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1

Twenty-first century challenges for biomaterials  

PubMed Central

During the 1960s and 1970s, a first generation of materials was specially developed for use inside the human body. These developments became the basis for the field of biomaterials. The devices made from biomaterials are called prostheses. Professor Bill Bonfield was one of the first to recognize the importance of understanding the mechanical properties of tissues, especially bone, in order to achieve reliable skeletal prostheses. His research was one of the pioneering efforts to understand the interaction of biomaterials with living tissues. The goal of all early biomaterials was to ‘achieve a suitable combination of physical properties to match those of the replaced tissue with a minimal toxic response in the host’. By 1980, there were more than 50 implanted prostheses in clinical use made from 40 different materials. At that time, more than three million prosthetic parts were being implanted in patients worldwide each year. A common feature of most of the 40 materials was biological ‘inertness’. Almost all materials used in the body were single-phase materials. Most implant materials were adaptations of already existing commercial materials with higher levels of purity to eliminate release of toxic by-products and minimize corrosion. This article is a tribute to Bill Bonfield's pioneering efforts in the field of bone biomechanics, biomaterials and interdisciplinary research. It is also a brief summary of the evolution of bioactive materials and the opportunities for tailoring the composition, texture and surface chemistry of them to meet five important challenges for the twenty-first century.

Hench, Larry L.; Thompson, Ian

2010-01-01

2

The twenty-first century challenges to sexuality and religion.  

PubMed

Clergy and religious leaders are facing a wide variety of sexual needs and concerns within their faith communities. Conflicts over sexual issues are growing across the entire spectrum of religious denominations, and clerics remain ill prepared to deal with them. As religious communities work to remain influential in public policy debates, clergy and the institutions that train them need to be properly prepared for twenty-first century challenges that impact sexuality and religion. Clergy are often the first point of contact for sexual problems and concerns of their faith community members-complex issues centered on morals, spirituality, and ethics. Yet, there still exists a significant lack of sexual curricula in the programs that are educating our future religious leaders. The resulting paucity of knowledge leaves these leaders unprepared to address the needs and concerns of their congregants. However, with accurate, relevant human sexuality curricula integrated into theological formation programs, future leaders will be equipped to competently serve their constituencies. This paper provides a rationale for the need for such training, an overview of the faith- and theology-based history of a pilot training project, and a description of how the Christian faith and the social sciences intersect in a training pilot project's impetus and process. PMID:23070841

Turner, Yolanda; Stayton, William

2014-04-01

3

Twenty-First-Century Kids, Twenty-First-Century Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inspired by a new generation of librarians and children, Walter reconsiders the legacy passed on by the matriarchs of children's services and examines more recent trends and challenges growing out of changes in educational philosophy and information technology. This thoroughly researched book includes the current issues and trends of: (1)…

Walter, Virginia A.

2010-01-01

4

Disease emergence in birds: challenges for the twenty-first century  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The paper by Hartup et al. (2001) on House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) conjunctivitis is an example of the rapid geographic spread that can result from disease emergence in na??ve populations. That event was neither novel nor transient relative to its occurrence or effects. Disease emergence and reemergence are hallmarks of the latter part of the twentieth century (Center for Disease Control 1994, Levins et al. 1994, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999, Gratz 1999). Current examples involving domestic animals include the problems in Europe with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or a??mad cow diseasea??) (Brown 2001) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) (Kitching 1999). Human health has been affected by diseases caused by an array of viruses (Morse 1993, Nichol et al. 1993, Murphy and Nathanson 1994), bacteria (Dennis 1998, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999), rickettsia (Walker and Dumier 1996, Azad et al. 1997), protozoans (Tuerrant 1997, Saini et al. 2000), and metazoan parasites (Hildreth et al. 1991, Gubler 1998), as well as other causes. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has received the most notoriety of those diseases (Hahn et al. 2000, Schwartlander et al. 2000). A similar pattern exists on a global scale for free-ranging wildlife populations (Table 1) (Friend 1994, 1995; Epstein et al. 1998, Daszak et al. 2000). However, in comparison to disease emergence affecting humans and domestic animals, response to emerging diseases of wildlife is generally superficial. We present concepts and data to support our contention that failure to adequately address disease emergence in free-ranging wildlife is resulting in a diminished capability to achieve and sustain desired geographic distributions and population abundance for species of wild birds, including some threatened and endangered avifauna. For clarity, we define disease and disease emergence in the context of our use of those terms because they are the focus of our comments. Disease is any departure from health (Guralnik 1982); that is, dysfunction contributing to physiological, physical, reproductive, behavioral, or other impairment that reduces the probability of survival of individuals. If enough individuals are affected, the collective effects can reduce the sustainability of the population. Although disease can result from exposure to a wide variety of physical, chemical, and biological agents and other conditions, we focus this paper on microbes and parasites and to overt mortality caused by them. Thus, disease effects presented only represent the proverbial a??tip of the iceberga?? relative to the challenges wild avifauna face from disease. Our perspective of disease emergence expands the earlier definitions of emerging diseases by others (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1994, Morse 1995) to include all species. Our comments are defined by the context of disease occurrences that have increased within the past three decades, or threaten to increase in the near future relative to populations affected, geographic distribution, or magnitude of effects.

Friend, M.; Mclean, R. G.; Dein, F. J.

2001-01-01

5

American Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century: Social, Political and Economic Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 17 papers on higher education, organized into four parts, which address the higher education setting, external forces, the academic community, and central issues for the 21st century. Following an introduction by the editors, the papers are: (1) "Patterns in Higher Education Development" (Philip G. Altbach); (2) "The Ten…

Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Berdhal, Robert O., Ed.; Gumport, Patricia J., Ed.

6

Evolving the Nation's Energy Infrastructure: A Challenging System Issue for the Twenty-First Century; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Over the next several decades, a profound transformation of the global energy enterprise will occur driven largely by population growth and economic development. How this growing demand for energy is met poses one of the most complex and challenging issues of our time. The current national energy dialogue reflects the challenge in simultaneously considering the social, political, economic, and technical issues as the energy system is defined, technical targets are established, and programs and investments are implemented to meet those technical targets. This paper examines the general concepts and options for meeting this challenge.

Garrett, B.

2007-04-01

7

Scholarly publishing in sub-Saharan Africa in the twenty-first century: Challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A free flow of ideas and information is vital to the process of scientific inquiry, and in turn to the ability to address economic, environmental and social development issues both in the sub-Saharan Africa region and globally. Most of the challenges facing scholarly publishing in sub-Saharan Africa are global and do not respect national boundaries. Scholarly publishing enables research findings

Ezra Ondari-okemwa

2007-01-01

8

The Twenty-First Century Multiple Generation Workforce: Overlaps and Differences but Also Challenges and Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the issues around a multiple generational workforce and more specifically, the challenges and benefits for education providers and employers. Design/methodology/approach: Reviewing research papers, analysing academic texts, interrogating market intelligence and contextualising case studies, the…

Helyer, Ruth; Lee, Dionne

2012-01-01

9

Active Debris Removal - A Grand Engineering Challenge for the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 has reignited interest in using active debris removal to remediate the near-Earth orbital debris environment. A recent NASA study shows that, in order to stabilize the environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region for the next 200 years, active debris removal of about five large and massive (1 to more than 8 metric tons) objects per year is needed. To develop the capability to remove five of those objects per year in a cost-effective manner truly represents a grand challenge in engineering and technology development.

Liou, J.-C.

2011-01-01

10

New challenges for telephone survey research in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Telephone surveys are critical for examining cross-sectional characteristics of population subgroups, tracking trends in prevalence of conditions and risk behaviors over time, identifying risk factors associated with multiple health conditions, and assessing the effects of interventions. Technology has aided telephone research through advances such as computer-assisted telephone interviewing. However, technology such as answering machines and caller ID has contributed to declines in response rates and has increased costs of conducting telephone surveys. The exponential increase in cell phone utilization presents a challenge to the tradition of random digit dial (RDD) surveys of households. Because telephone surveys are used by other industries such as marketing and public opinion polling, the marketplace may help drive innovation and adaptation. Cell phones have made telephone communication an even greater part of the everyday culture and could make potential telephone survey respondents even more accessible to public health researchers. PMID:17094769

Kempf, Angela M; Remington, Patrick L

2007-01-01

11

Active Debris Removal - A Grand Engineering Challenge for the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 underlined the potential of an ongoing collision cascade effect (the Kessler Syndrome ) in the near-Earth orbital debris environment. A 2006 NASA analysis of the instability of the debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude) shows that the environment has reached a point where the debris population will continue to increase in the next 200 years, even without any future launches. The increase is driven by fragments generated via collisions among existing objects in LEO. In reality, the situation will be worse than this prediction because satellite launches will continue and unexpected major breakups may continue to occur. Mitigation measures commonly adopted by the international space community (such as the 25-year rule) will help, but will be insufficient to stop the population growth. To better preserve the near-Earth space environment for future generations, active debris removal (ADR) should be considered. The idea of active debris removal is not new. However, due to the monumental technical, resource, operational, legal, and political challenges associated with removing objects from orbit, it has not yet been widely considered feasible. The recent major breakup events and the environment modeling efforts have certainly reignited the interest in using active debris removal to remediate the environment. This trend is further highlighted by the National Space Policy of the United States of America, released by the White House in June 2010, where the President explicitly directs NASA and the Department of Defense to pursue research and development of technology and techniques, to mitigate and remove on-orbit debris, reduce hazards, and increase understanding of the current and future debris environment. A 2009 modeling study by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has shown that, in order to maintain the LEO debris population at a constant level for the next 200 years, an active debris removal of about five objects per year is needed. The targets identified for removal are those with the highest mass and collision probability products. Analyses from the study indicate that the majority of those objects are spent upper stages with masses ranging from 1 to more than 8 metric tons, residing in several altitude regions and concentrated in about 10 inclination bands. To remove five of those objects per year in a cost-effective manner truly represents a grand challenge in engineering and technology development. An end-to-end debris removal operation includes, in general terms, launches orbit rendezvous, precision tracking, stabilization (of the tumbling motion), capture, and deorbit of the targets. An ADR system deigned to remove a single object is not very cost-effective. Therefore, the repeatability of the removal system is almost a requirement. Some of the technologies involved in the ADR process do exist, but the difficulty is to make them more cost effective. Other technologies, such as ways to stabilize a massive tumbling upper stage and the capture mechanisms, are new and will require major innovative research and development efforts. This paper summarizes an updated assessment of the environment, including what needs to be done to control the population growth, and outlines the major engineering and technology challenges to carry out active debris removal to preserve the environment.

Liou, Jer-Chyi

2010-01-01

12

Information Ethics in the Twenty First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first decade of the twenty first century has seen a growing interest and intellectual debate within the information professions, focusing on issues where an ethical dimension predominates. This paper provides an overview of codes of practice, published literature, conference proceedings and educational programs that focus on information…

Sturges, Paul

2009-01-01

13

Shelter for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed Central

Housing for the twenty-first century will be shaped by the changes that are occurring in society. These include the demographics of the occupant, the products and materials used for construction and furnishing, and the basic use of the structure. An aging population will have different demands on design and function. The health concerns of an aging population encompass chronic degenerative diseases as well as injury. The lessons of the past must make us mindful that chronic, low-level exposures to substances can occur at home. Products and materials used in homes can release vapors that may affect immunologic and neurologic function. Manifestations of dysfunctions will be more important as our population ages and if there is a continued reliance on new chemical formulation for products used in homes and workplaces. The future portends changes in functional use of residences. Electronic communications and robotics will decentralize our work force. Manufacturing or office functions will occur at home. This will present new challenges for health and safety for both monitoring and prevention.

Spengler, J D

1990-01-01

14

The Challenges of Teaching and Learning about Science in the Twenty-First Century: Exploring the Abilities and Constraints of Adolescent Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we critically examine skills that are necessary for the effective learning of science in adolescent populations. We argue that a focus on twenty-first-century skills among adolescents within the context of science instruction must be considered in light of research on cognitive and social development. We first review adolescents'…

Anderman, Eric M.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Gray, DeLeon L.

2012-01-01

15

Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Clouds Over the Twenty-First Century Virtual Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical science has changed in the century since Lord Kelvin's celebrated essay on Nineteenth Century Clouds over the Dynamical Theory of Heat and Light, but some things are the same. Analogs in what was happening in physics then and what is happening in astronomy today serve to remind us why we can be confident the Virtual Observatory of the twenty-first century will have a rich list of challenges to explore.

Peebles, P. J. E.

16

Why the American Public Supports Twenty-First Century Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American attitudes toward the need for teaching twenty-first century skills appear as strong as the socioeconomic research being done that shows how critical these skills are for students' future access to the middle class and the country's economic competitiveness. In 2003, the AOL Time Warner Foundation (now the Time Warner Foundation) set out…

Sacconaghi, Michele

2006-01-01

17

Creating an Academic Library for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Bruce Miller took up the position of head librarian at the University of California, Merced in 2001, the plan for the new library was to use the University of California (UC) system's rich base of support as a launching pad for something great and extraordinary: a model academic research library for the twenty-first century. This article…

Barclay, Donald A.

2007-01-01

18

The Work Place of the Early Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major issues affecting the workplace of the twenty-first century include productivity growth, globalization, resistance to change, worker alienation, and telecommunications. Opposing views of technology are that (1) it will improve the economy and create jobs or (2) the majority of new jobs will not require high skills. (SK)

Brown, James M.

1991-01-01

19

Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010–2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number

Geoffrey P. Hammond

1996-01-01

20

Esthetic dentistry in the twenty-first century. Healthy beauty.  

PubMed

The goal of esthetic dentistry in the twenty-first century is to attain healthy beauty by harmonizing morphology and function. Morphologic beauty is achieved by using restorative techniques such as ceramo-metal restoration, all-ceramic restoration, laminate veneer, bleaching, and the treatment of malocclusion. Functional beauty is obtained by facilitating the primary functions of the stomatognathic organ, namely, mastication, speech, and craniomandibular stability. In the next century, esthetic dentistry must combine the present focus of morphologic beauty with the goals of functional beauty to attain true, healthy beauty. PMID:9891651

Maruyama, T

1998-10-01

21

Humanities: The Unexpected Success Story of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humanities within universities faced challenges in the latter half of the twentieth century as their value in the modern world was questioned. This paper argues that there is strong potential for the humanities to thrive in the twenty-first century university sector. It outlines some of the managerial implications necessary to ensure that this…

Davis, Virginia

2012-01-01

22

Intellectual Freedom and Libraries: Complexity and Change in the Twenty-First-Century Digital Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the state of intellectual freedom and libraries in the early twenty-first-century digital environment? This question is addressed largely in relation to public and school libraries, where more than 90 percent of documented challenges exist and at which most legislative and judicial actions relevant to intellectual freedom and libraries are…

Dresang, Eliza T.

2006-01-01

23

Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

2013-01-01

24

Tribology research in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to predict and discuss some of the many challenges facing fundamental research in tribology over the first half of the new century. This is done in two stages, looking at likely developments over the first twelve years based on extrapolation of existing trends, and then, more speculatively, considering possible driving forces over subsequent decades.

Hugh Spikes

2001-01-01

25

Twenty-First Century Learning: Communities, Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and…

Leh, Amy S.C.; Kouba, Barbara; Davis, Dirk

2005-01-01

26

The Culturally Fluent Leader of the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased global interdependence will be the dominant feature of the 21st century. This increased relatedness among the world's cultures and nations will require close intercultural linkages which are often fragile and full of hazards. If the 21st century is to experience a greater sense of planetary community, rather than increased tensions and…

Smith, Robert Charles; Lischin, Stevi

27

Preparing Students for a Twenty-First Century Global Workplace in an Era of Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study is to thoroughly examine a school district's plan for developing, implementing, and monitoring a strategic plan for adequately preparing students with twenty-first century skills or the marketable skills students will need in order to contribute to the dynamic twenty-first century workplace while meeting federal and state…

Cognetta, Sebastian

2010-01-01

28

Twenty-First Century Literacy: A Matter of Scale from Micro to Mega  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-first century technologies require educators to look for new ways to teach literacy skills. Current communication methods are combinations of traditional and newer, network-driven forms. This article describes the changes twenty-first century technologies cause in the perception of time, size, distance, audience, and available data, and…

Brown, Abbie; Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.

2010-01-01

29

Tackling heart failure in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure, or congestive heart failure, is a condition in which the heart cannot supply the body's tissues with enough blood. The result is a cascade of changes that lead to severe fatigue, breathlessness and, ultimately, death. In the past quarter century, much progress has been made in understanding the molecular and cellular processes that contribute to heart failure, leading

James O. Mudd; David A. Kass

2008-01-01

30

Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

31

American Marriage in the Early Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past century the U.S. family system has seen vast changes--in marriage and divorce rates, cohabitation, childbearing, sexual behavior, and women's work outside the home. Andrew Cherlin reviews these historic changes, noting that marriage remains the most common living arrangement for raising children, but that children, especially poor…

Cherlin, Andrew J.

2005-01-01

32

Moral Psychology for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lawrence Kohlberg slayed the two dragons of twentieth-century psychology--behaviorism and psychoanalysis. His victory was a part of the larger cognitive revolution that shaped the world in which all of us study psychology and education today. But the cognitive revolution itself was modified by later waves of change, particularly an "affective…

Haidt, Jonathan

2013-01-01

33

Teaching the Constitution to Twenty-First Century Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Civic education in public schools faces major challenges. Under No Child Left Behind, many schools have favored teaching math and English rather than civics, which undermines one of the purposes of public schools--to educate students to be responsible and active citizens in democracy. A second challenge comes inside the classroom: engaging the…

Jackson, Peggy S.; Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Haas, Nancy S.

2008-01-01

34

The ILO towards the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This position statement outlines the major challenges facing labor education (human rights, employment, structural transition, poverty, marginalization, globalization) and areas for International Labour Organisation action (standards, technical cooperation, sectoral activities, research, publications, and communications). (SK)

Labour Education, 1993

1993-01-01

35

The Agricultural University for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes findings from a 10-nation study of the changes within the organization, structure, mission, and functioning of 23 agricultural universities focusing on the concerns these changes generated, not only within less developed countries but worldwide. Proposes strategies that agricultural universities can employ to meet the challenges posed…

Bawden, Richard; And Others

1991-01-01

36

Music Education in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that only students with performance or composing abilities are given a chance to explore music in their education. Stresses the importance of teaching all students how to listen to music in an active, "minds-on" way instead of only teaching hands-on activities. Challenges the traditional music curriculum by refuting five myths about…

Reimer, Bennett

1997-01-01

37

Story and Archive in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how new media technologies might converge with the leveling between "story" and "archive," and how that convergence will shape the future of English Studies, focusing on electronic archives of literary and historical materials. Concludes that the central challenge in using new media with students, particularly hypertext pedagogies, is in…

Bass, Randy

1999-01-01

38

Establishing the R&D Agenda for Twenty-First Century Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much ink has flowed over the past few years describing the need to incorporate twenty-first century skills into K-12 education. Preparing students to succeed as citizens, thinkers, and workers--the bedrock of any educational system--in this environment means arming them with more than a list of facts and important dates. Infusing twenty-first

Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret

2006-01-01

39

Alaska: A twenty-first-century petroleum province  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alaska, the least explored of all United States regions, is estimated to contain approximately 40% of total U.S. undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural-gas resources, based on the most recent U.S. Department of the Interior (U.S. Geological Survey and Minerals Management Service) estimates. Northern Alaska, including the North Slope and adjacent Beaufort and Chukchi continental shelves, holds the lion's share of the total Alaskan endowment of more than 30 billion barrels (4.8 billion m3) of oil and natural-gas liquids plus nearly 200 trillion cubic feet (5.7 trillion m3) of natural gas. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Multiple source-rock zones have charged several regionally extensive petroleum systems. Extensional and compressional structures provide ample structural objectives. In addition, recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite systems in Jurassic to Tertiary strata. Despite robust potential, northern Alaska remains a risky exploration frontier - a nexus of geologic complexity, harsh economic conditions, and volatile policy issues. Its role as a major petroleum province in this century will depend on continued technological innovations, not only in exploration and drilling operations, but also in development of huge, currently unmarketable natural-gas resources. Ultimately, policy decisions will determine whether exploration of arctic Alaska will proceed.

Bird, K. J.

2001-01-01

40

Objective Information Architecture for the Army of the Twenty-First Century: Courting Athena.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates the current division level Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I) information architecture and its ability to support Army divisions in the twenty-first century. Current developmental efforts are examine...

R. E. Volz

1996-01-01

41

Prevention of toxic environmental illness in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed Central

Previous introductions of new technologies have frequently resulted in unanticipated occupational and environmental illness. Prevention of such illness in the twenty-first century requires stringent application of two fundamental principles of public health: evaluation of new technologies before their introduction, and surveillance of exposed persons after the introduction of new technologies. Failure to establish these basic preventive mechanisms in advance will inevitably result in the development of new toxic diseases in the twenty-first century.

Landrigan, P J

1990-01-01

42

Developmental Education: A Twenty-First Century Social and Economic Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph addresses developmental education in the 21st Century, identifying the major issues and providing examples of successful developmental programs. The first chapter, "Access and the New America of the Twenty-First Century," emphasizes several changes in American society that have affected access to education and developmental…

McCabe, Robert H., Ed.; Day, Philip R., Jr., Ed.

43

TEACHING AND LEARNING ARCHAEOLOGY: SKILLS, KNOWLEDGE AND ABILITIES FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflecting on archaeology for the new millennium was the theme of the Society for American Archaeology workshop on teaching archaeology in the twenty-first century. The workshop focused on the fact that archaeology has changed considerably in the latter part of the twentieth century but for the most part the education and training of our students does not reflect these changes.

George S. Smith

44

International Migration at the Beginining of the Twenty-First Century: Global Trends and Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the second half of the twentieth century, international migration emerged as one of the main factors in social transformation and devel- opment in all regions of the world. Its signifi- cance looks set to increase further in the twenty- first century, as population mobility grows in volume and takes on new forms. Migration is a result of the integration

Stephen Castles

2000-01-01

45

Twenty-first century science as a relational process: from eureka! To team science and a place for community psychology.  

PubMed

In this paper we maintain that twenty-first century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of twenty-first century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: (1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; (2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; (3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, twenty-first century transformation in science; (4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; (5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance twenty-first century science; and (6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the twenty-first century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer twenty-first century science. PMID:24496718

Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D; Matlin, Samantha L

2014-06-01

46

Teaching Middle School Language Arts: Incorporating Twenty-First Century Literacies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Teaching Middle School Language Arts" is the first book on teaching middle school language arts for multiple intelligences and related twenty-first-century literacies in technologically and ethnically diverse communities. More than 670,000 middle school teachers (grades six through eight) are responsible for educating nearly 13 million students…

Small Roseboro, Anna J.

2010-01-01

47

Increasing Participation in Science beyond GCSE: The Impact of Twenty First Century Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the findings of a survey of centres using the "Twenty First Century Science" suite of GCSE courses, focusing on the impact of its introduction on the number of students beginning AS-level courses in the sciences. The data indicate increases of 24% to 38% in the numbers beginning AS-level courses in the three main sciences in…

Millar, Robin

2010-01-01

48

The US Grand Strategy and the Eurasian Heartland in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an offensive realist theoretical approach, this paper assumes that great powers are always looking for opportunities to attain more power in order to feel more secure. This outlook has led me to assert that the main objective of the US grand strategy in the twenty-first century is primacy or global hegemony. I have considered the US grand strategy as

Emre ??eri

2009-01-01

49

Library and information science : Skills for twenty-first century professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To review skills needed by library and information science (LIS) professionals in the twenty-first century and suggest a new approach to four key skills. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Considers the DNA skills approach of Hallam and Partridge and analyses the four skills using examples of innovative developments in library and information services. Findings – LIS professionals need a range of

Roxanne Missingham

2006-01-01

50

Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,…

Murphy, Peter

2012-01-01

51

Teaching and Learning in the Twenty-First Century: What Is an "Institute of Education" for?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As we begin the twenty-first century, schools and teachers are subject to enormous pressures for change. The revolution in digital technologies, the pressure to develop consistently high-performing schools systems, and the drive between excellence and equity all combine to raise profound questions about the nature of successful teaching and…

Husbands, Chris

2012-01-01

52

Adolescent Health and Well-Being in the Twenty-First Century: A Global Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the current health and well-being of adolescents around the world. Considers the implications for adolescent health and well-being in the twenty-first century of societal trends, including growing poverty and income disparities, the changing health care system, increased migration and urbanization, and new information technology.…

Call, Kathleen Thiede; Riedel, Aylin Altan; Hein, Karen; McLoyd, Vonnie; Petersen, Anne; Kipke, Michele

2002-01-01

53

An Exploratory Study of the Achievement of the Twenty-First Century Skills in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey study of the achievement of twenty-first century skills in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The study employs a quantitative survey design. Findings: The findings indicate that the basic scientific and technological skills of reading critically and writing…

Ghaith, Ghazi

2010-01-01

54

An Education for the Twenty-First Century: Stewardship of the Global Commons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing that the term "global education" has become commonplace but, too often, is put forward without adequate substance, this proposal seeks to envision a foundational higher education for the twenty-first century. The authors believe it is important to imagine an education fit for global possibilities because theirs has become a world in…

Bennett, Douglas C.; Cornwell, Grant H.; Al-Lail, Haifa Jamal; Schenck, Celeste

2012-01-01

55

Gaga for Google in the Twenty-First Century Advanced Placement Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The migration of online educational needs to tools like Google applications, coupled with the realization that today's twenty-first-century students are digital natives who have lived their entire lives exposed to current technology, forces educators to find ways to use technology to enhance traditional curriculum. In this article, the author…

Adams, Devon Christopher

2008-01-01

56

Climates of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries Simulated by the NCAR Climate System Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Climate System Model, a coupled global climate model without ''flux adjustments'' recently developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, was used to simulate the twentieth-century climate using historical greenhouse gas and sulfate aerosol forcing. This simulation was extended through the twenty-first century under two newly developed scenarios, a business-as-usual case (ACACIA-BAU, CO2 710 ppmv in 2100) and a

AIGUO DAI; J. T. K IEHL OVILLE; L. E. BUJA

57

The new communists of the commons: Twenty-first-century Proudhonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

If Proudhonism in the nineteenth century was, as Marx argued, a petty bourgeois ideology, this paper argues that the new communism of the commons propounded by Badiou, Hardt and Negri, and Žižek is a twenty-first-century avatar of it. It speaks not for what Poulantzas called the ‘traditional petty bourgeoisie’, as Proudhon did, but for the ‘new petty bourgeoisie’ of ‘non-productive

Radhika Desai

2011-01-01

58

Climates of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries Simulated by the NCAR Climate System Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The Climate System Model, a coupled global climate model without ‘‘flux adjustments’’ recently developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, was used to simulate the twentieth-century climate using historical greenhouse,gas and sulfate aerosol forcing. This simulation was,extended,through the twenty-first century under two newly developed scenarios, a business-as-usual case (ACACIA-BAU, CO2 710 ppmv in 2100) and a CO2 stabilization

Aiguo Dai; T. M. L. Wigley; B. A. Boville; J. T. Kiehl; L. E. Buja

2001-01-01

59

World Trends And Issues In Adult Education On The Eve Of The Twenty-First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forces of globalization today seem to have overwhelmed the historical political-cultural mission of adult education. Both in the North and the South, adult education is asked to contribute directly to productivity and thereby to competitiveness in the global market. The social component that survives is expected to help in coping with globalization. Voices of conscience and sanity have been raised at world summits in Rio (1992), Cairo (1994), Copenhagen (1995), Beijing (1995), and elsewhere. However, policies, plans and practices have not matched the declarations and agendas from the summits. The programs spawned by the Education for All conference of 1990 side-lined adult education, and so did the Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (1996). The Fifth International Conference on Adult Education held in Hamburg during July 14-18, 1997 was marked by renewed commitment and solidarity. However, challenges of problematizing globalization, democratizing development, and socializing humanity for life together in the new century remain.

Bhola, H. S.

1998-09-01

60

Modeling international cooperation in human space exploration for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The policy process of international cooperation in space exploration. including optimistic and pessimistic scenarios for the twenty-first century, is modeled and examined in this study. In the optimistic scenario, international cooperation involves a balanced and interdependent distribution of capabilities between states, their respective national space agencies and communities of space scientists and space engineers. Cooperation is characterized by interstate participation in critical path components and joint research and development. In the pessimistic scenario, international cooperation is structured and dominated politically and economically by powerful states vis-a-vis weaker states. Cooperation is limited to coordination of separate nationally approved projects and augmentation of capabilities in noncritical path components. On the basis of these two scenarios, policy predictions and implications relevant to exploration missions in the twenty-first century, such as a human-tended lunar base and human missions to Mars, are presented and discussed. PMID:11542592

Sadeh, E; Lester, J P; Sadeh, W Z

1998-10-01

61

Carebots and Caregivers: Sustaining the Ethical Ideal of Care in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early twenty-first century, we stand on the threshold of welcoming robots into domains of human activity that will\\u000a expand their presence in our lives dramatically. One provocative new frontier in robotics, motivated by a convergence of demographic,\\u000a economic, cultural, and institutional pressures, is the development of “carebots”—robots intended to assist or replace human\\u000a caregivers in the practice of

Shannon Vallor

62

Changes in Annual Land-Surface Precipitation Over the Twentieth and Early Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time trends in annual land-surface precipitation during the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries and their spatial patterns are estimated from gridded (at a 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution) rain-gauge-based precipitation data sets available from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU), the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), and at the University of Delaware (UDel). Our analyses of these precipitation data sets make

Elsa Nickl; Cort J. Willmott; Kenji Matsuura; Scott M. Robeson

2010-01-01

63

Drivers of mountain landscape change during the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Twenty-first century mountain landscapes are evolving under the globally scaled controls of hydroclimate and the spatially\\u000a and temporally discontinuous impacts of human activity and tectonic plate movements. Attention is drawn to the difficulty\\u000a of comparing the effectiveness of the three drivers of change (tectonics, using relief as a surrogate, hydroclimate, and human\\u000a activity) because of their differing temporal rhythms. The

Olav Slaymaker

2010-01-01

64

Automation and robotics for Space Station in the twenty-first century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station telerobotics will evolve beyond the initial capability into a smarter and more capable system as we enter the twenty-first century. Current technology programs including several proposed ground and flight experiments to enable development of this system are described. Advancements in the areas of machine vision, smart sensors, advanced control architecture, manipulator joint design, end effector design, and artificial intelligence will provide increasingly more autonomous telerobotic systems.

Willshire, K. F.; Pivirotto, D. L.

1986-01-01

65

A Study of Chinese-Style Management in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management is a science imbued with practicality. Chinese society is striving to maintain harmony while undergoing construction. This unprecedented venture has enormous implications for management in the broadest sense. Chinese-style management in the twenty-first century is based on 5,000 years of history and culture in China. The He-he philosophy is a basic guiding principle and an important historical model. He-he

Rujin Huang

2008-01-01

66

Twenty-first century learning after school: the case of 4-H.  

PubMed

Founded in the early 1900s, the 4-H Youth Development program can serve as a model for out-of-school programs of the twenty-first century. The 4-H pledge, repeated by its members--over 7 million, ranging in age from five to twenty--articulates its core values: "I pledge: My head to clearer thinking, My heart to greater loyalty, My hands to larger service, and My health to better living for my club, my community, my country, and my world." The 4-H Development movement was created to provide opportunities for rural children, to help them become constructive adults. Through an emphasis on "learning by doing," 4-H teaches children the habits of lifelong learning. Historically, 4-H has tapped into university-level advancements, extending such knowledge to youth and thereby giving them early access to scientific discoveries and technological progress. Members apply this learning in their communities through hands-on projects crossing a wide-range of pertinent topics. Research shows that 4-H members are more successful in school than other children and develop a wide range of skills essential in the twenty-first century. Thus, the author makes the case that the foundation of 4-H is exceptionally relevant in today's complex world, perhaps even more so than a century ago. 4-H is a leader in youth development, making it a natural model for twenty-first century after-school programs. Expanding on the 4-H pledge, the author outlines the principles a successful youth development program would have: an emphasis on leadership skills, a feeling of connection and belonging, a forum for exploring career opportunities, and a component of meaningful community service. PMID:17017263

Kress, Cathann

2006-01-01

67

Assessing twenty-first century skills through a teacher created video game for high school biology students  

Microsoft Academic Search

As twenty?first century skills become a greater focus in K?12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today’s students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi?experimental, qualitative design assessed the twenty?first century skills of digital age literacy, inventive thinking, high

Leonard A. Annetta; Shawn Holmes

2010-01-01

68

The age of extremes: concentrated affluence and poverty in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Urbanization, rising income inequality, and increasing class segregation have produced a geographic concentration of affluence and poverty throughout the world, creating a radical change in the geographic basis of human society. As the density of poverty rises in the environment of the world's poor, so will their exposure to crime, disease, violence, and family disruption. Meanwhile the spatial concentration of affluence will enhance the benefits and privileges of the rich. In the twenty-first century the advantages and disadvantages of one's class position will be compounded and re-inforced through ecological mechanisms made possible by the geographic concentration of affluence and poverty, creating a deeply divided and increasingly violent social world. PMID:8939412

Massey, D S

1996-11-01

69

Twenty-first century learning in states: the case of the Massachusetts educational system.  

PubMed

A current crisis in education is leaving students less prepared to succeed in the working world than any generation before them. Increasingly complex external, nonacademic pressures have an impact on many of today's students, often causing them to drop out of school. Only 76 percent of Massachusetts high school students graduate, and only 29 percent earn a college degree. National figures are worse. Most educational institutions share a common goal to support students in becoming skilled, productive, successful members of society, but the author argues that this goal is not being met. Despite the constant changes in the world, educational practices have remained static. Most public schools are not adapting to meet the shifting needs of students. Universities are not able to prepare the right mix of prospective employees for the demands of the job market; for example, schools are graduating only 10 percent of the needed engineers. Institutions of higher learning cannot keep up with employers' needs in an evolving global market: strong math, science, and writing abilities; critical thinking skills; and the ability to work in teams. The author draws on exemplary efforts at work in his home state of Massachusetts--whose improvements in student achievement outcomes have been some of the best in the nation--to suggest there is promise in twenty-first century learning. Middle school students involved in a NASA-funded project write proposals, work in teams, and engage in peer review. Older students participate in enhanced, hands-on cooperative school-to-work and after-school programs. Schools are starting to offer expanded day learning, increasing the number of hours they are engaged in formal learning. Yet such programs have not reached significant levels of scale. The author calls for a major shift in education to help today's students be successful in the twenty-first century. PMID:17017262

Driscoll, David P

2006-01-01

70

Twenty-first century learning in schools: A case study of New Technology High School in Napa, California.  

