Science.gov

Sample records for twenty-first century challenges

  1. Twenty-first century challenges for biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Hench, Larry L.; Thompson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    During the 1960s and 1970s, a first generation of materials was specially developed for use inside the human body. These developments became the basis for the field of biomaterials. The devices made from biomaterials are called prostheses. Professor Bill Bonfield was one of the first to recognize the importance of understanding the mechanical properties of tissues, especially bone, in order to achieve reliable skeletal prostheses. His research was one of the pioneering efforts to understand the interaction of biomaterials with living tissues. The goal of all early biomaterials was to ‘achieve a suitable combination of physical properties to match those of the replaced tissue with a minimal toxic response in the host’. By 1980, there were more than 50 implanted prostheses in clinical use made from 40 different materials. At that time, more than three million prosthetic parts were being implanted in patients worldwide each year. A common feature of most of the 40 materials was biological ‘inertness’. Almost all materials used in the body were single-phase materials. Most implant materials were adaptations of already existing commercial materials with higher levels of purity to eliminate release of toxic by-products and minimize corrosion. This article is a tribute to Bill Bonfield's pioneering efforts in the field of bone biomechanics, biomaterials and interdisciplinary research. It is also a brief summary of the evolution of bioactive materials and the opportunities for tailoring the composition, texture and surface chemistry of them to meet five important challenges for the twenty-first century. PMID:20484227

  2. Twenty-first Century Ethical Challenges for Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    2007-01-01

    Foreseeable social and technological changes will force us to reevaluate our thinking about ethically appropriate ways to fulfill our mission of using psychology to advance human health and welfare in the twenty-first century. Three categories of challenge related to societal and technological changes have become particularly evident. First,

  3. Constraints, Dangers, and Challenges of the Twenty-First Century. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondel, Daniele

    This document groups together the ideas about the difficulties, dangers, and challenges of the 21st century expressed by the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century. In discussing constraints created by contemporary world history, the paper suggests that the development of the world economy and society is at present

  4. Some astronomical challenges for the twenty-first century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the scientific puzzles that astronomers may face in the next century. Four areas in astronomy are discussed in detail. These include cosmology and galaxy formation, active galaxies and quasars, supernovae and stellar remnants, and the formation of stars and planets. A variety of observatories on the Moon are proposed to attack these astronomical challenges.

  5. Meeting the Access Challenge: Indiana's Twenty-First Century Scholars Program. New Agenda Series [TM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Musoba, Glenda Droogsma; Simmons, Ada B.; Chung, Choong-Geun

    This report provides an overview of Indiana's Twenty-first Century Scholars Program and analyzes a state database to assess the impact of the program on college enrollment and persistence. The Twenty-first Century Scholars Program asks low-income eighth graders to make a commitment to take the necessary steps to prepare for college. In return, the

  6. Climate change: a crop protection challenge for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David I

    2011-06-01

    Convincing data now show that temperatures are increasing, and that changing precipitation patterns are already affecting agriculture. Predicted future impacts vary by region, but all are projected to suffer productivity declines by the late twenty-first century unless successful mitigation measures are implemented soon. Exacerbating the climate change challenge, doubling of overall crop productivity will be required by mid-century. Clearly, crop protection will become increasingly difficult as higher-yielding varieties present a larger and more tempting target to all pests, and the pests themselves extend their ranges poleward and into other new geographies owing to reduced winter kill and longer growing seasons. Fortunately, good progress on enhancing crop protection technology to meet these challenges is already being made, but the scope of this climatic provocation is such that complacency is not an option. Increased investment into new technologies and adoption of new agricultural practices with improved adaptive and mitigation potential are both essential. PMID:21432984

  7. Twenty-first-century science.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, M R

    1995-01-01

    Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

  8. Twenty-First Century Learning in Afterschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Eric; Stolow, David

    2006-01-01

    After-school programs offer a superb venue to teach twenty-first century skills. The programs enable students to explore new fields, use new technology, meet real-world challenges, and develop mastery. They create a new civic space in which young people can forge positive relationships with adults, learn the joys of productive work, and be…

  9. Challenges for Peace Educators at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ian M.

    This paper provides a description of the history and advancements made in peace education during the past century. By the end of the 20th century, 200 colleges in the United States had peace studies programs and approximately 1 in 10 of the public schools had conflict resolution programs. The paper focuses on four challenges faced by peace

  10. World Grant Universities: Meeting the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Lou Anna K.

    2010-01-01

    Today American higher education urgently needs bold thinking coupled with innovative actions if the United States is to meet the challenges of the 21st century--thinking and doing that goes beyond requests for more funding and accountability and beyond the tendency to look at what individual institutions do well and can contribute to global

  11. World Grant Universities: Meeting the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Lou Anna K.

    2010-01-01

    Today American higher education urgently needs bold thinking coupled with innovative actions if the United States is to meet the challenges of the 21st century--thinking and doing that goes beyond requests for more funding and accountability and beyond the tendency to look at what individual institutions do well and can contribute to global…

  12. U.S. drinking water challenges in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ronnie B; Epstein, Paul R; Ford, Tim E; Harrington, Winston; Olson, Erik; Reichard, Eric G

    2002-01-01

    The access of almost all 270 million U.S. residents to reliable, safe drinking water distinguishes the United States in the twentieth century from that of the nineteenth century. The United States is a relatively water-abundant country with moderate population growth; nonetheless, current trends are sufficient to strain water resources over time, especially on a regional basis. We have examined the areas of public water infrastructure, global climate effects, waterborne disease (including emerging and resurging pathogens), land use, groundwater, surface water, and the U.S. regulatory history and its horizon. These issues are integrally interrelated and cross all levels of public and private jurisdictions. We conclude that U.S. public drinking water supplies will face challenges in these areas in the next century and that solutions to at least some of them will require institutional changes. PMID:11834462

  13. Twenty-first century learning in afterschool.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Eric; Stolow, David

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-first century skills increasingly represent the ticket to the middle class. Yet, the authors argue, in-school learning is simply not enough to help students develop these skills. The authors make the case that after-school (or out-of-school) learning programs are emerging as one of the nation's most promising strategies for preparing young people for the workforce and civic life. Most school systems have significant limitations for teaching twenty-first century skills. They have the limits of time: with only six hours per day there is barely enough time to teach even the basic skills, especially for those students starting already behind. They have the limits of structure: typical school buildings and classrooms are not physically set up for innovative learning. They have the limits of inertia and bureaucracy: school systems are notoriously resistant to change. And perhaps most important, they have the limits of priorities: especially with the onset of the No Child Left Behind Act, schools are laserlike in their focus on teaching the basics and therefore have less incentive to incorporate twenty-first century skills. Meanwhile, the authors argue that after-school programs are an untapped resource with three competitive advantages. First, they enable students to work collaboratively in small groups, a setup on which the modern economy will increasingly rely. Second, they are well suited to project-based learning and the development of mastery. Third, they allow students to learn in the real-world contexts that make sense. Yet the after-school sector is fraught with challenges. It lacks focus-Is it child care, public safety, homework tutoring? And it lacks rigorous results. The authors argue that the teaching of twenty-first century skills should become the new organizing principle for afterschool that will propel the field forward and more effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning. PMID:17017259

  14. Redesigning healthcare systems to meet the health challenges associated with climate change in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit

    2015-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, climate change is emerging as a significant threat to the health and well-being of the public through links to the following: extreme weather events, sea level rise, temperature-related illnesses, air pollution patterns, water security, food security, vector-borne infectious diseases, and mental health effects (as a result of extreme weather events and climate change-induced population displacement). This article discusses how national healthcare systems can be redesigned through changes in its components such as human resources, facilities and technology, health information system, and health policy to meet these challenges. PMID:26150369

  15. American Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century: Social, Political and Economic Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Berdhal, Robert O., Ed.; Gumport, Patricia J., Ed.

    This book presents 17 papers on higher education, organized into four parts, which address the higher education setting, external forces, the academic community, and central issues for the 21st century. Following an introduction by the editors, the papers are: (1) "Patterns in Higher Education Development" (Philip G. Altbach); (2) "The Ten

  16. Evolving the Nation's Energy Infrastructure: A Challenging System Issue for the Twenty-First Century; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, B.

    2007-04-01

    Over the next several decades, a profound transformation of the global energy enterprise will occur driven largely by population growth and economic development. How this growing demand for energy is met poses one of the most complex and challenging issues of our time. The current national energy dialogue reflects the challenge in simultaneously considering the social, political, economic, and technical issues as the energy system is defined, technical targets are established, and programs and investments are implemented to meet those technical targets. This paper examines the general concepts and options for meeting this challenge.

  17. The Twenty-First Century Multiple Generation Workforce: Overlaps and Differences but Also Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helyer, Ruth; Lee, Dionne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the issues around a multiple generational workforce and more specifically, the challenges and benefits for education providers and employers. Design/methodology/approach: Reviewing research papers, analysing academic texts, interrogating market intelligence and contextualising case studies, the

  18. Active Debris Removal - A Grand Engineering Challenge for the Twenty-First Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2011-01-01

    The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 has reignited interest in using active debris removal to remediate the near-Earth orbital debris environment. A recent NASA study shows that, in order to stabilize the environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region for the next 200 years, active debris removal of about five large and massive (1 to more than 8 metric tons) objects per year is needed. To develop the capability to remove five of those objects per year in a cost-effective manner truly represents a grand challenge in engineering and technology development.

  19. Regulatory toxicology in the twenty-first century: challenges, perspectives and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Tralau, Tewes; Oelgeschlger, Michael; Grtler, Rainer; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Herzler, Matthias; Hfer, Thomas; Itter, Heike; Kuhl, Thomas; Lange, Nikola; Lorenz, Nicole; Mller-Graf, Christine; Pabel, Ulrike; Pirow, Ralph; Ritz, Vera; Schafft, Helmut; Schneider, Heiko; Schulz, Thomas; Schumacher, David; Zellmer, Sebastian; Fleur-Bl, Gaby; Greiner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Lampen, Alfonso; Luch, Andreas; Schnfelder, Gilbert; Solecki, Roland; Wittkowski, Reiner; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    The advent of new testing systems and "omics"-technologies has left regulatory toxicology facing one of the biggest challenges for decades. That is the question whether and how these methods can be used for regulatory purposes. The new methods undoubtedly enable regulators to address important open questions of toxicology such as species-specific toxicity, mixture toxicity, low-dose effects, endocrine effects or nanotoxicology, while promising faster and more efficient toxicity testing with the use of less animals. Consequently, the respective assays, methods and testing strategies are subject of several research programs worldwide. On the other hand, the practical application of such tests for regulatory purposes is a matter of ongoing debate. This document summarizes key aspects of this debate in the light of the European "regulatory status quo", while elucidating new perspectives for regulatory toxicity testing. PMID:25820917

  20. New challenges for telephone survey research in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Angela M; Remington, Patrick L

    2007-01-01

    Telephone surveys are critical for examining cross-sectional characteristics of population subgroups, tracking trends in prevalence of conditions and risk behaviors over time, identifying risk factors associated with multiple health conditions, and assessing the effects of interventions. Technology has aided telephone research through advances such as computer-assisted telephone interviewing. However, technology such as answering machines and caller ID has contributed to declines in response rates and has increased costs of conducting telephone surveys. The exponential increase in cell phone utilization presents a challenge to the tradition of random digit dial (RDD) surveys of households. Because telephone surveys are used by other industries such as marketing and public opinion polling, the marketplace may help drive innovation and adaptation. Cell phones have made telephone communication an even greater part of the everyday culture and could make potential telephone survey respondents even more accessible to public health researchers. PMID:17094769

  1. Active Debris Removal - A Grand Engineering Challenge for the Twenty-First Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2010-01-01

    The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 underlined the potential of an ongoing collision cascade effect (the Kessler Syndrome ) in the near-Earth orbital debris environment. A 2006 NASA analysis of the instability of the debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude) shows that the environment has reached a point where the debris population will continue to increase in the next 200 years, even without any future launches. The increase is driven by fragments generated via collisions among existing objects in LEO. In reality, the situation will be worse than this prediction because satellite launches will continue and unexpected major breakups may continue to occur. Mitigation measures commonly adopted by the international space community (such as the 25-year rule) will help, but will be insufficient to stop the population growth. To better preserve the near-Earth space environment for future generations, active debris removal (ADR) should be considered. The idea of active debris removal is not new. However, due to the monumental technical, resource, operational, legal, and political challenges associated with removing objects from orbit, it has not yet been widely considered feasible. The recent major breakup events and the environment modeling efforts have certainly reignited the interest in using active debris removal to remediate the environment. This trend is further highlighted by the National Space Policy of the United States of America, released by the White House in June 2010, where the President explicitly directs NASA and the Department of Defense to pursue research and development of technology and techniques, to mitigate and remove on-orbit debris, reduce hazards, and increase understanding of the current and future debris environment. A 2009 modeling study by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has shown that, in order to maintain the LEO debris population at a constant level for the next 200 years, an active debris removal of about five objects per year is needed. The targets identified for removal are those with the highest mass and collision probability products. Analyses from the study indicate that the majority of those objects are spent upper stages with masses ranging from 1 to more than 8 metric tons, residing in several altitude regions and concentrated in about 10 inclination bands. To remove five of those objects per year in a cost-effective manner truly represents a grand challenge in engineering and technology development. An end-to-end debris removal operation includes, in general terms, launches orbit rendezvous, precision tracking, stabilization (of the tumbling motion), capture, and deorbit of the targets. An ADR system deigned to remove a single object is not very cost-effective. Therefore, the repeatability of the removal system is almost a requirement. Some of the technologies involved in the ADR process do exist, but the difficulty is to make them more cost effective. Other technologies, such as ways to stabilize a massive tumbling upper stage and the capture mechanisms, are new and will require major innovative research and development efforts. This paper summarizes an updated assessment of the environment, including what needs to be done to control the population growth, and outlines the major engineering and technology challenges to carry out active debris removal to preserve the environment.

  2. Shelter for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Spengler, J D

    1990-06-01

    Housing for the twenty-first century will be shaped by the changes that are occurring in society. These include the demographics of the occupant, the products and materials used for construction and furnishing, and the basic use of the structure. An aging population will have different demands on design and function. The health concerns of an aging population encompass chronic degenerative diseases as well as injury. The lessons of the past must make us mindful that chronic, low-level exposures to substances can occur at home. Products and materials used in homes can release vapors that may affect immunologic and neurologic function. Manifestations of dysfunctions will be more important as our population ages and if there is a continued reliance on new chemical formulation for products used in homes and workplaces. The future portends changes in functional use of residences. Electronic communications and robotics will decentralize our work force. Manufacturing or office functions will occur at home. This will present new challenges for health and safety for both monitoring and prevention. PMID:2401266

  3. Shelter for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, J D

    1990-01-01

    Housing for the twenty-first century will be shaped by the changes that are occurring in society. These include the demographics of the occupant, the products and materials used for construction and furnishing, and the basic use of the structure. An aging population will have different demands on design and function. The health concerns of an aging population encompass chronic degenerative diseases as well as injury. The lessons of the past must make us mindful that chronic, low-level exposures to substances can occur at home. Products and materials used in homes can release vapors that may affect immunologic and neurologic function. Manifestations of dysfunctions will be more important as our population ages and if there is a continued reliance on new chemical formulation for products used in homes and workplaces. The future portends changes in functional use of residences. Electronic communications and robotics will decentralize our work force. Manufacturing or office functions will occur at home. This will present new challenges for health and safety for both monitoring and prevention. PMID:2401266

  4. The Education Challenges Facing Small Nation States in the Increasingly Competitive Global Economy of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacchus, Mohammed Kazim

    2008-01-01

    Publication of this piece is intended as a tribute to the late Professor M. Kazim Bacchus who passed away in March 2007. The paper provides a general discussion concerning the social and educational challenges faced by small nation states in an age characterised by globalisation. The analysis first identifies some of the basic features of small

  5. An Educational Revolution to Support Change in the Classroom: Colombia and the Educational Challenges of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Daniel; Manso, Micaela; Noguera, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    As developing countries strive to strengthen their educational institutions to meet the challenges of the economic and social demands of globalization, tension often arises between providing more access to traditional public education and reforming the quality of the education provided. With its Revolucion Educativa, Colombia offers an interesting

  6. Infection in the twenty-first century: predictions and postulates.

    PubMed

    Geddes, A

    2000-12-01

    The late Paul Garrod, in whose honour this lecture is named, was 'the right man at the right time'. He seized the opportunities offered by the dawning of the chemotherapeutic era with vigour and enthusiasm and was a formidable link between the traditional laboratory-based bacteriologist and the more clinically orientated 'modern' medical microbiologist. Professor Garrod was a founder member of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and I had the privilege of meeting him on many occasions. He would have relished the many challenges facing today's microbiologists, infectious disease physicians and public health experts. These will have major implications for antimicrobial chemotherapy in the twenty-first century. The emergence and prevalence of infectious diseases, and the necessity for discovering therapies to treat them, are influenced by many factors. In this lecture I will discuss four which could have a major influence on infectious diseases in the twenty-first century-global warming, biological warfare/terrorism, the dissemination of infections, including those caused by resistant pathogens, by travellers and certain untreatable zoonotic diseases. PMID:11102403

  7. The Challenges of Teaching and Learning about Science in the Twenty-First Century: Exploring the Abilities and Constraints of Adolescent Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Gray, DeLeon L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we critically examine skills that are necessary for the effective learning of science in adolescent populations. We argue that a focus on twenty-first-century skills among adolescents within the context of science instruction must be considered in light of research on cognitive and social development. We first review adolescents'…

  8. Solving the problems we face: the United States Environmental Protection Agency, sustainability, and the challenges of the twenty-first century

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addressing the problems of the twenty-first century will require new initiatives that complement traditional regulatory activities. Existing regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act are important safety nets in the United States for protecting human health and t...

