Sample records for twenty-first century challenges

  1. Twenty-first century challenges for biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Hench, Larry L.; Thompson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    During the 1960s and 1970s, a first generation of materials was specially developed for use inside the human body. These developments became the basis for the field of biomaterials. The devices made from biomaterials are called prostheses. Professor Bill Bonfield was one of the first to recognize the importance of understanding the mechanical properties of tissues, especially bone, in order to achieve reliable skeletal prostheses. His research was one of the pioneering efforts to understand the interaction of biomaterials with living tissues. The goal of all early biomaterials was to ‘achieve a suitable combination of physical properties to match those of the replaced tissue with a minimal toxic response in the host’. By 1980, there were more than 50 implanted prostheses in clinical use made from 40 different materials. At that time, more than three million prosthetic parts were being implanted in patients worldwide each year. A common feature of most of the 40 materials was biological ‘inertness’. Almost all materials used in the body were single-phase materials. Most implant materials were adaptations of already existing commercial materials with higher levels of purity to eliminate release of toxic by-products and minimize corrosion. This article is a tribute to Bill Bonfield's pioneering efforts in the field of bone biomechanics, biomaterials and interdisciplinary research. It is also a brief summary of the evolution of bioactive materials and the opportunities for tailoring the composition, texture and surface chemistry of them to meet five important challenges for the twenty-first century. PMID:20484227

  2. Twenty-first century ethical challenges for psychology.

    PubMed

    Koocher, Gerald P

    2007-01-01

    Foreseeable social and technological changes will force us to reevaluate our thinking about ethically appropriate ways to fulfill our mission of using psychology to advance human health and welfare in the twenty-first century. Three categories of challenge related to societal and technological changes have become particularly evident. First, increasing patterns of delivering services over substantial distances by electronic means (i.e., telepsychology) demand consideration. Second, we must parse our ethical obligations to individuals, to groups, and to society at large as our influence working behind the scenes as "invisible" psychologists grows. Finally, as we witness the accelerating demise of psychiatry, we must take care not to follow a similar path. As we face new ethical challenges, we must continually ask ourselves where our responsibilities lie as individuals and as a profession. We must learn not to repeat the mistakes of the past and focus instead on optimizing the future for a science and practice of psychology focused on human health and welfare. PMID:17638436

  3. Twenty-first century vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  4. Twenty-first-century science.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, M R

    1995-01-01

    Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

  5. Challenges for Peace Educators at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ian M.

    This paper provides a description of the history and advancements made in peace education during the past century. By the end of the 20th century, 200 colleges in the United States had peace studies programs and approximately 1 in 10 of the public schools had conflict resolution programs. The paper focuses on four challenges faced by peace…

  6. World Grant Universities: Meeting the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Lou Anna K.

    2010-01-01

    Today American higher education urgently needs bold thinking coupled with innovative actions if the United States is to meet the challenges of the 21st century--thinking and doing that goes beyond requests for more funding and accountability and beyond the tendency to look at what individual institutions do well and can contribute to global…

  7. U.S. drinking water challenges in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ronnie B; Epstein, Paul R; Ford, Tim E; Harrington, Winston; Olson, Erik; Reichard, Eric G

    2002-01-01

    The access of almost all 270 million U.S. residents to reliable, safe drinking water distinguishes the United States in the twentieth century from that of the nineteenth century. The United States is a relatively water-abundant country with moderate population growth; nonetheless, current trends are sufficient to strain water resources over time, especially on a regional basis. We have examined the areas of public water infrastructure, global climate effects, waterborne disease (including emerging and resurging pathogens), land use, groundwater, surface water, and the U.S. regulatory history and its horizon. These issues are integrally interrelated and cross all levels of public and private jurisdictions. We conclude that U.S. public drinking water supplies will face challenges in these areas in the next century and that solutions to at least some of them will require institutional changes. PMID:11834462

  8. Twenty-first century learning in afterschool.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Eric; Stolow, David

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-first century skills increasingly represent the ticket to the middle class. Yet, the authors argue, in-school learning is simply not enough to help students develop these skills. The authors make the case that after-school (or out-of-school) learning programs are emerging as one of the nation's most promising strategies for preparing young people for the workforce and civic life. Most school systems have significant limitations for teaching twenty-first century skills. They have the limits of time: with only six hours per day there is barely enough time to teach even the basic skills, especially for those students starting already behind. They have the limits of structure: typical school buildings and classrooms are not physically set up for innovative learning. They have the limits of inertia and bureaucracy: school systems are notoriously resistant to change. And perhaps most important, they have the limits of priorities: especially with the onset of the No Child Left Behind Act, schools are laserlike in their focus on teaching the basics and therefore have less incentive to incorporate twenty-first century skills. Meanwhile, the authors argue that after-school programs are an untapped resource with three competitive advantages. First, they enable students to work collaboratively in small groups, a setup on which the modern economy will increasingly rely. Second, they are well suited to project-based learning and the development of mastery. Third, they allow students to learn in the real-world contexts that make sense. Yet the after-school sector is fraught with challenges. It lacks focus-Is it child care, public safety, homework tutoring? And it lacks rigorous results. The authors argue that the teaching of twenty-first century skills should become the new organizing principle for afterschool that will propel the field forward and more effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning. PMID:17017259

  9. [The challenge of geriatric medicine in the twenty-first century].

    PubMed

    Berner, Yitshal N

    2012-09-01

    During the last generation the population in Israel has doubled and the number of hospital beds per capita has declined to the lowest number in the OECD. This has implications on the number of physicians and nurses, as well as the nation's capacity to educate medical staff, while there are no increases in the infrastructure. Shortening the length of stay for acute medical conditions to an average of about three to four days is the main consequence of this situation. About 800,000 elderly people over 65 years of age are now living in Israel. Many of them suffer from acute conditions with complicating chronic morbidities. Currently, they are the main victims of the present crisis in medical services in Israel. Aging is accompanied by a decline in the physiological reserves leading to increased morbidity, decreases in function and a prolonged period for returning to normal function after trauma or acute disease. During the twentieth century, the science of medicine progressed rapidly. The pathogenesis of many conditions, either chronic or acute, was recognized, as well as the structure of the human genome and many pharmaceutical, as well as other technologies, were developed for the cure and care of diseases. Nevertheless, understanding the aging process remains a challenge. Geriatric medicine is a medical specialty that deals with a process--the process of aging, which is like pediatrics, and unlike other specialties that concentrate on systems (cardiovascular, gastroenterology, blood, immune system etc.). The added value of the geriatrician in medical practice is in the knowledge of the scientific background of aging, as well as the practical implications concerning physical and cognitive decline of function with aging and its accompanying morbidity. The practice of Geriatric Medicine is the art of connecting the biological and medical sciences to the function and the environment of the individual aging person. It requires dedicating a lot of time and patience on the part of the physician, to retrieve the information, to build confidence in the relationship with the patient and to lead the patient to continue living with an optimal quality of life in his remaining years. During the last decades, the number of geriatricians in Israel has doubled, obligatory clerkship in Geriatric Medicine is part of the medical schools' curriculum and Geriatric Medicine is part of the board curriculum in Internal Medicine and Family Medicine. Thus, Geriatric Medicine maintains the art of medical practice, using the recent knowledge in biology and medical sciences, and dealing with the population with the highest level of morbidity and lowest function. The Geriatric Medicine approach to the old person who needs medical help has to lead medical practice in the near future, so that we can preserve the great achievements of medicine during the twentieth century. PMID:23367743

  10. American Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century: Social, Political and Economic Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Berdhal, Robert O., Ed.; Gumport, Patricia J., Ed.

    This book presents 17 papers on higher education, organized into four parts, which address the higher education setting, external forces, the academic community, and central issues for the 21st century. Following an introduction by the editors, the papers are: (1) "Patterns in Higher Education Development" (Philip G. Altbach); (2) "The Ten…

  11. The Challenges for the Twenty-First Century: A Critical Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyeeta Gupta; Joseph W. Dellapenna

    With a history of about 5,000 years, water law and water governance have only just arrived on the global agenda. During these\\u000a centuries, there have been incremental developments in governance processes from the local to the global level. Unlike other\\u000a fields of resource governance, water is a field with a rich density of governance efforts, closely linked to the evolution

  12. The Twenty-First Century Multiple Generation Workforce: Overlaps and Differences but Also Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helyer, Ruth; Lee, Dionne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the issues around a multiple generational workforce and more specifically, the challenges and benefits for education providers and employers. Design/methodology/approach: Reviewing research papers, analysing academic texts, interrogating market intelligence and contextualising case studies, the…

  13. Language Teacher Education: The Challenge for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Jo-Anne E.; Nelson, Paul B.

    2001-01-01

    Offers an overview of current challenges of preparing foreign language teachers in United States schools. Discusses the growing demand for foreign language classes in elementary and middle schools; longer internships for preservice teachers; ongoing professional development; more bilingual and immersion programs; and the trend toward…

  14. Active Debris Removal - A Grand Engineering Challenge for the Twenty-First Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2011-01-01

    The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 has reignited interest in using active debris removal to remediate the near-Earth orbital debris environment. A recent NASA study shows that, in order to stabilize the environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region for the next 200 years, active debris removal of about five large and massive (1 to more than 8 metric tons) objects per year is needed. To develop the capability to remove five of those objects per year in a cost-effective manner truly represents a grand challenge in engineering and technology development.

  15. Combining chemical and biological endpoints, a major challenge for twenty-first century's environmental specimen banks.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Larraitz; Izagirre, Urtzi; Soto, Manu; Lermen, Dominik; Koschorreck, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Environmental specimen banks (ESBs) are not a new phenomenon, but in the last decades, the steep rate in the establishment of new ESBs is a sign to address new research approaches for scientists. In this way, environmental biobanking is becoming a well-organized and effective vehicle to collect samples of high quality making them available for future researchers. The endpoints promoted in the ESBs are mainly based on chemical approaches, but the necessity to add biological endpoint is fundamental (e.g., assessment of the environmental health status). Moreover, advances and development of high sensitive, high-throughput techniques along with ecotoxicological approaches based on biomarkers are stimulating a new demand for stored specimens and associated data. Like in chemically targeted environmental specimen banking, the banked samples for the assessment of biological effects also require guidance informed by knowledge of their practices and challenges, along with policies for the correct advancement of research goals and appropriate and effective biobank governance. PMID:24777326

  16. New challenges for telephone survey research in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Angela M; Remington, Patrick L

    2007-01-01

    Telephone surveys are critical for examining cross-sectional characteristics of population subgroups, tracking trends in prevalence of conditions and risk behaviors over time, identifying risk factors associated with multiple health conditions, and assessing the effects of interventions. Technology has aided telephone research through advances such as computer-assisted telephone interviewing. However, technology such as answering machines and caller ID has contributed to declines in response rates and has increased costs of conducting telephone surveys. The exponential increase in cell phone utilization presents a challenge to the tradition of random digit dial (RDD) surveys of households. Because telephone surveys are used by other industries such as marketing and public opinion polling, the marketplace may help drive innovation and adaptation. Cell phones have made telephone communication an even greater part of the everyday culture and could make potential telephone survey respondents even more accessible to public health researchers. PMID:17094769

  17. Information Ethics in the Twenty First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The first decade of the twenty first century has seen a growing interest and intellectual debate within the information professions, focusing on issues where an ethical dimension predominates. This paper provides an overview of codes of practice, published literature, conference proceedings and educational programs that focus on information…

  18. Shelter for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, J D

    1990-01-01

    Housing for the twenty-first century will be shaped by the changes that are occurring in society. These include the demographics of the occupant, the products and materials used for construction and furnishing, and the basic use of the structure. An aging population will have different demands on design and function. The health concerns of an aging population encompass chronic degenerative diseases as well as injury. The lessons of the past must make us mindful that chronic, low-level exposures to substances can occur at home. Products and materials used in homes can release vapors that may affect immunologic and neurologic function. Manifestations of dysfunctions will be more important as our population ages and if there is a continued reliance on new chemical formulation for products used in homes and workplaces. The future portends changes in functional use of residences. Electronic communications and robotics will decentralize our work force. Manufacturing or office functions will occur at home. This will present new challenges for health and safety for both monitoring and prevention. PMID:2401266

  19. Malthus for the Twenty-First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEOFFREY MCNICOLL

    WITH BIRTH RATES FALLING, the last gasp of the population explosion may add as few as 2 billion more people to the world's population. Eight billion is the UN's peak population figure, attained by 2050, in the low\\/medium scenario of its 1996 projection series. (The medium trajectory plateaus at around 10.5 billion later in the century.) If 2 billion is

  20. An Educational Revolution to Support Change in the Classroom: Colombia and the Educational Challenges of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Daniel; Manso, Micaela; Noguera, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    As developing countries strive to strengthen their educational institutions to meet the challenges of the economic and social demands of globalization, tension often arises between providing more access to traditional public education and reforming the quality of the education provided. With its Revolucion Educativa, Colombia offers an interesting…

  1. The challenges of teaching and learning about science in the twenty-first century: exploring the abilities and constraints of adolescent learners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric M. Anderman; Gale M. Sinatra; DeLeon L. Gray

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we critically examine skills that are necessary for the effective learning of science in adolescent populations. We argue that a focus on twenty-first-century skills among adolescents within the context of science instruction must be considered in light of research on cognitive and social development. We first review adolescents’ emerging abilities in terms of five domains identified by

  2. Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Clouds Over the Twenty-First Century Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, P. J. E.

    Physical science has changed in the century since Lord Kelvin's celebrated essay on Nineteenth Century Clouds over the Dynamical Theory of Heat and Light, but some things are the same. Analogs in what was happening in physics then and what is happening in astronomy today serve to remind us why we can be confident the Virtual Observatory of the twenty-first century will have a rich list of challenges to explore.

  3. Leading the University in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Joanne E.

    2006-01-01

    Leading the modern university in the twenty-first century is a nearly impossible task. According to Parker Palmer (2006), the answer for all university presidents and faculty alike lies not in looking outward at competing demands, but in facing inward. Palmer would agree that new leadership is needed for new times, but it will not come from…

  4. Creating an Academic Library for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    When Bruce Miller took up the position of head librarian at the University of California, Merced in 2001, the plan for the new library was to use the University of California (UC) system's rich base of support as a launching pad for something great and extraordinary: a model academic research library for the twenty-first century. This article…

  5. Urologic Oncology in the Twenty-first Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadao Kakizoe

    2000-01-01

    The perspective of urologic oncology in the twenty-first century is presented regarding detection, treatment, and prevention of cancer. There is increasing importance of a cancer information network. Biotechnology and medical engineering based on advances in computer science will be the two key technologies related to such advancement. Ethical, legal, social, and economic issues provoked by the technologic advances will increase

  6. Information ethics for twenty-first century library professionals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Fallis

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – To provide an introduction to concepts and resources that will be useful to library professionals learning about information ethics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper argues for the importance of information ethics to twenty-first century library professionals. It describes what various authors have said about how information ethics can be applied to the ethical dilemmas faced by library professionals. Findings

  7. Teaching psychodynamics in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Cabaniss, Deborah L

    2012-06-01

    A lack of clarity in psychoanalytic education has negatively affected the educational experience of candidates now in training and makes it difficult for prospective candidates to understand the field. Three basic educational concepts--learning objectives, operationalizing, and adult learning theory--can help psychoanalysts teach and assess their students in a clearer, more objective way. Using these concepts has broad implications for both psychodynamic and psychoanalytic education in the twenty-first century. PMID:22739445

  8. Why the American public supports twenty-first century learning.

    PubMed

    Sacconaghi, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Aware that constituent support is essential to any educational endeavor, the AOL Time Warner Foundation (now the Time Warner Foundation), in conjunction with two respected national research firms, measured Americans' attitudes toward the implementation of twenty-first century skills. The foundation's national research survey was intended to explore public perceptions of the need for changes in the educational system, in school and after school, with respect to the teaching of twenty-first century skills. The author summarizes the findings of the survey, which were released by the foundation in June 2003. One thousand adults were surveyed by telephone, including African Americans, Latinos, teachers, and business executives. In general, the survey found that Americans believe today's students need a "basics-plus" education, meaning communication, technology, and critical thinking skills in addition to the traditional basics of reading, writing, and math. In fact, 92 percent of respondents stated that students today need different skills from those of ten to twenty years ago. Also, after-school programs were found to be an appropriate vehicle to teach these skills. Furthermore, the survey explored how well the public perceives schools to be preparing youth for the workforce and postsecondary education, which twenty-first century skills are seen as being taught effectively, and the level of need for after-school and summer programs. The survey results provide conclusive evidence of national support for basics-plus education. Thus, a clear opportunity exists to build momentum for a new model of education for the twenty-first century. PMID:17017255

  9. Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey P. Hammond

    1996-01-01

    The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010–2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number

  10. Humanities: The Unexpected Success Story of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Humanities within universities faced challenges in the latter half of the twentieth century as their value in the modern world was questioned. This paper argues that there is strong potential for the humanities to thrive in the twenty-first century university sector. It outlines some of the managerial implications necessary to ensure that this…

  11. Designing Vaccines for the Twenty-First Century Society

    PubMed Central

    Finco, Oretta; Rappuoli, Rino

    2013-01-01

    The history of vaccination clearly demonstrates that vaccines have been highly successful in preventing infectious diseases, reducing significantly the incidence of childhood diseases and mortality. However, many infections are still not preventable with the currently available vaccines and they represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. In the twenty-first century, the innovation brought by novel technologies in antigen discovery and formulation together with a deeper knowledge of the human immune responses are paving the way for the development of new vaccines. Final goal will be to rationally design effective vaccines where conventional approaches have failed. PMID:24478777

  12. In vitro Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Roggen, Erwin L.

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) article “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A vision and A Strategy” (National Research Council, 2007) was written to bring attention to the application of scientific advances for use in toxicity tests so that chemicals can be tested in a more time and cost efficient manner while providing a more relevant and mechanistic insight into the toxic potential of a compound. Development of tools for in vitro toxicity testing constitutes an important activity of this vision and contributes to the provision of test systems as well as data that are essential for the development of computer modeling tools for, e.g., system biology, physiologically based modeling. This article intends to highlight some of the issues that have to be addressed in order to make in vitro toxicity testing a reality in the twenty-first century. PMID:21713102

  13. Chiropractic physicians for the twenty-first century?

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, I.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines a recent report on Medical Education entitled “Physicians for the Twenty First Century.” The conclusions of this study are summarized. Using the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College as the focus, chiropractic education is then examined with regard to these same solutions. The results of this comparison show that in many areas, chiropractic education is favourably positioned vis-a-vis medical education, but in other areas it shares the same or similar problems. In the areas of problem based learning and competency based learning, CMCC has already implemented programmes. Further, the objective of our programme is the graduation of a “general” practitioner and our programme is, therefore, a broad based, general professional education. In the areas of the humanities and the social sciences, our programme is deficient and this is something that must be addressed in the coming years.

  14. THE PROSPECTS FOR MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    E-print Network

    Shore, Richard A.

    THE PROSPECTS FOR MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY of mathematical logic in the twenty-first century. The areas of rec* *ursion theory, proof theory and logic on "The Prospects for Mathematical Logic in the Twenty-First Century". The panel dis- cussions included

  15. THE PROSPECTS FOR MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    E-print Network

    Shore, Richard A.

    THE PROSPECTS FOR MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SAMUEL R. BUSS, ALEXANDER S the future devel- opments of mathematical logic in the twenty-first century. The areas of recursion theory a panel discussion on "The Prospects for Mathematical Logic in the Twenty-First Century". The panel dis

  16. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  17. Why American business demands twenty-first century learning: A company perspective.

    PubMed

    Knox, Allyson

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft is an innovative corporation demonstrating the kind and caliber of job skills needed in the twenty-first century. It demonstrates its commitment to twenty-first century skills by holding its employees accountable to a set of core competencies, enabling the company to run effectively. The author explores how Microsoft's core competencies parallel the Partnership for 21st Century Skills learning frameworks. Both require advanced problem-solving skills and a passion for technology, both expect individuals to be able to work in teams, both look for a love of learning, and both call for the self-confidence to honestly self-evaluate. Microsoft also works to cultivate twenty-first century skills among future workers, investing in education to help prepare young people for competitive futures. As the need for digital literacy has become imperative, technology companies have taken the lead in facilitating technology training by partnering with schools and communities. Microsoft is playing a direct role in preparing students for what lies ahead in their careers. To further twenty-first century skills, or core competencies, among the nation's youth, Microsoft has established Partners in Learning, a program that helps education organizations build partnerships that leverage technology to improve teaching and learning. One Partners in Learning grantee is Global Kids, a nonprofit organization that trains students to design online games focused on global social issues resonating with civic and global competencies. As Microsoft believes the challenges of competing in today's economy and teaching today's students are substantial but not insurmountable, such partnerships and investments demonstrate Microsoft's belief in and commitment to twenty-first century skills. PMID:17017254

  18. Tribology research in the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh Spikes

    2001-01-01

    This paper attempts to predict and discuss some of the many challenges facing fundamental research in tribology over the first half of the new century. This is done in two stages, looking at likely developments over the first twelve years based on extrapolation of existing trends, and then, more speculatively, considering possible driving forces over subsequent decades.

  19. THE PROSPECTS FOR MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    E-print Network

    Shore, Richard A.

    THE PROSPECTS FOR MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SAMUEL R. BUSS, ALEXANDER S the future devel- opments of mathematical logic in the twenty-#12;rst century. The areas of recursion theory a panel discussion on \\The Prospects for Mathematical Logic in the Twenty-First Century". The panel dis

  20. Preparing Students for a Twenty-First Century Global Workplace in an Era of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cognetta, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to thoroughly examine a school district's plan for developing, implementing, and monitoring a strategic plan for adequately preparing students with twenty-first century skills or the marketable skills students will need in order to contribute to the dynamic twenty-first century workplace while meeting federal and state…

  1. Twenty-First Century Learning: Communities, Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leh, Amy S.C.; Kouba, Barbara; Davis, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and…

  2. The Culturally Fluent Leader of the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Charles; Lischin, Stevi

    Increased global interdependence will be the dominant feature of the 21st century. This increased relatedness among the world's cultures and nations will require close intercultural linkages which are often fragile and full of hazards. If the 21st century is to experience a greater sense of planetary community, rather than increased tensions and…

  3. Establishing the R&D Agenda for Twenty-First Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Much ink has flowed over the past few years describing the need to incorporate twenty-first century skills into K-12 education. Preparing students to succeed as citizens, thinkers, and workers--the bedrock of any educational system--in this environment means arming them with more than a list of facts and important dates. Infusing twenty-first

  4. Psychological Testing and Assessment in the Twenty-first Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matarazzo, Joseph D.

    As spinoffs of the current revolution in the cognitive and neurosciences, clinical neuropsychologists in the 21st century will be employing biological tests of intelligence and cognition which record individual differences in brain functions at the neuromolecular, neurophysiologic, and neurochemical levels. Assessment of patients will focus more…

  5. The Collegiate Ideal in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.; Kytle, Jackson

    1999-01-01

    Whatever forms they take, colleges of the 21st century must incorporate the educational fundamentals that underlie traditional residential institutions. Key ingredients of these educationally powerful environments include clear purposes, maximization of human interaction, pedagogies for active learning, recognition of individual differences,…

  6. Moral Psychology for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg slayed the two dragons of twentieth-century psychology--behaviorism and psychoanalysis. His victory was a part of the larger cognitive revolution that shaped the world in which all of us study psychology and education today. But the cognitive revolution itself was modified by later waves of change, particularly an "affective…

  7. Preparing the twenty?first century workforce: the case of curriculum change in radiation protection education in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Schmidt; Matthew Easter; David Jonassen; William Miller; Gelu Ionas

    2008-01-01

    The advent of the global information society and a myriad of other rapidly changing variables are presenting many new and unique challenges for the twenty?first century workforce, and perhaps the most pressing of these challenges is actually meeting the needs for qualified workers to fill the positions in emerging and growing fields. One such field is the nuclear industry. In

  8. Preparing the Twenty-First Century Workforce: The Case of Curriculum Change in Radiation Protection Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Matthew; Easter, Matthew; Jonassen, David; Miller, William; Ionas, Gelu

    2008-01-01

    The advent of the global information society and a myriad of other rapidly changing variables are presenting many new and unique challenges for the twenty-first century workforce, and perhaps the most pressing of these challenges is actually meeting the needs for qualified workers to fill the positions in emerging and growing fields. One such…

  9. Teaching the Constitution to Twenty-First Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Peggy S.; Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Haas, Nancy S.

    2008-01-01

    Civic education in public schools faces major challenges. Under No Child Left Behind, many schools have favored teaching math and English rather than civics, which undermines one of the purposes of public schools--to educate students to be responsible and active citizens in democracy. A second challenge comes inside the classroom: engaging the…

  10. Teacher-Friendly Technology Applications for the Twenty-First Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Jaime; Potter, Jalene; Hollas, Tori

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present recent technology applications for teachers as well as share important techniques in setting up a classroom environment that will prepare their students as twenty-first century learners.

  11. Projections of twenty-first century climate over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, F.; Coppola, E.

    2009-02-01

    We present an assessment of climate change pro jections over the European region for the 21st century from the ensembles of CMIP3 global model experiments and PRUDENCE regional climate model experiments. The A2, A1B, and B1 IPCC emission scenarios are considered. A brief review is also presented of the literature available on future European climate pro jections. In all emission scenarios the European region shows maximum warming of up to several degrees C over the Mediterranean region in summer and over northeastern Europe in winter. The precipitation change signal shows a north-south dipolar structure, with increasing precipitation over Northern Europe and decreasing over southern Europe. This structure migrates northward from the winter to the summer and is tied to the north-south motion of an increasing anticyclonic circulation cell over the North Atlantic-European sector. Temperature interannual variability decreases in winter over central and northern Europe and increases in summer throughout Europe. Precipitation interannual variability shows a predominant increase, most pronounced in summer. The seasonal temperature anomaly probability density functions (PDFs) show a shift and a widening and flattening in future climate conditions, especially in summer, which is indicative of pronounced increases of extreme hot seasons. The seasonal precipitation anomaly PDFs show pronounced changes over Southern Europe in summer, with a strong increase of very dry seasons. In general, the magnitude of future climate change increases with the greenhouse gas forcing. A broad consensus is found between the pro jections obtained with the CMIP3 and PRUDENCE ensembles, as well as between the present analysis and previous generations of model pro jections. The climate change signal over Europe exhibits a consistent latitudinal and seasonal evolution identified as the European Climate change Oscillation (ECO) by Giorgi and Coppola [F. Giorgi and E. Coppola, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L21703 (2007)]. The changes of temperature and precipitation over Europe are pronounced, making this region highly vulnerable to global warming.

  12. Data Analysis in the Twenty-First Century

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, A; Kamath, C; Kumar, V

    2007-08-16

    The 21st Century is characterized by complex multidisciplinary problems accompanied by massive datasets. 'We are drowning in data, but starving for knowledge', as the volumes of many commercial, industrial and scientific datasets have exceeded the terabyte range and are approaching petabytes and beyond. Statistical methodology has long been employed to find useful and usable information in data. More recently, data mining has harnessed the power of computer technology to find useful and usable patterns in such massive datasets. Although several data mining journals have joined the established statistical journals, no single journal provides an integrated treatment of statistical analysis methodology and data mining technology, particularly when applied to the solution of practical problems. This absence and the needs expressed above motivated the inauguration of John Wiley's new Journal on Statistical Analysis and Data Mining. The goals of this interdisciplinary journal are to encourage collaborations across disciplines, communication of data mining and statistical techniques to both novices and experts involved in the analysis of data from practical problems, and a principled and productive evaluation of analyses and solutions. The journal specifically encourages submission of works that have statistical rigor in the analysis of data, incorporate the most appropriate algorithms from data mining, and address the needs of applications. Applying data mining algorithms to practical problems is not sufficient, because we need to ensure that the results have a sound statistical basis, lest any decision based on these results lead to a catastrophe. Even data mining algorithms founded on sound statistical analysis are not sufficient, if they cannot solve a practical problem. Finally, employing a statistical analysis on a practical problem is not sufficient, unless it scales up to massive datasets. Statistical analysis and data mining are actually two sides of the sword that is sorely needed to conquer data overload in practical problems.

  13. Environment and health in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Holdren, Jill; Tao, Shu; Carpenter, David O

    2008-10-01

    There are major challenges facing the countries in the Pacific Basin. These include issues of hazardous waste management and the consequent adverse effects of hazardous wastes on human health, the potential disruption of our whole way of life as a consequence of global climate change, and the increasing problem on human health of air pollution and the effects of breathing polluted air. These issues and others were the focus of the 12th meeting of the Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health Sciences, held in Beijing in late 2007. This volume is a collection of papers presented at that meeting, and this introductory chapter provides some perspective on three of the major issues that are of concern in all of the countries in this region. This meeting provided an opportunity for Chinese scientists and those from other countries in the Pacific Basin to share perspectives and possible solutions with others from the international community, and these various approaches are reflected in these proceedings. PMID:18991897

  14. An Exploratory Study of the Achievement of the Twenty-First Century Skills in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaith, Ghazi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey study of the achievement of twenty-first century skills in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The study employs a quantitative survey design. Findings: The findings indicate that the basic scientific and technological skills of reading critically and writing…

  15. An exploratory study of the achievement of the twenty-first century skills in higher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghazi Ghaith

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey study of the achievement of twenty-first century skills in higher education. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study employs a quantitative survey design. Findings – The findings indicate that the basic scientific and technological skills of reading critically and writing persuasively as well as accessing and using information

  16. Knowledge and Educational Research in the Context of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Educational researchers and academics cannot ignore the ever-present call for education, and schooling in particular, to reflect the needs of the twenty-first century knowledge economy. Since the 1990s, national curricula and education systems have reflected this call in their focus on technology and shifting pedagogy to increasingly…

  17. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  18. The Incomplete Rebellion: Mau Mau Movement in Twenty-First-Century Kenyan Popular Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan Mwangi

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the simultaneous and contradictory conceptions of Kenyan history by rereading popular representations of the Mau Mau war of Kenyan independence and its postindependence consequences. It examines twenty-first-century evocations and appropriations of Mau Mau in relation to earlier discourses in literature and politics. It discovers that contemporary artists and citizens deploy references to Mau Mau outside of its

  19. The Incomplete Rebellion: Mau Mau Movement in Twenty-First-Century Kenyan Popular Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan Mwangi

    2010-01-01

    : This paper concerns the simultaneous and contradictory conceptions of Kenyan history by rereading popular representations of the Mau Mau war of Kenyan independence and its postindependence consequences. It examines twenty-first-century evocations and appropriations of Mau Mau in relation to earlier discourses in literature and politics. It discovers that contemporary artists and citizens deploy references to Mau Mau outside of

  20. Distance Education Technology: Higher Education Barriers during the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Ansah, Angela; Neill, Patti; Haralson, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, despite the expanded opportunities technology affords in student-access to higher education, most institutions of higher education are hesitant to offer technology-based distance education (TBDE). The prohibiting factors include cost, accessibility, faculty concerns, state mandates, academic administrative actions, and…

  1. The New Cosmopolitan Monolingualism: On Linguistic Citizenship in Twenty-First Century Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramling, David

    2009-01-01

    In the early years of the twenty-first century, being German has become a matter of linguistic competence and performance. An acute shift in citizenship statutes at the end of the 1990s brought about a peripatetic departure from Germany's "right of blood" ("ius sanguinis") toward a French-inspired "right of territory" ("ius soli"). Yet in the nine…

  2. Gaga for Google in the Twenty-First Century Advanced Placement Language Classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devon Christopher Adams

    2008-01-01

    The migration of online educational needs to tools like Google applications, coupled with the realization that today's twenty-first-century students are digital natives who have lived their entire lives exposed to current technology, forces educators to find ways to use technology to enhance traditional curriculum. In this article, the author examines how one program, Advanced Placement Language and Composition, incorporates Web

  3. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

  4. Forecasting Twenty-First Century Information Technology Skills: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jackie A.

    2012-01-01

    As cities and regions seek to increase the stock of college educated citizens in order to compete in the twenty-first century knowledge-economy, colleges and universities are realizing increased enrollment. At the same time, much is being written about the skills needed by graduates for the new economy. These studies articulate skills in critical…

  5. Twenty-First Century Insurance and Loss Distribution in Tort Law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Abraham

    TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY INSURANCE AND LOSS DISTRIBUTION IN TORT LAW Kenneth Abraham University of Virginia School of Law This paper locates tort liability within our larger system of compensation for injury and illness, and compares the tort system's functioning and scope with the other methods of loss distribution that are employed by the system. This review reveals the extent to which

  6. Improve constantly and forever : The influence of W. Edwards Deming into the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen B. Knouse; Paula P. Carson; Kerry D. Carson; Ronald B. Heady

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Deming's ideas on the twenty-first century. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A ProQuest search of articles is done mentioning “Deming” and “quality” or “legacy” in the title published between 1994 (Deming died in December 1993) and 2006. Findings – It is found that 136 articles described Deming's legacy. Legacy in

  7. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Paul Henry

    2010-01-01

    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

  8. Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wing On

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive thinking; information,…

  9. INTRODUCTION In the twenty-first century, educational institutions at all levels face calls for

    E-print Network

    Oakleaf, Megan

    CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In the twenty-first century, educational institutions at all levels face passed over college and university libraries. Now, academic librarians are increasingly pressured to prove that the resources and services they provide result in improvement in student learning

  10. Becoming Numerate with Information and Communications Technologies in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelland, Nicola; Kilderry, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on data from a three-year Australian Research Council-funded study that examined the ways in which young children become numerate in the twenty-first century. We were interested in the authentic problem-solving contexts that we believe are required to create meaningful learning. This being so, our basic tenet was that such…

  11. Teaching and Learning in the Twenty-First Century: What Is an "Institute of Education" for?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husbands, Chris

    2012-01-01

    As we begin the twenty-first century, schools and teachers are subject to enormous pressures for change. The revolution in digital technologies, the pressure to develop consistently high-performing schools systems, and the drive between excellence and equity all combine to raise profound questions about the nature of successful teaching and…

  12. Civil engineering at the crossroads in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Francisco; Seco, Andres

    2012-12-01

    The twenty-first century presents a major challenge for civil engineering. The magnitude and future importance of some of the problems perceived by society are directly related to the field of the civil engineer, implying an inescapable burden of responsibility for a group whose technical soundness, rational approach and efficiency is highly valued and respected by the citizen. However, the substantial changes in society and in the way it perceives the problems that it considers important call for a thorough review of our structures, both professional and educational; so that our profession, with its undeniable historical prestige, may modernize certain approaches and attitudes in order to continue to be a reliable instrument in the service of society, giving priority from an ethical standpoint to its actions in pursuit of "the public good". It possesses important tools to facilitate this work (new technologies, the development of communications, the transmission of scientific thought.···); but there is nevertheless a need for deep reflection on the very essence of civil engineering: what we want it to be in the future, and the ability and willingness to take the lead at a time when society needs disinterested messages, technically supported, reasonably presented and dispassionately transmitted. PMID:21380736

  13. Monitoring twenty-first century climate using GPS radio occultation bending angles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Ringer; Sean B. Healy

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of radio occultation bending angle profiles in transient climate experiments using a state-of-the-art global coupled climate model show a clear signal in bending angle emerging over the first half of the twenty-first century. The bending angle signal can be related to the predicted changes in the climate over this period in response to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and is

  14. Drivers of mountain landscape change during the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olav Slaymaker

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Twenty-first century mountain landscapes are evolving under the globally scaled controls of hydroclimate and the spatially\\u000a and temporally discontinuous impacts of human activity and tectonic plate movements. Attention is drawn to the difficulty\\u000a of comparing the effectiveness of the three drivers of change (tectonics, using relief as a surrogate, hydroclimate, and human\\u000a activity) because of their differing temporal rhythms. The

  15. Crisis Management in the Twenty-First Century: “Unthinkable” Events in “Inconceivable” Contexts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Lagadec

    \\u000a “Unbelievable,” “unthinkable,” “inconceivable”: the twenty-first century opens a new era in the field of risk and crisis management.\\u000a Many of the major recent crises, including the unconventional 9\\/11 terrorist attacks; the swift worldwide contamination by\\u000a the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, “mad cow disease”), SARS virus, or avian flu; continental blackouts occurring within\\u000a a few seconds, continent-wide effects of a tsunami

  16. Information Technology for the Twenty-First Century: A Bold Investment in America's Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    With this Information Technology for the Twenty First Century (IT2) initiative, the Federal Government is making an important re-commitment to fundamental research in information technology. The IT2 initiative proposes 366 million in increased investments in computing, information, and communications research and development (R&D) to help expand the knowledge base in fundamental information science, advance the Nations capabilities in cutting edge research, and train the next generation of researchers who will sustain the Information Revolution well into the 21st Century.