PubMed

The most pertinent question concerning teaching and learning in the twenty-first century is not what knowledge and skills students need--that laundry list was identified over a decade ago--but rather how to foster twenty-first century learning. What curricula, experiences, assessments, environments, and technology best support twenty-first century learning? New Technology High School (NTHS) in Napa, California, is one example of a successful twenty-first century school. In this chapter, the author describes the components of this exemplary high school, illustrating an environment that will cultivate twenty-first century student learning. New Technology High School began by defining eight learning outcomes, aligned with the standards of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills; to graduate, students demonstrate mastery of these outcomes through an online portfolio. To help students achieve the outcomes, NTHS employs project- and problem-based learning. Whereas in traditional classrooms students work alone on short-term assignments that do not lend themselves to deep understanding, the project-based learning approach has students working in teams on long-term, in-depth, rigorous projects. Students' work is supported by the school's workplace-like environment and effectiv use of technology. Meaningful assessment is essential to project-based learning; students receive continuous feedback, helping them become self-directed learners. In fact, NTHS uses outcome-based grading through which students constantly know how they are performing on the twenty-first century outcomes. Research has shown that NTHS graduates are better prepared for postsecondary education, careers, and citizenship than their peers from other schools. To facilitate twenty-first century learning, all schools need to rethink their approach to teaching and learning. New Technology High School is one way to do so. PMID:17017260

Pearlman, Bob

2006-01-01

71

Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental conditions and anthropogenic stressors on the future status of the Pacific walrus population at four periods through the twenty-first century. The model framework allowed for inclusion of various sources and levels of knowledge, and representation of structural and parameter uncertainties. Walrus outcome probabilities through the century reflected a clear trend of worsening conditions for the subspecies. From the current observation period to the end of century, the greatest change in walrus outcome probabilities was a progressive decrease in the outcome state of robust and a concomitant increase in the outcome state of vulnerable. The probabilities of rare and extirpated states each progressively increased but remained >10% through the end of the century. The summed probabilities of vulnerable, rare, and extirpated (P(v,r,e)) increased from a current level of 10% in 2004 to 22% by 2050 and 40% by 2095. The degree of uncertainty in walrus outcomes increased monotonically over future periods. In the model, sea ice habitat (particularly for summer/fall) and harvest levels had the greatest influence on future population outcomes. Other potential stressors had much smaller influences on walrus outcomes, mostly because of uncertainty in their future states and our current poor understanding of their mechanistic influence on walrus abundance. ?? 2011 US Government.

Jay, C. V.; Marcot, B. G.; Douglas, D. C.

2011-01-01

72

Transient twenty-first century changes in daily-scale temperature extremes in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key question for climate mitigation and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in temperature extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase, and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment over the United States (U.S.) to investigate the transient response of the annual frequency, duration and magnitude of 8 daily-scale extreme temperature indices during the twenty-first century of the A1B emissions scenario. We evaluate the time of emergence of a permanent exceedance (PE) above the colder part of the historical (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and the time of emergence of a new norm (NN) centered on the historical maxima (for hot extremes) or minima (for cold extremes). We find that during the twenty-first century, hot extremes permanently exceed the historical distribution's colder half over large areas of the U.S., and that the hot extremes distribution also becomes centered on or above the historical distribution's maxima. The changes are particularly robust for the exceedance of the annual 95th percentile of daily maximum temperature over the West and the Northeast (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2030 and of a NN by 2040), for warm days over the Southwest (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030), and tropical nights over the eastern U.S. (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030). Conversely, no widespread emergence of a PE or a NN is found for most cold extremes. Exceptions include frost day frequency (with a widespread emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2030 and of a NN by 2040 over the western U.S.), and cold night frequency (with an emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2040 and of a NN by 2060 in virtually the entire U.S.). Our analysis implies a transition over the next half century to a climate of recently unprecedented heat stress in many parts of the U.S., along with cold extremes that, although less frequent, remain at times as long and as severe as are found in the current climate.

Scherer, Martin; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

2014-03-01

73

Organizing knowledge in the Isis bibliography from Sarton to the early twenty-first century.  

PubMed

This essay explores various ways in which bibliographies have exhibited "sociality." Bibliographies are both products of the social contexts that have created them and engines of social interaction in scholarly communities. By tracing the history of the Isis Bibliography, the longest-running and most comprehensive bibliography in its field, this essay explains how different Isis classification systems have been tied to major twentieth-century cataloging efforts. By looking at classification, the essay also attends to the ways in which aspects of the Isis Bibliography in different decades have reflected social mores of their period. Finally, it demonstrates how critical the Isis Bibliography was in the formation of the discipline of history of science and goes on to discuss how that disciplinary connection is evolving in the twenty-first century. By thinking of the bibliography as a network of scholars, not just scholarly works, the essay asks us to reflect on the nature and purpose of bibliography in the digital age. PMID:24341264

Weldon, Stephen P

2013-09-01

74

Robust twenty-first-century projections of ElNiño and related precipitation variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ElNiño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in rainfall, severe weather, agricultural production, ecosystems and disease in many parts of the world. Given that further human-forced changes in the Earth's climate system seem inevitable, the possibility exists that the character of ENSO and its impacts might change over the coming century. Although this issue has been investigated many times during the past 20years, there is very little consensus on future changes in ENSO, apart from an expectation that ENSO will continue to be a dominant source of year-to-year variability. Here we show that there are in fact robust projected changes in the spatial patterns of year-to-year ENSO-driven variability in both surface temperature and precipitation. These changes are evident in the two most recent generations of climate models, using four different scenarios for CO2 and other radiatively active gases. By the mid- to late twenty-first century, the projections include an intensification of both El-Niño-driven drying in the western Pacific Ocean and rainfall increases in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Experiments with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model reveal that robust projected changes in precipitation anomalies during ElNiño years are primarily determined by a nonlinear response to surface global warming. Uncertain projected changes in the amplitude of ENSO-driven surface temperature variability have only a secondary role. Projected changes in key characteristics of ENSO are consequently much clearer than previously realized.

Power, Scott; Delage, François; Chung, Christine; Kociuba, Greg; Keay, Kevin

2013-10-01

75

Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could…

Reynolds, David R.

76

Upper bounds on twenty-first-century Antarctic ice loss assessed using a probabilistic framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate adaptation and flood risk assessments have incorporated sea-level rise (SLR) projections developed using semi-empirical methods (SEMs) and expert-informed mass-balance scenarios. These techniques, which do not explicitly model ice dynamics, generate upper bounds on twenty-first century SLR that are up to three times higher than Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates. However, the physical basis underlying these projections, and their likelihood of occurrence, remain unclear. Here, we develop mass-balance projections for the Antarctic ice sheet within a Bayesian probabilistic framework, integrating numerical model output and updating projections with an observational synthesis. Without abrupt, sustained, changes in ice discharge (collapse), we project a 95th percentile mass loss equivalent to ~13cm SLR by 2100, lower than previous upper-bound projections. Substantially higher mass loss requires regional collapse, invoking dynamics that are likely to be inconsistent with the underlying assumptions of SEMs. In this probabilistic framework, the pronounced sensitivity of upper-bound SLR projections to the poorly known likelihood of collapse is lessened with constraints on the persistence and magnitude of subsequent discharge. More realistic, fully probabilistic, estimates of the ice-sheet contribution to SLR may thus be obtained by assimilating additional observations and numerical models.

Little, Christopher M.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Urban, Nathan M.

2013-07-01

77

Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

1992-09-01

78

On the twenty-first-century wet season projections over the Southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper reconciles the difference in the projections of the wet season over the Southeastern United States (SEUS) from a global climate model (the Community Climate System Model Version 3 [CCSM3]) and from a regional climate model (the Regional Spectral Model [RSM]) nested in the CCSM3. The CCSM3 projects a dipole in the summer precipitation anomaly: peninsular Florida dries in the future climate, and the remainder of the SEUS region becomes wetter. The RSM forced with CCSM3 projects a universal drying of the SEUS in the late twenty-first century relative to the corresponding twentieth-century summer. The CCSM3 pattern is attributed to the “upped-ante” mechanism, whereby the atmospheric boundary layer moisture required for convection increases in a warm, statically stable global tropical environment. This criterion becomes harder to meet along convective margins, which include peninsular Florida, resulting in its drying. CCSM3 also projects a southwestward expansion of the North Atlantic subtropical high that leads to further stabilizing of the atmosphere above Florida, inhibiting convection. The RSM, because of its high (10-km grid) resolution, simulates diurnal variations in summer rainfall over SEUS reasonably well. The RSM improves upon CCSM3 through the RSM’s depiction of the diurnal variance of precipitation, which according to observations accounts for up to 40 % of total seasonal precipitation variance. In the future climate, the RSM projects a significant reduction in the diurnal variability of convection. The reduction is attributed to large-scale stabilization of the atmosphere in the CCSM3 projections.

Selman, Christopher; Misra, Vasu; Stefanova, Lydia; Dinapoli, Steven; Smith, Thomas J., III

2013-01-01

79

Theme Issue. The Evolving World of Management Development: Salute to the Twenty-first Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes six articles on the challenges for management development in the 21st century in the German-speaking nations (Avery, Donnenberg, Gick, Hilb), Baltic States (Manning, Poljeva), East Africa (Mitiku, Wallace), South Africa (McFarlin, Coster, Mogale-Pretorius), Vietnam (McDaniel, Schermerhorn, Cuoc), and Australia and New Zealand (Avery,…

Safavi, Farrokh, Ed.

1999-01-01

80

From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong…

McWilliam, Erica

2011-01-01

81

In Search of an Identity: The Caribbean Military and National Security in the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the twenty-first century military organizations throughout the world are going through an identity crisis in a changing world as the international community is faced with the vagaries of major shifts in the security environment. This environment is cha...

E. E. Dillon

2001-01-01

82

Pressure effects on regional mean sea level trends in the German Bight in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of large-scale atmospheric pressure changes on regional mean sea level projections in the German Bight in the twenty-first century are considered. A developed statistical model is applied to climate model data of sea level pressure for the twenty-first century to assess the potential contribution of large-scale atmospheric changes to future sea level changes in the German Bight. Using 78 experiments, an ensemble mean of 1.4-cm rise in regional mean sea level is estimated until the end of the twenty-first century. Changes are somewhat higher for realisations of the special report on emission scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2, but generally do not exceed a few centimeters. This is considerably smaller than the changes expected from steric and self-gravitational effects. Large-scale changes in sea level pressure are thus not expected to provide a substantial contribution to twenty-first century sea level changes in the German Bight.

Albrecht, Frauke; Weisse, Ralf

2014-03-01

83

Assessing Twenty-First Century Skills through a Teacher Created Video Game for High School Biology Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the…

Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn

2010-01-01

84

The Twenty-First Century and Legal Studies in Business: Preparing Students to Perform in a Globally Competitive Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article first examines the dynamic role business education must play in a flat world economy. Second, it explains how legal courses in the business curricula already equip students with portable twenty-first-century skills and relevant academic content. The article then advocates the acceptance of the Boyer Model of Scholarship, which defines…

Burke, Debra D.; Johnson, Ronald A.; Kemp, Deborah J.

2010-01-01

85

A Commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," in which Isaac I. Bejar and E. Aurora Graf propose the application of a test design--the duplex design (which was proposed in 1988 by Bock and Mislevy) for application in current accountability assessments.…

Brandt, Steffen

2010-01-01

86

A Model for Reform. Two-Year Colleges in the Twenty-First Century: Breaking Down Barriers (TYC21).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes the TYC21 project (Two-Year Colleges in the Twenty-First Century: Breaking Down Barriers), which provided a framework to implement reform in science, engineering, and physics education at two-year colleges via the cooperative efforts of faculty in cross-educational activities. The project sought to increase the quality of…

Palmer, James C., Ed.

87

Review of Twenty-First Century Portable Electronic Devices for Persons with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of portable electronic devices by persons with moderate intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders is gaining increased research attention. The purpose of this review was to synthesize twenty-first century literature (2000-2010) focusing on these technologies. Twenty-one studies were identified which evaluated use of: (a) handheld…

Mechling, Linda C.

2011-01-01

88

Pressure effects on regional mean sea level trends in the German Bight in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of large-scale atmospheric pressure changes on regional mean sea level projections in the German Bight in the twenty-first century are considered. A developed statistical model is applied to climate model data of sea level pressure for the twenty-first century to assess the potential contribution of large-scale atmospheric changes to future sea level changes in the German Bight. Using 78 experiments, an ensemble mean of 1.4-cm rise in regional mean sea level is estimated until the end of the twenty-first century. Changes are somewhat higher for realisations of the special report on emission scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2, but generally do not exceed a few centimeters. This is considerably smaller than the changes expected from steric and self-gravitational effects. Large-scale changes in sea level pressure are thus not expected to provide a substantial contribution to twenty-first century sea level changes in the German Bight.

Albrecht, Frauke; Weisse, Ralf

2014-05-01

89

Professional Capabilities for Twenty-First Century Creative Careers: Lessons from Outstandingly Successful Australian Artists and Designers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artists and designers are positioned at the centre of the twenty-first century creative economy. In order to recognise and make the most of the opportunities afforded by this new era, artists and designers still require the creativity, disciplinary depth of knowledge and technical skills traditionally possessed by professionals in these…

Bridgstock, Ruth

2013-01-01

90

The Challenge of the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two representatives in United States House of Representatives look at population trends and aging in America, describing the role they would like federal government to take in the future. Discusses issues related to older workers, retirement, local efforts, Medicare, preventive medicine, long-term care, and rights of the elderly. (NB)

Wyden, Ron; DeFazio, Peter

1988-01-01

91

eBlack Studies: A Twenty-First-Century Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calls for the transformation of black studies that moves from ideology to information. Argues that eBlack, the virtualization of the black experience, is the basis for the next stage of this academic discipline. Presents three theoretical principles of eBlack studies (cyberdemocracy, collective intelligence, and information freedom); describes…

Alkalimat, Abdul

2000-01-01

92

Using the Arts and Computer Animation to Make Chemistry Accessible to All in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twenty-first century is truly the century of science and technology. If we will not make science and technology accessible\\u000a to all, we will form a two-class society, divided not by royalty or economic status, but by knowledge of science and technology.\\u000a It is our tenet in life that science education is a human right that belongs to all. Therefore,

Z. M. Lerman; D. Morton

93

Twenty First Century Science: Insights from the Design and Implementation of a Scientific Literacy Approach in School Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the term ``scientific literacy'' has been increasingly used in recent years to characterise the aim of school science education, there is still considerable uncertainty about its meaning and implications for the curriculum. A major national project in England, Twenty First Century Science, is evaluating the feasibility of a more flexible science curriculum structure for 15-year-old and 16-year-old students, centring

Robin Millar

2006-01-01

94

Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian model of…

Cole, Mike

2013-01-01

95

A portrait of the PETE major: re-touched for the early twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The literature on those who choose to become PE teachers received healthy attention in the late twentieth century but has been largely ignored since. Querying those PETE majors in first decade of the new century enables PETE faculty to have updated and pertinent knowledge of their charges.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and analyze the profile

Bryan A. McCullick; Karen M. Lux; Donald G. Belcher; Nigel Davies

2011-01-01

96

A portrait of the PETE major: re-touched for the early twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The literature on those who choose to become PE teachers received healthy attention in the late twentieth century but has been largely ignored since. Querying those PETE majors in first decade of the new century enables PETE faculty to have updated and pertinent knowledge of their charges.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and analyze the profile

Bryan A. McCullick; Karen M. Lux; Donald G. Belcher; Nigel Davies

2012-01-01

97

A Portrait of the PETE Major: Re-Touched for the Early Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The literature on those who choose to become PE teachers received healthy attention in the late twentieth century but has been largely ignored since. Querying those PETE majors in first decade of the new century enables PETE faculty to have updated and pertinent knowledge of their charges. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to…

McCullick, Bryan A.; Lux, Karen M.; Belcher, Donald G.; Davies, Nigel

2012-01-01

98

Taking Up Space: Museum Exploration in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Museums have become a crucible for questions of the role that traditional art and art history should play in contemporary art. Friedrich Nietzsche argued in the nineteenth century that museums can be no more than mausoleums for effete (fine) art. Over the course of the twentieth century, however, curators dispelled such blanket pessimism by…

Sutton, Tiffany

2007-01-01

99

Twenty-First Century Research Needs in Electrostatic Processes Applied to Industry and Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From the early century Nobel Prize winning (1923) experiments with charged oil droplets, resulting in the discovery of the elementary electronic charge by Robert Millikan, to the early 21st century Nobel Prize (2002) awarded to John Fenn for his invention...

A. S. Biris C. U. Yurteri D. Saini M. K. Mazumder P. K. Srirama R. Sharma R. A. Sims S. De S. Trigwell

2005-01-01

100

The Role of Nutrient Efficient Plants in Improving Crop Yields in the Twenty First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 21st century, nutrient efficient plants will play a major role in increasing crop yields compared to the 20th century, mainly due to limited land and water resources available for crop production, higher cost of inorganic fertilizer inputs, declining trends in crop yields globally, and increasing environmental concerns. Furthermore, at least 60% of the world's arable lands have mineral

N. K. Fageria; V. C. Baligar; Y. C. Li

2008-01-01

101

Twenty-first century changes in the hydrology, glaciers, and permafrost of the Susitna Basin, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In South-Central Alaska, the Susitna River is the site of a proposed hydroelectric dam. The catchment of the reservoir in the upper Susitna watershed (13,289 km^2, 450-4000 m a.s.l.) is 4% glacierized and is characterized by sparse vegetation, discontinuous permafrost, and little human development. Glaciers, permafrost, and the water cycle are expected to change in response to anticipated future atmospheric warming by the end of this century, thus impacting water yields to the hydroelectric reservoir. We aim to quantify future changes in glacier wastage, surface- and groundwater, permafrost, and evapotranspiration. We apply the physically-based hydrological model WaSiM using daily air temperature and precipitation data from station observations and gridded climate products. The model is calibrated with runoff and glacier mass balance measurements from the 1980s and validated with measurements from ongoing field campaigns which started in spring 2012. With the past and present data, the model is able to match both the magnitude and timing of observed river discharge. However, the scarcity of meteorological observations from the upper Susitna basin presents a major challenge to simulating the catchment hydrology. We present methods for extrapolation of the spatially-sparse long-term data across the catchment, with particular emphasis on high-elevation precipitation. To project future changes in river runoff, we run WaSiM with air temperature and precipitation downscaled from global climate models and compare results from several emission scenarios (selected from CMIP5). We discuss the anticipated changes in basin hydrology as the climate warms, permafrost thaws, and glaciers shrink.

Bliss, A. K.; Braun, J. L.; Daanen, R. P.; Hock, R.; Liljedahl, A.; Wolken, G. J.; Zhang, J.

2013-12-01

102

Twenty-first century skills for students: hands-on learning after school builds school and life success.  

PubMed

At the core of the movement for twenty-first century skills are students. The growing efforts to increase programs leveraging out-of-school time are focused on giving American youth everything they need to compete in this increasingly complex world. The author is one of many students who have been well served by initiatives imparting twenty-first century skills during after-school hours. Now a senior at Boston Latin School, the author has been helped along the way by Citizen Schools, an after-school education program focused on hands-on learning apprenticeships and homework help. While enrolled in the program as a middle school student, the author took part in projects that exemplified hands-on, inquiry-based learning that helped her develop twenty-first century skills. For example, along with dozens of other students, she advanced her data analysis skills by analyzing statistics about Boston Public high schools, which also helped her select and enroll in one of the city's premier exam schools. Also, she and her peers worked with corporate attorneys who served as writing coaches and whose expertise the author drew from in producing a published essay and greatly improving her writing skills. The author now finds that the public speaking, leadership, organizational, social, and management abilities she built through her participation in Citizen Schools are a great asset to her in high school. The confidence with which she tackles her responsibilities can also be traced back to her experiences in the program. As she looks toward college, the author reflects and realizes that being actively involved in a quality after-school program put her on track for a successful future. PMID:17017266

Cabral, Leide

2006-01-01

103

A needs assessment for DOE`s packaging and transportation activities - a look into the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has performed a department-wide scoping of its packaging and transportation needs and has arrived at a projection of these needs for well into the twenty-first century. The assessment, known as the Transportation Needs Assessment (TNA) was initiated during August 1994 and completed in December 1994. The TNA will allow DOE to better prepare for changes in its transportation requirements in the future. The TNA focused on projected, quantified shipping needs based on forecasts of inventories of materials which will ultimately require transport by the DOE for storage, treatment and/or disposal. In addition, experts provided input on the growing needs throughout DOE resulting from changes in regulations, in DOE`s mission, and in the sociopolitical structure of the United States. Through the assessment, DOE`s transportation needs have been identified for a time period extending from the present through the first three decades of the twenty-first century. The needs assessment was accomplished in three phases: (1) defining current packaging, shipping, resource utilization, and methods of managing packaging and transportation activities; (2) establishing the inventory of materials which DOE will need to transport on into the next century and scenarios which project when, from where, and to where these materials will need to be transported; and (3) developing requirements and projected changes for DOE to accomplish the necessary transport safely and economically.

Pope, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Turi, G.; Brancato, R.; Blalock, L. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)] [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Merrill, O. [Scientific Applications International Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)] [Scientific Applications International Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

104

Guideposts for the U.S. Military in the Twenty-first Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Near the close of the 20th century, in September 1999, fifteen general officers -- active duty and retired -- representing all of the Armed Forces, met at Boiling AFB, DC, to consider the impact of air power on warfare. The discussion ranged widely across...

J. Neufeld

2000-01-01

105

Democratizing the Academy: The Black Professoriat in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some implications of an end-of-the-century "fetishization of merit" in the academy. Considers the concern about the conversion of merit into a class-based fetish that has profound consequences for the development of the next generation of the black professoriat and the role of the historically black colleges and universities in this…

Hubbard, Dolan

2002-01-01

106

Information Technology for the Twenty-First Century: A Bold Investment in America's Future. Implementation Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the implementation plan for the Information Technology for the 21st Century (IT[squared]) initiative. With this initiative, the Federal Government is making an important re-commitment to fundamental research in information technology. The initiative proposes $366 million in increased investments in computing, information, and…

Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC. National Science and Technology Council.

107

Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Flynn effect" is a surprising finding, identified by James R. Flynn, that IQ test scores have significantly increased from one generation to the next over the past century. Flynn now brings us an exciting new book which aims to make sense of this rise in IQ scores and considers what this tells us about our intelligence, our minds and society.…

Flynn, James R.

2012-01-01

108

Project-Based Learning: A Critical Pedagogy for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Dewey's notion of the school as a "social laboratory" influenced educational policy a century ago when the United States underwent a "great transformation" in its educational history toward mass schooling, resulting partly from the "high school movement", where the focus was on "schooling for life". Project-based learning, which builds on…

Maida, Carl A.

2011-01-01

109

Teachers for California's Schools in the Twenty-First Century: Effective Recruitment and Support Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents data and findings from a study and review that analyzed how to effectively recruit and support a diverse population of teachers for California schools as they enter the 21st Century. Section 1 presents a review of California itself, its multicultural population and education needs, teacher candidate pipelines, and opinions…

McLevie, John G.

110

Perspectives of Northern Sea Route and Northwest Passage in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of modern climate models to simulate ice season length in the Arctic, its recent changes and navigation season on Arctic marine routes along the Eurasian and the North American coastlines is evaluated using satellite ice cover observations for 1979?2007. Simulated mean sea ice season duration fits remarkably well to satellite observations and so do the simulated 20th century

V. C. Khon; I. I. Mokhov; Mojib Latif; Vladimir Semenov; Wonsun Park

2010-01-01

111

Reading, Language, and Literacy: Instruction for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that reading instruction in the last years of the 20th century is still characterized by controversy, this book presents 18 essays that examine the best available research evidence about what is known--and what needs to be learned--about the teaching of reading and how children learn to read. Topics of the essays include whole language,…

Lehr, Fran, Ed.; Osborn, Jean, Ed.

112

Delivery of dermatopathologic health care in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Dermatology and dermatopathology has experienced significant growth over the last century and continues to burgeon. Upheavals as a consequence of the advent of managed care have threatened both specialties, especially with regard to direct access and choice of consultant. The demand for dermatology and dermatopathology services continues to increase, and for patients to be served appropriately, these issues must be addressed. PMID:10791151

Conrad, N; Haque, R; Cockerell, C J

2000-04-01

113

The idea of the library in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed Central

The fundamental idea of the library must change. The nineteenth-century idea of the library as the embalming of dead genius and the twentieth-century idea of the library as the repository for second-hand knowledge must give way to the idea of the library as the owner and the librarian as the manager of first-hand knowledge. In the coming era of knowledge capitalism, those individuals and organizations will flourish who are able to apply knowledge to create knowledge and to organize it to produce knowledge. The roles of present-day librarians and libraries will begin to differentiate sharply over the next decade. Some must seize the opportunity to participate in the transformation of libraries into online knowledge servers. Images

Matheson, N W

1995-01-01

114

The idea of the library in the twenty-first century*  

PubMed Central

The fundamental idea of the library must change. The nineteenth-century idea of the library as the embalming of dead genius and the twentieth-century idea of the library as the repository for secondhand knowledge must give way to the idea of the library as the owner and the librarian as the manager of first-hand knowledge. In the coming era of knowledge capitalism, those individuals and organizations will flourish who are able to apply knowledge to create knowledge and to organize it to produce knowledge. The roles of present-day librarians and libraries will begin to differentiate sharply over the next decade. Some must seize the opportunity to participate in the transformation of libraries into online knowledge servers.

Matheson, Nina W.

2012-01-01

115

Competing Views of Embryos for the Twenty-First Century: Textbooks and Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It might seem that an embryo is an embryo, and that there would be a fact of the matter. That seems especially true with respect to the way embryos are presented in textbooks, including high school biology textbooks. This paper looks at three co-existing, competing, and often conflicting views of embryos. Then with a close study of twentieth century high school biology textbooks, it explores suggestions about the ways those books have influenced public impressions of embryos.

Maienschein, Jane; Wellner, Karen

2013-02-01

116

Inquiry Island: Social Responsibility and Ecological Sustainability in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social studies teachers face significant challenges. Because the challenges are substantial, teachers need to help students develop habits of heart and mind that use and transcend the academic content of formal classroom lessons. Yet, students feel pressure to perform well on standardized measures of achievement, so their teachers focus on…

Houser, Neil O.

2005-01-01

117

An explanation for the difference between twentieth and twenty-first century land-sea warming ratio in climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A land-sea surface warming ratio (or ?) that exceeds unity is a robust feature of both observed and modelled climate change. Interestingly, though climate models have differing values for ?, it remains almost time-invariant for a wide range of twenty-first century climate transient warming scenarios, while varying in simulations of the twentieth century. Here, we present an explanation for time-invariant land-sea warming ratio that applies if three conditions on radiative forcing are met: first, spatial variations in the climate forcing must be sufficiently small that the lower free troposphere warms evenly over land and ocean; second, the temperature response must not be large enough to change the global circulation to zeroth order; third, the temperature response must not be large enough to modify the boundary layer amplification mechanisms that contribute to making ? exceed unity. Projected temperature changes over this century are too small to breach the latter two conditions. Hence, the mechanism appears to show why both twenty-first century and time-invariant CO2 forcing lead to similar values of ? in climate models despite the presence of transient ocean heat uptake, whereas twentieth century forcing—which has a significant spatially confined anthropogenic tropospheric aerosol component that breaches the first condition—leads to modelled values of ? that vary widely amongst models and in time. Our results suggest an explanation for the behaviour of ? when climate is forced by other regionally confined forcing scenarios such as geo-engineered changes to oceanic clouds. Our results show how land-sea contrasts in surface and boundary layer characteristics act in tandem to produce the land-sea surface warming contrast.

Joshi, M. M.; Lambert, F. H.; Webb, M. J.

2013-10-01

118

Twenty-First Century Research Needs in Electrostatic Processes Applied to Industry and Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the early century Nobel Prize winning (1923) experiments with charged oil droplets, resulting in the discovery of the elementary electronic charge by Robert Millikan, to the early 21st century Nobel Prize (2002) awarded to John Fenn for his invention of electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and its applications to proteomics, electrostatic processes have been successfully applied to many areas of industry and medicine. Generation, transport, deposition, separation, analysis, and control of charged particles involved in the four states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma are of interest in many industrial and biomedical processes. In this paper, we briefly discuss some of the applications and research needs involving charged particles in industrial and medical applications including: (1) Generation and deposition of unipolarly charged dry powder without the presence of ions or excessive ozone, (2) Control of tribocharging process for consistent and reliable charging, (3) Thin film (less than 25 micrometers) powder coating and Powder coating on insulative surfaces, (4) Fluidization and dispersion of fine powders, (5) Mitigation of Mars dust, (6) Effect of particle charge on the lung deposition of inhaled medical aerosols, (7) Nanoparticle deposition, and (8) Plasma/Corona discharge processes. A brief discussion on the measurements of charged particles and suggestions for research needs are also included.

Mazumder, M. K.; Sims, R. A.; Biris, A. S.; Srirama, P. K.; Saini, D.; Yurteri, C. U.; Trigwell, S.; De, S.; Sharma, R.

2005-01-01

119

Fixing Freud: the Oedipus complex in early twenty-first century US American novels.  

PubMed

Representations of Sigmund Freud in early 21st century US American novels rely on and respond to the image of Freud that emerged from investigations by Paul Roazen ("Brother Animal," 1969) and Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson ("The Assault on Truth," 1984), which cast doubt on the validity of the Oedipus complex. Relying on Roazen, Brenda Webster's "Vienna Triangle" (2009) links Freud's oedipal thinking to paranoia and male masochism. Working with Masson, Selden Edwards's "The Little Book" (2008) takes Freud to task for abandoning the seduction theory in favor of the Oedipus complex. Jed Rubenfeld's "The Interpretation of Murder" (2006) rethinks the Oedipus complex as a projection of adults onto their children. All three novels seek to celebrate Freud's understanding of the human psyche, while shifting the focus of the oedipal structure away from the murderous and lustful child toward the adult. PMID:21970034

Tobin, Robert Deam

2011-01-01

120

Intelligent machines in the twenty-first century: foundations of inference and inquiry.  

PubMed

The last century saw the application of Boolean algebra to the construction of computing machines, which work by applying logical transformations to information contained in their memory. The development of information theory and the generalization of Boolean algebra to Bayesian inference have enabled these computing machines, in the last quarter of the twentieth century, to be endowed with the ability to learn by making inferences from data. This revolution is just beginning as new computational techniques continue to make difficult problems more accessible. Recent advances in our understanding of the foundations of probability theory have revealed implications for areas other than logic. Of relevance to intelligent machines, we recently identified the algebra of questions as the free distributive algebra, which will now allow us to work with questions in a way analogous to that which Boolean algebra enables us to work with logical statements. In this paper, we examine the foundations of inference and inquiry. We begin with a history of inferential reasoning, highlighting key concepts that have led to the automation of inference in modern machine-learning systems. We then discuss the foundations of inference in more detail using a modern viewpoint that relies on the mathematics of partially ordered sets and the scaffolding of lattice theory. This new viewpoint allows us to develop the logic of inquiry and introduce a measure describing the relevance of a proposed question to an unresolved issue. Last, we will demonstrate the automation of inference, and discuss how this new logic of inquiry will enable intelligent machines to ask questions. Automation of both inference and inquiry promises to allow robots to perform science in the far reaches of our solar system and in other star systems by enabling them not only to make inferences from data, but also to decide which question to ask, which experiment to perform, or which measurement to take given what they have learned and what they are designed to understand. PMID:14667302

Knuth, Kevin H

2003-12-15

121

Intelligent machines in the twenty-first century: foundations of inference and inquiry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The last century saw the application of Boolean algebra to the construction of computing machines, which work by applying logical transformations to information contained in their memory. The development of information theory and the generalization of Boolean algebra to Bayesian inference have enabled these computing machines, in the last quarter of the twentieth century, to be endowed with the ability to learn by making inferences from data. This revolution is just beginning as new computational techniques continue to make difficult problems more accessible. Recent advances in our understanding of the foundations of probability theory have revealed implications for areas other than logic. Of relevance to intelligent machines, we recently identified the algebra of questions as the free distributive algebra, which will now allow us to work with questions in a way analogous to that which Boolean algebra enables us to work with logical statements. In this paper, we examine the foundations of inference and inquiry. We begin with a history of inferential reasoning, highlighting key concepts that have led to the automation of inference in modern machine-learning systems. We then discuss the foundations of inference in more detail using a modern viewpoint that relies on the mathematics of partially ordered sets and the scaffolding of lattice theory. This new viewpoint allows us to develop the logic of inquiry and introduce a measure describing the relevance of a proposed question to an unresolved issue. Last, we will demonstrate the automation of inference, and discuss how this new logic of inquiry will enable intelligent machines to ask questions. Automation of both inference and inquiry promises to allow robots to perform science in the far reaches of our solar system and in other star systems by enabling them not only to make inferences from data, but also to decide which question to ask, which experiment to perform, or which measurement to take given what they have learned and what they are designed to understand.

Knuth, Kevin H.

2003-01-01

122

Higher Education and Knowledge Sharing: From Ivory Tower to Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge is the driving force of a knowledge economy. Therefore, the way knowledge is shared and created and the way these actions are managed could lead to either a competitive advantage for an organisation or it could lead to its demise. Managing especially academics' knowledge to the benefit of all can be even a greater challenge to any…

Buckley, Sheryl

2012-01-01

123

Winds of Change: Charting the Course for IT in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spring of 2005, the author, the retiring president of EDUCAUSE, was asked to be the keynote speaker at the EDUCAUSE Western Regional Conference. The conference theme was "Winds of Change: Charting the Course for Technology in Challenging Times." What that brought to his mind was the era of the great sailing ships of the eighteenth and…

Hawkins, Brian L.

2007-01-01

124

Why the Changing American Economy Calls for Twenty-First Century Learning: Answers to Educators' Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As American educators struggle to meet the unprecedented challenge of preparing all students to master the skills embodied in state learning standards, some wonder whether their efforts make economic sense. After all, the newspapers are full of reports of jobs being outsourced to lower-wage countries and jobs being done by computers. If more and…

Levy, Frank; Murnane, Richard J.

2006-01-01

125

Clinical Research Training: Scientific Literacy for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about the vitality and future of clinical research, including the rapid translation of findings to benefit patients, have been the focus of considerable debate and discussion within and beyond general internal medicine. Challenges to the current enterprise include constraints on research funding, financial pressures on academic medical centers that have diminished institutional support for protected time, and the intrinsic

Carolyn M. Clancy

2008-01-01

126

Schools for the Twenty-First Century: School Design and Educational Transformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Building Schools for the Future programme has been established to ensure that English secondary schools are designed or redesigned to allow for educational transformation. The programme represents the biggest single UK government investment in school buildings for over 50 years. For this reason, it poses a major challenge to those involved in…

Leiringer, Roine; Cardellino, Paula

2011-01-01

127

Agroclimatic potential across central Siberia in an altered twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. Forests are predicted to shift northwards in a warmer climate and are likely to be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. We analyzed potential climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia believing that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models determining crop range and regression models determining crop yields were constructed and applied to climate change scenarios for various time frames: pre-1960, 1960-90 and 1990-2010 using historic data and data taken from 2020 and 2080 HadCM3 B1 and A2 scenarios. From 50 to 85% of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture by the end of the century, and only soil potential would limit crop advance and expansion to the north. Crop production could increase twofold. Future Siberian climatic resources could provide the potential for a great variety of crops to grow that previously did not exist on these lands. Traditional Siberian crops could gradually shift as far as 500 km northwards (about 50-70 km/decade) within suitable soil conditions, and new crops nonexistent today may be introduced in the dry south that would necessitate irrigation. Agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming. Adaptation measures would sustain and promote food security in a warmer Siberia.

Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Lysanova, G. I.; Soja, A. J.

2011-10-01

128

From agricultural geology to hydropedology: Forging links within the twenty-first-century geoscience community  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite historical linkages, the fields of geology and soil science have developed along largely divergent paths in the United States during much of the mid- to late-twentieth century. The shift in recent decades within both disciplines, towards greater emphasis on environmental-quality issues and a systems approach, has created new opportunities for collaboration and cross-training. Because of the importance of the soil as a dynamic interface between the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere, introductory and advanced soil-science classes are now taught in a number of Earth and environmental science departments. The National Research Council's recent report, Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science, highlights the soil zone as part of the land surface to groundwater 'critical zone' requiring additional investigation. To better prepare geology undergraduates to deal with complex environmental problems, their training should include a fundamental understanding of the nature and properties of soils. Those undergraduate geology students with an interest in this area should be encouraged to view soil science as a viable Earth-science specialty area for graduate study. ?? The Geological Society of London 2006.