  9. Vaccines for the twenty-first century society.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino; Mandl, Christian W; Black, Steven; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2011-12-01

    Vaccines have been one of the major revolutions in the history of mankind and, during the twentieth century, they eliminated most of the childhood diseases that used to cause millions of deaths. In the twenty-first century, vaccines will also play a major part in safeguarding people's health. Supported by the innovations derived from new technologies, vaccines will address the new needs of a twenty-first century society characterized by increased life expectancy, emerging infections and poverty in low-income countries. PMID:22051890

  10. Feeding the world in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Conway, G; Toenniessen, G

    1999-12-01

    The gains in food production provided by the Green Revolution have reached their ceiling while world population continues to rise. To ensure that the world's poorest people do not still go hungry in the twenty-first century, advances in plant biotechnology must be deployed for their benefit by a strong public-sector agricultural research effort. PMID:10591226

  11. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

  12. Leading the University in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Joanne E.

    2006-01-01

    Leading the modern university in the twenty-first century is a nearly impossible task. According to Parker Palmer (2006), the answer for all university presidents and faculty alike lies not in looking outward at competing demands, but in facing inward. Palmer would agree that new leadership is needed for new times, but it will not come from

  13. Institutional Researchers' Roles in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matier, Michael W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Because of a fundamental shift in the way decisions are being made in colleges and universities, institutional researchers in the twenty-first century will no longer merely collect, analyze, and disseminate information to support decision making. They must also become information architects, change agents, and consultants of choice within their…

  14. Creating an Academic Library for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    When Bruce Miller took up the position of head librarian at the University of California, Merced in 2001, the plan for the new library was to use the University of California (UC) system's rich base of support as a launching pad for something great and extraordinary: a model academic research library for the twenty-first century. This article…

  15. Creating an Academic Library for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    When Bruce Miller took up the position of head librarian at the University of California, Merced in 2001, the plan for the new library was to use the University of California (UC) system's rich base of support as a launching pad for something great and extraordinary: a model academic research library for the twenty-first century. This article

  16. "Essential Africa" for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    This resource packet provides a sample of free and inexpensive learning activities and materials on African culture for elementary and secondary grade students which are available from the African-American Institute. Learning activities entitled "Essential Africa for the Twenty-First Century" are designed to help pupils realize that Africans are

  17. Leadership Context for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, George R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an upcoming significant transition in the leadership of Americas community colleges and some potential opportunities and challenges surrounding this leadership turnover. Discusses some rewards of community college leadership and some problems that they face. Identifies some skills that may be necessary for leadership in the twenty-first

  18. Esthetic dentistry in the twenty-first century. Healthy beauty.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, T

    1998-10-01

    The goal of esthetic dentistry in the twenty-first century is to attain healthy beauty by harmonizing morphology and function. Morphologic beauty is achieved by using restorative techniques such as ceramo-metal restoration, all-ceramic restoration, laminate veneer, bleaching, and the treatment of malocclusion. Functional beauty is obtained by facilitating the primary functions of the stomatognathic organ, namely, mastication, speech, and craniomandibular stability. In the next century, esthetic dentistry must combine the present focus of morphologic beauty with the goals of functional beauty to attain true, healthy beauty. PMID:9891651

  19. Designing Vaccines for the Twenty-First Century Society

    PubMed Central

    Finco, Oretta; Rappuoli, Rino

    2013-01-01

    The history of vaccination clearly demonstrates that vaccines have been highly successful in preventing infectious diseases, reducing significantly the incidence of childhood diseases and mortality. However, many infections are still not preventable with the currently available vaccines and they represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. In the twenty-first century, the innovation brought by novel technologies in antigen discovery and formulation together with a deeper knowledge of the human immune responses are paving the way for the development of new vaccines. Final goal will be to rationally design effective vaccines where conventional approaches have failed. PMID:24478777

  20. Can we conquer cancer in the twenty-first century?

    PubMed

    Freireich, E J

    2001-08-01

    The twentieth century recorded the greatest advance in the control of human disease. From the beginning of recorded time, the human life-span changed little until the twentieth century. In the USA, it increased from 47.3 years in 1900 to 76.4 years in 2000. The answer to the question of "Can we cure cancer in the twenty-first century?" requires an appreciation of the contemporary nature of our knowledge. At the beginning of the twentieth century, major problems were nutrition and infection. By 1950, the major causes of mortality and morbidity were still infectious diseases, such as syphilis, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, and influenza. The 1950s and 1960s were the golden age of control of infectious diseases, while cancer, because of the aging of the population and the strong association between cancer and age, has become the major healthcare problem of the twenty-first century. Until 1960, no one had proposed or demonstrated that a systemic or metastatic form of cancer could be cured. In only 35-40 years not only have techniques for the early detection, prevention, and surgical and radiation therapy treatments improved, but at least 15-20% of patients with systemic/metastatic cancers can be cured with our current primitive systemic treatments. Prior to 1943, there was no chemotherapy. Prior to 1948, no one had described complete regression of a systemic cancer. There were no multi-institution, randomized clinical trials prior to 1949. Additionally, combination chemotherapy, new drugs, bone marrow transplantation, broad-spectrum antibiotics to control infections, and platelets to control hemorrhage have been added in the past 50 years. The pace of progress extrapolates to a prediction of cancer control in the twenty-first century. The human genome has been sequenced, and it will be possible to identify expression profiles not only for malignant cells but for their normal counterparts. It is certain that interventions specific for control of the malignant transformation will be identified. An example of gene-directed therapy is in acute promyelocytic leukemia where trans-retinoic acid is effective and contributes to cure. The signal transduction inhibitors, small molecules bioavailable orally and specific for interfering with signals resulting from ligand-receptor interactions, are a dramatic advance. Because cancer is a genetic disorder, the expanding field of genomics will certainly accelerate our progress toward the control of cancer. Finally, the twenty-first century will be an era of enhanced communication. The computer has given us the internet. Our communication in cyberspace is not only universal but instantaneous. Increases in the speed at which knowledge can be exchanged and the enormous capacity for storing new knowledge in cyberspace ensure that the pace of progress that we saw in the twentieth century will accelerate in the twenty-first. To address the question in the title of this paper, I believe that it is not a question of whether, but only of when. PMID:11587365

  1. Bits, Bytes and Dinosaurs: Using Levinas and Freire to Address the Concept of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of twenty-first century learning argues that education should prepare students for successful living in the twenty-first century workplace and society. It challenges all educators with the idea that contemporary education is unable to do so, as it is designed to replicate an industrial age model, essentially rear-focused, rather than…

  2. Bits, Bytes and Dinosaurs: Using Levinas and Freire to Address the Concept of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of twenty-first century learning argues that education should prepare students for successful living in the twenty-first century workplace and society. It challenges all educators with the idea that contemporary education is unable to do so, as it is designed to replicate an industrial age model, essentially rear-focused, rather than

  3. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,

  4. Intellectual Freedom and Libraries: Complexity and Change in the Twenty-First-Century Digital Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresang, Eliza T.

    2006-01-01

    What is the state of intellectual freedom and libraries in the early twenty-first-century digital environment? This question is addressed largely in relation to public and school libraries, where more than 90 percent of documented challenges exist and at which most legislative and judicial actions relevant to intellectual freedom and libraries are…

  5. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  6. Violating Pedagogy: Literary Theory in the Twenty-First Century College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heather G. S.

    2015-01-01

    "Violating Pedagogy: Literary Theory in the Twenty-first Century College Classroom" discusses the challenge of teaching literary theory to undergraduate and graduate students in a cultural atmosphere that may at times feel simultaneously anti-intellectual and overpopulated with competing scholarly concerns. Approaching theory as a…

  7. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  8. Why American business demands twenty-first century learning: A company perspective.

    PubMed

    Knox, Allyson

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft is an innovative corporation demonstrating the kind and caliber of job skills needed in the twenty-first century. It demonstrates its commitment to twenty-first century skills by holding its employees accountable to a set of core competencies, enabling the company to run effectively. The author explores how Microsoft's core competencies parallel the Partnership for 21st Century Skills learning frameworks. Both require advanced problem-solving skills and a passion for technology, both expect individuals to be able to work in teams, both look for a love of learning, and both call for the self-confidence to honestly self-evaluate. Microsoft also works to cultivate twenty-first century skills among future workers, investing in education to help prepare young people for competitive futures. As the need for digital literacy has become imperative, technology companies have taken the lead in facilitating technology training by partnering with schools and communities. Microsoft is playing a direct role in preparing students for what lies ahead in their careers. To further twenty-first century skills, or core competencies, among the nation's youth, Microsoft has established Partners in Learning, a program that helps education organizations build partnerships that leverage technology to improve teaching and learning. One Partners in Learning grantee is Global Kids, a nonprofit organization that trains students to design online games focused on global social issues resonating with civic and global competencies. As Microsoft believes the challenges of competing in today's economy and teaching today's students are substantial but not insurmountable, such partnerships and investments demonstrate Microsoft's belief in and commitment to twenty-first century skills. PMID:17017254

  9. Educational Technologies and Twenty-First Century Leadership for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents information on current aspects in the use of technology to improve student outcomes and engagement, prepare learners for their future and support educators in adopting new pedagogies for teaching and learning. Based on the authors' research of exemplary school leaders and reviewing literature on the use of twenty-first

  10. Twenty-First Century Literacy: A Matter of Scale from Micro to Mega

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abbie; Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-first century technologies require educators to look for new ways to teach literacy skills. Current communication methods are combinations of traditional and newer, network-driven forms. This article describes the changes twenty-first century technologies cause in the perception of time, size, distance, audience, and available data, and…

  11. Assessing Multidimensional Students' Perceptions of Twenty-First-Century Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Ching Sing; Deng, Feng; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Koh, Joyce Hwee; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to design a survey to assess students' perceptions of twenty-first-century learning practices in their classrooms and the resulting knowledge creation self-efficacy among the students. In addition, it also explores the relationships among the various dimensions of twenty-first-century learning practices. Four hundred and

  12. Preparing Students for a Twenty-First Century Global Workplace in an Era of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cognetta, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to thoroughly examine a school district's plan for developing, implementing, and monitoring a strategic plan for adequately preparing students with twenty-first century skills or the marketable skills students will need in order to contribute to the dynamic twenty-first century workplace while meeting federal and state

  13. Twenty-First Century Literacy: A Matter of Scale from Micro to Mega

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abbie; Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-first century technologies require educators to look for new ways to teach literacy skills. Current communication methods are combinations of traditional and newer, network-driven forms. This article describes the changes twenty-first century technologies cause in the perception of time, size, distance, audience, and available data, and

  14. Assessing Multidimensional Students' Perceptions of Twenty-First-Century Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Ching Sing; Deng, Feng; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Koh, Joyce Hwee; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to design a survey to assess students' perceptions of twenty-first-century learning practices in their classrooms and the resulting knowledge creation self-efficacy among the students. In addition, it also explores the relationships among the various dimensions of twenty-first-century learning practices. Four hundred and…

  15. 76 FR 21741 - Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... COMMISSION Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town... Commission announces that it held a Town Hall meeting on The Twenty-First Century Communications and Video... and video programming changes required by the Act. DATES: The Town Hall meeting was held on...

  16. Challenges for the Twenty-first Century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-based industries are increasingly becoming essential to our nations manufacturing base. Beyond food, feed, and fiber, agricultural and biological engineers are now being called upon to design and produce environmentally benign manufactured products, as well as biologically-based energy and tra...

  17. American Marriage in the Early Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    During the past century the U.S. family system has seen vast changes--in marriage and divorce rates, cohabitation, childbearing, sexual behavior, and women's work outside the home. Andrew Cherlin reviews these historic changes, noting that marriage remains the most common living arrangement for raising children, but that children, especially poor…

  18. Planning for Collection Development in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifidon, Sam E.

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the collections of Nigerian university libraries by comparing them to those of their peers in other African and British universities. Discusses the impact of the World Bank Loan Project on resuscitating Nigerian university libraries. Strategies for maintaining adequacy and relevance of the collections for the 21st century are recommended.

  19. Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

    This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

  20. Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

    This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those

  1. Moral Psychology for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg slayed the two dragons of twentieth-century psychology--behaviorism and psychoanalysis. His victory was a part of the larger cognitive revolution that shaped the world in which all of us study psychology and education today. But the cognitive revolution itself was modified by later waves of change, particularly an "affective

  2. Moral Psychology for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg slayed the two dragons of twentieth-century psychology--behaviorism and psychoanalysis. His victory was a part of the larger cognitive revolution that shaped the world in which all of us study psychology and education today. But the cognitive revolution itself was modified by later waves of change, particularly an "affective…

  3. Teaching the Constitution to Twenty-First Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Peggy S.; Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Haas, Nancy S.

    2008-01-01

    Civic education in public schools faces major challenges. Under No Child Left Behind, many schools have favored teaching math and English rather than civics, which undermines one of the purposes of public schools--to educate students to be responsible and active citizens in democracy. A second challenge comes inside the classroom: engaging the…

  4. Teaching the Constitution to Twenty-First Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Peggy S.; Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Haas, Nancy S.

    2008-01-01

    Civic education in public schools faces major challenges. Under No Child Left Behind, many schools have favored teaching math and English rather than civics, which undermines one of the purposes of public schools--to educate students to be responsible and active citizens in democracy. A second challenge comes inside the classroom: engaging the

  5. Establishing the R&D Agenda for Twenty-First Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Much ink has flowed over the past few years describing the need to incorporate twenty-first century skills into K-12 education. Preparing students to succeed as citizens, thinkers, and workers--the bedrock of any educational system--in this environment means arming them with more than a list of facts and important dates. Infusing twenty-first

  6. Alaska: A twenty-first-century petroleum province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alaska, the least explored of all United States regions, is estimated to contain approximately 40% of total U.S. undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural-gas resources, based on the most recent U.S. Department of the Interior (U.S. Geological Survey and Minerals Management Service) estimates. Northern Alaska, including the North Slope and adjacent Beaufort and Chukchi continental shelves, holds the lion's share of the total Alaskan endowment of more than 30 billion barrels (4.8 billion m3) of oil and natural-gas liquids plus nearly 200 trillion cubic feet (5.7 trillion m3) of natural gas. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Multiple source-rock zones have charged several regionally extensive petroleum systems. Extensional and compressional structures provide ample structural objectives. In addition, recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite systems in Jurassic to Tertiary strata. Despite robust potential, northern Alaska remains a risky exploration frontier - a nexus of geologic complexity, harsh economic conditions, and volatile policy issues. Its role as a major petroleum province in this century will depend on continued technological innovations, not only in exploration and drilling operations, but also in development of huge, currently unmarketable natural-gas resources. Ultimately, policy decisions will determine whether exploration of arctic Alaska will proceed.

  7. Data Analysis in the Twenty-First Century

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, A; Kamath, C; Kumar, V

    2007-08-16

    The 21st Century is characterized by complex multidisciplinary problems accompanied by massive datasets. 'We are drowning in data, but starving for knowledge', as the volumes of many commercial, industrial and scientific datasets have exceeded the terabyte range and are approaching petabytes and beyond. Statistical methodology has long been employed to find useful and usable information in data. More recently, data mining has harnessed the power of computer technology to find useful and usable patterns in such massive datasets. Although several data mining journals have joined the established statistical journals, no single journal provides an integrated treatment of statistical analysis methodology and data mining technology, particularly when applied to the solution of practical problems. This absence and the needs expressed above motivated the inauguration of John Wiley's new Journal on Statistical Analysis and Data Mining. The goals of this interdisciplinary journal are to encourage collaborations across disciplines, communication of data mining and statistical techniques to both novices and experts involved in the analysis of data from practical problems, and a principled and productive evaluation of analyses and solutions. The journal specifically encourages submission of works that have statistical rigor in the analysis of data, incorporate the most appropriate algorithms from data mining, and address the needs of applications. Applying data mining algorithms to practical problems is not sufficient, because we need to ensure that the results have a sound statistical basis, lest any decision based on these results lead to a catastrophe. Even data mining algorithms founded on sound statistical analysis are not sufficient, if they cannot solve a practical problem. Finally, employing a statistical analysis on a practical problem is not sufficient, unless it scales up to massive datasets. Statistical analysis and data mining are actually two sides of the sword that is sorely needed to conquer data overload in practical problems.

  8. American marriage in the early twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Cherlin, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    During the past century the U.S. family system has seen vast changes--in marriage and divorce rates, cohabitation, childbearing, sexual behavior, and women's work outside the home. Andrew Cherlin reviews these historic changes, noting that marriage remains the most common living arrangement for raising children, but that children, especially poor and minority children, are increasingly likely to grow up in single-parent families and to experience family instability. Cherlin describes the economic and cultural forces that have transformed family life. Job market changes have drawn married women into the work force and deprived less-educated men of the blue-collar jobs by which they traditionally supported their families. And effective contraception and legalized abortion have eroded the norm of marriage before childbearing. Cherlin notes that sentiment in favor of marriage appears to be stronger in the United States than in other developed countries. The share of U.S. adults who are likely to marry is higher, but so is the share likely to divorce. U.S. children are also more likely to live in single-parent families at some time in their childhood. Although nearly all Americans, whether poor or well-to-do, hold to marriage as an ideal, today marriage is increasingly optional. To a greater extent than ever before, individuals can choose whether to form a family on their own, in a cohabiting relationship, or in a marriage. Given U.S. patterns of swift transitions into and out of marriage and high rates of single parenthood, American policymakers eager to promote marriage are unlikely to be able to raise U.S. family stability to levels typical of other developed countries. Consequently, a family policy that relies too heavily on marriage will not help the many children destined to live in single-parent and cohabiting families--many of them poor--during their formative years. Assistance must be directed to needy families, regardless of their household structure. Policymakers must craft a careful balance of marriage-based and marriage-neutral programs to provide adequate support to American children. PMID:16158729

  9. Families and elder care in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Bookman, Ann; Kimbrel, Delia

    2011-01-01

    Although most Americans know that the U.S. population is aging, they are far less informed about the reality of providing elders with personal care, health care, and social support. Families-particularly women-have always been critical in providing elder care, but the entry of so many women into the paid labor force has made elder care increasingly difficult. Ann Bookman and Delia Kimbrel show how changes in both work and family life are complicating families' efforts to care for elderly relatives. Because almost 60 percent of elder caregivers today are employed, many forms of caregiving must now be "outsourced" to nonfamily members. And because elders are widely diverse by race and socioeconomic status, their families attach differing cultural meanings to care and have widely different resources with which to accomplish their care goals. Although the poorest elders have access to some subsidized services, and the wealthiest can pay for services, many middle-class families cannot afford services that allow elders to age in their homes and avoid even more costly institutional care. Six key groups--health care providers, nongovernmental community-based service providers, employers, government, families, and elders themselves--are engaged in elder care, but their efforts are often fragmented and uncoordinated. All six groups must be able to work in concert and to receive the resources they need. Both employer and government policies must be improved. Although large businesses have taken up the elder care challenge, most small and mid-sized firms still do not offer flexible work arrangements. Social Security and Medicare have provided critical support to families caring for elders, yet both face significant financial shortfalls. The Older American Act and the National Family Caregiver Support Program have broadened access to elder services, but need updating to address the needs of today's employed caregivers and elders who want to "age in place." And just over half of the nation's workforce is eligible for the unpaid leave benefits provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act. The authors close by reflecting on the need for a coordinated, cross-sector movement to create an "aging-friendly" society in the United States-a society that values well-being across the life span and supports citizens from diverse cultures and income levels as they age. PMID:22013631

  10. Teacher-Friendly Technology Applications for the Twenty-First Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Jaime; Potter, Jalene; Hollas, Tori

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present recent technology applications for teachers as well as share important techniques in setting up a classroom environment that will prepare their students as twenty-first century learners.

  11. Preparing the Twenty-First Century Workforce: The Case of Curriculum Change in Radiation Protection Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Matthew; Easter, Matthew; Jonassen, David; Miller, William; Ionas, Gelu

    2008-01-01

    The advent of the global information society and a myriad of other rapidly changing variables are presenting many new and unique challenges for the twenty-first century workforce, and perhaps the most pressing of these challenges is actually meeting the needs for qualified workers to fill the positions in emerging and growing fields. One such

  12. Preparing the Twenty-First Century Workforce: The Case of Curriculum Change in Radiation Protection Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Matthew; Easter, Matthew; Jonassen, David; Miller, William; Ionas, Gelu

    2008-01-01

    The advent of the global information society and a myriad of other rapidly changing variables are presenting many new and unique challenges for the twenty-first century workforce, and perhaps the most pressing of these challenges is actually meeting the needs for qualified workers to fill the positions in emerging and growing fields. One such…

  13. Prevention of toxic environmental illness in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J

    1990-01-01

    Previous introductions of new technologies have frequently resulted in unanticipated occupational and environmental illness. Prevention of such illness in the twenty-first century requires stringent application of two fundamental principles of public health: evaluation of new technologies before their introduction, and surveillance of exposed persons after the introduction of new technologies. Failure to establish these basic preventive mechanisms in advance will inevitably result in the development of new toxic diseases in the twenty-first century. PMID:1698154

  14. Twenty-first century learning for teachers: helping educators bring new skills into the classroom.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John I

    2006-01-01

    The motivation behind every educator's dedication and hard work in the classroom is the knowledge that his or her teaching will result in students' success in life. Educators are committed to implementing twenty-first century skills; they have no question that students need such skills to be equipped for life beyond school. Members of the National Education Association are enthusiastic about the Partnership for 21st Century Skills framework, yet express frustration that many schools do not have adequate resources to make the necessary changes. Teaching these skills poses significant new responsibilities for schools and educators. To make it possible for teachers to build twenty-first century skills into the curriculum, physical and policy infrastructures must exist, professional development and curriculum materials must be offered, and meaningful assessments must be available. With an established understanding of what skills need to be infused into the classroom-problem solving, analysis, and com- munications-and educators' commitment to the new skill set, this chapter explores how to make such a dramatic reform happen. The author discusses existing strategies that will guide educators in infusing twenty-first century skills into traditional content areas such as math, English, geography, and science. Ultimately, public policy regarding educational standards, professional development, assessments, and physical school structures must exist to enable educators to employ twenty-first century skills, leading to student success in contemporary life. Any concern about the cost of bringing this nation's educational system up to par internationally should be offset by the price that not making twenty-first century skills a priority in the classroom will have on future economic well-being. PMID:17017265

  15. Career Learning and Development: A Social Constructivist Model for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassot, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In the UK there have been several calls for new models "fit for purpose" for careers work in the twenty-first century and in response, this article presents a model for career learning and development. This brings together recent theory regarding the ways in which people make career decisions throughout their lives in rapidly changing, turbulent…

  16. Forecasting Twenty-First Century Information Technology Skills: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jackie A.