  17. Twenty-first century learning after school: the case of 4-H.

    PubMed

    Kress, Cathann

    2006-01-01

    Founded in the early 1900s, the 4-H Youth Development program can serve as a model for out-of-school programs of the twenty-first century. The 4-H pledge, repeated by its members--over 7 million, ranging in age from five to twenty--articulates its core values: "I pledge: My head to clearer thinking, My heart to greater loyalty, My hands to larger service, and My health to better living for my club, my community, my country, and my world." The 4-H Development movement was created to provide opportunities for rural children, to help them become constructive adults. Through an emphasis on "learning by doing," 4-H teaches children the habits of lifelong learning. Historically, 4-H has tapped into university-level advancements, extending such knowledge to youth and thereby giving them early access to scientific discoveries and technological progress. Members apply this learning in their communities through hands-on projects crossing a wide-range of pertinent topics. Research shows that 4-H members are more successful in school than other children and develop a wide range of skills essential in the twenty-first century. Thus, the author makes the case that the foundation of 4-H is exceptionally relevant in today's complex world, perhaps even more so than a century ago. 4-H is a leader in youth development, making it a natural model for twenty-first century after-school programs. Expanding on the 4-H pledge, the author outlines the principles a successful youth development program would have: an emphasis on leadership skills, a feeling of connection and belonging, a forum for exploring career opportunities, and a component of meaningful community service. PMID:17017263

  18. Improved Views of the Moon in the Early Twenty First Century: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongwei; Zhao, Wenjin

    2015-02-01

    The twenty first century was an exciting epoch in planetary exploration, when a large number of lunar scientific achievements were accomplished. New missions in the first decade of the twenty first century have herald a new and exciting phase in lunar exploration, including LRO, LCROSS, the dual GRAIL orbiters, Kaguya, Chandrayaan 1, and the Chang'e series. Here we review the most significant advances in our understanding of lunar geoscience, including the assessment of water ice at lunar poles, the detection of new elements and minerals relating to exposed interior materials, the calculation of highly accurate gravity models, and the detection of subsurface interfaces probably related to basaltic strata formed in distinct episodes. In this paper we emphasize the importance of integrated approaches to the analysis of these large yield of new lunar data, through comparison and integration. By integrating a range of diverse technologies and approaches, this paper reviews new understanding of lunar processes, including the confirmation of the presence of water ice at the poles, the interactions between solar wind and surface oxides, and an improved model of lunar interior structures.

  19. Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The opportunities for space science in the period from 1995 to 2015 are discussed. A perspective on progress in the six disciplines (the planet Earth; planetary and lunar exploration; solar system space physics; astronomy and astrophysics; fundamental physics and chemistry; and life sciences) of space science are reviewed. The prospectives for major achievements by 1995 from missions already underway or awaiting new starts are included. A set of long range goals for these disciplines are presented for the first two decades of the twenty-first century. Broad themes for future scientific pursuits are presented and some examples of high-priority missions for the turn of the century are highlighted. A few recommendations are cited for each discipline to suggest how these themes might be developed.

  20. Social security reform in the twenty-first century: the United States.

    PubMed

    Gramlich, Edward M

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of the Social Security system in the United States in the twentieth century and discusses options for the twenty-first. Because of the steady aging of the U.S. population and the impending retirement of the large baby boom cohort, the Social Security program now is in long-term actuarial deficit. The standard twentieth century approach to this actuarial deficit would be to raise payroll taxes enough to pay for anticipated future benefit increases, but for several reasons that approach may not be so popular this time around. The author's preferred approach is a gradual trimming of long-term benefit growth, plus "add on" individual accounts to provide new saving, for the economy and for the retirement system. The paper also criticizes proposals for Social Security reform made by President Clinton and a committee appointed by President Bush, generally because these proposals do not provide enough new saving. PMID:12503330

  1. Fantasies of Maternal Unity in Twentieth- and Twenty-First-Century African Diasporic Women's Fiction and Science Fiction

    E-print Network

    Lillvis, Kristen

    2011-04-20

    This dissertation explores the power children realize in the past, present, and future from their real or imagined connections to their absent mothers in twentieth- and twenty-first-century African diasporic women's fiction, ...

  2. 76 FR 4838 - Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 [CG Docket...Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010...Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed...

  3. Expecting motherhood? Stratifying reproduction in twenty-first century Scottish abortion practice

    PubMed Central

    Beynon-Jones, Siân M.

    2015-01-01

    This article illustrates how Scottish health professionals involved in contemporary abortion provision construct stratified expectations about women’s reproductive decision-making. Drawing on 42 semi-structured interviews I reveal the contingent discourses through which health professionals constitute the ‘rationality’ of the female subject who requests abortion. Specifically, I illustrate how youth, age, parity and class are mobilised as criteria through which to distinguish ‘types’ of patient whose requests for abortion are deemed particularly understandable or particularly problematic. I conceptualise this process of differentiation as a form of ‘stratified reproduction’ (Colen, 1995; Ginsburg and Rapp, 1995) and argue that it is significant for two reasons. Firstly, it illustrates the operation of dominant discourses concerning abortion and motherhood in twenty-first century Britain. Secondly, it extends the forms of critique which feminist scholarship has, to date, developed of the regulation of abortion provision in the UK. PMID:25774067

  4. North Atlantic Ocean Wave Climate Change Scenarios for the Twenty-First Century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolan L.; Zwiers, Francis W.; Swail, Val R.

    2004-06-01

    Using the observed relationships between sea level pressure (SLP) and significant wave height (SWH) as represented by regression models, climate change scenarios of SWH in the North Atlantic were constructed by means of redundancy analysis (for seasonal means and 90th percentiles of SWH) and nonstationary generalized extreme value analysis (for seasonal extreme SWH). SWH scenarios are constructed using output from a coupled climate model under three different forcing scenarios. Scenarios of future anomaly seasonal statistics of SWH are constructed using climate model projections of anomaly seasonal mean SLP while projections of seasonal extreme SWH are made using projections of seasonal mean SLP and seasonal SLP gradient index. The projected changes in SWH are assessed by means of a trend analysis.The northeast Atlantic is projected to have increases in both winter and fall seasonal means and extremes of SWH in the twenty-first century under all three forcing scenarios. These changes are generally accompanied by decreases in the midlatitudes of the North Atlantic and increases in the southwest North Atlantic. The rate and sign of the projected SWH change is not constant throughout the twenty-first century. In the Norwegian and North Seas, the projected SWH changes are characterized either by faster increases in the late decades than in the early decades, or by decreases in the early decades followed by increases, depending on the forcing scenario and the specific location. Using lower or higher rates of increase in greenhouse gases forcing generally leads to reduced or increased rates of change, respectively, in ocean wave heights. The sign and rate of future wave height changes in the North Sea in particular appear to be quite dependent on the forcing conditions. In general, global warming is associated with more frequent occurrence of the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and strong cyclones, which leads to increases of wave heights in the northeast Atlantic.


  5. Influence of food-environment interactions on health in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Fennema, O

    1990-01-01

    The quality and safety of foods are affected by the environment, and the quality and safety of the environment are, in turn, affected by foods and food processing. To explore these interrelationships, as they might exist in the twenty-first century, one must speculate regarding future changes in foods and food processing. Several trends in food processing seem likely to predominate into the twenty-first century, and they will be, for the most part, evolutionary in nature and of low consumer visibility. These trends are greater use of foods marketed in a refrigerated state, greater use of irradiation and combination processes, greater automation and optimization of processes, and greater use of biotechnology. It is also reasonable to assume that food products of the following types will increase in importance, namely, those that are convenient (includes eating away from home), those that are tailored to specific dietary needs, those containing chemically modified components such as altered proteins and carbohydrates, and fabricated foods. If these trends in foods and food processes prevail then concern must be directed to the following areas: Microbiological concerns--refrigerated foods; food service operations; new or altered procedures for processing, handling and storing foods; and new foods or food formulations; attention must be given both to controlling known pathogens as well as newly perceived pathogens. Chemical concerns--toxicants occurring naturally in foods; contaminants; chemicals developing in foods during processing, handling and storage; chemicals used in fabricated foods; and chemicals of newly perceived importance, especially those having adverse, covert effects. Several of these chemical concerns are influenced in seriousness by composition of the food environment. PMID:2401258

  6. Twenty-first century learning in schools: A case study of New Technology High School in Napa, California.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, Bob

    2006-01-01

    The most pertinent question concerning teaching and learning in the twenty-first century is not what knowledge and skills students need--that laundry list was identified over a decade ago--but rather how to foster twenty-first century learning. What curricula, experiences, assessments, environments, and technology best support twenty-first century learning? New Technology High School (NTHS) in Napa, California, is one example of a successful twenty-first century school. In this chapter, the author describes the components of this exemplary high school, illustrating an environment that will cultivate twenty-first century student learning. New Technology High School began by defining eight learning outcomes, aligned with the standards of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills; to graduate, students demonstrate mastery of these outcomes through an online portfolio. To help students achieve the outcomes, NTHS employs project- and problem-based learning. Whereas in traditional classrooms students work alone on short-term assignments that do not lend themselves to deep understanding, the project-based learning approach has students working in teams on long-term, in-depth, rigorous projects. Students' work is supported by the school's workplace-like environment and effectiv use of technology. Meaningful assessment is essential to project-based learning; students receive continuous feedback, helping them become self-directed learners. In fact, NTHS uses outcome-based grading through which students constantly know how they are performing on the twenty-first century outcomes. Research has shown that NTHS graduates are better prepared for postsecondary education, careers, and citizenship than their peers from other schools. To facilitate twenty-first century learning, all schools need to rethink their approach to teaching and learning. New Technology High School is one way to do so. PMID:17017260

  7. Psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis: role of patient advocacy organisations in the twenty first century

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, G; Savage, L; Chandler, D; Maccarone, B

    2005-01-01

    All the psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis patient advocacy organisations are devoted to promoting public awareness and patient education; supporting access to effective treatments and physicians committed to the welfare of patients; working with physicians and other organisations to facilitate development of new treatments; and supporting research for more effective treatments and a cure for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. They have participated in the remaking of health politics in the late twentieth century. This was an era in which small patient support and advocacy groups were transformed into sophisticated national health organisations integral to the formation of national health policy and research, treatment, and education funding by working with physicians, legislators, pharmaceutical companies, third party payors, and the media. As we enter the twenty first century, some of these groups have done critical surveys of patients and physicians to discern needs that are redirecting their programming and reshaping directions in the field. Many national leagues have united to form international organisations. Although differences in their national healthcare systems, the age of their organisations, and the diseases they cover are reflected in the focus of their individual activities, much unites them. Whatever their size, as their roles have come to be recognised in the healthcare community, the patient advocacy organisations welcome being invited to the decision making table. This report describes a sampling of these organisations. PMID:15708949

  8. Dynamic consent: a patient interface for twenty-first century research networks

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Jane; Whitley, Edgar A; Lund, David; Morrison, Michael; Teare, Harriet; Melham, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research is being transformed through the application of information technologies that allow ever greater amounts of data to be shared on an unprecedented scale. However, the methods for involving participants have not kept pace with changes in research capability. In an era when information is shared digitally at the global level, mechanisms of informed consent remain static, paper-based and organised around national boundaries and legal frameworks. Dynamic consent (DC) is both a specific project and a wider concept that offers a new approach to consent; one designed to meet the needs of the twenty-first century research landscape. At the heart of DC is a personalised, digital communication interface that connects researchers and participants, placing participants at the heart of decision making. The interface facilitates two-way communication to stimulate a more engaged, informed and scientifically literate participant population where individuals can tailor and manage their own consent preferences. The technical architecture of DC includes components that can securely encrypt sensitive data and allow participant consent preferences to travel with their data and samples when they are shared with third parties. In addition to improving transparency and public trust, this system benefits researchers by streamlining recruitment and enabling more efficient participant recontact. DC has mainly been developed in biobanking contexts, but it also has potential application in other domains for a variety of purposes. PMID:24801761

  9. Dynamic consent: a patient interface for twenty-first century research networks.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Jane; Whitley, Edgar A; Lund, David; Morrison, Michael; Teare, Harriet; Melham, Karen

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical research is being transformed through the application of information technologies that allow ever greater amounts of data to be shared on an unprecedented scale. However, the methods for involving participants have not kept pace with changes in research capability. In an era when information is shared digitally at the global level, mechanisms of informed consent remain static, paper-based and organised around national boundaries and legal frameworks. Dynamic consent (DC) is both a specific project and a wider concept that offers a new approach to consent; one designed to meet the needs of the twenty-first century research landscape. At the heart of DC is a personalised, digital communication interface that connects researchers and participants, placing participants at the heart of decision making. The interface facilitates two-way communication to stimulate a more engaged, informed and scientifically literate participant population where individuals can tailor and manage their own consent preferences. The technical architecture of DC includes components that can securely encrypt sensitive data and allow participant consent preferences to travel with their data and samples when they are shared with third parties. In addition to improving transparency and public trust, this system benefits researchers by streamlining recruitment and enabling more efficient participant recontact. DC has mainly been developed in biobanking contexts, but it also has potential application in other domains for a variety of purposes. PMID:24801761

  10. Effects of long-term variability on projections of twenty-first century dynamic sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordbar, Mohammad H.; Martin, Thomas; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2015-04-01

    Sea-level rise is one of the most pressing aspects of anthropogenic global warming with far-reaching consequences for coastal societies. However, sea-level rise did and will strongly vary from coast to coast. Here we investigate the long-term internal variability effects on centennial projections of dynamic sea level (DSL), the local departure from the globally averaged sea level. A large ensemble of global warming integrations has been conducted with a climate model, where each realization was forced by identical CO2 increase but started from different atmospheric and oceanic initial conditions. In large parts of the mid- and high latitudes, the ensemble spread of the projected centennial DSL trends is of the same order of magnitude as the globally averaged steric sea-level rise, suggesting that internal variability cannot be ignored when assessing twenty-first-century DSL trends. The ensemble spread is considerably reduced in the mid- to high latitudes when only the atmospheric initial conditions differ while keeping the oceanic initial state identical; indicating that centennial DSL projections are strongly dependent on ocean initial conditions.

  11. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

  12. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-09-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

  13. Professional Capabilities for Twenty-First Century Creative Careers: Lessons from Outstandingly Successful Australian Artists and Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgstock, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Artists and designers are positioned at the centre of the twenty-first century creative economy. In order to recognise and make the most of the opportunities afforded by this new era, artists and designers still require the creativity, disciplinary depth of knowledge and technical skills traditionally possessed by professionals in these…

  14. Assessing Twenty-First Century Skills through a Teacher Created Video Game for High School Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the…

  15. Impact of the Twenty-First Century Afterschool Program on Student Achievement in Mathematics and Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venzen, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the academic impacts of the Twenty-First Century Community Learning Centers on students who participated in this program. The following research questions guided the study: (a) are there significant differences between the Criterion Reference Competency Test English Language Arts scores of…

  16. THE IMPACT OF TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CLIMATE CHANGE ON WILDLAND FIRE DANGER IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    E-print Network

    Westerling, Anthony L.

    THE IMPACT OF TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CLIMATE CHANGE ON WILDLAND FIRE DANGER IN THE WESTERN UNITED from the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) is used to assess changes in wildland fire danger across), under whose auspices this work was performed. 1. Introduction Wildland fire statistics

  17. A Commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," in which Isaac I. Bejar and E. Aurora Graf propose the application of a test design--the duplex design (which was proposed in 1988 by Bock and Mislevy) for application in current accountability assessments.…

  18. The Twenty-First Century and Legal Studies in Business: Preparing Students to Perform in a Globally Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Debra D.; Johnson, Ronald A.; Kemp, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    This article first examines the dynamic role business education must play in a flat world economy. Second, it explains how legal courses in the business curricula already equip students with portable twenty-first-century skills and relevant academic content. The article then advocates the acceptance of the Boyer Model of Scholarship, which defines…

  19. Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

  20. Thinking Like Twenty-First Century Learners: An Exploration of Blog Use in a Skills-Based Counselor Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buono, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-first century learners and millennial generation students have integrated technology into their personal lives; there is a growing expectation for technology to be integrated into their classroom experiences as well. Incorporating technology, including the use of blogs, into teaching and learning is receiving attention in the literature.…

  1. Scenarios for the risk of hunger in the twenty-first century using Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are being developed internationally for cross-sectoral assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. These are five scenarios that include both qualitative and quantitative information for mitigation and adaptation challenges to climate change. In this study, we quantified scenarios for the risk of hunger in the 21st century using SSPs, and clarified elements that influence future hunger risk. There were two primary findings: (1) risk of hunger in the 21st-century greatly differed among five SSPs; and (2) population growth, improvement in the equality of food distribution within a country, and increases in food consumption mainly driven by income growth greatly influenced future hunger risk and were important elements in its long-term assessment.

  2. Public health evaluation in the twenty-first century: time to see the wood as well as the trees.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Petticrew, Mark

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that concepts, methodologies and practices within public health need further development if they are to be sufficient to allow us to develop, undertake and evaluate interventions in the twenty-first century. The public health profession, and the disciplines that contribute to it, maintains the historical focus upon detailed micro analysis (individual and health sector) and not broader macro analysis (societal and system). This brief paper suggests why this is and outlines three challenges it poses: specifying and evaluating outcomes; specifying and understanding complex causal pathways in social interventions and the development of multisector evaluation, to meet information demands from multiple stakeholders. While there is general agreement that public health evaluation needs development, this paper argues that the focus needs to be more upon a broader evaluative space than is currently practiced. There is a need to move beyond primary and secondary health-related effects upon individuals, and focus more on evaluation of the wider range and distribution of direct and indirect effects upon individuals, communities and populations. That is, those involved in public health evaluation need to step back and first consider the wood before focusing in on specific trees. PMID:20181759

  3. Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian model of…

  4. Simulated Antarctic precipitation and surface mass balance at the end of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Krinner; O. Magand; I. Simmonds; C. Genthon; J.-L. Dufresne

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess potential future Antarctic surface mass balance changes, the underlying mechanisms, and\\u000a the impact of these changes on global sea level. To this end, this paper presents simulations of the Antarctic climate for\\u000a the end of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The simulations were carried out with a stretched-grid atmospheric general\\u000a circulation model,

  5. Anthropogenic Forcing and Decadal Climate Variability in Sensitivity Experiments of Twentieth and Twenty-First-Century Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald A. Meehl; Warren M. Washington; Julie M. Arblaster; Thomas W. Bettge; Warren G. Strand Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is formulated to evaluate the possible changes in decadal-timescale (10-20-yr period) surface temperature variability and associated low-frequency fluctuations of anthropogenic forcing and changes in climate base state due to the forcing in simulations of twentieth- and twenty-first-century climate in a global coupled climate model without flux adjustment. The two climate change experiments both start in the year 1900.

  6. Pleistocene Rewilding: An Optimistic Agenda for TwentyFirst Century Conservation. Author(s): C. Josh Donlan, Joel Berger, Carl E. Bock, Jane H. Bock, David A. Burney,

    E-print Network

    Smith, Felisa A.

    Pleistocene Rewilding: An Optimistic Agenda for TwentyFirst Century Conservation. Author(s): C the american naturalist november 2006 Pleistocene Rewilding: An Optimistic Agenda for Twenty-First Century and related taxa. We refer to this restoration as Pleistocene rewilding; it is conceived as carefully managed

  7. A portrait of the PETE major: re-touched for the early twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan A. McCullick; Karen M. Lux; Donald G. Belcher; Nigel Davies

    2012-01-01

    Background: The literature on those who choose to become PE teachers received healthy attention in the late twentieth century but has been largely ignored since. Querying those PETE majors in first decade of the new century enables PETE faculty to have updated and pertinent knowledge of their charges.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and analyze the profile

  8. A portrait of the PETE major: re-touched for the early twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan A. McCullick; Karen M. Lux; Donald G. Belcher; Nigel Davies

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature on those who choose to become PE teachers received healthy attention in the late twentieth century but has been largely ignored since. Querying those PETE majors in first decade of the new century enables PETE faculty to have updated and pertinent knowledge of their charges.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and analyze the profile

  9. The Role of Nutrient Efficient Plants in Improving Crop Yields in the Twenty First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Fageria; V. C. Baligar; Y. C. Li

    2008-01-01

    In the 21st century, nutrient efficient plants will play a major role in increasing crop yields compared to the 20th century, mainly due to limited land and water resources available for crop production, higher cost of inorganic fertilizer inputs, declining trends in crop yields globally, and increasing environmental concerns. Furthermore, at least 60% of the world's arable lands have mineral

  10. Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a 'beyond 4°C world' in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Robert J; Marinova, Natasha; Lowe, Jason A; Brown, Sally; Vellinga, Pier; de Gusmão, Diogo; Hinkel, Jochen; Tol, Richard S J

    2011-01-13

    The range of future climate-induced sea-level rise remains highly uncertain with continued concern that large increases in the twenty-first century cannot be ruled out. The biggest source of uncertainty is the response of the large ice sheets of Greenland and west Antarctica. Based on our analysis, a pragmatic estimate of sea-level rise by 2100, for a temperature rise of 4°C or more over the same time frame, is between 0.5 m and 2 m--the probability of rises at the high end is judged to be very low, but of unquantifiable probability. However, if realized, an indicative analysis shows that the impact potential is severe, with the real risk of the forced displacement of up to 187 million people over the century (up to 2.4% of global population). This is potentially avoidable by widespread upgrade of protection, albeit rather costly with up to 0.02 per cent of global domestic product needed, and much higher in certain nations. The likelihood of protection being successfully implemented varies between regions, and is lowest in small islands, Africa and parts of Asia, and hence these regions are the most likely to see coastal abandonment. To respond to these challenges, a multi-track approach is required, which would also be appropriate if a temperature rise of less than 4°C was expected. Firstly, we should monitor sea level to detect any significant accelerations in the rate of rise in a timely manner. Secondly, we need to improve our understanding of the climate-induced processes that could contribute to rapid sea-level rise, especially the role of the two major ice sheets, to produce better models that quantify the likely future rise more precisely. Finally, responses need to be carefully considered via a combination of climate mitigation to reduce the rise and adaptation for the residual rise in sea level. In particular, long-term strategic adaptation plans for the full range of possible sea-level rise (and other change) need to be widely developed. PMID:21115518

  11. An explanation for the difference between twentieth and twenty-first century land-sea warming ratio in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M. M.; Lambert, F. H.; Webb, M. J.

    2013-10-01

    A land-sea surface warming ratio (or ?) that exceeds unity is a robust feature of both observed and modelled climate change. Interestingly, though climate models have differing values for ?, it remains almost time-invariant for a wide range of twenty-first century climate transient warming scenarios, while varying in simulations of the twentieth century. Here, we present an explanation for time-invariant land-sea warming ratio that applies if three conditions on radiative forcing are met: first, spatial variations in the climate forcing must be sufficiently small that the lower free troposphere warms evenly over land and ocean; second, the temperature response must not be large enough to change the global circulation to zeroth order; third, the temperature response must not be large enough to modify the boundary layer amplification mechanisms that contribute to making ? exceed unity. Projected temperature changes over this century are too small to breach the latter two conditions. Hence, the mechanism appears to show why both twenty-first century and time-invariant CO2 forcing lead to similar values of ? in climate models despite the presence of transient ocean heat uptake, whereas twentieth century forcing—which has a significant spatially confined anthropogenic tropospheric aerosol component that breaches the first condition—leads to modelled values of ? that vary widely amongst models and in time. Our results suggest an explanation for the behaviour of ? when climate is forced by other regionally confined forcing scenarios such as geo-engineered changes to oceanic clouds. Our results show how land-sea contrasts in surface and boundary layer characteristics act in tandem to produce the land-sea surface warming contrast.

  12. Democratizing the Academy: The Black Professoriat in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Dolan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses some implications of an end-of-the-century "fetishization of merit" in the academy. Considers the concern about the conversion of merit into a class-based fetish that has profound consequences for the development of the next generation of the black professoriat and the role of the historically black colleges and universities in this…

  13. Information Technology for the Twenty-First Century: A Bold Investment in America's Future. Implementation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC. National Science and Technology Council.

    This document is the implementation plan for the Information Technology for the 21st Century (IT[squared]) initiative. With this initiative, the Federal Government is making an important re-commitment to fundamental research in information technology. The initiative proposes $366 million in increased investments in computing, information, and…

  14. Vacuum electronics at the dawn of the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VICTOR L. GRANATSTEIN; ROBERT K. PARKER; CARTER M. ARMSTRONG

    1999-01-01

    In this introduction to the Special Issue on vacuum electronics, the history, operating principles, and recent technological trends of vacuum electronic devices are reviewed. The development of microwave power tubes is described and improvements in these devices over the past quarter of a century are highlighted. These improvements have been substantial and have been driven by modern high-power applications and

  15. Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The "Flynn effect" is a surprising finding, identified by James R. Flynn, that IQ test scores have significantly increased from one generation to the next over the past century. Flynn now brings us an exciting new book which aims to make sense of this rise in IQ scores and considers what this tells us about our intelligence, our minds and society.…

  16. The prospects for mathematical logic in the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel R. Buss; Alexander S. Kechris; Anand Pillay; Richard A. Shore

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. The four authors present their speculations about the future developments,of mathematical,logic in the twenty-rst century. The areas of recursion theory, proof theory and logic for computer science, model theory, and set theory are discussed independently. We can only see a short distance ahead, but we

  17. Space science to the twenty-first century and the technological implications for implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the specific plan for NASA space science missions to the 21st century and highlights the major technological advances that must be effected to accomplish the planned missions. Separate consideration is given to plans for astrophysics, planetary exploration, the solar terrestrial area, and life sciences. The technological consequences of the plans in these separate areas are discussed.

  18. Perspectives of Northern Sea Route and Northwest Passage in the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. C. Khon; I. I. Mokhov; Mojib Latif; Vladimir Semenov; Wonsun Park

    2010-01-01

    The ability of modern climate models to simulate ice season length in the Arctic, its recent changes and navigation season on Arctic marine routes along the Eurasian and the North American coastlines is evaluated using satellite ice cover observations for 1979?2007. Simulated mean sea ice season duration fits remarkably well to satellite observations and so do the simulated 20th century

  19. Global English and Language Teaching in the Twenty-First Century. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumfit, Christopher

    This paper examines how attitudes toward teaching English may need to change in the 21st century, noting shifts in the environment within which language teachers and learners operate that relate partly to the English language itself and partly to the political and social contexts within which it is used. The paper considers various positions…

  20. Project-Based Learning: A Critical Pedagogy for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maida, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    John Dewey's notion of the school as a "social laboratory" influenced educational policy a century ago when the United States underwent a "great transformation" in its educational history toward mass schooling, resulting partly from the "high school movement", where the focus was on "schooling for life". Project-based learning, which builds on…

  1. The prospects for mathematical logic in the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel R. Buss; Alexander S. Kechris; Anand Pillay; Richard A. Shore

    2002-01-01

    . The four authors present their speculations about the future developmentsof mathematical logic in the twenty-rst century. The areas of recursiontheory, proof theory and logic for computer science, model theory, and set theory arediscussed independently.We can only see a short distance ahead, but wecan see plenty there that needs to be done.A. Turing, 1950.x1. Introduction. The annual meeting of the

  2. Variations of Antarctic Oscillation during the past millennium and the twenty first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, S.; Long, Z.; Kim, S. J.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) profoundly affects the frequency and intensity of the synoptic weather events and precipitation/temperature in the mid- and high-latitudes Sothern Hemisphere. This study investigated the simulated changes in AAO during 850AD to 2100AD using fully coupled climate models participating in the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The output from 11 models with specific historical anthropocentric and natural forcing during 850-1850AD (last millennium run) and 43 models during 1850-2005 (historical runs), as well as 40 models with 21st century changes in greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols following the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) and 8.5 (RCP8.5) for 2006-2100 are analyzed. Those models were classified into 'good' and 'poor' models based on their performance in simulating the observed AAO spatial pattern, interannual variability and trend. The AAO during 850-1850AD show considerable interannual variations. However, there are no noticeable decadal and centennial variations during this periods regardless of the models are good or poor. These results are inconsistent with the proxy-based AAO reconstructions and suggested that the models may underestimate the natural forcing during the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. The multiple-model ensemble (MME) shows similar AAO variations as the reanalysis data during 1850-2005. The seasonal AAO has being steadily increasing before 1960s followed by abrupt increasing during 1970-2005. The increasing of AAO is projected to continue during the 21st century. Under RCP4.5 scenario, the AAO will be weakly but steadily increasing until 2050s and then leveled off or slightly decreasing in the second half of this century. Under RCP8.5 scenario, the AAO will continue to increase in the 21st century. Though the MME of the poor and good models show similar seasonal AAO variations during 1850-2005, the poor models projected much stronger AAO in the future under both scenarios compared to good models.

  3. Twenty-First Century Research Needs in Electrostatic Processes Applied to Industry and Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, M. K.; Sims, R. A.; Biris, A. S.; Srirama, P. K.; Saini, D.; Yurteri, C. U.; Trigwell, S.; De, S.; Sharma, R.

    2005-01-01

    From the early century Nobel Prize winning (1923) experiments with charged oil droplets, resulting in the discovery of the elementary electronic charge by Robert Millikan, to the early 21st century Nobel Prize (2002) awarded to John Fenn for his invention of electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and its applications to proteomics, electrostatic processes have been successfully applied to many areas of industry and medicine. Generation, transport, deposition, separation, analysis, and control of charged particles involved in the four states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma are of interest in many industrial and biomedical processes. In this paper, we briefly discuss some of the applications and research needs involving charged particles in industrial and medical applications including: (1) Generation and deposition of unipolarly charged dry powder without the presence of ions or excessive ozone, (2) Control of tribocharging process for consistent and reliable charging, (3) Thin film (less than 25 micrometers) powder coating and Powder coating on insulative surfaces, (4) Fluidization and dispersion of fine powders, (5) Mitigation of Mars dust, (6) Effect of particle charge on the lung deposition of inhaled medical aerosols, (7) Nanoparticle deposition, and (8) Plasma/Corona discharge processes. A brief discussion on the measurements of charged particles and suggestions for research needs are also included.

  4. Health Care Reform for Low-Income Countries in the Twenty-First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. O. Seipel

    2004-01-01

    The health care systems in many low-income countries are unable to meet the challenges of health care expectations. These systems are unable to finance health services, provide quality care, and sustain on-going health developments. This paper identifies the issues that are vital to successful health care reform in low-income countries.

  5. Changes in Thought on Higher Education for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maoyuan, Pan

    2007-01-01

    The reforms and developments of China's higher education at a time when it faces two great challenges--the world's science/technology revolution and China's social market economy--are, on the whole, replete with achievements and fraught with difficulties and show great changes, but they are unbalanced. Everyone feels that these reforms and…

  6. Higher Education and Knowledge Sharing: From Ivory Tower to Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge is the driving force of a knowledge economy. Therefore, the way knowledge is shared and created and the way these actions are managed could lead to either a competitive advantage for an organisation or it could lead to its demise. Managing especially academics' knowledge to the benefit of all can be even a greater challenge to any…

  7. From Bureaucracy to Profession: Remaking the Educational Sector for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Jal

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Jal Mehta examines the challenges faced by American schooling and the reasons for persistent failure of American school reforms to achieve successful educational outcomes at scale. He concludes that many of the problems faced by American schools are artifacts of the bureaucratic form in which the education sector as a whole was…

  8. Intelligent machines in the twenty-first century: foundations of inference and inquiry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    The last century saw the application of Boolean algebra to the construction of computing machines, which work by applying logical transformations to information contained in their memory. The development of information theory and the generalization of Boolean algebra to Bayesian inference have enabled these computing machines, in the last quarter of the twentieth century, to be endowed with the ability to learn by making inferences from data. This revolution is just beginning as new computational techniques continue to make difficult problems more accessible. Recent advances in our understanding of the foundations of probability theory have revealed implications for areas other than logic. Of relevance to intelligent machines, we recently identified the algebra of questions as the free distributive algebra, which will now allow us to work with questions in a way analogous to that which Boolean algebra enables us to work with logical statements. In this paper, we examine the foundations of inference and inquiry. We begin with a history of inferential reasoning, highlighting key concepts that have led to the automation of inference in modern machine-learning systems. We then discuss the foundations of inference in more detail using a modern viewpoint that relies on the mathematics of partially ordered sets and the scaffolding of lattice theory. This new viewpoint allows us to develop the logic of inquiry and introduce a measure describing the relevance of a proposed question to an unresolved issue. Last, we will demonstrate the automation of inference, and discuss how this new logic of inquiry will enable intelligent machines to ask questions. Automation of both inference and inquiry promises to allow robots to perform science in the far reaches of our solar system and in other star systems by enabling them not only to make inferences from data, but also to decide which question to ask, which experiment to perform, or which measurement to take given what they have learned and what they are designed to understand.