Landa, E. R.

2006-01-01

129

Rising river flows throughout the twenty-first century in two Himalayan glacierized watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greater Himalayan glaciers are retreating and losing mass at rates comparable to glaciers in other regions of the world. Assessments of future changes and their associated hydrological impacts are scarce, oversimplify glacier dynamics or include a limited number of climate models. Here, we use results from the latest ensemble of climate models in combination with a high-resolution glacio-hydrological model to assess the hydrological impact of climate change on two climatically contrasting watersheds in the Greater Himalaya, the Baltoro and Langtang watersheds that drain into the Indus and Ganges rivers, respectively. We show that the largest uncertainty in future runoff is a result of variations in projected precipitation between climate models. In both watersheds, strong, but highly variable, increases in future runoff are projected and, despite the different characteristics of the watersheds, their responses are surprisingly similar. In both cases, glaciers will recede but net glacier melt runoff is on a rising limb at least until 2050. In combination with a positive change in precipitation, water availability during this century is not likely to decline. We conclude that river basins that depend on monsoon rains and glacier melt will continue to sustain the increasing water demands expected in these areas.

Immerzeel, W. W.; Pellicciotti, F.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

2013-09-01

130

Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms-such as corals and some plankton-will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13 models of the ocean-carbon cycle to assess calcium carbonate saturation under the IS92a `business-as-usual' scenario for future emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. In our projections, Southern Ocean surface waters will begin to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite, a metastable form of calcium carbonate, by the year 2050. By 2100, this undersaturation could extend throughout the entire Southern Ocean and into the subarctic Pacific Ocean. When live pteropods were exposed to our predicted level of undersaturation during a two-day shipboard experiment, their aragonite shells showed notable dissolution. Our findings indicate that conditions detrimental to high-latitude ecosystems could develop within decades, not centuries as suggested previously.

Orr, James C.; Fabry, Victoria J.; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Doney, Scott C.; Feely, Richard A.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Gruber, Nicolas; Ishida, Akio; Joos, Fortunat; Key, Robert M.; Lindsay, Keith; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Matear, Richard; Monfray, Patrick; Mouchet, Anne; Najjar, Raymond G.; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Rodgers, Keith B.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Schlitzer, Reiner; Slater, Richard D.; Totterdell, Ian J.; Weirig, Marie-France; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Yool, Andrew

2005-09-01

131

Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms.  

PubMed

Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms--such as corals and some plankton--will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13 models of the ocean-carbon cycle to assess calcium carbonate saturation under the IS92a 'business-as-usual' scenario for future emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. In our projections, Southern Ocean surface waters will begin to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite, a metastable form of calcium carbonate, by the year 2050. By 2100, this undersaturation could extend throughout the entire Southern Ocean and into the subarctic Pacific Ocean. When live pteropods were exposed to our predicted level of undersaturation during a two-day shipboard experiment, their aragonite shells showed notable dissolution. Our findings indicate that conditions detrimental to high-latitude ecosystems could develop within decades, not centuries as suggested previously. PMID:16193043

Orr, James C; Fabry, Victoria J; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Doney, Scott C; Feely, Richard A; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Gruber, Nicolas; Ishida, Akio; Joos, Fortunat; Key, Robert M; Lindsay, Keith; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Matear, Richard; Monfray, Patrick; Mouchet, Anne; Najjar, Raymond G; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Rodgers, Keith B; Sabine, Christopher L; Sarmiento, Jorge L; Schlitzer, Reiner; Slater, Richard D; Totterdell, Ian J; Weirig, Marie-France; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Yool, Andrew

2005-09-29

132

Twenty-first century discharge and sediment yield predictions in a small high Arctic watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discharge and suspended sediment flux are predicted for the 21st century for the 8 km 2 West River, Cape Bounty, Melville Island in the Canadian High Arctic. Discharge predictions are made using a distributed hydrologic model, and sediment yields are predicted using a rating curve based on monitored relationships between discharge and suspended sediment concentration. Models were forced using statistically downscaled air temperature and precipitation from the A1b and A2 scenarios from the global climate model CGCM3. Under the A2 scenario, total seasonal runoff is expected to double by 2100, daily maximum discharge rates will double, and the melt season will increase in length by 30 days, mostly in autumn. Sediment yield increases will be much more extreme, and are expected to increase by 100 to 600%, but these are almost certainly minimum estimates. Variability between and within global climate models is assessed for the grid cell closest to Cape Bounty, and variability within CGCM3 is assessed by examining data from five of its runs. Intra-model variability is relatively small, but inter-model variability is large. The impact of this variability is minimized, and the applicability of results is broadened by assessing relationships between weather variables, hydrologic variables, and sediment yield for multiple model runs.

Lewis, Ted; Lamoureux, Scott F.

2010-03-01

133

CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation  

SciTech Connect

Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

2011-04-01

134

CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

Feldman, Daniel R.; Algieri, Chris A.; Ong, Jonathan R.; Collins, William D.

2011-05-01

135

Twenty-first century discharge and sediment yield predictions in a small high arctic watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrologic and sediment flux predictions in small arctic watersheds are crucial to understand how these systems will change and contribute to coastal ecosystems. This is particularly true in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, where low order coastal streams draining small watersheds are typical. In small Arctic watersheds, storage is typically low and runoff ratios are high, making anticipated hydrological changes particularly great. Sediment yields in small Arctic watersheds may also be particularly sensitive to climate change. These rivers tend to have limited floodplains, low potential for sediment storage, little dilution of sediment supply by large floods, and high availability of fine-grained sediment. Permafrost and ground ice melt may also provide new sources of water and sediment in the future. All these factors suggest that increases in sediment yields in small arctic watersheds may be large. However, there are very few predictions of near-future changes in river flow and sediment flux in these systems, perhaps due to the paucity of high-resolution observational data. Here we present predictions of discharge and suspended sediment flux for the 21^st century for the 8 km^2 West River, Cape Bounty, Melville Island in the Canadian High Arctic. Discharge predictions are made using a distributed hydrologic model, and sediment yields are predicted using a rating curve based on monitored relationships between discharge and suspended sediment concentration. Models were forced using statistically downscaled air temperature and precipitation from the A1b and A2 scenarios from the global climate model CGCM3. Under the A2 scenario, total seasonal runoff is expected to double by 2100, daily maximum discharge rates will double, and the melt season will increase in length by 30 days, mostly in autumn. Sediment yield increases will be much more extreme, and are expected to increase by 100 to 600 %, but these are almost certainly minimum estimates.

Lewis, T.; Lamoureux, S. F.

2009-12-01

136

A twenty-first century California observing network for monitoring extreme weather events  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During Northern Hemisphere winters, the West Coast of North America is battered by extratropical storms. The impact of these storms is of paramount concern to California, where aging water supply and flood protection infrastructures are challenged by increased standards for urban flood protection, an unusually variable weather regime, and projections of climate change. Additionally, there are inherent conflicts between releasing water to provide flood protection and storing water to meet requirements for water supply, water quality, hydropower generation, water temperature and flow for at-risk species, and recreation. In order to improve reservoir management and meet the increasing demands on water, improved forecasts of precipitation, especially during extreme events, is required. Here we describe how California is addressing their most important and costliest environmental issue – water management – in part, by installing a state-of-the-art observing system to better track the area’s most severe wintertime storms.

White, A. B.; Anderson, M. L.; Dettinger, M. D.; Ralph, F. M.; Hinojosa, A.; Cayan, D. R.; Hartman, R. K.; Reynolds, D. W.; Johnson, L. E.; Schneider, T. L.; Cifelli, R.; Toth, Z.; Gutman, S. I.; King, C. W.; Gehrke, F.; Johnston, P. E.; Walls, C.; Mann, D.; Gottas, D. J.; Coleman, T.

2013-01-01

137

Management of healthcare waste: developments in Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

In many Southeast Asian countries, significant challenges persist with regard to the proper management and disposal of healthcare waste. The amount of healthcare waste in these countries is continuously increasing as a result of the expansion of healthcare systems and services. In the past, healthcare waste, if it was treated at all, was mainly incinerated. In the last decade more comprehensive waste management systems were developed for Southeast Asian countries and implementation started. This also included the establishment of alternative healthcare waste treatment systems. The developments in the lower-middle-income countries are of special interest, as major investments are planned. Based upon sample projects, a short overview of the current development trends in the healthcare waste sector in Laos, Indonesia and Vietnam is provided. The projects presented include: (i) Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (development of the national environmental health training system to support the introduction of environmental health standards and improvement of healthcare waste treatment in seven main hospitals by introducing steam-based treatment technologies); (ii) Indonesia (development of a provincial-level healthcare waste-management strategy for Province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) and introduction of an advanced waste treatment system in a tertiary level hospital in Makassar); and (iii) Vietnam (development of a healthcare waste strategy for five provinces in Vietnam and a World Bank-financed project on healthcare waste in Vietnam). PMID:22993139

Kühling, Jan-Gerd; Pieper, Ute

2012-09-01

138

Ocean heat transport into the Arctic in the twentieth and twenty-first century in EC-Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean heat transport into the Arctic and the heat budget of the Barents Sea are analyzed in an ensemble of historical and future climate simulations performed with the global coupled climate model EC-Earth. The zonally integrated northward heat flux in the ocean at 70°N is strongly enhanced and compensates for a reduction of its atmospheric counterpart in the twenty first century. Although an increase in the northward heat transport occurs through all of Fram Strait, Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait and Barents Sea Opening, it is the latter which dominates the increase in ocean heat transport into the Arctic. Increased temperature of the northward transported Atlantic water masses are the main reason for the enhancement of the ocean heat transport. The natural variability in the heat transport into the Barents Sea is caused to the same extent by variations in temperature and volume transport. Large ocean heat transports lead to reduced ice and higher atmospheric temperature in the Barents Sea area and are related to the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The net ocean heat transport into the Barents Sea grows until about year 2050. Thereafter, both heat and volume fluxes out of the Barents Sea through the section between Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya are strongly enhanced and compensate for all further increase in the inflow through the Barents Sea Opening. Most of the heat transported by the ocean into the Barents Sea is passed to the atmosphere and contributes to warming of the atmosphere and Arctic temperature amplification. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are enhanced. Net surface long-wave and solar radiation are enhanced upward and downward, respectively and are almost compensating each other. We find that the changes in the surface heat fluxes are mainly caused by the vanishing sea ice in the twenty first century. The increasing ocean heat transport leads to enhanced bottom ice melt and to an extension of the area with bottom ice melt further northward. However, no indication for a substantial impact of the increased heat transport on ice melt in the Central Arctic is found. Most of the heat that is not passed to the atmosphere in the Barents Sea is stored in the Arctic intermediate layer of Atlantic water, which is increasingly pronounced in the twenty first century.

Koenigk, Torben; Brodeau, Laurent

2014-06-01

139

Simulating changes in the leaf unfolding time of 20 plant species in China over the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent shifts in phenology reflect the biological response to current climate change. Aiming to enhance our understanding of phenological responses to climate change, we developed, calibrated and validated spatio-temporal models of first leaf date (FLD) for 20 broadleaved deciduous plants in China. Using daily meteorological data from the Chinese Meteorological Administration and the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) created using three IPCC scenarios (A2, A1B and B1), we described the FLD time series of each species over the past 50 years, extrapolating from these results to simulate estimated FLD changes for each species during the twenty-first century. Model validation suggests that our spatio-temporal models can simulate FLD accurately with R 2 (explained variance) >0.60. Model simulations show that, from 1952 to 2007, the FLD in China advanced at a rate of -1.14 days decade-1 on average. Furthermore, changes in FLD showed noticeable variation between regions, with clearer advances observed in the north than in the south of the country. The model indicates that the advances in FLD observed from 1952-2007 in China will continue over the twenty-first century, although significant differences among species and different climate scenarios are expected. The average trend of FLD advance in China during the twenty-first century is modeled as being -1.92 days decade-1 under the A2 scenario, -1.10 days decade-1 under the A1B scenario and -0.74 days decade-1 under the B2 scenario. The spatial pattern of FLD change for the period 2011-2099 is modeled as being similar but showing some difference from patterns in the 1952-2007 period. At the interspecific level, early-leafing species were found to show a greater advance in FLD, while species with larger distributions tended to show a weaker advance in FLD. These simulated changes in phenology may have significant implications for plant distribution as well as ecosystem structure and function.

Ge, Quansheng; Wang, Huanjiong; Dai, Junhu

2014-05-01

140

Ocean heat transport into the Arctic in the twentieth and twenty-first century in EC-Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean heat transport into the Arctic and the heat budget of the Barents Sea are analyzed in an ensemble of historical and future climate simulations performed with the global coupled climate model EC-Earth. The zonally integrated northward heat flux in the ocean at 70°N is strongly enhanced and compensates for a reduction of its atmospheric counterpart in the twenty first century. Although an increase in the northward heat transport occurs through all of Fram Strait, Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait and Barents Sea Opening, it is the latter which dominates the increase in ocean heat transport into the Arctic. Increased temperature of the northward transported Atlantic water masses are the main reason for the enhancement of the ocean heat transport. The natural variability in the heat transport into the Barents Sea is caused to the same extent by variations in temperature and volume transport. Large ocean heat transports lead to reduced ice and higher atmospheric temperature in the Barents Sea area and are related to the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The net ocean heat transport into the Barents Sea grows until about year 2050. Thereafter, both heat and volume fluxes out of the Barents Sea through the section between Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya are strongly enhanced and compensate for all further increase in the inflow through the Barents Sea Opening. Most of the heat transported by the ocean into the Barents Sea is passed to the atmosphere and contributes to warming of the atmosphere and Arctic temperature amplification. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are enhanced. Net surface long-wave and solar radiation are enhanced upward and downward, respectively and are almost compensating each other. We find that the changes in the surface heat fluxes are mainly caused by the vanishing sea ice in the twenty first century. The increasing ocean heat transport leads to enhanced bottom ice melt and to an extension of the area with bottom ice melt further northward. However, no indication for a substantial impact of the increased heat transport on ice melt in the Central Arctic is found. Most of the heat that is not passed to the atmosphere in the Barents Sea is stored in the Arctic intermediate layer of Atlantic water, which is increasingly pronounced in the twenty first century.

Koenigk, Torben; Brodeau, Laurent

2013-06-01

141

Natural-gas hydrates: Resource of the twenty-first century?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although considerable uncertainty and disagreement prevail concerning the world's gas-hydrate resources, the estimated amount of gas in those gas-hydrate accumulations greatly exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. However, the role that gas hydrates will play in contributing to the world's energy requirements will ultimately depend less on the volume of gas-hydrate resources than on the cost to extract them. Gas hydrates occur in sedimentary deposits under conditions of pressure and temperature present in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in outer continental margins. The combined information from arctic gas-hydrate studies shows that in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 m to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors (known as bottom-simulating reflectors) that have been mapped at depths below the seafloor ranging from approximately 100 m to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas-hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Gas hydrate as an energy commodity is often grouped with other unconventional hydrocarbon resources. In most cases, the evolution of a nonproducible unconventional resource to a producible energy resource has relied on significant capital investment and technology development. To evaluate the energy-resource potential of gas hydrates will also require the support of sustained research and development programs. Despite the fact that relatively little is known about the ultimate resource potential of gas hydrates, it is certain that they are a vast storehouse of natural gas, and significant technical challenges will need to be met before this enormous resource can be considered an economically producible reserve.

Collett, T. S.

2001-01-01

142

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: WILL THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LEAD OR FOLLOW?  

PubMed Central

Developing countries, particularly the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, should accommodate their national systems of innovation to the worldwide intellectual property (IP) regime emerging after the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in a way that maximizes global economic welfare in the foreseeable future. As many developed countries’ experience demonstrates, badly configured, over-protectionist IP regimes stifle innovation by making inputs to future innovation too costly and too cumbersome to sustain over time. More carefully considered IP regimes, however, are an important way to protect innovative small- and medium-sized firms from predatory, larger competitors. The challenge is for emerging economies to capture the benefits of IP without importing the serious problems that developed countries have themselves failed to solve. Emerging economies can attain this balance by pursuing a policy of counter-harmonization in which they take advantage of existing exemptions in international agreements governing IP to establish regional, local, and international practices that promote more innovative, flexible uses of IP. Such practices include a research exemption for experimental uses of IP, government imposed nonexclusive licensing, anti-blocking provisions, an essential facilities doctrine, and compulsory licenses. Additional tools include an ex ante regime of compensatory liability rules for small scale innovation and sensible exceptions, particularly for science as well as general fair use provisions, to the exclusive rights of domestic copyright laws. Emerging economies will have to overcome strong economic pressure to accept more restrictive IP regimes as part of free trade agreements as well as a lack of technical expertise and internal government coordination. However, emerging economies have already accrued enough experience to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of various IP schemes and their own ability to tailor IP to local needs. Developing countries will need to take advantage of that experience and defend innovative practices at international dispute resolution forums. Through creative, determined efforts, the developing countries can avoid other countries’ IP excesses while establishing the kind of IP norms that address the real conditions of creativity and innovation in today’s digitally empowered universe of scientific discourse.

Reichman, Jerome H.

2010-01-01

143

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: WILL THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LEAD OR FOLLOW?  

PubMed

Developing countries, particularly the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, should accommodate their national systems of innovation to the worldwide intellectual property (IP) regime emerging after the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in a way that maximizes global economic welfare in the foreseeable future. As many developed countries' experience demonstrates, badly configured, over-protectionist IP regimes stifle innovation by making inputs to future innovation too costly and too cumbersome to sustain over time. More carefully considered IP regimes, however, are an important way to protect innovative small- and medium-sized firms from predatory, larger competitors. The challenge is for emerging economies to capture the benefits of IP without importing the serious problems that developed countries have themselves failed to solve. Emerging economies can attain this balance by pursuing a policy of counter-harmonization in which they take advantage of existing exemptions in international agreements governing IP to establish regional, local, and international practices that promote more innovative, flexible uses of IP. Such practices include a research exemption for experimental uses of IP, government imposed nonexclusive licensing, anti-blocking provisions, an essential facilities doctrine, and compulsory licenses. Additional tools include an ex ante regime of compensatory liability rules for small scale innovation and sensible exceptions, particularly for science as well as general fair use provisions, to the exclusive rights of domestic copyright laws. Emerging economies will have to overcome strong economic pressure to accept more restrictive IP regimes as part of free trade agreements as well as a lack of technical expertise and internal government coordination. However, emerging economies have already accrued enough experience to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of various IP schemes and their own ability to tailor IP to local needs. Developing countries will need to take advantage of that experience and defend innovative practices at international dispute resolution forums. Through creative, determined efforts, the developing countries can avoid other countries' IP excesses while establishing the kind of IP norms that address the real conditions of creativity and innovation in today's digitally empowered universe of scientific discourse. PMID:21423816

Reichman, Jerome H

2009-01-31

144

Us, them, and others: reflections on Canadian multiculturalism and national identity at the turn of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The John Porter Lecture at the annual meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria 2013 draws upon my book Us, Them, and Others: Pluralism and National Identity in Diverse Societies. Incorporating the findings from an analysis of Canadian English-language newspaper discourses during the 1990s into a theoretical framework inspired by Weberian sociology, the book argues that pluralism is best understood as a dynamic set of triangular relations where the compromise between unequal groups--"us" and "others"--is rendered meaningful through the confrontation with real or imagined outsiders ("them"). The lecture summarizes the theoretical contribution and explains how multiculturalism became consolidated in dominant Canadian discourses in the late 1990s. The lecture then discusses changes to Canadian multicultural identity at the beginning of the twenty-first century. PMID:24964519

Winter, Elke

2014-05-01

145

Evolution and modulation of tropical heating from the last glacial maximum through the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twentieth century observations show that during the last 50 years the sea-surface temperature (SST) of the tropical oceans has increased by ~0.5°C and the area of SST >26.5 and 28°C (arbitrarily referred to as the oceanic warm pool: OWP) by 15 and 50% respectively in association with an increase in green house gas concentrations, with non-understood natural variability or a combination of both. Based on CMIP3 projections the OWP is projected to double during twenty-first century in a moderate CO2 forcing scenario (IPCC A1B scenario). However, during the observational period the area of positive atmospheric heating (referred to as the dynamic warm pool, DWP), has remained constant. The threshold SST ( T H ), which demarks the region of net heating and cooling, has increased from 26.6°C in the 1950s to 27.1°C in the last decade and it is projected to increase to ~28.5°C by 2100. Based on climate model simulations, the area of the DWP is projected to remain constant during the twenty-first century. Analysis of the paleoclimate model intercomparison project (PMIP I and II) simulations for the Last Glacial maximum and the Mid-Holocene periods show a very similar behaviour, with a larger OWP in periods of elevated tropical SST, and an almost constant DWP associated with a varying T H . The constancy of the DWP area, despite shifts in the background SST, is shown to be the result of a near exact matching between increases in the integrated convective heating within the DWP and the integrated radiative cooling outside the DWP as SST changes. Although the area of the DWP remains constant, the total tropical atmospheric heating is a strong function of the SST. For example the net heating has increased by about 10% from 1950 to 2000 and it is projected to increase by a further 20% by 2100. Such changes must be compensated by a more vigorous atmospheric circulation, with growth in convective heating within the warm pool, and an increase of subsiding air and stability outside the convective warm pool and an increase of vertical shear at the DWP boundaries. This finding is contrary to some conclusions from other studies but in accord with others. We discuss the similarities and differences at length.

Hoyos, Carlos D.; Webster, Peter J.

2012-04-01

146

Mid-twenty-first century climate change in the Central United States. Part II: Climate change processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensemble regional model simulations over the central US with 30-km resolution are analyzed to investigate the physical processes of projected precipitation changes in the mid-twenty-first century under greenhouse gas forcing. An atmospheric moisture balance is constructed, and changes in the diurnal cycle are evaluated. Wetter conditions over the central US in April and May occur most strongly in the afternoon and evening, supported primarily by moisture convergence by transient eddy activity, indicating enhanced daytime convection. In June, increased rainfall over the northern Great Plains is strongest from 0000 to 0600 LT. It is supported by positive changes in stationary meridional moisture convergence related to a strengthening of the GPLLJ accompanied by an intensification of the western extension of the North Atlantic subtropical high. In the Midwest, decreased rainfall is strongest at 1500 LT and 0000 LT. Both a suppression of daytime convection as well as changes in the zonal flow in the GPLLJ exit region are important. Future drying over the northern Great Plains in summer is triggered by weakened daytime convection, and persists throughout August and September when a deficit in soil moisture develops and land-atmosphere feedbacks become increasingly important.

Patricola, C. M.; Cook, K. H.

2013-02-01

147

Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century--radon, smoking, and lung cancer risks.  

PubMed Central

Recognition that radon and its daughter products may accumulate to high levels in homes and in the workplace has led to concern about the potential lung cancer risk resulting from indoor domestic exposure. While such risks can be estimated with current dosimetric and epidemiological models for excess relative risks, it must be recognized that these models are based on data from occupational exposure and from underground miners' mortality experience. Several assumptions are required to apply risk estimates from an occupational setting to the indoor domestic environment. Analyses of the relevant data do not lead to a conclusive description of the interaction between radon daughters and cigarette smoking for the induction of lung cancer. The evidence compels the conclusion that indoor radon daughter exposure in homes represents a potential life-threatening public health hazard, particularly in males, and in cigarette smokers. Resolution of complex societal interactions will require public policy decisions involving the governmental, scientific, financial, and industrial sectors. These decisions impact the home, the workplace, and the marketplace, and they extend beyond the constraints of science. Risk identification, assessment, and management require scientific and engineering approaches to guide policy decisions to protect the public health. Mitigation and control procedures are only beginning to receive attention. Full acceptance for protection against what could prove to be a significant public health hazard in the twenty-first century will certainly involve policy decisions, not by scientists, but rather by men and women of government and law.

Fabrikant, J I

1990-01-01

148

Twenty-first century approaches to toxicity testing, biomonitoring, and risk assessment: perspectives from the global chemical industry.  

PubMed

The International Council of Chemical Associations' Long-Range Research Initiative (ICCA-LRI) sponsored a workshop, titled Twenty-First Century Approaches to Toxicity Testing, Biomonitoring, and Risk Assessment, on 16 and 17 June 2008 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The workshop focused on interpretation of data from the new technologies for toxicity testing and biomonitoring, and on understanding the relevance of the new data for assessment of human health risks. Workshop participants articulated their concerns that scientific approaches for interpreting and understanding the emerging data in a biologically relevant context lag behind the rapid advancements in the new technologies. Research will be needed to mitigate these lags and to develop approaches for communicating the information, even in a context of uncertainty. A collaborative, coordinated, and sustained research effort is necessary to modernize risk assessment and to significantly reduce current reliance on animal testing. In essence, this workshop was a call to action to bring together the intellectual and financial resources necessary to harness the potential of these new technologies towards improved public health decision making. Without investment in the science of interpretation, it will be difficult to realize the potential that the advanced technologies offer to modernize toxicity testing, exposure science, and risk assessment. PMID:19690554

Phillips, Richard D; Bahadori, Tina; Barry, Brenda E; Bus, James S; Gant, Timothy W; Mostowy, Janet M; Smith, Claudia; Willuhn, Marc; Zimmer, Ulrike

2009-09-01

149

The era of the wandering mind? Twenty-first century research on self-generated mental activity.  

PubMed

The first decade of the twenty-first century was characterized by renewed scientific interest in self-generated mental activity (activity largely generated by the individual, rather than in direct response to experimenters' instructions or specific external sensory inputs). To understand this renewal of interest, we interrogated the peer-reviewed literature from 2003 to 2012 (i) to explore recent changes in use of terms for self-generated mental activity; (ii) to investigate changes in the topics on which mind wandering research, specifically, focuses; and (iii) to visualize co-citation communities amongst researchers working on self-generated mental activity. Our analyses demonstrated that there has been a dramatic increase in the term "mind wandering" from 2006, and a significant crossing-over of psychological investigations of mind wandering into cognitive neuroscience (particularly in relation to research on the default mode and default mode network). If our article concludes that this might, indeed, be the "era of the wandering mind," it also calls for more explicit reflection to be given by researchers in this field to the terms they use, the topics and brain regions they focus on, and the research literatures that they implicitly foreground or ignore. PMID:24391606

Callard, Felicity; Smallwood, Jonathan; Golchert, Johannes; Margulies, Daniel S

2013-01-01

150

The era of the wandering mind? Twenty-first century research on self-generated mental activity  

PubMed Central

The first decade of the twenty-first century was characterized by renewed scientific interest in self-generated mental activity (activity largely generated by the individual, rather than in direct response to experimenters’ instructions or specific external sensory inputs). To understand this renewal of interest, we interrogated the peer-reviewed literature from 2003 to 2012 (i) to explore recent changes in use of terms for self-generated mental activity; (ii) to investigate changes in the topics on which mind wandering research, specifically, focuses; and (iii) to visualize co-citation communities amongst researchers working on self-generated mental activity. Our analyses demonstrated that there has been a dramatic increase in the term “mind wandering” from 2006, and a significant crossing-over of psychological investigations of mind wandering into cognitive neuroscience (particularly in relation to research on the default mode and default mode network). If our article concludes that this might, indeed, be the “era of the wandering mind,” it also calls for more explicit reflection to be given by researchers in this field to the terms they use, the topics and brain regions they focus on, and the research literatures that they implicitly foreground or ignore.

Callard, Felicity; Smallwood, Jonathan; Golchert, Johannes; Margulies, Daniel S.

2013-01-01

151

Clubfoot in the twentieth century: where we were and where we may be going in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

In the twentieth century clubfoot was one of the commonest congenital deformities of the musculoskeletal system with an incidence in some races as low as 0.6 and in others as high as 6.8 per thousand live births (Polynesia). Males have the deformity twice as often as females. In the early 1900s forceful correction of the deformity as espoused by Hugh Owen Thomas was in vogue. In the 1930s Joseph Hiram Kite, like Hippocrates (400 BC), recommended repeated gentle manipulations to achieve a correction. Instead of bandages Kite used serial plaster casts to maintain the correction. During the late 1940s Ignatio Ponseti developed his technique of correction through the normal arc of the subtalar joint. In a clubfoot the soft tissues are more resistant to pressure than the bones. With this concept in mind soft tissue procedures were developed in which the capsules and ligaments were released surgically. With safer pediatric anesthesia the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s saw surgical approaches that were more and more aggressive even including a complete subtalar release. The improved imaging modalities and computer graphics of the 1980s led to a better understanding of the pathoanatomy. Long-term follow-up studies demonstrating malcorrection, overcorrection, pain, and stiffness dampened the enthusiasm for very aggressive surgery. The main problem with surgery is that clubfoot wounds heal by a patching up process called repair. The losses are made good not with the original tissue but with a material that is biologically simple, cheap, and handy - connective tissue scar! As the century drew to a close there was a major swing of the pendulum to the Ponseti method. Surgeons are now learning the limitations of this method. Finally, the author tries to imagine what may happen in the future prevention, classification, and treatment of clubfoot with all the advances in cell biology, molecular biology, biomechanics, biomaterials, surgery, orthotics, and evidence-based medicine. PMID:21946867

Carroll, Norris C

2012-01-01

152

High-resolution modelling of the Antarctic surface mass balance, application for the twentieth, twenty first and twenty second centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 75 % of the Antarctic surface mass gain occurs over areas below 2,000 m asl, which cover 40 % of the grounded ice-sheet. As the topography is complex in many of these regions, surface mass balance modelling is highly dependent on horizontal resolution, and studying the impact of Antarctica on the future rise in sea level requires physical approaches. We have developed a computationally efficient, physical downscaling model for high-resolution (15 km) long-term surface mass balance (SMB) projections. Here, we present results of this model, called SMHiL (surface mass balance high-resolution downscaling), which was forced with the LMDZ4 atmospheric general circulation model to assess Antarctic SMB variability in the twenty first and the twenty second centuries under two different scenarios. The higher resolution of SMHiL better reproduces the geographical patterns of SMB and increase significantly the averaged SMB over the grounded ice-sheet for the end of the twentieth century. A comparison with more than 3200 quality-controlled field data shows that LMDZ4 and SMHiL reproduce the observed values equally well. Nevertheless, field data below 2,000 m asl are too scarce to efficiently show the added value of SMHiL and measuring the SMB in these undocumented areas should be a future scientific priority. Our results suggest that running LMDZ4 at a finer resolution (15 km) may give a future increase in SMB in Antarctica that is about 30 % higher than by using its standard resolution (60 km) due to the higher increase in precipitation in coastal areas at 15 km. However, a part (˜15 %) of these discrepancies could be an artefact from SMHiL since it neglects the foehn effect and likely overestimates the precipitation increase. Future changes in the Antarctic SMB at low elevations will result from the competition between higher snow accumulation and runoff. For this reason, developing downscaling models is crucial to represent processes in sufficient detail and correctly model the SMB in coastal areas.

Agosta, Cécile; Favier, Vincent; Krinner, Gerhard; Gallée, Hubert; Fettweis, Xavier; Genthon, Christophe

2013-12-01

153

Music Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of German and American Music Education towards a New Concept of International Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparative Music Education is often considered to be an unnecessary subject because there seem to be more important issues for research than studying music education in various countries. Comparative music education is not a luxury, but rather a necessity in the twenty-first century. Scholars and music teachers in many countries are struggling…

Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

2008-01-01

154

Three Dialogs: A Framework for the Analysis and Assessment of Twenty-First-Century Literacy Practices, and Its Use in the Context of Game Design within "Gamestar Mechanic"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a framework for the analysis and assessment of twenty-first-century language and literacy practices in game and design-based contexts. It presents the framework in the context of game design within "Gamestar Mechanic", an innovative game-based learning environment where children learn the Discourse of game design. It…

Games, Ivan Alex

2008-01-01

155

Zoos in the twenty-first century: Can't we find a better way to love nature?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a new millennium approaches, many forms of life on the planet and the environments in which they have evolved are increasingly threatened by human activities Wildlife is being marginalized, and native habitats are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. Equally disturbing is the impending demise of traditional human societies---peoples who have evolved outside of the confines and conditions of modern Western influence. The loss of these human and animal societies has occurred so rapidly that implications are largely unknown. Research on how modern Americans relate to animals, particularly wildlife, revealed a clear and disturbing incongruity best exemplified in the current paradigm of zoo exhibition and education. Although zoos purport to educate visitors about the ecology of natural environments and the universal plight of wildlife, research shows that people, particularly children, learn less about ecological principles in zoos with live animals than they do in non-living natural history exhibits. While designers employ a variety of visual techniques in natural history exhibition, environmental sound as an educational exhibit component is largely nonexistent. Many animal species communicate through sound, especially species in underwater environments. As the audio equivalent of a landscape, the soundscape is as important as any other habitat feature to the well-being of wildlife populations. Using recorded sounds of natural environments, an exhibition soundscape was designed and produced for Oceanario de Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal---the centerpiece of the 1998 World Exposition in Lisbon, Portugal. With programmed sound serving as a major component of natural history exhibition, a conceptual design of a novel zoo for the twenty-first century was described. The "NewZew" concept is based on a growing awareness that the best way to save species is to salvage, preserve, and restore their natural habitats---activities that are largely antithetical to current zoo practice. In introducing visitors to the lifeways of traditional societies and employing recent and emerging technologies, the NewZew educates its visitors about the wonders of life on earth without displaying live animals.

Dewey-Platt, Lauren Kay

156

Evaluation of the twenty-first century RCM simulations driven by multiple GCMs over the Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, human-induced climate change over the Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea region has been analyzed for the twenty-first century by performing regional climate model simulations forced with large-scale fields from three different global circulation models (GCMs). Climate projections have been produced with Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2, A1FI and B1 scenarios, which provide greater diversity in climate information for future period. The gradual increases for temperature are widely apparent during the twenty-first century for each scenario simulation, but ECHAM5-driven simulation generally has a weaker signal for all seasons compared to CCSM3 simulations except for the Fertile Crescent. The contrast in future temperature change between the winter and summer seasons is very strong for CCSM3-A2-driven and HadCM3-A2-driven simulations over Carpathians and Balkans, 4-5 °C. In addition, winter runoff over mountainous region of Turkey, which feeds many river systems including the Euphrates and Tigris, increases in second half of the century since the snowmelt process accelerates where the elevation is higher than 1,500 m. Moreover, analysis of daily temperature outputs reveals that the gradual decrease in daily minimum temperature variability for January during the twenty-first century is apparent over Carpathians and Balkans. Analysis of daily precipitation extremes shows that positive trend is clear during the last two decades of the twenty-first century over Carpathians for both CCSM3-driven and ECHAM5-driven simulations. Multiple-GCM driven regional climate simulations contribute to the quantification of the range of climate change over a region by performing detailed comparisons between the simulations.

Önol, Bar??; Bozkurt, Deniz; Turuncoglu, Ufuk Utku; Sen, Omer Lutfi; Dalfes, H. Nuzhet

2014-04-01

157

A conceptualisation of a customer-bank bond in the context of the twenty-first century UK retail banking industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper has two purposes. First, it is to highlight the importance of customer retention and bonding in the context of twenty-first century banking environment. Second, it is to propose a conceptual model of the customer-bank bond. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is written based on both extant literature and the author's observation. The paper begins by discussing the

Rizal Ahmad

2005-01-01

158

The House, the Street, Global Society: Latin American Families and Childhood in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the colonial period (1492 to approximately 1826), children have constituted a large proportion of the population of Latin America, with approximately thirty to fifty percent under age twenty in the eighteenth century. Public health campaigns in the early twentieth century improved child survival rates and resulted in the substantial expansion of the proportion under age twenty by the 1960s.