    2012-01-01

    As cities and regions seek to increase the stock of college educated citizens in order to compete in the twenty-first century knowledge-economy, colleges and universities are realizing increased enrollment. At the same time, much is being written about the skills needed by graduates for the new economy. These studies articulate skills in critical…

  17. An Education for the Twenty-First Century: Stewardship of the Global Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Douglas C.; Cornwell, Grant H.; Al-Lail, Haifa Jamal; Schenck, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing that the term "global education" has become commonplace but, too often, is put forward without adequate substance, this proposal seeks to envision a foundational higher education for the twenty-first century. The authors believe it is important to imagine an education fit for global possibilities because theirs has become a world in

  18. Teaching Middle School Language Arts: Incorporating Twenty-First Century Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Roseboro, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    "Teaching Middle School Language Arts" is the first book on teaching middle school language arts for multiple intelligences and related twenty-first-century literacies in technologically and ethnically diverse communities. More than 670,000 middle school teachers (grades six through eight) are responsible for educating nearly 13 million students

  19. The New Cosmopolitan Monolingualism: On Linguistic Citizenship in Twenty-First Century Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramling, David

    2009-01-01

    In the early years of the twenty-first century, being German has become a matter of linguistic competence and performance. An acute shift in citizenship statutes at the end of the 1990s brought about a peripatetic departure from Germany's "right of blood" ("ius sanguinis") toward a French-inspired "right of territory" ("ius soli"). Yet in the nine

  20. Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century and Its Role in the Advancement of Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iliescu, Ion

    2003-01-01

    Discussion asserts that Romania recognizes the crucial importance of higher education's role in the development of the knowledge society of the twenty-first century, the importance of university education for the training of young people, and the need to develop Romanian higher education according to the norms of the Bologna Process and of

  1. Adolescent Health and Well-Being in the Twenty-First Century: A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Kathleen Thiede; Riedel, Aylin Altan; Hein, Karen; McLoyd, Vonnie; Petersen, Anne; Kipke, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Examines the current health and well-being of adolescents around the world. Considers the implications for adolescent health and well-being in the twenty-first century of societal trends, including growing poverty and income disparities, the changing health care system, increased migration and urbanization, and new information technology.…

  2. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to

  3. Adolescent Health and Well-Being in the Twenty-First Century: A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Kathleen Thiede; Riedel, Aylin Altan; Hein, Karen; McLoyd, Vonnie; Petersen, Anne; Kipke, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Examines the current health and well-being of adolescents around the world. Considers the implications for adolescent health and well-being in the twenty-first century of societal trends, including growing poverty and income disparities, the changing health care system, increased migration and urbanization, and new information technology.

  4. The Five Cs of Digital Curation: Supporting Twenty-First-Century Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschaine, Mark E.; Sharma, Sue Ann

    2015-01-01

    Digital curation is a process that allows university professors to adapt and adopt resources from multidisciplinary fields to meet the educational needs of twenty-first-century learners. Looking through the lens of new media literacy studies (Vasquez, Harste, & Albers, 2010) and new literacies studies (Gee, 2010), we propose that university…

  5. Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wing On

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive thinking; information,

  6. Teaching and Learning in the Twenty-First Century: What Is an "Institute of Education" for?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husbands, Chris

    2012-01-01

    As we begin the twenty-first century, schools and teachers are subject to enormous pressures for change. The revolution in digital technologies, the pressure to develop consistently high-performing schools systems, and the drive between excellence and equity all combine to raise profound questions about the nature of successful teaching and

  7. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

  8. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Paul Henry

    2010-01-01

    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

  9. Distance Education Technology: Higher Education Barriers during the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Ansah, Angela; Neill, Patti; Haralson, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, despite the expanded opportunities technology affords in student-access to higher education, most institutions of higher education are hesitant to offer technology-based distance education (TBDE). The prohibiting factors include cost, accessibility, faculty concerns, state mandates, academic administrative actions, and…

  10. Career Learning and Development: A Social Constructivist Model for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassot, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In the UK there have been several calls for new models "fit for purpose" for careers work in the twenty-first century and in response, this article presents a model for career learning and development. This brings together recent theory regarding the ways in which people make career decisions throughout their lives in rapidly changing, turbulent

  11. Gaga for Google in the Twenty-First Century Advanced Placement Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Devon Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The migration of online educational needs to tools like Google applications, coupled with the realization that today's twenty-first-century students are digital natives who have lived their entire lives exposed to current technology, forces educators to find ways to use technology to enhance traditional curriculum. In this article, the author

  12. Teaching Middle School Language Arts: Incorporating Twenty-First Century Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Roseboro, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    "Teaching Middle School Language Arts" is the first book on teaching middle school language arts for multiple intelligences and related twenty-first-century literacies in technologically and ethnically diverse communities. More than 670,000 middle school teachers (grades six through eight) are responsible for educating nearly 13 million students…

  13. An Education for the Twenty-First Century: Stewardship of the Global Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Douglas C.; Cornwell, Grant H.; Al-Lail, Haifa Jamal; Schenck, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing that the term "global education" has become commonplace but, too often, is put forward without adequate substance, this proposal seeks to envision a foundational higher education for the twenty-first century. The authors believe it is important to imagine an education fit for global possibilities because theirs has become a world in…

  14. Knowledge and Educational Research in the Context of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Educational researchers and academics cannot ignore the ever-present call for education, and schooling in particular, to reflect the needs of the twenty-first century knowledge economy. Since the 1990s, national curricula and education systems have reflected this call in their focus on technology and shifting pedagogy to increasingly

  15. Distance Education Technology: Higher Education Barriers during the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Ansah, Angela; Neill, Patti; Haralson, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, despite the expanded opportunities technology affords in student-access to higher education, most institutions of higher education are hesitant to offer technology-based distance education (TBDE). The prohibiting factors include cost, accessibility, faculty concerns, state mandates, academic administrative actions, and

  16. The Effect of Participating in Indiana's Twenty-First Century Scholars Program on College Enrollments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Hossler, Don; DesJardins, Stephen L.; McCall, Brian; Gonzalez Canche, Manuel S.

    2015-01-01

    Our study adds to prior work on Indiana's Twenty-first Century Scholars(TFCS) program by focusing on whether participating in--rather than completing--the program affects the likelihood of students going to college and where they initially enrolled. We first employ binary and multinomial logistic regression to obtain estimates of the impact of the…

  17. Leadership for Twenty-First-Century Schools and Student Achievement: Lessons Learned from Three Exemplary Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to understand ways exemplary award winning secondary school leaders have transformed their schools for twenty-first-century education and student achievement. This article presents three diverse case studies and identifies ways that each school's leader and leadership team reconfigured its culture and

  18. A Step toward College Success: Assessing Attainment among Indiana's Twenty-First Century Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Gross, Jacob P.K.; Musoba, Glenda D.; Chung, Anna S.

    2005-01-01

    The Twenty-first Century Scholars Program is an early-intervention program intended to improve college enrollment among low-income students in Indiana. The Scholars program provides support services--plus a guarantee of grant aid equivalent to public college tuition--to students who pledge in eighth grade to meet five criteria: (1) complete high

  19. Forecasting Twenty-First Century Information Technology Skills: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jackie A.

    2012-01-01

    As cities and regions seek to increase the stock of college educated citizens in order to compete in the twenty-first century knowledge-economy, colleges and universities are realizing increased enrollment. At the same time, much is being written about the skills needed by graduates for the new economy. These studies articulate skills in critical

  20. Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,

  1. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Paul Henry

    2010-01-01

    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the

  2. Gaga for Google in the Twenty-First Century Advanced Placement Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Devon Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The migration of online educational needs to tools like Google applications, coupled with the realization that today's twenty-first-century students are digital natives who have lived their entire lives exposed to current technology, forces educators to find ways to use technology to enhance traditional curriculum. In this article, the author…

  3. The Effect of Participating in Indiana's Twenty-First Century Scholars Program on College Enrollments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Hossler, Don; DesJardins, Stephen L.; McCall, Brian; Gonzalez Canche, Manuel S.

    2015-01-01

    Our study adds to prior work on Indiana's Twenty-first Century Scholars(TFCS) program by focusing on whether participating in--rather than completing--the program affects the likelihood of students going to college and where they initially enrolled. We first employ binary and multinomial logistic regression to obtain estimates of the impact of the

  4. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards

  5. How Do Students Value the Importance of Twenty-First Century Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahonen, Arto Kalevi; Kinnunen, Pivi

    2015-01-01

    Frameworks of twenty-first century skills have attained a central role in school development and curriculum changes all over the world. There is a common understanding of the need for meta-skills such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration, and self-regulation. This article presents results from a Finnish study, in which 718 school pupils

  6. Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,…

  7. World Trends And Issues In Adult Education On The Eve Of The Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhola, H. S.

    1998-09-01

    The forces of globalization today seem to have overwhelmed the historical political-cultural mission of adult education. Both in the North and the South, adult education is asked to contribute directly to productivity and thereby to competitiveness in the global market. The social component that survives is expected to help in coping with globalization. Voices of conscience and sanity have been raised at world summits in Rio (1992), Cairo (1994), Copenhagen (1995), Beijing (1995), and elsewhere. However, policies, plans and practices have not matched the declarations and agendas from the summits. The programs spawned by the Education for All conference of 1990 side-lined adult education, and so did the Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (1996). The Fifth International Conference on Adult Education held in Hamburg during July 14-18, 1997 was marked by renewed commitment and solidarity. However, challenges of problematizing globalization, democratizing development, and socializing humanity for life together in the new century remain.

  8. Civil engineering at the crossroads in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Ramrez, Francisco; Seco, Andres

    2012-12-01

    The twenty-first century presents a major challenge for civil engineering. The magnitude and future importance of some of the problems perceived by society are directly related to the field of the civil engineer, implying an inescapable burden of responsibility for a group whose technical soundness, rational approach and efficiency is highly valued and respected by the citizen. However, the substantial changes in society and in the way it perceives the problems that it considers important call for a thorough review of our structures, both professional and educational; so that our profession, with its undeniable historical prestige, may modernize certain approaches and attitudes in order to continue to be a reliable instrument in the service of society, giving priority from an ethical standpoint to its actions in pursuit of "the public good". It possesses important tools to facilitate this work (new technologies, the development of communications, the transmission of scientific thought.); but there is nevertheless a need for deep reflection on the very essence of civil engineering: what we want it to be in the future, and the ability and willingness to take the lead at a time when society needs disinterested messages, technically supported, reasonably presented and dispassionately transmitted. PMID:21380736

  9. Remobilization of southern African desert dune systems by twenty-first century global warming.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David S G; Knight, Melanie; Wiggs, Giles F S

    2005-06-30

    Although desert dunes cover 5 per cent of the global land surface and 30 per cent of Africa, the potential impacts of twenty-first century global warming on desert dune systems are not well understood. The inactive Sahel and southern African dune systems, which developed in multiple arid phases since the last interglacial period, are used today by pastoral and agricultural systems that could be disrupted if climate change alters twenty-first century dune dynamics. Empirical data and model simulations have established that the interplay between dune surface erodibility (determined by vegetation cover and moisture availability) and atmospheric erosivity (determined by wind energy) is critical for dunefield dynamics. This relationship between erodibility and erosivity is susceptible to climate-change impacts. Here we use simulations with three global climate models and a range of emission scenarios to assess the potential future activity of three Kalahari dunefields. We determine monthly values of dune activity by modifying and improving an established dune mobility index so that it can account for global climate model data outputs. We find that, regardless of the emission scenario used, significantly enhanced dune activity is simulated in the southern dunefield by 2039, and in the eastern and northern dunefields by 2069. By 2099 all dunefields are highly dynamic, from northern South Africa to Angola and Zambia. Our results suggest that dunefields are likely to be reactivated (the sand will become significantly exposed and move) as a consequence of twenty-first century climate warming. PMID:15988522

  10. Extinction debt of high-mountain plants under twenty-first-century climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullinger, Stefan; Gattringer, Andreas; Thuiller, Wilfried; Moser, Dietmar; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Guisan, Antoine; Willner, Wolfgang; Plutzar, Christoph; Leitner, Michael; Mang, Thomas; Caccianiga, Marco; Dirnböck, Thomas; Ertl, Siegrun; Fischer, Anton; Lenoir, Jonathan; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Psomas, Achilleas; Schmatz, Dirk R.; Silc, Urban; Vittoz, Pascal; Hülber, Karl

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative estimates of the range loss of mountain plants under climate change have so far mostly relied on static geographical projections of species' habitat shifts. Here, we use a hybrid model that combines such projections with simulations of demography and seed dispersal to forecast the climate-driven spatio-temporal dynamics of 150 high-mountain plant species across the European Alps. This model predicts average range size reductions of 44-50% by the end of the twenty-first century, which is similar to projections from the most `optimistic' static model (49%). However, the hybrid model also indicates that population dynamics will lag behind climatic trends and that an average of 40% of the range still occupied at the end of the twenty-first century will have become climatically unsuitable for the respective species, creating an extinction debt. Alarmingly, species endemic to the Alps seem to face the highest range losses. These results caution against optimistic conclusions from moderate range size reductions observed during the twenty-first century as they are likely to belie more severe longer-term effects of climate warming on mountain plants.

  11. Twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over Upper Indus Basin of Himalayan region of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shaukat; Li, Dan; Congbin, Fu; Khan, Firdos

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on both the recent and the predicted twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over the mountainous Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which are influenced by snow and glacier melting. Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) data for the periods 1976-2005, 2006-2035, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100 with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) data for the periods of 2041-2050 and 2071-2080 with RCP8.5 are used for climatic projection and, after bias correction, the same data are used as an input to the University of British Columbia (UBC) hydrological model for river flow projections. The projections of all of the future periods were compared with the results of 1976-2005 and with each other. Projections of future changes show a consistent increase in air temperature and precipitation. However, temperature and precipitation increase is relatively slow during 2071-2100 in contrast with 2041-2070. Northern parts are more likely to experience an increase in precipitation and temperature in comparison to the southern parts. A higher increase in temperature is projected during spring and winter over southern parts and during summer over northern parts. Moreover, the increase in minimum temperature is larger in both scenarios for all future periods. Future river flow is projected by both models to increase in the twenty first century (CCAM and RegCM) in both scenarios. However, the rate of increase is larger during the first half while it is relatively small in the second half of the twenty first century in RCP4.5. The possible reason for high river flow during the first half of the twenty first century is the large increase in temperature, which may cause faster melting of snow, while in the last half of the century there is a decreasing trend in river flow, precipitation, and temperature (2071-2100) in comparison to 2041-2070 for RCP4.5. Generally, for all future periods, the percentage of increased river flow is larger in winter than in summer, while quantitatively large river flow was projected, particularly during the summer monsoon. Due to high river flow and increase in precipitation in UIB, water availability is likely to be increased in the twenty first century and this may sustain water demands.

  12. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrones, Mauricio

    2003-08-01

    This account reviews the discovery, synthesis, properties, and the latest research advances of carbon nanotubes developed over the past 12 years. Because of their remarkable electronic and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes are unique and exciting. The field has been developed rapidly, and the number of publications per year is increasing almost exponentially. Various technological applications are likely to arise using nanotubes for fabrication of flat panel displays, gas storage devices, toxic gas sensors, Li+ batteries, robust and lightweight composites, conducting paints, electronic nanodevices, etc. Further experimental and theoretical research is still necessary so that novel technologies will become a reality in the early twenty-first century.

  13. Twenty-first century changes in snowfall climate in Northern Europe in ENSEMBLES regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, Jouni

    2016-01-01

    Changes in snowfall in northern Europe (55-71°N, 5-35°E) are analysed from 12 regional model simulations of twenty-first century climate under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B scenario. As an ensemble mean, the models suggest a decrease in the winter total snowfall in nearly all of northern Europe. In the middle of the winter, however, snowfall generally increases in the coldest areas. The borderline between increasing and decreasing snowfall broadly coincides with the -11 °C isotherm in baseline (1980-2010) monthly mean temperature, although with variation between models and grid boxes. High extremes of daily snowfall remain nearly unchanged, except for decreases in the mildest areas, where snowfall as a whole becomes much less common. A smaller fraction of the snow in the simulated late twenty-first century climate falls on severely cold days and a larger fraction on days with near-zero temperatures. Not only do days with low temperatures become less common, but they also typically have more positive anomalies of sea level pressure and less snowfall for the same temperature than in the present-day climate.

  14. Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The opportunities for space science in the period from 1995 to 2015 are discussed. A perspective on progress in the six disciplines (the planet Earth; planetary and lunar exploration; solar system space physics; astronomy and astrophysics; fundamental physics and chemistry; and life sciences) of space science are reviewed. The prospectives for major achievements by 1995 from missions already underway or awaiting new starts are included. A set of long range goals for these disciplines are presented for the first two decades of the twenty-first century. Broad themes for future scientific pursuits are presented and some examples of high-priority missions for the turn of the century are highlighted. A few recommendations are cited for each discipline to suggest how these themes might be developed.

  15. Low Fertility at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Morgan, S Philip; Taylor, Miles G

    2006-08-01

    In the past few decades, demographic concerns have shifted from rapid population growth fueled by high fertility to concerns of population decline produced by very low, sub-replacement fertility levels. Once considered a problem unique to Europe or developed nations, concerns now center on the global spread of low fertility. Nearly half of the world's population now lives in countries with fertility at or below replacement levels. Further, by the mid-twenty-first century three of four countries now described as developing are projected to reach or slip below replacement fertility. We review the research on low fertility through the predominant frameworks and theories used to explain it. These explanations range from decomposition and proximate determinant frameworks to grand theories on the fundamental causes underlying the pervasiveness and spread of low fertility. We focus on the ability of theory to situate previous and future findings and conclude with directions for furthur research. PMID:20376287

  16. Funding research in the twenty-first century: current opinions and future directions.

    PubMed

    Squitieri, Lee; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-08-01

    For all academic biomedical researchers, the process of submitting grants and securing research funding is a critical part of advancing one's career. In the current era of decreasing new grant awards and renewals leading to significantly worse success rates, it is hard for young aspiring physician-scientists to remain optimistic regarding their future in academic medicine. It is important that today's young surgeon-scientists prepare for and adapt to the inevitably changing climate of research funding. This article provides a primer on developing a successful career as a funded surgeon-scientist and pathways for building a robust research platform worthy of extramural National Institutes of Health funding in the twenty-first century. PMID:25066856

  17. Low Fertility at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, S. Philip; Taylor, Miles G.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few decades, demographic concerns have shifted from rapid population growth fueled by high fertility to concerns of population decline produced by very low, sub-replacement fertility levels. Once considered a problem unique to Europe or developed nations, concerns now center on the global spread of low fertility. Nearly half of the world's population now lives in countries with fertility at or below replacement levels. Further, by the mid-twenty-first century three of four countries now described as developing are projected to reach or slip below replacement fertility. We review the research on low fertility through the predominant frameworks and theories used to explain it. These explanations range from decomposition and proximate determinant frameworks to grand theories on the fundamental causes underlying the pervasiveness and spread of low fertility. We focus on the ability of theory to situate previous and future findings and conclude with directions for furthur research. PMID:20376287

  18. Civil Rights Laws as Tools to Advance Health in the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Angela K; Lee, Mary M; Meneses, Cristina M; Perkins, Jane; Youdelman, Mara

    2016-03-18

    To improve health in the twenty-first century, to promote both access to and quality of health care services and delivery, and to address significant health disparities, legal and policy approaches, specifically those focused on civil rights, could be used more intentionally and strategically. This review describes how civil rights laws, and their implementation and enforcement, help to encourage health in the United States, and it provides examples for peers around the world. The review uses a broad lens to define health for both classes of individuals and their communities-places where people live, learn, work, and play. Suggestions are offered for improving health and equity broadly, especially within societal groups and marginalized populations. These recommendations include multisectorial approaches that focus on the social determinants of health. PMID:26789383

  19. Expecting motherhood? Stratifying reproduction in twenty-first century Scottish abortion practice

    PubMed Central

    Beynon-Jones, Sin M.