  9. Intelligent machines in the twenty-first century: foundations of inference and inquiry.

    PubMed

    Knuth, Kevin H

    2003-12-15

    The last century saw the application of Boolean algebra to the construction of computing machines, which work by applying logical transformations to information contained in their memory. The development of information theory and the generalization of Boolean algebra to Bayesian inference have enabled these computing machines, in the last quarter of the twentieth century, to be endowed with the ability to learn by making inferences from data. This revolution is just beginning as new computational techniques continue to make difficult problems more accessible. Recent advances in our understanding of the foundations of probability theory have revealed implications for areas other than logic. Of relevance to intelligent machines, we recently identified the algebra of questions as the free distributive algebra, which will now allow us to work with questions in a way analogous to that which Boolean algebra enables us to work with logical statements. In this paper, we examine the foundations of inference and inquiry. We begin with a history of inferential reasoning, highlighting key concepts that have led to the automation of inference in modern machine-learning systems. We then discuss the foundations of inference in more detail using a modern viewpoint that relies on the mathematics of partially ordered sets and the scaffolding of lattice theory. This new viewpoint allows us to develop the logic of inquiry and introduce a measure describing the relevance of a proposed question to an unresolved issue. Last, we will demonstrate the automation of inference, and discuss how this new logic of inquiry will enable intelligent machines to ask questions. Automation of both inference and inquiry promises to allow robots to perform science in the far reaches of our solar system and in other star systems by enabling them not only to make inferences from data, but also to decide which question to ask, which experiment to perform, or which measurement to take given what they have learned and what they are designed to understand. PMID:14667302

  10. Ocean heat transport into the Arctic in the twentieth and twenty-first century in EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenigk, Torben; Brodeau, Laurent

    2014-06-01

    The ocean heat transport into the Arctic and the heat budget of the Barents Sea are analyzed in an ensemble of historical and future climate simulations performed with the global coupled climate model EC-Earth. The zonally integrated northward heat flux in the ocean at 70°N is strongly enhanced and compensates for a reduction of its atmospheric counterpart in the twenty first century. Although an increase in the northward heat transport occurs through all of Fram Strait, Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait and Barents Sea Opening, it is the latter which dominates the increase in ocean heat transport into the Arctic. Increased temperature of the northward transported Atlantic water masses are the main reason for the enhancement of the ocean heat transport. The natural variability in the heat transport into the Barents Sea is caused to the same extent by variations in temperature and volume transport. Large ocean heat transports lead to reduced ice and higher atmospheric temperature in the Barents Sea area and are related to the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The net ocean heat transport into the Barents Sea grows until about year 2050. Thereafter, both heat and volume fluxes out of the Barents Sea through the section between Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya are strongly enhanced and compensate for all further increase in the inflow through the Barents Sea Opening. Most of the heat transported by the ocean into the Barents Sea is passed to the atmosphere and contributes to warming of the atmosphere and Arctic temperature amplification. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are enhanced. Net surface long-wave and solar radiation are enhanced upward and downward, respectively and are almost compensating each other. We find that the changes in the surface heat fluxes are mainly caused by the vanishing sea ice in the twenty first century. The increasing ocean heat transport leads to enhanced bottom ice melt and to an extension of the area with bottom ice melt further northward. However, no indication for a substantial impact of the increased heat transport on ice melt in the Central Arctic is found. Most of the heat that is not passed to the atmosphere in the Barents Sea is stored in the Arctic intermediate layer of Atlantic water, which is increasingly pronounced in the twenty first century.

  11. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms.

    PubMed

    Orr, James C; Fabry, Victoria J; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Doney, Scott C; Feely, Richard A; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Gruber, Nicolas; Ishida, Akio; Joos, Fortunat; Key, Robert M; Lindsay, Keith; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Matear, Richard; Monfray, Patrick; Mouchet, Anne; Najjar, Raymond G; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Rodgers, Keith B; Sabine, Christopher L; Sarmiento, Jorge L; Schlitzer, Reiner; Slater, Richard D; Totterdell, Ian J; Weirig, Marie-France; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Yool, Andrew

    2005-09-29

    Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms--such as corals and some plankton--will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13 models of the ocean-carbon cycle to assess calcium carbonate saturation under the IS92a 'business-as-usual' scenario for future emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. In our projections, Southern Ocean surface waters will begin to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite, a metastable form of calcium carbonate, by the year 2050. By 2100, this undersaturation could extend throughout the entire Southern Ocean and into the subarctic Pacific Ocean. When live pteropods were exposed to our predicted level of undersaturation during a two-day shipboard experiment, their aragonite shells showed notable dissolution. Our findings indicate that conditions detrimental to high-latitude ecosystems could develop within decades, not centuries as suggested previously. PMID:16193043

  12. Tuberculosis and Leprosy: Classical Granulomatous Diseases in the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Scollard, David M; Dacso, Mara M; Abad-Venida, Ma Luisa

    2015-07-01

    Leprosy and tuberculosis are chronic mycobacterial infections that elicit granulomatous inflammation. Both infections are curable, but granulomatous injury to cutaneous structures, including cutaneous nerves in leprosy, may cause permanent damage. Both diseases are major global concerns: tuberculosis for its high prevalence and mortality, and leprosy for its persistent global presence and high rate of neuropathic disability. Cutaneous manifestations of both leprosy and tuberculosis are frequently subtle and challenging in dermatologic practice and often require a careful travel and social history and a high index of suspicion. PMID:26143431

  13. How we made professionalism relevant to twenty-first century residents.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Aditi; Nugus, Peter; Elkoushy, Mohamed A; Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Smilovitch, Mark; Andonian, Sero

    2015-07-01

    The complexity of the current medical trainee work environment, including the impact of social media participation, is underappreciated. Despite rapid adoption of social media by residents and the introduction of social media guidelines targeted at medical professionals, there is a paucity of data evaluating practical methods to incorporate social media into professionalism teaching curricula. We developed a flipped classroom program, focusing on the application of professionalism principles to challenging real-life scenarios including social media-related issues. The pre-workshop evaluation showed that the participants had a good understanding of basic professionalism concepts. A post-workshop survey assessed residents' comfort level with professionalism concepts. The post-workshop survey revealed that the postgraduate trainees perceived significant improvement in their understanding of professionalism (p?challenges of real-life clinical settings. There was an apparent contradiction between placing a high value on personal health and believing that physicians ought to be available to patients at any time. Participants' satisfaction with the course bodes well for continual modification of such courses. Innovative flipped classroom format in combination with simulation-based sessions allows easy incorporation of contemporary professionalism issues surrounding social media. PMID:25594336

  14. Projection of wildfire activity in southern California in the mid-twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xu; Mickley, Loretta J.; Logan, Jennifer A.

    2014-10-01

    We estimate area burned in southern California at mid-century (2046-2065) for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B scenario. We develop both regressions and a parameterization to predict area burned in three ecoregions, and apply present-day (1981-2000) and future meteorology from the suite of general circulation models to these fire prediction tools. The regressions account for the impacts of both current and antecedent meteorological factors on wildfire activity and explain 40-46 % of the variance in area burned during 1980-2009. The parameterization yields area burned as a function of temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity, and includes the impact of Santa Ana wind and other geographical factors on wildfires. It explains 38 % of the variance in area burned over southern California as a whole, and 64 % of the variance in southwestern California. The parameterization also captures the seasonality of wildfires in three ecoregions of southern California. Using the regressions, we find that area burned likely doubles in Southwestern California by midcentury, and increases by 35 % in the Sierra Nevada and 10 % in central western California. The parameterization suggests a likely increase of 40 % in area burned in southwestern California and 50 % in the Sierra Nevada by midcentury. It also predicts a longer fire season in southwestern California due to warmer and drier conditions on Santa Ana days in November. Our method provides robust estimates of area burned at midcentury, a key metric which can be used to calculate the fire-related effects on air quality, human health, and the associated costs.

  15. Pleistocene rewilding: an optimistic agenda for twenty-first century conservation.

    PubMed

    Josh Donlan, C; Berger, Joel; Bock, Carl E; Bock, Jane H; Burney, David A; Estes, James A; Foreman, Dave; Martin, Paul S; Roemer, Gary W; Smith, Felisa A; Soulé, Michael E; Greene, Harry W

    2006-11-01

    Large vertebrates are strong interactors in food webs, yet they were lost from most ecosystems after the dispersal of modern humans from Africa and Eurasia. We call for restoration of missing ecological functions and evolutionary potential of lost North American megafauna using extant conspecifics and related taxa. We refer to this restoration as Pleistocene rewilding; it is conceived as carefully managed ecosystem manipulations whereby costs and benefits are objectively addressed on a case-by-case and locality-by-locality basis. Pleistocene rewilding would deliberately promote large, long-lived species over pest and weed assemblages, facilitate the persistence and ecological effectiveness of megafauna on a global scale, and broaden the underlying premise of conservation from managing extinction to encompass restoring ecological and evolutionary processes. Pleistocene rewilding can begin immediately with species such as Bolson tortoises and feral horses and continue through the coming decades with elephants and Holarctic lions. Our exemplar taxa would contribute biological, economic, and cultural benefits to North America. Owners of large tracts of private land in the central and western United States could be the first to implement this restoration. Risks of Pleistocene rewilding include the possibility of altered disease ecology and associated human health implications, as well as unexpected ecological and sociopolitical consequences of reintroductions. Establishment of programs to monitor suites of species interactions and their consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem health will be a significant challenge. Secure fencing would be a major economic cost, and social challenges will include acceptance of predation as an overriding natural process and the incorporation of pre-Columbian ecological frameworks into conservation strategies. PMID:17080364

  16. Twenty-first century changes in the hydrology, glaciers, and permafrost of the Susitna Basin, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, A. K.; Hock, R.; Wolken, G. J.; Zhang, J.; Whorton, E.; Braun, J. L.; Gusmeroli, A.; Liljedahl, A.; Schulla, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the face of climate change, the hydrology of the upper Susitna Basin in South-Central Alaska is expected to change. This would impact the quantity and seasonality of river flow into a proposed hydroelectric dam, if it were to be built. The upper Susitna Basin catchment area is 13,289 km², ranging from 450-4000 m a.s.l. It is 4% glacierized and is characterized by sparse vegetation, discontinuous permafrost, and little human development. We present field measurements and results from hydrological modeling. We present new field data from spring and fall 2014 along with field measurements from the 1980's, 2012, and 2013. These data are used to calibrate and validate the hydrological model. Traditional glacier mass balance measurements show that the glaciers lost more mass in 2012 and 2013 than in 1981, 1982, or 1983. Springtime snow radar surveys of the glaciers allow us to extrapolate from point measurements of snow depth to the whole glacier area. Snow depth measurements at tundra sites as well as tundra vegetation and soil characterizations help us choose appropriate model parameters for the tundra portions of the basin. Meteorological data (temperature, humidity, and precipitation) from over 20 stations in the basin show the summertime temperature lapse rate to be smaller over glacier surfaces compared to ice-free surfaces. Precipitation is highly variable across the basin. Energy balance measurements from two meteorological stations, one located on West Fork Glacier and one on a nunatak near Susitna Glacier, are used for more detailed modeling of summertime glacier melt and runoff. We run a physically-based hydrological model to project 21st century river discharge: Water Flow and Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM). Climate inputs come from a CCSM CMIP5 RCP6.0 scenario downscaled to a 20km-5km nested grid using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. From 2010-2029 to 2080-2099 the basin-wide mean-annual temperature will rise 2.5 degrees and total precipitation will rise 2%, with a 13% decrease in snowfall and a 20% increase in rainfall. Preliminary WaSiM runs indicate that glaciers will retreat, evapotranspiration will increase, and permafrost will thaw. Annual runoff will remain relatively steady, but the timing of the peak spring runoff will shift to an earlier date.

  17. Management of healthcare waste: developments in Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Kühling, Jan-Gerd; Pieper, Ute

    2012-09-01

    In many Southeast Asian countries, significant challenges persist with regard to the proper management and disposal of healthcare waste. The amount of healthcare waste in these countries is continuously increasing as a result of the expansion of healthcare systems and services. In the past, healthcare waste, if it was treated at all, was mainly incinerated. In the last decade more comprehensive waste management systems were developed for Southeast Asian countries and implementation started. This also included the establishment of alternative healthcare waste treatment systems. The developments in the lower-middle-income countries are of special interest, as major investments are planned. Based upon sample projects, a short overview of the current development trends in the healthcare waste sector in Laos, Indonesia and Vietnam is provided. The projects presented include: (i) Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (development of the national environmental health training system to support the introduction of environmental health standards and improvement of healthcare waste treatment in seven main hospitals by introducing steam-based treatment technologies); (ii) Indonesia (development of a provincial-level healthcare waste-management strategy for Province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) and introduction of an advanced waste treatment system in a tertiary level hospital in Makassar); and (iii) Vietnam (development of a healthcare waste strategy for five provinces in Vietnam and a World Bank-financed project on healthcare waste in Vietnam). PMID:22993139

  18. Training maternal and child health epidemiologists: leaders for the twenty first century.

    PubMed

    Handler, Arden; Klaus, Jaime; Rankin, Kristin; Rosenberg, Deborah

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports on the structure, implementation and outcomes of the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology (MCHEPI) program at the University of Illinois School of Public Health (UIC-SPH) and discusses the successes and challenges in developing MCH Epidemiology leaders for the local, state, and national public health workforce. The MCHEPI program at UIC-SPH offers both the MPH and PhD degree and is based on six key components: integration across school divisions, competency-based training, tailored curricula, practica/dissertations with public health agencies, personal leadership training and development, and socialization. Based on data from the 1998-2012 cohorts, all former and current MCHEPI MPH students (n = 28) have participated in practica with local or state public health agencies and former and current MCHEPI doctoral students at the dissertation stage (12 out of 15) have partnered with local, state or national public health agencies in conducting their dissertations. The alumni of the MCHEPI MPH program (n = 25) appear to serve in higher level positions in their second compared to their first placements post-graduation. All MCHEPI doctoral alumni (n = 8) serve at the emerging senior level or senior scientist level upon graduation, in local, state and federal agencies, or in academe. Explicit linkage of MCHEPI students to practice through tailored curricula, practica, and dissertations with public health agencies, and the development of an identity as a member of the MCHEPI field appear to be important to the generation of epidemiology leaders for the MCH workforce. Leadership development is a lifelong process and as such, snapshots of current students and alumni at any one point in time do not provide the entire picture of the impact of MCH epidemiology training programs. Examining the trajectories of emerging leaders over time is essential for evaluating the true success of Maternal and Child Health Bureau workforce and training investments. PMID:24985696

  19. Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century--radon, smoking, and lung cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Fabrikant, J I

    1990-06-01

    Recognition that radon and its daughter products may accumulate to high levels in homes and in the workplace has led to concern about the potential lung cancer risk resulting from indoor domestic exposure. While such risks can be estimated with current dosimetric and epidemiological models for excess relative risks, it must be recognized that these models are based on data from occupational exposure and from underground miners' mortality experience. Several assumptions are required to apply risk estimates from an occupational setting to the indoor domestic environment. Analyses of the relevant data do not lead to a conclusive description of the interaction between radon daughters and cigarette smoking for the induction of lung cancer. The evidence compels the conclusion that indoor radon daughter exposure in homes represents a potential life-threatening public health hazard, particularly in males, and in cigarette smokers. Resolution of complex societal interactions will require public policy decisions involving the governmental, scientific, financial, and industrial sectors. These decisions impact the home, the workplace, and the marketplace, and they extend beyond the constraints of science. Risk identification, assessment, and management require scientific and engineering approaches to guide policy decisions to protect the public health. Mitigation and control procedures are only beginning to receive attention. Full acceptance for protection against what could prove to be a significant public health hazard in the twenty-first century will certainly involve policy decisions, not by scientists, but rather by men and women of government and law. PMID:2401265

  20. Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century--radon, smoking, and lung cancer risks

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Recognition that radon and its daughter products may accumulate to high levels in homes and in the workplace has led to concern about the potential lung cancer risk resulting from indoor domestic exposure. While such risks can be estimated with current dosimetric and epidemiological models for excess relative risks, it must be recognized that these models are based on data from occupational exposure and from underground miners' mortality experience. Several assumptions are required to apply risk estimates from an occupational setting to the indoor domestic environment. Analyses of the relevant data do not lead to a conclusive description of the interaction between radon daughters and cigarette smoking for the induction of lung cancer. The evidence compels the conclusion that indoor radon daughter exposure in homes represents a potential life-threatening public health hazard, particularly in males, and in cigarette smokers. Resolution of complex societal interactions will require public policy decisions involving the governmental, scientific, financial, and industrial sectors. These decisions impact the home, the workplace, and the marketplace, and they extend beyond the constraints of science. Risk identification, assessment, and management require scientific and engineering approaches to guide policy decisions to protect the public health. Mitigation and control procedures are only beginning to receive attention. Full acceptance for protection against what could prove to be a significant public health hazard in the twenty-first century will certainly involve policy decisions, not by scientists, but rather by men and women of government and law.

  1. Twenty-first century approaches to toxicity testing, biomonitoring, and risk assessment: perspectives from the global chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Richard D; Bahadori, Tina; Barry, Brenda E; Bus, James S; Gant, Timothy W; Mostowy, Janet M; Smith, Claudia; Willuhn, Marc; Zimmer, Ulrike

    2009-09-01

    The International Council of Chemical Associations' Long-Range Research Initiative (ICCA-LRI) sponsored a workshop, titled Twenty-First Century Approaches to Toxicity Testing, Biomonitoring, and Risk Assessment, on 16 and 17 June 2008 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The workshop focused on interpretation of data from the new technologies for toxicity testing and biomonitoring, and on understanding the relevance of the new data for assessment of human health risks. Workshop participants articulated their concerns that scientific approaches for interpreting and understanding the emerging data in a biologically relevant context lag behind the rapid advancements in the new technologies. Research will be needed to mitigate these lags and to develop approaches for communicating the information, even in a context of uncertainty. A collaborative, coordinated, and sustained research effort is necessary to modernize risk assessment and to significantly reduce current reliance on animal testing. In essence, this workshop was a call to action to bring together the intellectual and financial resources necessary to harness the potential of these new technologies towards improved public health decision making. Without investment in the science of interpretation, it will be difficult to realize the potential that the advanced technologies offer to modernize toxicity testing, exposure science, and risk assessment. PMID:19690554

  2. Music Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of German and American Music Education towards a New Concept of International Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Comparative Music Education is often considered to be an unnecessary subject because there seem to be more important issues for research than studying music education in various countries. Comparative music education is not a luxury, but rather a necessity in the twenty-first century. Scholars and music teachers in many countries are struggling…

  3. Music education in the twenty-first century: a cross-cultural comparison of German and American music education towards a new concept of international dialogue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Kertz-Welzel

    2008-01-01

    Comparative Music Education is often considered to be an unnecessary subject because there seem to be more important issues for research than studying music education in various countries. Comparative music education is not a luxury, but rather a necessity in the twenty-first century. Scholars and music teachers in many countries are struggling with similar problems such as teacher training, performance-based

  4. Learning to Innovate in Twenty-First-Century Community Colleges: Searching for the General Education Niche in Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the general education needed by newcomers to higher education that will enable them to contribute in multiple ways in the twenty-first-century workplace. In an effort to become more precise about the kind of general education that Midwestern community colleges need to create, this article approaches two questions: (1) In what…

  5. A Phenomenological Study of the Impact of Pre-Service and Inservice Training Regarding the Integration of Twenty-First Century Technologies into Selected Teachers' Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to understand how in-service teachers with three to five years of experience perceive their pre-service and in-service training regarding the integration of twenty-first century technology into their instruction. Twenty participants from a rural public school system in southeast North…

  6. Engagement and Resistance at Last Chance High: A Case Study of Twenty-First-Century Literacies and Identities in One English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Mary Beth; Kersulov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the nature of student resistance to and engagement with digital media and twenty-first-century literacies in the English classroom at Last Chance High, an alternative high school. It traces the dynamic interplay of literacy practices and identity performances with and around digital media, exploring one student's…

  7. Re-discovering Barnard: the functions of the … leader? : Highlighting Chester Barnard's contributions for the twenty-first century business executive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight Barnard's groundbreaking ideas, and to interpret his contributions to the philosophy and practice of business as they apply to the twenty-first century executive. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper makes use of primary data by focusing on Barnard's The Functions of the Executive, as well as other material written by, and about,

  8. Clubfoot in the twentieth century: where we were and where we may be going in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Norris C

    2012-01-01

    In the twentieth century clubfoot was one of the commonest congenital deformities of the musculoskeletal system with an incidence in some races as low as 0.6 and in others as high as 6.8 per thousand live births (Polynesia). Males have the deformity twice as often as females. In the early 1900s forceful correction of the deformity as espoused by Hugh Owen Thomas was in vogue. In the 1930s Joseph Hiram Kite, like Hippocrates (400 BC), recommended repeated gentle manipulations to achieve a correction. Instead of bandages Kite used serial plaster casts to maintain the correction. During the late 1940s Ignatio Ponseti developed his technique of correction through the normal arc of the subtalar joint. In a clubfoot the soft tissues are more resistant to pressure than the bones. With this concept in mind soft tissue procedures were developed in which the capsules and ligaments were released surgically. With safer pediatric anesthesia the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s saw surgical approaches that were more and more aggressive even including a complete subtalar release. The improved imaging modalities and computer graphics of the 1980s led to a better understanding of the pathoanatomy. Long-term follow-up studies demonstrating malcorrection, overcorrection, pain, and stiffness dampened the enthusiasm for very aggressive surgery. The main problem with surgery is that clubfoot wounds heal by a patching up process called repair. The losses are made good not with the original tissue but with a material that is biologically simple, cheap, and handy - connective tissue scar! As the century drew to a close there was a major swing of the pendulum to the Ponseti method. Surgeons are now learning the limitations of this method. Finally, the author tries to imagine what may happen in the future prevention, classification, and treatment of clubfoot with all the advances in cell biology, molecular biology, biomechanics, biomaterials, surgery, orthotics, and evidence-based medicine. PMID:21946867

  9. Student voices: Re-conceptualising and re-positioning Australian library and information science education for the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Combes; Jo Hanisch; Mary Carroll; Hilary Hughes

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the preliminary research findings of the sub-study group of a larger undertaking, the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) priority project Re-conceptualising and Re-positioning Australian Library and Information Science Education for the Twenty-first Century. It examines student experiences of library and information science (LIS) education across both the tertiary and vocational education sectors in Australia. The

  10. Cyclones and their possible changes in the Arctic by the end of the twenty first century from regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akperov, Mirseid; Mokhov, Igor; Rinke, Annette; Dethloff, Klaus; Matthes, Heidrun

    2014-09-01

    Characteristics of cyclones (frequency, intensity and size) and their changes in the Arctic region in a warmer climate have been analyzed with the use of the HIRHAM regional climate model simulations with SRES-A1B anthropogenic scenario for the twenty first century. The focus was on cyclones for the warm (April-September) and cold (October-March) seasons. The present-day cyclonic characteristics from HIRHAM simulations are in general agreement with those from ERA-40 reanalysis data. Differences noted for the frequency of cyclones are related with different spatial resolution in the model simulations and reanalysis data. Potential future changes in cyclone characteristics at the end of the twenty first century have been analyzed. According to the model simulations, the frequency of cyclones is increasing in warm seasons and decreasing in cold seasons for a warmer climate in the twenty first century, but these changes are statistically insignificant. Noticeable changes were detected for the intensity and size of cyclones for the both seasons. Significant increase was found for the frequency of weak cyclones during cold season. Further, a general increase in the frequency of small cyclones was calculated in cold seasons, while its frequency decreases in warm seasons.

  11. Qualities Required of Education Today To Meet Foreseeable Demands in the Twenty-first Century. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The role of education in preparing young people to face the demands of the 21st century is the focus of this final report of a round table and symposium. The report of the round table focuses on formulating a philosophy of education for the 21st century, the increasing globalization of the world, and the development of a new view of learning for…

  12. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose A. Marengo; Tercio Ambrizzi; Rosmeri P. da Rocha; Lincoln M. Alves; Santiago V. Cuadra; Maria C. Valverde; Roger R. Torres; Daniel C. Santos; Simone E. T. Ferraz

    2010-01-01

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as\\u000a part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models\\u000a RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing\\u000a present climate

  13. Education and the Politics of Selection: Radical Policies for Those Set to Fail in the Twenty-First Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaine, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the longstanding question of policy for those referred to nearly half a century ago by the Crowther Report as the "bottom half"; those mainly working class children who, in a sense, are "selected for failure". The issue of selection is a matter of concern in countries around the world and has been at the centre of…

  14. CREATING TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY METHODS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF TICKS AND TICK-BORNE DISEASES AFFECTING LIVESTOCK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For over a century the primary tools for the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases of livestock have been acaricides applied to the host as whole-body treatments or pour-ons. Unfortunately, throughout cattle producing regions in the tropics and subtropics, intense selection pressure from the wid...

  15. Language Hotspots: What (Applied) Linguistics and Education Should Do about Language Endangerment in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gregory D. S.

    2011-01-01

    I outline the concept of "Language Hotspots", seeking to direct public and professional awareness of the global language extinction crisis. The loss of a single language leaves the science of linguistics impoverished and yet even few linguists realize that the vast majority of "language families" will likely be lost by the end of this century.…

  16. Managing by values : Cultural redesign for strategic organizational change at the dawn of the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shimon L. Dolan; Salvador Garcia

    2002-01-01

    The system of beliefs and values that shaped the model for management and organizations during the twentieth century is just not good enough today. In order to keep a business functioning well and competing successfully in markets that are increasingly more global, complex, professionally demanding, constantly changing and oriented towards quality and customer satisfaction a new model is needed. In

  17. Twenty-First Century Police Training: Recruits' Problem-Solving Skills Following Scenario-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Lee R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse requirements of 21st-century police work and the increasing emphasis on community-policing philosophy, the Los Angeles Police Department has implemented changes within its academy curricula and methods of instruction, including the use of adult-learning concepts, a community policing problem-solving model known as…

  18. A New Paradigm Is Needed for Medical Education in the Mid-Twenty-First Century and Beyond: Are We Ready?

    PubMed Central

    Benor, Dan E.

    2014-01-01

    The twentieth century witnessed profound changes in medical education. All these changes, however, took place within the existing framework, suggested by Flexner a century ago. The present paper suggests that we are approaching a singularity point, where we shall have to change the paradigm and be prepared for an entirely new genre of medical education. This suggestion is based upon analysis of existing and envisaged trends: first, in technology, such as availability of information and sophisticated simulations; second, in medical practice, such as far-reaching interventions in life and death that create an array of new moral dilemmas, as well as a change in patient mix in hospitals and a growing need of team work; third, in the societal attitude toward higher education. The structure of the future medical school is delineated in a rough sketch, and so are the roles of the future medical teacher. It is concluded that we are presently not prepared for the approaching changes, neither from practical nor from attitudinal points of view, and that it is now high time for both awareness of and preparation for these changes. PMID:25120918

  19. Governance in the Twenty-First-Century University: Approaches to Effective Leadership and Strategic Management. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayle, Dennis John; Tewarie, Bhoendradatt; White, A. Quinton, Jr.

    University governance refers to the structure and process of authoritative decision making across issues that are significant for external and internal stakeholders within a university. A number of fundamental challenges to effective governance occur within the typical university environment, including too many constituencies, conflicting agendas,…

  20. The conceptions of work in the accounting profession in the twenty-first century from the experiences of practitioners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samantha Sin; Anna Reid; Lars Owe Dahlgren

    2011-01-01

    The accounting profession, which has commercialised its services extensively in the past two to three decades, is facing the challenges of change. An early and concerted response to the changes in the scope of work was the emphasis on developing generic skills in accounting higher education. This study recognises the relevance of accounting practitioners’ experiences of the manifestations of change

  1. The Conceptions of Work in the Accounting Profession in the Twenty-First Century from the Experiences of Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Samantha; Reid, Anna; Dahlgren, Lars Owe

    2011-01-01

    The accounting profession, which has commercialised its services extensively in the past two to three decades, is facing the challenges of change. An early and concerted response to the changes in the scope of work was the emphasis on developing generic skills in accounting higher education. This study recognises the relevance of accounting…

  2. Climate change, land use change, and China’s food security in the twenty-first century: an integrated perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fulu Tao; Masayuki Yokozawa; Jiyuan Liu; Zhao Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Food security in China, the world’s most populous country, has long been a concern because of the challenges of population\\u000a growth, water shortages, and loss of cropland through urbanization, soil degradation, and climate change. Here, we present\\u000a an integrated analysis of China’s food demand and supply under IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1, A2, B1, and\\u000a B2 in 2020,

  3. Carl gustav jung, quantum physics and the spiritual mind: a mystical vision of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Valadas Ponte, Diogo; Schäfer, Lothar

    2013-12-01

    We describe similarities in the ontology of quantum physics and of Carl Gustav Jung's psychology. In spite of the fact that physics and psychology are usually considered as unrelated, in the last century, both of these disciplines have led at the same time to revolutionary changes in the Western understanding of the cosmic order, discovering a non-empirical realm of the universe that doesn't consist of material things but of forms. These forms are real, even though they are invisible, because they have the potential to appear in the empirical world and act in it. We present arguments that force us to believe, that the empirical world is an emanation out of a cosmic realm of potentiality, whose forms can appear as physical structures in the external world and as archetypal concepts in our mind. Accordingly, the evolution of life now appears no longer as a process of the adaptation of species to their environment, but as the adaptation of minds to increasingly complex forms that exist in the cosmic potentiality. The cosmic connection means that the human mind is a mystical mind. PMID:25379259

  4. Academic tenure and higher education in the United States: implications for the dental education workforce in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Melanie R

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews the literature related to the evolution and implementation of academic tenure (AT) in U.S. higher education. It is intended to highlight AT implications for the recruitment, retention, and development of the dental education workforce in the twenty-first century and the need for this workforce to implement change in dental education. The dental education workforce is shrinking, and a further decrease is projected, yet the demand for dental education is increasing. AT is becoming increasingly controversial, and the proportion of tenured to nontenured (i.e., contingent) faculty is declining within an already shrinking faculty pool. Confusion regarding the definition of scholarship and its relationship to research and publishing further confounds discussions about AT. Whether the principles of academic freedom and due process require tenure for their preservation in a democratic society is open to question. In view of competing time demands and increasing pressure to publish and apply for grants, factors including the seven-year probationary period for tenure, the decreased availability of tenured positions, and the often perceived inequities between tenured and contingent (i.e., nontenured track) faculty may pose an obstacle to faculty recruitment and retention. These factors may severely limit the diversity and skill mix of the dental education workforce, resulting in a decrease in staffing flexibility that appears to be needed in the twenty-first century. Politics, increasing dependence on grant funding by some institutions, resistance to change, and insufficient mentoring are all stimulating discussions about the future of tenure and its implications for U.S. dental education. PMID:17389570

  5. Transforming the Twenty-First-Century Campus to Enhance the Net-Generation Student Learning Experience: Using Evidence-Based Design to Determine What Works and Why in Virtual/Physical Teaching Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kenn; Newton, Clare

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has seen the rapid emergence of wireless broadband and mobile communications devices which are inexorably changing the way people communicate, collaborate, create and transfer knowledge. Yet many higher education campus learning environments were designed and built in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries prior to…

  6. Educational Psychology in the Twenty-First Century: Challenges for Our Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    This is a critical time for the field of educational psychology. As the roles of colleges and schools of education are being examined, the specific relevance of our research also may be questioned. In this article, I argue that educational psychologists need to engage in specific types of outreach activities so that our research can truly impact…

  7. Public Health in East and Southeast Asia: Challenges and Opportunities in the Twenty-First Century

    E-print Network

    Detels, Roger; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Tan, Chorh Chuan

    2012-01-01

    chikungunya Deliberately emerging infections: Microbes used to deliberately harm human health availability of vaccines,vaccine pre- ventable, 164 Chandipura virus, 67 changes in behavior, 69 chewed tobacco products, 117, 119 chikungunya,

  8. Childhood Obesity Prevention: Compelling Challenge of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Luba Zuk; Petty, Karen

    2008-01-01

    There has been a worldwide increase in the prevalence of children who are obese that is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions. These obese children have associated significant co-morbidities. In the past 30 years the proportion of children in the United States who are obese or overweight has tripled; 15%, or approximately nine million, are obese.…

  9. E-commerce: the challenge for UK SMEs in the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Quayle

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the awareness and level of implementation of e-commerce in UK small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Results of a survey of 298 small firms suggest that issues of leadership and waste management are of greater importance to SMEs than development of e-commerce capability. Those SMEs which have developed e-commerce capability have not done so strategically and have yet

  10. Australia and India: Facing the Twenty-First Century Skills Challenge. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddie, Francesca M.

    2009-01-01

    The governments of India and Australia are working to enhance cooperation on training, at both official and industry level. As part of the exchange of ideas, Francesca Beddie, General Manager, Research, National Centre for Vocational Education Research, visited India in August 2009 at the invitation of the Australia-India Council. This paper…

  11. Chemical Communication in Crustaceans: Research Challenges for the Twenty-First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Thiel; Thomas Breithaupt

    \\u000a Chemical signals play an important role during various life stages of crustaceans. Settling of larvae, parent–offspring communication,\\u000a mate finding, mate choice, aggressive contests, and dominance hierarchies are all mediated by chemical signals. Enormous advances\\u000a have been made on understanding the function of chemical signals in crustaceans and we are on the doorstep of major advances\\u000a in chemical characterization of pheromones.