Elizabeth Anne Kuznesof

2005-01-01

159

Language Hotspots: What (Applied) Linguistics and Education Should Do about Language Endangerment in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I outline the concept of "Language Hotspots", seeking to direct public and professional awareness of the global language extinction crisis. The loss of a single language leaves the science of linguistics impoverished and yet even few linguists realize that the vast majority of "language families" will likely be lost by the end of this century.…

Anderson, Gregory D. S.

2011-01-01

160

Learning Outcomes for the Twenty-First Century: Cultivating Student Success for College and the Knowledge Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter provides an overview of the League for Innovation in the Community College's project on learning outcomes. The 21st Century Learning Outcomes Project was a three-year project involving sixteen diverse community colleges that supported the development of practices for assessing and using student learning outcomes to improve student…

Miles, Cindy L.; Wilson, Cynthia

2004-01-01

161

From a Formalist to a Practical Aesthetic in Undergraduate Theatre Studies: Becoming Relevant in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a new century unfolds, the "downsizing" and continuing marginalization of the humanities, including theatre, in American higher education correspond to three trends in the academy. First, in response to the fiscal crises that began in the late 1970s, universities have increasingly turned to the private sector for financial support as federal…

Berkeley, Anne

2011-01-01

162

Scott Shuler's "Music and Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Retrospective"--Review and Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predicting the future is a challenging task for music education, requiring both retrospection, analysis of current events, and foresight. This article examines several predictions from 2001 and challenges music educators to consider factors that may influence the future of teaching music in society.

McLain, Barbara Payne

2014-01-01

163

Oceanic CO2 sink and pH changes over historical time and twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three dynamical global ocean carbon cycle model based on the global ocean circulation model POP and the ocean biogeochemical model OCMIP-2 is used to simulate the ocean carbon cycle of the pre-industrial, industrial history period and the 21st century under different atmospheric CO2 concentration forcing. The ocean physical processes and biogeochemical processes are well simulated by comparing the model results with the observation data. The simulated results show that the ocean absorbs the atmospheric CO2 in the middle latitude of the south hemisphere and the middle and high latitude in north hemisphere, while the ocean release CO2 to the atmosphere in the equatorial area and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current area. The oceanic CO2 sink is rising during the historical time, but in the 21st century, the oceanic sink reaches a peak then decrease even though the atmospheric CO2 concentration rising all the time. The north Atlantic absorbs the most anthropogenic carbon during the historical and future time. In 2100, the anthropogenic carbon will be transported through the entire deep Atlantic by the north Atlantic deep water, while it will be transferred to 50°S by the Antarctic bottom water. The pH of sea water decrease 0.1 during the history time and will continue decreasing in the 21st century. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the sea water pH will be 7.73, and decreases 0.43, while the concentration of H+ will be 2.7 times of pre-industrial level.

Bao, Y.; Qiao, F.; Song, Z.

2011-12-01

164

CO 2 and non-CO 2 radiative forcings in climate projections for twenty-first century mitigation scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate is simulated for reference and mitigation emissions scenarios from Integrated Assessment Models using the Bern2.5CC\\u000a carbon cycle–climate model. Mitigation options encompass all major radiative forcing agents. Temperature change is attributed\\u000a to forcings using an impulse–response substitute of Bern2.5CC. The contribution of CO2 to global warming increases over the century in all scenarios. Non-CO2 mitigation measures add to the abatement

Kuno M. Strassmann; G.-K. Plattner; F. Joos

2009-01-01

165

When There Isn't a Right Answer: Interpretation and Reasoning, Key Skills for Twenty-First Century Geoscience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key challenge in university geoscience teaching is to give students the skills to cope with uncertainty. Professional geoscientists can rarely be certain of the "right answer" to problems posed by most geological datasets, and reasoning through this uncertainty, being intelligently flexible in interpreting data which are limited in resolution…

Bond, Clare Elizabeth; Philo, Chris; Shipton, Zoe Kai

2011-01-01

166

Energy prices will play an important role in determining global land use in the twenty first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global land use research to date has focused on quantifying uncertainty effects of three major drivers affecting competition for land: the uncertainty in energy and climate policies affecting competition between food and biofuels, the uncertainty of climate impacts on agriculture and forestry, and the uncertainty in the underlying technological progress driving efficiency of food, bioenergy and timber production. The market uncertainty in fossil fuel prices has received relatively less attention in the global land use literature. Petroleum and natural gas prices affect both the competitiveness of biofuels and the cost of nitrogen fertilizers. High prices put significant pressure on global land supply and greenhouse gas emissions from terrestrial systems, while low prices can moderate demands for cropland. The goal of this letter is to assess and compare the effects of these core uncertainties on the optimal profile for global land use and land-based GHG emissions over the coming century. The model that we develop integrates distinct strands of agronomic, biophysical and economic literature into a single, intertemporally consistent, analytical framework, at global scale. Our analysis accounts for the value of land-based services in the production of food, first- and second-generation biofuels, timber, forest carbon and biodiversity. We find that long-term uncertainty in energy prices dominates the climate impacts and climate policy uncertainties emphasized in prior research on global land use.

Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Hertel, Thomas W.

2013-03-01

167

Responses of dune activity and desertification in China to global warming in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most areas of arid and semiarid China are covered by aeolian sand dunes, sand sheets, and desert steppes, and the existence of the nearly 80 million people who live in this region could be seriously jeopardized if climate change increases desertification. However, the expected trends in desertification during the 21st century are poorly understood. In the present study, we selected the ECHAM4 and HadCM3 global climate models (after comparing them with the results of the GFDL-R30, CGCM2, and CSIRO-Mk2b models) and used simulations of a dune mobility index under IPCC SRES climate scenarios A1FI, A2a, A2b, A2c, B1a, B2a, and B2b to estimate future trends in dune activity and desertification in China. Although uncertainties in climate predictions mean that there is still far to go before we can develop a comprehensive dune activity estimation system, HadCM3 simulations with most greenhouse forcing scenarios showed decreased desertification in most western region of arid and semiarid China by 2039, but increased desertification thereafter, whereas ECHAM4 simulation results showed that desertification will increase during this period. Inhabitants of thecentral region will benefit from reversed desertification from 2010 to 2099, whereas inhabitants of the eastern region will suffer from increased desertification from 2010 to 2099. From 2010 to 2039, most regions will not be significantly affected by desertification, but from 2040 to 2099, the environments of the western and eastern regions will deteriorate due to the significant effects of global warming (particularly the interaction between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration), leading to decreased livestock and grain yields and possibly threatening China's food security.

Wang, Xunming; Yang, Yi; Dong, Zhibao; Zhang, Caixia

2009-06-01

168

Twenty-First Century Garage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiences of several school bus garages around the country show that it is possible to modernize equipment and upgrade training while also holding the line on costs. Computer software is used to track servicing, inventory, and other information about a bus fleet. Related factors in improved bus maintenance are the quality of the vehicles and…

Bushweller, Kevin

1997-01-01

169

Twenty-first Century Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predictions were made prior to Huygens deployment that the density and mass of the moon Titan are much greater anticipated, and the result of this greater mass would be a very rapid if not fatal descent. These predictions were based upon non-Newtonian, non-relativistic physics derived from cosmic, macro and micro phenomena. Confirmation of this prediction is found in the inexplicable descent profile of the Huygens probe. The scale of this effect can be confirmed through careful re-examination of the orbital and descent dynamics near Venus, Mars and Jupiter. The model of the physical world created to make this prediction contraindicates the GR solution, and is able to assign causality to many poorly understood phenomena including, but not limited to triboelectric effects, supernova expansion and the associated gamma rays, expansion 'ring's and residual radiation; AGN jets, the solar corona, the solar neutrino count, X-ray emitting gases, the Tully-Fisher relationship, the MOND effect, turbulence, the limited turbulence observed on Jupiter, the effects of earthquakes on the ionosphere, null results of cosmic gravitational wave experiments, and a variety of cosmic redshifting factors. The exceptional voyage of the Huygens probe has ushered in a new era of physics.

Jensen, Jerry W.

2005-03-01

170

The past is a guide to the future? Comparing Middle Pliocene vegetation with predicted biome distributions for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

During the Middle Pliocene, the Earth experienced greater global warmth compared with today, coupled with higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations. To determine the extent to which the Middle Pliocene can be used as a 'test bed' for future warming, we compare data and model-based Middle Pliocene vegetation with simulated global biome distributions for the mid- and late twenty-first century. The best agreement is found when a Middle Pliocene biome reconstruction is compared with a future scenario using 560 ppmv atmospheric CO2. In accordance with palaeobotanical data, all model simulations indicate a generally warmer and wetter climate, resulting in a northward shift of the taiga-tundra boundary and a spread of tropical savannah and woodland in Africa and Australia at the expense of deserts. Our data-model comparison reveals differences in the distribution of polar vegetation, which indicate that the high latitudes during the Middle Pliocene were still warmer than its predicted modern analogue by several degrees. However, our future scenarios do not consider multipliers associated with 'long-term' climate sensitivity. Changes in global temperature, and thus biome distributions, at higher atmospheric CO2 levels will not have reached an equilibrium state (as is the case for the Middle Pliocene) by the end of this century. PMID:18854302

Salzmann, U; Haywood, A M; Lunt, D J

2009-01-13

171

Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers suggestions for expanding the focus of child-directed efforts and also includes recommendations for alternative approaches

Sandy K. Wurtele

2009-01-01

172

Teacher Education Policy in Ireland and the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In line with the principles of the Bologna Process, teacher education systems across Europe are converging along a common path. Taking the Republic of Ireland (Ireland) as a case study, this paper examines the European agenda in relation to teacher education and asks how individual nation states are coping with the demands of greater comparability…

Harford, Judith

2010-01-01

173

The nutrition challenge in the twenty-first century: what role for the United Nations?  

PubMed

United Nations (UN) agencies can play a key role in raising awareness upon the problem of malnutrition and encouraging policy changes which support effective programs. To such ends, the UN Administrative Committee on Coordination's Sub-Committee on Nutrition (ACC/SCN) decided at its recent annual meeting in Nepal to establish a small, but high-level International Commission on Nutrition. The proposal was prompted by recent evidence of slowdown in rates of nutrition progress, the absolute deterioration of nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa, and marked progress made over the past 5 years against micronutrient deficiencies, especially with regard to iodine and vitamin A. The SCN proposed that the commission review the situation and make recommendations upon goals and objectives for accelerating progress in the field of nutrition over the next decade or 2, especially in protein energy malnutrition. The commission should include 3-4 distinguished international experts, including a senior economist. PMID:12321585

1997-07-01

174

Subjects to Citizens: Adult Learning and the Challenges of Democracy in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theme 1 of the "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" boldly proclaimed that active citizenship and full participation of all citizens was the necessary foundation for "the creation of a learning society committed to social justice and general well-being" (UNESCO, 1997, p. 4). The "Declaration" advocated that future societies create "greater…

Welton, Michael

2013-01-01

175

Restoring Rivers in the Twenty-First Century: Science Challenges in a Management Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal mandates force consideration of at least some level of river restoration in many developed nations (e.g., Clean Water\\u000a and Endangered Species Act in the United States, or the Water Framework Directive in the European Union), but a lack of specifics\\u000a in legislation compels decision-makers to ask three persistent management questions: (1) How much river restoration do we\\u000a need? (2)

Timothy J. Beechie; George R. Pess; Michael M. Pollock; Mary H. Ruckelshaus; Phil Roni

176

Challenges for the Air Force Civilian Workforce and the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Civilian employees represent one-third of the total active force. They are an integral part of the Air Force mission, providing expertise in all areas. This report examines the demographics of the United States and identifies population trends which may s...

L. M. McCullar

1990-01-01

177

Challenges and Possibilities for Understanding Men's Health in Twenty-First Century Forensic Psychiatric Care.  

PubMed

Forensic psychiatric care in Sweden constitutes a specific institutional environment in health care in terms of gender and power relationships. This context emphasizes safety and protection in an environment where men constitute a majority of the patients and staff. It involves relationships among men's health, constructions of masculinities, and issues regarding equality between women's and men's caring work. The aim of this theoretical article is to problematize men's health in relation to constructions of masculinities. Our analysis shows how the perception of health is involved in the construction of masculinities and how this plays out in daily interactions between caregivers and patients. PMID:25072214

Kumpula, Esa; Ekstrand, Per

2014-08-01

178

Chemical Communication in Crustaceans: Research Challenges for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chemical signals play an important role during various life stages of crustaceans. Settling of larvae, parent–offspring communication,\\u000a mate finding, mate choice, aggressive contests, and dominance hierarchies are all mediated by chemical signals. Enormous advances\\u000a have been made on understanding the function of chemical signals in crustaceans and we are on the doorstep of major advances\\u000a in chemical characterization of pheromones.

Martin Thiel; Thomas Breithaupt

179

Ethos of the Day—Challenges and Opportunities in Twenty-first Century Social Work Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the social work education literatures center on epistemological and pedagogical issues underpinning curriculum design and teaching methods. There is less attention paid to the socio-economic and technological context of the society that has a significant impact on both teachers and students. This paper brings forth a discussion on such impact in terms of the political economy and electronic-mediated

Nai Ming Tsang

2011-01-01

180

Projected impact of twenty-first century ENSO changes on rainfall over Central America and northwest South America from CMIP5 AOGCMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the importance that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has on rainfall over the tropical Americas, future changes in ENSO characteristics and teleconnections are important for regional hydroclimate. Projected changes to the ENSO mean state and characteristics, and the resulting impacts on rainfall anomalies over Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador during the twenty-first century are explored for several forcing scenarios using a suite of coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Mean-state warming of eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, drying of Central America and northern Colombia, and wetting of southwest Colombia and Ecuador are consistent with previous studies that used earlier versions of the AOGCMs. Current and projected future characteristics of ENSO (frequency, duration, amplitude) show a wide range of values across the various AOGCMs. The magnitude of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies are currently underestimated by most of the models, but the model ensembles generally simulate the correct sign of the anomalies across the seasons around the peak ENSO effects. While the models capture the broad present-day ENSO-related rainfall anomalies, there is not a clear sense of projected future changes in the precipitation anomalies.

Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Clark, Martyn P.

2014-06-01

181

Lights, camera, action research: The effects of didactic digital movie making on students' twenty-first century learning skills and science content in the middle school classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and ISTE NET*S, along with the framework from the Partnership for 21st Century Learning Standards, our society demands students not only to learn curriculum, but to think critically, problem solve effectively, and become adept at communicating and collaborating. Didactic digital movie making in the science classroom may be one way that these twenty-first century learning skills may be implemented. An action research study using a mixed-methods approach to collect data was used to investigate if didactic moviemaking can help eighth grade students learn physical science content while incorporating 21st century learning skills of collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills through their group production. Over a five week period, students researched lessons, wrote scripts, acted, video recorded and edited a didactic movie that contained a narrative plot to teach a science strand from the Arizona State Standards in physical science. A pretest/posttest science content test and KWL chart was given before and after the innovation to measure content learned by the students. Students then took a 21st Century Learning Skills Student Survey to measure how much they perceived that communication, collaboration, problem solving and critical thinking were taking place during the production. An open ended survey and a focus group of four students were used for qualitative analysis. Three science teachers used a project evaluation rubric to measure science content and production values from the movies. Triangulating the science content test, KWL chart, open ended questions and the project evaluation rubric, it appeared that science content was gained from this project. Students felt motivated to learn and had positive experience. Students also felt that the repetition of production and watching their movies helped them remember science. Students also perceived that creating the didactic digital movie helped them use collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills throughout their production.

Ochsner, Karl

182

Why 'class' is too soft a category to capture the explosiveness of social inequality at the beginning of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

We can distinguish four positions on the continuing, or maybe even increasing, relevance of the category of class at the beginning of the twenty-first century depending on the extent to which they accord central importance to (1) the reproduction or (2) the transformation of social classes with regard to (3) the distribution of goods without bads or (4) the distribution of goods and bads. One could say that Dean Curran introduces the concept of 'risk-class' to radicalize the class distribution of risk and charts who will able to occupy areas less exposed to risk and who will have little choice but to occupy areas that are exposed to the brunt of the fact of the risk society. As he mentioned it is important to note that this social structuring of the distribution of bads will be affected not only by class, but also by other forms of social structuration of disadvantage, such as gender and race. In order to demonstrate that the distribution of bads is currently exacerbating class differences in life chances, however, Curran concentrates exclusively on phenomena of individual risks. In the process, he overlooks the problem of systemic risks in relation of the state, science, new corporate roles, management the mass media, law, mobile capital and social movements; at the same time, his conceptual frame of reference does not really thematize the interdependence between individual and systemic risks. Those who reduce the problematic of risk to that of the life chances of individuals are unable to grasp the conflicting social and political logics of risk and class conflicts. Or, to put it pointedly: 'class' is too soft a category to capture the explosiveness of social inequality in world risk society. PMID:23488700

Beck, Ulrich

2013-03-01

183

Variations in northern hemisphere snowfall: An analysis of historical trends and the projected response to anthropogenic forcing in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snowfall is an important feature of the Earth's climate system that has the ability to influence both the natural world and human activity. This dissertation examines past and future changes in snowfall related to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Snowfall observations for North America, derived snowfall products for the Northern Hemisphere, and simulations performed with 13 coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models are analyzed. The analysis of the spatial pattern of simulated annual trends on a grid point basis from 1951 to 1999 indicates that a transition zone exists above 60° N latitude across the Northern Hemisphere that separates negative trends in annual snowfall in the mid-latitudes and positive trends at higher latitudes. Regional analysis of observed annual snowfall indicates that statistically significant trends are found in western North America, Japan, and southern Russia. A majority of the observed historical trends in annual snowfall elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere, however, are not statistically significant and this result is consistent with model simulations. Projections of future snowfall indicate the presence of a similar transition zone between negative and positive snowfall trends that corresponds with the area between the -10 to -15°C isotherms of the multi-model mean temperature of the late twentieth century in each of the fall, winter, and spring seasons. Redistributions of snowfall throughout the entire snow season are likely -- even in locations where there is little change in annual snowfall. Changes in the fraction of precipitation falling as snow contribute to decreases in snowfall across most Northern Hemisphere regions, while changes in precipitation typically contribute to increases in snowfall. Snowfall events less than or equal to 5 cm are found to decrease in the future across most of the Northern Hemisphere, while snowfall events greater than or equal to 20 cm increase in some locations, such as northern Quebec. A signal-to-noise analysis reveals that the projected changes in snowfall are likely to become apparent during the twenty-first century for most locations in the Northern Hemisphere.

Krasting, John P.

184

Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5°N-15°S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8°C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4°C and in winter between 3 and 5°C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of model runs for some regions, as the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador, northern Argentina, Eastern Amazonia and Northeast Brazil, whereas for other regions they are less robust as in Pantanal region of West Central and southeastern Brazil.

Marengo, Jose A.; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Cuadra, Santiago V.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Ferraz, Simone E. T.

2010-11-01

185

Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) projected twenty-first century warming over Southern Africa: Role of Local Feedbacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The warming rates projected by an ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparion Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models (GCMs) over southern Africa (south of 10 degrees latitude) are investigated. The low resolution GCMs forced by four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) have been interpolated to a common resolution using a bilinear interpolation scheme. Warming is defined in terms of absolute differences in annual-mean near-surface air temperatures between two twenty-year time slices (2046-2065 and 2081-2100) and the historical period 1986-2005. In all RCPs, CMIP5 models project a higher warming rate over the southwestern parts centred around the arid Kalahari and Namib deserts and extending towards northern South Africa, eastern Namibia, western Botswana and southern Angola. The higher warming rates over these areas outpace global warming by up to a factor 2 in some GCMs. The projected warming is associated with an increase in heat waves. There is notable consensus across the models with little intermodel spread, suggesting a strong robustness of the projections. The spatial pattern and magnitude of the projected temperature increase relative to global warming is quite similar across the two selected time slices in the twenty-first century. Mechanisms underlying the enhanced warming are investigated. A positive soil moisture-temperature feedback is suggested to contribute to the accelerated temperature increase. A decrease in soil moisture is projected by the GCMs over the area of highest warming. The reduction in soil wetness reduces evapotranspiration rates over the area where evaporation is dependent on available soil moisture. The reduction is evapotranspiration affects the partitioning of turbulent energy fluxes from the soil surface into the atmosphere and translates into an increase of the Bowen ratio featuring an increase in sensible relative to latent heat flux. An increase in sensible heat flux leads to an increase in near-surface temperature. The increase in temperature leads to a higher vapour pressure deficit and evaporative demand and evapotranspiration from the dry soils, possibly leading to a further decrease in soil moisture. A precipitation-soil moisture feedback is also suggested. A decrease in mean precipitation and an increase in drought conditions are projected over the area of enhanced warming. The reduced precipitation results in drier soils. The drier soil translates to reduced evapotranspiration for cloud and rainfall formation. However, the role played by the soil moisture-precipitation feedback loop is still inconclusive and characterized by some degree of uncertainty given that the strength of the local moisture recycling has not been explicitly quantified. An alternative mechanism involving the impact of soil moisture anomalies on boundary-layer stability and precipitation formation will be investigated.

Shongwe, Mxolisi; Ntsangwane, Lucky

2014-05-01

186

Bridging the climate-induced water gap in the twenty-first century: adaptation support based on water supply, demand, adaptation and financing.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity affects large parts of the world. Over the course of the twenty-first century, water demand is likely to increase due to population growth and associated food production, and increased economic activity, while water supply is projected to decrease in many regions due to climate change. Despite recent studies that analyze the effect of climate change on water scarcity, e.g. using climate projections under representative concentration pathways (RCP) of the fifth assessment report of the IPCC (AR5), decision support for closing the water gap between now and 2100 does not exist at a meaningful scale and with a global coverage. In this study, we aimed (i) to assess the joint impact of climatic and socio-economic change on water scarcity, (ii) to integrate impact and potential adaptation in one workflow, (iii) to prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity based on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) to deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. To enable the combination of global coverage with local relevance, we aggregated all results for 1604 water provinces (food producing units) delineated in this study, which is five times smaller than previous food producing units. Water supply was computed using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological and water resources model, parameterized at 5 arcminutes for the whole globe, excluding Antarctica and Greenland. We ran PCR-GLOBWB with a daily forcing derived from five different GCM models from the CMIP5 (GFDL-ESM2M, Hadgem2-ES, IPSL-CMA5-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) that were bias corrected using observation-based WATCH data between 1960-1999. For each of the models all four RCPs (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) were run, producing the ensemble of 20 future projections. The blue water supply was aggregated per month and per water province. Industrial, domestic and irrigation water demands were computed for a limited number of realistic combinations of a shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and RCPs. Our Water And Climate Adaptation Model (WatCAM) was used to compute the water gap based on reservoir capacity, water supply, and water demand. WatCam is based on the existing ModSim (Labadie, 2010) water allocation model, and facilitated the evaluation of nine technological and infrastructural adaptation measures to assess the investments needed to bridge the future water gap. Regional environmental and socio-economic effects of these investments, such as environmental flows or downstream effects, were evaluated. A scheme was developed to evaluate the strategies on robustness and flexibility under climate change and scenario uncertainty, and each measure was linked to possibilities for investment and financing mechanisms. The WatCAM is available as a web modeling service from www.water2invest.com, and enables user specified adaptation measures and the creation of an ensemble of water gap forecasts.

Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jaïrus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Vitolo, Claudia; Schmitz, Oliver; Meijer, Karen; Van Aalst, Maaike; Bierkens, Marc

2014-05-01

187

Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (UseIT): Preparing Students for the Twenty-First Century Work Force via a Multidisciplinary and Collaborative Learning Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UseIT is one of the three undergraduate research programs sponsored by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The program allows students to work in multi-disciplinary collaborative teams to tackle a scientific “Grand Challenge.” The topic varies each year but it always entails performing computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists, educators, and other target audiences. The program allows undergraduates to use the advanced tools of information technology to solve important problems in interdisciplinary earthquake research. Since the program began in 2002, 145 students have participated in UseIT. The program stresses problem solving and interdisciplinary cross training. A key aspect of the UseIT program is its flexible, yet structured, team approach. Students share their diverse skills and interests, creating a powerful synergy through this peer mentoring. The majority of UseIT interns have considerable computer science skill or aptitude, but successful UseIT interns have hailed from nearly three-dozen disciplines, all class levels, and all skill levels. Successful UseIT interns have in common a willingness to step outside their comfort zones and try new things. During the 2009 internship the focus of the program was to deliver SCEC Virtual Display of Objects (VDO) images and animations of faults and earthquake sequences to SCEC, the Earthquake Country Alliance, and other virtual organizations via a content management system that captures the metadata and guides the user. SCEC-VDO is the SCEC intern-developed visualization software that allows the user to see earthquake related phenomena in three and four dimensions. The 2009 Grand Challenge had special relevance for the interns because the products they created were used for The Great California ShakeOut. This talk will discuss lessons learned from this program, how it addresses the needs of the 21st century STEM work force, and highlights of the 2009 internship.

Degroot, R. M.; Jordan, T. H.; Benthien, M. L.; Ihrig, M.; Berti, R.

2009-12-01

188

Deweyan Darwinism for the Twenty-First Century: Toward an Educational Method for Critical Democratic Engagement in the Era of the Institute of Education Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our society's preoccupation with making educational policy and practice "scientific" is attested to by the stated mission of the Institute of Education Sciences: "to provide rigorous evidence on which to ground education practice and policy." Early in the twentieth century, John Dewey also advocated for a vision of education guided by science, and…

Seltzer-Kelly, Deborah

2008-01-01

189

The Informal Reading-"Thinking" Inventory: Twenty-First-Century Assessment Formats for Discovering Reading and Writing Needs--and Strengths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss the Informal Reading-"Thinking" Inventory (IR-TI), an informal reading inventory built on an easily recognized legacy model that also branches out into new realms. The IR-TI provides tools for assessing reading the lines, reading between the lines, and reading beyond the lines. This is a 21st-century

Manzo, Ula; Manzo, Anthony V.

2013-01-01

190

Qualities Required of Education Today To Meet Foreseeable Demands in the Twenty-first Century. International Symposium and Round Table Proceedings (Beijing, China, November 27-December 2, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains proceedings of a United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) international symposium and round table. The main objective of the meeting was to debate long-term goals of education and its role in preparing young people to face the demands of the 21st century. Papers presented include: (1) "Young…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

191

Ushering in the Twenty First Century: Emphasis on the Rural South. Proceedings of the Professional Agricultural Workers Conference (44th, Tuskegee, Alabama, December 7-9, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume includes material by providers and users of technical agricultural assistance on ways to improve the quality of life for clientele served by land-grant colleges and Tuskegee University. The conference theme involved issues emerging for rural Southern farms as they enter the 21st century. In examining alternatives for the future, the…

Williams, Thomas T., Ed.

192

Simulating changes to the sediment transport regime of the Waipaoa River, New Zealand, driven by climate change in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional sediment transport model (TUGS) and a climate-driven hydrological model (HydroTrend) are used to predict changes to the sediment transport regime of the Waipaoa River that may occur in response to forecast 21st Century variations in climate. Climate change may reduce the mean flow in the Waipaoa River at Matawhero by an average of 13% in the 2030s and

B. Gomez; Y. Cui; A. J. Kettner; D. H. Peacock; J. P. M. Syvitski

2009-01-01

193

Faculty Work in Schools of Education: Rethinking Roles and Rewards for the Twenty-First Century. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers points out problems and challenges that face schools, colleges, and departments of education as change agents try to reform them. After "Introduction: Reforming Schools, Colleges, and Departments of Education" (William G. Tierney), nine papers include: (1) "The Public Responsibility of Public Schools of Education"…

Tierney, William G., Ed.

194

Aligning American Higher Education with a Twenty-First-Century Public Agenda. Examining the National Purposes of American Higher Education: A Leadership Approach to Policy Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today higher education faces the challenge of reconsidering and realigning its public agenda to serve better an era in which educated people, the knowledge they produce, and the innovation and entrepreneurial skills they possess have become the keys to economic prosperity, national security, and social well-being. The imperatives of expanding…

Duderstadt, James J.

2009-01-01

195

Emerging Synergisms Between Drugs and Physiologically-Patterned Weak Magnetic Fields: Implications for Neuropharmacology and the Human Population in the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

Synergisms between pharmacological agents and endogenous neurotransmitters are familiar and frequent. The present review describes the experimental evidence for interactions between neuropharmacological compounds and the classes of weak magnetic fields that might be encountered in our daily environments. Whereas drugs mediate their effects through specific spatial (molecular) structures, magnetic fields mediate their effects through specific temporal patterns. Very weak (microT range) physiologically-patterned magnetic fields synergistically interact with drugs to strongly potentiate effects that have classically involved opiate, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and nitric oxide pathways. The combinations of the appropriately patterned magnetic fields and specific drugs can evoke changes that are several times larger than those evoked by the drugs alone. These novel synergisms provide a challenge for a future within an electromagnetic, technological world. They may also reveal fundamental, common physical mechanisms by which magnetic fields and chemical reactions affect the organism from the level of fundamental particles to the entire living system.

Whissell, P.D; Persinger, M.A

2007-01-01

196

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development: Meeting the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1961 the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has assisted states in managing intensified interdependence.\\u000a The OECD spends the majority of its time engaged in prosaic, yet valuable, tasks including surveillance, providing a forum\\u000a for policy dialogue, identifying and analysing emerging issues, and supporting government bureaucracies and other international\\u000a organizations. However, the OECD and its predecessor, the Organization

Richard Woodward

197

Lifespan Engagement and the Question of Relevance: Challenges for Music Education Research in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scope of music education research has expanded significantly over the last 50 years. Nevertheless, many studies remain atomistic, with limited contexts for questions, methods, findings and implications. Such approaches may seek to validate instructional strategies within an established music education system, rather than developing a continuum…

Myers, David

2008-01-01

198

Public Service Broadcasting: The Challenges of the Twenty-first Century. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication No. 111.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a review of key research on public broadcasting and a synthesis of the actuality of public service broadcasting today in the face of increasing globalization, with case studies from 16 countries. Following the General Introduction (Pierre Juneau), the report is divided into two parts. Part 1--"Public Service Television in the…

Atkinson, Dave; Raboy, Marc, Ed.

199

Accelerators in our past, present, and future: A challenge to radiological protection in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

The foundations of many of the subdisciplines of radiological protection laid in accelerator laboratories began with the invention of accelerators. This paper suggests that the discipline of accelerator radiological protection has played and will continue play a more significant part in our lives than is generally recognized. A brief review of some existing uses of accelerators by society is given, and a few probable future uses are described. These future applications will result in the exposure of accelerator (or {open_quotes}mixed{close_quotes}) radiation fields to an increased population. Consequently, what are perceived to be the rather specialized concerns of today`s accelerator health physicists will -- by necessity -- become of general interest to all health physicists.

Thomas, R.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

1993-09-01

200

Twenty-First-Century Adolescents, Writing, and New Media: Meeting the Challenge with Game Controllers and Laptops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's youth come to the English language arts class with a diverse range of ideas and experiences that give them the ability to develop and blossom into proficient and talented writers for multiple audiences; constant engagement with new media and digital literacies provides them multiple opportunities and multiple channels through which to…

Gerber, Hannah R.; Price, Debra P.

2011-01-01

201

Twenty-First Century Space Propulsion Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The contract objective was to monitor the research at the forefront of physics and engineering to discover new space propulsion concepts. The major topics covered were antiproton annihilation propulsion, solar sails, space tethers, microspacecraft, and un...

R. L. Forward

1990-01-01

202

Education in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this book, several Hoover Institution scholars search for the answers to failures in U.S. schools and examine the debate over what works and what does not work. Such widely debated topics as national examinations, accountability, performance, and school funding are discussed. The importance of education to both the individual and society as a…

Lazear, Edward P., Ed.

203

Building a Twenty First Century Immigration System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nearly every American family has their own immigration story. Generations of immigrants braved hardship and great risk to reach our shores in search of a better life for themselves and their families. Their names and actions may not have made it into hist...

2011-01-01

204

The Twenty-First-Century Professoriate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not long ago, most academic insiders felt confident in saying, "the faculty 'are' the university." The faculty may still be the university, but who are the faculty? From public community colleges to private research universities, America has created the most powerful machine for the development of human capital in the history of the world. Yet an…

Plater, William M.

2008-01-01

205

Educating for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his first inaugural speech, President Obama declared that "our schools fail too many" and an essential component of laying "a new foundation for growth" will be "to transform our schools and colleges and universities to meet the demands of a new age." Concerns about our nation's position in the global education race have led to a focus on…

Ramaley, Judith A.

2013-01-01

206

Fatherhood in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how social trends changed father involvement and family life, and in turn affected children's and fathers' developmental trajectories. Examines how today's children will construct expectations about fathers' and mothers' roles. Maintains that a life-span approach considers the broader sociohistorical context in which fatherhood develops.…

Cabrera, Natasha J.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Bradley, Robert H.; Hofferth, Sandra; Lamb, Michael E.

2000-01-01

207

Climate-related uncertainties in projections of the twenty-first century terrestrial carbon budget: off-line model experiments using IPCC greenhouse-gas scenarios and AOGCM climate projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A terrestrial ecosystem model (Sim-CYCLE) was driven by multiple climate projections to investigate uncertainties in predicting the interactions between global environmental change and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Sim-CYCLE has a spatial resolution of 0.5°, and mechanistically evaluates photosynthetic and respiratory CO2 exchange. Six scenarios for atmospheric-CO2 concentrations in the twenty-first century, proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, were considered. For each scenario, climate projections by a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) were used to assess the uncertainty due to socio-economic predictions. Under a single CO2 scenario, climate projections with seven AOGCMs were used to investigate the uncertainty stemming from uncertainty in the climate simulations. Increases in global photosynthesis and carbon storage differed considerably among scenarios, ranging from 23 to 37% and from 24 to 81 Pg C, respectively. Among the AOGCM projections, increases ranged from 26 to 33% and from 48 to 289 Pg C, respectively. There were regional heterogeneities in both climatic change and carbon budget response, and different carbon-cycle components often responded differently to a given environmental change. Photosynthetic CO2 fixation was more sensitive to atmospheric CO2, whereas soil carbon storage was more sensitive to temperature. Consequently, uncertainties in the CO2 scenarios and climatic projections may create additional uncertainties in projecting atmospheric-CO2 concentrations and climates through the interactive feedbacks between the atmosphere and the terrestrial ecosystem.

Ito, Akihiko

2005-04-01

208

The Redesign of Teacher Education for the Twenty-First Century. International Perspectives on the Preparation of Educational Personnel. Selected Papers from the Thirtieth Anniversary World Assembly of the International Council of Education for Teaching (Washington, DC, July 11-15, 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is organized according to themes chosen for the 30th Annual World Assembly of the International Council on Education for Teaching (ICET). A keynote speech by Anne Flowers discussed "Teacher Education for the Twenty-First Century." The first theme, "The Redesign of Teacher Education," was discussed through presentations by Anne Flowers,…

Yff, Joost, Ed.

209

Modeling international cooperation in human space exploration for the twenty-first century 1 1 Earlier versions of this study were presented at the 47th International Astronautical Congress in Beijing, China, October 7–11, 1996 and the 38th Annual International Studies Association Convention, Toronto, Canada, March 18–22, 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The policy process of international cooperation in space exploration, including optimistic and pessimistic scenarios for the twenty-first century, is modeled and examined in this study. In the optimistic scenario, international cooperation involves a balanced and interdependent distribution of capabilities between states, their respective national space agencies and communities of space scientists and space engineers. Cooperation is characterized by interstate participation

E. Sadeh; J. P. Lester; W. Z. Sadeh

1998-01-01

210

Twenty-First Century Challenges. Proceedings of the Golden Anniversary Conference on Graduate Study in Adult Education (Columbus, Ohio, October 17-18, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains eight papers presented at a conference held to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the graduate school of adult education at Ohio State University. After a foreword by David Boggs, the following papers are included: "Reflections on the Commission of Professors of Adult Education" (Burton Kreitlow);…

Boggs, David L., Ed.