    2015-01-01

    This article illustrates how Scottish health professionals involved in contemporary abortion provision construct stratified expectations about womens reproductive decision-making. Drawing on 42 semi-structured interviews I reveal the contingent discourses through which health professionals constitute the rationality of the female subject who requests abortion. Specifically, I illustrate how youth, age, parity and class are mobilised as criteria through which to distinguish types of patient whose requests for abortion are deemed particularly understandable or particularly problematic. I conceptualise this process of differentiation as a form of stratified reproduction (Colen, 1995; Ginsburg and Rapp, 1995) and argue that it is significant for two reasons. Firstly, it illustrates the operation of dominant discourses concerning abortion and motherhood in twenty-first century Britain. Secondly, it extends the forms of critique which feminist scholarship has, to date, developed of the regulation of abortion provision in the UK. PMID:25774067

  20. Toward a Social Psychology of Race and Race Relations for the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Sommers, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    The United States, like many nations, continues to experience rapid growth in its racial minority population and is projected to attain so-called majority-minority status by 2050. Along with these demographic changes, staggering racial disparities persist in health, wealth, and overall well-being. In this article, we review the social psychological literature on race and race relations, beginning with the seemingly simple question: What is race? Drawing on research from different fields, we forward a model of race as dynamic, malleable, and socially constructed, shifting across time, place, perceiver, and target. We then use classic theoretical perspectives on intergroup relations to frame and then consider new questions regarding contemporary racial dynamics. We next consider research on racial diversity, focusing on its effects during interpersonal encounters and for groups. We close by highlighting emerging topics that should top the research agenda for the social psychology of race and race relations in the twenty-first century. PMID:26361050

  1. Uncertainty in Twenty-First-Century CMIP5 Sea Level Projections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Christopher M.; Horton, Radley M.; Kopp, Robert E.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Yip, Stan

    2015-01-01

    The representative concentration pathway (RCP) simulations included in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) quantify the response of the climate system to different natural and anthropogenic forcing scenarios. These simulations differ because of 1) forcing, 2) the representation of the climate system in atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs), and 3) the presence of unforced (internal) variability. Global and local sea level rise projections derived from these simulations, and the emergence of distinct responses to the four RCPs depend on the relative magnitude of these sources of uncertainty at different lead times. Here, the uncertainty in CMIP5 projections of sea level is partitioned at global and local scales, using a 164-member ensemble of twenty-first-century simulations. Local projections at New York City (NYSL) are highlighted. The partition between model uncertainty, scenario uncertainty, and internal variability in global mean sea level (GMSL) is qualitatively consistent with that of surface air temperature, with model uncertainty dominant for most of the twenty-first century. Locally, model uncertainty is dominant through 2100, with maxima in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. The model spread is driven largely by 4 of the 16 AOGCMs in the ensemble; these models exhibit outlying behavior in all RCPs and in both GMSL and NYSL. The magnitude of internal variability varies widely by location and across models, leading to differences of several decades in the local emergence of RCPs. The AOGCM spread, and its sensitivity to model exclusion and/or weighting, has important implications for sea level assessments, especially if a local risk management approach is utilized.

  2. Influence of food-environment interactions on health in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Fennema, O

    1990-01-01

    The quality and safety of foods are affected by the environment, and the quality and safety of the environment are, in turn, affected by foods and food processing. To explore these interrelationships, as they might exist in the twenty-first century, one must speculate regarding future changes in foods and food processing. Several trends in food processing seem likely to predominate into the twenty-first century, and they will be, for the most part, evolutionary in nature and of low consumer visibility. These trends are greater use of foods marketed in a refrigerated state, greater use of irradiation and combination processes, greater automation and optimization of processes, and greater use of biotechnology. It is also reasonable to assume that food products of the following types will increase in importance, namely, those that are convenient (includes eating away from home), those that are tailored to specific dietary needs, those containing chemically modified components such as altered proteins and carbohydrates, and fabricated foods. If these trends in foods and food processes prevail then concern must be directed to the following areas: Microbiological concerns--refrigerated foods; food service operations; new or altered procedures for processing, handling and storing foods; and new foods or food formulations; attention must be given both to controlling known pathogens as well as newly perceived pathogens. Chemical concerns--toxicants occurring naturally in foods; contaminants; chemicals developing in foods during processing, handling and storage; chemicals used in fabricated foods; and chemicals of newly perceived importance, especially those having adverse, covert effects. Several of these chemical concerns are influenced in seriousness by composition of the food environment. PMID:2401258

  3. A Gathering of Great Minds: Designing Twenty-First Century Education with Twentieth Century Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kari B.

    2005-01-01

    As the 21st century turns five and a half and looks forward to summer vacation, the higher education community seems poised to undertake an endeavor of epic proportions: the remodeling of the American approach to college student learning. To begin building structures and designing strategies for 21st century education, the "Greater Expectations: A

  4. Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, C.V.; Marcot, B.G.; Douglas, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental conditions and anthropogenic stressors on the future status of the Pacific walrus population at four periods through the twenty-first century. The model framework allowed for inclusion of various sources and levels of knowledge, and representation of structural and parameter uncertainties. Walrus outcome probabilities through the century reflected a clear trend of worsening conditions for the subspecies. From the current observation period to the end of century, the greatest change in walrus outcome probabilities was a progressive decrease in the outcome state of robust and a concomitant increase in the outcome state of vulnerable. The probabilities of rare and extirpated states each progressively increased but remained >10% through the end of the century. The summed probabilities of vulnerable, rare, and extirpated (P(v,r,e)) increased from a current level of 10% in 2004 to 22% by 2050 and 40% by 2095. The degree of uncertainty in walrus outcomes increased monotonically over future periods. In the model, sea ice habitat (particularly for summer/fall) and harvest levels had the greatest influence on future population outcomes. Other potential stressors had much smaller influences on walrus outcomes, mostly because of uncertainty in their future states and our current poor understanding of their mechanistic influence on walrus abundance. ?? 2011 US Government.

  5. Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Douglas, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental conditions and anthropogenic stressors on the future status of the Pacific walrus population at four periods through the twenty-first century. The model framework allowed for inclusion of various sources and levels of knowledge, and representation of structural and parameter uncertainties. Walrus outcome probabilities through the century reflected a clear trend of worsening conditions for the subspecies. From the current observation period to the end of century, the greatest change in walrus outcome probabilities was a progressive decrease in the outcome state of robust and a concomitant increase in the outcome state of vulnerable. The probabilities of rare and extirpated states each progressively increased but remained <10% through the end of the century. The summed probabilities of vulnerable, rare, and extirpated (P(v,r,e)) increased from a current level of 10% in 2004 to 22% by 2050 and 40% by 2095. The degree of uncertainty in walrus outcomes increased monotonically over future periods. In the model, sea ice habitat (particularly for summer/fall) and harvest levels had the greatest influence on future population outcomes. Other potential stressors had much smaller influences on walrus outcomes, mostly because of uncertainty in their future states and our current poor understanding of their mechanistic influence on walrus abundance.

  6. Robust twenty-first-century projections of ElNio and related precipitation variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Scott; Delage, Franois; Chung, Christine; Kociuba, Greg; Keay, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    The ElNio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in rainfall, severe weather, agricultural production, ecosystems and disease in many parts of the world. Given that further human-forced changes in the Earth's climate system seem inevitable, the possibility exists that the character of ENSO and its impacts might change over the coming century. Although this issue has been investigated many times during the past 20years, there is very little consensus on future changes in ENSO, apart from an expectation that ENSO will continue to be a dominant source of year-to-year variability. Here we show that there are in fact robust projected changes in the spatial patterns of year-to-year ENSO-driven variability in both surface temperature and precipitation. These changes are evident in the two most recent generations of climate models, using four different scenarios for CO2 and other radiatively active gases. By the mid- to late twenty-first century, the projections include an intensification of both El-Nio-driven drying in the western Pacific Ocean and rainfall increases in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Experiments with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model reveal that robust projected changes in precipitation anomalies during ElNio years are primarily determined by a nonlinear response to surface global warming. Uncertain projected changes in the amplitude of ENSO-driven surface temperature variability have only a secondary role. Projected changes in key characteristics of ENSO are consequently much clearer than previously realized.

  7. Robust twenty-first-century projections of El Nio and related precipitation variability.

    PubMed

    Power, Scott; Delage, Franois; Chung, Christine; Kociuba, Greg; Keay, Kevin

    2013-10-24

    The El?Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in rainfall, severe weather, agricultural production, ecosystems and disease in many parts of the world. Given that further human-forced changes in the Earth's climate system seem inevitable, the possibility exists that the character of ENSO and its impacts might change over the coming century. Although this issue has been investigated many times during the past 20?years, there is very little consensus on future changes in ENSO, apart from an expectation that ENSO will continue to be a dominant source of year-to-year variability. Here we show that there are in fact robust projected changes in the spatial patterns of year-to-year ENSO-driven variability in both surface temperature and precipitation. These changes are evident in the two most recent generations of climate models, using four different scenarios for CO2 and other radiatively active gases. By the mid- to late twenty-first century, the projections include an intensification of both El-Nio-driven drying in the western Pacific Ocean and rainfall increases in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Experiments with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model reveal that robust projected changes in precipitation anomalies during El?Nio years are primarily determined by a nonlinear response to surface global warming. Uncertain projected changes in the amplitude of ENSO-driven surface temperature variability have only a secondary role. Projected changes in key characteristics of ENSO are consequently much clearer than previously realized. PMID:24121439

  8. How will melting of ice affect volcanic hazards in the twenty-first century?

    PubMed

    Tuffen, Hugh

    2010-05-28

    Glaciers and ice sheets on many active volcanoes are rapidly receding. There is compelling evidence that melting of ice during the last deglaciation triggered a dramatic acceleration in volcanic activity. Will melting of ice this century, which is associated with climate change, similarly affect volcanic activity and associated hazards? This paper provides a critical overview of the evidence that current melting of ice will increase the frequency or size of hazardous volcanic eruptions. Many aspects of the link between ice recession and accelerated volcanic activity remain poorly understood. Key questions include how rapidly volcanic systems react to melting of ice, whether volcanoes are sensitive to small changes in ice thickness and how recession of ice affects the generation, storage and eruption of magma at stratovolcanoes. A greater frequency of collapse events at glaciated stratovolcanoes can be expected in the near future, and there is strong potential for positive feedbacks between melting of ice and enhanced volcanism. Nonetheless, much further research is required to remove current uncertainties about the implications of climate change for volcanic hazards in the twenty-first century. PMID:20403841

  9. Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, David R.

    Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could

  10. Mediterranean Sea response to climate change in an ensemble of twenty first century scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, Fanny; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence; Jordà, Gabriel; Aznar, Roland; Déqué, Michel; Herrmann, Marine; Marcos, Marta; Dubois, Clotilde; Padorno, Elena; Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique; Gomis, Damià

    2015-11-01

    The Mediterranean climate is expected to become warmer and drier during the twenty-first century. Mediterranean Sea response to climate change could be modulated by the choice of the socio-economic scenario as well as the choice of the boundary conditions mainly the Atlantic hydrography, the river runoff and the atmospheric fluxes. To assess and quantify the sensitivity of the Mediterranean Sea to the twenty-first century climate change, a set of numerical experiments was carried out with the regional ocean model NEMOMED8 set up for the Mediterranean Sea. The model is forced by air-sea fluxes derived from the regional climate model ARPEGE-Climate at a 50-km horizontal resolution. Historical simulations representing the climate of the period 1961-2000 were run to obtain a reference state. From this baseline, various sensitivity experiments were performed for the period 2001-2099, following different socio-economic scenarios based on the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. For the A2 scenario, the main three boundary forcings (river runoff, near-Atlantic water hydrography and air-sea fluxes) were changed one by one to better identify the role of each forcing in the way the ocean responds to climate change. In two additional simulations (A1B, B1), the scenario is changed, allowing to quantify the socio-economic uncertainty. Our 6-member scenario simulations display a warming and saltening of the Mediterranean. For the 2070-2099 period compared to 1961-1990, the sea surface temperature anomalies range from +1.73 to +2.97 °C and the SSS anomalies spread from +0.48 to +0.89. In most of the cases, we found that the future Mediterranean thermohaline circulation (MTHC) tends to reach a situation similar to the eastern Mediterranean Transient. However, this response is varying depending on the chosen boundary conditions and socio-economic scenarios. Our numerical experiments suggest that the choice of the near-Atlantic surface water evolution, which is very uncertain in General Circulation Models, has the largest impact on the evolution of the Mediterranean water masses, followed by the choice of the socio-economic scenario. The choice of river runoff and atmospheric forcing both have a smaller impact. The state of the MTHC during the historical period is found to have a large influence on the transfer of surface anomalies toward depth. Besides, subsurface currents are substantially modified in the Ionian Sea and the Balearic region. Finally, the response of thermosteric sea level ranges from +34 to +49 cm (2070-2099 vs. 1961-1990), mainly depending on the Atlantic forcing.

  11. Bruce's Magnificent Quartet: Inquiry, Community, Technology and Literacy--Implications for Renewing Qualitative Research in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Bruce and Bishop's community informatics work brings forward four critical concepts: inquiry, community, technology, and literacy. These four terms serve as the basis for a discussion of qualitative research in the twenty-first century--what is lacking and what is needed. The author suggests that to resolve the tensions or challenges

  12. Dynamic consent: a patient interface for twenty-first century research networks.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Jane; Whitley, Edgar A; Lund, David; Morrison, Michael; Teare, Harriet; Melham, Karen

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical research is being transformed through the application of information technologies that allow ever greater amounts of data to be shared on an unprecedented scale. However, the methods for involving participants have not kept pace with changes in research capability. In an era when information is shared digitally at the global level, mechanisms of informed consent remain static, paper-based and organised around national boundaries and legal frameworks. Dynamic consent (DC) is both a specific project and a wider concept that offers a new approach to consent; one designed to meet the needs of the twenty-first century research landscape. At the heart of DC is a personalised, digital communication interface that connects researchers and participants, placing participants at the heart of decision making. The interface facilitates two-way communication to stimulate a more engaged, informed and scientifically literate participant population where individuals can tailor and manage their own consent preferences. The technical architecture of DC includes components that can securely encrypt sensitive data and allow participant consent preferences to travel with their data and samples when they are shared with third parties. In addition to improving transparency and public trust, this system benefits researchers by streamlining recruitment and enabling more efficient participant recontact. DC has mainly been developed in biobanking contexts, but it also has potential application in other domains for a variety of purposes. PMID:24801761

  13. Projected deglaciation of western Canada in the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Garry K. C.; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Anslow, Faron S.; Radi?, Valentina; Menounos, Brian

    2015-05-01

    Retreat of mountain glaciers is a significant contributor to sea-level rise and a potential threat to human populations through impacts on water availability and regional hydrology. Like most of Earths mountain glaciers, those in western North America are experiencing rapid mass loss. Projections of future large-scale mass change are based on surface mass balance models that are open to criticism, because they ignore or greatly simplify glacier physics. Here we use a high-resolution regional glaciation model, developed by coupling physics-based ice dynamics with a surface mass balance model, to project the fate of glaciers in western Canada. We use twenty-first-century climate scenarios from an ensemble of global climate models in our simulations; the results indicate that by 2100, the volume of glacier ice in western Canada will shrink by 70 +/- 10% relative to 2005. According to our simulations, few glaciers will remain in the Interior and Rockies regions, but maritime glaciers, in particular those in northwestern British Columbia, will survive in a diminished state. We project the maximum rate of ice volume loss, corresponding to peak input of deglacial meltwater to streams and rivers, to occur around 2020-2040. Potential implications include impacts on aquatic ecosystems, agriculture, forestry, alpine tourism and water quality.

  14. Biological Systems Modeling and Analysis: A Biomolecular Technique of the Twenty-first Century

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Gautam; Chou, I-Chun; Voit, Eberhard O.

    2006-01-01

    It is proposed that computational systems biology should be considered a biomolecular technique of the twenty-first century, because it complements experimental biology and bioinformatics in unique ways that will eventually lead to insights and a depth of understanding not achievable without systems approaches. This article begins with a summary of traditional and novel modeling techniques. In the second part, it proposes concept map modeling as a useful link between experimental biology and biological systems modeling and analysis. Concept map modeling requires the collaboration between biologist and modeler. The biologist designs a regulated connectivity diagram of processes comprising a biological system and also provides semi-quantitative information on stimuli and measured or expected responses of the system. The modeler converts this information through methods of forward and inverse modeling into a mathematical construct that can be used for simulations and to generate and test new hypotheses. The biologist and the modeler collaboratively interpret the results and devise improved concept maps. The third part of the article describes software, BST-Box, supporting the various modeling activities. PMID:17028166

  15. Effects of long-term variability on projections of twenty-first century dynamic sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordbar, Mohammad H.; Martin, Thomas; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2015-04-01

    Sea-level rise is one of the most pressing aspects of anthropogenic global warming with far-reaching consequences for coastal societies. However, sea-level rise did and will strongly vary from coast to coast. Here we investigate the long-term internal variability effects on centennial projections of dynamic sea level (DSL), the local departure from the globally averaged sea level. A large ensemble of global warming integrations has been conducted with a climate model, where each realization was forced by identical CO2 increase but started from different atmospheric and oceanic initial conditions. In large parts of the mid- and high latitudes, the ensemble spread of the projected centennial DSL trends is of the same order of magnitude as the globally averaged steric sea-level rise, suggesting that internal variability cannot be ignored when assessing twenty-first-century DSL trends. The ensemble spread is considerably reduced in the mid- to high latitudes when only the atmospheric initial conditions differ while keeping the oceanic initial state identical; indicating that centennial DSL projections are strongly dependent on ocean initial conditions.

  16. The expert patient: a new approach to chronic disease management for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Robert L

    2002-01-01

    The expert patient: a new approach to chronic disease management for the twenty-first century, produced by the Department of Health, recommends the introduction of 'user-led self management' for chronic diseases to all areas of the NHS by 2007. The premise is that many patients are expert in managing their disease, and this could be used to encourage others to become 'key decision makers in the treatment process'. Furthermore, these expert patients could 'contribute their skills and insights for the further improvement of services'. It is hypothesised that self-management programmes could reduce the severity of symptoms and improve confidence, resourcefulness and self-efficacy. It is stressed that this is more than just patient education to improve compliance. Instead there should be 'a cultural change...so that user-led self management can be fully valued and understood by healthcare professionals'. I point out that these ideas, while welcome, are not particularly new. Achieving the desired culture change will not be easy. PMID:12108472

  17. Divergent trajectories of Antarctic surface melt under two twenty-first-century climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusel, Luke D.; Frey, Karen E.; Das, Sarah B.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; van Meijgaard, Erik; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2015-12-01

    Ice shelves modulate Antarctic contributions to sea-level rise and thereby represent a critical, climate-sensitive interface between the Antarctic ice sheet and the global ocean. Following rapid atmospheric warming over the past decades, Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves have progressively retreated, at times catastrophically. This decay supports hypotheses of thermal limits of viability for ice shelves via surface melt forcing. Here we use a polar-adapted regional climate model and satellite observations to quantify the nonlinear relationship between surface melting and summer air temperature. Combining observations and multimodel simulations, we examine melt evolution and intensification before observed ice shelf collapse on the Antarctic Peninsula. We then assess the twenty-first-century evolution of surface melt across Antarctica under intermediate and high emissions climate scenarios. Our projections reveal a scenario-independent doubling of Antarctic-wide melt by 2050. Between 2050 and 2100, however, significant divergence in melt occurs between the two climate scenarios. Under the high emissions pathway by 2100, melt on several ice shelves approaches or surpasses intensities that have historically been associated with ice shelf collapse, at least on the northeast Antarctic Peninsula.

  18. On the twenty-first-century wet season projections over the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selman, Christopher; Misra, Vasu; Stefanova, Lydia; Dinapoli, Steven; Smith, Thomas J., III

    2013-01-01

    This paper reconciles the difference in the projections of the wet season over the Southeastern United States (SEUS) from a global climate model (the Community Climate System Model Version 3 [CCSM3]) and from a regional climate model (the Regional Spectral Model [RSM]) nested in the CCSM3. The CCSM3 projects a dipole in the summer precipitation anomaly: peninsular Florida dries in the future climate, and the remainder of the SEUS region becomes wetter. The RSM forced with CCSM3 projects a universal drying of the SEUS in the late twenty-first century relative to the corresponding twentieth-century summer. The CCSM3 pattern is attributed to the “upped-ante” mechanism, whereby the atmospheric boundary layer moisture required for convection increases in a warm, statically stable global tropical environment. This criterion becomes harder to meet along convective margins, which include peninsular Florida, resulting in its drying. CCSM3 also projects a southwestward expansion of the North Atlantic subtropical high that leads to further stabilizing of the atmosphere above Florida, inhibiting convection. The RSM, because of its high (10-km grid) resolution, simulates diurnal variations in summer rainfall over SEUS reasonably well. The RSM improves upon CCSM3 through the RSM’s depiction of the diurnal variance of precipitation, which according to observations accounts for up to 40 % of total seasonal precipitation variance. In the future climate, the RSM projects a significant reduction in the diurnal variability of convection. The reduction is attributed to large-scale stabilization of the atmosphere in the CCSM3 projections.