  12. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

  13. Public Health in East and Southeast Asia: Challenges and Opportunities in the Twenty-First Century

    E-print Network

    Detels, Roger; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Tan, Chorh Chuan

    2012-01-01

    urban- ization, global warming, ignorance, and weak healthto global warming. Inadequate Public Health Infrastructurehealth hazards, air pollution causes poor visibility, transport disruption, climate change and global warming,

  14. Regionalizing Postsecondary Education for the Twenty-First Century: Promising Innovations and Capacity Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, L. Allen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, separate sections examine the anchoring ingredients of the regional strategies through which two-year colleges are responding to local, regional, and in some cases broader needs deemed critical to generating and sustaining economic productivity and other forms of social and civic capital. First, drawing on recent European…

  15. Teacher Education Policy in Ireland and the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harford, Judith

    2010-01-01

    In line with the principles of the Bologna Process, teacher education systems across Europe are converging along a common path. Taking the Republic of Ireland (Ireland) as a case study, this paper examines the European agenda in relation to teacher education and asks how individual nation states are coping with the demands of greater comparability…

  16. National Models for Continuing Professional Development: The Challenges of Twenty-First-Century Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Marilyn; Younie, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    If teacher quality is the most critical factor in improving educational outcomes, then why is so little attention drawn to the knowledge and evidence base available to support teachers in improving the quality of their professional knowledge? This paper draws together findings from a range of sources to propose national models for continuing…

  17. The rhetorics and realities of community health care: the limits of countervailing powers to meet the health care needs of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Light, D W

    1997-02-01

    As the paradox of medical success leaves behind more chronicity, policy makers around the world increasingly focus on community-based programs both to address chronic health problems and to prevent major disorders. This essay presents my comparative sociological framework of ideal-type models for understanding the countervailing powers that underlie and shape different kinds of heath care systems and their limitations in addressing the health care needs of the twenty-first century. In this context, I then analyze the revival of community health care rhetoric in the United States and compare it to the realities in which it operates. The realities of institutional power, fragmentation in funding, illness as a private condition and health care as a private good, the lack of societal commitment, competition, and the waning of community cohesion all suggest that communal democracy will be difficult to achieve. Current successes require further investigation. Examples from abroad suggest, ironically, that community health care develops best if the state and health professionals make a deep commitment to it, against their own immediate interests but for their enlightened self-interest. PMID:9057124

  18. Projected impact of twenty-first century ENSO changes on rainfall over Central America and northwest South America from CMIP5 AOGCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Clark, Martyn P.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the importance that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has on rainfall over the tropical Americas, future changes in ENSO characteristics and teleconnections are important for regional hydroclimate. Projected changes to the ENSO mean state and characteristics, and the resulting impacts on rainfall anomalies over Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador during the twenty-first century are explored for several forcing scenarios using a suite of coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Mean-state warming of eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, drying of Central America and northern Colombia, and wetting of southwest Colombia and Ecuador are consistent with previous studies that used earlier versions of the AOGCMs. Current and projected future characteristics of ENSO (frequency, duration, amplitude) show a wide range of values across the various AOGCMs. The magnitude of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies are currently underestimated by most of the models, but the model ensembles generally simulate the correct sign of the anomalies across the seasons around the peak ENSO effects. While the models capture the broad present-day ENSO-related rainfall anomalies, there is not a clear sense of projected future changes in the precipitation anomalies.

  19. Sub-Saharan Northern African climate at the end of the twenty-first century: forcing factors and climate change processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patricola, C. M.; Cook, K. H.

    2011-09-01

    A regional climate model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, is forced with increased atmospheric CO2 and anomalous SSTs and lateral boundary conditions derived from nine coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models to produce an ensemble set of nine future climate simulations for northern Africa at the end of the twenty-first century. A well validated control simulation, agreement among ensemble members, and a physical understanding of the future climate change enhance confidence in the predictions. The regional model ensembles produce consistent precipitation projections over much of northern tropical Africa. A moisture budget analysis is used to identify the circulation changes that support future precipitation anomalies. The projected midsummer drought over the Guinean Coast region is related partly to weakened monsoon flow. Since the rainfall maximum demonstrates a southward bias in the control simulation in July-August, this may be indicative of future summer drying over the Sahel. Wetter conditions in late summer over the Sahel are associated with enhanced moisture transport by the West African westerly jet, a strengthening of the jet itself, and moisture transport from the Mediterranean. Severe drought in East Africa during August and September is accompanied by a weakened Indian monsoon and Somali jet. Simulations with projected and idealized SST forcing suggest that overall SST warming in part supports this regional model ensemble agreement, although changes in SST gradients are important over West Africa in spring and fall. Simulations which isolate the role of individual climate forcings suggest that the spatial distribution of the rainfall predictions is controlled by the anomalous SST and lateral boundary conditions, while CO2 forcing within the regional model domain plays an important secondary role and generally produces wetter conditions.

  20. Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) projected twenty-first century warming over Southern Africa: Role of Local Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shongwe, Mxolisi; Ntsangwane, Lucky

    2014-05-01

    The warming rates projected by an ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparion Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models (GCMs) over southern Africa (south of 10 degrees latitude) are investigated. The low resolution GCMs forced by four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) have been interpolated to a common resolution using a bilinear interpolation scheme. Warming is defined in terms of absolute differences in annual-mean near-surface air temperatures between two twenty-year time slices (2046-2065 and 2081-2100) and the historical period 1986-2005. In all RCPs, CMIP5 models project a higher warming rate over the southwestern parts centred around the arid Kalahari and Namib deserts and extending towards northern South Africa, eastern Namibia, western Botswana and southern Angola. The higher warming rates over these areas outpace global warming by up to a factor 2 in some GCMs. The projected warming is associated with an increase in heat waves. There is notable consensus across the models with little intermodel spread, suggesting a strong robustness of the projections. The spatial pattern and magnitude of the projected temperature increase relative to global warming is quite similar across the two selected time slices in the twenty-first century. Mechanisms underlying the enhanced warming are investigated. A positive soil moisture-temperature feedback is suggested to contribute to the accelerated temperature increase. A decrease in soil moisture is projected by the GCMs over the area of highest warming. The reduction in soil wetness reduces evapotranspiration rates over the area where evaporation is dependent on available soil moisture. The reduction is evapotranspiration affects the partitioning of turbulent energy fluxes from the soil surface into the atmosphere and translates into an increase of the Bowen ratio featuring an increase in sensible relative to latent heat flux. An increase in sensible heat flux leads to an increase in near-surface temperature. The increase in temperature leads to a higher vapour pressure deficit and evaporative demand and evapotranspiration from the dry soils, possibly leading to a further decrease in soil moisture. A precipitation-soil moisture feedback is also suggested. A decrease in mean precipitation and an increase in drought conditions are projected over the area of enhanced warming. The reduced precipitation results in drier soils. The drier soil translates to reduced evapotranspiration for cloud and rainfall formation. However, the role played by the soil moisture-precipitation feedback loop is still inconclusive and characterized by some degree of uncertainty given that the strength of the local moisture recycling has not been explicitly quantified. An alternative mechanism involving the impact of soil moisture anomalies on boundary-layer stability and precipitation formation will be investigated.

  1. Twenty-first century vaccinomics innovation systems: capacity building in the global South and the role of Product Development Partnerships (PDPs).

    PubMed

    Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Upton, Mary

    2011-09-01

    The availability of sequence information from publicly available complete genomes and data intensive sciences, together with next-generation sequencing technologies offer substantial promise for innovation in vaccinology and global public health in the beginning of the 21st century. This article presents an innovation analysis for the nascent field of vaccinomics by describing one of the major challenges in this endeavor: the need for capacities in "vaccinomics innovation systems" to support the developing countries involved in the creation and testing of new vaccines. In particular, we discuss the need for understanding how institutional frameworks can enhance capacities as intrinsic to a systems approach to health technology development. We focus our attention on the global South, meaning the technically less advanced and developing nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This focus is timely and appropriate because the challenge for innovation in postgenomics medicine is markedly much greater in these regions where basic infrastructures are often underresourced and new or the anticipated institutional relationships can be fragile. Importantly, we examine the role of Product Development Partnerships (PDPs) as a 21st century organizational innovation that contributes to strengthening fragile institutions and capacity building. For vaccinomics innovation systems to stand the test of time in a context of global public health, local communities, knowledge, and cultures need to be collectively taken into account at all stages in programs for vaccinomics-guided vaccine development and delivery in the global South where the public health needs for rational vaccine development are urgent. PMID:21732822

  2. Bridging the climate-induced water gap in the twenty-first century: adaptation support based on water supply, demand, adaptation and financing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jaïrus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Vitolo, Claudia; Schmitz, Oliver; Meijer, Karen; Van Aalst, Maaike; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity affects large parts of the world. Over the course of the twenty-first century, water demand is likely to increase due to population growth and associated food production, and increased economic activity, while water supply is projected to decrease in many regions due to climate change. Despite recent studies that analyze the effect of climate change on water scarcity, e.g. using climate projections under representative concentration pathways (RCP) of the fifth assessment report of the IPCC (AR5), decision support for closing the water gap between now and 2100 does not exist at a meaningful scale and with a global coverage. In this study, we aimed (i) to assess the joint impact of climatic and socio-economic change on water scarcity, (ii) to integrate impact and potential adaptation in one workflow, (iii) to prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity based on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) to deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. To enable the combination of global coverage with local relevance, we aggregated all results for 1604 water provinces (food producing units) delineated in this study, which is five times smaller than previous food producing units. Water supply was computed using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological and water resources model, parameterized at 5 arcminutes for the whole globe, excluding Antarctica and Greenland. We ran PCR-GLOBWB with a daily forcing derived from five different GCM models from the CMIP5 (GFDL-ESM2M, Hadgem2-ES, IPSL-CMA5-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) that were bias corrected using observation-based WATCH data between 1960-1999. For each of the models all four RCPs (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) were run, producing the ensemble of 20 future projections. The blue water supply was aggregated per month and per water province. Industrial, domestic and irrigation water demands were computed for a limited number of realistic combinations of a shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and RCPs. Our Water And Climate Adaptation Model (WatCAM) was used to compute the water gap based on reservoir capacity, water supply, and water demand. WatCam is based on the existing ModSim (Labadie, 2010) water allocation model, and facilitated the evaluation of nine technological and infrastructural adaptation measures to assess the investments needed to bridge the future water gap. Regional environmental and socio-economic effects of these investments, such as environmental flows or downstream effects, were evaluated. A scheme was developed to evaluate the strategies on robustness and flexibility under climate change and scenario uncertainty, and each measure was linked to possibilities for investment and financing mechanisms. The WatCAM is available as a web modeling service from www.water2invest.com, and enables user specified adaptation measures and the creation of an ensemble of water gap forecasts.

  3. Effect of mineral and organic fertilization on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, carbon and nitrogen balances, as well as soil organic carbon content and dynamics: results from 20 European long-term field experiments of the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Körschens; Erhard Albert; Martin Armbruster; Dietmar Barkusky; Michael Baumecker; Lothar Behle-Schalk; Reiner Bischoff; Zoran ?ergan; Frank Ellmer; Friedhelm Herbst; Sandor Hoffmann; Bodo Hofmann; Tamas Kismanyoky; Jaromir Kubat; Eva Kunzova; Christina Lopez-Fando; Ines Merbach; Wolfgang Merbach; Maria Teresa Pardor; Jutta Rogasik; Jörg Rühlmann; Heide Spiegel; Elke Schulz; Anton Tajnsek; Zoltan Toth; Hans Wegener; Wilfried Zorn

    2012-01-01

    Assembled results from 20 European long-term experiments (LTE), mainly from the first decade of the twenty-first century, are presented. The included LTEs from 17 sites are the responsibility of institutional members of the International Working Group of Long-term Experiments in the IUSS. Between the sites, average annual temperatures differ between 8.1 and 15.3°C, annual precipitation between 450 and 1400 mm,

  4. Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (UseIT): Preparing Students for the Twenty-First Century Work Force via a Multidisciplinary and Collaborative Learning Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degroot, R. M.; Jordan, T. H.; Benthien, M. L.; Ihrig, M.; Berti, R.

    2009-12-01

    UseIT is one of the three undergraduate research programs sponsored by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The program allows students to work in multi-disciplinary collaborative teams to tackle a scientific “Grand Challenge.” The topic varies each year but it always entails performing computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists, educators, and other target audiences. The program allows undergraduates to use the advanced tools of information technology to solve important problems in interdisciplinary earthquake research. Since the program began in 2002, 145 students have participated in UseIT. The program stresses problem solving and interdisciplinary cross training. A key aspect of the UseIT program is its flexible, yet structured, team approach. Students share their diverse skills and interests, creating a powerful synergy through this peer mentoring. The majority of UseIT interns have considerable computer science skill or aptitude, but successful UseIT interns have hailed from nearly three-dozen disciplines, all class levels, and all skill levels. Successful UseIT interns have in common a willingness to step outside their comfort zones and try new things. During the 2009 internship the focus of the program was to deliver SCEC Virtual Display of Objects (VDO) images and animations of faults and earthquake sequences to SCEC, the Earthquake Country Alliance, and other virtual organizations via a content management system that captures the metadata and guides the user. SCEC-VDO is the SCEC intern-developed visualization software that allows the user to see earthquake related phenomena in three and four dimensions. The 2009 Grand Challenge had special relevance for the interns because the products they created were used for The Great California ShakeOut. This talk will discuss lessons learned from this program, how it addresses the needs of the 21st century STEM work force, and highlights of the 2009 internship.

  5. Key Factors in the Rise of Mass Popular Education and Their Relevance for Education in Southern Africa in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Niekerk, E. J.

    This paper identifies the historical factors that played a key role in the rise of mass popular education and describes how these factors relate to education in Southern Africa in the 21st century. The broad overview of developments since the Renaissance begins with the Protestant Reformation, which established a theoretical basis for elementary…

  6. [President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC) Review of the Information Technology for the Twenty-First Century Initiative and Its Implementation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coordination Office for Information Technology Research and Development, Arlington, VA.

    As a part of its ongoing mission, the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC) has completed an initial review of the Information Technology for the 21st Century (IT[squared]) initiative and its implementation plan put forward by the participating federal agencies. This letter conveys the initial conclusions of that review.…

  7. Christ-Centered, Diverse, and Academically Excellent: The Origins of a Possible Model for Christian Schooling in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, James

    2006-01-01

    During the last third of the twentieth century, Christian schooling in the United States was typically identified with the growing conservative, evangelical Protestant movement of that time period. After several United States Supreme Court cases had effectively secularized public schooling by the mid-1960s, the American educational landscape was…

  8. Grain, meat and vegetables to feed Paris: where did and do they come from? Localising Paris food supply areas from the eighteenth to the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Billen; S. Barles; P. Chatzimpiros; J. Garnier

    The food supply to a large metropolis such as Paris involves huge fluxes of goods, which considerably impact the surrounding\\u000a rural territories. Here, we present an attempt to localise Paris food supply areas, over a period of two centuries (1786,\\u000a 1886, 2006), based on the analysis of data from transportation and production statistics for cereals, animal products, and\\u000a fruits and

  9. Cardinal John Henry Newman and 'the ideal state and purpose of a university': nurse education, research and practice development for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Gary

    2012-06-01

    Cardinal John Henry Newman's book, The Idea of a University, first published in the mid nineteenth century, is often invoked as the epitome of the liberal Enlightenment University in discussions and debates about the role and purpose of nurse education. In this article I will examine Newman's book in greater detail and with a more critical eye than is generally the case in the writing of nurse academics. In particular, I will focus on the claims that Newman was a champion of the Enlightenment University of the nineteenth century, that he promoted the idea of 'disinterested' universal knowledge for its own sake, that he was an early advocate of the pursuit of knowledge through scientific research, and the supposition that he would have welcomed the discipline of nursing into the University. In each case, I will suggest that these claims are based on an extremely selective reading of Newman's work. I will conclude by employing the example of practice development to propose an alternative way for nursing to find its place in the modern University that does not involve a retreat into what I will argue is an outdated and nostalgic view of the aims and purpose of higher education. PMID:22530857

  10. Faculty Work in Schools of Education: Rethinking Roles and Rewards for the Twenty-First Century. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G., Ed.

    This collection of papers points out problems and challenges that face schools, colleges, and departments of education as change agents try to reform them. After "Introduction: Reforming Schools, Colleges, and Departments of Education" (William G. Tierney), nine papers include: (1) "The Public Responsibility of Public Schools of Education"…

  11. Aligning American Higher Education with a Twenty-First-Century Public Agenda. Examining the National Purposes of American Higher Education: A Leadership Approach to Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duderstadt, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Today higher education faces the challenge of reconsidering and realigning its public agenda to serve better an era in which educated people, the knowledge they produce, and the innovation and entrepreneurial skills they possess have become the keys to economic prosperity, national security, and social well-being. The imperatives of expanding…

  12. Increasing Mississippi river discharge throughout the twenty-first century influenced by changes in climate, land use and atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, B.; Tian, H.; Ren, W.; Yang, J.; Yang, Q.; He, R.; Cai, W. J.; Lohrenz, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that changes in temperature and precipitation (hereafter climate change) would influence river discharge, but the relative importance of climate change, land use, and elevated atmospheric CO2 have not yet been fully investigated. Here we examined how river discharge in the Mississippi River basin in the 21st century might be influenced by these factors using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model driven by atmospheric CO2, downscaled GCMs climate and land use scenarios. Our results suggest that river discharge would be substantially enhanced (10.7-59.8%) by the 2090s compared to the recent decade (2000s), though large discrepancies exist among different climate, atmospheric CO2, and land use change scenarios. Our factorial analyses further indicate that the combined effects of land use change and human-induced atmospheric CO2 elevation on river discharge would outweigh climate change effect under the high emission scenario (A2) of Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. Our study offers the first attempt to project potential changes in river discharge in response to multiple future environmental changes. It demonstrates the importance of land use change and atmospheric CO2 concentrations in projecting future changes in hydrologic processes. The projected increase river discharge implies that riverine fluxes of carbon, nutrients and pesticide from the MRB to the coastal regions would increase in the future, and thus may influence the states of ocean acidification and hypoxia and deteriorate ocean water quality. Further efforts will also be needed to account for additional environmental factors (such as nitrogen deposition, tropospheric ozone pollution, dam construction, etc.) in projecting changes in the hydrological cycle.

  13. Transformations in the Secondary School Library: Morphing To Meet the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlings, Mildred S.; Van Valkenburg, Julie J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how an independent college preparatory school library in Tennessee serving grades six through twelve has transformed its space to meet student needs. Discusses maximizing space for multipurpose use; changing library personnel duties to meet changing needs; increasing collaboration with teachers; and changes in the library collection.…

  14. Mental health of adolescents reared in institutional care in Turkey: challenges and hope in the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nese Erol; Zeynep Simsek; Kerim Münir

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the study are (i) to describe and compare the epidemiology of emotional\\/behavioral problems and associated\\u000a risk\\/protective factors among nationally representative samples of institutionally reared and similarly aged community-based\\u000a adolescents brought up in their natural homes by means of youth self-reports, caregiver\\/parent, and teacher informants; and\\u000a (ii) to identify mental health service needs and utilization. A cross-sectional survey

  15. Twenty-First-Century Adolescents, Writing, and New Media: Meeting the Challenge with Game Controllers and Laptops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Hannah R.; Price, Debra P.

    2011-01-01

    Today's youth come to the English language arts class with a diverse range of ideas and experiences that give them the ability to develop and blossom into proficient and talented writers for multiple audiences; constant engagement with new media and digital literacies provides them multiple opportunities and multiple channels through which to…

  16. Lifespan Engagement and the Question of Relevance: Challenges for Music Education Research in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David

    2008-01-01

    The scope of music education research has expanded significantly over the last 50 years. Nevertheless, many studies remain atomistic, with limited contexts for questions, methods, findings and implications. Such approaches may seek to validate instructional strategies within an established music education system, rather than developing a continuum…

  17. Accelerators in our past, present, and future: A challenge to radiological protection in the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

    1993-09-01

    The foundations of many of the subdisciplines of radiological protection laid in accelerator laboratories began with the invention of accelerators. This paper suggests that the discipline of accelerator radiological protection has played and will continue play a more significant part in our lives than is generally recognized. A brief review of some existing uses of accelerators by society is given, and a few probable future uses are described. These future applications will result in the exposure of accelerator (or {open_quotes}mixed{close_quotes}) radiation fields to an increased population. Consequently, what are perceived to be the rather specialized concerns of today`s accelerator health physicists will -- by necessity -- become of general interest to all health physicists.

  18. Hypersegregation in the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rima Wilkes

    2004-01-01

    We used metropolitan-level data from the 2000 U.S. census to analyze the hypersegregation of four groups from whites: blacks,\\u000a Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans. While blacks were hypersegregated in 29 metropolitan areas and Hispanics were hypersegregated\\u000a in 2, Asians and Native Americans were not hypersegregated in any. There were declines in the number of metropolitan areas\\u000a with black hypersegregation, although

  19. Catalan in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urla, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    This special issue devoted to Catalonia--one of the most successful and longstanding language movements in Europe--gives a unique opportunity to understand some of the complex social dynamics engendered as language revival unfolds and to appreciate the value of in-depth interviewing, focus groups, and ethnographic work in making sometimes subtle…

  20. The Redesign of Teacher Education for the Twenty-First Century. International Perspectives on the Preparation of Educational Personnel. Selected Papers from the Thirtieth Anniversary World Assembly of the International Council of Education for Teaching (Washington, DC, July 11-15, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yff, Joost, Ed.

    This volume is organized according to themes chosen for the 30th Annual World Assembly of the International Council on Education for Teaching (ICET). A keynote speech by Anne Flowers discussed "Teacher Education for the Twenty-First Century." The first theme, "The Redesign of Teacher Education," was discussed through presentations by Anne Flowers,…

  1. Governance in the Twenty-First-Century University: Approaches to Effective Leadership and Strategic Management. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayle, Dennis John; Tewarie, Bhoendradatt; White, A. Quinton, Jr.

    This volume explores approaches to effective leadership and strategic management in the 21st century university by considering the perceptions and attitudes of university leaders toward the institutional structures and organizational cultures from which universities are led and managed. The differences between treating universities as businesses…

  2. Young People's Health as a Challenge for Physical Education in Schools in the Twenty-First Century: The Case of Flanders (Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seghers, Jan; de Martelaer, Kristine; Cardon, Greet

    2009-01-01

    Background: A lack of physical activity (PA) and the occurrence of overweight and obesity among school-aged youth have become a major societal problem. Arising from the general concern about the future generations' health, schools have been found to be potentially important settings to promote positive health behaviour, since all pupils can be…

  3. NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE TECHNOLOGIES SUSTAINABLE IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Eccles

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the application of separation technologies, in particular solvent extraction and ion exchange in the uranium nuclear fuel cycle. The history and decisions in selecting the technology are briefly discussed. The global trends in the energy sector are reviewed and the impact of other energy sources on the nuclear power industry both now and in the future is

  4. Transitioning health care marketing into the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Rynne, T J

    1999-01-01

    With this issue, Marketing Health Services unveils an interview with an expert in health care marketing. As seen through the eyes of an industry leader, this regular feature identifies the cutting-edge developments, innovative approaches, and new ideas expected to significantly contribute to marketing in health care. In the first interview, Terrence J. Rynne, who, through his marketing consulting firm has served more than 600 hospitals nationwide, discusses the biggest trends in health care marketing and the top marketing approaches. PMID:10557749

  5. Oceanography, the new Frontier for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nelson

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the discipline of oceanography and some of its specific areas of concern. Describes the major resources of the oceans and reflects on how these may be utilized and shared by nations in the future. (JR)

  6. Clostridium difficile infection in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, Chandrabali

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming gram-positive bacillus, and the leading cause of antibiotic-associated nosocomial diarrhea and colitis in the industrialized world. With the emergence of a hypervirulent strain of C. difficile (BI/NAP1/027), the epidemiology of C. difficile infection has rapidly changed in the last decade. C. difficile infection, once thought to be an easy to treat bacterial infection, has evolved into an epidemic that is associated with a high rate of mortality, causing disease in patients thought to be low-risk. In this review, we discuss the changing face of C .difficile infection and the novel treatment and prevention strategies needed to halt this ever growing epidemic. PMID:26038491

  7. Satellite communications systems move into the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard S. Golding

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of communication satellite systems and communications satellite technology from the 1960's\\u000a to the 1990's. The paper identifies the key attributes of satellite communications that has driven this evolution and now\\u000a drives the future directions such systems will take. The paper then discusses the future direction of communication satellite\\u000a systems including DBS, MSS, FSS and hybrid

  8. The Australian University into the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Concerns arising from the substantial changes in Australian higher education in recent years are discussed, including system centralization, elimination of the binary system, institutional stability, underfunding, and system size. A new fee-based funding system is proposed as a means of raising revenue, improving quality, promoting efficiency, and…

  9. The Casualties of the Twenty-First-Century Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David McKay

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses academic freedom that is currently under threat at many public two-year schools, which serve almost one-half of the nation's first-year college students. The growing reliance on part-time faculty exacerbates the problem, with many adjuncts feeling muzzled for fear of losing their jobs. The problem of academic freedom at…

  10. Bioartificial organs in the twenty-first century: nanobiological devices.

    PubMed

    Prokop, A

    2001-11-01

    Bioartificial organs involve the design, modification, growth and maintenance of living tissues embedded in natural or synthetic scaffolds to enable them to perform complex biochemical functions, including adaptive control and the replacement of normal living tissues. Future directions in this area will lead to an abandonment of the trial-and-error implant optimization approach and a switch to the rational production of precisely formulated nanobiological devices. This will be accomplished with the help of three major thrusts: (1) use of molecularly manipulated nanostructured biomimetic materials; (2) application of microelectronic and nanoelectronic interfacing for sensing and control; and (3) application of drug delivery and medical nanosystems to induce, maintain, and replace a missing function that cannot be readily substituted with a living cell and to accelerate tissue regeneration. Biomimetics involves employment of microstructures and functional domains of organismal tissue function, correlation of processes and structures with physical and chemical processes, and use of this knowledge base to design and synthesize new materials for health applications. Nanostructured materials should involve biological materials (rather then synthetic ones) because their prefabricated structure is suitable for modular control of devices from existing materials. Nanostructured tools should encompass surface patterned molecular arrays, nanoscale synthetic scaffolding mimicking the cell-extracellular matrix microenvironment, precise positioning of molecules with specific signals to provide microheterogeneity, composites of bioinorganic and organic molecules, molecular layering (coating), and molecular and supramolecular self-assembly and self-organization (template-directed) assembly. The nanoelectronic interface includes electronic or optoelectronic biointerfaced devices based on individual cells, their aggregates and tissues, organelles, and molecules, such as enzyme-based devices, transport and ion-channel membrane proteins, and receptor-ligand structures, including nanostructured semiconductor chips and microfluidic components. Delivery nanosystems encompass both water and lipid core vehicles (for hydrophilic and lipophilic components) of various geometries: liposomes, micelles, nanoparticles, lipid shells (as imaging and contrasting agents), solid nanosuspensions, lipid nanospheres, and coated film surfaces (molecular layering), all for use in delivering drugs, proteins, cell modifiers, and genes. Nanoelectronic interface and delivery nanosystems will be used for sensing, feedback, control, and analysis of function of bioartificial organs. PMID:11797695

  11. United Kingdom: Skills Development for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, John; Cohen, Judith; Martin, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The Learning and Skills Development Agency (LSDA), together with the British Council, provides the leadership for the UNEVOC centre in the United Kingdom (UK). LSDA is a strategic national agency whose mission is to improve the quality of post-16 education and training in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It does this by conducting research to…

  12. Designing Learning Communities in the Twenty-First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gibson Ian

    This chapter explores a number of changes occurring in the global context and considers the significance of their impact on\\u000a the learning process from a variety of perspectives. This exploration will evolve into a discussion related to the very conceptions\\u000a of learning – that thought underpinning the process – by considering several vastly evolved approaches to philosophical thought\\u000a about learning

  13. Renewal: Remaking America's Schools for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwalwasser, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Harold Kwalwasser has put together a call to action for education reform that makes a clear case for what has to be done in order to educate all children to their full potential. He visited forty high-performing and transforming school districts, charters, parochial, and private schools to understand why they have succeeded where others have…

  14. Why America's disadvantaged communities need twenty-first century learning.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Blenda J

    2006-01-01

    Current school reform efforts, emphasizing data and accountability, have shed additional light on racial and income-based inequities in education. To tackle this achievement gap, the discrepancies in the nation's educational system must be examined within the context of the increasing economic demand for higher skill levels. The author asserts that the education system is not educating all students to the levels necessary to fulfill America's quest for international excellence. Demonstrating the inadequacies of the current educational system, this chapter draws from Murnane and Levy's research emphasizing a need for new basic skills. The author cites Murnane and Levy's finding that up to half of all graduates leave high school without the skills necessary to compete in today's economy. Students are not getting enough out of school to succeed in the workforce. These data prompt the author's support for out-of-school-time programs. An opportunity gap exists when it comes to how children from various socioeconomic backgrounds spend their out-of-school time. Children from disadvantaged families experience much less enrichment, further contributing to the achievement gap. Quality after-school programs-not just "more school"-can fill this void, providing the enrichment and academic support needed to gain the skills required to succeed in the modern workforce. The Nellie Mae Education Foundation's Critical Hours: Afterschool Programs and Educational Success confirms the need for out-of-school-time programs by showing the relationship between an effective after-school program and academic success. Ultimately the after-school movement will reduce educational inequality, allowing today's youth to contribute to America's international competitiveness. PMID:17017256

  15. Algebra for the Twenty-First Century: A New Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrill, Gail

    1997-01-01

    Algebra, an important skill, provides a way to represent situations so they can be analyzed carefully. In the new algebra classroom, students will listen and talk to one another while learning to understand problems and devise solutions. Teachers will organize tasks (involving graphing, rating, and ranking techniques) to help students discover the…

  16. The Twenty-First Century University: Some Reservations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasser, Henry

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that the university is in the process of transformation and that interpretations of data intended to show the features of this reinvented university are not completely satisfactory. Suggests that previously published views may be too optimistic and hierarchical, and that an egalitarian if pluralistic university structure and…

  17. Sustainable Aquaculture in the Twenty-First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Wurts

    2000-01-01

    There have been many efforts to create a conceptual framework for understanding and defining sustainable aquaculture. A recent consensus or stakeholder view (Caffey et al., 1998) approached sustainability from three perspectives: environmental, economic, and sociological. Often, stakeholder views are snapshot or present oriented. The multiple variables affecting sustainability and viability are considered from a here-and-now perspective rather than considering the

  18. Communications Security for the Twenty-first Century

    E-print Network

    Russo, Bernard

    Agency (NSA) and the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) realized that noncom- batant adults needed to protect their sensitive, but unclassified, information. Though NSA is the usual government agency. Concern centered on whether NSA had placed a "trapdoor" in the algorithm (a shortcut to de- cryption

  19. Empowerment of Women through Education in Twenty First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.; Jabari, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to the impact of women's education in their empowerment. The development of women's education is discussed in this study. As women's education has become one of the key development objectives in the recent decades, the concept of empowerment has been tied to the range of activities…

  20. Formal Operations from a Twenty-First Century Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Deanna

    2008-01-01

    The author reflects on Piaget's 1972 article, "Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood," addressed to questions regarding what he alleged to be the final, most advanced level of cognition in his developmental stage theory--formal operations, as described in his 1958 volume coauthored with Inhelder, "The growth of logical thinking from…

  1. Developing a Twenty-First Century Technology-Based Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald L. Gordon

    2000-01-01

    There are several lessons that have been learned in the business attraction and retention experience of Fairfax County. Some of these are transferable to other communities seeking to follow a similar path. 1) Seek to attract the types of businesses for which the assets of the community provide the best match with the requirements of the industry being sought. 2)

  2. Power Cables in the Twenty-First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. HAMMONS

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a variety of viewpoints from engineers within the power cable industry as to how current trends in the cable industry will influence future cable designs, particularly with polymeric insulation, lapped dielectrics, and improved diagnostic techniques. The use of high-temperature superconductors and designer polymers as well as the possible availability of conducting polymeric materials is also considered. The

  3. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Staniforth

    2008-01-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training.\\u000a In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed\\u000a for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate\\u000a study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs

  4. Linked Courses at the Twenty-First Century Metropolitan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Kima; Kalikoff, Beth

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, the authors argue that linked-course learning communities serve students at nonresidential metropolitan public universities by increasing their academic achievement, reducing their attrition, and engaging them in the project of public education. They use a winter 2004 research project to argue that linked courses create supportive…

  5. Sympathetic ophthalmia: to the twenty-first century and beyond

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sympathetic ophthalmia is a rare bilateral granulomatous inflammation that follows accidental or surgical insult to the uvea of one eye. Onset of sympathetic ophthalmia can be insidious or acute, with recurrent periods of exacerbation. Clinical presentation shows mutton-fat keratic precipitates, choroidal infiltrations, and Dalen-Fuchs nodules. Histopathology reveals diffuse or nodular granulomatous inflammation of the uvea. Prevention and treatment strategies for sympathetic ophthalmia are currently limited to two modalities, enucleation of the injured eye and immunosuppressive therapy, aimed at controlling inflammation. The etiology and pathophysiology of the disease is still unclear but is largely thought to be autoimmune in nature. Recent insight on the molecular pathology of the disease as well as developments in imaging technology have furthered both the understanding on the autoimmune process in sympathetic ophthalmia and the targeting of prevention and treatment strategies for the future. PMID:23724856

  6. Two-Generation Programs in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Most of the authors in this issue of "Future of Children" focus on a single strategy for helping both adults and children that could become a component of two-generation programs. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, on the other hand, look at actual programs with an explicit two-generation focus that have been tried in the…

  7. Urban Pedagogy: A Proposal for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The urban has been studied by students of geography, politics, aesthetics/culture, architects and politicians. Educational researchers in defining the urban as a field of research and practice have looked at schooling and its institutionalized role in cities. A wider discussion of the very character of urban experience and its relevance for…

  8. A Twenty-First Century U.S. Water Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliet Christian-Smith; Peter H. Gleick

    As is becoming clearer and clearer, pressures on water resources in the United States are growing, with no foreseeable end in sight. Yet these pressures are not due to a national water scarcity. While the Southwest faces the problems of draught, a rising population, and over-allocation of resources, the Northeast and Northern Plains must deal with increasingly wet weather and

  9. 76 FR 20297 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 6...Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act...

  10. 77 FR 24632 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 14 [CG...Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act...

  11. 76 FR 82240 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 14 [CG...Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act...