211

Southern Ocean warming and increased ice shelf basal melting in the twenty-first and twenty-second centuries based on coupled ice-ocean finite-element modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We utilise a global finite-element sea ice-ocean model (FESOM), focused on the Antarctic marginal seas, to analyse projections of ice shelf basal melting in a warmer climate. Ice shelf-ocean interaction is described using a three-equation system with a diagnostic computation of temperature and salinity at the ice-ocean interface. A tetrahedral mesh with a minimumhorizontal resolution of 4 km and hybrid vertical coordinates is used. Ice shelf draft, cavity geometry, and global ocean bathymetry have been derived from the RTopo-1 data set. The model is forced with the atmospheric output from two climate models: (1) the Hadley Centre Climate Model (HadCM3) and (2) Max Planck Institute’s ECHAM5/MPI-OM coupled climate model. Results from experiments forced with their twentieth century output are used to evaluate the modelled present-day ocean state. Sea ice coverage is largely realistic in both simulations; modelled ice shelf basal melt rates compare well with observations in both cases, but are consistently smaller for ECHAM5/MPI-OM. Projections for future ice shelf basal melting are computed using atmospheric output for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios E1 and A1B. In simulations forced with ECHAM5 data, trends in ice shelf basal melting are small. In contrast, decreasing convection along the Antarctic coast in HadCM3 scenarios leads to a decreasing salinity on the continental shelf and to intrusions of warm deep water of open ocean origin. In the case of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf (FRIS), this water reaches deep into the cavity, so that basal melting increases by a factor of 4 to 6 compared to the present value of about 90 Gt/year. By the middle of the twenty-second century, FRIS becomes the dominant contributor to total ice shelf basal mass loss in these simulations. Our results indicate that the surface freshwater fluxes on the continental shelves may be crucial for the future of especially the large cold water ice shelves in the Southern Ocean.

Timmermann, Ralph; Hellmer, Hartmut H.

2013-10-01

212

The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr?1) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3?) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr?1 to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40–70 Tg N yr?1 to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr?1) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 102–103 years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced.

Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A.; Cape, J. Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J.; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N.; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F.; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

2013-01-01

213

Mobile learning for the twenty-first century librarian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to present a review of selected mobile learning literature and programmatic approaches for librarians interested in developing mobile digital library services in order to equip readers with a framework for understanding and appreciating mobile digital librarianship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review is culled from distance learning, medical informatics and medical librarianship, internet social studies, and

Jim Hahn

2008-01-01

214

Libraries and Information Technology: Towards the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors envisage a new future for libraries, one in which they assume a very proactive role, pushing, as well as pulling information back into the Web, in a manner similar to that in which a private electricity producer feeds back surplus power into the grid as well as taking electricity when needed. (Author)

Allen, Matthew; Retzlaff, Lothar

1998-01-01

215

Virtual Reality: Teaching Tool of the Twenty-First Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual reality-based procedural and surgical simulations promise to revolutionize medical training. A wide range of simulations representing diverse content areas and varied implementation strategies are under development or in early use. The new systems will make broad-based training experiences available for students at all levels without risks…

Hoffman, Helene; Vu, Dzung

1997-01-01

216

Applications of carbon nanotubes in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanotubes, which consist of rolled graphene sheets built from sp2 hybridized carbon atoms, are now attracting scientists from various disciplines due to their fascinating physico-chemical properties. In this account, we will review the recent progress on the synthetic techniques for the large-scale production of carbon nano- tubes, especially focusing on the floating-catalyst method used in the chemical vapour deposition

Takuaya Hayashi; Mauricio Terrones; S. Dresselhaus; M. S. Dresselhaus

2004-01-01

217

Talent management for the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Most firms have no formal programs for anticipating and fulfilling talent needs, relying on an increasingly expensive pool of outside candidates that has been shrinking since it was created from the white-collar layoffs of the 1980s. But the advice these companies are getting to solve the problem--institute large-scale internal development programs--is equally ineffective. Internal development was the norm back in the 1950s, and every management-development practice that seems novel today was routine in those years--from executive coaching to 360-degree feedback to job rotation to high-potential programs. However, the stable business environment and captive talent pipelines in which such practices were born no longer exist. It's time for a fundamentally new approach to talent management. Fortunately, companies already have such a model, one that has been well honed over decades to anticipate and meet demand in uncertain environments: supply chain management. Cappelli, a professor at the Wharton School, focuses on four practices in particular. First, companies should balance make-versus-buy decisions by using internal development programs to produce most--but not all--of the needed talent, filling in with outside hiring. Second, firms can reduce the risks in forecasting the demand for talent by sending smaller batches of candidates through more modularized training systems in much the same way manufacturers now employ components in just-in-time production lines. Third, companies can improve their returns on investment in development efforts by adopting novel cost-sharing programs. Fourth, they should seek to protect their investments by generating internal opportunities to encourage newly trained managers to stick with the firm. Taken together, these principles form the foundation for a new paradigm in talent management: a talent-on-demand system. PMID:18411966

Cappelli, Peter

2008-03-01

218

NATO: Maintaining Relevance in the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study interprets the political, strategic, and institutional durability of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in the diplomatic revolutions of the past 20 years. In particular, the study seeks to understand the characteristics of statecraf...

D. Martinez

2012-01-01

219

HOTOL space transport for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unmanned launch vehicle design is reviewed which specifies single stage to orbit (SSTO), hybrid air-breathing\\/rocket propulsion, horizontal takeoff and landing, and autonomous, unmanned operation in satellite launch and recapture. The mass of the HOTOL is 80 percent propellant which makes engine efficiency important, and the horizontal take-off requires optimization of the power unit scale. The structural design includes a

B. R. A. Burns

1990-01-01

220

Clostridium difficile infection in the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming gram-positive bacillus, and the leading cause of antibiotic-associated nosocomial diarrhea and colitis in the industrialized world. With the emergence of a hypervirulent strain of C. difficile (BI/NAP1/027), the epidemiology of C. difficile infection has rapidly changed in the last decade. C. difficile infection, once thought to be an easy to treat bacterial infection, has evolved into an epidemic that is associated with a high rate of mortality, causing disease in patients thought to be low-risk. In this review, we discuss the changing face of C .difficile infection and the novel treatment and prevention strategies needed to halt this ever growing epidemic.

Ghose, Chandrabali

2013-01-01

221

Teaching Thinking: An Agenda for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers ideas and strategies for teaching thinking in schools. Sixteen chapters and a concluding discussion, each preceded by an introductory article, are written by experts recognized in their fields. The chapters include: (1) "Reading and Thinking with History and Science Text" (Isabel L. Beck and Janice A. Dole; (2) "Developing…

Collins, Cathy, Ed.; Mangieri, John N., Ed.

222

Publishing pharmacology in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The World Wide Web and other forms of digital communication have lead some to predict the demise of printed journals. In my experience, scientific articles can be more efficiently reviewed and edited by digital document sharing. High quality print journals will remain the preferred scholarly venue for authors' best works, but only if the ethical behavior of scientists can be maintained and appropriately rewarded. PMID:11056967

Bloom, F E

2000-01-01

223

Twenty-first century brain banking: at the crossroads.  

PubMed

Brain banks form an increasingly important resource for research. In view of declining autopsy rates, brain banks are also gaining importance for medical diagnostics, quality control and teaching. In the case of neurodegenerative diseases, brain banks have become drivers of discovery and are yielding invaluable taxonomic references for neuropathologists. This article provides comments on two recent landmark papers in the field (Bell JE et al. Acta Neuropathol 2008. doi:10.1007/s00401-008-0358-8; Vonsattel JP et al. Acta Neuropathol 2008. doi:10.1007/s00401-007-0311-9). Professionalisation of brain banking standards, ethical principles safeguarding the running of a brain bank and a proposed code of conduct for brain bank staff are outlined and discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the need to enable sustainability of the human brain tissue resource in the face of increased financial pressures on medical institutions and raised public expectations towards ethical human brain banking in a globalised economic environment. It is proposed that brain banks undergo rigorous international audit as a prerequisite for their registration with the relevant national neuropathological society. This promises to be an important safeguard so that proper standards can be assured when tissue is handed out to commercial companies. Honesty, accountability and complete transparency are mandatory to allow long-lasting success of the brain banking operation by guaranteeing that the best possible use is made of the tissue. Preferred access by private tissue users must be avoided and money must never be allowed to buy access to a brain bank. Since brain banks operate internationally, any mistake made may be felt around the globe and could endanger the public's willingness to donate brains for research. The much-needed increase in the number of control brain donations will only be achievable if broad-based support from the general public can be won and maintained. PMID:18347804

Graeber, Manuel B

2008-05-01

224

United Kingdom: Skills Development for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learning and Skills Development Agency (LSDA), together with the British Council, provides the leadership for the UNEVOC centre in the United Kingdom (UK). LSDA is a strategic national agency whose mission is to improve the quality of post-16 education and training in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It does this by conducting research to…

Baines, John; Cohen, Judith; Martin, Stephen

2005-01-01

225

Old Main: Small Colleges in Twenty-First Century America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This perceptive and cogent account draws on key data and firsthand observations to tell the story of the small college in America. Defined as institutions that enroll between 500 and 3,000 full-time students, small colleges number about six hundred in the United States. Many are thriving, while some--whether through low enrollment, ballooning…

Schuman, Samuel

2005-01-01

226

Deep Ecology: Educational Possibilities for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents fundamentals of systems thinking and sustainability within an ecological theory to shape education to the needs of human development in relation to the environment. Emphasizes that effective learning is a system embedded in the web of life, giving humans the ability to see the interconnectedness of the environment, community, and the…

Capra, Fritjof

2003-01-01

227

Mineral resources and consumption in the twenty-first century  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Modern societies are highly dependent upon energy and mineral resources to produce and deliver the material goods and even the services of everyday life. Although societies' dependence upon fossil fuels is evident and understood by much of the population, few people are as well informed about their dependence upon a wide variety of nonfuel minerals. This ignorance may result from two interrelated conditions. First, in contrast to fossil fuels, few people directly use nonfuel minerals in recognizable forms because most use is as part of manufactured products. Second, the value of raw ($38 billion) and even processed ($397 billion) nonfuel minerals in the United States in 2002 was small relative to the value the industries that consume these materials contribute to the economy ($1,700 billion). That is, although nonfuel mineral inputs are indispensable to construction and to the manufacture of durable and even nondurable goods (USGS 2003), their value is modest compared with the value of the final products.

Menzie, W. David; Singer, Donald A.; DeYoung, John H., Jr.

2005-01-01

228

AIR QUALITY MODELING FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes recent and evolving advances in the science of numerical air quality simulation modeling. Emphasis is placed on new developments in particulate matter modeling and atmospheric chemistry, diagnostic modeling tools, and integrated modeling systems. New...

229

Formal Operations from a Twenty-First Century Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reflects on Piaget’s 1972 article, ‘Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood,’ addressed to questions regarding what he alleged to be the final, most advanced level of cognition in his developmental stage theory – formal operations, as described in his 1958 volume coauthored with Inhelder, The growth of logical thinking from childhood to adolescence. It is asked here whether,

Deanna Kuhn

2008-01-01

230

Z Cam Stars in the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Z Cam (UGZ) stars are a small subset of dwarf novae that exhibit standstills in their light curves. Most modern literature and catalogs of cataclysmic variables quote the number of known Z Cams to be on the order of thirty or so systems. After a four-year observing campaign and an exhaustive examination of the data in the AAVSO International Database (AID) we have trimmed that number by a third. One of the reasons for the misclassification of some systems is the fact that the definition of what a Z Cam is has changed over the last eighty-five years. This has caused many stars formerly assumed to be Z Cams or rumored to be Z Cams to be eliminated from the final list. In this paper we present the results of our investigation into sixty-five stars listed at one time or another in the literature as Z Cams or possible Z Cams.

Simonsen, M.; Boyd, D.; Goff, W.; Krajci, T.; Menzies, K.; Otero, S.; Padovan, S.; Poyner, G.; Roe, J.; Sabo, R.; Sjoberg, G.; Staels, B.; Stubbings, R.; Toone, J.; Wils, P.

2014-05-01

231

The Entrepreneurial University in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Burton Clark's 1998 monograph, "Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: Organizational Pathways of Transformation," has become seminal in the literature on entrepreneurialism in universities. In this paper I re-examine the validity of Clark's analysis through an interview study of one of his original entrepreneurial universities, namely Warwick…

Taylor, Mark P.

2012-01-01

232

Families and Elder Care in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most Americans know that the U.S. population is aging, they are far less informed about the reality of providing elders with personal care, health care, and social support. Families--particularly women--have always been critical in providing elder care, but the entry of so many women into the paid labor force has made elder care…

Bookman, Ann; Kimbrel, Delia

2011-01-01

233

Toward a University System for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solving many current urban problems requires reinventing the American university so it becomes a humanistic, morally inspired, civic institution with an inclination and ability to help America become just and fair for all. The article discusses educational reform similar to Benjamin Franklin's original plan for the University of Pennsylvania. (SM)

Hackney, Sheldon

1994-01-01

234

Teaching Privacy in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What would Benjamin Franklin's Facebook page look like? Would he be "friends" with William Pierce, James Madison, or Alexander Hamilton? Would there have been a separate Facebook group for the framers of the Constitution, where they would have posted comments on the wall regarding the different stipulations that needed inclusion in the document?…

Edbrooke, Odette; Ambrose, Meg Leta

2012-01-01

235

The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr(-1)) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3(-)) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr(-1) to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40-70 Tg N yr(-1) to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr(-1)) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 10(2)-10(3) years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced. PMID:23713126

Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A; Cape, J Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

2013-07-01

236

Facilitated Communication and Its Legitimacy—Twenty-First Century Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 2001, Facilitated Communication (FC) had largely been empirically discredited as an effective intervention for previously uncommunicative persons with disabilities, especially those with autism and related disorders. Key empirical findings consistently showed that the facilitator and not the client initiated communication. I analyze the extant efficacy literature since 2001, noting that it reveals similar trends to past findings. However, the

Mark P. Mostert

2010-01-01

237

Renewal: Remaking America's Schools for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harold Kwalwasser has put together a call to action for education reform that makes a clear case for what has to be done in order to educate all children to their full potential. He visited forty high-performing and transforming school districts, charters, parochial, and private schools to understand why they have succeeded where others have…

Kwalwasser, Harold

2012-01-01

238

Water stewardship in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of extreme weather are being felt by us all and scientific research points to a likely worsening of weather patterns in the next decades. Therefore, it is imperative to think carefully about how we build the infrastructure of the future to increase the resilience of our societies.

Simpson, Peter

2014-05-01

239

Oceanography, the new Frontier for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the discipline of oceanography and some of its specific areas of concern. Describes the major resources of the oceans and reflects on how these may be utilized and shared by nations in the future. (JR)

Marshall, Nelson

1973-01-01

240

Seminar in Critical Inquiry Twenty-First Century Nuclear Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Critical Inquiry, has not only been successful in increasing university student retention rate but also in improving student academic performance beyond the initial year of transition into the University. The seminar course herein reviewed is a balanced c...

D. V. LeMone

2002-01-01

241

Schooling for Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Venezuela's Bolivarian Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global dominance of neoliberal policy prescriptions in recent decades has been well documented, with particular implications for educational systems. These include reduced public expenditure and provision, the promotion of individual (parental) choice, competition, increased user-pays and the privatisation of education. Against this…

Griffiths, Tom G.

2010-01-01

242

Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia into the twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

The 13th Conference on Australasian Vertebrate Evolution Palaeontology and Systematics (CAVEPS) took place in Perth, Western Australia, from 27 to 30 April 2011. This biennial meeting was jointly hosted by Curtin University, the Western Australian Museum, Murdoch University and the University of Western Australia. Researchers from diverse disciplines addressed many aspects of vertebrate evolution, including functional morphology, phylogeny, ecology and extinctions. New additions to the fossil record were reported, especially from hitherto under-represented ages and clades. Yet, application of new techniques in palaeobiological analyses dominated, such as dental microwear and geochronology, and technological advances, including computed tomography and ancient biomolecules. This signals a shift towards increased emphasis in interpreting broader evolutionary patterns and processes. Nonetheless, further field exploration for new fossils and systematic descriptions will continue to shape our understanding of vertebrate evolution in this little-studied, but most unusual, part of the globe.

Nguyen, Jacqueline M. T.; Molak, Martyna; Black, Karen H.; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Travouillon, Kenny J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.

2011-01-01

243

A Library Communication Audit for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a case study relating to an internal communication audit conducted in a large academic library that assessed existing information channels during a period of organizational change in order to recommend improvements. A communications task force developed and administered a survey instrument and then analyzed data and reported…

Chalmers, Mardi; Liedtka, Theresa; Bednar, Carol

2006-01-01

244

Professionalizing business district management for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore leading theories and concepts in professionalising the emerging field of business district management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In the context of globalization and localization, it discusses distinctive place-based elements of business improvement districts (BIDs), such as: law, nomenclature, assessment formulae, and branding; while suggesting and analyzing strategic international application of certain theories and concepts. Findings

Fayth A. Ruffin

2008-01-01

245

Urban Pedagogy: A Proposal for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The urban has been studied by students of geography, politics, aesthetics/culture, architects and politicians. Educational researchers in defining the urban as a field of research and practice have looked at schooling and its institutionalized role in cities. A wider discussion of the very character of urban experience and its relevance for…

Dobson, Stephen

2006-01-01

246

TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL RREL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM - ABSTRACT PROCEEDINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

Tho Twenty-first Annual Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) Research Symposium was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 4-7, 1995. he purpose of this Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed projects funded by the U...

247

21st Century Skills: The Challenges Ahead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The skills that students need for the 21st century are not really new, assert Rotherham and Willingham. Critical thinking, problem solving, information literacy, and global awareness have been important to human progress throughout history, at least among the elites in different societies. What is new is the extent to which individual and…

Rotherham, Andrew J.; Willingham, Daniel

2009-01-01

248

Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

House, James S.

2008-01-01

249

New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

Kassing, Gayle

2010-01-01

250

Goals and Objectives of the 21st Century Challenge Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The statewide goals and objectives of Tennessee's plan for educational excellence, the 21st Century Challenge, are outlined in this legislative committee report. The major initiatives under each goal will be implemented within 3 to 4 years. Goals and an example of the several objectives under each goal are: first grade readiness (e.g., require all…

Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

251

Up to the Challenge: The Role of Career and Technical Education and 21st Century Skills in College and Career Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report highlights the demand for skills in the global economy and the ways in which educators can meet this demand by drawing on both career and technical education and the Partnership for 21st Century Skills' Framework for 21st Century Learning. Twenty-first century skills and career and technical education are essential in every state,…

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010

2010-01-01

252

Challenging Technology, and Technology Infusion into 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparing for the space exploration challenges of the next century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Center for Integrated Space Micro-Systems (CISM) is chartered to develop advanced spacecraft systems that can be adapted for a large spectrum of future space missions. Enabling this task are revolutions in the miniaturization of electrical, mechanical, and computational functions. On the other hand, these revolutionary technologies usually have much lower readiness levels than those required by flight projects. The mission of the Advanced Micro Spacecraft (AMS) task in CISM is to bridge the readiness gap between advanced technologies and flight projects. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Chau, S. N.; Hunter, D. J.

2001-01-01

253

Middle Schools Preparing Young People for 21st Century Life and Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how middle schools can prepare young people for the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. Integrating 21st century skills deliberately and systematically into middle school education will empower educators to accomplish many of the elusive goals they have tried to reach for years. Twenty-first

Kay, Ken

2009-01-01

254

Leading Change: Jesuit Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored perceptions of possible future scenarios for Jesuit higher education in the United States by the year 2030. This study focused on two questions, (a) How do leaders perceive the future of Jesuit higher education? and (b) What key factors identified by these leaders will lead to the most desirable outcome for Jesuit higher…

Lowdon, Melissa

2010-01-01

255

Global warming in the twenty-first century: an alternative scenario.  

PubMed

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO(2) greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH(4), and N(2)O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO(2) and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO(2) GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH(4) and O(3) precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO(2) GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO(2) emissions, this reduction of non-CO(2) GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties. PMID:10944197

Hansen, J; Sato, M; Ruedy, R; Lacis, A; Oinas, V

2000-08-29

256

Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Humans have hunted wildlife in Central Africa for millennia. Today, however, many species are being rapidly extirpated and sanctuaries for wildlife are dwindling. Almost all Central Africa's forests are now accessible to hunters. Drastic declines of large mammals have been caused in the past 20 years by the commercial trade for meat or ivory. We review a growing body of empirical data which shows that trophic webs are significantly disrupted in the region, with knock-on effects for other ecological functions, including seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Plausible scenarios for land-use change indicate that increasing extraction pressure on Central African forests is likely to usher in new worker populations and to intensify the hunting impacts and trophic cascade disruption already in progress, unless serious efforts are made for hunting regulation. The profound ecological changes initiated by hunting will not mitigate and may even exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change for the region. We hypothesize that, in the near future, the trophic changes brought about by hunting will have a larger and more rapid impact on Central African rainforest structure and function than the direct impacts of climate change on the vegetation. Immediate hunting regulation is vital for the survival of the Central African rainforest ecosystem. PMID:23878333

Abernethy, K A; Coad, L; Taylor, G; Lee, M E; Maisels, F

2013-01-01

257

From Crisis to Opportunity: French and Foreign Language Studies in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to falling enrollments in French and a diminishing pool of high school teachers, faculty at Auburn University tried to turn the tide through a series of curricular and advocacy initiatives. They introduced new French majors in education and in international trade and a collaborative major with the Consumer Affairs Department in French…

Spencer, Samia I.

2003-01-01

258

Twenty-first century laparoscopic hysterectomy: should we not leave the vaginal step out?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare surgical outcomes for laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) with\\u000a total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) in three teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. This study is a multicenter cohort retrospective\\u000a analysis of consecutive cases (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). One hundred and four women underwent a laparoscopic\\u000a hysterectomy between March 1995 and March 2005 at

A. R. H. Twijnstra; N. A. Kianmanesh Rad; M. J. G. H. Smeets; J. F. Admiraal; F. W. Jansen

2009-01-01

259

Twenty-first century laparoscopic hysterectomy: should we not leave the vaginal step out?  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare surgical outcomes for laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) with total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) in three teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. This study is a multicenter cohort retrospective analysis of consecutive cases (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). One hundred and four women underwent a laparoscopic hysterectomy between March 1995 and March 2005 at one of three teaching hospitals. This included 37 women who underwent LAVH and 67 who underwent TLH. Blood loss, operating time, and intraoperative complications such as bladder or ureteric injury as well as conversion to an open procedure were recorded. In the TLH group, average age was statistically significant lower, as well as the mean parity, whereas estimated uterus size was statistically significant larger, compared to the LAVH group. Main indication in both groups was dysfunctional uterine bleeding. In the TLH group, mean blood loss (173 mL) was significant lower compared to the LAVH group (457 mL), whereas length of surgery, uterus weight, and complication rates were comparable between the two groups. The method of choice at the start of the study period was LAVH, and by the end of the study period, it had been superceded by TLH. LAVH should not be regarded as the novice's laparoscopic hysterectomy. Moreover, with regard blood loss, TLH shows advantages above LAVH. This might be due to the influence of the altered anatomy in the vaginal stage of the LAVH procedure. Therefore, when a vaginal hysterectomy is contraindicated, TLH is the procedure of choice. LAVH remains indicated in case of vaginal hysterectomy with accompanying adnexal surgery. PMID:20234845

Twijnstra, A R H; Kianmanesh Rad, N A; Smeets, M J G H; Admiraal, J F; Jansen, F W

2009-11-01

260

A new thrust in radar EMC design for the twenty first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is presented of the technical requirements of MIL-STD-469 and the Radar Spectrum Engineering Criteria (RESC) of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), both of which are intended to restrict the radiated emissions spectra of defense radars to enhance electromagnetic compatibility with other cosite communications electronics. Each of these standards contains technically contrasting procedures for determining maximum acceptable limits to radar emissions. In contrast with MIL-STD-469, the RSEC document of NTIA approaches the radar EMC problem from the perspective of relative limits on spectral emission bandwidth. A theoretical examination of compliance difficulties with MIL-STD-469 is presented and contrasted with the RSEC. The analysis uses the method of determining the bounds on the spectrum of a continuous-wave pulse formulated by Mason and Zimmermann (1960) together with a modification of this method by Newhouse (1982) for determining the bounds on the spectrum of an FM (chirp) pulse. These methods demonstrate how MIL-STD-469A eliminates the previous compliance problems with MIL-STD-469 and creates technical harmony with the RSEC. The forthcoming MIL-STD-469A, which closely follows the RSEC spectrum criteria, is discussed.

Marcus, Robert B.

261

Quality Teachers for Indigenous Students: An Imperative for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that all learners need teachers who are not only professionally qualified but also culturally competent. This is particularly so with teachers of indigenous students, who face the conflicting expectations of schools and those of their home cultures. References to Pacific students will be used to illustrate some of the conflicts…

Thaman, Konai Helu

2013-01-01

262

Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duplex design by Bock and Mislevy for school-based testing is revisited and evaluated as a potential platform in test-based accountability assessments today. We conclude that the model could be useful in meeting the many competing demands of today's test-based accountability assessments, although many research questions will need to be answered in future studies. The term theory of accountability refers

Isaac I. Bejar; E. Aurora Graf

2010-01-01

263

Radiochemistry in the twenty-first century: Strenghts, weaknesses, opportunities and threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of radiochemistry and associated nuclear chemistry are discussed. For that purpose radiochemistry is subdivided into three categories. The first category covers fundamental aspects, e.g. nuclear reaction cross-sections, production routes with associated yields and radionuclidic impurities, decay schemes, radiochemical separations, recoil and hot-atom chemistry, isotope effects and fractionation, and interaction of radiation with matter and detection. The second category covers topics where radioactivity is inextricably involved, e.g. the nuclear fuel cycle, very heavy elements and other actinides, primordial and cosmogenic radioactivity, and radionuclide techniques for dating. The third category involves radioactivity as essential part of a technique. On one hand radioactivity is used here as source of ionising radiation for food conservation, polymerisation of plastics, sterilisation, radiotherapy and pain palliation. On the other hand it is used to get information on systems and materials, via radiotracer methods and nuclear activation techniques. In particular the latter field is experiencing strong competition with other, non-nuclear methods. In this frame it is indicated what is required to achieve a situation where nuclear analytical techniques may successfully be exploited to the full extent of their potentials, particularly in providing valuable and sometimes unique information.

de Goeij, J. J. M.

2003-01-01

264

Arts Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Personal View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses what arts education may be like in the future. Explains that the arts are context bound. Discusses individual cases of present visual experiences. States that the key concern in the future will be the quality of the arts experiences that students receive. (CMK)

Hausman, Jerome J.

2000-01-01

265

Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

Stachokas, George

2009-01-01

266

China and the EU: A Strategic Axis for the Twenty-First Century?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EU–China relationship is now emerging as a significant feature of the international system. The EU's institutional consolidation, development of supranational trade power and the foreign policy openings of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) has entwined with the PRC's ongoing sense of geopolitical manoeuvrings between the superpowers. With its talk of ‘multipolarity’, grand strategy has converged, though the

David Scott

2007-01-01

267

Mahan for the Twenty First Century: His Principles Still Apply to National Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alfred T. Mahan (1840-1914) wrote in an era of technological change, but he always believed that the importance of sea power would remain unchanged. He set forth three requirements that were necessary for the success of a nation (production, shipping, and...

R. D. Parker

2003-01-01

268

Awakening to Soma Heliakon: Encountering Teacher-Researcher-Learning in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As two teacher educators and researchers, we explored dimensions of instructional practice in teacher education through online forums. In the course of this research, we drew upon our online interactivity as the basis for reflexive inquiry. Analysis entailed coding key themes to create a four-part rendering involving a hyperlinked poem, a video, a…

Sameshima, Pauline; Sinner, Anita

2009-01-01

269

Planning Workshop: To Strengthen American Cognitive Science for the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cognitive science's major accomplishments have been analyses of cognition by individual agents, including language, problem solving, representations of knowledge in memory, perception, and decision making. Prospects for continued progress on these importa...

1992-01-01

270

A Twenty-First Century Reception for Diversity in the Public Sector: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the influence of employee race/ethnicity and gender identity, associated stereotyping and prejudice, and the nature of interpersonal relations on acceptance of diversity and support for diversity-management initiatives. A case study of 160 supervisors and 350 employees illustrates which factors influence employee support for diversity in…

Soni, Vidu

2000-01-01

271

Urine as a Specimen to Diagnose Infections in Twenty-First Century: Focus on Analytical Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Urine as a clinical specimen to diagnose infections has been used since ancient times. Many rapid technologies to assist diagnosis of infections are currently in use. Alongside traditional enzyme immunoassays (EIA), new technologies have emerged. Molecular analysis of transrenal DNA to diagnose infections is also a rapidly growing field. The majority of EIAs utilize the detection of excreted sugar compounds of the outer microbial cell-wall shed into the bloodstream and excreted into the urine. This mini-review focuses on current knowledge on rapid urinary antigen detection tests to diagnose most common infections, and highlights their diagnostic utility. The past and the future of urinalysis are also briefly discussed. The analysis of the literature shows that some methods are not quantitative, and analytical sensitivity may remain suboptimal. In addition, the performance criteria and technical documentation of some commercial tests are insufficient. Clinical microbiologists and physicians should be alert to assay limitations.

Tuuminen, Tamara

2012-01-01

272

Toward the Twenty-first Century: Air Command and Staff College Curriculum from Theory to Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responding to a perceived need resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union, the dismantling of the Berlin Wall, and the end of the Cold War, the Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) at Maxwell Air Force Base (Alabama) revised its curriculum. Data for the descriptive study were gathered through interviews of the leadership of the school and…

Butler, Stephen L.

273

From Genocide to Feminicide: Impunity and Human Rights in Twenty-First Century Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes contemporary social cleansing and feminicide in Guatemala. Further, it explores the costs of these murders for individuals, families, and Guatemalan society by exploring the homicide case of Claudina Isabel Velasquez Pais as it haltingly moves through the Guatemalan judicial system. This article offers a critically needed assessment of the lived outcomes of a society where the genocidaires

Victoria Sanford

2008-01-01

274

76 FR 21741 - Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...communications and video programming changes required by the Act...Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act, Public...Hall meeting (captured from computer-aided real-time transcription...communications and video programming technologies. The Act...

2011-04-18

275

Beyond Technology for Technology's Sake: Advancing Multiliteracies in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to emerging technologies from Web 2.0 to podcasting, the nature of literacy is changing. Teachers who apply these technologies in their classrooms do more than motivate students with the latest cool tool; they prepare students with multiliteracies and for the realities of the technological world. Therefore, teachers must go beyond implementing…

Borsheim, Carlin; Merritt, Kelly; Reed, Dawn

2008-01-01

276

Attention Deficit Disorder Comes of Age: Toward the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers focuses on definitions, assessment, assessment instruments, and distinctions between attention deficit disorder (ADD) and general learning disabilities or conduct disorders. Part I covers issues of definition and assessment in the following papers: "Methodological Issues in the Classification of ADD" (Jack Fletcher, et…

Shaywitz, Sally E., Ed.; Shaywitz, Bennett A., Ed.

277

Partnerships in Education. Preparing Teachers for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers a selection of 14 conference papers that present a variety of innovative partnerships for the preparation of teachers and school administrators. Part 1, "Teacher Preparation Partnerships," presents 4 papers: (1) "Ten Years of the Hawaii School/University Partnership" (J.P. Dolly, P.A. Whitesell, and A.P. Port); (2) "The Colton…

Reyhner, Jon, Ed.

278

Libraries and the Future: Essays on the Library in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays collected in this volume present the personal visions of several individuals, mostly librarians and other information professionals, on what the library might look like 25 or 30 years from now. The contributors represent a wide variety of libraries and related institutions on four continents. The essays collected are: "Introduction:…

Lancaster, Frederick Wilfrid, Ed.

279

The laboratory in science education: Foundations for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laboratory has been given a central and distinctive role in science education, and science educators have suggested that rich benefits in learning accrue from using laboratory activities. Twenty years have been elapsed since we published a frequently cited, critical review of the research on the school science laboratory (Hofstein & Lunetta, Rev. Educ. Res. 52(2), 201-217, 1982). Twenty years

Avi Hofstein; Vincent N. Lunetta

2004-01-01

280

A library for the fifteenth through the twenty-first centuries.  

PubMed Central

The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), began developing a program for a new library in 1977, started the design in 1985, began construction in 1988, and opened the library in September 1990. The primary objectives were to design and build a facility that would house print collections under optimal conditions, allow for ten years' growth, be flexible enough to permit future reconfiguration, support present and future technologies, and provide beautiful spaces in which to study. The planning process is summarized, planning concepts are outlined, and considerations for the electronic library are briefly reviewed. Images

Cooper, R S

1991-01-01

281

Democracy and Education in the Twenty-First Century: Deweyan Pragmatism and the Question of Racism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why is John Dewey still such an important philosopher today? Writing from the perspective of the Cologne Program of Interactive Constructivism, Stefan Neubert tries in what follows to give one possible answer to this question. Neubert notes that Cologne constructivism considers Dewey in many respects as one of the most important predecessors of…

Neubert, Stefan

2010-01-01

282

New DOT: A Database of Occupational Titles for the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current DOT or Dictionary of Occupational Titles was first developed in the 1930s and is best known as a book that lists some 12,000 job descriptions or definitions in a narrative, fixed format. This dictionary concept must be replaced with the new Da...

1993-01-01

283

Citizen-Soldier and Homeland Security in the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines the evolution of the civil-military relations gap that has been exacerbated by the recent attacks against America. It then discusses this new and troubling gap in civil-military relations and the negative implications to the Global Wa...

J. A. Brookman

2002-01-01

284

"Wild Scouts": Swedish Scouting Preparing Responsible Citizens for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to analyze the Swedish scout program. Socialization is used as a theoretical tool in the analysis. The method is inspired by critical discourse analysis. What are children and young people being prepared for, how is it accomplished, and by whom? The findings reveal two discourses: doing things as an investment for the…

Westberg Brostrom, Anna

2013-01-01

285

Reproductive medicine: the ethical issues in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Reproductive medicine has developed to such an extent that numerous moral questions arise about the boundaries of applications of new reproductive technology. It is possible to imagine a future in which 'designer babies' are created and in which cloning, sex selection and male pregnancy become the instruments of individual desire or social policy. In this article, the concept of 'natural' is explored but rejected as an insufficient moral criterion for deciding these complex questions. A case is made for the criterion of welfare of the child and for the concept of the child as gift rather than product. PMID:11897913

Campbell, Alastair V

2002-02-01

286

Developing Media Literacy in Cyberspace: Pedagogy and Critical Learning for the Twenty-First-Century Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By joining bodies of research in media theory, cultural studies, and critical pedagogy, this book offers a vision of learning that values social empowerment over technical skills. An inquiry into the existence and range of models equipped to cultivate critical teaching and learning in the Internet-supported classroom, the book argues that media…

Frechette, Julie D.

287

ULTRACLEAN FUELS PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: ADVANCES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

SciTech Connect

Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

Fox, E.