  19. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

  20. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-09-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

  1. What will it take to lead the continual improvement and innovation of health care in the twenty-first century?

    PubMed

    Batalden, Paul; Splaine, Mark

    2002-01-01

    We have witnessed the separation of the care for an individual patient and the concern for the health of a population. As we anticipate the twenty-first century, we see the wisdom of reconnecting these concerns. The knowledge and skills that we will address can help bridge the gap. First, we offer background to seminal work during the twentieth century that set the foundation for the improvement of health care. Next, we describe two major challenges for the continual improvement of health care that lie ahead. Third, we suggest an approach that leaders might use to address major challenges. Fourth, we offer a set of knowledge domains that outline the knowledge and skills that leaders of the improvement of health care will need. Finally, we provide two special issues that require additional mention and should not be overlooked. We believe that the combination of these ideas can provide a framework for knowledge building, action taking, and reflection needed by health care leaders in the coming century. PMID:12455342

  2. Theme Issue. The Evolving World of Management Development: Salute to the Twenty-first Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safavi, Farrokh, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Includes six articles on the challenges for management development in the 21st century in the German-speaking nations (Avery, Donnenberg, Gick, Hilb), Baltic States (Manning, Poljeva), East Africa (Mitiku, Wallace), South Africa (McFarlin, Coster, Mogale-Pretorius), Vietnam (McDaniel, Schermerhorn, Cuoc), and Australia and New Zealand (Avery,

  3. Radio Lectures in Ghana: An Innovation for the Twenty First Century Instructional Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyanju, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    In the developing countries of the world, Nigeria and Ghana especially have consistently been battling with large enrollment of students into the institutions of higher learning. The attendant problem of the traditional instructional delivery system that poses a serious challenge to the 21st century educational development therefore needs…

  4. Gendering inequality: a note on Piketty's Capital in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Perrons, Diane

    2014-12-01

    Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century is remarkable for moving inequality from the margins to mainstream debate through detailed analysis of longitudinal statistics and, for an economist, by advocating an interdisciplinary perspective and writing in a witty and accessible style. With reference to the post 1970 period, when wage increases are largely responsible for the increase in inequality, Piketty shows how patrimonial capitalists (elite managers) in the top decile and centile of the distribution appropriate a growing share of social wealth as a consequence of their 'power to set their own remuneration' in the context of tolerant social norms rather than through their productive contributions. Piketty raises but defers the question of where these social norms come from to other disciplines. A Feminist Economics perspective indicates that these questions are central to a more inclusive form of economic analysis and such an approach would enrich Piketty's analysis in two main ways. First, by paying greater attention to the processes and social norms through which inequalities are produced and justified and second by highlighting the ways in which inequality is experienced differently depending not only on class, but also on other aspects of identity including gender. This approach also suggests that it is necessary to supplement the ex-post redistributive policies recommended by Piketty: a global wealth tax and more steeply progressive income tax, with ex-ante measures to stop the rise in wage inequality in the first place, especially by bridging the huge gulf that exists between those who care for people and those who manage money. PMID:25516345

  5. Biobanking in the Twenty-First Century: Driving Population Metrics into Biobanking Quality.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Joseph N; Karvonen, Charlene; Graham, Kathryn; Weinfeld, Michael; Joy, Anil A; Koebel, Martin; Morris, Don; Robson, Paula J; Johnston, Randal N; Brockton, Nigel T

    2015-01-01

    Biospecimens are the essential substrates for human biomarker research. Across the globe, biobanks have developed the facilities and mechanisms to collect, process, store and distribute those substrates to researchers. However, despite some notable successes, less than one hundred of the tens of thousands of purported biomarkers have been independently validated. We propose the need for a new paradigm in biobanking; simply pursuing larger numbers of participants, larger networks of biobanks and higher sample integrity will not, in itself, transform the success rate or efficiency of biomarker research. We propose that biobanks must embrace the intrinsic observational nature of biospecimens and furnish the recipients of biospecimens with the population metrics (descriptive statistics) that can facilitate the scientific rigor that is mandated in other areas of observational research. In addition, we discuss the value of population-based ascertainment and recruitment and the importance of the timing of biospecimen collections. Any assessment of biospecimen quality must go beyond the sample itself and consider both the patient/participant selection and the most appropriate and informative timing for specimen collection, particularly prior to any treatment intervention in diseased populations. The examples and rationales that we present are based largely on cancer-related collections because the feasibility of population metrics is greatly assisted by the comprehensive registries that are more common for cancer than other chronic diseases. Changing the biobanking paradigm from tacitly 'experimental' to explicitly 'observational' represents a profound but urgent methodological shift that will influence the establishment, management, reporting and impact of biobanks in the twenty-first century. PMID:26420616

  6. Critical Pedagogy in the Twenty-First Century: A New Generation of Scholars. Critical Constructions: Studies on Education and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Curry Stephenson, Ed.; Porfilio, Bradley, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book simultaneously provides multiple analyses of critical pedagogy in the twenty-first century while showcasing the scholarship of this new generation of critical scholar-educators. Needless to say, the writers herein represent just a small subset of a much larger movement for critical transformation and a more humane, less Eurocentric, less

  7. A Shift to Inquiry: The Heart of Effective Teaching and Professional Development for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolini, Vicki; Worth, Karen; Jensen LaConte, Judy E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how an experienced teacher navigates the demands of curriculum to implement her inquiry-centered teaching and learning philosophy, and how administrators along the way supported her during this change. Interviews with this classroom teacher surface suggestions for twenty-first-century professional development and support,

  8. Noise Management in Twenty-First Century Libraries: Case Studies of Four U.S. Academic Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Janet E.; Asher, Darla C.

    2014-01-01

    University libraries have had to provide acceptable noise levels for many years and this pressure has not diminished in the twenty-first century. Library space has to be utilized to ensure noise levels are best managed. A study was undertaken across four university libraries in South Florida to determine how universities utilized their limited…

  9. Review of Twenty-First Century Portable Electronic Devices for Persons with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Use of portable electronic devices by persons with moderate intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders is gaining increased research attention. The purpose of this review was to synthesize twenty-first century literature (2000-2010) focusing on these technologies. Twenty-one studies were identified which evaluated use of: (a) handheld

  10. Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

  11. Imagination in Twenty-First Century Teaching and Learning Teachers as Creative-Adaptive Leaders in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Shamini Samanlatha Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explored the value and functions of imagination in leading learning in the twenty-first century, a knowledge-based age marked by diversity, change and unpredictability. In such a context, how can imagination enable teachers to be leaders of learning who optimally engage and prepare students for success? Research in cognitive

  12. The Twenty-First Century and Legal Studies in Business: Preparing Students to Perform in a Globally Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Debra D.; Johnson, Ronald A.; Kemp, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    This article first examines the dynamic role business education must play in a flat world economy. Second, it explains how legal courses in the business curricula already equip students with portable twenty-first-century skills and relevant academic content. The article then advocates the acceptance of the Boyer Model of Scholarship, which defines…

  13. Imagination in Twenty-First Century Teaching and Learning Teachers as Creative-Adaptive Leaders in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Shamini Samanlatha Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explored the value and functions of imagination in leading learning in the twenty-first century, a knowledge-based age marked by diversity, change and unpredictability. In such a context, how can imagination enable teachers to be leaders of learning who optimally engage and prepare students for success? Research in cognitive…

  14. Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

    2011-01-01

    Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly, over the past…

  15. From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica

    2011-01-01

    This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong

  16. Impact of the Twenty-First Century Afterschool Program on Student Achievement in Mathematics and Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venzen, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the academic impacts of the Twenty-First Century Community Learning Centers on students who participated in this program. The following research questions guided the study: (a) are there significant differences between the Criterion Reference Competency Test English Language Arts scores of

  17. From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica

    2011-01-01

    This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong…

  18. Science Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century: a Pedagogical Framework for Technology-Integrated Social Constructivism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barak, Miri

    2016-01-01

    Changes in our global world have shifted the skill demands from acquisition of structured knowledge to mastery of skills, often referred to as twenty-first century competencies. Given these changes, a sequential explanatory mixed methods study was undertaken to (a) examine predominant instructional methods and technologies used by teacher educators, (b) identify attributes for learning and teaching in the twenty-first century, and (c) develop a pedagogical framework for promoting meaningful usage of advanced technologies. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected via an online survey, personal interviews, and written reflections with science teacher educators and student teachers. Findings indicated that teacher educators do not provide sufficient models for the promotion of reform-based practice via web 2.0 environments, such as Wikis, blogs, social networks, or other cloud technologies. Findings also indicated four attributes for teaching and learning in the twenty-first century: (a) adapting to frequent changes and uncertain situations, (b) collaborating and communicating in decentralized environments, (c) generating data and managing information, and (d) releasing control by encouraging exploration. Guided by social constructivist paradigms and twenty-first century teaching attributes, this study suggests a pedagogical framework for fostering meaningful usage of advanced technologies in science teacher education courses.

  19. Scenarios for Education in the Twenty-First Century: Synthesis of an Unfinished Dialogue and Questions for Further Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of an unfinished dialogue on Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) scenarios for education in the twenty-first century and on the position of education that these scenarios question. The first part of this article brings together some of the core considerations put forward by the members…

  20. A Commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," in which Isaac I. Bejar and E. Aurora Graf propose the application of a test design--the duplex design (which was proposed in 1988 by Bock and Mislevy) for application in current accountability assessments.

  1. Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

    2011-01-01

    Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly, over the past

  2. Assessing Twenty-First Century Skills through a Teacher Created Video Game for High School Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the…

  3. Thinking Like Twenty-First Century Learners: An Exploration of Blog Use in a Skills-Based Counselor Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buono, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-first century learners and millennial generation students have integrated technology into their personal lives; there is a growing expectation for technology to be integrated into their classroom experiences as well. Incorporating technology, including the use of blogs, into teaching and learning is receiving attention in the literature.

  4. Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new

  5. Critical Pedagogy in the Twenty-First Century: A New Generation of Scholars. Critical Constructions: Studies on Education and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Curry Stephenson, Ed.; Porfilio, Bradley, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book simultaneously provides multiple analyses of critical pedagogy in the twenty-first century while showcasing the scholarship of this new generation of critical scholar-educators. Needless to say, the writers herein represent just a small subset of a much larger movement for critical transformation and a more humane, less Eurocentric, less…

  6. The Twenty-First Century and Legal Studies in Business: Preparing Students to Perform in a Globally Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Debra D.; Johnson, Ronald A.; Kemp, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    This article first examines the dynamic role business education must play in a flat world economy. Second, it explains how legal courses in the business curricula already equip students with portable twenty-first-century skills and relevant academic content. The article then advocates the acceptance of the Boyer Model of Scholarship, which defines

  7. eBlack Studies: A Twenty-First-Century Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkalimat, Abdul

    2000-01-01

    Calls for the transformation of black studies that moves from ideology to information. Argues that eBlack, the virtualization of the black experience, is the basis for the next stage of this academic discipline. Presents three theoretical principles of eBlack studies (cyberdemocracy, collective intelligence, and information freedom); describes

  8. Projected seasonal mean summer monsoon over India and adjoining regions for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Sushil K.; Mishra, Saroj K.; Pattnayak, Kanhu C.; Mamgain, Ashu; Mariotti, Laura; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo; Giuliani, Graziano

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we present the projected seasonal mean summer monsoon over India and adjoining regions for the twenty-first century under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios using the regional model RegCM4 driven by the global model GFDL-ESM2M. RegCM4 is integrated from 1970 to 2099 at 50 km horizontal resolution over the South Asia CORDEX domain. The simulated mean summer monsoon circulation and associated rainfall by RegCM4 are validated against observations in the reference period 1975 to 2004 based on the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and India Meteorological Department (IMD) data sets. Regional model results are also compared with those of the global model GFDL which forces the RegCM4, showing that the regional model in particular improves the simulation of precipitation trends during the reference period. Future projections are categorized as near future (2010-2039), mid future (2040-2069), and far future (2070-2099). Comparison of projected seasonal (June-September) mean rainfall from the different time slices indicate a gradual increase in the intensity of changes over some of the regions under both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. RegCM4 projected rainfall decreases over most of the Indian land mass and the equatorial and northern Indian Ocean, while it increases over the Arabian Sea, northern Bay of Bengal, and the Himalayas. Results show that the monsoon circulation may become weaker in the future associated with a decrease in rainfall over Indian land points. The RegCM4 projected decrease in June, July, August, September (JJAS) rainfall under the RCP8.5 scenario over the central, eastern, and peninsular India by the end of the century is in the range of 25-40 % of their mean reference period values; it is significant at the 95 % confidence level and it is broadly in line with patterns of observed change in recent decades. Surface evaporation is projected to increase over the Indian Ocean, thereby supplying more moisture into the atmosphere. As per the RegCM4 projection, the northward flank of the southwesterly winds (i.e., over the central and north India) may become stronger and veer towards the north over the Arabian Sea, traverse trans-India over the foothills of the Himalayas and northern Bay of Bengal, and reach up to Burma. The changes in circulation lead to a change in the moisture distribution and result in a decrease of moisture convergence over central and peninsular India, the Indian Ocean, and the southern part of Bay of Bengal and an increase over the Arabian Sea, northern Bay of Bengal, and the Himalayas.

  9. Scenarios for the risk of hunger in the twenty-first century using Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are being developed internationally for cross-sectoral assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. These are five scenarios that include both qualitative and quantitative information for mitigation and adaptation challenges to climate change. In this study, we quantified scenarios for the risk of hunger in the 21st century using SSPs, and clarified elements that influence future hunger risk. There were two primary findings: (1) risk of hunger in the 21st-century greatly differed among five SSPs; and (2) population growth, improvement in the equality of food distribution within a country, and increases in food consumption mainly driven by income growth greatly influenced future hunger risk and were important elements in its long-term assessment.

  10. Analysis of the projected regional sea-ice changes in the Southern Ocean during the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, W.; Goosse, H.

    2008-01-01

    Using the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4), the projected regional distribution of sea ice for the twenty-first century has been investigated. Averaged over all those model simulations, the current climate is reasonably well reproduced. However, this averaging procedure hides the errors from individual models. Over the twentieth century, the multimodel average simulates a larger sea-ice concentration decrease around the Antarctic Peninsula compared to other regions, which is in qualitative agreement with observations. This is likely related to the positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index over the twentieth century, in both observations and in the multimodel average. Despite the simulated positive future trend in SAM, such a regional feature around the Antarctic Peninsula is absent in the projected sea-ice change for the end of the twenty-first century. The maximum decrease is indeed located over the central Weddell Sea and the Amundsen Bellingshausen Seas. In most models, changes in the oceanic currents could play a role in the regional distribution of the sea ice, especially in the Ross Sea, where stronger southward currents could be responsible for a smaller sea-ice decrease during the twenty-first century. Finally, changes in the mixed layer depth can be found in some models, inducing locally strong changes in the sea-ice concentration.

  11. Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian model of

  12. Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian model of…

  13. Public health evaluation in the twenty-first century: time to see the wood as well as the trees.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Petticrew, Mark

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that concepts, methodologies and practices within public health need further development if they are to be sufficient to allow us to develop, undertake and evaluate interventions in the twenty-first century. The public health profession, and the disciplines that contribute to it, maintains the historical focus upon detailed micro analysis (individual and health sector) and not broader macro analysis (societal and system). This brief paper suggests why this is and outlines three challenges it poses: specifying and evaluating outcomes; specifying and understanding complex causal pathways in social interventions and the development of multisector evaluation, to meet information demands from multiple stakeholders. While there is general agreement that public health evaluation needs development, this paper argues that the focus needs to be more upon a broader evaluative space than is currently practiced. There is a need to move beyond primary and secondary health-related effects upon individuals, and focus more on evaluation of the wider range and distribution of direct and indirect effects upon individuals, communities and populations. That is, those involved in public health evaluation need to step back and first consider the wood before focusing in on specific trees. PMID:20181759

  14. Building Interdisciplinary Leadership Skills among Health Practitioners in the Twenty-First Century: An Innovative Training Model

    PubMed Central

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N.; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of twenty-first century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning. PMID:26501046

  15. Building Interdisciplinary Leadership Skills among Health Practitioners in the Twenty-First Century: An Innovative Training Model.

    PubMed

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of twenty-first century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning. PMID:26501046

  16. A Portrait of the PETE Major: Re-Touched for the Early Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullick, Bryan A.; Lux, Karen M.; Belcher, Donald G.; Davies, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Background: The literature on those who choose to become PE teachers received healthy attention in the late twentieth century but has been largely ignored since. Querying those PETE majors in first decade of the new century enables PETE faculty to have updated and pertinent knowledge of their charges. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to

  17. Taking Up Space: Museum Exploration in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Museums have become a crucible for questions of the role that traditional art and art history should play in contemporary art. Friedrich Nietzsche argued in the nineteenth century that museums can be no more than mausoleums for effete (fine) art. Over the course of the twentieth century, however, curators dispelled such blanket pessimism by

  18. Twenty-first century changes in the hydrology, glaciers, and permafrost of the Susitna Basin, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, A. K.; Braun, J. L.; Daanen, R. P.; Hock, R.; Liljedahl, A.; Wolken, G. J.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    In South-Central Alaska, the Susitna River is the site of a proposed hydroelectric dam. The catchment of the reservoir in the upper Susitna watershed (13,289 km^2, 450-4000 m a.s.l.) is 4% glacierized and is characterized by sparse vegetation, discontinuous permafrost, and little human development. Glaciers, permafrost, and the water cycle are expected to change in response to anticipated future atmospheric warming by the end of this century, thus impacting water yields to the hydroelectric reservoir. We aim to quantify future changes in glacier wastage, surface- and groundwater, permafrost, and evapotranspiration. We apply the physically-based hydrological model WaSiM using daily air temperature and precipitation data from station observations and gridded climate products. The model is calibrated with runoff and glacier mass balance measurements from the 1980s and validated with measurements from ongoing field campaigns which started in spring 2012. With the past and present data, the model is able to match both the magnitude and timing of observed river discharge. However, the scarcity of meteorological observations from the upper Susitna basin presents a major challenge to simulating the catchment hydrology. We present methods for extrapolation of the spatially-sparse long-term data across the catchment, with particular emphasis on high-elevation precipitation. To project future changes in river runoff, we run WaSiM with air temperature and precipitation downscaled from global climate models and compare results from several emission scenarios (selected from CMIP5). We discuss the anticipated changes in basin hydrology as the climate warms, permafrost thaws, and glaciers shrink.

  19. Twenty-first century probabilistic projections of precipitation over Ontario, Canada through a regional climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Jinliang

    2015-09-01

    In this study, probabilistic projections of precipitation for the Province of Ontario are developed through a regional climate model ensemble to help investigate how global warming would affect its local climate. The PRECIS regional climate modeling system is employed to perform ensemble simulations, driven by a set of boundary conditions from a HadCM3-based perturbed-physics ensemble. The PRECIS ensemble simulations are fed into a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify uncertain factors affecting the resulting projections of precipitation and thus generate probabilistic precipitation changes at grid point scales. Following that, reliable precipitation projections throughout the twenty-first century are developed for the entire province by applying the probabilistic changes to the observed precipitation. The results show that the vast majority of cities in Ontario are likely to suffer positive changes in annual precipitation in 2030, 2050, and 2080 s in comparison to the baseline observations. This may suggest that the whole province is likely to gain more precipitation throughout the twenty-first century in response to global warming. The analyses on the projections of seasonal precipitation further demonstrate that the entire province is likely to receive more precipitation in winter, spring, and autumn throughout this century while summer precipitation is only likely to increase slightly in 2030 s and would decrease gradually afterwards. However, because the magnitude of projected decrease in summer precipitation is relatively small in comparison with the anticipated increases in other three seasons, the annual precipitation over Ontario is likely to suffer a progressive increase throughout the twenty-first century (by 7.0 % in 2030 s, 9.5 % in 2050 s, and 12.6 % in 2080 s). Besides, the degree of uncertainty for precipitation projections is analyzed. The results suggest that future changes in spring precipitation show higher degree of uncertainty than other seasons, resulting in more uncertainties in annual precipitation projections.