  12. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  13. The Twenty-First NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Twenty-First NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held in Tampa, FL, April 26 through April 30, 1993. It provides some comprehensive general papers on the application of finite elements in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre-and postprocessing with other auxiliary programs and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

  14. Tin Oxide Chemistry from the Last Decade of the Nineteenth Century to the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century: Towards the Development of a Big-Picture Approach to the Teaching and Learning of Chemistry while Focussing on a Specific Compound or Class of Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Berg, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of the electron in 1897 deeply impacted the nature of chemistry in the twentieth century. A revolution in the theoretical structure of chemistry as well as in the instrumental tools used in chemical analysis occurred as a result of this discovery. The impact of this revolution on tin oxide chemistry over approximately a 100 year…

  15. Tin Oxide Chemistry from the Last Decade of the Nineteenth Century to the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century: Towards the Development of a Big-Picture Approach to the Teaching and Learning of Chemistry While Focussing on a Specific Compound or Class of Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin C. de Berg

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of the electron in 1897 deeply impacted the nature of chemistry in the twentieth century. A revolution in the\\u000a theoretical structure of chemistry as well as in the instrumental tools used in chemical analysis occurred as a result of\\u000a this discovery. The impact of this revolution on tin oxide chemistry over approximately a 100 year period is the focus

  16. Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

  17. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  18. Up to the Challenge: The Role of Career and Technical Education and 21st Century Skills in College and Career Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights the demand for skills in the global economy and the ways in which educators can meet this demand by drawing on both career and technical education and the Partnership for 21st Century Skills' Framework for 21st Century Learning. Twenty-first century skills and career and technical education are essential in every state,…

  19. Middle Schools Preparing Young People for 21st Century Life and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ken

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how middle schools can prepare young people for the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. Integrating 21st century skills deliberately and systematically into middle school education will empower educators to accomplish many of the elusive goals they have tried to reach for years. Twenty-first

  20. Challenging Technology, and Technology Infusion into 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, S. N.; Hunter, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    In preparing for the space exploration challenges of the next century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Center for Integrated Space Micro-Systems (CISM) is chartered to develop advanced spacecraft systems that can be adapted for a large spectrum of future space missions. Enabling this task are revolutions in the miniaturization of electrical, mechanical, and computational functions. On the other hand, these revolutionary technologies usually have much lower readiness levels than those required by flight projects. The mission of the Advanced Micro Spacecraft (AMS) task in CISM is to bridge the readiness gap between advanced technologies and flight projects. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Quality Teachers for Indigenous Students: An Imperative for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaman, Konai Helu

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that all learners need teachers who are not only professionally qualified but also culturally competent. This is particularly so with teachers of indigenous students, who face the conflicting expectations of schools and those of their home cultures. References to Pacific students will be used to illustrate some of the conflicts…

  2. Linguistics and Micro-RhetoricA Twenty-First Century Encounter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Hopper

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly linguists look to usage for explanations of how patterns of forms come to acquire grammatical status. This search leads linguistics closer to the realm of inquiry traditionally occupied by rhetoric, the study of the effective uses of language. It is proposed here that a view of language as temporal brings these two disciplines closer, and that, in fact, (usage-based)

  3. An Action Framework for Population Education on the Eve of the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter and Forum, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Presents an action framework for population education in four sections: (1) policies, programming, and institutional coordination; (2) conceptualization and content at different levels of education; (3) strategies for the development of educational action; and (4) logistic support activities. Foresees two levels of action: direct within the…

  4. Educating the Creative Workforce: New Directions for Twenty-First Century Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica; Haukka, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out reasons for arguing that creativity is not garnish to the roast of industry or of education--i.e. the reasoning behind Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi's insistence that creativity is not only about elites but involves everyone. This article investigates three key domains--scholarship, commerce and learning--to argue the importance…

  5. The Humanities Are Not a Luxury: A Manifesto for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martha Nell

    2011-01-01

    The humanities are at the heart of knowing about the human condition; they are not a luxury. The erosion of support for the humanities and the perennial anxiety about the state of the humanities are systemic. The author contends that until people acknowledge this fact, they will keep lurching from one point to another, unable to recognize the…

  6. Prospects for Organization Theory in the Early Twenty-First Century: Institutional Fields and Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald F. Davis; Christopher Marquis

    2005-01-01

    his paper argues that the research in organization theory has seen a shift in orientation from paradigm-driven work to problem-driven work since the late 1980s. A number of paradigms for the study of organizations were elaborated during the mid-1970s, including transaction cost economics, resource dependence theory, organizational ecology, new institutional theory, and agency theory in financial economics. These approaches reflected

  7. Hispanic fertility, immigration, and race in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Parrado, Emilio A.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we systematically describe the connection between immigration and fertility in light of the increasing nativist reaction to Hispanic groups. We follow a life-course perspective to directly link migration and fertility transitions. The analysis combines original qualitative and quantitative data collected in Durham/Chapel Hill, NC as well as national level information from the Current Population Survey. The qualitative data provides a person-centered approach to the connection between migration and fertility that we then extend in quantitative analyses. Results demonstrate that standard demographic measures that treat migration and fertility as separate processes considerably distort the childbearing experience of immigrant women, inflating fertility estimates for Hispanics as a whole. Once this connection is taken into consideration the fertility levels of Hispanic women are much lower than those reported with standard measures and the fertility-specific contribution of Hispanics to U.S. population growth is much reduced. PMID:23066430

  8. Major Long-Term Factors Influencing Dental Education in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, M. Michael, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Explores broad trends such as advances in oral sciences and the increasing old-age population and their effects on dental education. Asserts that these trends will ultimately result in the merging of dental and medical education. Also addresses the integration of scientific and clinical dental approaches, the problem of dental faculty isolation,…

  9. THE POETICS OF STATE TERROR IN TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY ZIMBABWE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranka Primorac

    2007-01-01

    Zimbabwe's ‘patriotic history’ – the official state ideology of the new millennium – conforms to Achille Mbembe's theorization of a postcolonial ‘master fiction’ as the state's attempt to create its own world of meaning, which seeks to govern the production of all other socially produced meanings. The Zimbabwean master fiction is an accumulation of distinct narrative segments with separate official

  10. The Education of Humans and Transhumans in the Twenty-First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Tandy

    2005-01-01

    Previously philosophers often approached the question of the contents of a liberal arts (or humanistic or general) education from a perspective based on cultural immersion or what the heritage of their special culture told them. Thus the importance of Confucius or Plato or of Buddhism or Christianity, to cite only four examples, in philosophies of education past. Our particular cultural

  11. Reconciling the rift: improving clinical psychology graduate training in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Ritschel, Lorie A

    2005-09-01

    Most graduate programs in clinical psychology adhere to and reportedly are satisfied with the scientist-practitioner model of training. In the present commentary, I take the position that this model must be updated to reconcile the rift that currently exists between the scientists and the practitioners within the field. A return to scientific rigor within the field is espoused, and suggestions of ways to improve both undergraduate and graduate curricula are made. PMID:15965929

  12. Micrographia of the twenty-first century: from camera obscura to 4D microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the evolutionary and revolutionary developments of microscopic imaging are overviewed with a perspective on origins. From Alhazen’s camera obscura, to Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek’s two-dimensional optical micrography, and on to three- and four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy, these developments over a millennium have transformed humans’ scope of visualization. The changes in the length and time scales involved are unimaginable, beginning with the visible shadows of candles at the centimetre and second scales, and ending with invisible atoms with space and time dimensions of sub-nanometre and femtosecond. With these advances it has become possible to determine the structures of matter and to observe their elementary dynamics as they unfold in real time. Such observations provide the means for visualizing materials behaviour and biological function, with the aim of understanding emergent phenomena in complex systems. PMID:20123754

  13. Are catenas relevant to soil maps and pedology in Iowa in the twenty-first century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Jennifer; Burras, C. Lee

    2014-05-01

    The modern intensity of agriculture brings to question whether anthropogenic impacts on soil profiles and catenas in agricultural areas are minor or dominant pedogenic influences. Answering this question is crucial to evaluating the modern relevance of historic soil maps, which use the traditional catena model as their foundation. This study quantifies the magnitude of change within the soil profile and across the landscape that result from decadal scale agriculture. Four benchmark catenas located on the Des Moines Lobe in Iowa, USA, were re-examined to determine the changes that occurred in the soils over the intervening years. The first site was initially studied by Walker and Ruhe in the mid 1960's. Burras and Scholtes initially examined the second catena in the early 1980's, while the remaining two catenas were first studied in the early 1990's by Steinwand and Fenton, and the late 1990's by Konen. Thus, the catenas were re-sampled for this study roughly 50, 30, 20, and 15 years, respectively, after the initial study. In this part of Iowa, continuous row crop agriculture (primarily Zea mays and Glycine max) and extensive subsurface drainage are very common. All study sites are closed-basin catenas located within 40 km of each other with a parent material of Late Wisconsinan glacial till. Soil cores to a depth of approximately two meters were taken with a truck mounted Giddings hydraulic soil sampler at 27 to 30 meter intervals along one transect for each of the four catenas, resulting in a total of forty-eight cores. The soil cores were then brought to the laboratory where soil descriptions and laboratory analyses are being completed. Soil descriptions include information about horizon type and depth, Munsell color, texture, rock fragments, structure, consistence, clay films, roots, pores, presence of carbonates, and redoximorphic features. Laboratory analyses include bulk density, particle size, total carbon and nitrogen content, cation exchange capacity, stable aggregate content, and pH. The resulting data is being analyzed and compared to historic data and models of pedogenesis. Preliminary and anticipated results indicate that soil properties such as bulk density, pH, geometric mean particle size, structure, A-horizon thickness, carbon distribution, depth to carbonates, and redoximorphic features have been altered by agricultural land use over the past 50 years. This indicates that anthropogenic impacts due to agriculture are a significant pedogenic influence, which is decreasing the scientific value of historic soil maps.

  14. Music Education for Life: Building Inclusive, Effective Twenty-First-Century Music Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuler, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines how to make music programs more inclusive and therefore enable music teachers to compete more effectively for enrollment. Fortunately, music affords teachers many compelling options to win the hearts and minds of students, and thereby to create a more musically literate and supportive public. The author suggests that music…

  15. Impact of climate change on mid-twenty-first century growing seasons in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kerry H.; Vizy, Edward K.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in growing seasons for 2041-2060 across Africa are projected using a regional climate model at 90-km resolution, and confidence in the predictions is evaluated. The response is highly regional over West Africa, with decreases in growing season days up to 20% in the western Guinean coast and some regions to the east experiencing 5-10% increases. A longer growing season up to 30% in the central and eastern Sahel is predicted, with shorter seasons in parts of the western Sahel. In East Africa, the short rains (boreal fall) growing season is extended as the Indian Ocean warms, but anomalous mid-tropospheric moisture divergence and a northward shift of Sahel rainfall severely curtails the long rains (boreal spring) season. Enhanced rainfall in January and February increases the growing season in the Congo basin by 5-15% in association with enhanced southwesterly moisture transport from the tropical Atlantic. In Angola and the southern Congo basin, 40-80% reductions in austral spring growing season days are associated with reduced precipitation and increased evapotranspiration. Large simulated reductions in growing season over southeastern Africa are judged to be inaccurate because they occur due to a reduction in rainfall in winter which is over-produced in the model. Only small decreases in the actual growing season are simulated when evapotranspiration increases in the warmer climate. The continent-wide changes in growing season are primarily the result of increased evapotranspiration over the warmed land, changes in the intensity and seasonal cycle of the thermal low, and warming of the Indian Ocean.

  16. Twenty-First Century Vocational Education in the United Kingdom: What Would Dickens Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, Lorna

    2004-01-01

    The article examines the reasons why the United Kingdom's approach to vocational education is more confused and impoverished than ever, despite its central importance to contemporary society. Instead of celebrating skill and vocational knowledge, the United Kingdom has embroiled itself in tortuous debates about parity of esteem, while…

  17. The Adventurous School: Vision, Community and Curriculum for Primary Education in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jane; Maskell, Kathy; Allinson, David; Bailey, Rosemary; Bates, Fernanda; Davies, Sian; Gallimore, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    "The Adventurous School" tells the uplifting stories of three primary schools who took charge of renewing their vision, their place in the community and their curriculum to become environments where children, teachers, parents and partners thrived. The book takes the reader through each school's five year journey and gives real-life practical…

  18. Effective Collaboration for the Twenty-First Century: The Commission and Its Stakeholders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, Chicago, IL. Commission on Institutions of Higher Education.

    This report presents the recommendations of the Commission on Institutions of Higher Education (CIHE), part of the North Central Association (NCA) of Colleges and Schools, following a comprehensive self-study focusing on the Commission's mission and purposes, its current effectiveness, and its future direction. The self-study involved a review of…

  19. The epidemiology of firearm violence in the twenty-first century United States.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2015-03-18

    This brief review summarizes the basic epidemiology of firearm violence, a large and costly public health problem in the United States for which the mortality rate has remained unchanged for more than a decade. It presents findings for the present in light of recent trends. Risk for firearm violence varies substantially across demographic subsets of the population and between states in patterns that are quite different for suicide and homicide. Suicide is far more common than homicide and its rate is increasing; the homicide rate is decreasing. As with other important health problems, most cases of fatal firearm violence arise from large but low-risk subsets of the population; risk and burden of illness are not distributed symmetrically. Compared with other industrialized nations, the United States has uniquely high mortality rates from firearm violence. PMID:25533263

  20. The Centre-periphery in Knowledge Production in the Twenty-first Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppers, Catherine A. Odora

    2000-01-01

    Examines the new configurations in global relations and the centrality of knowledge as the emerging currency in that relationship. Argues that the centre-periphery fault line and dichotomy may be less obvious to the younger generation, taking into account the vacuum created by the collapse of the Soviet Union. Includes references. (CMK)

  1. Leading by learning: new directions in the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivienne Collinson

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to provide a theoretically-based set of skills and practices that develop organizational members and leaders while building organizational capacity. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper advances four arguments about learning and leading, drawing on classical and contemporary scholarship of organizational learning theory to elaborate the intellectual, ethical, social, and political environment of school systems and to deduce

  2. Training in the Twenty-First Century: Where Do We Go from Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spikes, W. Franklin, III

    Seven trends are emerging in the corporate training and development sector of human resource development (HRD). First, there is an increasing corporate commitment for training. Employers are viewing training today as an essential element in their competitive business strategies. Second, customer service training is becoming the competitive weapon…

  3. Family Therapy at the Beginning of the Twenty-first Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay L. Lebow

    This volume marks a watershed in the development of couple and family therapy. We have entered an era in which the most prominent models of practice no longer primarily accentuate disparate, broad visions of how families operate and how people change, as they did a generation ago, but instead draw from a core set of well-established strategies to create pragmatic,

  4. Scholarship in Psychology: A Paradigm for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.; Smothergill, Daniel W.; Allen, Mary; Baker, Suzanne; Baum, Cynthia; Best, Deborah; Ferrari, Joseph; Gersinger, Kurt F.; Gilden, Eugene R.; Hester, Maureen; Keith-Spiegel, Patricia; Kierniesky, Nicholas C.; McGovern, Thomas V.; McKeachie, Wilbert J.; Prokasy, William F.; Szuchman, Lenore T.; Vasta, Ross; Weaver, Kenneth A.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a five-part definition of scholarship in psychology. Includes original research (creation of knowledge), integration of knowledge (synthesis and reorganization), application of knowledge, the scholarship of pedagogy; and the scholarship of teaching in psychology. Contains 10 references. (MMU)

  5. Technology: advancing retail buyer performance in the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan S. Fiorito; Myron Gable; Amanda Conseur

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explain how buyers can more effectively and efficiently utilize technologies to improve their performance and to inform top executives in retail firms how these technologies can be used to improve the overall performance of the retail store. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using a descriptive approach, the paper identifies current technologies that are being

  6. Biological weapons and bioterrorism in the first years of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Leitenberg, Milton

    2002-09-01

    This paper evaluates four recent developments in biological-weapons politics and bioterrorism. First is American opposition to finalization of a verification protocol for the Biological Weapons Convention; second, a successful attempt at mass-casualty terrorism; third, an ongoing investigation into the bioterrorist capabilities of the al Qaeda network; and, fourth, a series of fatal anthrax attacks in the United States. The first of these evaluations is informed by interviews conducted between 2000 and 2002 with policy principals in the United States and elsewhere. PMID:16859345

  7. Oral rehydration therapy in the second decade of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Binder, Henry J; Brown, Ian; Ramakrishna, B S; Young, Graeme P

    2014-03-01

    Oral rehydration solution (ORS) was established as the cornerstone of therapy for dehydration secondary to acute infectious diarrhea approximately 40 years ago. The efficacy of ORS is based on the ability of glucose to stimulate Na and fluid absorption in the small intestine via a cyclic AMP-independent process. Despite the establishment that ORS is the primary reason for the substantial reduction in morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in children in developing countries, the use of ORS has lagged for many reasons. This review highlights efforts to establish a major reformulation of ORS following the demonstration that short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) stimulate colonic Na and fluid absorption by a cyclic AMP-independent mechanism. The addition of high-amylose maize starch (HAMS), a microbially-fermentable (or 'resistant') starch, to ORS results in delivery of non-absorbed carbohydrate to the colon where it is fermented to SCFA. To date, three randomized controlled trials with a HAMS-ORS in south India have demonstrated a substantial decrease in diarrhea duration in both adults and children hospitalized for acute diarrhea. Significant efforts are now underway to establish this dual-action, modified HAMS-hypoosmolar ORS solution as the standard ORS for the treatment of dehydration from acute diarrhea. PMID:24562469

  8. Twenty-First Century Progress Toward the Global Control of Human Hookworm Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Bungiro; Michael Cappello

    2011-01-01

    Hookworms are bloodsucking nematodes that afflict up to 740 million persons in tropical and subtropical regions, with Asia\\u000a and sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting particularly high infection rates. Prevalence, intensity, and pathology often vary considerably\\u000a at both the regional and local level, and may be influenced by coinfection with other parasitic infections such as malaria.\\u000a Immunoepidemiological studies suggest that hookworms manipulate the

  9. The Retirement Life Course in America at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.; Hardy, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    As the baby boom cohorts expand the number of U.S. retirees, population estimates of the employment, withdrawal and reentry behaviors of older Americans’ remain scarce. How long do people work? How frequently is retirement reversed? How many years are people retired? What is the modal age of retirement? And, how do the patterns for women compare to those for men? Using the 1992–2004 Health and Retirement Study, we estimate multistate working life tables to update information on the age-graded regularities of the retirement life course of men and women in the United States. We find that at age 50 men can expect to spend half of their remaining lives working for pay, while women can expect to spend just one-third. Half of all men and women have left the labor force by ages 63 and 61, respectively. Although the majority of retirement exits are final, variation in the nature and duration of the retirement process is substantial, as about a third of men’s and women’s exits are reversed. By quantifying these patterns for men and women, we provide a sound empirical basis for evaluating policy designed to address the financial pressures population aging places on public and private pension systems. PMID:21170285

  10. New Directions: Federal Education Policy in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanstoroom, Marci, Ed.; Finn, Chester E., Jr., Ed.

    Contributors to this collection examine how today's federal education programs work and show how, instead of working for school improvement, these programs have begun to function as obstacles to the efforts of reform-minded states and schools. The following essays are included: (1) "Overview: Thirty-Four Years of Dashed Hopes" (Chester E. Finn,…

  11. Spatial Pattern and Order in Sunbelt Retailing: Shopping in Phoenix in the Twenty-First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Breandán Ó hUallacháin; Timothy F. Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of store location in sprawling polycentric cities requires exploitation of new spatial analysis methods that can decipher patterns in georeferenced point data. This article shows how the intrametropolitan location of retailing is best understood as a series of interconnected spatial distributions with varying order-based characteristics. A scattered pattern, which initially appears random or chaotic, is a web

  12. Engaging the Creative Arts to Meet the Needs of Twenty-First-Century Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Nagel, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    As we navigate through a new form of economic era where science, technology, knowledge and services will replace consumer goods as drivers of growth, and the workplace will increasingly value creative abilities, there appears a need for an educational paradigm shift. However, within an Australian context of increasing school accountability, a…

  13. The Roles and Responsibilities of Library and Information Professionals in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Michael; Lowe, Carrie

    2000-01-01

    Considers the changing roles of library media specialists in elementary and secondary education in light of rapidly changing information technology. Topics include the use of information; the use of technology in schools; integrating information and technology skills with the Big 6 approach; and information literacy standards for student learning.…

  14. Development Programs for College Faculty: Preparing for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, John D.; Mosteller, Frederick

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the effects and benefits of faculty development activities. Summarizes research in the area, identifies emerging trends, and points to directions that future programs should take. Highlights research about the effect of programs on instructional improvement and acknowledges the role that technology will play in the development needs of…

  15. Creating a vision for the twenty-first century healthcare organization.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, A M

    2000-01-01

    Management approaches used by healthcare organizations have often lagged behind other businesses in more competitive industries. Companies operating in such dynamic environments have found that to cope with the rapid pace of change they must have an articulated understanding of their organization's capabilities and consensus on where the organization is headed based on predictions about the future operating environment. This statement of identity and strategic direction takes the form of a vision statement that serves as the compass for the organization's decisions for a five- to ten-year period. This article discusses the importance of vision statements in tomorrow's healthcare organizations, presents an overview of future scenarios that may provide context for organizational visions, and suggests a process for developing a vision statement. A case study is presented to illustrate how a vision statement is created. Following the guidelines presented in this article and reviewing the case study should assist healthcare executives and their boards in crafting better visions of their organizations' futures, developing more effective strategies to realize these visions, and adapting to more frequent and more significant change. PMID:11067422

  16. Twenty-First Century Learning in States: The Case of the Massachusetts Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, David P.

    2006-01-01

    The mission and vision statements of most educational institutions usually share the same lofty goal: to prepare students academically and socially for the opportunities they will face in their future adult lives. Unfortunately, this goal is not being met, and today's generation is facing a crisis going largely unnoticed. Today's graduates appear…

  17. Strengthening Media Education in the Twenty-First Century: Opportunities for the State of Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee

    2005-01-01

    This article defines media education and places it in the context of contemporary research on the arts, culture, and economic and social development. The author reviews current instructional settings where media analysis and media production activities are now occurring in K-12 education in Pennsylvania. This article then describes how other…

  18. Toward the twenty-first century: lessons from lead and lessons yet to learn

    SciTech Connect

    Silbergeld, E.K. (Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A consideration of recent research on lead is instructive for developing research strategies in environmental toxicology. Lead research has demonstrated fruitful interactions between clinical and basic science. Thus, while epidemiological studies have suggested that central nervous system (CNS) effects in children are observed at the lowest increments of lead exposure, basic research has elucidated some of the molecular events that underly this lack of threshold at the neuronal level. Similarly, clinical studies indicate that early exposure to lead produces functionally irreversible damage to the CNS; experimental research demonstrates that this irreversibility may involve failure to remove lead from brain, permanent effects on synaptogenesis; and chelant-induced redistribution of lead from the periphery to the CNS. Lead toxicokinetics demand reevaluation. New data on release of bone stores of lead during physiological conditions of demineralization indicate that mobilization of bone lead adds to in utero exposure of the fetus. Furthermore, postmenopausal demineralization of bone can increase blood lead levels in women by 25%; this raises concern about the potential effects of lead in an aging population and the difficulties in comprehensive exposure assessment. 32 refs.

  19. Ceremony Earth: Digitizing Silko's Novel for Students of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Many students the author has taught get frustrated when they read Leslie Silko's canonical Native American novel, "Ceremony". Not only do they struggle with Silko's disruptions of linear temporality and her collapsing of binary oppositions, but they also struggle with the novel's geographic and cultural location. To help students better understand…

  20. 76 FR 14856 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ...dialogue,\\3\\ makes video programming more accessible to individuals who are blind...visually impaired, enabling millions more Americans to enjoy the benefits of television service and participate more fully in the cultural and civic...

  1. 76 FR 55585 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ...dialogue,\\3\\ makes video programming more accessible to individuals who are blind...visually impaired, enabling millions more Americans to enjoy the benefits of television service and participate more fully in the cultural and civic...

  2. Revisiting Susan Isaacs--A Modern Educator for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willan, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    Susan Sutherland Isaacs (1885-1948) was arguably the most influential child psychologist and educator of her British generation. Her work was studied by eminent contemporary academics, psychologists, philosophers and politicians. Her influence was international. She reached across the world to a generation of teacher educators who passed on her…

  3. Global warming in the twenty-first century: an alternative scenario.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J; Sato, M; Ruedy, R; Lacis, A; Oinas, V

    2000-08-29

    A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO(2) greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH(4), and N(2)O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO(2) and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO(2) GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH(4) and O(3) precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO(2) GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO(2) emissions, this reduction of non-CO(2) GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties. PMID:10944197

  4. Developing an Interdisciplinary, Distributed Graduate Course for Twenty-First Century Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Helene H.; Murphy, Melanie A.; Holderegger, Rolf; Waits, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Graduate programs have placed an increasing emphasis on the importance of interdisciplinary education, but barriers to interdisciplinary training still remain. We present a new model for interdisciplinary, cross-institution graduate teaching that combines the best of local teaching, distance learning, and experiential learning to provide students…

  5. Sentinel lymph node mapping in melanoma in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Doepker, Matthew P; Zager, Jonathan S

    2015-04-01

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other cancer. The status of the regional nodal basin remains the most important prognostic factor. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is recommended for staging in patients diagnosed with intermediate-thickness melanoma (1.01-4.0 mm). SLNB is considered somewhat controversial, especially when used to stage thin (1 mm), thick (>4 mm), or desmoplastic melanoma. This article reviews the current literature regarding SLNB in thin, intermediate, thick, and desmoplastic melanoma. Data supporting the use of newer radiopharmaceuticals in sentinel lymph node mapping along with newer imaging modalities are also reviewed. PMID:25769710

  6. School Counseling in the Twenty-First Century: A Systemic Multicultural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behring, Shari Tarver

    School counseling educators and practitioners frequently find themselves so focused on the daily activities of serving their schools that rarely do they have the luxury of considering a long-term and large-scale vision for the profession. Yet a vision that anticipates the future needs of school counseling in a proactive manner is just what the…

  7. Adapting the International System of Units to the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Mills, Ian M; Mohr, Peter J; Quinn, Terry J; Taylor, Barry N; Williams, Edwin R

    2011-10-28

    We review the proposal of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (Comité International des Poids et Mesures, CIPM), currently being considered by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (Conférences Générales des Poids et Mesures, CGPM), to revise the International System of Units (Le Système International d'Unitès, SI). The proposal includes new definitions for four of the seven base units of the SI, and a new form of words to present the definitions of all the units. The objective of the proposed changes is to adopt definitions referenced to constants of nature, taken in the widest sense, so that the definitions may be based on what are believed to be true invariants. In particular, whereas in the current SI the kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole are linked to exact numerical values of the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram, the magnetic constant (permeability of vacuum), the triple-point temperature of water and the molar mass of carbon-12, respectively, in the new SI these units are linked to exact numerical values of the Planck constant, the elementary charge, the Boltzmann constant and the Avogadro constant, respectively. The new wording used expresses the definitions in a simple and unambiguous manner without the need for the distinction between base and derived units. The importance of relations among the fundamental constants to the definitions, and the importance of establishing a mise en pratique for the realization of each definition, are also discussed. PMID:21930556

  8. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  9. Twenty-First Century Moonlighters. Issues in Labor Statistics. Summary 02-07.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    In May 2001, 7.8 million people in the United States (5.7% of U.S. workers) worked multiple jobs. The May 2001 Current Population Survey asked multiple jobholders their main reason for holding more than one job. These percentages of respondents gave the following reasons: to meet expenses or pay off debt, 27.8%; to earn extra money, 35.4%; to…

  10. Déjà vu: leprosy and immigration discourse in the twenty-first century United States.

    PubMed

    White, Cassandra

    2010-03-01

    Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, continues to be feared and poorly understood in the United States, where knowledge of the disease is limited and prevalence is low. The presence of leprosy among immigrants, however, provides fuel for those with an anti-immigration agenda. In recent years, there have been several examples of popular media distortions of statistics and of information on leprosy's properties and contagiousness. As in previous eras of U.S. history, public fears about leprosy seem to be related to anti-immigration or nativist sentiment, which often mask underlying concerns about the potential economic threat of immigrant populations. In this article, I analyse the role of the U.S. media and other stakeholders who may have an interest in generating public fear associated with leprosy, in presenting and at times manipulating data about the disease to create an association between leprosy and undocumented immigration. PMID:20496566

  11. Why American Business Demands Twenty-First Century Skills: An Industry Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruett, Karen

    2006-01-01

    A solid global strategy must be part of every organization's DNA. For Dell, this means expanding into new countries where it can use its direct model to provide value to customers and create more productive, healthier communities. It also means hiring employees who think and act globally and have a commitment to learn how to work with cultures…

  12. Media Literacy Pedagogy: Critical and New/Twenty-First-Century Literacies Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Nalova

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a conceptualization of media literacy pedagogy in light of National Education Technology Plan efforts, which name teaching as one of five essential areas to build an education system that can increase as well as sustain the United States' economic growth and prosperity in the global economy. In particular, two distinct…

  13. Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar

    2000-01-01

    A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH4, and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this reduction of non-CO2 GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties. PMID:10944197

  14. Structures and Strategies for Science Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the ways in which teacher preparation programs will need to change to meet the needs of preparing STEM teachers in the near future, it is necessary to ascertain what STEM teacher preparation programs are actually doing in the present. This chapter presents a comparative analysis of six different science teacher education…

  15. Leadership Competence Educational Model for a Twenty-First Century Nursing Doctoral Education in Contemporary Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzioglu, Fusun

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes a nursing education model about leadership that can be used to improve the leadership skills of nursing doctoral students. This model is developed at the University of Michigan School of Nursing. In developing this model, the author had the opportunity to observe the University of Michigan, School of Nursing…

  16. Accessing Canadian Federal Information: A Depository Program for the Twenty-First Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnassi, Bruno

    This paper examines the current status and future of Canada's Depository Service Program (DSP) for government information. The first section discusses the depository model, including changes due to information technology and decentralization of government authority. Access and preservation are addressed in the second section, including the…

  17. from the President How should innovation be defined in the twenty-first century?

    E-print Network

    the portable cell phone, barcode technology, the wireless remote control, and smart electricity grids cell phone, barcode technology, and the wireless remote control. IIT faculty and students are advancing to create what does not now exist--and our graduates have a strong track record of coming up with new ideas

  18. FDA and the critical path to twenty-first-century medicine.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Peter J

    2008-10-01

    One of the most pressing issues that confronts the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is learning how to better address and assist in medical product development. FDA needs to prepare today so the agency can efficiently evaluate the technologies of tomorrow. Clearly, this is an area that impacts not only health care consumers but also our economies and financial markets. If the FDA can be a more aggressive part of the solution, they can help not only ease some of the pressures that are driving up health care costs but also help all of us to maximize the value of medical innovations. The high cost of research and development is forcing many companies to make the short-term business decision to focus product development on those molecules that have a much higher potential to recoup expenditures. Unfortunately, this trumps attempts to develop potentially risky but breakthrough products for diseases affecting smaller populations, the orphan drugs. FDA's critical path initiative will enable innovative growth companies to better and more efficiently attack the steep hurdles facing them, allowing them to compete more effectively against the bigger, better-funded players in the market on a more level playing field. That means a real change in the risk/benefit equation for both the emerging growth companies and the public health. PMID:18840855

  19. Twenty-First Century Literacy and Technology in K-8 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, June; Bryan, Jan; Brown, Ted

    2005-01-01

    Using technology to enhance literacy has been viewed in different ways by educators. Some teachers believe that new developments will fundamentally change literacy instruction; others think that technology is simply a new tool to use with old teaching methods. The question of how new technologies impact literacy instruction in K-8 classrooms is…

  20. Critical Issues in Language and Education Planning in Twenty First Century in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook Napier, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Language and education planning issues and democratic policy implementation in the post-apartheid era in South Africa encompass a range of language-related issues and dilemmas that have counterparts in many countries, within the emerging global education system. The issues in South Africa were and continue to be shaped by the historical legacy of…

  1. SALMON RECOVERY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: BREACHING THE BASIC BARRIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far ...

  2. Water and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century: The Middle East and California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Gleick

    \\u000a Throughout the world, population pressures, irrigation demands, and growing resource needs are increasing competition for\\u000a fresh water. Nowhere is this more evident than in the arid Middle East, where the scarcity of water has played a central role\\u000a in defining the political relationships of the region for thousands of years. In the Middle East, ideological, religious,\\u000a and geographical disputes go

  3. Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Gornall, Jemma; Betts, Richard; Burke, Eleanor; Clark, Robin; Camp, Joanne; Willett, Kate; Wiltshire, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature concerning a wide range of processes through which climate change could potentially impact global-scale agricultural productivity, and presents projections of changes in relevant meteorological, hydrological and plant physiological quantities from a climate model ensemble to illustrate key areas of uncertainty. Few global-scale assessments have been carried out, and these are limited in their ability to capture the uncertainty in climate projections, and omit potentially important aspects such as extreme events and changes in pests and diseases. There is a lack of clarity on how climate change impacts on drought are best quantified from an agricultural perspective, with different metrics giving very different impressions of future risk. The dependence of some regional agriculture on remote rainfall, snowmelt and glaciers adds to the complexity. Indirect impacts via sea-level rise, storms and diseases have not been quantified. Perhaps most seriously, there is high uncertainty in the extent to which the direct effects of CO2 rise on plant physiology will interact with climate change in affecting productivity. At present, the aggregate impacts of climate change on global-scale agricultural productivity cannot be reliably quantified. PMID:20713397

  4. Why American Business Demands Twenty-First Century Learning: A Company Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Allyson

    2006-01-01

    Today's knowledge economy requires that the citizenry and workforce be able to harness information and communication technologies in order to remain competitive on a global scale. As a result of new demands, the notion of digital literacy has become less a luxury and more an imperative for many countries, gaining significant momentum in the past…

  5. Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century: Radon, smoking and lung cancer risks

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-04-01

    This document describes the relationship between indoor radon exposure, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. The author explains the sources of radon, the tissues at risk, the human populations most likely to be affected, and the estimates of lung cancer in the population. 6 refs., 2 tabs. (TEM)

  6. A new energy security paradigm for the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Nuttall, W.J.; Manz, D.L. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Judge Business School

    2008-10-15

    This paper considers apossible energy future in which the impacts of climate change have been realized far earlier than most experts have previously expected. This has promoted a transition to cleaner energy technologies long before the depletion of fossil fuel resources. In this scenario, the peak in demand for fossil fuels occurs before the peak in supply and some nations are strongly promoting the development and deployment of clean energy technologies. In this scenario the countries of the world would fall into one of the three categories: (1) those willing and readily able to adjust in response to rapid and serious climate change, (2) those willing to adjust, but facing significant economic hardship without external assistance and protection, (3) and those unwilling and, perhaps unable to play a part in combating climate change. This paper considers how countries in the first two categories could respond by adjusting their foreign, trade and even military policies. Within a generation, the great powers might find themselves shifting from keeping trade routes open to constraining the same trade. Severe climate change impacts could even approach the timescale of technological innovation needed to respond to this crisis. This paper proposes that our world may need new military and foreign policy options as well as new energy technology options in the years to come.

