance after 1992, the AFP's inability to modernize, and its continuous

Renato Cruz De Castro

2010-01-01

500

Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States  

SciTech Connect

The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

2000-10-26