2013-06-17

288

Bacteriophages as twenty-first century antibacterial tools for food and medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasing source of concern in all environments in which these drugs have been used.\\u000a More stringent regulations have led to a slow but sure decrease in antibiotic use in the food industry worldwide, but have\\u000a also stimulated the search for alternative antibacterial agents. In medicine, the number of people infected with pan-resistant\\u000a bacteria is driving research

Damien Maura; Laurent Debarbieux

2011-01-01

289

Targeted Cancer Therapies in the Twenty-First Century: Lessons From Imatinib  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased understanding of the molecular etiology of cancer has enabled the development of novel therapies that are collectively referred to as molecular targeted agents. Unlike the drugs used in conventional chemotherapy, these agents are designed to specifically interfere with key molecular events that are responsible for the malignant phenotype. They hold great promise for widening the therapeutic window, which

F Stegmeier; M Warmuth; W R Sellers; M Dorsch

2010-01-01

290

Community identity in the twenty-first century A postmodernist evaluation of local government structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key concern in debates about local government structure has centred around the competing claims for democracy, usually seen to require small units based on recognised communities of interest, and those of administrative efficiency or the instrumental requirements of the centre, usually seen to require larger units which can encompass socio-geographical change and the functional requirements of large-scale welfare provision.

Neil J. Barnett

1998-01-01

291

Competing Views of Embryos for the Twenty-First Century: Textbooks and Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It might seem that an embryo is an embryo, and that there would be a fact of the matter. That seems especially true with respect to the way embryos are presented in textbooks, including high school biology textbooks. This paper looks at three co-existing, competing, and often conflicting views of embryos. Then with a close study of twentieth…

Maienschein, Jane; Wellner, Karen

2013-01-01

292

Career Rehabilitation: Integration of Vocational Rehabilitation and Career Development in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the concept of career rehabilitation, a paradigm that proposes integrating perspectives from vocational rehabilitation and career development. Encourages counselors to assess how vocational handicaps secondary to a disabling problem can affect a client over his or her "worklife" and to adopt a life-span approach to career decision…

Shahnasarian, Michael

2001-01-01

293

Zebrafish ? As an Integrative Model for Twenty-first Century Toxicity Testing  

EPA Science Inventory

The zebrafish embryo is a useful small model for investigating vertebrate development because of its transparency, low cost, transgenic and morpholino capabilities, conservation of cell signaling, and concordance with mammalian developmental phenotypes. From these advantages, the...

294

Linguistics and Micro-RhetoricA Twenty-First Century Encounter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly linguists look to usage for explanations of how patterns of forms come to acquire grammatical status. This search leads linguistics closer to the realm of inquiry traditionally occupied by rhetoric, the study of the effective uses of language. It is proposed here that a view of language as temporal brings these two disciplines closer, and that, in fact, (usage-based)

Paul J. Hopper

2007-01-01

295

The basics of mass spectrometry in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enormous advances in our understanding of the chemistry underlying life processes have identified new targets for therapeutic agents. The discovery of effective therapeutics to address these targets is often accomplished through parallel synthetic and screening efforts. In almost all cases, what has enabled target identification and allowed parallel approaches to drug discovery to be effective are the development of either

Richard W. Vachet; Gary L. Glish

2003-01-01

296

Perioperative surgery in the twenty-first century--two case studies.  

PubMed

Comprehensive perioperative information technology (IT) systems can help health care organizations and their ORs reduce costs, increase revenues, improve processes, and enhance caregiver and patient satisfaction. This article examines what perioperative IT systems have done for two health care organizations and details implementation, the benefits these hospitals derived, next steps, and lessons learned. PMID:15526705

Meyer, Margaret; Driscoll, Earl

2004-10-01

297

Perioperative Surgery in the Twenty-first Century—Two Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

•COMPREHENSIVE PERIOPERATIVE information technology (IT) systems can help health care organizations and their ORs reduce cost, increase revenues, improve processes, and enhance caregiver and patient satisfaction.•THIS ARTICLE examines what perioperative IT systems have done for two health care organizations and details implementation, the benefits these hospitals derived, next steps, and lessons learned. AORN J 80 (October 2004) 725–733.

Margaret Meyer; Earl Driscoll

2004-01-01

298

On Becoming Essential: An Agenda for Quality in Twenty-First Century Public Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues of quality in public libraries in light of changes in services resulting from social and economic changes. Highlights include quality strategies, the customer service revolution, anticipating new markets, defining library values and missions, information technology, training staff for the future, funding, partnerships, and…

Holt, Glen E.

1996-01-01

299

Spinning Straw into Gold: A Community College Library's Twenty First Century Transformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a library renovation project in a community college that involved using existing space and reorganizing it to support the way students learn both individually and collaboratively. The article also looks at the importance of the academic library as place.

McKay, Devin

2011-01-01

300

Human Life and Sensing Technology for the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A compilation is provided of articles describing currently-active Japanese research projects on advanced biosensors. The topics covered include: The sensing of muscle activity; a three-dimensional optometer for simultaneous real-time sensing of eye accomm...

1990-01-01

301

Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy: A New Energy Agenda for the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy, which utilizes the natural heat contained in the earth's crust, can provide a widely available source of nonpolluting energy. It can help mitigate the continued warming of the earth through the ''greenhouse effect,'' ...

J. W. Tester D. W. Brown R. M. Potter

1989-01-01

302

Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy A new energy agenda for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy, which utilizes the natural heat contained in the earth's crust, can provide a widely available source of nonpolluting energy. It can help mitigate the continued warming of the earth through the ''greenhouse effect,'' and the accelerating destruction of forests and crops by acid rain, two of the major environmental consequences of our ever-increasing use

J. W. Tester; D. W. Brown; R. M. Potter

1989-01-01

303

First-Stage Palliation for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved understanding of the postoperative physiol- ogy and experience with the surgical techniques and perioperative care of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome have resulted in improved outcomes. Over the past few years, numerous modifications to the intraoper- ative and postoperative management of these patients have been described. It is likely that in combination, these modifications and better understanding of

Jeffrey M. Pearl; David P. Nelson; Steven M. Schwartz; Peter B. Manning

2010-01-01

304

First-stage palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved understanding of the postoperative physiology and experience with the surgical techniques and perioperative care of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome have resulted in improved outcomes. Over the past few years, numerous modifications to the intraoperative and postoperative management of these patients have been described. It is likely that in combination, these modifications and better understanding of the unique

Jeffrey M Pearl; David P Nelson; Steven M Schwartz; Peter B Manning

2002-01-01

305

The Humanities Are Not a Luxury: A Manifesto for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The humanities are at the heart of knowing about the human condition; they are not a luxury. The erosion of support for the humanities and the perennial anxiety about the state of the humanities are systemic. The author contends that until people acknowledge this fact, they will keep lurching from one point to another, unable to recognize the…

Smith, Martha Nell

2011-01-01

306

Authenticity in Learning for the Twenty-First Century: Bridging the Formal and the Informal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper attempts to bridge informal and formal learning by leveraging on affordance structures associated with informal environments to help learners develop social, cognitive, and metacognitive dispositions that can be applied to learning in classrooms. Most studies focus on either learning in formal or informal contexts, but this study seeks…

Hung, David; Lee, Shu-Shing; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

2012-01-01

307

The Internet and Local Online Databases: A "Novum Organum" for Twenty-First-Century Library Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In using conventional print, CD-ROM and online resources, librarians are still middlepersons between publishers and users. By exploiting Internet and World Wide Web online technology and developing local databases, libraries can tap new information sources and make them available to local audiences and others dispersed around the world in an…

Webb, Terry

308

Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The duplex design by Bock and Mislevy for school-based testing is revisited and evaluated as a potential platform in test-based accountability assessments today. We conclude that the model could be useful in meeting the many competing demands of today's test-based accountability assessments, although many research questions will need to be…

Bejar, Isaac I.; Graf, E. Aurora

2010-01-01

309

Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Aging into the Twenty-First Century: An Overview and Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an introduction and overview for the papers in the special issue of this Journal devoted to the latter half of life among gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. Key issues are highlighted in terms of their impact on gay, lesbian, and bisexual cultural communities: the impact of the large aging population of baby boomers; the significance of age

Andrew M. Boxer

1997-01-01

310

Seeing the Light: Religious Colleges in Twenty-First-Century America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samuel Schuman examines the place of religious colleges and universities, particularly evangelical Protestant institutions, in contemporary American higher education. Many faith-based schools are flourishing. They have rigorous academic standards, impressive student recruitment, ambitious philanthropic goals, and well-maintained campuses and…

Schuman, Samuel

2009-01-01

311

Calories for Sale: Food Marketing to Children in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Budgets for marketing to children have spiked well into the billions, an escalation that mirrors the rise in childhood obesity rates. Children are targets for a maelstrom of marketing for all sorts of products enabled by sophisticated technology and minimal government regulation. Despite the fact that recent studies document links between food advertising and childhood obesity, a significant proportion of

Susan Linn; Courtney L. Novosat

2008-01-01

312

Management of transient ischemia attacks in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Patients who have a transient ischemic attack (TIA) represent a group that may appear well but are at high risk for stroke within 90 days. Management of patients who have a TIA requires an understanding of the short-term risk for stroke to guide acute management and the long-term benefits to medical and surgical therapies. The initial emergency department (ED) evaluation may be supplemented with simple TIA stroke risk scores to estimate short-term stroke risk. The addition of MRI provides yet more information regarding stroke risks, while identifying some specific causes of TIA. Extended testing may not be feasible in the ED, and to address this limitation, new outpatient strategies for patients who have a TIA have been developed, such as the use of an ED observation unit or an outpatient TIA clinic. Although controversy remains in some areas of acute TIA management because of the lack of evidence from controlled trials, evidence from large randomized trials have led to a better understanding of effective measures for the long-term prevention of stroke. PMID:19218019

Ross, Michael; Nahab, Fadi

2009-02-01

313

Diversitas and biodiversity: the roots of a twenty-first century myth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first mention on conceptualisation of what we now term “biodiversity” was given by Federico Cesi about 400 years ago.\\u000a By the light of the first formulation of this concept, the historical changes in the human approach to “biodiversity” are\\u000a discussed. The popularity of this term shifted from scientific to socio-political contexts and its significance became progressively\\u000a blurred by eco-social implications.

Riccardo Guarino; Sandro Pignatti

2010-01-01

314

Music Education for Life: Building Inclusive, Effective Twenty-First-Century Music Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines how to make music programs more inclusive and therefore enable music teachers to compete more effectively for enrollment. Fortunately, music affords teachers many compelling options to win the hearts and minds of students, and thereby to create a more musically literate and supportive public. The author suggests that music…

Shuler, Scott C.

2011-01-01

315

Psychoanalytic education in the twenty-first century: a syllabus for all seasons.  

PubMed

I am suggesting that psychoanalytic training facilities restructure their curriculum to include opposing views, in an effort to avoid the inevitable disintegration of the field at large. Without a sense of requirement for any particular viewpoint, I have suggested the model of class modules, usually based around three differing positions, be applied in as many classes as possible. This method enhances the very nature of psychoanalysis while it extends the educational provenance of each separate institute, and specifically each teacher of psychoanalysis. In so doing, candidates across the board will feel and think in a more collegial manner, and may find that learning psychoanalysis is to learn something new and exciting. PMID:22026543

Jacobs, Carl

2011-10-01

316

Integrating Basic and Applied Developmental Research: A New Model for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that researchers can achieve objectives of advancing basic knowledge and addressing applied problems within a single research program. Provides a framework for this perspective by examining historical trends of basic and applied developmental research and examining potential approaches. Uses research on affordances and childhood injuries to…

Schwebel, David C.; Plumert, Jodie M.; Pick, Herbert L.

2000-01-01

317

Into the Twenty-First Century: Comprehensive Planning for Secondary Vocational Education in New Jersey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an unbiased statement about changes in demographics and about the needs of business and industry that may require changes in secondary vocational education. The first part defines and describes vocational education. Part 2 is an historical overview of the changes in vocational education legislation, population demographics,…

Ascher, Gordon

318

Science and Pseudoscience: A Course for the Citizen of the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course for general education students focusing on current topics in science, titled pseudoscience. Includes the course's goals, objectives, problems, instructional methods, and results of student performance. (DS)

Howes, Ruth; Watson, James, Jr.

1981-01-01

319

Promoting the Health of Adolescents: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three parts of this book, "The Adolescent, Health, and Society,""Topical Areas for Promoting Health," and "The Future of Adolescent Health Promotion: Next Steps," offer a new framework for examining the status of adolescent health in the United States. Contributing authors have provided the following chapters: (1) "Adolescent Health Promotion:…

Millstein, Susan G., Ed.; And Others

320

Are catenas relevant to soil maps and pedology in Iowa in the twenty-first century?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modern intensity of agriculture brings to question whether anthropogenic impacts on soil profiles and catenas in agricultural areas are minor or dominant pedogenic influences. Answering this question is crucial to evaluating the modern relevance of historic soil maps, which use the traditional catena model as their foundation. This study quantifies the magnitude of change within the soil profile and across the landscape that result from decadal scale agriculture. Four benchmark catenas located on the Des Moines Lobe in Iowa, USA, were re-examined to determine the changes that occurred in the soils over the intervening years. The first site was initially studied by Walker and Ruhe in the mid 1960's. Burras and Scholtes initially examined the second catena in the early 1980's, while the remaining two catenas were first studied in the early 1990's by Steinwand and Fenton, and the late 1990's by Konen. Thus, the catenas were re-sampled for this study roughly 50, 30, 20, and 15 years, respectively, after the initial study. In this part of Iowa, continuous row crop agriculture (primarily Zea mays and Glycine max) and extensive subsurface drainage are very common. All study sites are closed-basin catenas located within 40 km of each other with a parent material of Late Wisconsinan glacial till. Soil cores to a depth of approximately two meters were taken with a truck mounted Giddings hydraulic soil sampler at 27 to 30 meter intervals along one transect for each of the four catenas, resulting in a total of forty-eight cores. The soil cores were then brought to the laboratory where soil descriptions and laboratory analyses are being completed. Soil descriptions include information about horizon type and depth, Munsell color, texture, rock fragments, structure, consistence, clay films, roots, pores, presence of carbonates, and redoximorphic features. Laboratory analyses include bulk density, particle size, total carbon and nitrogen content, cation exchange capacity, stable aggregate content, and pH. The resulting data is being analyzed and compared to historic data and models of pedogenesis. Preliminary and anticipated results indicate that soil properties such as bulk density, pH, geometric mean particle size, structure, A-horizon thickness, carbon distribution, depth to carbonates, and redoximorphic features have been altered by agricultural land use over the past 50 years. This indicates that anthropogenic impacts due to agriculture are a significant pedogenic influence, which is decreasing the scientific value of historic soil maps.

Richter, Jennifer; Burras, C. Lee

2014-05-01

321

Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms-such as corals and some plankton-will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13

James C. Orr; Victoria J. Fabry; Olivier Aumont; Laurent Bopp; Scott C. Doney; Richard A. Feely; Anand Gnanadesikan; Nicolas Gruber; Akio Ishida; Fortunat Joos; Robert M. Key; Keith Lindsay; Ernst Maier-Reimer; Richard Matear; Patrick Monfray; Anne Mouchet; Raymond G. Najjar; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Keith B. Rodgers; Christopher L. Sabine; Jorge L. Sarmiento; Reiner Schlitzer; Richard D. Slater; Ian J. Totterdell; Marie-France Weirig; Yasuhiro Yamanaka; Andrew Yool

2005-01-01

322

Japanese corporate governance: governance for the twenty-first century or a model in decline?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the search for more responsive and robust forms of corporate governance continues internationally, this paper seeks to inform the current debate concerning the relative strengths and limitations of the Japanese system in the context of the rising demands and expectations of global investors. Using the current literature within the field and the annual reports of the top 50 Japanese

Richard Bostock; Christopher Stoney

1997-01-01

323

Educating American Muslim Leadership (Men and Women) for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating and training Muslim men and women leaders who are capable of effectively navigating the multi-ethnic and multi-religious terrain in America--particularly in the post 9-11 milieu--requires the development of a new critical American Muslim pedagogy. This new pedagogy, centered in Islamic epistemology and ontology, should selectively…

al-Islam, Amir

2006-01-01

324

Training Strategies for the Twenty-First Century: Using Recent Research on Learning To Enhance Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a new training model that takes into account the diversity of learners and the emotional, physical and social environmental conditions essential for lifelong learning. Considers how the brain learns and functions, brain-based learning, multiple intelligence, and emotional intelligence as well as personal reflection. (LRW)

Dwyer, Brian M.

2002-01-01

325

Twenty-First-Century Climate Impacts from a Declining Arctic Sea Ice Cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady decline in Arctic sea ice has been observed over recent decades. General circulation models predict further decreases under increasing greenhouse gas scenarios. Sea ice plays an important role in the climate system in that it influences ocean-to-atmosphere fluxes, surface albedo, and ocean buoyancy. The aim of this study is to isolate the climate impacts of a declining Arctic

Joy S. Singarayer; Jonathan L. Bamber; Paul J. Valdes

2006-01-01

326

Technology and Ethical/Moral Dilemmas of Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to plan a relevant, professional development conference for the faculty of a small, private, suburban college in upstate, New York. The Provost and Senior Vice-President led a college-wide committee of faculty, administrators, and staff in a survey method to discover the priorities of the faculty, in further…

Clark, Lisa D.

2012-01-01

327

Is Moral Education Working? Extracts from the Diary of a Twenty-First Century Moral Educator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article takes the form of a set of edited diary entries containing reflections on incidents drawn mainly from the author's professional life as a university professor and as a consultant to a disadvantaged multi-ethnic secondary school in the north of England. The form of the article allows a wide range of issues to be touched on, including…

Halstead, J. Mark

2011-01-01

328

Building Academic Distinction in a Twenty-First-Century Research University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reputation of UC Merced as a student centered research university rested on administration's success in attracting top-flight faculty. This chapter describes how this process started, through choosing the deans, then recruiting the faculty. As faculty arrived, the academic picture came into focus. Not surprisingly, the initial ideas about …

Ashley, David B.

2007-01-01

329

The time of troubles: The US national security agency in the twenty?first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to ask whether the US National Security Agency (NSA) doing its job or stumbling through a midlife crisis. It reviews what has occurred at NSA during the last decade. It argues that some statements that have appeared in the American press that NSA was solely responsible for some of the US intelligence community's recent intelligence failures are

Mtthew M. Aid

2000-01-01

330

Introduction: Gender and Electoral Politics into the Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2004 elections in the United States will surely be remembered most for the hotly contested and deeply divisive presidential election between incumbent Republican President George W. Bush and Democratic chal- lenger John F. Kerry. Because of the international and domestic contro- versy over the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, the entire world was watching this election. The Democrats and John

SUSAN J. CARROLL; RICHARD L. FOX

331

Reading and Society in Russia in the First Years of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the changes in the attitude of Russia's reading public in terms of frequency and intensiveness and the factors that influence these changes. In comparison with the situation in the late Soviet era and with the perestroika years, the picture of mass reading by Russians over the 1990s and, especially, in the first years of the…

Dubin, B. V.; Zorkaia, N. A.

2010-01-01

332

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Carbon Nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This account reviews the discovery, synthesis, properties, and the latest research advances of carbon nanotubes developed over the past 12 years. Because of their remarkable electronic and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes are unique and exciting. The field has been developed rapidly, and the number of publications per year is increasing almost exponentially. Various technological applications are likely to arise using

Mauricio Terrones

2003-01-01

333

Student Workers: Essential Partners in the Twenty-First Century Academic Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a case study that best illustrates the value of student workers in university libraries, focusing particularly on how this kind of creative endeavor benefits everyone involved--the library, the students, the faculty, and at the end of the project: the university community. (Contains 1 table.)

Logan, Firouzeh

2012-01-01

334

Globalisation and Societal Culture: Redefining Schooling and School Leadership in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concept of globalization and explores the relationship between globalization and societal culture. States the transfer between systems must be more culturally sensitive. Offers a list of cultural dimensions to gauge the influence of cultures. Argues that greater cultural sensitivity is necessary when raising issues on school reform…

Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

2000-01-01

335

Deforestation driven by urban population growth and agricultural trade in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing atmospheric carbon emissions from tropical deforestation is at present considered a cost-effective option for mitigating climate change. However, the forces associated with tropical forest loss are uncertain. Here we use satellite-based estimates of forest loss for 2000 to 2005 (ref. 2) to assess economic, agricultural and demographic correlates across 41 countries in the humid tropics. Two methods of analysis-linear regression and regression tree-show that forest loss is positively correlated with urban population growth and exports of agricultural products for this time period. Rural population growth is not associated with forest loss, indicating the importance of urban-based and international demands for agricultural products as drivers of deforestation. The strong trend in movement of people to cities in the tropics is, counter-intuitively, likely to be associated with greater pressures for clearing tropical forests. We therefore suggest that policies to reduce deforestation among local, rural populations will not address the main cause of deforestation in the future. Rather, efforts need to focus on reducing deforestation for industrial-scale, export-oriented agricultural production, concomitant with efforts to increase yields in non-forested lands to satisfy demands for agricultural products.

Defries, Ruth S.; Rudel, Thomas; Uriarte, Maria; Hansen, Matthew

2010-03-01

336

SALMON RECOVERY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: BREACHING THE BASIC BARRIERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far ...

337

Federal Register 2.0: Public Participation in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

On July 26, 2010, the Office of the Federal Register and the Government Printing Office (GPO) launched “Federal Register 2.0,” a web version of the daily Federal Register. As of now, the site is only a prototype; therefore, “Federal Register 2.0” is not yet an official legal edition of the Federal Register, and it will not become official until the

Lauren R. Dudley

2011-01-01

338

Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century: Recent Advances in Economic Theory and Undergraduate Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate economics lags behind cutting-edge economic theory. The author briefly reviews six related advances that profoundly extend and deepen economic analysis: game-theoretic modeling, collective-action problems, information economics and contracting, social preference theory, conceptualizing rationality, and institutional theory. He offers…

Ferguson, William D.

2011-01-01

339

Fermilab Industrial Affiliates roundtable on research technology in the twenty-first century  

SciTech Connect

This collection of articles presents views on the future of physics research by leading experts in the field. Topics discussed include particle physics, the Superconducting Super Collider, and the development of new superconducting materials. The articles have been abstracted and indexed separately.

Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Fenner, R.B. (eds.)

1987-05-01

340

Demographic Factors Affecting Higher Education in the United States in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Review of demographic changes finds that by midcentury a majority of the college population will be minorities, and all of the net increase in student population will come from minorities. Implications for recruitment, remediation, and retention are drawn. (DB)

Murdock, Steve H.; Hoque, Md. Nazrul

1999-01-01

341

Critical Digital Literacies: Following Feminist Composition Theories into Twenty-First Century Contact Zones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines how the interests of feminist composition theory, digital media, and new literacies studies intersect within the research context of the first-year writing classroom. Specifically, this project examines what happens to the "contact zone" (Pratt 1991; Bizzell 1994) of first-year composition when we introduce digital…

Blackburn, Jessica B.

2010-01-01

342

Not lining in the twenty?first century: Attitudes to the structural conservation of canvas paintings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in the structural conservation of canvas paintings, particularly regarding lining, were evaluated through a series of surveys carried out by questionnaire in 1975, 1984 and 2001. The 1975 survey reflected the end of an era when wax?resin and glue?paste lining were dominant. In the years between 1975 and 1984 there was a rapid growth in lining technology, and synthetic

Paul Ackroyd; Alan Phenix; Caroline Villers

2002-01-01

343

Worldwide Test Reviewing at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article sets the stage for the description of a variety of approaches to test reviewing worldwide. It describes the importance of test reviewing as a protection of the public and of society and also the benefits of this activity for test users, who must choose measures to use in particular situations with particular clients at a particular…

Geisinger, Kurt F.

2012-01-01

344

Twenty-First Century Moonlighters. Issues in Labor Statistics. Summary 02-07.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 2001, 7.8 million people in the United States (5.7% of U.S. workers) worked multiple jobs. The May 2001 Current Population Survey asked multiple jobholders their main reason for holding more than one job. These percentages of respondents gave the following reasons: to meet expenses or pay off debt, 27.8%; to earn extra money, 35.4%; to…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

345

Teaching World History in the Twenty-First Century: A Resource Book  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practical handbook is designed to help anyone who is preparing to teach a world history course--or wants to teach it better. It opens with Peter Stearns's essay "Where Did World History Come From?" and closes with Jerry Bentley's annotated bibliographic guide to the essential content knowledge for teaching world history. In between,…

Roupp, Heidi, Ed.

2009-01-01

346

Dance Education Matters: Rebuilding Postsecondary Dance Education for Twenty-First Century Relevance and Resonance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postsecondary dance education is at a crucial juncture in its history in academe. Emerging from women's physical education programs in the 1930s, the profession's realignment with the arts broadly and arts-based education specifically has been characterized by ambitious goals and steady growth through the 1990s. However, a number of critical…

Risner, Doug

2010-01-01

347

Micrographia of the twenty-first century: from camera obscura to 4D microscopy  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the evolutionary and revolutionary developments of microscopic imaging are overviewed with a perspective on origins. From Alhazen’s camera obscura, to Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek’s two-dimensional optical micrography, and on to three- and four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy, these developments over a millennium have transformed humans’ scope of visualization. The changes in the length and time scales involved are unimaginable, beginning with the visible shadows of candles at the centimetre and second scales, and ending with invisible atoms with space and time dimensions of sub-nanometre and femtosecond. With these advances it has become possible to determine the structures of matter and to observe their elementary dynamics as they unfold in real time. Such observations provide the means for visualizing materials behaviour and biological function, with the aim of understanding emergent phenomena in complex systems.

Zewail, Ahmed H.

2010-01-01

348

Relevant and Effective Theological Education in the Context of Twenty-First Century South Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay considers Christian theological education in South Asia highlighting pertinent issues in pedagogical content, form, method, and praxis. Debunking the notion of students as "empty bottles" to be filled, and criticizing the top-down model of education, the paper argues that theological education is an ongoing and interactive process in…

Raja, Joshva; Rajkumar, Peniel Jesudason Rufus

2010-01-01

349

Dismantling the Poverty Trap: Disability Policy for the Twenty-First Century  

PubMed Central

Working-age people with disabilities are much more likely than people without disabilities to live in poverty and not be employed or have shared in the economic prosperity of the late 1990s. Today's disability policies, which remain rooted in paternalism, create a “poverty trap” that recent reforms have not resolved. This discouraging situation will continue unless broad, systemic reforms promoting economic self-sufficiency are implemented, in line with more modern thinking about disability. Indeed, the implementation of such reforms may be the only way to protect people with disabilities from the probable loss of benefits if the federal government cuts funding for entitlement programs. This article suggests some principles to guide reforms and encourage debate and asks whether such comprehensive reforms can be successfully designed and implemented.

Stapleton, David C; O'Day, Bonnie L; Livermore, Gina A; Imparato, Andrew J

2006-01-01

350

Desiderata for Controlled Medical Vocabularies in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Builders of medical informatics applications need controlled medical vocabularies to support their applications and it is to their advantage to use available standards. In order to do so, however, these standards need to address the requirements of their intended users. Over the past decade, medical informatics researchers have begun to articulate some of these requirements. This paper brings together some

James J. Cimino

1998-01-01

351

Globalizing the Community College: Strategies for Change in the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses the effects of globalization on community colleges, and the organizational responses to globalization. The author looks at seven community colleges that have undergone organizational change in response to globalization. For each college, he examines the effects of globalization in three areas: the economic domain, the cultural…

Levin, John S.

352

Evolution of global airline strategic alliance and consolidation in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global airline strategic alliances have emerged since the late 1980s, and their number has slowly risen through the years. Will the number of such alliances continue to proliferate? Or will airlines consolidate with one another to form mega-carriers? In this paper, the likelihood of various airline consolidation and alliance development possibilities was examined based on a number of high-level trends

Terence Ping Ching Fan; Laurence Vigeant-Langlois; Christine Geissler; Björn Bosler; Jan Wilmking

2001-01-01

353

Assessing quality in cardiac surgery: why this is necessary in the twenty-first century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cost and high-profile nature of coronary surgery means that this is an area of close public scrutiny. As much pioneering work in data collection and risk analyses has been carried out by cardiac surgeons, substantial information exists and the correct interpretation of that data is identified as an important issue. This paper considers the background and history of risk-adjustment in cardiac surgery, the uses of quality data, examines the observed/expected mortality ratio and looks at issues such as cost and reactions to outliers. The conclusion of the study is that the continuation of accurate data collection by the whole operative team and a strong commitment to constantly improving quality is crucial to its meaningful application.

Swain, J. A.; Hartz, R. S.

2000-01-01

354

Fisheries management in the twenty-first century: will new paradigms apply?  

Microsoft Academic Search

page 2 The role of paradigms in setting a future agenda for fisheries 3 The academic context to fisheries management Three partial theories of stock assessment The currently dominant paradigm The management cycle Open-access paradigms? Modelling and experimenting with fisheries systems Some personal experiences Geographical considerations Mediterranean demersal fisheries: a refugium paradigm? Managing multispecies fisheries and ecosystems Role of society

J. F. Caddy

1999-01-01

355

Developing an Interdisciplinary, Distributed Graduate Course for Twenty-First Century Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graduate programs have placed an increasing emphasis on the importance of interdisciplinary education, but barriers to interdisciplinary training still remain. We present a new model for interdisciplinary, cross-institution graduate teaching that combines the best of local teaching, distance learning, and experiential learning to provide students…

Wagner, Helene H.; Murphy, Melanie A.; Holderegger, Rolf; Waits, Lisette

2012-01-01

356

Virtual Libraries and Education in Virtual Worlds: Twenty-First Century Library Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the use of the Internet and time spent on the Internet by individuals grows, and the use of virtual worlds like Active Worlds and Second Life increases, the library needs to have an interactive place and role in these worlds as well as a bricks and mortar space. This article provides an overview of what some libraries are doing in these worlds,…

Bell, Lori; Lindbloom, Mary-Carol; Peters, Tom; Pope, Kitty

2008-01-01

357

Twenty-First Century Agriculture: A Critical Role for Science and Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Agricultural Productivity: An Engine of Development (Science and Technology Contribute to Productivity, Unmet Needs for Food Security and Income Growth); Potential Benefits of Science and Technology (Agricultural Production Technologies,...

2003-01-01

358

School Counseling in the Twenty-First Century: A Systemic Multicultural Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School counseling educators and practitioners frequently find themselves so focused on the daily activities of serving their schools that rarely do they have the luxury of considering a long-term and large-scale vision for the profession. Yet a vision that anticipates the future needs of school counseling in a proactive manner is just what the…

Behring, Shari Tarver

359

The Community College in the Twenty-First Century. A Systems Approach;.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The thesis of the book is that the problems community colleges face were inherent from the beginning and became more prominent because the particular vantage points from which the schools were viewed prohibited the taking of any action on the problems. Chapter one presents a portrait of what the colleges have become, establishing the governing…

Cain, Michael Scott

360

Engaging the Creative Arts to Meet the Needs of Twenty-First-Century Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As we navigate through a new form of economic era where science, technology, knowledge and services will replace consumer goods as drivers of growth, and the workplace will increasingly value creative abilities, there appears a need for an educational paradigm shift. However, within an Australian context of increasing school accountability, a…

Scholes, Laura; Nagel, Michael C.

2012-01-01

361

Aging and Lifelong Disabilities: Partnership for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains presentations from the Wingspread Conference, a conference held in June 1987 to examine issues posed by the increasing longevity of older Americans with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. An executive summary and the following papers are included: (1) "Aging and Lifelong Disabilities: Problems and Prospects"…

Ansello, Edward F.; Rose, Thomas

362

Why the changing American economy calls for twenty-first century learning: answers to educators' questions.  

PubMed

While struggling with the current pressures of educational reform, some educators will ask whether their efforts make economic sense. Questioning the future makeup of the nation's workforce, many wonder how the educational system should be tempered to better prepare today's youth. This chapter answers educators' and parents' questions around the effect of fluctuations in the American economy on the future of education. The authors offer reassurance that good jobs will always be available, but warn that those jobs will require a new level of skills: expert thinking and complex communication. Schools need to go beyond their current curriculum and prepare students to use reading, math, and communication skills to build a deeper and more thoughtful understanding of subject matter. To explain the implications of the nation's changing economy on jobs, technology, and therefore education, the authors address a range of vital questions. Citing occupational distribution data, the chapter explores the supply and range of jobs in the future, as well as why changes in the U.S. job distribution have taken place. As much of the explanation for the shift in job distribution over the past several decades is due to the computerization of the workforce, the authors discuss how computers will affect the future composition of the workforce. The chapter also addresses the consequences of educational improvement on earnings distribution. The authors conclude that beyond workforce preparedness, students need to learn how to be contributing members of a democracy. PMID:17017257

Levy, Frank; Murnane, Richard J

2006-01-01

363

Genetic enhancement in the twenty-first century: three problems in legal imagining.  

PubMed

By what method should we resolve the ethical and public policy issues surrounding genetic enhancement: a utilitarian calculus, appeal to Scripture, application of neo-Kantian principles? In this Article, the author claims that, despite the diversity of our basic methodological commitments, we can advance our shared understanding of the issues surrounding genetic enhancement and come to agree upon certain central features as essential to any adequate method for resolving those issues. The author attempts to make modest headway on both fronts by engaging in "legal imagining." Legal imagining consists of examining hypothetical problems from the lawyer's perspective, the perspective of a caring, professional friend. This Article examines and discusses three problems in legal imagining. PMID:12664909

Berry, R M

1999-01-01

364

76 FR 14856 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...format.'' \\65\\ When the video description rules were originally adopted in 2000, digital television was in its relative infancy, and those rules explicitly did not extend to digital transmission of programming.\\66\\ At the time, the...

2011-03-18

365

Critical Issues in Language and Education Planning in Twenty First Century in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language and education planning issues and democratic policy implementation in the post-apartheid era in South Africa encompass a range of language-related issues and dilemmas that have counterparts in many countries, within the emerging global education system. The issues in South Africa were and continue to be shaped by the historical legacy of…

Brook Napier, Diane

2011-01-01

366

Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario  

PubMed Central

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH4, and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this reduction of non-CO2 GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties.

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar

2000-01-01

367

Global Warming in the Twenty-First Century: An Alternative Scenario  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH4, and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this reduction of non-CO2 GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties.

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar

2000-01-01

368

Water and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century: The Middle East and California  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Throughout the world, population pressures, irrigation demands, and growing resource needs are increasing competition for\\u000a fresh water. Nowhere is this more evident than in the arid Middle East, where the scarcity of water has played a central role\\u000a in defining the political relationships of the region for thousands of years. In the Middle East, ideological, religious,\\u000a and geographical disputes go

Peter H. Gleick

369

Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty-first century  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews recent literature concerning a wide range of processes through which climate change could potentially impact global-scale agricultural productivity, and presents projections of changes in relevant meteorological, hydrological and plant physiological quantities from a climate model ensemble to illustrate key areas of uncertainty. Few global-scale assessments have been carried out, and these are limited in their ability to capture the uncertainty in climate projections, and omit potentially important aspects such as extreme events and changes in pests and diseases. There is a lack of clarity on how climate change impacts on drought are best quantified from an agricultural perspective, with different metrics giving very different impressions of future risk. The dependence of some regional agriculture on remote rainfall, snowmelt and glaciers adds to the complexity. Indirect impacts via sea-level rise, storms and diseases have not been quantified. Perhaps most seriously, there is high uncertainty in the extent to which the direct effects of CO2 rise on plant physiology will interact with climate change in affecting productivity. At present, the aggregate impacts of climate change on global-scale agricultural productivity cannot be reliably quantified.