  7. Securing Field Learning Using a Twenty-First Century Cook's Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Ian C.; France, Derek

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of incorporating digital video into a traditional Cook's Tour as part of a 7-day road trip around the east coast of New Zealand's North Island over a 4-year period. Student-generated video diaries summarized landscape features and processes at fieldsites, empowering students through active learning…

  8. Impact of enhanced geothermal systems on US energy supply in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Tester, Jefferson W; Anderson, Brian J; Batchelor, Anthony S; Blackwell, David D; DiPippo, Ronald; Drake, Elisabeth M; Garnish, John; Livesay, Bill; Moore, Michal C; Nichols, Kenneth; Petty, Susan; Toksoz, M Nafi; Veatch, Ralph W; Baria, Roy; Augustine, Chad; Murphy, Enda; Negraru, Petru; Richards, Maria

    2007-04-15

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing US supplies of indigenous renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well distributed nationally. A panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of geothermal becoming a major supplier of primary energy for US base-load generation capacity by 2050. Primary energy produced from both conventional hydrothermal and enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS) was considered on a national scale. This paper summarizes the work of the panel which appears in complete form in a 2006 MIT report, 'The future of geothermal energy' parts 1 and 2. In the analysis, a comprehensive national assessment of US geothermal resources, evaluation of drilling and reservoir technologies and economic modelling was carried out. The methodologies employed to estimate geologic heat flow for a range of geothermal resources were utilized to provide detailed quantitative projections of the EGS resource base for the USA. Thirty years of field testing worldwide was evaluated to identify the remaining technology needs with respect to drilling and completing wells, stimulating EGS reservoirs and converting geothermal heat to electricity in surface power and energy recovery systems. Economic modelling was used to develop long-term projections of EGS in the USA for supplying electricity and thermal energy. Sensitivities to capital costs for drilling, stimulation and power plant construction, and financial factors, learning curve estimates, and uncertainties and risks were considered. PMID:17272236

  9. The New Face of Genetics: Creating A Multimedia Educational Tool for the Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Audrey

    In the study of certain genetic conditions, it is important to understand the specific "dysmorphology" associated with them. This describes the unique anatomical manifestations of the genetic condition. Traditionally, students learn about dysmorphology by reading text descriptions or looking at photographs of affected individuals. The New Face of Genetics is a film project that aims to teach students dysmorphology by featuring people who have specific genetic conditions. The goal is to enhance students' understanding of these conditions as well as to impart the humanity and beauty of the people who appear in the film. Students will have the opportunity to see dysmorphic features on the animated human form as well as meet individuals who are living with genetic difference. The target audience includes genetic counseling students and other medical professionals. Three short films were made in this format to demonstrate how this type of educational tool can be made. The featured conditions were Marfan syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome and Joubert syndrome. Future work will be carried out by other genetic counseling students who will make additional films based on our templates. A compendium of approximately 20 films will be eventually completed and released to genetic counseling programs and medical schools.

  10. The Human Flesh Search Engine: Democracy, Censorship, and Political Participation in Twenty-First Century China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Capone

    2012-01-01

    The Human Flesh Search Engine is a recent, unique phenomenon on the Chinese internet. Comprising of thousands of forum, micro-blog, and entertainment websites and mobilizing the overwhelming number of Chinese internet users, or netizens, the search engine is able to quickly find obscure information and identify seemingly anonymous internet personalities. These websites allow netizens to have their voices heard in

  11. Twenty-first century brain banking. Processing brains for research: the Columbia University methods

    PubMed Central

    del Amaya, Maria Pilar; Keller, Christian E.

    2007-01-01

    Carefully categorized postmortem human brains are crucial for research. The lack of generally accepted methods for processing human postmortem brains for research persists. Thus, brain banking is essential; however, it cannot be achieved at the cost of the teaching mission of the academic institution by routing brains away from residency programs, particularly when the autopsy rate is steadily decreasing. A consensus must be reached whereby a brain can be utilizable for diagnosis, research, and teaching. The best diagnostic categorization possible must be secured and the yield of samples for basic investigation maximized. This report focuses on integrated, novel methods currently applied at the New York Brain Bank, Columbia University, New York, which are designed to reach accurate neuropathological diagnosis, optimize the yield of samples, and process fresh-frozen samples suitable for a wide range of modern investigations. The brains donated for research are processed as soon as possible after death. The prosector must have a good command of the neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and the protocol. One half of each brain is immersed in formalin for performing the thorough neuropathologic evaluation, which is combined with the teaching task. The contralateral half is extensively dissected at the fresh state. The anatomical origin of each sample is recorded using the map of Brodmann for the cortical samples. The samples are frozen at ?160°C, barcode labeled, and ready for immediate disbursement once categorized diagnostically. A rigorous organization of freezer space, coupled to an electronic tracking system with its attached software, fosters efficient access for retrieval within minutes of any specific frozen samples in storage. This report describes how this achievement is feasible with emphasis on the actual processing of brains donated for research. PMID:17985145

  12. SUSTAINABLE OCEAN SYSTEMS During the twenty-first century, issues concerned with environmental and energy sustainability

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    national research initiatives in ocean observing systems and algal-based biofuels. Cornell has several research and teaching universities in the United States, Cornell has played and will continue to play and internationally. At this CCSF Topical Lunch Meeting, we will discuss new opportunities in ocean research

  13. Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy--- A new energy agenda for the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Tester, J.W.; Brown, D.W.; Potter, R.M.

    1989-07-01

    Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy, which utilizes the natural heat contained in the earth's crust, can provide a widely available source of nonpolluting energy. It can help mitigate the continued warming of the earth through the ''greenhouse effect,'' and the accelerating destruction of forests and crops by acid rain, two of the major environmental consequences of our ever-increasing use of fossil fuels for heating and power generation. In addition, HDR, as a readily available source of indigenous energy, can reduce our nation's dependence on imported oil, enhancing national security and reducing our trade deficit. The earth's heat represents an almost unlimited source of energy that can begin to be exploited within the next decade through the HDR heat-mining concept being actively developed in the United States and in several other countries. On a national scale, we can begin to develop this new energy source, using it directly for geothermal power or indirectly in hybrid geothermal/fossil-fueled systems, in diverse applications such as: baseload power generation, direct heat use, feedwater heating in conventional power plants, and pumped storage/load leveling power generation. This report describes the nature of the HDR resource and the technology required to implement the heat-mining concept in several applications. An assessment of the requirements for establishing HDR feasibility is presented in the context of providing a commercially competitive energy source. 37 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Competing Views of Embryos for the Twenty-First Century: Textbooks and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maienschein, Jane; Wellner, Karen

    2013-01-01

    It might seem that an embryo is an embryo, and that there would be a fact of the matter. That seems especially true with respect to the way embryos are presented in textbooks, including high school biology textbooks. This paper looks at three co-existing, competing, and often conflicting views of embryos. Then with a close study of twentieth…

  15. Technology and Ethical/Moral Dilemmas of Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to plan a relevant, professional development conference for the faculty of a small, private, suburban college in upstate, New York. The Provost and Senior Vice-President led a college-wide committee of faculty, administrators, and staff in a survey method to discover the priorities of the faculty, in further…

  16. Reading and Society in Russia in the First Years of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, B. V.; Zorkaia, N. A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the changes in the attitude of Russia's reading public in terms of frequency and intensiveness and the factors that influence these changes. In comparison with the situation in the late Soviet era and with the perestroika years, the picture of mass reading by Russians over the 1990s and, especially, in the first years of the…

  17. Globalisation and Societal Culture: Redefining Schooling and School Leadership in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the concept of globalization and explores the relationship between globalization and societal culture. States the transfer between systems must be more culturally sensitive. Offers a list of cultural dimensions to gauge the influence of cultures. Argues that greater cultural sensitivity is necessary when raising issues on school reform…

  18. Assessing the Impact of Twenty-First Century Rural School Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surface, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to make a qualitative assessment of the impact of school consolidation on several rural Nebraska communities that have recently lost their schools. This research uses a multiple-case study design with interviews conducted in three Nebraska communities. The data from this research fell into four broad themes: social…

  19. Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

  20. Age and Clinical Depression: Today's Youth in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerman, Gerald L.

    1976-01-01

    Clinical depression is on the increase in adolescence and young adulthood. Reasons for this are: (1) an increase in the number of people in this age group; and (2) the sheer number of people which creates stress. The author speculates whether reactive depression in youth will lead to more depression in adulthood. (Author/EJT)

  1. The Two Major Epidemics of the Twenty-First Century: Obesity and Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orit Kaidar-Person; Gil Bar-Sela; Benjamin Person

    It is a well-known fact that severe obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease,\\u000a hypertension, and other diseases. Epidemiological studies have suggested that obesity is also associated with increased risk\\u000a of several cancer types. The number of people who are suffering from severe obesity is growing, and clinical data suggest\\u000a that severely obese patients belong

  2. Virtual Libraries and Education in Virtual Worlds: Twenty-First Century Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Lori; Lindbloom, Mary-Carol; Peters, Tom; Pope, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    As the use of the Internet and time spent on the Internet by individuals grows, and the use of virtual worlds like Active Worlds and Second Life increases, the library needs to have an interactive place and role in these worlds as well as a bricks and mortar space. This article provides an overview of what some libraries are doing in these worlds,…

  3. An experimental public: heterogeneous groups defining embodiment in the early twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Laki, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I take a look at certain forms of contemporary art as practices that allow meanings within biomedical science and medical practice to emerge in novel ways. I claim that conceptual art and biological art are two unique spaces within which the understanding of embodiment and disease comes to be shaped actively and reflexively, sometimes on the very level of the materiality of the body, sometimes through the articulation and representation of medical images and technologies. I link these developments to Paul Rabinow's notion of biosociality and argue that the molecularization and geneticization of the medical gaze, conjoined with certain social and cultural shifts, results in the formation of an experimental public of artists, scientists and lay people, all invested in actively shaping the conceptualization of bodies and diseases. This will take me to a consideration of the intertwining of art and medicine beyond the domain of the visual. PMID:25344009

  4. ULTRACLEAN FUELS PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: ADVANCES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, E.

    2013-06-17

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  5. The Machinate Literary Animal: Butlerian Science for the Twenty-first Century

    E-print Network

    Neill, Anna

    2014-12-01

    -moving, genetic change. Butler’s theories of unconscious memory and extended cognition, along with the Lamarckian principle that acquired traits could be passed on to descendants, together constituted an “evo-devo” approach to species history. In particular...

  6. The peasantries of the twenty-first century: the commoditisation debate revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Douwe van der Ploeg

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the re-emergence of the peasantry. It argues that farming is increasingly being restructured in a peasant-like way. This restructuring is an actively constructed response to the agrarian crisis that has grown out of five decades of state-induced modernisation and is currently being accelerated by the financial crisis and the generalised economic depression. Through a process of restructuring

  7. Access to Space: A Strategy for the Twenty-First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon P. Worden; Jess Sponable

    2006-01-01

    The United States (US) launch infrastructure is at a crisis point. Human access to space embodied in the Space Shuttle is due to be phased out by 2010. Currently, there are no heavy lift, 100 ton class launchers to support the US national vision for space exploration. Medium and large expendable launch providers, Boeing's Delta IV, and Lockheed-Martin's Atlas V

  8. Global Warming in the Twenty-First Century: An Alternative Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar

    2000-01-01

    A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH4, and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this reduction of non-CO2 GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties.

  9. From Crisis to Opportunity: French and Foreign Language Studies in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Samia I.

    2003-01-01

    In response to falling enrollments in French and a diminishing pool of high school teachers, faculty at Auburn University tried to turn the tide through a series of curricular and advocacy initiatives. They introduced new French majors in education and in international trade and a collaborative major with the Consumer Affairs Department in French…

  10. Intergenerational Practice: Mentoring and Social Capital for Twenty-First Century Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming-Potvin, Wendy Marie; MacCallum, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Aiming to elucidate the relationship between social capital and intergenerational practice within mentoring, this article presents data from a case study of the School Volunteer Program in Western Australia. Drawing on situated learning theory and the concept of community of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998; Wenger, McDermott, & Snyder,…

  11. Natural Hazards: Geology, Engineering, Agriculture, and Sociopolitical\\/Humanitarian Considerations for the Twenty-First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph V. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Dangers from natural hazards have been characterized quantitatively by national and international committees of geoscientists based on technical advances in geochemistry and geophysics (sensu lato). The current status of knowledge on natural hazards is reviewed with particular emphasis on comet\\/asteroid impact, earthquakes, and volcanoes. All these hazards are survivable by the world's population if appropriate measures are taken over the

  12. Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, K. A.; Coad, L.; Taylor, G.; Lee, M. E.; Maisels, F.

    2013-01-01

    Humans have hunted wildlife in Central Africa for millennia. Today, however, many species are being rapidly extirpated and sanctuaries for wildlife are dwindling. Almost all Central Africa's forests are now accessible to hunters. Drastic declines of large mammals have been caused in the past 20 years by the commercial trade for meat or ivory. We review a growing body of empirical data which shows that trophic webs are significantly disrupted in the region, with knock-on effects for other ecological functions, including seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Plausible scenarios for land-use change indicate that increasing extraction pressure on Central African forests is likely to usher in new worker populations and to intensify the hunting impacts and trophic cascade disruption already in progress, unless serious efforts are made for hunting regulation. The profound ecological changes initiated by hunting will not mitigate and may even exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change for the region. We hypothesize that, in the near future, the trophic changes brought about by hunting will have a larger and more rapid impact on Central African rainforest structure and function than the direct impacts of climate change on the vegetation. Immediate hunting regulation is vital for the survival of the Central African rainforest ecosystem. PMID:23878333

  13. Futurework: Trends and Challenges for Work in the 21st Century

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    Published by the US Department of Labor (DOL), this report explores the social impact of the new economy and the role of the "twenty-first century work-place" in America. Futurework cites three elements necessary for the stability of American workers: "rising economic security over a lifetime," "a work and family balance," and "workplaces that are safe and fair." Using numerous charts, tables, and graphs, the report examines topics such as workforce diversity, wage growth, changing workplaces, technology and globalization, and future trends affecting working conditions and worker morale. The report may be downloaded by chapter in .pdf format. Additional resources at the site include a number of full-text conference papers (in HTML or .pdf formats) and related links. [MD

  14. New Challenges for Higher Education: Global and Asia-Pacific Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Harman, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With rapid socio-economic changes, twenty-first century higher education is facing major challenges to its governance systems, curriculum, mission focus, external relations, research, and financing. A theoretical framework to analyze these post-massification challenges is suggested, with a focus on the Asia-Pacific region as well as global issues.…

  15. 21st Century Challenges. Reexamining the Base of the Federal Government. GAO-05-325SP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The federal government's financial condition and long-term fiscal outlook present enormous challenges to the nation's ability to respond to emerging forces reshaping American society, the United States' place in the world, and the future role of the federal government. This report includes education and employment challenges for the 21st century

  16. Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John N. Sofos

    2008-01-01

    The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as “new,” “emerging,” or “evolving” pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses,

  17. Challenges of Urban Education: Sociological Perspectives for the Next Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClafferty, Karen A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.; Mitchell, Theodore R., Ed.

    The papers in this collection discuss the challenges facing urban education and the sociology of urban education. The more comprehensive perspective presented in this document can contribute to the improvement of city schools and the empowerment of urban students. Following an introduction, "Challenges of the New Sociology of Urban Education"…

  18. MOS Scaling: Transistor Challenges for the 21st Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Thompson; Paul Packan

    1998-01-01

    Conventional scaling of gate oxide thickness, source\\/drain extension (SDE), junction depths, and gate lengths have enabled MOS gate dimensions to be reduced from 10?m in the 1970's to a present day size of 0.1?m. To enable transistor scaling into the 21 st century, new solutions such as high dielectric constant materials for gate insulation and shallow, ultra low resistivity junctions

  19. African Higher Education: Challenges for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew; Altbachl, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    African higher education, at the beginning of the new millennium, faces unprecedented challenges. Not only is the demand for access unstoppable, especially in the context of Africa's traditionally low postsecondary attendance levels, but higher education is recognized as a key force for modernization and development. Africa's academic institutions…

  20. Critical infrastructure protection: A 21st century challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madjid Merabti; Michael Kennedy; William Hurst

    2011-01-01

    of the potential for damage that could be caused by targeted attacks and cyber warfare. Current approaches to addressing these problems have tended to focus on traditional security measures, and have not mobilised the full breadth of capabilities provided by digital technologies. In this paper we will explore some of the challenges associated with these developments. We also consider potential

  1. 70 FR 40756 - Intermarket Trading System; Order Granting Approval of the Twenty First Amendment to the ITS Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-07-14

    ...the Twenty First Amendment to the ITS Plan Relating to the Recognition of the Automatic Generation of Outgoing ITS Commitments July...markets, and shall remove impediments to, and perfect the mechanisms of, a national market system. Specifically, the...

  2. Climate change, thermal comfort and energy: Meeting the design challenges of the 21st century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Holmes; Jacob N. Hacker

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the dual challenge of designing sustainable low-energy buildings while still providing thermal comfort under warmer summer conditions produced by anthropogenic climate change—a key challenge for building designers in the 21st century. The main focus is towards buildings that are ‘free running’ for some part of the summer, either being entirely naturally ventilated or mixed-mode (where mechanical cooling

  3. On Pliability and Progress: Challenging Current Conceptions of Eighteenth-Century French Educational Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2009-01-01

    Examining the educational writings of three of the eighteenth-century's most innovative thinkers, the Abbe de Saint-Pierre, Morelly and Helvetius, this article challenges the currently accepted view that it was a belief in human pliability which gave rise to the contemporary groundbreaking faith in the power of education to improve society. The…

  4. Biocurators and biocuration: surveying the 21st century challenges.

    PubMed

    Burge, Sarah; Attwood, Teresa K; Bateman, Alex; Berardini, Tanya Z; Cherry, Michael; O'Donovan, Claire; Xenarios, Loannis; Gaudet, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Curated databases are an integral part of the tool set that researchers use on a daily basis for their work. For most users, however, how databases are maintained, and by whom, is rather obscure. The International Society for Biocuration (ISB) represents biocurators, software engineers, developers and researchers with an interest in biocuration. Its goals include fostering communication between biocurators, promoting and describing their work, and highlighting the added value of biocuration to the world. The ISB recently conducted a survey of biocurators to better understand their educational and scientific backgrounds, their motivations for choosing a curatorial job and their career goals. The results are reported here. From the responses received, it is evident that biocuration is performed by highly trained scientists and perceived to be a stimulating career, offering both intellectual challenges and the satisfaction of performing work essential to the modern scientific community. It is also apparent that the ISB has at least a dual role to play to facilitate biocurators' work: (i) to promote biocuration as a career within the greater scientific community; (ii) to aid the development of resources for biomedical research through promotion of nomenclature and data-sharing standards that will allow interconnection of biological databases and better exploit the pivotal contributions that biocurators are making. DATABASE URL: http://biocurator.org. PMID:22434828

  5. Cataract blindness--challenges for the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Brian, G.; Taylor, H.

    2001-01-01

    Cataract prevalence increases with age. As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The challenges are to prevent or delay cataract formation, and treat that which does occur. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to cataract formation. However, reducing ocular exposure to UV-B radiation and stopping smoking are the only interventions that can reduce factors that affect the risk of cataract. The cure for cataract is surgery, but this is not equally available to all, and the surgery which is available does not produce equal outcomes. Readily available surgical services capable of delivering good vision rehabilitation must be acceptable and accessible to all in need, no matter what their circumstances. To establish and sustain these services requires comprehensive strategies that go beyond a narrow focus on surgical technique. There must be changes in government priorities, population education, and an integrated approach to surgical and management training. This approach must include supply of start-up capital equipment, establishment of surgical audit, resupply of consumables, and cost-recovery mechanisms. Considerable innovation is required. Nowhere is this more evident than in the pursuit of secure funding for ongoing services. PMID:11285671

  6. Crude oil and alternate energy production forecasts for the twenty-first century: The end of the hydrocarbon era

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Edwards

    1997-01-01

    Predictions of production rates and ultimate recovery of crude oil are needed for intelligent planning and timely action to ensure the continuous flow of energy required by the world`s increasing population and expanding economies. Crude oil will be able to supply increasing demand until peak world production is reached. The energy gap caused by declining conventional oil production must then

  7. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2014-11-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and labour productivity in general.

  8. Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A unified program is outlined for studying the Earth, from its deep interior to its fluid envelopes. A system is proposed for measuring devices involving both space-based and in-situ observations that can accommodate simultaneously a large range of scientific needs. The scientific objectices served by this integrated infrastructure are cased into a framework of four grand themes. In summary these are: to determine the composition, structure, dynamics, and evolution of the Earth's crust and deeper interior; to establish and understand the structure, dynamics, and chemistry of the oceans, atmosphere, and cryosphere, and their interaction with the solid Earth; to characterize the history and dynamics of living organisms and their interaction with the environment; and to monitor and understand the interaction of human activities with the natural environment. A focus on these grand themes will help to understand the origin and fate of the planet, and to place it in the context of the solar system.

  9. Collection development and management in the twenty-first century with special reference to academic libraries: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kebede Gessesse

    2000-01-01

    Every library collection should be established for a definite purpose. In an academic library setting, the collection may be developed primarily for research and instructional support. In recent years traditional formats for information, such as books and microfilm, have increasingly been supplemented by information which is accessible electronically through the use of computer technology. This means then that the existing

  10. A Twenty-First Century View of Evolution: Genome System Architecture, Repetitive DNA, and Natural Genetic Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, James A.

    It is essential for nonbiologists to understand that evolutionary theory based on random mutation of autonomous genes is far from the last word on how genomes have changed in the course of biological evolution. The last 50 years of molecular genetics have produced an abundance of new discoveries and data that make it useful to revisit some basic concepts and assumptions in our thinking about genomes and evolution. Chief among these observations are the complex modularity of genome organization, the biological ubiquity of mobile and repetitive DNA sequences, and the fundamental importance of DNA rearrangements in the evolution of sequenced genomes. This review will take a broad overview of these developments and suggest some new ways of thinking about genomes as sophisticated informatic storage systems and about evolution as a systems engineering process.

  11. The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Volume Two--The Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This second volume of the Global 2000 study presents a technical report of detailed projections and analyses. It is a U.S. government effort to present a long-term global perspective on population, resources, and environment. The volume has four parts. Approximately half of the report, part one, deals with projections for the future in the areas…

  12. ORGANICALLY PRODUCED FOODS – A COMPETITIVE APPROACH FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY IN TERMS OF BLUE OCEAN NEW STRATEGIC CONCEPT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORGE PLESOIANU; ALEXANDRU-COSTIN CÎRSTEA

    2011-01-01

    The Blue Ocean Strategy provides a systematic approach to transform the competition in a less significant factor. This new concept provides companies and entrepreneurs ways to circumvent the fierce competition in the markets where there is a growing number of competitors with a relatively constant number of consumers by creating new market niches without competition. In fact, the strategy tries

  13. Organically Produced Foods - A Competitive Approach for the Twenty-First Century in Terms of Blue Ocean New Strategic Concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George PLESOIANU; Alexandru-Costin CIRSTEA

    2011-01-01

    The Blue Ocean Strategy provides a systematic approach to transform the competition in a less significant factor. This new concept provides companies and entrepreneurs ways to circumvent the fierce competition in the markets where there is a growing number of competitors with a relatively constant number of consumers by creating new market niches without competition. In fact, the strategy tries

  14. Teacher educators’ identities and work in England at the beginning of the second decade of the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Murray; Gerry Czerniawski; Patti Barber

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a recent study of teacher educators in England which aimed to explore teacher educators’ constructions of their own identities in the academic communities within two university schools of education. Findings show that teacher educators constructed repertoires of identities for themselves, deploying these to achieve credibility and recognition or to reflect personal change, depending on the particular

  15. Accountability in Grading Student Work: Securing Academic Standards in a Twenty-First Century Quality Assurance Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Boyd, Pete

    2012-01-01

    This article, using a student outcomes definition of academic standards, reports on academics' sense of standards as enacted through marking practices. Twelve lecturers from two UK universities were asked to "think aloud" as they graded written assignments followed by a semi-structured interview. The interview data were used to investigate the…

  16. Regional climate change experiments over southern South America. II: Climate change scenarios in the late twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario N. Nuñez; Silvina A. Solman; Maria Fernanda Cabré

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of climate change over southern South America as simulated by a regional climate model. The regional\\u000a model MM5 was nested within time-slice global atmospheric model experiments conducted by the HadAM3H model. The simulations\\u000a cover a 10-year period representing present-day climate (1981–1990) and two future scenarios for the SRESA2 and B2 emission\\u000a scenarios for the period 2081–2090.

  17. Regional climate change experiments over southern South America. II: Climate change scenarios in the late twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario N. Nuñez; Silvina A. Solman; Maria Fernanda Cabré

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of climate change over southern South America as simulated by a regional climate model. The regional model MM5 was nested within time-slice global atmospheric model experiments conducted by the HadAM3H model. The simulations cover a 10-year period representing present-day climate (1981-1990) and two future scenarios for the SRESA2 and B2 emission scenarios for the period 2081-2090.

  18. Teaching for Understanding of Science in Context: Evidence from the Pilot Trials of the "Twenty First Century Science" Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Mary; Millar, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The framework developed for the PISA 2006 science survey starts from everyday contexts in which citizens encounter scientific issues and knowledge claims. Recent curriculum changes in England, making possible the introduction of courses for 15- to 16-year olds with an explicit "scientific literacy" emphasis, are based on a very similar analysis,…

  19. Moving the Law School into the Twenty-First Century--Embedding Technology into Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steventon, Beverley; Panesar, Sukhninder; Wood, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Over the past twenty years phenomenal developments in technology have changed the nature of education. Students now have access to a vast range of resources 24/7. This instant access has created a certain expectation on the part of the student and there must now be very few, if any, courses taught in higher education where the lecturer does not…

  20. Computers and Communication Networks in Educational Settings in the Twenty-First Century: Preparation for Educators' New Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kook, Joong-Kak

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of changes in classrooms as a result of communication networks focuses on teachers' roles in future educational settings. Topics include teachers as information consultants, as team collaborators, as facilitators, as course developers, and as academic advisors; and the computer and communication skills needed by teachers. (LRW)

  1. Rewriting the Job Description: The Teaching Profession in the Twenty-First Century. Education Outlook. No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2009-01-01

    "Human capital" is quickly becoming the new site-based management, a popular strategy from the 1980s and 1990s that sought to increase autonomy in schools and spread decision making more widely. While few are sure what human capital means, everyone craves it, has a model to deliver it, and is quick to tout its restorative powers. It is trendy and…

  2. Management of a twenty-first century brain bank: experience in the BrainNet Europe consortium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne E. Bell; Irina Alafuzoff; Safa Al-Sarraj; Thomas Arzberger; Nenad Bogdanovic; Herbert Budka; David T. Dexter; Peter Falkai; Isidro Ferrer; Elena Gelpi; Steven M. Gentleman; Giorgio Giaccone; Inge Huitinga; James W. Ironside; Natasja Klioueva; Gabor G. Kovacs; David Meyronet; Miklos Palkovits; Piero Parchi; Efstatios Patsouris; Richard Reynolds; Peter Riederer; Wolfgang Roggendorf; Danielle Seilhean; Andrea Schmitt; Peer Schmitz; Nathalie Streichenberger; Ameli Schwalber; Hans Kretzschmar

    2008-01-01

    Collections of human postmortem brains gathered in brain banks have underpinned many significant developments in the understanding\\u000a of central nervous system (CNS) disorders and continue to support current research. Unfortunately, the worldwide decline in\\u000a postmortem examinations has had an adverse effect on research tissue procurement, particularly from control cases (non-diseased\\u000a brains). Recruitment to brain donor programmes partially addresses this problem

  3. The Netherlands in the twenty-first century : High-quality management of private, non-profit organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. M. Wilderom; F. Joldersma

    1996-01-01

    Spending cuts, privatization, decentralization and deregulation are undermining the dominant role of the Dutch Government in private non-profit organizations. Less governmental interference will force non-profit management to strike a balance between private management and public management. Argues that private non-profit managers should adjust their managerial attitudes towards other stakeholders. Managers must first serve their own front-line officers, and these front-line

  4. Separate and Unequal: Twenty-First Century Segregation of Historically Black Colleges and Universities through Academic Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, James

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies discriminatory patterns within the curriculum of Historically Black Colleges and Universities. The current federal definition of Historically Black Colleges and Universities indicates that any institution founded prior to 1964, with the expressed purpose of educating Blacks, will be known as a Historically Black College or…

  5. Respecting difference and moving beyond regulation: tasks for U.S. bioethics commissions in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Mary Anderlik

    2005-09-01

    This article focuses on two possible missions for a national bioethics commission. The first is handling differences of worldview, political orientation, and discipline. Recent work in political philosophy emphasizes regard for the dignity of difference manifested in "conversation" that seeks understanding rather than agreement. The President's Council on Bioethics gets a mixed review in this area. The second is experimenting with prophetic bioethics. "Prophetic bioethics" is a term coined by Daniel Callahan to describe an alternative to compromise-seeking "regulatory bioethics." It involves a critique of modern medicine. In the contemporary context, the areas of biotechnology and access to health care cry out for prophetic attention. The Council has addressed biotechnology; unfortunately, that experience suggests that the kind of prophecy that it practices poses risks to conversation. With regard to access issues, the article proposes an effort that unites themes of human dignity, solidarity, and limits in support of reform, while highlighting, rather than papering over, differences. PMID:16250117

  6. Healthy Women, Healthy Men, and Healthy Adults: An Evaluation of Gender Role Stereotypes in the Twenty-first Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Rachael Seem; M. Diane Clark

    2006-01-01

    An important question often asked when counselors-in-training read textbook discussion of gender role stereotypes, especially of older work such as the classic study by the Brovermans and their colleagues, is “Haven’t these biases been eliminated or at least reduced?” The current study was designed to replicate the work of the Brovermans and their colleagues to answer that specific question and

  7. Revisiting an Old Friend: The Practice and Promise of Cooperative Learning for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schul, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning has long been at the disposal of school teachers. However, it is often misunderstood by some teachers as just another form of collaborative group work. This article revisits cooperative learning, including a sampling of its popular variations, with practical approaches toward effectively integrating it into classroom…

  8. The next great American station : Union Station and Downtown Los Angeles in the twenty-first century

    E-print Network

    Dunsmore, Jaymes Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Ideas about a city are powerful forces, and have lasting impacts on the built environment. While not every vision is realized in the built form, every aspect of urban development is the reflection of a vision about what ...

  9. Breaking the Mold of Preservice and Inservice Teacher Education: Innovative and Successful Practices for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohan, Audrey, Ed.; Honigsfeld, Andrea, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This unique collection of chapters takes the reader on a tour to explore innovative preservice and inservice teacher education practices from many regions of the United States, Canada and the world. Each of the chapters offers an authentic, documentary account of successful initiatives that break the traditional mold of teacher education. Section…

  10. Marketing research: A state-of-the-art review and directions for the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naresh K. Malhotra; Mark Peterson; Susan Bardi Kleiser

    1999-01-01

    This article provides observations on the state of the art in marketing research during 1987–1997. As such, it updates the\\u000a earlier state-of-the-art review by Malhotra (1988), which won theJournal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS) Best Article Award. The primary thrust of articles published in theJournal of Marketing Research during 1987–1997 is reviewed to determine important areas of research.

  11. Physical principles of electrospinning (Electrospinning as a nano-scale technology of the twenty-first century)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lukáš; A. Sarkar; L. Martinová; K. Vodsedálková; D. Lubasová; J. Chaloupek; P. Pokorný; P. Mikeš; J. Chvojka; M. Komárek

    2009-01-01

    The history of electrospinning is briefly introduced at the beginning of the article. The fundaments of the process are then analysed physically to be translated into a successful technology. Self-organisation of fluid in electrospinning is perceived as a consequence of various instabilities, based on electrohydrodynamics and, thus, highlighted as a key factor, theorising the subject successfully to elevate it to

  12. Prevention in the Twenty-First Century: Promoting Health and Well-Being in Education and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, John L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the science of prevention, with special attention to prevention research and applications in education and psychology, and the importance of prevention in Asian countries. One example that will be highlighted is the recently adopted Korean government policy on Internet addiction which addresses the problem from prevention to…

  13. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and labour productivity in general.

  14. Twenty-First Century Learning in Schools: A Case Study of New Technology High School in Napa, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlman, Bob

    2006-01-01

    When one walks into the classrooms at New Technology High School (NTHS) in Napa, California, he or she will see that students there are always at work: writing journals online, doing research on the Internet, meeting in groups to plan and make their Web sites and their digital media presentations, and evaluating their peers for collaboration and…

  15. Educating outside the Lines: Bard College at Simon's Rock on a "New Pedagogy" for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanoshak, Nancy, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Founded in 1966, and premised on the idea that motivated sixteen-year-olds are capable of college work, Bard College at Simon's Rock is an educational "experiment" from the sixties that has endured and prospered. "Educating Outside the Lines" looks at Simon's Rock as a pioneer of the early college movement that has begun to reshape the connections…

  16. New challenges for higher education: global and Asia-Pacific perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Cheol Shin; Grant Harman

    2009-01-01

    With rapid socio-economic changes, twenty-first century higher education is facing major challenges to its governance systems,\\u000a curriculum, mission focus, external relations, research, and financing. A theoretical framework to analyze these post-massification\\u000a challenges is suggested, with a focus on the Asia-Pacific region as well as global issues. Five main topic areas provide the\\u000a basis for the theoretical framework: massification, privatization, accountability

  17. The Bowker Annual of Library and Book Trade Information. Twenty-First Edition. With Cumulative Index 1972-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miele, Madeline, Ed.; And Others

    The twenty-first edition of the Bowker Annual serves as an almanac, handbook, and fact finder for the library and publishing fields. The first section, "Reports from National Associations and Agencies," summarizes the 1975 activities of 14 organizations. The second part, "Developments in Librarianship and Publishing," features articles on the…

  18. Challenges for Chemistry in the 21st Century: Report on the American Chemical Society Presidential Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettys, Nancy S.

    1998-06-01

    On Sunday morning, March 29, 1998, during the 215th American Chemical Society National Meeting in Dallas, TX, a special Presidential Event, "Challenges for Chemistry in the 21st Century", was held. It was sponsored by the American Chemical Society Committee on Science and Chemical and Engineering News as part of its 75th Anniversary. Six outstanding scientists spoke on the future of their chosen fields of study to a standing-room-only audience. The intensity and enthusiasm of these men and women were inspiring. Several common themes emerged. According to these experts, the next century will require greater education in science and technology for the public and greater emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches to science by scientists. The completion of the human genome project and technological advances, including the development of nanotechnology, will be the driving forces of research in chemistry.