  20. Twenty-first century skills for students: hands-on learning after school builds school and life success.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Leide

    2006-01-01

    At the core of the movement for twenty-first century skills are students. The growing efforts to increase programs leveraging out-of-school time are focused on giving American youth everything they need to compete in this increasingly complex world. The author is one of many students who have been well served by initiatives imparting twenty-first century skills during after-school hours. Now a senior at Boston Latin School, the author has been helped along the way by Citizen Schools, an after-school education program focused on hands-on learning apprenticeships and homework help. While enrolled in the program as a middle school student, the author took part in projects that exemplified hands-on, inquiry-based learning that helped her develop twenty-first century skills. For example, along with dozens of other students, she advanced her data analysis skills by analyzing statistics about Boston Public high schools, which also helped her select and enroll in one of the city's premier exam schools. Also, she and her peers worked with corporate attorneys who served as writing coaches and whose expertise the author drew from in producing a published essay and greatly improving her writing skills. The author now finds that the public speaking, leadership, organizational, social, and management abilities she built through her participation in Citizen Schools are a great asset to her in high school. The confidence with which she tackles her responsibilities can also be traced back to her experiences in the program. As she looks toward college, the author reflects and realizes that being actively involved in a quality after-school program put her on track for a successful future. PMID:17017266

  1. Project-Based Learning: A Critical Pedagogy for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maida, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    John Dewey's notion of the school as a "social laboratory" influenced educational policy a century ago when the United States underwent a "great transformation" in its educational history toward mass schooling, resulting partly from the "high school movement", where the focus was on "schooling for life". Project-based learning, which builds on

  2. Twenty-first Century Managers and Intuition: An Exploratory Example of Pedagogic Change for Business Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, A.; Holtham, C.; Rich, M.; Dove, A.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, business organizations have been subject to and have contributed to enormous changes in the way they work and the situations with which they have to deal, from revolutionary technology developments to the changing competitive environment. Since 2007, business has changed following the financial crisis. Management

  3. Career Counseling in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond Cultural Encapsulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the context in which professional career counseling in the U.S. exists at the beginning of the 21st century and makes recommendations to enhance the growth and development of the profession. Issues addresses include developing curricula, training career counselors, and broadening the focus of career decision making to include work

  4. Twenty-first Century Managers and Intuition: An Exploratory Example of Pedagogic Change for Business Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, A.; Holtham, C.; Rich, M.; Dove, A.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, business organizations have been subject to and have contributed to enormous changes in the way they work and the situations with which they have to deal, from revolutionary technology developments to the changing competitive environment. Since 2007, business has changed following the financial crisis. Management…

  5. Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The "Flynn effect" is a surprising finding, identified by James R. Flynn, that IQ test scores have significantly increased from one generation to the next over the past century. Flynn now brings us an exciting new book which aims to make sense of this rise in IQ scores and considers what this tells us about our intelligence, our minds and society.…

  6. Space science to the twenty-first century and the technological implications for implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the specific plan for NASA space science missions to the 21st century and highlights the major technological advances that must be effected to accomplish the planned missions. Separate consideration is given to plans for astrophysics, planetary exploration, the solar terrestrial area, and life sciences. The technological consequences of the plans in these separate areas are discussed.

  7. Indian Universities and the Future of Adult Education in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narang, Renuka

    Lifelong learning has a long tradition in India. In the last century, the government has accepted adult education as its responsibility. Since 1977, the University Grants Commission has incorporated adult and continuing education and extension into its policies, converted the Cells for Adult Education into full-fledged University Departments of…

  8. Reading, Language, and Literacy: Instruction for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Fran, Ed.; Osborn, Jean, Ed.

    Noting that reading instruction in the last years of the 20th century is still characterized by controversy, this book presents 18 essays that examine the best available research evidence about what is known--and what needs to be learned--about the teaching of reading and how children learn to read. Topics of the essays include whole language,

  9. Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The "Flynn effect" is a surprising finding, identified by James R. Flynn, that IQ test scores have significantly increased from one generation to the next over the past century. Flynn now brings us an exciting new book which aims to make sense of this rise in IQ scores and considers what this tells us about our intelligence, our minds and society.

  10. 76 FR 56658 - Video Description Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010, MB Docket No. 11-43; FCC 11-126, 76 FR... amendments to 47 CFR 79.3(d) and (e), published at 76 FR 55585, September 8, 2011, are effective on October... December 15, 2009 (74 FR 66356) which became effective on January 25, 2010. Privacy Act Impact...

  11. The Evolution of Twenty-First Century Public Higher Education: The Urban University as Prototype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocum, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the current structure of public higher education and its origins, and discusses why it will not serve well in the rapidly changing world of the new century. Proposes a different and more effective structure, based on the model of today's urban university. (EV)

  12. Information Technology for the Twenty-First Century: A Bold Investment in America's Future. Implementation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC. National Science and Technology Council.

    This document is the implementation plan for the Information Technology for the 21st Century (IT[squared]) initiative. With this initiative, the Federal Government is making an important re-commitment to fundamental research in information technology. The initiative proposes $366 million in increased investments in computing, information, and…

  13. Global environmental issues and electric power in the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Hidy, G.M.; Spencer, D.F. )

    1993-12-01

    Development of the electric utility industry in the 21st Century will be central to the well-being of mankind. Electricity worldwide is still likely to be produced mainly from fossil fuel combustion for the foreseeable future. On a global scale, this energy sector will contribute to growing carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) emissions through most of the next century. A potential for global climate alteration has been identified with accumulation of CO[sub 2] and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the Earth's atmosphere. If climate changes, adverse environmental effects are possible, acting on human systems, as well as on managed and natural ecosystems. Projected rates of increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels for the next century have motivated decision makers to consider early strategies for beginning to aggressively manage GHG emissions. The objective of this paper is to review the global issues associated with expected increases in gaseous emissions, particularly carbon dioxide from increased energy use, indicating the nature and significance of the issue. The authors emphasize a methodology integrating information on environmental issues with social and economic factors to develop informed international policies. The paper summarizes the technological choices available worldwide that could minimize the environmental impact of increasing energy use, particularly with respect to enhanced electricity production.

  14. A Conservation Ethic and the Collecting of Animals by Institutions of Natural Heritage in the Twenty-First Century: Case Study of the Australian Museum

    PubMed Central

    Ikin, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary It is a core task of collecting institutions like museums to take examples of animals and preserve them as specimens in collections. In the twenty-first century, museums are equally the places where research is conducted and education is promoted in the service of conservation of animals in an era of the decline of biodiversity. In this paper, the balance of co-operation between collecting of animals by museums and the promotion and scientific pursuit of conservation of fauna in those museums is considered. As a challenge to museum science, it is considered in the context of Australia's oldest museum, and its policy and practice in the current century. Abstract Collecting of animals from their habitats for preservation by museums and related bodies is a core operation of such institutions. Conservation of biodiversity in the current era is a priority in the scientific agendas of museums of natural heritage in Australia and the world. Intuitively, to take animals from the wild, while engaged in scientific or other practices that are supposed to promote their ongoing survival, may appear be incompatible. The Australian Museum presents an interesting ground to consider zoological collecting by museums in the twenty-first century. Anderson and Reeves in 1994 argued that a milieu existed that undervalued native species, and that the role of natural history museums, up to as late as the mid-twentieth century, was only to make a record the faunal diversity of Australia, which would inevitably be extinct. Despite the latter, conservation of Australia's faunal diversity is a key aspect of research programmes in Australia's institutions of natural heritage in the current era. This paper analyses collecting of animals, a core task for institutions of natural heritage, and how this interacts with a professed conservation ethic in a twenty-first century Australian setting. PMID:26486222

  15. Dominating Controls for Wetter South Asian Summer Monsoon in the Twenty-First Century

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Rui; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Dominguez, Francina

    2015-04-01

    We analyze a suite of Global Climate Models from the 5th Phase of Coupled Models Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archives to understand the mechanisms behind a net increase in the South Asian summer monsoon precipitation in response to enhanced radiative forcing during the 21st century despite a robust weakening of dynamics governing the monsoon circulation. Combining the future changes in the contributions from various sources, which contribute to the moisture supply over South Asia, with those in monsoon dynamics and atmospheric moisture content, we establish a pathway of understanding that partly explains these counteracting responses to increase in radiative forcing. Our analysis suggests that both regional (local recycling, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal) and remote (mainly Indian Ocean) sources contribute to the moisture supply for precipitation over South Asia during the summer season that is facilitated by the monsoon dynamics. Increase in radiative forcing fuels an increase in the atmospheric moisture content through warmer temperatures. For regional moisture sources, the effect of excessive atmospheric moisture is offset by weaker monsoon circulation and uncertainty in the response of the evapotranspiration over land, so anomalies in their contribution to the total moisture supply are either mixed or muted. In contrast, weakening of the monsoon dynamics has less influence on the moisture supply from remote sources that not only is a dominant moisture contributor in the historical period, but is also the net driver of the positive summer monsoon precipitation response in the 21st century. Our results also indicate that historic measures of the monsoon dynamics may not be well suited to predict the non-stationary moisture driven South Asian summer monsoon precipitation response in the 21st century.

  16. WILD SALMON RESTORATION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: FORECASTING THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforst have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

  17. A twenty-first century perspective. [NASA space communication infrastructure to support space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Robert O.; Miller, Albert

    1990-01-01

    The status of the NASA assets which are operated by the Office of Space Operations is briefly reviewed. These assets include the ground network, the space network, and communications and data handling facilities. The current plans for each element are examined, and a projection of each is made to meet the user needs in the 21st century. The following factors are noted: increasingly responsive support will be required by the users; operational support concepts must be cost-effective to serve future missions; and a high degree of system reliability and availability will be required to support manned exploration and increasingly complex missions.

  18. Twenty-First Century Research Needs in Electrostatic Processes Applied to Industry and Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, M. K.; Sims, R. A.; Biris, A. S.; Srirama, P. K.; Saini, D.; Yurteri, C. U.; Trigwell, S.; De, S.; Sharma, R.

    2005-01-01

    From the early century Nobel Prize winning (1923) experiments with charged oil droplets, resulting in the discovery of the elementary electronic charge by Robert Millikan, to the early 21st century Nobel Prize (2002) awarded to John Fenn for his invention of electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and its applications to proteomics, electrostatic processes have been successfully applied to many areas of industry and medicine. Generation, transport, deposition, separation, analysis, and control of charged particles involved in the four states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma are of interest in many industrial and biomedical processes. In this paper, we briefly discuss some of the applications and research needs involving charged particles in industrial and medical applications including: (1) Generation and deposition of unipolarly charged dry powder without the presence of ions or excessive ozone, (2) Control of tribocharging process for consistent and reliable charging, (3) Thin film (less than 25 micrometers) powder coating and Powder coating on insulative surfaces, (4) Fluidization and dispersion of fine powders, (5) Mitigation of Mars dust, (6) Effect of particle charge on the lung deposition of inhaled medical aerosols, (7) Nanoparticle deposition, and (8) Plasma/Corona discharge processes. A brief discussion on the measurements of charged particles and suggestions for research needs are also included.

  19. Twenty-first century reversal of the surface ozone seasonal cycle over the northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, O. E.; Fiore, A. M.; Correa, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.

    2014-10-01

    Changing emissions can alter the surface O3 seasonal cycle, as detected from northeastern U.S. (NE) observations during recent decades. Under continued regional precursor emission controls (-72% NE NOx by 2100), the NE surface O3 seasonal cycle reverses (to a winter maximum) in 21st century transient chemistry-climate simulations. Over polluted regions, regional NOx largely controls the shape of surface O3 seasonal cycles. In the absence of regional NOx controls, climate warming contributes to a higher surface O3 summertime peak over the NE. A doubling of the global CH4 abundance by 2100 partially offsets summertime surface O3 decreases attained via NOx reductions and contributes to raising surface O3 during December-March when the O3 lifetime is longer. The similarity between surface O3 seasonal cycles over the NE and the Intermountain West by 2100 indicates a NE transition to a region representative of baseline surface O3 conditions.

  20. Intelligent machines in the twenty-first century: foundations of inference and inquiry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    The last century saw the application of Boolean algebra to the construction of computing machines, which work by applying logical transformations to information contained in their memory. The development of information theory and the generalization of Boolean algebra to Bayesian inference have enabled these computing machines, in the last quarter of the twentieth century, to be endowed with the ability to learn by making inferences from data. This revolution is just beginning as new computational techniques continue to make difficult problems more accessible. Recent advances in our understanding of the foundations of probability theory have revealed implications for areas other than logic. Of relevance to intelligent machines, we recently identified the algebra of questions as the free distributive algebra, which will now allow us to work with questions in a way analogous to that which Boolean algebra enables us to work with logical statements. In this paper, we examine the foundations of inference and inquiry. We begin with a history of inferential reasoning, highlighting key concepts that have led to the automation of inference in modern machine-learning systems. We then discuss the foundations of inference in more detail using a modern viewpoint that relies on the mathematics of partially ordered sets and the scaffolding of lattice theory. This new viewpoint allows us to develop the logic of inquiry and introduce a measure describing the relevance of a proposed question to an unresolved issue. Last, we will demonstrate the automation of inference, and discuss how this new logic of inquiry will enable intelligent machines to ask questions. Automation of both inference and inquiry promises to allow robots to perform science in the far reaches of our solar system and in other star systems by enabling them not only to make inferences from data, but also to decide which question to ask, which experiment to perform, or which measurement to take given what they have learned and what they are designed to understand.

  1. Winds of Change: Charting the Course for IT in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Brian L.

    2007-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the author, the retiring president of EDUCAUSE, was asked to be the keynote speaker at the EDUCAUSE Western Regional Conference. The conference theme was "Winds of Change: Charting the Course for Technology in Challenging Times." What that brought to his mind was the era of the great sailing ships of the eighteenth and

  2. Why the Changing American Economy Calls for Twenty-First Century Learning: Answers to Educators' Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Frank; Murnane, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    As American educators struggle to meet the unprecedented challenge of preparing all students to master the skills embodied in state learning standards, some wonder whether their efforts make economic sense. After all, the newspapers are full of reports of jobs being outsourced to lower-wage countries and jobs being done by computers. If more and

  3. Higher Education and Knowledge Sharing: From Ivory Tower to Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge is the driving force of a knowledge economy. Therefore, the way knowledge is shared and created and the way these actions are managed could lead to either a competitive advantage for an organisation or it could lead to its demise. Managing especially academics' knowledge to the benefit of all can be even a greater challenge to any…

  4. Educating Latino Immigrant Students in the Twenty-First Century: Principles for the Obama Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Carola Suarez-Orozco and Marcelo Suarez-Orozco address one of the most critical challenges facing President Obama's administration: meeting the educational needs of Latino and other immigrant children in the United States. The authors first provide a brief overview of past policies and agendas that have created a situation in which

  5. Changes in Thought on Higher Education for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maoyuan, Pan

    2007-01-01

    The reforms and developments of China's higher education at a time when it faces two great challenges--the world's science/technology revolution and China's social market economy--are, on the whole, replete with achievements and fraught with difficulties and show great changes, but they are unbalanced. Everyone feels that these reforms and…

  6. Higher Education and Knowledge Sharing: From Ivory Tower to Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge is the driving force of a knowledge economy. Therefore, the way knowledge is shared and created and the way these actions are managed could lead to either a competitive advantage for an organisation or it could lead to its demise. Managing especially academics' knowledge to the benefit of all can be even a greater challenge to any

  7. Schools for the Twenty-First Century: School Design and Educational Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiringer, Roine; Cardellino, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The Building Schools for the Future programme has been established to ensure that English secondary schools are designed or redesigned to allow for educational transformation. The programme represents the biggest single UK government investment in school buildings for over 50 years. For this reason, it poses a major challenge to those involved in

  8. Educating Latino Immigrant Students in the Twenty-First Century: Principles for the Obama Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Carola Suarez-Orozco and Marcelo Suarez-Orozco address one of the most critical challenges facing President Obama's administration: meeting the educational needs of Latino and other immigrant children in the United States. The authors first provide a brief overview of past policies and agendas that have created a situation in which…

  9. Lunar-based optical telescopes: Planning astronomical tools of the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilchey, J. D.; Nein, M. E.

    1995-02-01

    A succession of optical telescopes, ranging in aperture from 1 to 16 m or more, can be deployed and operated on the lunar surface over the next half-century. These candidates to succeed NASA's Great Observatories would capitalize on the unique observational advantages offered by the Moon. The Lunar Telescope Working Group and the LUTE Task Team of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have assessed the feasibility of developing and deploying these facilities. Studies include the 16-m Large Lunar Telescope (LLT); the Lunar Cluster Telescope Experiment (LCTE), a 4-m precursor to the LLT; the 2-m Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT); and its precursor, the 1-m Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE). The feasibility of developing and deploying each telescope was assessed and system requirements and options for supporting technologies, subsystems, transportation, and operations were detailed. Influences of lunar environment factors and site selection on telescope design and operation were evaluated, and design approaches and key tradeoffs were established. This paper provides an overview of the study results. Design concepts and brief system descriptions are provided, including subsystem and mission options selected for the concepts.

  10. Agroclimatic potential across central Siberia in an altered twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Lysanova, G. I.; Soja, A. J.

    2011-10-01

    Humans have traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. Forests are predicted to shift northwards in a warmer climate and are likely to be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. We analyzed potential climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia believing that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models determining crop range and regression models determining crop yields were constructed and applied to climate change scenarios for various time frames: pre-1960, 1960-90 and 1990-2010 using historic data and data taken from 2020 and 2080 HadCM3 B1 and A2 scenarios. From 50 to 85% of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture by the end of the century, and only soil potential would limit crop advance and expansion to the north. Crop production could increase twofold. Future Siberian climatic resources could provide the potential for a great variety of crops to grow that previously did not exist on these lands. Traditional Siberian crops could gradually shift as far as 500 km northwards (about 50-70 km/decade) within suitable soil conditions, and new crops nonexistent today may be introduced in the dry south that would necessitate irrigation. Agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming. Adaptation measures would sustain and promote food security in a warmer Siberia.

  11. Climate simulation of the twenty-first century with interactive land-use changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voldoire, Aurore; Eickhout, Bas; Schaeffer, Michiel; Royer, Jean-François; Chauvin, Fabrice

    2007-08-01

    To include land-use dynamics in a general circulation model (GCM), the physical system has to be linked to a system that represents socio-economy. This issue is addressed by coupling an integrated assessment model, IMAGE2.2, to an ocean atmosphere GCM, CNRM-CM3. In the new system, IMAGE2.2 provides CNRM-CM3 with all the external forcings that are scenario dependent: greenhouse gas (GHGs) concentrations, sulfate aerosols charge and land cover. Conversely, the GCM gives IMAGE changes in mean temperature and precipitation. With this new system, we have run an adapted scenario of the IPCC SRES scenario family. We have chosen a single scenario with maximum land-use changes (SRES A2), to illustrate some important feedback issues. Even in this two-way coupled model set-up, land use in this scenario is mainly driven by demographic and agricultural practices, which overpowers a potential influence of climate feedbacks on land-use patterns. This suggests that for scenarios in which socio-economically driven land-use change is very large, land-use changes can be incorporated in GCM simulations as a one-way driving force, without taking into account climate feedbacks. The dynamics of natural vegetation is more closely linked to climate but the time-scale of changes is of the order of a century. Thus, the coupling between natural vegetation and climate could generate important feedbacks but these effects are relevant mainly for multi-centennial simulations.

  12. Accelerated Life Testing and Service Lifetime Prediction for PV Technologies in the Twenty-First Century

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A. W.; Jorgensen, G. J.