Gornall, Jemma; Betts, Richard; Burke, Eleanor; Clark, Robin; Camp, Joanne; Willett, Kate; Wiltshire, Andrew

2010-01-01

370

The Professional Status of Educational Research: Professionalism and Developmentalism in Twenty-First-Century Working Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"How helpful and how necessary is it for at least some of us to see ourselves as professional educational researchers?" asked Donald McIntyre in his 1996 presidential address to the British Educational Research Association. Still pertinent to consideration of the direction in which the British educational research community ought to…

Evans, Linda

2013-01-01

371

The Architecture of Higher Education. University Spatial Models at the Start of the Twenty First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines trends in university architecture through history and the current Spanish model, asserting that good architecture produces a good university. Discusses function, culture, and character as they relate to university education and architecture. (EV)

Calvo-Sotelo, Pablo Campos

2001-01-01

372

Unruly Bodies: The Rhetorical Domestication of Twenty-First-Century Veterans of War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Veterans of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with visually identifiable injuries possess "unruly" bodies that render the story of war in efficient, emotional terms. The injured veteran's explicit connection of war with injury motivates state and mainstream news discourse that domesticates veterans' bodies, managing representations of injured veterans…

Achter, Paul

2010-01-01

373

Biology in the Twenty First Century: A New Curriculum for School Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past two decades, science has become established as a core school subject in schools in England and Wales, taken by all students aged 5 to 16. But increasingly questions have been raised about the suitability for many students of the curriculum they are required to follow (Murray and Reiss, 2005). From September 2006, schools in England…

Burden, Jenifer; Hall, Angela

2005-01-01

374

Futurework: Trends and Challenges for Work in the 21st Century  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by the US Department of Labor (DOL), this report explores the social impact of the new economy and the role of the "twenty-first century work-place" in America. Futurework cites three elements necessary for the stability of American workers: "rising economic security over a lifetime," "a work and family balance," and "workplaces that are safe and fair." Using numerous charts, tables, and graphs, the report examines topics such as workforce diversity, wage growth, changing workplaces, technology and globalization, and future trends affecting working conditions and worker morale. The report may be downloaded by chapter in .pdf format. Additional resources at the site include a number of full-text conference papers (in HTML or .pdf formats) and related links. [MD

2000-01-01

375

The Century-Long Challenge of Global Carbon Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time scale of the global carbon management is a century, not a decade and not a millennium. A century is the ratio of 1000 billion metric tons of carbon [Gt(C)] to 10 Gt(C)\\/yr. 1000 Gt(C) is the future emissions that will lead to approximately a doubling of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, 280 ppm, assuming the total net ocean

R. Socolow

2002-01-01

376

Who Will Challenge Our Youth? Preparing Our Youth for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urges young people to concentrate on building new bridges of hope and renewal to the 21st century, noting the work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Encourages youths to challenge their peers to prepare for the new century by striving to change social inequalities and reaching across artificial barriers to ensure that each member of society shares fully…

Davis, Lloyd

1999-01-01

377

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: PARADIGMS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES  

EPA Science Inventory

In: Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges: Abstract Book: SETAC 21st Annual Meeting, 12-16 November 2000, Nashville, TN.. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL. Pp. p. 180. Bioavailability and rates...

378

Vickrey Auctions in Practice: From Nineteenth-Century Philately to Twenty-First-Century E-Commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

William Vickrey (1961) proposed an auction mechanism in which bidders submit sealed bids, and the highest bidder wins the good in return for payment of the second-highest bid amount. For decades, economists have credited Vickrey with inventing this auction format, and have believed that the Vickrey auction is rarely used in practice. This paper presents evidence that Vickrey auctions have

David Lucking-Reiley

2000-01-01

379

Challenges for 21st-Century Elementary School Principals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 21st-century elementary principalship demands more than a compendium of skills. Qualified individuals are not applying, due to inadequate compensation, job-related stress, and time fragmentation issues. Meeting state-mandated standards while addressing child-welfare problems requires that schools regain importance as hubs of communities. (MLH)

Ferrandino, Vincent L.

2001-01-01

380

2010 Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. Twenty First Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First mandated by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1989 (S.L. 1989; C. 752; S. 80), the Critical Success Factors report has evolved into the major accountability document for the North Carolina Community College System. This twenty first annual report on the critical success factors is the result of a process undertaken to streamline and…

North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

381

Next Century Challenges: Data-Centric Networking for Invisible Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computing and telecommunications are maturing, and the next century promises a shift away from technology-driven general-purpose devices. Instead, we will focus on the needs of consumers: easy-to-use, low-maintenance, portable, ubiq- uitous, and ultra-reliable task-specific devices. Such devices, although not as limited by computational speed or commu- nication bandwidth, will instead be constrained by new lim- its on size, form-factor, and

Mike Esler; Jeffrey Hightower; Thomas E. Anderson; Gaetano Borriello

1999-01-01

382

MOS Scaling: Transistor Challenges for the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional scaling of gate oxide thickness, source\\/drain extension (SDE), junction depths, and gate lengths have enabled MOS gate dimensions to be reduced from 10?m in the 1970's to a present day size of 0.1?m. To enable transistor scaling into the 21 st century, new solutions such as high dielectric constant materials for gate insulation and shallow, ultra low resistivity junctions

Scott Thompson; Paul Packan

1998-01-01

383

Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as “new,” “emerging,” or “evolving” pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses,

John N. Sofos

2008-01-01

384

Next century challenges: scalable coordination in sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Networked sensors-those that coordinate amongst them- selves to achieve a larger sensing task-will revolutionize information gathering and processing both in urban envi- ronments and in inhospitable terrain. The sheer numbers of these sensors and the expected dynamics in these environ- ments present unique challenges in the design of unattended autonomous sensor networks. These challenges lead us to hypothesize that sensor

Deborah Estrin; Ramesh Govindan; John S. Heidemann; Satish Kumar

1999-01-01

385

Challenges Facing Hispanic-Serving Institutions in the First Decade of the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, the presidents and chancellors of Hispanic-serving institutions identified 5 challenges that their institutions will face as the end of the first decade of the 21st century approaches. Almost 8 of 10 respondents listed lack of funding as the most important challenge. The 2nd most important issue was the poor academic preparedness of…

de los Santos, Alfredo G., Jr.; Cuamea, Karina Michelle

2010-01-01

386

The Social Practice of Learning: A Craft for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that the social practice of learning (SPL), involving life-long learning, meta-learning, deep reflection, and dialogue in a community, should be the distinguishing knowledge base of schools in the twenty-first century. This article also analyses the strategies and challenges of the recent education reforms in Singapore through…

Hung, David; Ng, Pak Tee; Koh, Thiam Seng; Lim, Seo Hong

2009-01-01

387

Strategic Paradigm Shifts in the Antimicrobial Drug Discovery Process of the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers of global infections produced by bacterial strains that are resistant to single and multiple antimicrobial drugs are on the rise. Concomitant with this alarming upward trend, there is a clear downward trend in the intent and determination of pharmaceutical companies to develop novel antimicrobials. One of the pressing goals to confront the twenty first century's public health challenges

Luis E. N. Quadri

2007-01-01

388

New Challenges for Higher Education: Global and Asia-Pacific Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With rapid socio-economic changes, twenty-first century higher education is facing major challenges to its governance systems, curriculum, mission focus, external relations, research, and financing. A theoretical framework to analyze these post-massification challenges is suggested, with a focus on the Asia-Pacific region as well as global issues.…

Shin, Jung Cheol; Harman, Grant

2009-01-01

389

Challenges facing occupational health services in the 21st century.  

PubMed

The mission and tasks of occupational health services are reviewed in the context of the global megatrends of productivity increase, population overgrowth, and the implications of changes in the technology of information and communication. Current trends in attempts to achieve harmonization with respect to the concept and tasks of occupational health services in the European Union are described, along with the basic features of occupational health services as a human service organization with implications for the setting of objectives and criteria for assessing quality and performance and ethics. The need to adopt a quality-focused approach to occupational health service programs is emphasized, and some of the inhibitions and obstacles to quality work are mentioned. The need for professional commitment to develop and implement quality concepts is outlined. Evidence-based health care in the setting of occupational health services and some salient aspects of professional ethics in the 21st century are commented on. PMID:10884163

Westerholm, P

1999-12-01

390

Critical infrastructure protection: A 21st century challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

of the potential for damage that could be caused by targeted attacks and cyber warfare. Current approaches to addressing these problems have tended to focus on traditional security measures, and have not mobilised the full breadth of capabilities provided by digital technologies. In this paper we will explore some of the challenges associated with these developments. We also consider potential

Madjid Merabti; Michael Kennedy; William Hurst

2011-01-01

391

African Higher Education: Challenges for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African higher education, at the beginning of the new millennium, faces unprecedented challenges. Not only is the demand for access unstoppable, especially in the context of Africa's traditionally low postsecondary attendance levels, but higher education is recognized as a key force for modernization and development. Africa's academic institutions…

Teferra, Damtew; Altbachl, Philip G.

2004-01-01

392

Biotechnology, Bioethics and Law: Europe's 21st Century Challenge &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in biotechnology make possible many things which even a few years ago would have seemed unimaginable. However, the steady advance of biotechnological innovation raises difficult questions for ethicists and regulators. In the thirty-fourth Chorley Lecture Noelle Lenoir analyses the European response to these challenges and calls upon European leaders to honour their commitment to human dignity and to give

Noëlle Lenoir

2006-01-01

393

The next great challenges in systems thinking: a defence perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defence research and development is superbly rich in the challenges of designing highly complex technologically based systems. These present very difficult systems thinking problems that will have to be solved if a systems approach is to be successfully applied to creating and sustaining the military capabilities and forces that the UK will need for the twenty-first century. Beginning with the

David Oxenham

2010-01-01

394

Material challenges for transducer designers in the 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modern U.S. Navy is rapidly evolving to meet the challenges of operating in the littorals. This focus changes the rules, especially to the designers of sonar systems that now need to aggressively engage quiet diesel electric submarine threats and neutralize sophisticated underwater mines. These new responsibilities dictate that new concepts be developed. To meet these new demands on the sonar system, transducer designers are being tasked to design transducers and to utilize new materials to address performance requirements that were never even imagined a decade ago. Sensor needs are no longer limited to pressure types but now have to sense velocity or acceleration. Sources are challenged to both frequency extent and power levels. The need to physically move sources off of submarines and surface combatants and onto vehicles with limited energy capabilities prompt the challenge of efficient bandwidth and high coupling. These are the needs of the 'next Navy'; the needs of the 'Navy after next' will present an even more demanding scenario. The future will demand revolutionary technology at the micro level with devices utilizing new power sources and new materials.

Lindberg, Jan F.

2002-07-01

395

Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century.  

PubMed

The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as "new," "emerging," or "evolving" pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses, or of resistance to antibiotics or food related stresses. Other microbial pathogen related concerns include cross-contamination of other foods and water with enteric pathogens of animal origin, meat animal manure treatment and disposal issues, foodborne illness surveillance and food attribution activities, and potential use of food safety programs at the farm. Other issues and challenges include food additives and chemical residues, animal identification and traceability issues, the safety and quality of organic and natural products, the need for and development of improved and rapid testing and pathogen detection methodologies for laboratory and field use, regulatory and inspection harmonization issues at the national and international level, determination of responsibilities for zoonotic diseases between animal health and regulatory public health agencies, establishment of risk assessment based food safety objectives, and complete and routine implementation of HACCP at the production and processing level on the basis of food handler training and consumer education. Viral pathogens will continue to be of concern at food service, bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Campylobacter will continue affecting the safety of raw meat and poultry, while Listeria monocytogenes will be of concern in ready-to-eat processed products. These challenges become more important due to changes in animal production, product processing and distribution; increased international trade; changing consumer needs and increased preference for minimally processed products; increased worldwide meat consumption; higher numbers of consumers at-risk for infection; and, increased interest, awareness and scrutiny by consumers, news media, and consumer activist groups. Issues such as bovine sponginform encephalopathy will continue to be of interest mostly as a target for eradication, while viral agents affecting food animals, such as avian influenza, will always need attention for prevention or containment. PMID:22062090

Sofos, John N

2008-01-01

396

McClintock's challenge in the 21st century.  

PubMed

In 1950, Barbara McClintock published a Classic PNAS article, "The origin and behavior of mutable loci in maize," which summarized the evidence leading to her discovery of transposition. The article described a number of genome alterations revealed through her studies of the Dissociation locus, the first mobile genetic element she identified. McClintock described the suite of nuclear events, including transposon activation and various chromosome aberrations and rearrangements, that unfolded in the wake of genetic crosses that brought together two broken chromosomes 9. McClintock left future generations with the challenge of understanding how genomes respond to genetic and environmental stresses by mounting adaptive responses that frequently include genome restructuring. PMID:23150590

Fedoroff, Nina V

2012-12-11

397

McClintock's challenge in the 21st century  

PubMed Central

In 1950, Barbara McClintock published a Classic PNAS article, “The origin and behavior of mutable loci in maize,” which summarized the evidence leading to her discovery of transposition. The article described a number of genome alterations revealed through her studies of the Dissociation locus, the first mobile genetic element she identified. McClintock described the suite of nuclear events, including transposon activation and various chromosome aberrations and rearrangements, that unfolded in the wake of genetic crosses that brought together two broken chromosomes 9. McClintock left future generations with the challenge of understanding how genomes respond to genetic and environmental stresses by mounting adaptive responses that frequently include genome restructuring.

Fedoroff, Nina V.

2012-01-01

398

Water Resources and Sustainable Agriculture in 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global agriculture faces some unique challenges and opportunities for the rest of this century. The need for food, feed and fiber will continues to grow as the world population continue to increase in the future. Agricultural ecosystems are also expected to be the source of a significant portion of renewable energy and fuels around the world, without further compromising the

G. Asrar

2008-01-01

399

Re-engineering Mexican higher education toward economic development and quality. The XXI century challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico has faced deep economic and social changes over the last decade. Higher education institutions have been reacting to these changes by emphasising high cost models of quality and low less than rates. However, social problems in national life, suggest that the XXI century challenge for Mexican higher education institutions, goes beyond the present day achievements. Low cost and high

Alejandro Mungaray-Lagarda

2002-01-01

400

Eastman Kodak Company: 21st Century Learning Challenge. Volunteer Resource Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kodak 21st Century Learning Challenge is a companywide, 10-year corporate commitment to improve mathematics, science, and technology achievement for all students in the communities around Kodak's manufacturing plants. The Rochester (New York) initiative for which this training manual is presented is a partnership among Kodak, the Rochester…

Strother, Wanda M.; And Others

401

On Pliability and Progress: Challenging Current Conceptions of Eighteenth-Century French Educational Thought  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining the educational writings of three of the eighteenth-century's most innovative thinkers, the Abbe de Saint-Pierre, Morelly and Helvetius, this article challenges the currently accepted view that it was a belief in human pliability which gave rise to the contemporary groundbreaking faith in the power of education to improve society. The…

Gilead, Tal

2009-01-01

402

Toward a Feminist Ballet Pedagogy: Teaching Strategies for Ballet Technique Classes in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classical ballet technique is commonly taught through the use of authoritarian practices and normalizing aesthetic values, but the construction of the ballet dancer as a docile subject in opposition to an all-knowing instructor might impede ballet's progression. In this article I explore my development of a feminist or democratic ballet…

Alterowitz, Gretchen

2014-01-01

403

Constructing Knowledge in the Twenty-First Century: I-LEARN and Using Information as a Tool for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be efficient and effective learners in the information age, individuals must be able to engage successfully with a wide variety of information types and formats. Becoming lifelong learners in a world in which information flows freely and defies the boundaries of traditional disciplines and subject areas, children and youth in particular must…

Neuman, Delia

2011-01-01

404

Oilheat research agenda: A ten year blueprint for residential oilheat research and development in the Twenty-First Century  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a joint research agenda planned for the US Department of Energy and the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) under a cooperative effort between the Federal government and the private sector industries involved in oilheat marketing. The objective of the oilheat research program is to develop the technical basis for improved equipment designs and operating strategies based on an enhanced understanding of oil-burning fundamentals, heat transfer, and associated environmental factors. The program will continue to provide the oil-fueled heating equipment industry with the basis for developing a new, modern generation of equipment and provide the oil marketers, equipment installers, and consumers with improved knowledge of how best to install, maintain, and operate such equipment for maximum performance and minimum fuel use and environmental impact.

McDonald, R.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Batey, J.E. [Energy Research Center (United States)

1996-05-01

405

Women Secondary Head Teachers: Alive and Well in Birmingham at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Far from being an "endangered species" (Edwards & Lyons, 1994), moving towards extinction, women secondary head teachers are alive and well in Birmingham. While the national picture in England and Wales showed 29.8 per cent of secondary head teachers were women in 2005, this research identifies extensive regional differences. In Birmingham 41 per…

Fuller, Kay

2009-01-01

406

Latin American Urban Development into the Twenty-first Century: Towards a Renewed Perspective on the City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues for a more systemic engagement with Latin American cities, contending that it is necessary to reconsider their unity in order to nuance the ‘fractured cities’ perspective that has widely come to epitomize the contemporary urban moment in the region. It begins by offering an overview of regional urban development trends, before exploring how the underlying imaginary of

Dennis Rodgers; Jo Beall; Ravi Kanbur

2011-01-01

407

System-Level and Strategic Indicators for Monitoring Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century. Studies on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers in this collection result from the work carried out in the context of an Invitational Roundtable on System-Level Indicators for Higher/Tertiary Education organized by the European Centre for Higher Education (UNESCO-CEPES) and the Research Institute for Higher Education of Hiroshima University, Japan. Section 1, "The Roundtable--An…

Yonezawa, Akiyoshi, Ed.; Kaiser, Frans, Ed.

408

Breaking the Mold of Preservice and Inservice Teacher Education: Innovative and Successful Practices for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unique collection of chapters takes the reader on a tour to explore innovative preservice and inservice teacher education practices from many regions of the United States, Canada and the world. Each of the chapters offers an authentic, documentary account of successful initiatives that break the traditional mold of teacher education. Section…

Cohan, Audrey, Ed.; Honigsfeld, Andrea, Ed.

2011-01-01

409

A library for the twenty-first century: the Galter Health Sciences Library's renovation and expansion project.  

PubMed Central

A renovation and expansion project at the Galter Health Sciences Library of Northwestern University strikes a balance between traditional and future libraries, library ambiance and high technology, old and new. When guided by a vision of future building use, renovation projects can succeed in meeting many institutional goals as a viable alternative to new library buildings. Issues addressed include planning considerations, architectural history, library design, building features, information technology considerations, and ideal library space design when new construction is not possible. Images

Shedlock, J; Ross, F

1997-01-01

410

Restructuring California Education: A Design for Public Education in the Twenty-First Century. Recommendations to the California Business Roundtable.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents recommendations to the chief executive officers (CEOs) of over 90 of California's major corporations to strengthen and redesign the state's public elementary and secondary schools. The recommendations build on the current system and on reforms already underway. Although the recommendations are fairly comprehensive, they do not…

Berman, Paul; And Others

411

Regional climate change experiments over southern South America. II: Climate change scenarios in the late twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of climate change over southern South America as simulated by a regional climate model. The regional model MM5 was nested within time-slice global atmospheric model experiments conducted by the HadAM3H model. The simulations cover a 10-year period representing present-day climate (1981-1990) and two future scenarios for the SRESA2 and B2 emission scenarios for the period 2081-2090. There are a few quantitative differences between the two regional scenarios. The simulated changes are larger for the A2 than the B2 scenario, although with few qualitative differences. For the two regional scenarios, the warming in southern Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia and northeastern Argentina is particularly large in spring. Over the western coast of South America both scenarios project a general decrease in precipitation. Both the A2 and B2 simulations show a general increase in precipitation in northern and central Argentina especially in summer and fall and a general decrease in precipitation in winter and spring. In fall the simulations agree on a general decrease in precipitation in southern Brazil. This reflects changes in the atmospheric circulation during winter and spring. Changes in mean sea level pressure show a cell of increasing pressure centered somewhere in the southern Atlantic Ocean and southern Pacific Ocean, mainly during summer and fall in the Atlantic and in spring in the Pacific. In relation to the pressure distribution in the control run, this indicates a southward extension of the summer mean Atlantic and Pacific subtropical highs.

Nuñez, Mario N.; Solman, Silvina A.; Cabré, Maria Fernanda

2009-06-01

412

Special Needs in the Twenty-First Century: Where We've Been and Where We're Going.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews special needs education history in Great Britain, and the contradiction between society's intention to treat all learners as essentially the same and an equal and opposite intention to treat them as different. The role of inclusion and the emergence of the social inclusion agenda is discussed. (Contains references.) (CR)

Dyson, Alan

2001-01-01

413

Tracking the Mind's Eye: A New Technology for Researching Twenty-First-Century Writing and Reading Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the nature of eye-tracking technology and its use in the study of discourse processes, particularly reading. It then suggests several areas of research in composition studies, especially at the intersection of writing, reading, and digital media, that can benefit from the use of this technology. (Contains 2 figures.)

Anson, Chris M.; Schwegler, Robert A.

2012-01-01

414

Respecting difference and moving beyond regulation: tasks for U.S. bioethics commissions in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

This article focuses on two possible missions for a national bioethics commission. The first is handling differences of worldview, political orientation, and discipline. Recent work in political philosophy emphasizes regard for the dignity of difference manifested in "conversation" that seeks understanding rather than agreement. The President's Council on Bioethics gets a mixed review in this area. The second is experimenting with prophetic bioethics. "Prophetic bioethics" is a term coined by Daniel Callahan to describe an alternative to compromise-seeking "regulatory bioethics." It involves a critique of modern medicine. In the contemporary context, the areas of biotechnology and access to health care cry out for prophetic attention. The Council has addressed biotechnology; unfortunately, that experience suggests that the kind of prophecy that it practices poses risks to conversation. With regard to access issues, the article proposes an effort that unites themes of human dignity, solidarity, and limits in support of reform, while highlighting, rather than papering over, differences. PMID:16250117

Majumder, Mary Anderlik

2005-09-01

415

Teaching for Understanding of Science in Context: Evidence from the Pilot Trials of the "Twenty First Century Science" Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The framework developed for the PISA 2006 science survey starts from everyday contexts in which citizens encounter scientific issues and knowledge claims. Recent curriculum changes in England, making possible the introduction of courses for 15- to 16-year olds with an explicit "scientific literacy" emphasis, are based on a very similar analysis,…

Ratcliffe, Mary; Millar, Robin

2009-01-01

416

Gilles Apap's Mozart Cadenza and Expanding Musical Competences of Twenty-First-Century Musicians and Music Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In western musical contexts at global and local levels, musicians are becoming increasingly involved in what might be termed multicode music making and are expanding their musical competences. In this article I consider the practical and cognitive implications of such an expanding of competences for music education at various levels. Combining…

Webb, Michael

2008-01-01

417

The changing role of dividends: a firm-level study from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?We investigate the changes in dividend policy for one of North America's oldest banks (and Canada's first bank), Bank of Montreal, over time by considering the relationships between dividends, prices and earnings for this prominent firm. In the early part of the sample we find that annual dividend and earnings changes are highly variable, with dividend changes following changes in

Stephen R. Foerster; Stephen G. Sapp

2006-01-01

418

End-stage renal disease and its treatment in Latin America in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The Latin American Society of Nephrology and Arterial Hypertension's Dialysis and Transplant Registry was chartered in 1991. It collects information on ESRD and its treatment in 20 countries of the region. The prevalence of patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) increased from 129 pmp in 1992 to 447 pmp in 2004; in 2004, 56% of the patients were on hemodialysis, 23% on peritoneal dialysis, and 21% had a functioning kidney graft. The highest rates of prevalence were reported in Puerto Rico (1027 pmp), Chile (686 pmp), and Uruguay (683 pmp). Hemodialysis was widely used, except in El Salvador, Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic, where peritoneal dialysis predominated. Incidence rate increased from 27.8 pmp to 147 pmp in the same period of observation; the lowest rate was reported in Guatemala (11.4 pmp) and the highest in Puerto Rico (337.4 pmp). Diabetes mellitus was the leading cause of renal failure in incident patients; the highest rates were reported in Puerto Rico (62.2%) and Mexico (60%). Forty-four percent of the incident population were older than 65 years. Access to renal replacement therapy was universal in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Venezuela, while was restricted in other countries. Main causes of death in dialysis were cardiovascular (44%) and infectious disease (26%). The rate of renal transplantation increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 14.5 in 2004; fifty-three percent of the organs came from cadavers. Overall, donation rate was 5.9 pmp. In conclusion, the prevalence and incidence rates have increased over the years, and diabetes mellitus has emerged as the leading cause of kidney disease in the region. Although the rate of kidney transplantation has increased, the number remains insufficient to match the growing demand. The implementation of renal health programs in the region is urgently needed. PMID:17162420

Cusumano, Ana; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Di Gioia, Cristina; Hermida, Osvaldo; Lavorato, Carlos; Carreño, Cesar Agost; Torrico, Maria Placida Garron; Batista, Paulo Benigno Pena; Romão, João Egídio; Badal, Hugo Poblete; Miranda, Susana Elgueta; Gomez, Rafael; Calderon, Manuel Cerdas; Sanchez, Sergio Herra; Lopez, Miguel Almaguer; Moscoso, Julio; Merino, Ricardo Leiva; Polo, Jose Vicente Sánchez; Lopez, Alirio; Romero, Norman Jiron; Garcia, Ramiro; Acosta, Blanca V Franco; Lopez, Augusto Saavedra; Delpin, Eduardo Santiago; Mena, Emilio; González, Carlota; Milanés, Carmen Luisa; Acchiardo, Sergio

2006-01-01

419

[Considerations on the Sistema Único de Saúde in the twenty-first century: an interview with Lígia Bahia].  

PubMed

This interview with Lígia Bahia explores evaluations of the first 25 years of Brazil's Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and analyzes the project's progress, impasses, and missteps. Bahia is critical of both tendencies currently found within SUS: the one that sees the system as aimed at equity and the other posing equality as its goal. She criticizes the ambivalence that various spheres of government have displayed in their decisions regarding large corporate groups and private health insurance plans, which conflict with the ideas of SUS. She evaluates the participation of doctors and other healthcare professionals in the system. Lastly, she analyzes the emergence of identity politics, which are missing from the public health reform project, whose emphasis was on equality. PMID:24789487

Bahia, Lígia; Cueto, Marcos; Benchimol, Jaime; Teixeira, Luiz Antonio; Cerqueira, Roberta C

2014-01-01

420

Estimation of the tourism climate in the Hunter Region, Australia, in the early twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing tourism-related climate information and evaluation are typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and do not include thermal perception and other climate parameters relevant for tourists. Here, we quantify climate based on the climate facets relevant to tourism (thermal, physical, aesthetical), and apply the results to the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS). This paper presents bioclimatic and tourism climatological conditions in the Hunter Region—one of Australia's most popular tourist destinations. In the Hunter Region, generally, temperatures below 15°C occur from April through October, temperatures less than 25°C are expected throughout the whole year, while humidity sits around 50%. As expected, large differences between air temperature and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) were clearly identified. The widest differences were seen in summer time rather than in the winter period. In addition, cold stress was observed less than 10% of the time in winter while around 40-60% of heat stress was observed in summer time. This correlates with the highest numbers of international visitors, who usually seek a warmer weather, at the beginning of summer time (November and December) and also to the number of domestic visitors, who tend to seek cooler places for recreation and leisure, in late summer (January-March). It was concluded that thermal bioclimate assessment such as PET and CTIS can be applied in the Hunter region, and that local governments and the tourism industry should take an integrated approach to providing more relevant weather and climate information for both domestic and international tourists in the near future.

Shiue, Ivy; Matzarakis, Andreas

2011-07-01

421

Estimation of the tourism climate in the Hunter Region, Australia, in the early twenty-first century.  

PubMed

Existing tourism-related climate information and evaluation are typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and do not include thermal perception and other climate parameters relevant for tourists. Here, we quantify climate based on the climate facets relevant to tourism (thermal, physical, aesthetical), and apply the results to the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS). This paper presents bioclimatic and tourism climatological conditions in the Hunter Region-one of Australia's most popular tourist destinations. In the Hunter Region, generally, temperatures below 15°C occur from April through October, temperatures less than 25°C are expected throughout the whole year, while humidity sits around 50%. As expected, large differences between air temperature and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) were clearly identified. The widest differences were seen in summer time rather than in the winter period. In addition, cold stress was observed less than 10% of the time in winter while around 40-60% of heat stress was observed in summer time. This correlates with the highest numbers of international visitors, who usually seek a warmer weather, at the beginning of summer time (November and December) and also to the number of domestic visitors, who tend to seek cooler places for recreation and leisure, in late summer (January-March). It was concluded that thermal bioclimate assessment such as PET and CTIS can be applied in the Hunter region, and that local governments and the tourism industry should take an integrated approach to providing more relevant weather and climate information for both domestic and international tourists in the near future. PMID:20949286

Shiue, Ivy; Matzarakis, Andreas

2011-07-01

422

The attraction of islands: travellers and tourists in the Cyclades (Greece) in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islands have long acted as projection surfaces of ever-changing desires. Tourism organisations have drawn most vigorously upon the paradise metaphor in an attempt to position modern island holidays at the forefront of our minds – regardless of an island's location. Tracing the most recent history of our island-longing and illuminating the use of the island metaphor by tourist organisations is

Ina Berg; Johan Edelheim

2012-01-01

423

Non-heart-beating Donors: Renewed Source of Organs for Renal Transplantation during the Twenty-first Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a The growing demand of organs for renal transplantation makes it necessary to explore alternative routes for kidney donation.\\u000a Non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) are a valuable source of cadaveric organs and have been the subject of renewed interest in\\u000a recent years. In addition to difficulties with legal and ethical acceptability, there are concerns regarding medical safety.\\u000a The current NHBD program at

Clemens Gerstenkorn

2003-01-01

424

Successful Training Strategies for the Twenty-First Century: Using Recent Research on Learning To Provide Effective Training Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a learner-centered training model which draws from recent research on brain-based learning, multiple intelligences, and emotional intelligences. Emphasizes the importance of attending to trainees' emotional, physical, and social environments in addition to their cognitive environment. (EV)

Dwyer, Brian

2001-01-01

425

Graduate Study for the Twenty-First Century: How to Build an Academic Career in the Humanities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many graduate students continue to be regarded as "apprentices" despite the fact that they are expected to design and teach their own classes, serve on university committees, and conference and publish regularly. "The Chronicle of Higher Education" reports that the attrition rate for American Ph.D. programs is at an all-time high, between 40% and…

Semenza, Gregory Colon

2005-01-01

426

Learning: The Treasure Within. Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book results from a three-year exploration of how to provide a new outlook on how all societies should move towards a "necessary Utopia" in which no one's hidden talents are left untapped. The report builds on the four foundations of education: (1) learning to live together; (2) learning to know; (3) learning to do; and (4) learning to be .…

Delors, Jacques; And Others

427

Anthropometry for Persons with Disabilities: Needs for the Twenty-First Century. Task 2: Analysis and Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under Task 1 of contract No. QA96001001, an annotated bibliography concerned with the anthropometry of people with disabilities, and its applications to the design of facilities, workspaces, and equipment, was completed. It appears in this report as an ap...

B. Bradtmiller J. Annis

1997-01-01

428

Role Expansion: Support for the Journey of Change in Clinical Nutrition Practice into the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) calls for patient-centered systems organized around delivery processes, health care product\\/service lines, and outcomes. The shift in clinical nutrition practice will require each and every RD to think and act differently, with a focus on improving customer satisfaction as well as improved health outcome. The Clinical Managers Advisory Council conducted a nation-wide survey of 172

L. Reese; P. Pullen; D. Lisko; T. Pipkin; B. Jenkins

1998-01-01

429

Space science in the twenty-first century: Imperatives for the decades 1995 to 2015. Fundamental physics and chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of the task group was in two principal areas: relativistic gravitation, which involves testing of the general theory of relativity and microgravity science. A possible long-term research program in physics and chemistry in a microgravity environment and its rationale are outlined. The program is illustrated with examples of experiments, some of which are not in various stages of development and others which are envisioned for later. The common element in the historical perspective of progress in gaining empirical evidence for relativistic gravitation is the close coupling to technical advances in both direct experiments and observational techniques. The space program is expected to play a decisive role in this research. Basic issues, gravitation wave astronomy, current space research in gravitation, expected research prior to 1995, programs after 1995, and technical requirements are discussed.

430

Public School Superintendency in the Twenty-First Century: The Quest to Define Effective Leadership. Report No. 55.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines research on public school leadership effectiveness, focusing specifically on the superintendent. The author begins with a discussion of the historical mission to define leadership effectiveness, followed by a review of existing researc...

J. Y. Thomas

2001-01-01

431

High religiosity and societal dysfunction in the United States during the first decade of the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

This study provides independent empirical evidence that bears upon the truth or falsity of recently formulated hypotheses regarding reciprocal relationships between levels of religiosity and societal dysfunction. Gregory S. Paul's findings, published in the Journal of Religion and Society (2005), Free Inquiry (2008), and Evolutionary Psychology (2009), have demonstrated that high degrees of theism are associated with high degrees of societal dysfunction among the prosperous democracies. Whereas his research employs numerous scatter diagrams and bivariate correlations involving measures of religiosity and societal dysfunction pertaining to 17 nation states, the current study's units of analysis are the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Additionally, the utilization of multiple regression analysis allows the detection of the effects of other potentially relevant explanatory variables, such as educational attainment, income level, and race. The findings are only minimally supportive of Paul's hypotheses regarding the contributions of high religiosity to societal dysfunction and to the effects of societal dysfunction upon religiosity. Simultaneously, the results of correlational and regression analyses attest to the more substantial explanatory power of the social inequality variables of education, income, and race. Accordingly, it is argued that "American Exceptionalism," when understood as referring to a society manifesting the coexistence of high levels of theism and high levels of societal dysfunction, is best explained by the United States' high degree of social inequality, compared with other modern industrialized democracies. PMID:22947824

Delamontagne, R Georges

2010-01-01

432

Crude oil and alternate energy production forecasts for the twenty-first century: The end of the hydrocarbon era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictions of production rates and ultimate recovery of crude oil are needed for intelligent planning and timely action to ensure the continuous flow of energy required by the world`s increasing population and expanding economies. Crude oil will be able to supply increasing demand until peak world production is reached. The energy gap caused by declining conventional oil production must then

John D. Edwards

1997-01-01

433

Back to the future: science and technology directions for radio telescopes of the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early days of radio astronomy showed incredibly diverse experimentation in ways to sample the electromagnetic spectrum at radio wavelengths. In addition to obtaining adequate sensitivity by building large collection areas, a primary goal also was to achieve sufficient angular resolution to localize radio sources for multi-wavelength identification. This led to many creative designs and the invention of aperture synthesis and VLBI. Some of the basic telescope types remain to the present day, now implemented across the entire radio spectrum from wavelengths of tens of meters to submillimeter wavelengths. In recent years, as always, there is still the drive for greater sensitivity but a primary goal is now to achieve very large fields of view to complement high resolution and frequency coverage, leading to a new phase of experimentation. This is the “back to the future” aspect of current research and development for next-generation radio telescopes. In this paper I summarize the scientific motivations for development of new technology and telescopes since about 1990 and going forward for the next decade and longer. Relevant elements include highly optimized telescope optics and feed antenna designs, innovative fabrication methods for large reflectors and dipole arrays, digital implementations, and hardware vs. software processing. The emphasis will be on meter and centimeter wavelength telescopes but I include a brief discussion of millimeter wavelengths to put the longer wavelength enterprises into perspective. I do not discuss submillimeter wavelengths because they are covered in other papers.