  19. More food, low pollution (mo fo lo Po): a grand challenge for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric A; Suddick, Emma C; Rice, Charles W; Prokopy, Linda S

    2015-03-01

    Synthetic nitrogen fertilizer has been a double-edged sword, greatly improving human nutrition during the 20th century but also posing major human health and environmental challenges for the 21st century. In August 2013, about 160 agronomists, scientists, extension agents, crop advisors, economists, social scientists, farmers, representatives of regulatory agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and other agricultural experts gathered to discuss the vexing challenge of how to produce more food to nourish a growing population while minimizing pollution to the environment. This collection of 14 papers authored by conference participants provides a much needed analysis of the many technical, economic, and social impediments to improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crop and animal production systems. These papers demonstrate that the goals of producing more food with low pollution (Mo Fo Lo Po) will not be achieved by technological developments alone but will also require policies that recognize the economic and social factors affecting farmer decision-making. Take-home lessons from this extraordinary interdisciplinary effort include the need (i) to develop partnerships among private and public sectors to demonstrate the most current, economically feasible, best management NUE practices at local and regional scales; (ii) to improve continuing education to private sector retailers and crop advisers; (iii) to tie nutrient management to performance-based indicators on the farm and in the downwind and downstream environment; and (iv) to restore investments in research, education, extension, and human resources that are essential for developing the interdisciplinary knowledge and innovative skills needed to achieve agricultural sustainability goals. PMID:26023950

  20. Water Resources and Sustainable Agriculture in 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrar, G.

    2008-05-01

    Global agriculture faces some unique challenges and opportunities for the rest of this century. The need for food, feed and fiber will continues to grow as the world population continue to increase in the future. Agricultural ecosystems are also expected to be the source of a significant portion of renewable energy and fuels around the world, without further compromising the integrity of the natural resources base. How can agriculture continue to provide these services to meet the growing needs of world population while sustaining the integrity of agricultural ecosystems and natural resources, the very foundation it depends on? In the last century, scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture resulted in significant increase in food, feed and fiber production globally, while the total amount of water, energy, fertilizers and other input used to achieve this growth remained the same or even decreased significantly in some parts of the world. Scientific and technical advances in understanding global and regional water and energy cycles, water resources management, soil and water conservation practices, weather prediction, plant breeding and biotechnology, and information and communication technologies contributed to this tremendous achievement. The projected increase in global population, urbanization, and changing lifestyles will continue the pressure on both agriculture and other managed and natural ecosystems to provide necessary goods and services for the rest of this century. To meet these challenges, we must obtain the requisite scientific and technical advances in the functioning of Earth's water, energy, carbon and biogeochemical cycles. We also need to apply the knowledge we gain and technologies we develop in assessing Earth's ecosystems' conditions, and their management and stewardship. In agricultural ecosystems, management of soil and water quality and quantity together with development of new varieties of plants based on advances in genomic, genetics, breeding and applied biotechnologies are a key to our ability to address these challenges. We must also continue to develop agronomic practices that sustain the integrity of natural resources and conserve energy on one-hand while maximizing agricultural production per unit area of land on the other hand. This will require managing agricultural ecosystems for their multiple functions and services together, instead of looking at each function/service in isolation. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the scientific and technical knowledge required for sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems and associated natural resources. We will describe the soil, water and energy research needs/priorities in agriculture. We will also provide some examples of recent accomplishments and future directions in developing decision support tools for assessing the impacts of weather and climate variations and change, and their risk to agricultural ecosystems. We will then focus on opportunities and challenges associated with measurement, monitoring and modeling of soil moisture and its use in management and operation of agricultural ecosystems. The overall intent of this presentation is to stimulate some discussion on future directions and priorities for soil, water and energy research in agricultural ecosystems, and how the knowledge we gain from this research can be conveyed to the users for risk assessment, decision making, and multi-service ecosystem management purposes.

  1. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-10-26

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

  2. Proceedings of the Twenty-First International Conference on Machine Learning, pages 655-662, 2004. A Maximum Entropy Approach to Species Distribution Modeling

    E-print Network

    Schapire, Robert

    Proceedings of the Twenty-First International Conference on Machine Learning, pages 655-662, 2004, one is given a set of samples from a distribution over some space, as well as a set of features (real-

  3. Arnold, Richard English Hymns of the Nineteenth Century: An Anthology

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joy

    Philosophy Can Tell Us About Terrorism Harrison, Trevor W. Canadian Society in the TwentyFirst Century of the History of Logic: The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege Vol.3 The Death of Argument Fallacies

  4. RSA Opening Minds: A Curriculum for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candy, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the RSA Opening Minds competence framework, an innovative curriculum to meet the needs of young people as future employees, lifelong learners and as citizens of the twenty-first century.

  5. Challenges to Learning and Schooling in the Digital Networked World of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, giving special attention to digital literacy as one…

  6. Case Studies in 21st Century School Administration: Addressing Challenges for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David L.; Smith, Agnes

    2007-01-01

    Authors David L. Gray and Agnes E. Smith have written a book of cases to give prospective school leaders opportunities to resolve complex issues in K-12 school settings through reflective questions, activities, and authentic assessment tools for skill development. "Case Studies in 21st Century School Administration" presents thought-provoking case…

  7. Federal Statistical Confidentiality and Business Data: Twentieth Century Challenges and Continuing Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margo J Anderson; William Seltzer

    2009-01-01

    The roots of the modern concept of statistical confidentiality in the US federal statistical system can be traced directly back to the late nineteenth century efforts of statisticians to ensure full and accurate responses by businesses to statistical inquiries. Officials argued that such confidentiality guarantees were needed to ensure that the providers of enterprise and establishment data could be confident

  8. The Practice of Psychiatry in the 21st Century: Challenges for Psychiatric Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To consider how shifting scientific, technological, social, and financial pressures are likely to significantly alter psychiatric practice, careers, and education in the 21st century, this article reviews trends and innovations likely to have an effect on tomorrow's psychiatrists and their educators. Results: The psychiatric profession…

  9. School Psychology Training for the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swerdlik, Mark E.; French, Joseph L.

    2000-01-01

    Training programs will continue to change to meet the needs of consumers of school psychological services in the 21st century. Provides information about the factors influencing the preparation of school psychologists whose roles and functions must change to meet these needs. Emphasis is on the overall context of training and the anticipated…

  10. Enter Health Information Technology: Expanding Theories of the Doctor–Patient Relationship for the Twenty-First Century Health Care Delivery System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric R. Wright

    \\u000a Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine’s landmark report To Err is Human (1999), health care industry leaders and policymakers have emphasized the central importance of improving the quality of\\u000a care and reducing the number of medical errors. More recently, various health information technologies (HIT) have been identified\\u000a by many as essential quality improvement tools. Indeed, over the past

  11. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation and Transient Dynamics during the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

    E-print Network

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    , such as those from fossil fuel combus- tion or land use change, but also on the response of the natural carbon fuel emissions, but east­west contrasts in CO2 also strengthened because of changing patterns in fossil fuel emissions and terrestrial carbon exchange. In the RCP8.5 simulation, where CO2 increased to 1150

  12. Twenty-First-Century Headteacher: Pedagogue, Visionary Leader or Both? Phase 1--A Reflection on the Historical Perspective and Critical Analysis of Contemporary Perception and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett-Baxendale, Denise; Burton, Diana

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the UK secondary educational landscape has witnessed significant change, with the introduction of an ever-extending spectrum of competing government initiatives and policies. This has resulted in the steady erosion of the traditionally recognized role of headteacher. This paper presents the results of a practitioner-based study…

  13. Development and Education. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Second Session (Dakar, Senegal, September 18-22, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondel, Daniele

    This paper reviews the evolution of the different theories concerning education as a factor of development. It is important to see exactly how the struggle against scarcity and the production of material goods can be made more effective by allocating financial and human resources to the production and transmission of knowledge. The growth theory…

  14. Coupled MODEL Intercomparison Project PHASE 5 (CMIP5) Projected Twenty-First Century Warming over Southern Africa: Role of LOCAL Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shongwe, M.

    2014-12-01

    The warming rates projected by an ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparion Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models (GCMs) over southern Africa (south of 10 degrees latitude) are investigated. In all RCPs, CMIP5 models project a higher warming rate over the southwestern parts centred around the arid Kalahari and Namib deserts. The higher warming rates over these areas outpace global warming by up to a factor 2 in some GCMs. The projected warming is associated with an increase in heat waves. There is notable consensus across the models with little intermodel spread, suggesting a strong robustness of the projections. Mechanisms underlying the enhanced warming are investigated. A positive soil moisture-temperature feedback is suggested to contribute to the accelerated temperature increase. A decrease in soil moisture is projected by the GCMs over the area of highest warming. The reduction in soil wetness reduces evapotranspiration rates over the area where evaporation is dependent on available soil moisture. The reduction is evapotranspiration affects the partitioning of turbulent energy fluxes from the soil surface into the atmosphere and translates into an increase of the Bowen ratio featuring an increase in sensible relative to latent heat flux. An increase in sensible heat flux leads to an increase in near-surface temperature. The increase in temperature leads to a higher vapour pressure deficit and evaporative demand and evapotranspiration from the dry soils, possibly leading to a further decrease in soil moisture. A precipitation-soil moisture feedback is also suggested. A decrease in mean precipitation and an increase in drought conditions are projected over the area of enhanced warming. The reduced precipitation results in drier soils. The drier soil translates to reduced evapotranspiration for cloud and rainfall formation. However, the role played by the soil moisture-precipitation feedback loop is still inconclusive and characterized by some degree of uncertainty given that the strength of the local moisture recycling has not been explicitly quantified. An alternative mechanism involving the impact of soil moisture anomalies on boundary-layer stability and precipitation formation will be investigated.

  15. Hoffman’s Hawk. A University of Kansas Jayhawk Carved During the Russian Revolution of 1917 Reappears at KU in the Twenty-First Century

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Marc L.

    2010-11-25

    of “Bolshevik Jayhawk” are given on the sculpture it? self. On each side of the base are penciled inscriptions. On the base of the left side of the Jay is the inscription “Sent to L. N. Flint, Alumni Secretary, by Conrad Hoffman, YMCA at a German Internment Camp in 1917.” On the Jay’s right side in... Scholarly Digital Initiatives Librarian, for drawing my attention to the article in the University Daily Kansan, which alerted me to the existence of the cargin; to Keah Cunningham for her fine photographic skills; and to Prof. Kenneth Steuer, historian at Western Michigan University, who...

  16. Response to Anthony J. Palmer, "Music Education for the Twenty-First Century: A Philosophical View of the General Education Core"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frega, Ana Lucia

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses three themes related to Tony Palmer's paper: (1) her agreement with the content of his paper in general; (2) some remarks on elements of what he deals with, including notions about the concept or a vision of what music education should be in the US and in the rest of the world and an approach to training music…

  17. The Treasure House of a Nation? Literary Heritage, Curriculum and Devolution in Scotland and England in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    In January 2012, Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond announced a radical measure that would see every Scottish school student study a Scottish text from a prescribed list. In 2010, Michael Gove announced that "Our literature is the best in the world" and that every pupil should study particular authors. The "cultural…

  18. Women's Networks towards the Twenty-first Century. Proceedings of the International Fourm on Women and Life-long Learning (Saitama, Japan, November 14-16, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    The role of women's centers and other facilities for women has become increasingly important in promoting a variety of opportunities for women's learning and participation in society. This conference, with the theme of women's networks for the future, was designed to promote the international exchange of information and cooperative development…

  19. The Relevance of Nomadic Forager Studies to Moral Foundations Theory: Moral Education and Global Ethics in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Douglas P.; Souillac, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    Moral foundations theory (MFT) proposes the existence of innate psychological systems, which would have been subjected to selective forces over the course of evolution. One approach for evaluating MFT, therefore, is to consider the proposed psychological foundations in relation to the reconstructed Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness. This…

  20. Angry Badgers: The Protests in Wisconsin Have Helped Revive an Old Progressive State of Being: "Badgerness" Has Been Reinvented for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhle, Mari Jo; Buhle, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The events in Wisconsin during February and March 2011 will long be considered remarkable in many ways. That includes the documenting of the protests. Perhaps at no previous time have so many journalists--paid and unpaid--gathered so much information about a protest movement and dispersed it in so many formats so quickly. Ubiquitous, touching, and…

  1. Designing Cross-Functional Business Processes. The Jossey-Bass Management Series. From Training to Performance in the Twenty-First Century. Set 2, Redesigning Work Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johann, Bernard

    This guide offers a comprehensive set of practical tools to lead novice and veteran practitioners through the complexities of business process redesign. This hands-on kit integrates systems theory, economics, and psychology to provide the detailed procedures, checklists, data analysis worksheets, and other resources essential to identify, analyze,…

  2. Technical and Vocational Education and Training: A Vision for the Twenty-First Century. Recommendations to the Director-General of UNESCO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The participants in the Second International Congress on Technical and Vocational Education (TVE), which was devoted to the theme of lifelong learning and training as a bridge to the future, formulated 48 recommendations to the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The recommendations…

  3. The effects of culture and other factors on career-related behaviors of African-American students: Implications for the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhonda E Paul

    1998-01-01

    African Americans, as a group, continue to pursue low skilled and social type professional occupations while the demand for math\\/science and technical related workers steadily rises. If this trend continues, the employment opportunities will likely become increasingly limited for this population. In order for career counselors to effectively impact the career development of this population, greater understanding as to the

  4. Physicians for the Twenty-First Century. The GPEP Report: Report of the Panel on the General Professional Education of the Physician and College Preparation for Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The conclusions and recommendations of the Panel on the General Professional Education of the Physician (GPEP) and College Preparation for Medicine are presented. The recommendations cover the following issues: developing student skills, values, and attitudes; describing preparation for residency; adapting to changes in health and health care;…

  5. Drug Information to Biomedical Informatics: A Three-Tier Approach to Building a University System for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrill, Mary J.; Norton, Linda L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a University of the Pacific (California) biomedical informatics center that promotes student use of informatics for doctoral courses, facilitates course-related hands-on information seeking, encourages graduate and faculty use of information technology, and is self-supporting. Discusses organization, benefits, and problems encountered,…

  6. Lights, camera, action research: The effects of didactic digital movie making on students' twenty-first century learning skills and science content in the middle school classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Ochsner

    2010-01-01

    Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and ISTE NET*S, along with the framework from the Partnership

  7. The Survival of the Three Original U.S. Television Networks Into the Twenty-First Century as Diverse Broadcast Programming Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Robert Fitzpatrick

    1995-01-01

    The economic viability of the three original U. S . television networks, ABC, CBS, and NBC, is threatened by emerging competition, excessive regulation, and the proliferation of new broadcasting and telecommunications technologies. This is a significant problem because United States viewers have depended upon free, diverse, broadcast television programming for more than forty years. This programming has traditionally been provided

  8. Lights, Camera, Action Research: The Effects of Didactic Digital Movie Making on Students' Twenty-First Century Learning Skills and Science Content in the Middle School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochsner, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and…

  9. Technology: The Digital Revolution That Is Shaping Twenty-First-Century Jewish Education—A Fleeting Snapshot from the First Decade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Amkraut

    \\u000a Casual observers and engaged critics alike have compared the changes in communication technology associated with the digital\\u000a era to the radical shift in access to information ushered in by the invention of the printing press. Digital media and the\\u000a ability to share that media both instantaneously and broadly are powerful forces that are shaping the cultural and social\\u000a landscape of

  10. Studying U.S. Music in the Twenty-First Century Author(s): Charles Hiroshi Garrett and Carol J. Oja

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    professional lives and research choices of such recent events as the "War on Terror," the economic downturn- fering comments on both this introduction and our concluding reflections to this colloquy, and to Samuel

  11. The Rental Epidemic of The Twenty-First Century: A Look at How Netflix and Redbox Are Damaging The Hollywood Film Industry and How To Stop It

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan Sullivan

    2010-01-01

    The Hollywood film industry is struggling. The once reliably steady stream of revenue from DVD sales is vanishing. Since DVD sales are plummeting, film studios are producing fewer movies. Meanwhile, the rental industry is profiting like never before. In many cases, the rental companies are only required to pay the film studios the modest purchase price for the DVD. And,

  12. An analysis of technology infusion in college and university career services offices in the southwest region of the United States in the twenty-first century

    E-print Network

    Vinson, Bonita Desiree McClain

    2007-09-17

    ; Sverko, Akik, Babarovic, Brcina, & Sverko, 2002). Colleges and universities have had to adjust their mode of operation with the infusion of technology in higher education (Bates, 2000; Brown & Duguid, 1996; Chickering & Ehrmann, 1996; Upcraft & Goldsmith... of technology (Bates, 2000; Brown & Duguid, 1996; Chickering & Ehrmann, 1996; Upcraft & Goldsmith, 2000). As early as 1999, Falduto recognized “technology is the most rapidly changing support factor that higher education has yet experienced” (p. 39). That fact...

  13. Los Alamos National Laboratory: 21st century solutions to urgent national challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Mcbranch, Duncan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been called upon to meet urgent national challenges for more than 65 years. The people, tools, and technologies at Los Alamos are a world class resource that has proved decisive through our history, and are needed in the future. We offer expertise in nearly every science, technology, and engineering discipline, a unique integrated capability for large-scale computing and experimentation, and the proven ability to deliver solutions involving the most complex and difficult technical systems. This white paper outlines some emerging challenges and why the nation needs Los Alamos, the premier National Security Science Laboratory, to meet these challenges.

  14. Blood lead in the 21st Century: The sub-microgram challenge

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Maria A; Jolly, Kevin W; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2010-01-01

    In the US the dominant sources of lead through much of the 20th Century (eg, vehicular emissions, plumbing, household paint) have been significantly diminished. The reductions in adult and pediatric average blood lead levels in the US have been extraordinary. Progress continues: the US Environmental Protection Agency recently developed a new air standard for lead. In the 21st Century, the average blood lead level in a society may be seen as a marker of the status of their public’s health. However, the threat of lead exposure remains a significant public health problem among subpopulation groups in the US and in many less developed countries. This paper examines some of the specific issues involved in the reduction of blood lead in a post-industrial era. These involve the control of the remaining exogenous primary sources, both general (eg, industrial emissions) and specific (eg, at-risk occupations), exogenous secondary sources (eg, contaminated urban soils, legacy lead-based paints), an endogenous source (ie, cumulative body lead burden) and emergent sources. PMID:22282686

  15. China's 8 challenges to water resources management in the first quarter of the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varis, Olli; Vakkilainen, Pertti

    2001-11-01

    Northern China has less than half the water per person than the absolutely water-scarce Egypt. This simple comparison helps us to understand that China will face great water-related challenges in the coming decades. Its rapid urbanization, industrialization, growing agricultural demand, environmental degradation, and potential climate-related threats will be the major driving forces that challenge the management and utilization of China's water resources over the decades to come. China's environmental pressures already exceed the carrying capacity of this densely populated land. This paper surveys China's water resource management situation and its challenges for the decades ahead. The Yangtze River basin is a special focus. The waters and hydropower of this vast basin are increasingly being exploited—besides the 400 million people who live in the basin—also those other nearby parts of China. Particularly important is the thirst of the North China Plain—with another 400 million people—seeking the Yangtze's water and power.

  16. The Challenges for New Principals in the 21st Century. International Research on School Leadership Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoho, Alan R., Ed.; Barnett, Bruce, Ed.; Tooms, Autumn K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book series, "International Research on School Leadership," focuses on how present-day issues affect the theory and practice of school leadership. For this inaugural book, the editors focused on the challenges facing new principals and headteachers. Because the professional lives of school leaders have increasingly impinged on their personal…

  17. HIGH PLAINS GRASSLANDS RESEARCH STATION - CHANGING TO MEET THE CHALLENGES OF A NEW CENTURY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The High Plains Grasslands Research Station (HPGRS), administered by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), has a long history of changing from its founding in 1928 as the Central Great Plains Field Station to meet emerging challenges of the nation's ag...

  18. Looking Toward the 21st Century: Challenges of Educational Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses challenges related to educational theory and practice, focusing on arenas for theoretical development (unifying the cognitive and the social, learning, the brain, transfer, reconceptualizing the nature versus nurture discussion, and social systems); theory and applications in synergy; and arenas for practical development (curriculum,…

  19. Coastal zone management for the new century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Clark

    1997-01-01

    This essay surveys the field of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in terms of its readiness to handle coastal resources conservation problems of the Twenty First Century. It discusses each of the main components of ICZM including, inter alia, boundaries, objectives, coordination mechanisms, issues, techniques, institutional and legal arrangements, permits, environmental assessments (EA), protected areas, constraints, and success factors. It

  20. Antibacterial research and development in the 21(st) Century--an industry perspective of the challenges.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Christopher J; Power, Edward; Ruebsamen-Waigmann, Helga; Labischinski, Harald

    2004-10-01

    The continued evolution of resistance to antibiotics has led to wide ranging consultation at National and International levels as to how to address this issue. In addition to attempting to limit the spread of resistance there is growing consensus that a cornerstone requirement is the development of new antibiotics to help redress the balance of resistance versus available antibiotics. The availability of new technologies such as genomics has opened up new approaches for antibacterial research. It would appear that from an industry perspective, the research and development of antibiotics should be an attractive option. However, this is not the current perception at the majority of large pharmaceutical companies. In addition, the perceived failure of new technologies to create another golden age of new antibacterial classes has led many companies to prioritise other areas of research and, in some cases, to exit antibacterial research. In response, a plethora of small biotech companies have emerged with an interest in antibacterial discovery and large pharmaceutical companies may look to these as a source of development candidates although, to date, these have contributed a very low number of truly novel antibiotic lead compounds. As a reaction to these changes several initiatives are ongoing to examine ways to incentivise antibacterial research and development and ensure a healthy pipeline of compounds in the 21st Century. PMID:15451498

  1. Social justice and the global economy: new challenges for social work in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Polack, Robert J

    2004-04-01

    The globalization of the economy creates new challenges for social work in the arenas of social and economic justice. This article outlines social justice issues related to the debt crisis of the Global South and sweatshops. A presentation of colonial precursors is followed by a detailed examination of these global institutions with an emphasis on the vulnerability, disempowered status, and exploitation of poor people of the Global South. Connections with global inequities in wealth, income, and the distribution of resources are made explicit. The article explores domestic social justice problems as possible points of connection with these issues. Finally, the authors give recommendations for social work education, advocacy, and activism. PMID:15124969

  2. Situational awareness for science funders: information challenges and solutions for funding agencies in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Ashlea; Diwersy, Mario

    2014-02-01

    About 25 years ago, one of our colleagues joined the Wellcome Trust, the world's second largest private biomedical funder. At the time, computers and the Internet were not a regular part of everyday work routines. Today, a quarter of a century later, the Wellcome Trust and other forward thinking funders are leading the way in integrating software, systems, and information technology into their funding processes. While not all research funders have been technologically proactive--some have only recently switched to electronic applications and others still operate with largely document-based processes-almost all funders experience some level of difficulty when it comes to translating technological advances into operational efficiencies and strategic insights. Also, although there are exceptions, funders generally do not share notes. That is scary. It is a rich and perhaps troubling irony that even while they invest billions of dollars in groundbreaking research to solve some of the world's greatest challenges, many funders struggle to find effective solutions to what can seem like pedestrian information challenges: PMID:24597167

  3. The Challenges of the 21st Century for Vocational Education and Training. International Conference on Vocational Education and Training Proceedings (Helsinki, Finland, August 24-28, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    The following are among the 52 papers included: "A Vision of Vocational Education and Training for the Approaching Millennium" (Mndebele); "Challenges for the 21st Century for Technical-Vocational Education and Training from Global, Regional and National Perspectives" (Basu); "A Customer-Oriented Approach for Curriculum Development in Vocational…

  4. Science Education and the Challenges Facing Its Integration into the 21st Century School System in a Globalized World: A Case of Igbo Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeudu, F. O.; Nkokelonye, C. U.; Ezeudu, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a study of historical foundations of science education in Igboland, its nature and scope as well as the challenges facing its integration into the 21st century school system in a globalized world. The authors found that there were many scientific activities in Igbo culture, but many problems hinder their integration into the basic…

  5. Energy Research at UC Santa Barbara Energy is one of the most important challenges of the century. Energy research at the University of

    E-print Network

    Akhmedov, Azer

    Energy Research at UC Santa Barbara Energy is one of the most important challenges of the century. Energy research at the University of California Santa Barbara (UC Santa Barbara) is largely focused on developing new technologies that increase energy efficiency, thereby reducing energy consumption. UC Santa

  6. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

  7. Scientific and Technological Education in Brazil: Advancements and Challenges for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Claudio; Reis, Norma Teresinha Oliveira; Bruzzi, Demerval Guillarducci

    There is a complexity of challenges related to scientific and technological education in Brazil, including literacy in basic concepts and principles by students; better pre- and in-service teacher training; sufficient supply of computers, internet and other technological resources to all Brazilian public schools; provision of teacher training on how to effectively use such tools; and promotion of public awareness of science and technology and their vital role socioeconomic development and sovereignty. Recognizing the importance of fostering usage of technologies in education and the urgency of promoting and encouraging synergic efforts in the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies/programs/projects for science and technology in pre-college education, it was created in 2008, the Coordination of Educational Technologies, in the structure of the Brazilian Ministry of Education. This paper aims to: a) provide a general panorama of Brazilian education; b) discuss some current Brazilian efforts targeted to the advancement of scientific and technological education in pre-college education. As an illustration, we present the so-called “Guide of Educational Technologies,” a publication that allows educational managers to select resources that contribute to the enhancement of education in their school systems. This publication offers a wide range of educational technologies, such as in-service courses for teachers, web resources, software and programs targeted to several educational areas and demands.

  8. Lightning protection: challenges, solutions and questionable steps in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, István

    2011-06-01

    Besides the special primary lightning protection of extremely high towers, huge office and governmental buildings, large industrial plants and resident parks most of the challenges were connected to the secondary lightning protection of sensitive devices in Information and Communication Technology. The 70 year history of Budapest School of Lightning Protection plays an important role in the research and education of lightning and development of lightning protection. Among results and solutions the Rolling Sphere designing method (RS) and the Probability Modulated Attraction Space (PMAS) theory are detailed. As a new field Preventive Lightning Protection (PLP) has been introduced. The PLP method means the use of special preventive actions only for the duration of the thunderstorm. Recently several non-conventional lightning protection techniques have appeared as competitors of the air termination systems formed of conventional Franklin rods. The questionable steps, non-conventional lightning protection systems reported in the literature are the radioactive lightning rods, Early Streamer Emission (ESE) rods and Dissipation Arrays (sometimes called Charge Transfer Systems).

  9. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting. Volume 3, Primary system integrity; Aging research, products and applications; Structural and seismic engineering; Seismology and geology: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [comp.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Seven challenges for neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Markram, Henry

    Summary Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuro-science has to become “big science” – we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with “rungs” linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such “data ladders” will help us to meet the third challenge – the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need. PMID:24139651

  11. Education and outreach challenges for the 21st century -- Promoting source reduction and recycling in a changing America

    SciTech Connect

    Assmann, D.O.

    1999-07-01

    Promoting source reduction and recycling is become increasingly more challenging as the demographics of America change. By the middle of the next century, non-Hispanic whites will be a minority in a number of states, including California. More than 30 million people already speak a language other than English at home, and in some cities, such as San Francisco and Miami, more than 40% of residents speak a language other than English. Motivating residents to practice source reduction and recycling will require an increasing sensitivity to multi-culturalism and multi-lingual outreach will become essential. Designing public education programs that are successful will require significant changes in the way outreach is planned and implemented. The San Francisco Recycling Program has long worked on developing not just multi-lingual, but also multi-cultural outreach to motivate residents to reduce waste and recycle. The program conducts outreach in 6 languages, and has direct contact with more than 50,000 households a year, including using a multilingual phone bank operation that reaches 30,000 households a year. Other outreach programs include neighborhood campaigns with incentives; street signs; exhibits; door to door campaigns; direct mail; field trips, assembly programs and presentations for students; web sites; trilingual hotlines; and multilingual brochures delivered to every new mover. Given limited resources, partnerships have also been a major vehicle for expanding the program's outreach. For example, the San Francisco Recycling Program has spearheaded a regional waste prevention partnership that includes 110 cities and counties, 400 supermarkets and other private partners to promote source reduction. This program has had documented impact on shopping behavior in the Bay Area.

  12. Statistics Twentyfirst Century Astrometry K. Eichhorn Memorial Lecture

    E-print Network

    Jefferys, William

    Statistics Twenty­first Century Astrometry Heinrich K. Eichhorn Memorial Lecture William Je#erys (bill@astro.as.utexas.edu University at Austin, Abstract. Eichhorn statistics scientific a number of significant contributions statistical treatment of astrometric problems. a movement for the reintroduction

  13. Higher Education in the 21st Century: Global Challenge and National Response. IIE Research Report No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Peterson, Patti McGill, Ed.

    This collection of nine essays focuses on the challenges of providing higher education to growing numbers of students around the world. The essays include: (1) "Global Challenge and National Response: Notes for an International Dialogue on Higher Education" (Philip G. Altbach and Todd M. Davis); (2) "Global Challenges and the Chinese Response"…

  14. Innovation, NCLB, and the Fear Factor: The Challenge of Leading 21st-Century Schools in an Era of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, LaTefy; Fusarelli, Lance D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) on the behavior of teachers and school leaders, specifically the centralizing, standardizing tendencies of the legislation, and juxtaposes their reactions to the types of teaching and leadership required to lead 21st-century schools. The authors argue that the isomorphic…

  15. Managing Information for Development in the 21st Century: Prospects for African Libraries, Challenges to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwalo, Kenneth Ivo Ngozi

    This paper discusses the role information can play in the development of African countries in the 21st century. It stresses that development information can only be guaranteed when libraries in Africa computerize their systems, form networks for resource sharing, and take advantage of the benefits of information technology (IT), especially CD-ROM…

  16. Space 2000. Meeting the challenge of a new era.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, H. L.

    Contents: Part I: Voyaging into orbit and beyond. 1. Challenger. 2. NASA and its foreign competitors in the 1980s. 3. Highways to heaven.Part II: The practical uses of space. 4. Communications satellites. 5. The orbital high ground: weather watching, spying and star wars. 6. Earth science: a global view of a green planet. 7. Materials processing in space: making pie in the sky, or the next industrial revolution?Part III: Exploring thenear and distant universe. 8. The golden age of planetary exploration. 9. Earthlike planets and the magnet that is Mars. 10. Voyage to the land of the giants. 11. Exploration of the distant universe. 12. Intelligent life in the universe.Part IV: The future. 13. The human roles in space. 14. Permanent stations in space and on the Moon. 15. Space in the twenty-first century.

  17. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  18. Educational Reform in Ghana: The Leadership Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zame, Martin Y.; Hope, Warren C.; Respress, Trinetia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Leadership is a key commodity in twenty-first century organizations. This is especially true for school organizations. This paper aims to respond to six questions about head teachers and leadership of basic schools. Design/methodology/approach: Head teachers responded to survey items about proficiencies required for effective leadership…

  19. Climate change, land use conflicts, predation and ecological degradation as challenges for reindeer husbandry in northern Europe: what do we really know after half a century of research?

    PubMed

    Pape, Roland; Löffler, Jörg

    2012-07-01

    Reindeer grazing has been entitled as ecological keystone in arctic-alpine landscapes. In addition, reindeer husbandry is tightly connected to the identity of the indigenous Sámi people in northern Europe. Nowadays, reindeer husbandry is challenged in several ways, of which pasture degradation, climate change, conflicting land uses and predation are the most important. Research on reindeer-related topics has been conducted for more than half a century and this review illuminates whether or not research is capable to match these challenges. Despite its high quality, traditional reindeer-related research is functionally isolated within the various disciplines. The meshwork of ecology, socio-economy, culture and politics, however, in which reindeer husbandry is embedded by various interactions, will remain unclear and difficult to manage, if actors and relationships are kept separate. We propose some targets for new integrative research approaches that incorporate traditional knowledge and focus on the entire human-ecological system 'reindeer husbandry' to develop solutions for its challenges. PMID:22451266

  20. Resiliency Reconsidered: Policy Implications of the Resiliency Movement. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Donna M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this book is to generate discussion not only about how individuals can create meaningful educational experiences for all learners, but to challenge systems that necessitate a resilient nature. Ultimately, the authors promote the need for a foundation of socially just policies and practices in all educational settings and respond to the…

  1. The 21st Century: Meeting the Challenges to Business Education. National Business Education Association Yearbook, No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villee, Pat A. Gallo, Ed.; Curran, Michael G., Ed.

    This yearbook examines six themes representative of the challenges to future business educators. "The Future We Create" (Arthur McEntee) discusses them: a thinking curriculum, opportunities for real-world learning, matching teaching and learning styles, teachers as knowledge facilitators, technology as a learning tool, and global thinking for a…

  2. Genetics in the 21st Century: The Benefits & Challenges of Incorporating a Project-Based Genetics Unit in Biology Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alozie, Nonye; Eklund, Jennifer; Rogat, Aaron; Krajcik, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    How can science instruction help students and teachers engage in relevant genetics content that stimulates learning and heightens curiosity? Project-based science can enhance learning and thinking in science classrooms. We describe how we use project-based science features as a framework for a genetics unit, discuss some of the challenges

  3. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  4. Biological Sciences for the 21st Century: Meeting the Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Era of Global Change

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Cracraft; Richard O'Grady

    2007-05-12

    The symposium was held 10-12 May, 2007 at the Capitol Hilton Hotel in Washington, D. C. The 30 talks explored how some of today's key biological research developments (such as biocomplexity and complex systems analysis, bioinformatics and computational biology, the expansion of molecular and genomics research, and the emergence of other comprehensive or system wide analyses, such as proteomics) contribute to sustainability science. The symposium therefore emphasized the challenges facing agriculture, human health, sustainable energy, and the maintenance of ecosystems and their services, so as to provide a focus and a suite of examples of the enormous potential contributions arising from these new developments in the biological sciences. This symposium was the first to provide a venue for exploring how the ongoing advances in the biological sciences together with new approaches for improving knowledge integration and institutional science capacity address key global challenges to sustainability. The speakers presented new research findings, and identified new approaches and needs in biological research that can be expected to have substantial impacts on sustainability science.

  5. The Challenge of Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus: Lessons from Hospital Nurseries in the mid-20th Century

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Robyn Kroop

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1940s, epidemics of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus began to plague postpartum nurseries in hospitals across the United States. Exacerbated by overcrowding and nursing shortages, resistant S. aureus outbreaks posed a novel challenge to physicians and nurses heavily reliant on antibiotics as both prophylaxis and treatment. This paper explores the investigation of the reservoir, mode of transmission, and virulence of S. aureus during major hospital outbreaks and the subsequent implementation of novel infection control measures from the late 1940s through the early 1960s. The exploration of these measures reveals a shift in infection control policy as hospitals, faced with the failure of antibiotics to slow S. aureus outbreaks, implemented laboratory culture routines, modified nursery structure and layout, and altered nursing staff procedures to counter various forms of S. aureus transmission. Showcasing the need for widespread epidemiologic surveillance, ultimately manifesting itself in specialized “hospital epidemiology” training promoted in the 1970s, the challenges faced by hospital nurses in the 1950s prove highly relevant to the continued struggle with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other resistant nosocomial infections. PMID:23766746

  6. Interconnect limits on gigascale integration (GSI) in the 21st century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEFFREY A. DAVIS; RAGURAMAN VENKATESAN; ALAIN KALOYEROS; MICHAEL BEYLANSKY; SHUKRI J. SOURI; KAUSTAV BANERJEE; KRISHNA C. SARASWAT; ARIFUR RAHMAN; RAFAEL REIF; JAMES D. MEINDL

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-first century opportunities for GSI will be governed in part by a hierarchy of physical limits on interconnects whose levels are codified as fundamental, material, device, circuit, and system. Fundamental limits are derived from the basic axioms of electromagnetic, communication, and thermodynamic theories, which immutably restrict interconnect performance, energy dissipation, and noise reduction. At the material level, the conductor resistivity

  7. Balancing research vision and research management to achieve success in the 21st century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Gardner; V. K. Verma; B. Payne

    2006-01-01

    Research leadership is characterized as visionary while research management is sometimes viewed as being process oriented and administrative. Many studies have proposed that the twenty-first century will be the age of the knowledge-based economy, but how can the wide spectrum of today's economies all structure their knowledge generating sector to prosper? In general terms, research leadership is the ability to

  8. The Salmonella Mutagenicity Assay: The Stethoscope of Genetic Toxicology for the 21 st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    OBJECTIVES: According to the 2007 National Research Council report Toxicology for the Twenty-first Century, modem methods ("omics," in vitro assays, high-throughput testing, computational methods, etc.) will lead to the emergence of a new approach to toxicology. The Salmonella ma...