    1999-07-13

    The purposes of this paper are to (1) discuss the necessity for conducting accelerated life testing (ALT) in the early stages of developing new photovoltaic (PV) technologies, (2) elucidate the crucial importance for combining ALT with real-time testing (RTT) in terrestrial environments for promising PV technologies for the 21st century, and (3) outline the essential steps for making a service lifetime prediction (SLP) for any PV technology. The specific objectives are to (a) illustrate the essential need for ALT of complete, encapsulated multilayer PV devices, (b) indicate the typical causes of degradation in PV stacks, (c) elucidate the complexity associated with quantifying the durability of the devices, (d) explain the major elements that constitute a generic SLP methodology, (e) show how the introduction of the SLP methodology in the early stages of new device development can reduce the cost of technology development, and (f) outline the procedure for combining the results of ALT and RTT, establishing degradation mechanisms, using sufficient numbers of samples, and applying the SLP methodology to produce a SLP for existing or new PV technologies.

  13. CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

    2011-04-01

    Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

  14. CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Algieri, Chris A.; Ong, Jonathan R.; Collins, William D.

    2011-05-01

    Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

  15. The sustainability of welfare states into the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Esping-Andersen, G

    2000-01-01

    Few would deny that the advanced welfare state faces a set of severe challenges. There is less agreement on what the challenges are and how important they are. The three most cited sources of crisis are population aging, family instability, and the labor market consequences of globalization and technological change. It is, however, questionable whether these affect the three dominant types of welfare systems similarly. The past decade bears witness to numerous attempts at reform and readaptation but such efforts have, so far, perpetuated or even strengthened underlying disequilibria. The result is mounting diswelfare, especially among younger households. The author examines various reform strategies (privatization, decentralization, and familialization) and concludes that these imply suboptimality. A "win-win" policy can be identified to the extent that it simultaneously maximizes fertility and women's employment and minimizes poverty risks. Greater earnings and income inequalities probably cannot be escaped, but their impact can be neutralized through a shift toward guaranteed life chances through education and skills. PMID:10707296

  16. How we made professionalism relevant to twenty-first century residents.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Aditi; Nugus, Peter; Elkoushy, Mohamed A; Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Smilovitch, Mark; Andonian, Sero

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of the current medical trainee work environment, including the impact of social media participation, is underappreciated. Despite rapid adoption of social media by residents and the introduction of social media guidelines targeted at medical professionals, there is a paucity of data evaluating practical methods to incorporate social media into professionalism teaching curricula. We developed a flipped classroom program, focusing on the application of professionalism principles to challenging real-life scenarios including social media-related issues. The pre-workshop evaluation showed that the participants had a good understanding of basic professionalism concepts. A post-workshop survey assessed residents' comfort level with professionalism concepts. The post-workshop survey revealed that the postgraduate trainees perceived significant improvement in their understanding of professionalism (p?challenges of real-life clinical settings. There was an apparent contradiction between placing a high value on personal health and believing that physicians ought to be available to patients at any time. Participants' satisfaction with the course bodes well for continual modification of such courses. Innovative flipped classroom format in combination with simulation-based sessions allows easy incorporation of contemporary professionalism issues surrounding social media. PMID:25594336

  17. How to Understand the Gene in the Twenty-First Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Lia Midori Nascimento; Bomfim, Gilberto Cafezeiro; El-Hani, Charbel Nio

    2013-02-01

    It is widely acknowledged in the literature on philosophy of biology and, more recently, among biologists themselves that the gene concept is currently in crisis. This crisis concerns the so-called "classical molecular concept", according to which a gene is a DNA segment encoding one functional product, which can be either a RNA molecule or a polypeptide. In this paper, we first describe three categories of anomalies that challenge this way of understanding genes. Then, we discuss proposals for revising the gene concept so as to accommodate the increasingly known complexity of genomic architecture and dynamics. Our intention is to provide an informative overview of recent proposals concerning how we should conceive of genes, which are probably not very familiar to many science educators and teachers, but can bring relevant contributions to genetics teaching, in particular, to a more critical treatment of genes and their role in living systems.

  18. A twenty-first century California observing network for monitoring extreme weather events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.B.; Anderson, M.L.; Dettinger, M.D.; Ralph, F.M.; Hinojosa, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Hartman, R.K.; Reynolds, D.W.; Johnson, L.E.; Schneider, T.L.; Cifelli, R.; Toth, Z.; Gutman, S.I.; King, C.W.; Gehrke, F.; Johnston, P.E.; Walls, C.; Mann, Dorte; Gottas, D.J.; Coleman, T.

    2013-01-01

    During Northern Hemisphere winters, the West Coast of North America is battered by extratropical storms. The impact of these storms is of paramount concern to California, where aging water supply and flood protection infrastructures are challenged by increased standards for urban flood protection, an unusually variable weather regime, and projections of climate change. Additionally, there are inherent conflicts between releasing water to provide flood protection and storing water to meet requirements for water supply, water quality, hydropower generation, water temperature and flow for at-risk species, and recreation. In order to improve reservoir management and meet the increasing demands on water, improved forecasts of precipitation, especially during extreme events, is required. Here we describe how California is addressing their most important and costliest environmental issue – water management – in part, by installing a state-of-the-art observing system to better track the area’s most severe wintertime storms.

  19. Twenty-first century changes in the hydrology, glaciers, and permafrost of the Susitna Basin, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, A. K.; Hock, R.; Wolken, G. J.; Zhang, J.; Whorton, E.; Braun, J. L.; Gusmeroli, A.; Liljedahl, A.; Schulla, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the face of climate change, the hydrology of the upper Susitna Basin in South-Central Alaska is expected to change. This would impact the quantity and seasonality of river flow into a proposed hydroelectric dam, if it were to be built. The upper Susitna Basin catchment area is 13,289 km², ranging from 450-4000 m a.s.l. It is 4% glacierized and is characterized by sparse vegetation, discontinuous permafrost, and little human development. We present field measurements and results from hydrological modeling. We present new field data from spring and fall 2014 along with field measurements from the 1980's, 2012, and 2013. These data are used to calibrate and validate the hydrological model. Traditional glacier mass balance measurements show that the glaciers lost more mass in 2012 and 2013 than in 1981, 1982, or 1983. Springtime snow radar surveys of the glaciers allow us to extrapolate from point measurements of snow depth to the whole glacier area. Snow depth measurements at tundra sites as well as tundra vegetation and soil characterizations help us choose appropriate model parameters for the tundra portions of the basin. Meteorological data (temperature, humidity, and precipitation) from over 20 stations in the basin show the summertime temperature lapse rate to be smaller over glacier surfaces compared to ice-free surfaces. Precipitation is highly variable across the basin. Energy balance measurements from two meteorological stations, one located on West Fork Glacier and one on a nunatak near Susitna Glacier, are used for more detailed modeling of summertime glacier melt and runoff. We run a physically-based hydrological model to project 21st century river discharge: Water Flow and Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM). Climate inputs come from a CCSM CMIP5 RCP6.0 scenario downscaled to a 20km-5km nested grid using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. From 2010-2029 to 2080-2099 the basin-wide mean-annual temperature will rise 2.5 degrees and total precipitation will rise 2%, with a 13% decrease in snowfall and a 20% increase in rainfall. Preliminary WaSiM runs indicate that glaciers will retreat, evapotranspiration will increase, and permafrost will thaw. Annual runoff will remain relatively steady, but the timing of the peak spring runoff will shift to an earlier date.

  20. Water resources in the twenty-first century; a study of the implications of climate uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Marshall E.; Lins, Harry F.

    1989-01-01

    The interactions of the water resources on and within the surface of the Earth with the atmosphere that surrounds it are exceedingly complex. Increased uncertainty can be attached to the availability of water of usable quality in the 21st century, therefore, because of potential anthropogenic changes in the global climate system. For the U.S. Geological Survey to continue to fulfill its mission with respect to assessing the Nation's water resources, an expanded program to study the hydrologic implications of climate uncertainty will be required. The goal for this program is to develop knowledge and information concerning the potential water-resources implications for the United States of uncertainties in climate that may result from both anthropogenic and natural changes of the Earth's atmosphere. Like most past and current water-resources programs of the Geological Survey, the climate-uncertainty program should be composed of three elements: (1) research, (2) data collection, and (3) interpretive studies. However, unlike most other programs, the climate-uncertainty program necessarily will be dominated by its research component during its early years. Critical new concerns to be addressed by the research component are (1) areal estimates of evapotranspiration, (2) hydrologic resolution within atmospheric (climatic) models at the global scale and at mesoscales, (3) linkages between hydrology and climatology, and (4) methodology for the design of data networks that will help to track the impacts of climate change on water resources. Other ongoing activities in U.S. Geological Survey research programs will be enhanced to make them more compatible with climate-uncertainty research needs. The existing hydrologic data base of the Geological Survey serves as a key element in assessing hydrologic and climatologic change. However, this data base has evolved in response to other needs for hydrologic information and probably is not as sensitive to climate change as is desirable. Therefore, as measurement and network-design methodologies are improved to account for climate-change potential, new data-collection activities will be added to the existing programs. One particular area of data-collection concern pertains to the phenomenon of evapotranspiration. Interpretive studies of the hydrologic implications of climate uncertainty will be initiated by establishing several studies at the river-basin scale in diverse hydroclimatic and demographic settings. These studies will serve as tests of the existing methodologies for studying the impacts of climate change and also will help to define subsequent research priorities. A prototype for these studies was initiated in early 1988 in the Delaware River basin.

  1. Replaying the tape of life in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Orgogozo, Virginie

    2015-12-01

    Should the tape of life be replayed, would it produce similar living beings? A classical answer has long been 'no', but accumulating data are now challenging this view. Repeatability in experimental evolution, in phenotypic evolution of diverse species and in the genes underlying phenotypic evolution indicates that despite unpredictability at the level of basic evolutionary processes (such as apparition of mutations), a certain kind of predictability can emerge at higher levels over long time periods. For instance, a survey of the alleles described in the literature that cause non-deleterious phenotypic differences among animals, plants and yeasts indicates that similar phenotypes have often evolved in distinct taxa through independent mutations in the same genes. Does this mean that the range of possibilities for evolution is limited? Does this mean that we can predict the outcomes of a replayed tape of life? Imagining other possible paths for evolution runs into four important issues: (i) resolving the influence of contingency, (ii) imagining living organisms that are different from the ones we know, (iii) finding the relevant concepts for predicting evolution, and (iv) estimating the probability of occurrence for complex evolutionary events that occurred only once during the evolution of life on earth. PMID:26640652

  2. Replaying the tape of life in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Orgogozo, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Should the tape of life be replayed, would it produce similar living beings? A classical answer has long been ‘no’, but accumulating data are now challenging this view. Repeatability in experimental evolution, in phenotypic evolution of diverse species and in the genes underlying phenotypic evolution indicates that despite unpredictability at the level of basic evolutionary processes (such as apparition of mutations), a certain kind of predictability can emerge at higher levels over long time periods. For instance, a survey of the alleles described in the literature that cause non-deleterious phenotypic differences among animals, plants and yeasts indicates that similar phenotypes have often evolved in distinct taxa through independent mutations in the same genes. Does this mean that the range of possibilities for evolution is limited? Does this mean that we can predict the outcomes of a replayed tape of life? Imagining other possible paths for evolution runs into four important issues: (i) resolving the influence of contingency, (ii) imagining living organisms that are different from the ones we know, (iii) finding the relevant concepts for predicting evolution, and (iv) estimating the probability of occurrence for complex evolutionary events that occurred only once during the evolution of life on earth. PMID:26640652

  3. Training maternal and child health epidemiologists: leaders for the twenty first century.

    PubMed

    Handler, Arden; Klaus, Jaime; Rankin, Kristin; Rosenberg, Deborah

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports on the structure, implementation and outcomes of the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology (MCHEPI) program at the University of Illinois School of Public Health (UIC-SPH) and discusses the successes and challenges in developing MCH Epidemiology leaders for the local, state, and national public health workforce. The MCHEPI program at UIC-SPH offers both the MPH and PhD degree and is based on six key components: integration across school divisions, competency-based training, tailored curricula, practica/dissertations with public health agencies, personal leadership training and development, and socialization. Based on data from the 1998-2012 cohorts, all former and current MCHEPI MPH students (n = 28) have participated in practica with local or state public health agencies and former and current MCHEPI doctoral students at the dissertation stage (12 out of 15) have partnered with local, state or national public health agencies in conducting their dissertations. The alumni of the MCHEPI MPH program (n = 25) appear to serve in higher level positions in their second compared to their first placements post-graduation. All MCHEPI doctoral alumni (n = 8) serve at the emerging senior level or senior scientist level upon graduation, in local, state and federal agencies, or in academe. Explicit linkage of MCHEPI students to practice through tailored curricula, practica, and dissertations with public health agencies, and the development of an identity as a member of the MCHEPI field appear to be important to the generation of epidemiology leaders for the MCH workforce. Leadership development is a lifelong process and as such, snapshots of current students and alumni at any one point in time do not provide the entire picture of the impact of MCH epidemiology training programs. Examining the trajectories of emerging leaders over time is essential for evaluating the true success of Maternal and Child Health Bureau workforce and training investments. PMID:24985696

  4. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: WILL THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LEAD OR FOLLOW?

    PubMed

    Reichman, Jerome H

    2009-01-31

    Developing countries, particularly the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, should accommodate their national systems of innovation to the worldwide intellectual property (IP) regime emerging after the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in a way that maximizes global economic welfare in the foreseeable future. As many developed countries' experience demonstrates, badly configured, over-protectionist IP regimes stifle innovation by making inputs to future innovation too costly and too cumbersome to sustain over time. More carefully considered IP regimes, however, are an important way to protect innovative small- and medium-sized firms from predatory, larger competitors. The challenge is for emerging economies to capture the benefits of IP without importing the serious problems that developed countries have themselves failed to solve. Emerging economies can attain this balance by pursuing a policy of counter-harmonization in which they take advantage of existing exemptions in international agreements governing IP to establish regional, local, and international practices that promote more innovative, flexible uses of IP. Such practices include a research exemption for experimental uses of IP, government imposed nonexclusive licensing, anti-blocking provisions, an essential facilities doctrine, and compulsory licenses. Additional tools include an ex ante regime of compensatory liability rules for small scale innovation and sensible exceptions, particularly for science as well as general fair use provisions, to the exclusive rights of domestic copyright laws. Emerging economies will have to overcome strong economic pressure to accept more restrictive IP regimes as part of free trade agreements as well as a lack of technical expertise and internal government coordination. However, emerging economies have already accrued enough experience to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of various IP schemes and their own ability to tailor IP to local needs. Developing countries will need to take advantage of that experience and defend innovative practices at international dispute resolution forums. Through creative, determined efforts, the developing countries can avoid other countries' IP excesses while establishing the kind of IP norms that address the real conditions of creativity and innovation in today's digitally empowered universe of scientific discourse. PMID:21423816

  5. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: WILL THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LEAD OR FOLLOW?

    PubMed Central

    Reichman, Jerome H.

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries, particularly the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, should accommodate their national systems of innovation to the worldwide intellectual property (IP) regime emerging after the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in a way that maximizes global economic welfare in the foreseeable future. As many developed countries’ experience demonstrates, badly configured, over-protectionist IP regimes stifle innovation by making inputs to future innovation too costly and too cumbersome to sustain over time. More carefully considered IP regimes, however, are an important way to protect innovative small- and medium-sized firms from predatory, larger competitors. The challenge is for emerging economies to capture the benefits of IP without importing the serious problems that developed countries have themselves failed to solve. Emerging economies can attain this balance by pursuing a policy of counter-harmonization in which they take advantage of existing exemptions in international agreements governing IP to establish regional, local, and international practices that promote more innovative, flexible uses of IP. Such practices include a research exemption for experimental uses of IP, government imposed nonexclusive licensing, anti-blocking provisions, an essential facilities doctrine, and compulsory licenses. Additional tools include an ex ante regime of compensatory liability rules for small scale innovation and sensible exceptions, particularly for science as well as general fair use provisions, to the exclusive rights of domestic copyright laws. Emerging economies will have to overcome strong economic pressure to accept more restrictive IP regimes as part of free trade agreements as well as a lack of technical expertise and internal government coordination. However, emerging economies have already accrued enough experience to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of various IP schemes and their own ability to tailor IP to local needs. Developing countries will need to take advantage of that experience and defend innovative practices at international dispute resolution forums. Through creative, determined efforts, the developing countries can avoid other countries’ IP excesses while establishing the kind of IP norms that address the real conditions of creativity and innovation in today’s digitally empowered universe of scientific discourse. PMID:21423816

  6. End-Permian Mass Extinction in the Oceans: An Ancient Analog for the Twenty-First Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Jonathan L.; Clapham, Matthew E.

    2012-05-01

    The greatest loss of biodiversity in the history of animal life occurred at the end of the Permian Period (˜252 million years ago). This biotic catastrophe coincided with an interval of widespread ocean anoxia and the eruption of one of Earth's largest continental flood basalt provinces, the Siberian Traps. Volatile release from basaltic magma and sedimentary strata during emplacement of the Siberian Traps can account for most end-Permian paleontological and geochemical observations. Climate change and, perhaps, destruction of the ozone layer can explain extinctions on land, whereas changes in ocean oxygen levels, CO2, pH, and temperature can account for extinction selectivity across marine animals. These emerging insights from geology, geochemistry, and paleobiology suggest that the end-Permian extinction may serve as an important ancient analog for twenty-first century oceans.

  7. Prehistorically modified soils of central Amazonia: a model for sustainable agriculture in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Bruno

    2007-02-28

    Terra Preta soils of central Amazonia exhibit approximately three times more soil organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus and 70 times more charcoal compared to adjacent infertile soils. The Terra Preta soils were generated by pre-Columbian native populations by chance or intentionally adding large amounts of charred residues (charcoal), organic wastes, excrements and bones. In this paper, it is argued that generating new Terra Preta sites ('Terra Preta nova') could be the basis for sustainable agriculture in the twenty-first century to produce food for billions of people, and could lead to attaining three Millennium Development Goals: (i) to combat desertification, (ii) to sequester atmospheric CO2 in the long term, and (iii) to maintain biodiversity hotspots such as tropical rainforests. Therefore, large-scale generation and utilization of Terra Preta soils would decrease the pressure on primary forests that are being extensively cleared for agricultural use with only limited fertility and sustainability and, hence, only providing a limited time for cropping. This would maintain biodiversity while mitigating both land degradation and climate change. However, it should not be overlooked that the infertility of most tropical soils (and associated low population density) is what could have prevented tropical forests undergoing large-scale clearance for agriculture. Increased fertility may increase the populations supported by shifting cultivation, thereby maintaining and increasing pressure on forests. PMID:17255028

  8. Twenty-first century projected summer mean climate in the Mediterranean interpreted through the monsoon-desert mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherchi, Annalisa; Annamalai, H.; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; Alessandri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The term "monsoon-desert mechanism" indicates the relationship between the diabatic heating associated with the South Asian summer monsoon rainfall and the remote response in the western sub-tropics where long Rossby waves anchor strong descent with high subsidence. In CMIP5 twenty-first century climate scenarios, the precipitation over South Asia is projected to increase. This study investigates how this change could affect the summer climate projections in the Mediterranean region. In a linear framework the monsoon-desert mechanism in the context of climate change would imply that the change in subsidence over the Mediterranean should be strongly linked with the changes in South Asian monsoon precipitation. The steady-state solution from a linear model forced with CMIP5 model projected precipitation change over South Asia shows a broad region of descent in the Mediterranean, while the results from CMIP5 projections differ having increased descent mostly in the western sector but also decreased descent in parts of the eastern sector. Local changes in circulation, particularly the meridional wind, promote cold air advection that anchors the descent but the barotropic Rossby wave nature of the wind anomalies consisting of alternating northerlies/southerlies favors alternating descent/ascent locations. In fact, the local mid-tropospheric meridional wind changes have the strongest correlation with the regions where the difference in subsidence is largest. There decreased rainfall is mostly balanced by changes in moisture, omega and in the horizontal advection of moisture.