Cordes, James M.

2009-08-01

434

Air Force Culture and Cohesion: Building an Air and Space Force for the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

THE US AIR FORCE has a cohesion problem. Dr. Donald B. Rice, former secretary of the Air Force, complained that officers identified with their weapon systems, not with the Air Force or any concept of service mission or doctrine. Carl Builder agrees. To Bu...

J. M. Smith

1998-01-01

435

Teacher Educators' Identities and Work in England at the Beginning of the Second Decade of the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a recent study of teacher educators in England which aimed to explore teacher educators' constructions of their own identities in the academic communities within two university schools of education. Findings show that teacher educators constructed repertoires of identities for themselves, deploying these to achieve…

Murray, Jean; Czerniawski, Gerry; Barber, Patti

2011-01-01

436

The sales function in the twenty-first century: where are we and where do we go from here?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article aims to position current sales research in relation to what academics perceive as important future research areas for sales theory and practice. It makes the argument that after a 20-year period of rapid growth and almost a decade of a transition phase, sales research is now a mature area of academic inquiry. The paper seeks to

Susi Geiger; Paolo Guenzi

2009-01-01

437

Enforcing the Clean Water Act in the Twenty-First Century: Harnessing the Power of the Public Spotlight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty years after the passage of the Clean Water Act, how can we strengthen enforcement of the CWA, increase rates of compliance, and move closer to achieving the statute's un-derlying objectives? This Article argues that legislators and policymakers looking for solutions in this resource-strapped era should harness the power of the public spotlight to enhance enforcement efforts. Part I describes

Clifford Rechtschaffen

2004-01-01

438

Adult Discrimination against Children: The Case of Abstinence-Only Education in Twenty-First-Century USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses abstinence-only education programmes and discourses within the frame of theories of adult discrimination against children. To begin with, a definition of abstinence-only programmes and of the political context in which they were created will be provided. These programmes will then be analysed through the lens of children's…

Greslé-Favier, Claire

2013-01-01

439

Application of nanomedicine in emergency medicine; Point-of-care testing and drug delivery in twenty - first century  

PubMed Central

Abstract The application of emerging nanotechnology to the practice of medicine represents a frontier of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine has been defined as a science which emphasizes the use of nanoscale tools in conjunction with background knowledge of the human body for medical diagnosis and treatment. Application of nanomedicine in EM may give EM providers the opportunity to diagnose and treat life-threatening diseases in a shorter period of time. These applications include diagnostic utilities, preventive medicine, targeted pharmacotherapy, and tissue regeneration.

2012-01-01

440

The trouble with civic: a snapshot of young people's civic and political engagements in twenty-first-century democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In much academic and policy literature about civic engagement, regardless of their political or social circumstances, youth across the globe are enjoined to engage in all the activities thought good for them in order to qualify for the moral label ‘good citizens’. Voting, watching the news, party activism, sending emails to government websites, attending meetings in the town hall, volunteering,

Shakuntala Banaji

2008-01-01

441

Marketing research: A state-of-the-art review and directions for the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides observations on the state of the art in marketing research during 1987–1997. As such, it updates the\\u000a earlier state-of-the-art review by Malhotra (1988), which won theJournal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS) Best Article Award. The primary thrust of articles published in theJournal of Marketing Research during 1987–1997 is reviewed to determine important areas of research.

Naresh K. Malhotra; Mark Peterson; Susan Bardi Kleiser

1999-01-01

442

The Development of a Vertically and Horizontally Integrated Undergraduate Building Construction Curriculum for the Twenty First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a curriculum model designed to help construction education programs achieve and maintain national and international recognition as premier sources for dynamic, practical and innovative building construction knowledge. Specifically documented is an approach the Building Construction Department at a Southeastern university is exploring. This approach will to help each student master the competencies necessary to succeed in the

Thomas H. Mills; Flynn L. Auchey; Yvan J. Beliveau

1996-01-01

443

Ameritocracy and Infra-Racial Racism: Racializing Social and Cultural Reproduction Theory in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that narratives forecasting spectacular mobility for Black people/people of color along with the growth of the Black middle class function as proof that America "works" and that the American dream is obtainable for all. However, what is concealed within this "meritocratic" discourse is that full acceptance into this society is…

Akom, A. A.

2008-01-01

444

Twenty-First Century Learning in School Systems: The Case of the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township, Indianapolis, Indiana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In November 2000, the Lilly Endowment of Indianapolis, Indiana, issued a request for grant proposals from public school districts in Marion County, Indiana. It called for school districts to develop innovative, systemic, and transforming approaches to preparing students to thrive in an increasingly competitive, high-tech, global society. The…

Capuano, Marcia; Knoderer, Troy

2006-01-01

445

Kansas City southern railway twenty-first century planning. Master's thesis, 7 August 1998--4 June 1999  

SciTech Connect

Rail yards serve as major nodes that facilitate delivery of cargo to the consignee. The level of operational efficiency maintained within rail yards determines whether customers receive cargo late. Various external and internal factors can impede the operational efficiency of rail yards. The future growth of rail industry depends on how well it manages a potentially serious problem inherent to all railroads--rail congestion. This study reviews the processes that occur within the Knoche rail yard, which is located in Kansas City, Kansas. In an effort to improve the operational efficiency of the Knoche rail yard or to minimize congestion, the study will reveal the results of analyzing varying strategies to improve the operational efficiency of a single event, the rip track facility, within the Knoche rail yard. This study reveals that the operational efficiency of the Knoche rail yard may be enhanced if the following occur: (1) increase the rip track facility queue population from fifteen to twenty-two, and (2) spot bad order cars directly onto the two tracks leading into the rip track facility. Finally, the amount of double handling by switch engines daily may be decreased by as much as 96% within the rail yard.

Powell, R.A.

1999-07-01

446

Accountability in Grading Student Work: Securing Academic Standards in a Twenty-First Century Quality Assurance Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, using a student outcomes definition of academic standards, reports on academics' sense of standards as enacted through marking practices. Twelve lecturers from two UK universities were asked to "think aloud" as they graded written assignments followed by a semi-structured interview. The interview data were used to investigate the…

Bloxham, Sue; Boyd, Pete

2012-01-01

447

National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative: Meeting America's Economic and Security Challenges in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Association of American Universities (AAU) calls on the Administration, Congress, and academia, with the help of the business sector, to implement a 21st Century National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative aimed at meeting the economic and security challenges we will face over the next half-century. Government and America's…

Association of American Universities, 2006

2006-01-01

448

Engine technology challenges for a 21st century high speed civil transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent NASA funded studies by Boeing and Douglas suggest an opportunity exists for a 21st Century High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) to become part of the international air transportation system. However, before this opportunity for high speed travel can be realized, certain environmental and and economic barrier issues must be overcome. These challenges are outlined. Research activities which NASA has planned to address these barrier issues and to provide a technology base to allow U.S. manufacturers to make an informed go/no go decision on developing the HSCT are discussed.

Shaw, Robert J.

1991-01-01

449

The Bowker Annual of Library and Book Trade Information. Twenty-First Edition. With Cumulative Index 1972-1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The twenty-first edition of the Bowker Annual serves as an almanac, handbook, and fact finder for the library and publishing fields. The first section, "Reports from National Associations and Agencies," summarizes the 1975 activities of 14 organizations. The second part, "Developments in Librarianship and Publishing," features articles on the…

Miele, Madeline, Ed.; And Others

450

Person-centered planning: evidence-based practice, challenges, and potential for the 21st century.  

PubMed

Person-centered planning emerged in the 1990s as an innovative practice to assist persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The foundational purpose of person-centered planning is to assist the individual in developing service planning that reflects the needs and desires of the focal person with the disability. Despite its popularity with disability practitioners, advocates, and policy stakeholders, debate emerged at the beginning of the 21st century as to the viability of person-centered planning as an evidence-based practice. This article examines the historical development and evidence base, as well as the current challenges and potential of person-centered planning for adults with intellectual disabilities. PMID:23879428

Taylor, James E; Taylor, Jessica Averitt

2013-01-01

451

Pathways to Prosperity: Meeting the Challenge of Preparing Young Americans for the 21st Century  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most fundamental obligations of any society is to prepare its adolescents and young adults to lead productive and prosperous lives as adults. This means preparing all young people with a solid enough foundation of literacy, numeracy, and thinking skills for responsible citizenship, career development, and lifelong learning. For over a century, the United States led the world in equipping its young people with the education they would need to succeed. By the middle of the 19th century, as Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz write in their book, The Race between Education and Technology, âthe U.S. already had the most educated youth in the world.â At the turn of the 20th century, just as Europe was catching up, the rapid spread of the âhigh school movementâ helped the U.S. vault ahead again. Yet as we end the first decade of the 21st century, there are profoundly troubling signs that the U.S. is now failing to meet its obligation to prepare millions of young adults. Within the U.S. economy, there is a growing evidence of a âskills gapâ in which many young adults lack the skills and work ethic needed for many jobs that pay a middle-class wage. Simultaneously, there has been a dramatic decline in the ability of adolescents and young adults to find work. Indeed, the percentage of teens and young adults who have jobs is now at the lowest level since World War II. In what follows, we have chosen to focus on three essential elements of any long-term strategy to address the challenge outlined in the opening section of this report. The first element is the development of a broader vision of school reform that incorporates multiple pathways to carry young people from high school to adulthood. The second is the development of a much expanded role for employers in supporting these new pathways. The third is the development of a new social compact between society and its young people.

Education, Harvard G.

2011-04-11

452

Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States  

SciTech Connect

The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

2000-10-26

453

The Challenge of Ethical Liberalism to Jewish Education in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's response to "Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century" by Jonathan Woocher. The author agrees with Jonathan Woocher that American Jewish education in the 21st century requires change no less comprehensive than that initiated by Samson Benderly and his students around a century ago, and that this should…

Alexander, Hanan

2012-01-01

454

Emerging Technologies for the Detection of Rabies Virus: Challenges and Hopes in the 21st Century  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of rabies is routinely based on clinical and epidemiological information, especially when exposures are reported in rabies-endemic countries. Diagnostic tests using conventional assays that appear to be negative, even when undertaken late in the disease and despite the clinical diagnosis, have a tendency, at times, to be unreliable. These tests are rarely optimal and entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. In the course of the past three decades, the application of molecular biology has aided in the development of tests that result in a more rapid detection of rabies virus. These tests enable viral strain identification from clinical specimens. Currently, there are a number of molecular tests that can be used to complement conventional tests in rabies diagnosis. Indeed the challenges in the 21st century for the development of rabies diagnostics are not of a technical nature; these tests are available now. The challenges in the 21st century for diagnostic test developers are two-fold: firstly, to achieve internationally accepted validation of a test that will then lead to its acceptance by organisations globally. Secondly, the areas of the world where such tests are needed are mainly in developing regions where financial and logistical barriers prevent their implementation. Although developing countries with a poor healthcare infrastructure recognise that molecular-based diagnostic assays will be unaffordable for routine use, the cost/benefit ratio should still be measured. Adoption of rapid and affordable rabies diagnostic tests for use in developing countries highlights the importance of sharing and transferring technology through laboratory twinning between the developed and the developing countries. Importantly for developing countries, the benefit of molecular methods as tools is the capability for a differential diagnosis of human diseases that present with similar clinical symptoms. Antemortem testing for human rabies is now possible using molecular techniques. These barriers are not insurmountable and it is our expectation that if such tests are accepted and implemented where they are most needed, they will provide substantial improvements for rabies diagnosis and surveillance. The advent of molecular biology and new technological initiatives that combine advances in biology with other disciplines will support the development of techniques capable of high throughput testing with a low turnaround time for rabies diagnosis.

Fooks, Anthony R.; Johnson, Nicholas; Freuling, Conrad M.; Wakeley, Philip R.; Banyard, Ashley C.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Marston, Denise A.; Dastjerdi, Akbar; Wright, Edward; Weiss, Robin A.; Muller, Thomas

2009-01-01

455

LEGACY FOR THE MILLENNIUM: A Century of Progress in Plant Pathology.  

PubMed

Plant pathology came of age at the turn of this century and we can be proud of the many significant contributions it has made to fundamental research as well as to service to growers. The twenty-first century will present our profession with dramatic challenges to meet the demands for increased food, fiber, and fuel production from a declining agricultural base. This can be accomplished only if plant pathology retains its integrity as a profession and remains abreast of advancements in the fields of biotechnology and communications. PMID:11701833

Sequeira, Luis

2000-01-01

456

Challenges to Learning and Schooling in the Digital Networked World of the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, giving special attention to digital literacy as one…

Voogt, J.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

2013-01-01

457

Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An International Conference entitled "Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges", was held in Syros island, Greece, from 27 to 30 June, 2005. There are many binary star systems whose components are so close together, that they interact in various ways. Stars in such systems do not pass through all stages of their evolution independently of each other; in fact their evolutionary path is significantly affected by their companions. Processes of interaction include gravitational effects, mutual irradiation, mass exchange, mass loss from the system, phenomena of extended atmospheres, semi-transparent atmospheric clouds, variable thickness disks and gas streams. The zoo of Close Binary Systems includes: Close Eclipsing Binaries (Detached, Semi-detached, Contact), High and Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, RS CVn systems, Pulsar Binaries and Symbiotic Stars. The study of these binaries triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and evolution of close binaries and the interaction effects displayed by these exciting objects. Close Binaries are classic examples of the fundamental contribution that stellar astrophysics makes to our general understanding of physical processes in the universe. Ground-based and space surveys will discover many new close binaries, which were previously unknown. In the future, new approaches will also be possible with highly efficient photometric searches looking for very shallow eclipses, such as those produced by Earth-like extra-solar planets. Contributions to this conference covered the latest achievements in the field and reflected the state of the art of the dynamically evolving area of binary star research. Link: http://www.springer.com/east/home/generic/search/results?SGWID=5-40109-22-173660047-0

Giménez, A.; Guinan, E.; Niarchos, P.; Rucinski, S.

2006-12-01

458

Proceedings of the Twenty-First (21st) Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation Held February 24-28, 2001, in Philadelphia, PA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Twenty-First (21st) Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation was held in Philadelphia, PA. A total of 802 biologists, conservationists, scientists, managers, community members, and local residents attended the Symposium. In all there we...

M. S. Coyne R. D. Clark

2005-01-01

459

RSA Opening Minds: A Curriculum for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the RSA Opening Minds competence framework, an innovative curriculum to meet the needs of young people as future employees, lifelong learners and as citizens of the twenty-first century.

Candy, Sara

2011-01-01

460

Behavioral toxicology in the 21st century: Challenges and opportunities for behavioral scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies of Science recently published a report of its vision of toxicity testing in the 21st century. The report proposes that the current toxicity testing paradigm that depends upon whole-animal tests be replaced with a strategy based upon in vitro tests, in silico models and evaluations of toxicity at the human population

Philip J. Bushnell; Robert J. Kavlock; Kevin M. Crofton; Bernard Weiss; Deborah C. Rice

2010-01-01

461

Behavioral Toxicology in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities for Behavioral Scientists  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Research Council of the National Academies of Science recently published a report of its vision of toxicity testing in the 21st Century. The report proposes that the current toxicity testing paradigm that depends upon whole-animal tests be replaced with a strategy ba...

462

Case Studies in 21st Century School Administration: Addressing Challenges for Educational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authors David L. Gray and Agnes E. Smith have written a book of cases to give prospective school leaders opportunities to resolve complex issues in K-12 school settings through reflective questions, activities, and authentic assessment tools for skill development. "Case Studies in 21st Century School Administration" presents thought-provoking case…

Gray, David L.; Smith, Agnes

2007-01-01

463

Grand Challenge Problems in Real-Time Mission Control Systems for NASA's 21st Century Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space missions of the 21st Century will be characterized by constellations of distributed spacecraft, miniaturized sensors and satellites, increased levels of automation, intelligent onboard processing, and mission autonomy. Programmatically, these missions will be noted for dramatically decreased budgets and mission development lifecycles. Current progress towards flexible, scaleable, low-cost, reusable mission control systems must accelerate given the current mission deployment schedule, and new technology will need to be infused to achieve desired levels of autonomy and processing capability. This paper will discuss current and future missions being managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. It will describe the current state of mission control systems and the problems they need to overcome to support the missions of the 21st Century.

Pfarr, Barbara B.; Donohue, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

1999-01-01

464

Los Alamos National Laboratory: 21st century solutions to urgent national challenges  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has been called upon to meet urgent national challenges for more than 65 years. The people, tools, and technologies at Los Alamos are a world class resource that has proved decisive through our history, and are needed in the future. We offer expertise in nearly every science, technology, and engineering discipline, a unique integrated capability for large-scale computing and experimentation, and the proven ability to deliver solutions involving the most complex and difficult technical systems. This white paper outlines some emerging challenges and why the nation needs Los Alamos, the premier National Security Science Laboratory, to meet these challenges.

Mcbranch, Duncan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

465

Engine technology challenges for a 21st Century High-Speed Civil Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ongoing NASA-funded studies by Boeing, McDonnell-Douglas, General Electric, and Pratt & Whitney indicate that an opportunity exists for a 21st Century High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) to become a major part of the international air transportation system. However, before industry will consider an HSCT product launch and an investment estimated to be over $15 billion for design and certification, major technology advances must be made. An overview of the propulsion-specific technology advances that must be in hand before an HSCT product launch could be considered is presented.

Shaw, Robert J.; Gilkey, Samuel; Hines, Richard

1993-01-01

466

Toward the Twenty-First Century. Public Supported Academic Libraries and the State Library in South Dakota. Report of a Study-Team. Publication 87-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents the findings of a study that examined library and information services in South Dakota's state-supported academic libraries, the first such study conducted in 15 years. The state library and six schools--University of South Dakota, South Dakota State University, Black Hills State College, Dakota State College, Northern State…

Eaton, Nancy; And Others

467

Working in the Twenty-First Century: Policies for Economic Growth through Training, Opportunity, and Education. Issues in Work and Human Resources [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines how many of the United States' social and economic problems are reinforced by the combination of school, business, and government. It outlines ways that U.S. government policy can be reformulated to make schools and training major components in the U.S. labor market's successful adjustment to the new workplace realities. The…

Levine, David I.

468

Types of Social Media (Web 2.0) Used by Australian Allied Health Professionals to Deliver Early Twenty-First-Century Practice Promotion and Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Types of social media (Web 2.0) usage associated with eight of Australia's major allied health professions (AHPs, n = 935) were examined. Australian AHPs are interacting with Web 2.0 technologies for personal use but are failing to implement such technologies throughout their health professions to deliver health care. Australian AHPs are willing to undertake online educational courses designed to up

Wayne Usher

2011-01-01

469

Teaching and Exploring the Social Implications of Twenty-First Century Molecular Biology in a Laboratory-Based General Education Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an unusual course at the University of California, Los Angeles which includes DNA sequencing experiences and exploration of the social, economic, and ethical issues resulting from advances in biotechnology. (EV)

Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Levis, Marc; Perry, L. Jeanne

2001-01-01

470

Twenty-first Century Space Science in The Urban High School Setting: The NASA\\/John Dewey High School Educational Outreach Partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique and innovative partnership has recently developed between NASA and John Dewey High School, infusing Space Science into the curriculum. This partnership builds on an existing relationship with MUSPIN\\/NASA and their regional center at the City University of New York based at Medgar Evers College. As an outgrowth of the success and popularity of our Remote Sensing Research Program,

B. Fried; M. Levy; C. Reyes; S. Austin

2003-01-01

471

Strategic Computing Directions and Opportunities for University-Government-Industry Partnerships at the University of Saskatchewan: Preparing for the Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is intended to serve as a focus for developing a commitment for continuing investment in computer support for education, research, and administration at the University of Saskatchewan. Based on the assumption that effective utilization of computers, computer networks, and other telecommunications technology is essential to the…

Kavanagh, Robert N.; Pokraka, Edward S.

472

Introduction to the Swiss way of teaching veterinary pathology in the twenty-first century: application of e-learning modules.  

PubMed

The teaching of pathology within the veterinary medical curriculum extends through the entire training period and has a dual role. General pathology deals with principles of disease processes as a basis for understanding the reactions of a multi-cellular organism to adverse effects; organ pathology builds on the principles of general pathology and explains the malfunctions of individual organs. Pathology is heavily image dependent and best taught in a highly interactive manner. The Institute of Veterinary Pathology, University of Zurich (IVPZ), has been actively developing concepts for teaching pathology in the new veterinary curriculum, which demands more active participation from students, with 20% of their study time devoted to individual study using traditional materials (books, articles, etc.) and e-learning modules. The Swiss Virtual Animal Pathologist is designed to cover and support the central elements of the Veterinary Pathology curriculum of the Vetsuisse Faculty. The needs of students and staff of the participating institutions for an interactive learning platform to supplement the existing face-to-face lectures and tutorials are the highest priority of this initiative. PMID:18287471

Pospischil, Andreas; Djamei, Vahid; Rütten, Maja; Sydler, Titus; Vaughan, Lloyd

2007-01-01

473

Fair Use Education for the Twenty-First Century: A Comparative Study of Students' Use of an Interactive Tool to Guide Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Christine Greenhow, J. D. Walker, Dan Donnelly, and Brad Cohen describe the implementation and evaluation of the University of Minnesota's Fair Use Analysis (FUA) tool, an interactive online application intended to educate users and foster defensible fair use practice in accordance with copyright law by guiding users through a robust,…

Greenhow, Christine; Walker, J. D.; Donnelly, Dan; Cohen, Brad

2008-01-01

474

Do Not Bequeath a Shamble. The Child in the Twenty-First Century: Innocent Hostage to Mindless Oppression or Messenger to the World?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reprint of a 1980 article argues that there is a unique global consciousness inherent in the "prepared environment" of Maria Montessori's student-centered, nurturing curriculum for young children. Maintains that war and peace, overpopulation, hunger, environmental problems, and other global concerns can be addressed through education. (MDM)

McDermott, John J.

1995-01-01

475

"Ladies Who Don't Know Us Correct Our Papers": Postwar Lay Reader Programs and Twenty-First Century Contingent Labor in First-Year Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I draw upon Eileen Schell's notions of "maternal pedagogy" and an "ethic of care" to analyze archival material from the National Education Association and Educational Testing Service pilot "lay reader" programs of the 1950s and 1960s. I argue that there are striking similarities between the material and social circumstances of these postwar lay…

Ritter, Kelly

2012-01-01

476

Women's Networks towards the Twenty-first Century. Proceedings of the International Fourm on Women and Life-long Learning (Saitama, Japan, November 14-16, 1997).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of women's centers and other facilities for women has become increasingly important in promoting a variety of opportunities for women's learning and participation in society. This conference, with the theme of women's networks for the future, was designed to promote the international exchange of information and cooperative development…

National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

477

A Twenty-First Century Cancer Epidemic Caused by Obesity: The Involvement of Insulin, Diabetes, and Insulin-Like Growth Factors  

PubMed Central

Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the developed world. The progression from obesity to diabetes mellitus type 2, via metabolic syndrome, is recognised, and the significant associated increase in the risk of major human cancers acknowledged. We review the molecular basis of the involvement of morbidly high concentrations of endogenous or therapeutic insulin and of insulin-like growth factors in the progression from obesity to diabetes and finally to cancer. Epidemiological and biochemical studies establish the role of insulin and hyperinsulinaemia in cancer risk and progression. Insulin-like growth factors, IGF-1 and IGF-2, secreted by visceral or mammary adipose tissue have significant paracrine and endocrine effects. These effects can be exacerbated by increased steroid hormone production. Structural studies elucidate how each of the three ligands, insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2, interacts differently with isoforms A and B of the insulin receptor and with type I IGF receptor and explain how these protagonists contribute to diabetes-associated cancer. The above should inform appropriate treatment of cancers that arise in obese individuals and in those with diabetes mellitus type 2. Novel drugs that target the insulin and insulin-like growth factor signal transduction pathways are in clinical trial and should be effective if appropriate biomarker-informed patient stratification is implemented.

Westley, Rosalyne L.; May, Felicity E. B.

2013-01-01

478

Northern African climate at the end of the twenty-first century: an integrated application of regional and global climate models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for simulating future climate on regional space scales is developed and applied to northern Africa. Simulation with\\u000a a regional model allows for the horizontal resolution needed to resolve the region’s strong meridional gradients and the optimization\\u000a of parameterizations and land-surface model. The control simulation is constrained by reanalysis data, and realistically represents\\u000a the present day climate. Atmosphere–ocean general

Christina M. Patricola; Kerry H. Cook

2010-01-01

479

Projections of Climate Change over Non-boreal East Europe During First Half of Twenty-First Century According to Results of a Transient RCM Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change trends over the southern east-Europe are evaluated according to results of a climate simulation experiment\\u000a with the ICTP RegCM3 regional climate model driven from the lateral boundaries by results of ECHAM5\\/MPI-OM1 transient climate\\u000a simulation from 1960 to 2060 (SRES A1B emission scenario after 2001). The trends projected include — precipitation: winter\\u000a and spring — rise over the central

Shimon O. Krichak; Pinhas Alpert; Pavel Kunin

480

Science Curriculum in the Market Liberal Society of the Twenty-First Century: "Re-Visioning" the Idea of Science for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The period since the 1960s has seen dramatic change in the nature and practice of science, science education and secondary school education itself. This paper examines changes in the Science for All movement, setting these changes in the context of the societal shift towards market liberalism and the advancement of a new style of individualism. We…

Smith, Dorothy V.; Gunstone, Richard F.

2009-01-01

481

Science Curriculum in the Market Liberal Society of the Twenty-first Century: `Re-visioning' the Idea of Science for All  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The period since the 1960s has seen dramatic change in the nature and practice of science, science education and secondary school education itself. This paper examines changes in the Science for All movement, setting these changes in the context of the societal shift towards market liberalism and the advancement of a new style of individualism. We argue that the climate of today requires a re-focusing of the priorities of secondary school science education, with a new emphasis on what Science for All implies for the education of those who will go on to be our scientific elite.

Smith, Dorothy V.; Gunstone, Richard F.

2009-01-01

482

Effects of Projected Twenty-First Century Sea Level Rise, Storm Surge, and River Flooding on Water Levels in the Skagit River Floodplain and Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near coastal environments have been identified as some of the most likely to be impacted by climate change. Observed changes in Puget Sound sea level and flood magnitudes are in line with those projected by previous climate change impacts studies. Current understanding of the combined effects of these changes is relatively low and has prompted us to explore the ways in which their co-occurrence will influence near coastal ecosystems and infrastructure. Using numerical simulation models the project examines the projected effects of climate change on water levels and inundation in the lower reaches of the Skagit River in western WA due to the combined effects of changes in storm surge, sea level rise, and riverine flooding. Global climate model simulations from the ECHAM-5 climate model were used as the climate forcings and were 1) statistically downscaled using the hybrid delta method, and 2) dynamically downscaled using the WRF regional climate model. Naturalized flows produced using the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrology model were used to drive reservoir models that simulate flood control operations and regulated flow during extreme events. Storm surge was calculated using a regression approach that included atmospheric pressure patterns simulated by the WRF model and ENSO. A 2D hydrodynamic model was used to estimate water surface elevations in the Skagit River estuary and floodplain using resampled hourly hydrographs keyed to regulated daily flood flows produced by the daily time step reservoir simulation model and tide predictions adjusted for SLR and storm surge. Combining peak annual storm surge with expected sea level rise, the historic (1970-1999) 100-yr peak tidal anomaly is found to be exceeded every year by the 2020s. By the 2050s, the extrapolated 100-yr riverine flood events are found to increase by 30% and 25% in the Skagit and Nisqually Rivers, respectively. In the Skagit River, the combined effect of sea level rise and larger floods yields increased areal flood inundation up to 80% relative to the present "100-year" flood.

Hamman, J.; Hamlet, A. F.; Grossman, E. E.; Fuller, R.

2012-12-01

483

Development and Education. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Second Session (Dakar, Senegal, September 18-22, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the evolution of the different theories concerning education as a factor of development. It is important to see exactly how the struggle against scarcity and the production of material goods can be made more effective by allocating financial and human resources to the production and transmission of knowledge. The growth theory…

Blondel, Daniele

484

The Relevance of Nomadic Forager Studies to Moral Foundations Theory: Moral Education and Global Ethics in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moral foundations theory (MFT) proposes the existence of innate psychological systems, which would have been subjected to selective forces over the course of evolution. One approach for evaluating MFT, therefore, is to consider the proposed psychological foundations in relation to the reconstructed Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness. This…

Fry, Douglas P.; Souillac, Geneviève

2013-01-01

485

Variability of Subantarctic Mode Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water in the Drake Passage durin gt he Late-Twentieth and Early-Twenty-First Centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

At ime series of the physical and biogeochemical propertie so fS ubantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) in the Drake Passage between 1969 and 2005 is constructed using 24 transects of measurements across the passage. Both water masses have experienced substantia lv ariability on interannual to interdecadal time scales. SAMW is formed by winter overturning on the

ALBERTO C. NAVEIRA GARABATO; LOIC JULLION; DAVID P. STEVENS; KAREN J. HEYWOOD; BRIAN A. KING

2009-01-01

486

Twenty-first Century Space Science in The Urban High School Setting: The NASA/John Dewey High School Educational Outreach Partnership  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique and innovative partnership has recently developed between NASA and John Dewey High School, infusing Space Science into the curriculum. This partnership builds on an existing relationship with MUSPIN/NASA and their regional center at the City University of New York based at Medgar Evers College. As an outgrowth of the success and popularity of our Remote Sensing Research Program, sponsored by the New York State Committee for the Advancement of Technology Education (NYSCATE), and the National Science Foundation and stimulated by MUSPIN-based faculty development workshops, our science department has branched out in a new direction - the establishment of a Space Science Academy. John Dewey High School, located in Brooklyn, New York, is an innovative inner city public school with students of a diverse multi-ethnic population and a variety of economic backgrounds. Students were recruited from this broad spectrum, which covers the range of learning styles and academic achievement. This collaboration includes students of high, average, and below average academic levels, emphasizing participation of students with learning disabilities. In this classroom without walls, students apply the strategies and methodologies of problem-based learning in solving complicated tasks. The cooperative learning approach simulates the NASA method of problem solving, as students work in teams, share research and results. Students learn to recognize the complexity of certain tasks as they apply Earth Science, Mathematics, Physics, Technology and Engineering to design solutions. Their path very much follows the NASA model as they design and build various devices. Our Space Science curriculum presently consists of a one-year sequence of elective classes taken in conjunction with Regents-level science classes. This sequence consists of Remote Sensing, Planetology, Mission to Mars (NASA sponsored research program), and Microbiology, where future projects will be astronomy related. This program has been well received by both students and parents and has motivated some students to consider careers in the field of space science and related areas. [This program is partially supported by NASA MU-SPIN NCC5-330 and NASA Space Science/Minority Initiative NAG5-10142

Fried, B.; Levy, M.; Reyes, C.; Austin, S.

2003-05-01

487

Teens in the Twenty-First Century Still Prefer People over Machines: Importance of Intervention Delivery Style in Adolescent HIV/STD Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To assess and compare youth satisfaction with two delivery approaches to a HIV/STD risk reduction intervention targeting adolescents: an on-site, face-to-face (FTF) approach versus a long distance interactive televised (DIT) approach. Methods: A convenience sample of 571 rural adolescents ages 12-16 years who participated in an HIV/STD…

Pendleton, Sara M.; Stanton, Bonita; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Marshall, Sharon; Pack, Robert; Burns, James; Gibson, Catherine; Wu, Ying; Li, Xiaoming; Cole, Matthew

2007-01-01

488

Aging in America in the Twenty-first Century: Demographic Forecasts from the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on an Aging Society  

PubMed Central

Context: The aging of the baby boom generation, the extension of life, and progressive increases in disability-free life expectancy have generated a dramatic demographic transition in the United States. Official government forecasts may, however, have inadvertently underestimated life expectancy, which would have major policy implications, since small differences in forecasts of life expectancy produce very large differences in the number of people surviving to an older age. This article presents a new set of population and life expectancy forecasts for the United States, focusing on transitions that will take place by midcentury. Methods: Forecasts were made with a cohort-components methodology, based on the premise that the risk of death will be influenced in the coming decades by accelerated advances in biomedical technology that either delay the onset and age progression of major fatal diseases or that slow the aging process itself. Findings: Results indicate that the current forecasts of the U.S. Social Security Administration and U.S. Census Bureau may underestimate the rise in life expectancy at birth for men and women combined, by 2050, from 3.1 to 7.9 years. Conclusions: The cumulative outlays for Medicare and Social Security could be higher by $3.2 to $8.3 trillion relative to current government forecasts. This article discusses the implications of these results regarding the benefits and costs of an aging society and the prospect that health disparities could attenuate some of these changes.

Olshansky, S Jay; Goldman, Dana P; Zheng, Yuhui; Rowe, John W

2009-01-01

489

Social Justice and the Global Economy: New Challenges for Social Work in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The globalization of the economy creates new challenges for social work in the arenas of social and economic justice. This article outlines social justice issues related to the debt crisis of the Global South and sweatshops. A presentation of colonial precursors is followed by a detailed examination of these global institutions with an emphasis on…

Polack, Robert J.

2004-01-01

490

Addressing the Challenges of a Quarter Century of Giscience Education: A Flexible Higher Education Curriculum Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide range of geographic information science (GIScience) educational programs currently exist, the oldest now over 25 years. Offerings vary from those specifically focussed on geographic information science, to those that utilise geographic information systems in various applications and disciplines. Over the past two decades, there have been a number of initiatives to design curricula for GIScience, including the NCGIA Core Curriculum, GIS&T Body of Knowledge and the Geospatial Technology Competency Model developments. The rapid developments in geospatial technology, applications and organisations have added to the challenges that higher educational institutions face in order to ensure that GIScience education is relevant and responsive to the changing needs of students and industry. This paper discusses some of the challenges being faced in higher education in general, and GIScience education in particular, and outlines a flexible higher education curriculum framework for GIScience.

Veenendaal, B.

2014-04-01

491

Issues and Challenges of Globalization of Library Services in Nigeria in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on a study which sought to investigate the major challenges of globalization of library services in Nigeria. The respondents were librarians from 10 Nigerian university and 6 research libraries. The findings show that: inadequate funding\\/financial support of libraries, provision of relevant IT infrastructures, human resource\\/capacity building programme in ICT, uninterrupted power supply\\/backup, and user education in IT pose major

Okon E. Ani; Emmanuel U. Atseye; Jacob E. Esin

2005-01-01

492

Boerhaave's Syndrome: Still a Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge in the 21st Century  

PubMed Central

Boerhaave's syndrome is a rare but potentially fatal condition characterised by a transmural tear of the distal oesophagus induced by a sudden increase in pressure. Diagnosis is challenging as the classic triad of vomiting, abdominal or chest pain, and subcutaneous emphysema is absent in many patients. Management is multidisciplinary and relies on rapid, distinct, and repeated imaging. Treatment has not been standardised and may be conservative, endoscopic, or surgical. We present a typical case which illustrates possible diagnostic pitfalls and the therapeutic conundrum surrounding management of the syndrome. Based on time of presentation and eventual presence of sepsis, a therapeutic algorithm is proposed.

Spapen, J.; De Regt, J.; Nieboer, K.; Verfaillie, G.; Honore, P. M.; Spapen, H.

2013-01-01

493

Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion: Materials Challenges for the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current focus of NASA s space fission effort is Fission Surface Power (FSP). FSP systems could be used to provide power anytime, anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars. FSP systems could be used at locations away from the lunar poles or in permanently shaded regions, with no performance penalty. A potential reference 40 kWe option has been devised that is cost-competitive with alternatives while providing more power for less mass. The potential reference system is readily extensible for use on Mar