  9. Chemical process research and development in the 21st century: challenges, strategies, and solutions from a pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-05-19

    In process research and development (PR&D), the generation and manipulation of small-molecule drugs ranges from bench-scale (laboratory) chemistry to pilot plant manufacture to commercial production. A broad range of disciplines, including process chemistry (organic synthesis), analytical chemistry, process engineering (mass and heat transfer, unit operations), process safety (chemical risk assessment), regulatory compliance, and plant operation, must be effectively applied. In the critical handover between medicinal chemistry and PR&D, compound production is typically scaled up from a few hundred grams to several kilograms. Can the methodologies applied to the former also satisfy the technical, safety, and scalability aspects that come into play in the latter? Occasionally, the transition might occur smoothly, but more often the situation is the opposite: much work and resources must be invested to design a process that is feasible for manufacturing on pilot scale and, eventually, for commercial production. Authentic examples provide enlightening illustrations of dos and don'ts for developing syntheses designed for round-flask operation into production-scale processes. Factors that are easily underestimated or even neglected in the laboratory, such as method robustness, chemical hazards, safety concerns, environmental impact, availability of starting materials and building blocks in bulk quantities, intellectual property (IP) issues, and the final cost of the product, will come into play and need to be addressed appropriately. The decision on which route will be the best for further development is a crucial event and should come into focus early on the R&D timeline. In addition to scientific and technical concerns, the parameter of speed has come to the forefront in the pharmaceutical arena. Although historically the drug industry has tolerated a total time investment of far more than 10 years from idea to market, the current worldwide paradigm requires a reduction to under 10 years for the specific segment covering preclinical development through launch. This change puts enormous pressure on the entire organization, and the implication for PR&D is that the time allowed for conducting route design and scale-up has shrunk accordingly. Furthermore, molecular complexity has become extremely challenging in many instances, and demand steadily grows for process understanding and knowledge generation about low-level byproduct, which often must be controlled even at trace concentrations to meet regulatory specifications (especially in the case of potentially genotoxic impurities). In this Account, we paint a broad picture of the technical challenges the PR&D community is grappling with today, focusing on what measures have been taken over the years to create more efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:19338294

  10. Fracture Toughness and Reliability in High-Temperature Structural Ceramics and Composites: Prospects and Challenges for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil

    1999-01-01

    The importance of high fracture toughness and reliability in Si3N4, and SiC-based structural ceramics and ceramic matrix composites is reviewed. The potential of these ceramics and ceramic matrix composites for high temperature applications in defense and aerospace applications such as gas turbine engines, radomes, and other energy conversion hardware have been well recognized. Numerous investigations were pursued to improve fracture toughness and reliability by incorporating various reinforcements such as particulate-, whisker-, and continuous fiber into Si3N4 and SiC matrices. All toughening mechanisms, e.g. crack deflection, crack branching, crack bridging, etc., essentially redistribute stresses at the crack tip and increase the energy needed to propagate a crack through the composite material, thereby resulting in improved fracture toughness and reliability. Because of flaw insensitivity, continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) was found to have the highest potential for higher operating temperature and longer service conditions. However, the ceramic fibers should display sufficient high temperature strength and creep resistance at service temperatures above 1000 'C. The greatest challenge to date is the development of high quality ceramic fibers with associate coatings able to maintain their high strength in oxidizing environment at high temperature. In the area of processing, critical issues are, preparation of optimum matrix precursors, precursor infiltration into fiber array, and matrix densification at a temperature, where grain crystallization and fiber degradation do not occur. A broad scope of effort is required for improved processing and properties with a better understanding of all candidate composite systems.

  11. Education and Science in Africa: Possible Ways of Improvement in the Next Decade. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Working Group on Education and Science (Paris, France, January 10-11, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wandiga, Shem O.

    This paper analyzed the evolution of formal education in Africa with emphasis on the weaknesses and strengths of the system identified. Although the roots of modern education can be found in the early institutions of learning and libraries of Alexandria and Timbuktu in Africa, the continent today lags behind in all the fields of formal education.…

  12. Culture, Sustainability, and Medicine in the Twenty-first Century. Re-grounding the Focus of Medicine Amidst the Current “Global Systemic Shift” and the Forces of the Market: Elements for a Contemporary Social Philosophy of Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Giordano; Paul J. Hutchison; Roland A. J. Benedikter

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the role and the status of medicine within the “post-modern” culture(s) of the West. As we know, culture\\u000a is a major factor that influences the perception, the interpretation, and the expectations toward medicine, medical institutions,\\u000a medical politics, and the persons involved with them. When culture changes, the social construct called “medicine” changes.\\u000a Today, the Western condition of

  13. Science and Technology for the Twenty-First Century: This Special Edition MIT Faculty Newsletter, addressed to President Obama, his administration, and the U.S. Congress, includes articles

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    , addressed to President Obama, his administration, and the U.S. Congress, includes articles on climate change of the National Board of the Council for a Livable World, I have been gratified by President Obama's repeatedly on page 3continued on page 19 Editorial Sub-Committee THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION has refreshing support

  14. Annual maximum 5-day rainfall total and maximum number of consecutive dry days over Central America and the Caribbean in the late twenty-first century projected by an atmospheric general circulation model with three different horizontal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaegawa, T.; Kitoh, A.; Murakami, H.; Kusunoki, S.

    2014-04-01

    We simulated changes in annual maximum 5-day rainfall (RX5D) and annual maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) in Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean with three different horizontal resolution atmospheric global general circulation models (AGCMs) and quantified the uncertainty of the projections. The RX5Ds and CDDs were projected to increase in most areas in response to global warming. However, consistent changes were confined to small areas: for RX5D, both coastal zones of northern Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula; for CDD, the Pacific coastal zone of Mexico, the Yucatan Peninsula, and Guatemala. All three AGCMs projected that RX5Ds and CDDs averaged over only the land area and over the entire area (land and ocean) would increase. The dependence of RX5D probability density functions on the horizontal resolutions was complex. Precipitation unrelated to tropical cyclones was primarily responsible for the projected increases in the frequency of RX5Ds greater than 300 mm.

  15. To Strengthen American Cognitive Science for the Twenty-First Century. Report of a Planning Workshop for the Cognitive Science Initiative at the National Science Foundation (Washington, D.C., April 20-21, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Cognitive science, the study of both biological and artificial intelligent systems, is an inherently interdisciplinary activity that embraces aspects of psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, engineering, and other behavioral and social sciences. This document reports the results of a workshop designed to provide advice to…

  16. The old care paradigm is dead, long live the new sustainable care paradigm: how can GP commissioning consortia meet the demand challenges of 21st century healthcare?

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, James

    2011-07-01

    There are many challenges facing the health system in the 21st century - the majority of which are related to managing demand for health services. To meet these challenges emerging GP commissioning consortia will need to take a new approach to commissioning health services - an approach that moves beyond the current acute-centred curative paradigm of care to a new sustainable paradigm of care that focuses on primary care, integrated services and upstream prevention to manage demand. A key part of this shift is the recognition that the health system does not operate in a vacuum and that strategic commissioning decisions must take account of wider determinants of health and well-being, and operate within the finite limits of the planet's natural resources. The sustainable development principle of balancing financial, social and environmental considerations is crucial in managing demand for health services and ensuring that the health system is resilient to risks of resource uncertainty and a changing climate. Building sustainability into the governance and contracting processes of GP commissioning consortia will help deliver efficiency savings, impact on system productivity, manage system risk and help manage demand through the health co-benefits of taking a whole systems approach to commissioning decisions. Commissioning services from providers committed to corporate social responsibility and sustainable business practices allows us to move beyond a health system that cures people reactively to one in which the health of individuals and populations is managed proactively through prevention and education. The opportunity to build sustainability principles into the culture of GP commissioning consortia upfront should be seized now to ensure the new model of commissioning endures and is fit for the future. PMID:25949650

  17. Examining the Contours of Workplace Diversity Concepts, Contexts and Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PUSHKALA PRASAD; K. P RINGLE; ALISON M. KO NRAD

    2005-01-01

    Few social phenomena have attracted as much attention in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries as that of diversity and multiculturalism. Debates and policies regarding both diversity and multiculturalism are to be found in many different social sectors including education, health, government, the media and the workplace. While the United States is often regarded as a pioneer in the

  18. Quality Management of Academic Development Work: Implementation Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kathleen; Radloff, Alex

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises current ideas about the place of academic development in the twenty-first century university. It focuses on aligning the leadership and management of academic development work with the "ownership" of such work by its key stakeholders--teaching academics, university management and the wider academic development community--and…

  19. Childhood in a Digital Age: Creative Challenges for Educational Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The early twenty-first century is characterised by rapid change. Commentators note how permeating digital technologies engage increasing numbers of children, young people and adults as consumers and also producers. In the shifting technological landscape, childhood and youth are changing. Connectivity around the clock, with a parallel existence in…

  20. Evidence based herbal drug standardization approach in coping with challenges of holistic management of diabetes: a dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Raman; Thakur, Pallavi; Chowdhry, Ayush; Jaiswal, Sarita; Sharma, Anamika; Goel, Rajeev; Sharma, Jyoti; Priyadarshi, Smruti Sagar; Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Arora, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Plants by virtue of its composition of containing multiple constituents developed during its growth under various environmental stresses providing a plethora of chemical families with medicinal utility. Researchers are exploring this wealth and trying to decode its utility for enhancing health standards of human beings. Diabetes is dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century caused due to lack of insulin production or insulin physiological unresponsiveness. The chronic impact of untreated diabetes significantly affects vital organs. The allopathic medicines have five classes of drugs, or otherwise insulin in Type I diabetes, targeting insulin secretion, decreasing effect of glucagon, sensitization of receptors for enhanced glucose uptake etc. In addition, diet management, increased food fiber intake, Resistant Starch intake and routine exercise aid in managing such dangerous metabolic disorder. One of the key factors that limit commercial utility of herbal drugs is standardization. Standardization poses numerous challenges related to marker identification, active principle(s), lack of defined regulations, non-availability of universally acceptable technical standards for testing and implementation of quality control/safety standard (toxicological testing). The present study proposed an integrated herbal drug development & standardization model which is an amalgamation of Classical Approach of Ayurvedic Therapeutics, Reverse Pharmacological Approach based on Observational Therapeutics, Technical Standards for complete product cycle, Chemi-informatics, Herbal Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship and Pharmacophore modeling and, Post-Launch Market Analysis. Further studies are warranted to ensure that an effective herbal drug standardization methodology will be developed, backed by a regulatory standard guide the future research endeavors in more focused manner. PMID:23822656

  1. Evidence based herbal drug standardization approach in coping with challenges of holistic management of diabetes: a dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Plants by virtue of its composition of containing multiple constituents developed during its growth under various environmental stresses providing a plethora of chemical families with medicinal utility. Researchers are exploring this wealth and trying to decode its utility for enhancing health standards of human beings. Diabetes is dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century caused due to lack of insulin production or insulin physiological unresponsiveness. The chronic impact of untreated diabetes significantly affects vital organs. The allopathic medicines have five classes of drugs, or otherwise insulin in Type I diabetes, targeting insulin secretion, decreasing effect of glucagon, sensitization of receptors for enhanced glucose uptake etc. In addition, diet management, increased food fiber intake, Resistant Starch intake and routine exercise aid in managing such dangerous metabolic disorder. One of the key factors that limit commercial utility of herbal drugs is standardization. Standardization poses numerous challenges related to marker identification, active principle(s), lack of defined regulations, non-availability of universally acceptable technical standards for testing and implementation of quality control/safety standard (toxicological testing). The present study proposed an integrated herbal drug development & standardization model which is an amalgamation of Classical Approach of Ayurvedic Therapeutics, Reverse Pharmacological Approach based on Observational Therapeutics, Technical Standards for complete product cycle, Chemi-informatics, Herbal Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship and Pharmacophore modeling and, Post-Launch Market Analysis. Further studies are warranted to ensure that an effective herbal drug standardization methodology will be developed, backed by a regulatory standard guide the future research endeavors in more focused manner. PMID:23822656

  2. Enduring Visions of Instruction in Academic Libraries: A Review of a Spirited Early Twentieth-Century Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunselman, Cheryl; Blakesley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most enduring, and engaging, questions within academic librarianship are those about students and research skills. The vocabulary employed for discussion has evolved, but essential questions--what skills do students need to be taught, who should teach them, and how?--have persisted from the nineteenth century into the twenty-first.…

  3. Releasing Your Inner Leader: Spinning 21st-Century Standards-Driven Evaluations and Professional Development into Stronger School Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Carolyn Jo

    2012-01-01

    Simply put, professional development is evolving into something new and inspiring in the twenty-first century. Professional development is becoming more relevant, more reflective, and, most importantly, more social. Socially united groups give rise to a collective intelligence that bonds the members into a more ordered community. Collective social…

  4. Vygotsky in 21st Century Society: Advances in Cultural Historical Theory and Praxis with Non-Dominant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Pedro R., Ed.; Salas, Spencer, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Vygotsky in Twenty-first Century Society" is an ensemble of novel perspectives about the legacy of Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria. The book illustrates how well the legacy of their work is being applied and continued in contemporary research, and how cultural historical theory has been constructed and re-constructed. Together, these collected…

  5. Citizenship in Scottish Schools: The Evolution of Education for Citizenship from the Late Twentieth Century to the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Pamela; Arnott, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the purposes of citizenship education and the forms it has taken in Scotland in the closing decades of the twentieth century and the start of the twenty-first. Education has played a key role in defining Scottish identity. It is argued that there was, and continues to be in Scotland, a "Scottish myth" about the purpose of…

  6. "The Question Which Has Puzzled, and Still Puzzles": How American Indian Authors Challenged Dominant Discourse about Native American Origins in the Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howey, Meghan C. L.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the ways American Indian authors, particularly three contemporary Anishinaabeg writers, engaged with the question of Native American origins during the racially polarized project of "imagining" the nation of the United States throughout the 19th century. In this article, the author argues that American Indian authors had a…

  7. NASA/IEEE MSST 2004 Twelfth NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies in cooperation with the Twenty-First IEEE Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    MSST2004, the Twelfth NASA Goddard / Twenty-first IEEE Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies has as its focus long-term stewardship of globally-distributed storage. The increasing prevalence of e-anything brought about by widespread use of applications based, among others, on the World Wide Web, has contributed to rapid growth of online data holdings. A study released by the School of Information Management and Systems at the University of California, Berkeley, estimates that over 5 exabytes of data was created in 2002. Almost 99 percent of this information originally appeared on magnetic media. The theme for MSST2004 is therefore both timely and appropriate. There have been many discussions about rapid technological obsolescence, incompatible formats and inadequate attention to the permanent preservation of knowledge committed to digital storage. Tutorial sessions at MSST2004 detail some of these concerns, and steps being taken to alleviate them. Over 30 papers deal with topics as diverse as performance, file systems, and stewardship and preservation. A number of short papers, extemporaneous presentations, and works in progress will detail current and relevant research on the MSST2004 theme.

  8. Institutional challenges and leadership competencies in Chinese Ministry of Education directed universities in implementing the 1999 Chinese action scheme for invigorating education towards the 21st century

    E-print Network

    Yang, Xiaobo

    2006-04-12

    -directed Universities That Participated in the Study?????? 66 2 Extent That Selected 10 Universities Are Involved in the Higher Education Reforms???????????????... 68 3 22 Interviewees of 10 MOE-directed Universities?????????. 69 4 Themes and Data Units...-directed Universities?????????????????? 147 28 Challenges from Merging Institution Reform Facing MOE-directed Universities???????????????????????? 149 29 Challenges from Enrollment Enlargement Facing MOE-directed Universities???????????????????????? 155...

  9. Climate change projections for the 21st century and climate change commitment in the CCSM3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald A Meehl; Warren M. Washington; Benjamin D. Santer; William D. Collins; Julie M. Arblaster; Aixue Hu; David M. Lawrence; Haiyan Teng; Lawrence E. Buja

    Climate change scenario simulations with the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3), a global coupled climate model, show that if concentrations of all greenhouse gases (GHGs) could have been stabilized at the year 2000, the climate system would already be committed to 0.4°C more warming by the end of the twenty-first century. Committed sea level rise by 2100 is

  10. Institutional challenges and leadership competencies in Chinese Ministry of Education directed universities in implementing the 1999 Chinese action scheme for invigorating education towards the 21st century 

    E-print Network

    Yang, Xiaobo

    2006-04-12

    . Special emphases are placed on the differences that exist in the challenges facing Chinese MOE directed universities located in differently geographical, cultural and economical contexts, and the differences among the perceptions of current university...

  11. Home-Based Businesses: Implications for the Rural Economy of the South. The Rural South: Preparing for the Challenges of the 21st Century, No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Pamela J.; Muske, Glenn

    In the face of changing agriculture, an aging population, and the outflow of citizens seeking livable wages, rural Southern communities are challenged with how to enhance their economies to insure long-term business viability. Home-based businesses are an effective aspect of rural economic development. They allow flexibility and choice of work…

  12. Opportunities and Challenges for the Life Sciences Community

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Ozdemir, Vural

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Twenty-first century life sciences have transformed into data-enabled (also called data-intensive, data-driven, or big data) sciences. They principally depend on data-, computation-, and instrumentation-intensive approaches to seek comprehensive understanding of complex biological processes and systems (e.g., ecosystems, complex diseases, environmental, and health challenges). Federal agencies including the National Science Foundation (NSF) have played and continue to play an exceptional leadership role by innovatively addressing the challenges of data-enabled life sciences. Yet even more is required not only to keep up with the current developments, but also to pro-actively enable future research needs. Straightforward access to data, computing, and analysis resources will enable true democratization of research competitions; thus investigators will compete based on the merits and broader impact of their ideas and approaches rather than on the scale of their institutional resources. This is the Final Report for Data-Intensive Science Workshops DISW1 and DISW2. The first NSF-funded Data Intensive Science Workshop (DISW1, Seattle, WA, September 19–20, 2010) overviewed the status of the data-enabled life sciences and identified their challenges and opportunities. This served as a baseline for the second NSF-funded DIS workshop (DISW2, Washington, DC, May 16–17, 2011). Based on the findings of DISW2 the following overarching recommendation to the NSF was proposed: establish a community alliance to be the voice and framework of the data-enabled life sciences. After this Final Report was finished, Data-Enabled Life Sciences Alliance (DELSA, www.delsall.org) was formed to become a Digital Commons for the life sciences community. PMID:22401659

  13. Imaging or imagining? A neuroethics challenge informed by genetics.

    PubMed

    Illes, Judy; Racine, Eric

    2005-01-01

    From a twenty-first century partnership between bioethics and neuroscience, the modern field of neuroethics is emerging, and technologies enabling functional neuroimaging with unprecedented sensitivity have brought new ethical, social and legal issues to the forefront. Some issues, akin to those surrounding modern genetics, raise critical questions regarding prediction of disease, privacy and identity. However, with new and still-evolving insights into our neurobiology and previously unquantifiable features of profoundly personal behaviors such as social attitude, value and moral agency, the difficulty of carefully and properly interpreting the relationship between brain findings and our own self-concept is unprecedented. Therefore, while the ethics of genetics provides a legitimate starting point--even a backbone--for tackling ethical issues in neuroimaging, they do not suffice. Drawing on recent neuroimaging findings and their plausible real-world applications, we argue that interpretation of neuroimaging data is a key epistemological and ethical challenge. This challenge is two-fold. First, at the scientific level, the sheer complexity of neuroscience research poses challenges for integration of knowledge and meaningful interpretation of data. Second, at the social and cultural level, we find that interpretations of imaging studies are bound by cultural and anthropological frameworks. In particular, the introduction of concepts of self and personhood in neuroimaging illustrates the interaction of interpretation levels and is a major reason why ethical reflection on genetics will only partially help settle neuroethical issues. Indeed, ethical interpretation of such findings will necessitate not only traditional bioethical input but also a wider perspective on the construction of scientific knowledge. PMID:16036688

  14. In Search of the Eighteenth-Century “Violoncello”: Antonio Vandini and the Concertos for Viola by Tartini

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Vanscheeuwijck

    2012-01-01

    In this rarely-quoted excerpt, Johann Philipp Eisel obviously paraphrases Johann Mattheson’s definition of the violoncello in Das Neu-eröffnete Orchestre. It is yet another description that does not conform precisely to our early twenty-first century historical construct of the “baroque” cello. In the past not much attention has been given to such descriptions, considered to be too deviant from the general

  15. Current Challenges and Opportunities in Preparing Rural High School Students for Success in College and Careers: What Federal Policymakers Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High schools are a cornerstone of America's rural communities. When they are strong, rural secondary schools provide twenty-first-century students with the high-level knowledge, skills, and technology they need to succeed in college, careers, and life. In too many rural communities, however, high schools are in trouble. In fact, more than one…

  16. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both precipitation and PET changes increase the percentage of global land area projected to experience at least moderate drying (PDSI standard deviation of < or = -1) by the end of the twenty-first century from 12 to 30 %. PET induced moderate drying is even more severe in the SPEI projections (SPEI standard deviation of > or = -1; 11 to 44 %), although this is likely less meaningful because much of the PET induced drying in the SPEI occurs in the aforementioned arid regions. Integrated accounting of both the supply and demand sides of the surface moisture balance is therefore critical for characterizing the full range of projected drought risks tied to increasing greenhouse gases and associated warming of the climate system.

  17. Challenge theme 2: assuring water availability and quality in the 21st century: Chapter 4 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callegary, James; Langeman, Jeff; Leenhouts, Jim; Martin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Along the United States–Mexican border, the health of communities, economies, and ecosystems is inextricably intertwined with the availability and quality of water, but effective water management in the Borderlands is complicated. Water users compete for resources, and their needs are increasing. Managers are faced with issues such as finding a balance between agriculture and rapidly growing cities or maintaining public supplies while ensuring sufficient resources for aquatic ecosystems. In addition to human factors, the dry climate of the Borderlands, as compared to more temperate regions, also increases the challenge of balancing water supplies between humans and ecosystems. Warmer, drier, and more variable conditions across the southwestern United States—the projected results of climate change (Seager and others, 2007)—would further stress water supplies.

  18. NOAA National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS) Access to the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, G.; Compo, G.

    2009-05-01

    Using a state-of-the-art data assimilation system and surface pressure observations, the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project is generating a six-hourly, four-dimensional global atmospheric dataset spanning 1891- 2008 to place current atmospheric circulation patterns into a historical perspective. An important consequence of climate change is the altered likelihood of weather extremes. To have confidence in projected changes of such extremes in the twenty-first century, it is first necessary to assess model simulations of such changes throughout the twentieth century, using daily data. Any such daily verification data must also have quantified estimates of uncertainty to allow a fair quantitative assessment of the simulations. This paper will describe the data and NOMADS access paths to these data from the National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, NC.

  19. 21st Century Schooling: The Globalised Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacher, Kai, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Schools are now re-designing their curricula to include knowledge and understanding of globalisation. For many schools this is a an extension of the curriculum innovation work focussed on providing more personalised learning pathways for their students. This publication is aimed to support school leaders and teachers in their journey to…

  20. Nanomaterials: a challenge for toxicological risk assessment?

    PubMed

    Haase, Andrea; Tentschert, Jutta; Luch, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as one of the central technologies in the twenty-first century. This judgment becomes apparent by considering the increasing numbers of people employed in this area; the numbers of patents, of scientific publications, of products on the market; and the amounts of money invested in R&D. Prospects originating from different fields of nanoapplication seem unlimited. However, nanotechnology certainly will not be able to meet all of the ambitious expectations communicated, yet has high potential to heavily affect our daily life in the years to come. This might occur in particular in the field of consumer products, for example, by introducing nanomaterials in cosmetics, textiles, or food contact materials. Another promising area is the application of nanotechnology in medicine fueling hopes to significantly improve diagnosis and treatment of all kinds of diseases. In addition, novel technologies applying nanomaterials are expected to be instrumental in waste remediation and in the production of efficient energy storage devices and thus may help to overcome world's energy problems or to revolutionize computer and data storage technologies. In this chapter, we will focus on nanomaterials. After a brief historic and general overview, current proposals of how to define nanomaterials will be summarized. Due to general limitations, there is still no single, internationally accepted definition of the term "nanomaterial." After elaborating on the status quo and the scope of nanoanalytics and its shortcomings, the current thinking about possible hazards resulting from nanoparticulate exposures, there will be an emphasis on the requirements to be fulfilled for appropriate health risk assessment and regulation of nanomaterials. With regard to reliable risk assessments, until now there is still the remaining issue to be resolved of whether or not specific challenges and unique features exist on the nanoscale that have to be tackled and distinctively addressed, given that they substantially differ from those encountered with microsized materials or regular chemicals. Based on the current knowledge, we finally provide a proposal on how risk assessment in the nanofield could be achieved and how it might look like in the near future. PMID:22945571

  1. American Internal Medicine in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Huddle, Thomas S; Centor, Robert; Heudebert, Gustavo R

    2003-01-01

    American internal medicine suffers a confusion of identity as we enter the 21st century. The subspecialties prosper, although unevenly, and retain varying degrees of connection to their internal medicine roots. General internal medicine, identified with primary care since the 1970s, retains an affinity for its traditional consultant-generalist ideal even as primary care further displaces that ideal. We discuss the origins and importance of the consultant-generalist ideal of internal medicine as exemplified by Osler, and its continued appeal in spite of the predominant role played by clinical science and accompanying subspecialism in determining the academic leadership of American internal medicine since the 1920s. Organizing departmental clinical work along subspecialty lines diminished the importance of the consultant-generalist ideal in academic departments of medicine after 1950. General internists, when they joined the divisions of general internal medicine that appeared in departments of medicine in the 1970s, could sometimes emulate Osler in practicing a general medicine of complexity, but often found themselves in a more limited role doing primary care. As we enter the 21st century, managed care threatens what remains of the Oslerian ideal, both in departments of medicine and in clinical practice. Twenty-first century American internists will have to adjust their conditions of work should they continue to aspire to practice Oslerian internal medicine. PMID:12950486

  2. 2013-2014 Record One Hundred Twenty First Year

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    or misleading. With regard to a student's grade, this right does not permit the student to contest a grade on the grounds that a higher grade is deserved, but only to show that the grade has been inaccurately recorded or research, or sup- port staff position (including law enforcement unit personnel and health staff

  3. Twenty-First Annual Conference on Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A. (compiler); Jagacinski, R. J. (compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of the entitled conference are presented. Twenty-nine manuscripts and eight abstracts pertaining to workload, attention and errors, controller evaluation, movement skills, coordination and decision making, display evaluation and human operator modeling and manual control.

  4. European Customs & Trade Welcome to the twenty-first

    E-print Network

    - Hungarian and Netherlands updates · Recent Judgments of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) - Tariff administration for the close-off date. Customs Tariff for 2008 · As discussed in the November edition of this bulletin, the amendment to Council Regulation on the tariff and statistical nomenclature and on the Common

  5. Colorado Vocational Act. Twentieth and Twenty-First Annual Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory P.; Lillard, Jerry

    This document combines two annual reports on the Colorado Vocational Act for 1990 and 1991. Both reports contain the following materials: (1) a letter from the president; (2) information and fact sheet; (3) definitions; and statistical data on the following: (4) enrollment and placement trends, 1987-1990; (5) Colorado vocational and other…

  6. Taking the British Library Forward in the Twenty-First Century; Harvard's Library Digital Initiative: Building a First Generation Digital Library Infrastructure; Spoken Words, Unspoken Meanings: A DLI2 Project Ethnography; Resource Guide for the Social Sciences: Signposting a Dissemination and Support Route for Barefoot and Meta-Librarians in UK Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindley, Lynne; Flecker, Dale; Seadle, Michael; Huxley, Lesly; Ford, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss strategic planning in the British Library, including electronic strategies and collaborative partnerships; Harvard University's plans for a digital library infrastructure; the National Gallery of the Spoken Word, a Digital Library Initiative (DLI)-funded project that is language-related; and promoting networked…

  7. Towards Formulating Goals, Aims, and Objectives of Secondary Education for the Twenty-First Century. Final Report of a Regional Seminar on Goals, Aims and Objectives of Secondary Education in Asia and the Pacific (Tokyo, Japan, October 16-31, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    A regional seminar examined and defined the goals of secondary education in countries of the Asia and Pacific region seminar; it also analyzed causes for changes in secondary education goals and emerging trends. A total of 20 participants from the following countries--Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, New…

  8. Revolutionary Learning, Biodiversity, and Transformative Action. Essay Review of "Learning in Social Action: A Contribution To Understanding Informal Education" by Griff Foley; "Transformative Learning: Educational Vision for the Twenty-First Century" by Edmund O'Sullivan; and "Che Guevara, Paulo Freire and the Pedagogy of Revolution" by Peter McLaren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Three books, published 1999-2000, map out a vision of education as a vehicle for human emancipation and global transformation. Their approaches to presenting the "big picture" differ, focusing on case studies of learning through local social action; the impact of Che Guevara and Paulo Freire on liberation discourse worldwide; and comprehensive…

  9. The Challenge To Be Relevant in the 21st Century: Abstracts and Full Text Documents of Papers and Demos Given at the [International Association of Technological University Libraries] IATUL Conference (Pretoria, South Africa, June 1-5, 1998), Volume 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Technological Univ. Libraries, Gothenburg (Sweden).

    This proceedings of the 1998 conference of the International Association of Technological University Libraries (IATUL) contains the full text of the following papers: "A Library Ready for 21st Century Services: The Case of the University of Science and Technology (UST) Library, Kumasi, Ghana" (Helena Rebecca Asamoah-Hassan); "Libraries in…

  10. Addressing 21st Century GrandAddressing 21st Century Grand Challenges throughChallenges through

    E-print Network

    ] Decadal Regional Climate Prediction using Earth Systems Models (EaSM): NSF, DOE, USDA program to fund next-generation Earth System Models Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation (EFRI): NSF, DOE, EPA focus this year

  11. Global Century IMPORTANT NOTICE

    E-print Network

    Chu, Xi

    Building a University for the Global Century 2012-2013 catalog 1 #12;IMPORTANT NOTICE This document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Global Public Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 History

  12. Improvement 21st Century

    E-print Network

    Judge, Harris County C. Richard Everett Century Development Robert D. Miller Metropolitan Transit Houston Partnership Wesley Friese Harris County Toll Road Authority Carol Lewis Texas Southern University

  13. Daunting challenges.

    PubMed

    Wirth, T E

    1994-09-01

    Excerpts of a speech on behalf of the United States at the Third Preparatory Meeting of the International Conference on Population and Development on April 5, 1994 are presented. The Draft Program of Action defines an international agenda for the Cairo Conference and for sustained, priority action in the remainder of this century and on into the 21st. 1) Quality voluntary family planning and reproductive health services must be universally available early in the 21st century by broadening the contraceptive choice as well as expanding and improving reproductive health services without coercion. As President Clinton has said, abortion should be safe, legal, and rare. 2) Educating females is a priority because it raises the status of women as well as lowers infant and maternal mortality and poverty. 3) The extent must be assessed of the national unmet need for antenatal care, childbirth care, immunization, and the monitoring of growth and development. 4) Emphasizing to adolescents the responsibilities of sexuality will reinforce health, education, and economic objectives. 5) As women are empowered, so must men be empowered to be responsible in relation to fertility as well as sexual and reproductive health. 6) Responsible mutually respectful sexual behavior must be encouraged among both men and women and the importance of such behavior must be taught to both boys and girls. 7) Any discussion of responsibility must also include emphasis on the family, which is challenged globally as never before. 8) The Cairo conference provides the opportunity to discuss the current unprecedented migrations of human populations around the world; the link between environmental degradation and migration; and the potential effect of development programs on population movements. 9) North-South partnerships must be nurtured, recognizing the mutually reinforcing roles and responsibilities of all countries for sustainable development. PMID:12288264

  14. New paradigm to design micro and nano-patterned membranes

    E-print Network

    Eggenspieler, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Access to drinking water is a growing issue and one of the key challenging of the twenty first century. The rapid depletion of current supply sources (aquifers, rivers, lake...) urges to find solutions, especially cost and ...

  15. An Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Hydroelectric Power 

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Gareth P

    Global climate change is one of the greatest challenges of the twenty-first century. Rising temperatures and alteration of weather patterns are anticipated to result from increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse ...

  16. Understanding the Korean Peninsula in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part II, U.S. and Japanese Relations with the Korean Peninsula: Opportunities and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Cheng, Amy; Amar, Jasmine; Donahue, Dave; Fisher, Grace; Klein, Emily; Lee, Joanne

    This curriculum unit is part two of a three-part series. Each of the three parts can be taught independently. The lessons include perspectives from each of the countries under study. This unit introduces students to challenges and opportunities presented by policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with the Korean Peninsula at the turn of the…

  17. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-31

    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  18. Water in the Challenge for

    E-print Network

    Selker, John

    Water in the West: Challenge for the Next Century Report of the Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission June 1998 #12;FOREWORD I am pleased to transmit the final report of the Western Water. This report provides a good overview of the status of the West's water and of the pressures that require

  19. The Montcalm Outdoor Challenge Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martin; McCall, Herman J.

    2007-01-01

    Starr Commonwealth has served troubled children and youth and their families for nearly a century. Starr's Montcalm Schools operate from campuses in Michigan and Ohio, enrolling students referred by families and educational consultants. The Montcalm Outdoor Challenge Program is a key part of Starr's network of nonprofit alternative education and…

  20. A Century of Cosmology

    E-print Network

    E. L. Wright

    2006-03-28

    In the century since Einstein's anno mirabilis of 1905, our concept of the Universe has expanded from Kapteyn's flattened disk of stars only 10 kpc across to an observed horizon about 30 Gpc across that is only a tiny fraction of an immensely large inflated bubble. The expansion of our knowledge about the Universe, both in the types of data and the sheer quantity of data, has been just as dramatic. This talk will summarize this century of progress and our current understanding of the cosmos.