  9. The era of the wandering mind? Twenty-first century research on self-generated mental activity

    PubMed Central

    Callard, Felicity; Smallwood, Jonathan; Golchert, Johannes; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    The first decade of the twenty-first century was characterized by renewed scientific interest in self-generated mental activity (activity largely generated by the individual, rather than in direct response to experimenters instructions or specific external sensory inputs). To understand this renewal of interest, we interrogated the peer-reviewed literature from 2003 to 2012 (i) to explore recent changes in use of terms for self-generated mental activity; (ii) to investigate changes in the topics on which mind wandering research, specifically, focuses; and (iii) to visualize co-citation communities amongst researchers working on self-generated mental activity. Our analyses demonstrated that there has been a dramatic increase in the term mind wandering from 2006, and a significant crossing-over of psychological investigations of mind wandering into cognitive neuroscience (particularly in relation to research on the default mode and default mode network). If our article concludes that this might, indeed, be the era of the wandering mind, it also calls for more explicit reflection to be given by researchers in this field to the terms they use, the topics and brain regions they focus on, and the research literatures that they implicitly foreground or ignore. PMID:24391606

  10. Navigating Multiple Worlds in the Twenty-First Century: Authoring and Editing the Story of One Japanese Kid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damrow, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Since the middle of the twentieth century waves of immigration have increased heterogeneity in American classrooms and contributed to new challenges and problems for both teachers and learners. These trends in the United States are, in fact, part of a global phenomenon of large-scale movement of people (Garcia Coll & Marks, 2009; Suarez-Orozco,

  11. Childish Pleasures and Adult Fears: Reflections on becoming Literate in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Cath

    2010-01-01

    With the Skills for Life strategy came new professional qualifications for teachers of literacy to adults. Having learned to be literate themselves in the mid-to-late twentieth century, how ready are these teachers to take on the challenges of preparing their learners for the literacies of the new millennium? This paper comes out of doctoral

  12. Twenty-first-century warming of a large Antarctic ice-shelf cavity by a redirected coastal current.

    PubMed

    Hellmer, Hartmut H; Kauker, Frank; Timmermann, Ralph; Determann, Jrgen; Rae, Jamie

    2012-05-10

    The Antarctic ice sheet loses mass at its fringes bordering the Southern Ocean. At this boundary, warm circumpolar water can override the continental slope front, reaching the grounding line through submarine glacial troughs and causing high rates of melting at the deep ice-shelf bases. The interplay between ocean currents and continental bathymetry is therefore likely to influence future rates of ice-mass loss. Here we show that a redirection of the coastal current into the Filchner Trough and underneath the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf during the second half of the twenty-first century would lead to increased movement of warm waters into the deep southern ice-shelf cavity. Water temperatures in the cavity would increase by more than 2 degrees Celsius and boost average basal melting from 0.2 metres, or 82 billion tonnes, per year to almost 4 metres, or 1,600 billion tonnes, per year. Our results, which are based on the output of a coupled ice-ocean model forced by a range of atmospheric outputs from the HadCM3 climate model, suggest that the changes would be caused primarily by an increase in ocean surface stress in the southeastern Weddell Sea due to thinning of the formerly consolidated sea-ice cover. The projected ice loss at the base of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf represents 80 per cent of the present Antarctic surface mass balance. Thus, the quantification of basal mass loss under changing climate conditions is important for projections regarding the dynamics of Antarctic ice streams and ice shelves, and global sea level rise. PMID:22575964

  13. 2009 H1N1 influenza: a twenty-first century pandemic with roots in the early twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Farley, Monica M

    2010-09-01

    A swine-origin H1N1 triple-reassortant influenza A virus found to be a distant relative of the 1918 "Spanish flu" virus emerged in April 2009 to give rise to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. Although disease was generally mild and similar to seasonal influenza, severe manifestations including respiratory failure were noted in some, particularly those with underlying conditions such as asthma, pregnancy and immunosuppression. Children and younger adults accounted for most cases, hospitalizations and deaths. A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay was superior to antigen-based rapid tests for diagnosis. All 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza strains were susceptible to 1 or more neuraminidase inhibitors. Monovalent, unadjuvanted 2009 H1N1 vaccines were licensed in the United States in September 2009 and initially targeted to younger individuals, pregnant women, caretakers of infants and healthcare providers. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlights the need for modernization of influenza vaccines, improved diagnostics and more rigorous evaluation of mitigation strategies. PMID:20697263

  14. Engagement and Resistance at Last Chance High: A Case Study of Twenty-First-Century Literacies and Identities in One English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Mary Beth; Kersulov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the nature of student resistance to and engagement with digital media and twenty-first-century literacies in the English classroom at Last Chance High, an alternative high school. It traces the dynamic interplay of literacy practices and identity performances with and around digital media, exploring one student's

  15. A Phenomenological Study of the Impact of Pre-Service and Inservice Training Regarding the Integration of Twenty-First Century Technologies into Selected Teachers' Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to understand how in-service teachers with three to five years of experience perceive their pre-service and in-service training regarding the integration of twenty-first century technology into their instruction. Twenty participants from a rural public school system in southeast North…

  16. Music Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of German and American Music Education towards a New Concept of International Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Comparative Music Education is often considered to be an unnecessary subject because there seem to be more important issues for research than studying music education in various countries. Comparative music education is not a luxury, but rather a necessity in the twenty-first century. Scholars and music teachers in many countries are struggling

  17. Three Dialogs: A Framework for the Analysis and Assessment of Twenty-First-Century Literacy Practices, and Its Use in the Context of Game Design within "Gamestar Mechanic"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Games, Ivan Alex

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a framework for the analysis and assessment of twenty-first-century language and literacy practices in game and design-based contexts. It presents the framework in the context of game design within "Gamestar Mechanic", an innovative game-based learning environment where children learn the Discourse of game design. It…

  18. Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Second Session (Dakar, Senegal, September 18-21, 1993). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (UNESCO), Paris (France).

    The second session of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, held in Dakar, Senegal, was preceded by a 2-day working group on education in Africa, at which some 15 African educators, decision-makers, and intellectuals debated problems, approaches, and options in education. Several African educators at the highest…

  19. Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, First Session (Paris, France, March 2-4, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (UNESCO), Paris (France).

    This report of the first session of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century describes its agenda of the working methods, the approach, the scope of its work, and the main lines of inquiry to be followed. The initial debate revealed a central theme to be sustained throughout the work of the Commission: the role of

  20. Learning to Innovate in Twenty-First-Century Community Colleges: Searching for the General Education Niche in Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the general education needed by newcomers to higher education that will enable them to contribute in multiple ways in the twenty-first-century workplace. In an effort to become more precise about the kind of general education that Midwestern community colleges need to create, this article approaches two questions: (1) In what

  1. Music Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of German and American Music Education towards a New Concept of International Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Comparative Music Education is often considered to be an unnecessary subject because there seem to be more important issues for research than studying music education in various countries. Comparative music education is not a luxury, but rather a necessity in the twenty-first century. Scholars and music teachers in many countries are struggling…

  2. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in…

  3. Three Dialogs: A Framework for the Analysis and Assessment of Twenty-First-Century Literacy Practices, and Its Use in the Context of Game Design within "Gamestar Mechanic"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Games, Ivan Alex

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a framework for the analysis and assessment of twenty-first-century language and literacy practices in game and design-based contexts. It presents the framework in the context of game design within "Gamestar Mechanic", an innovative game-based learning environment where children learn the Discourse of game design. It

  4. Bruce's Magnificent Quartet: Inquiry, Community, Technology and Literacy--Implications for Renewing Qualitative Research in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Bruce and Bishop's community informatics work brings forward four critical concepts: inquiry, community, technology, and literacy. These four terms serve as the basis for a discussion of qualitative research in the twenty-first century--what is lacking and what is needed. The author suggests that to resolve the tensions or challenges…

  5. Zoos in the twenty-first century: Can't we find a better way to love nature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey-Platt, Lauren Kay

    As a new millennium approaches, many forms of life on the planet and the environments in which they have evolved are increasingly threatened by human activities Wildlife is being marginalized, and native habitats are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. Equally disturbing is the impending demise of traditional human societies---peoples who have evolved outside of the confines and conditions of modern Western influence. The loss of these human and animal societies has occurred so rapidly that implications are largely unknown. Research on how modern Americans relate to animals, particularly wildlife, revealed a clear and disturbing incongruity best exemplified in the current paradigm of zoo exhibition and education. Although zoos purport to educate visitors about the ecology of natural environments and the universal plight of wildlife, research shows that people, particularly children, learn less about ecological principles in zoos with live animals than they do in non-living natural history exhibits. While designers employ a variety of visual techniques in natural history exhibition, environmental sound as an educational exhibit component is largely nonexistent. Many animal species communicate through sound, especially species in underwater environments. As the audio equivalent of a landscape, the soundscape is as important as any other habitat feature to the well-being of wildlife populations. Using recorded sounds of natural environments, an exhibition soundscape was designed and produced for Oceanario de Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal---the centerpiece of the 1998 World Exposition in Lisbon, Portugal. With programmed sound serving as a major component of natural history exhibition, a conceptual design of a novel zoo for the twenty-first century was described. The "NewZew" concept is based on a growing awareness that the best way to save species is to salvage, preserve, and restore their natural habitats---activities that are largely antithetical to current zoo practice. In introducing visitors to the lifeways of traditional societies and employing recent and emerging technologies, the NewZew educates its visitors about the wonders of life on earth without displaying live animals.

  6. Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

    PubMed

    Mrald, Erland; Langston, Nancy; Stns, Anna; Moen, Jon

    2016-02-01

    By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader-and often ecologically focused-concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed. PMID:26744044

  7. Cyclones and their possible changes in the Arctic by the end of the twenty first century from regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akperov, Mirseid; Mokhov, Igor; Rinke, Annette; Dethloff, Klaus; Matthes, Heidrun

    2015-10-01

    Characteristics of cyclones (frequency, intensity and size) and their changes in the Arctic region in a warmer climate have been analyzed with the use of the HIRHAM regional climate model simulations with SRES-A1B anthropogenic scenario for the twenty first century. The focus was on cyclones for the warm (April-September) and cold (October-March) seasons. The present-day cyclonic characteristics from HIRHAM simulations are in general agreement with those from ERA-40 reanalysis data. Differences noted for the frequency of cyclones are related with different spatial resolution in the model simulations and reanalysis data. Potential future changes in cyclone characteristics at the end of the twenty first century have been analyzed. According to the model simulations, the frequency of cyclones is increasing in warm seasons and decreasing in cold seasons for a warmer climate in the twenty first century, but these changes are statistically insignificant. Noticeable changes were detected for the intensity and size of cyclones for the both seasons. Significant increase was found for the frequency of weak cyclones during cold season. Further, a general increase in the frequency of small cyclones was calculated in cold seasons, while its frequency decreases in warm seasons.

  8. Twenty-First Century Police Training: Recruits' Problem-Solving Skills Following Scenario-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Lee R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse requirements of 21st-century police work and the increasing emphasis on community-policing philosophy, the Los Angeles Police Department has implemented changes within its academy curricula and methods of instruction, including the use of adult-learning concepts, a community policing problem-solving model known as…

  9. Portrait of Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century: John Henry Newman's "The Idea of a University"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is going through as significant a change as at any time in the last century. Recommendations about how to resolve these issues have been offered by numerous government commissions, think tanks and foundations. A seldom used approach is to look back to consider what others have said and suggested in previous eras. The author

  10. Language Hotspots: What (Applied) Linguistics and Education Should Do about Language Endangerment in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gregory D. S.

    2011-01-01

    I outline the concept of "Language Hotspots", seeking to direct public and professional awareness of the global language extinction crisis. The loss of a single language leaves the science of linguistics impoverished and yet even few linguists realize that the vast majority of "language families" will likely be lost by the end of this century.

  11. From a Formalist to a Practical Aesthetic in Undergraduate Theatre Studies: Becoming Relevant in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Anne

    2011-01-01

    As a new century unfolds, the "downsizing" and continuing marginalization of the humanities, including theatre, in American higher education correspond to three trends in the academy. First, in response to the fiscal crises that began in the late 1970s, universities have increasingly turned to the private sector for financial support as federal

  12. CREATING TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY METHODS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF TICKS AND TICK-BORNE DISEASES AFFECTING LIVESTOCK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For over a century the primary tools for the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases of livestock have been acaricides applied to the host as whole-body treatments or pour-ons. Unfortunately, throughout cattle producing regions in the tropics and subtropics, intense selection pressure from the wid...

  13. Portrait of Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century: John Henry Newman's "The Idea of a University"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is going through as significant a change as at any time in the last century. Recommendations about how to resolve these issues have been offered by numerous government commissions, think tanks and foundations. A seldom used approach is to look back to consider what others have said and suggested in previous eras. The author…

  14. Education and the Politics of Selection: Radical Policies for Those Set to Fail in the Twenty-First Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaine, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the longstanding question of policy for those referred to nearly half a century ago by the Crowther Report as the "bottom half"; those mainly working class children who, in a sense, are "selected for failure". The issue of selection is a matter of concern in countries around the world and has been at the centre of

  15. Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alaska's climate is changing and one of the most significant indications of this change has been the late 19th to early 21st century behavior of Alaskan glaciers. Weather station temperature data document that air temperatures throughout Alaska have been increasing for many decades. Since the mid-20th century, the average change is an increase of ?????2.0????C. In order to determine the magnitude and pattern of response of glaciers to this regional climate change, a comprehensive analysis was made of the recent behavior of hundreds of glaciers located in the eleven Alaskan mountain ranges and three island areas that currently support glaciers. Data analyzed included maps, historical observations, thousands of ground-and-aerial photographs and satellite images, and vegetation proxy data. Results were synthesized to determine changes in length and area of individual glaciers. Alaskan ground photography dates from 1883, aerial photography dates from 1926, and satellite photography and imagery dates from the early 1960s. Unfortunately, very few Alaskan glaciers have any mass balance observations. In most areas analyzed, every glacier that descends below an elevation of ?????1500??m is currently thinning and/or retreating. Many glaciers have an uninterrupted history of continuous post-Little-Ice-Age retreat that spans more than 250??years. Others are characterized by multiple late 19th to early 21st century fluctuations. Today, retreating and/or thinning glaciers represent more than 98% of the glaciers examined. However, in the Coast Mountains, St. Elias Mountains, Chugach Mountains, and the Aleutian Range more than a dozen glaciers are currently advancing and thickening. Many currently advancing glaciers are or were formerly tidewater glaciers. Some of these glaciers have been expanding for more than two centuries. This presentation documents the post-Little-Ice-Age behavior and variability of the response of many Alaskan glaciers to changing regional climate. ?? 2006.

  16. Scott Shuler's "Music and Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Retrospective"--Review and Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLain, Barbara Payne

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the future is a challenging task for music education, requiring both retrospection, analysis of current events, and foresight. This article examines several predictions from 2001 and challenges music educators to consider factors that may influence the future of teaching music in society.

  17. Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a 'beyond 4°C world' in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Robert J; Marinova, Natasha; Lowe, Jason A; Brown, Sally; Vellinga, Pier; de Gusmão, Diogo; Hinkel, Jochen; Tol, Richard S J

    2011-01-13

    The range of future climate-induced sea-level rise remains highly uncertain with continued concern that large increases in the twenty-first century cannot be ruled out. The biggest source of uncertainty is the response of the large ice sheets of Greenland and west Antarctica. Based on our analysis, a pragmatic estimate of sea-level rise by 2100, for a temperature rise of 4°C or more over the same time frame, is between 0.5 m and 2 m--the probability of rises at the high end is judged to be very low, but of unquantifiable probability. However, if realized, an indicative analysis shows that the impact potential is severe, with the real risk of the forced displacement of up to 187 million people over the century (up to 2.4% of global population). This is potentially avoidable by widespread upgrade of protection, albeit rather costly with up to 0.02 per cent of global domestic product needed, and much higher in certain nations. The likelihood of protection being successfully implemented varies between regions, and is lowest in small islands, Africa and parts of Asia, and hence these regions are the most likely to see coastal abandonment. To respond to these challenges, a multi-track approach is required, which would also be appropriate if a temperature rise of less than 4°C was expected. Firstly, we should monitor sea level to detect any significant accelerations in the rate of rise in a timely manner. Secondly, we need to improve our understanding of the climate-induced processes that could contribute to rapid sea-level rise, especially the role of the two major ice sheets, to produce better models that quantify the likely future rise more precisely. Finally, responses need to be carefully considered via a combination of climate mitigation to reduce the rise and adaptation for the residual rise in sea level. In particular, long-term strategic adaptation plans for the full range of possible sea-level rise (and other change) need to be widely developed. PMID:21115518

  18. A New Paradigm Is Needed for Medical Education in the Mid-Twenty-First Century and Beyond: Are We Ready?

    PubMed Central

    Benor, Dan E.

    2014-01-01

    The twentieth century witnessed profound changes in medical education. All these changes, however, took place within the existing framework, suggested by Flexner a century ago. The present paper suggests that we are approaching a singularity point, where we shall have to change the paradigm and be prepared for an entirely new genre of medical education. This suggestion is based upon analysis of existing and envisaged trends: first, in technology, such as availability of information and sophisticated simulations; second, in medical practice, such as far-reaching interventions in life and death that create an array of new moral dilemmas, as well as a change in patient mix in hospitals and a growing need of team work; third, in the societal attitude toward higher education. The structure of the future medical school is delineated in a rough sketch, and so are the roles of the future medical teacher. It is concluded that we are presently not prepared for the approaching changes, neither from practical nor from attitudinal points of view, and that it is now high time for both awareness of and preparation for these changes. PMID:25120918

  19. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

    2015-12-01

    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in students' choice of competition category were studied. Mixed methods analysis of survey returns from 172 Olympiad participants from 31 countries showed that students' career aspirations were affected most by their teachers, personal interests, and parents, respectively. Students also indicated that they believed that their participation in the Olympiad reinforced their plan to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major at college and assisted them in developing and improving their twenty-first century skills. Furthermore, female students' responses indicated that their project choices were less likely to be in the engineering category and more likely to be in the environment or energy categories. Findings are discussed in the light of increasing the awareness of the role and importance of Science Olympiads in STEM career choice and finding ways to attract more female students into engineering careers.

  20. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

    2014-11-01

    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in students' choice of competition category were studied. Mixed methods analysis of survey returns from 172 Olympiad participants from 31 countries showed that students' career aspirations were affected most by their teachers, personal interests, and parents, respectively. Students also indicated that they believed that their participation in the Olympiad reinforced their plan to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major at college and assisted them in developing and improving their twenty-first century skills. Furthermore, female students' responses indicated that their project choices were less likely to be in the engineering category and more likely to be in the environment or energy categories. Findings are discussed in the light of increasing the awareness of the role and importance of Science Olympiads in STEM career choice and finding ways to attract more female students into engineering careers.

  1. When There Isn't a Right Answer: Interpretation and Reasoning, Key Skills for Twenty-First Century Geoscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Clare Elizabeth; Philo, Chris; Shipton, Zoe Kai

    2011-01-01

    A key challenge in university geoscience teaching is to give students the skills to cope with uncertainty. Professional geoscientists can rarely be certain of the "right answer" to problems posed by most geological datasets, and reasoning through this uncertainty, being intelligently flexible in interpreting data which are limited in resolution

  2. Meaningful Measurement: The Role of Assessments in Improving High School Education in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkus, Lyndsay M., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In the chapters presented in this volume, leading experts describe some of the assessment challenges in greater detail and provide federal recommendations on how to address them. In "College and Work Readiness as a Goal of High Schools: The Role of Standards, Assessments, and Accountability," John Tanner of the Center for Innovative Measures at

  3. The Conceptions of Work in the Accounting Profession in the Twenty-First Century from the Experiences of Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Samantha; Reid, Anna; Dahlgren, Lars Owe

    2011-01-01

    The accounting profession, which has commercialised its services extensively in the past two to three decades, is facing the challenges of change. An early and concerted response to the changes in the scope of work was the emphasis on developing generic skills in accounting higher education. This study recognises the relevance of accounting

  4. The Conceptions of Work in the Accounting Profession in the Twenty-First Century from the Experiences of Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Samantha; Reid, Anna; Dahlgren, Lars Owe

    2011-01-01

    The accounting profession, which has commercialised its services extensively in the past two to three decades, is facing the challenges of change. An early and concerted response to the changes in the scope of work was the emphasis on developing generic skills in accounting higher education. This study recognises the relevance of accounting…

  5. Carl gustav jung, quantum physics and the spiritual mind: a mystical vision of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Valadas Ponte, Diogo; Schäfer, Lothar

    2013-12-01

    We describe similarities in the ontology of quantum physics and of Carl Gustav Jung's psychology. In spite of the fact that physics and psychology are usually considered as unrelated, in the last century, both of these disciplines have led at the same time to revolutionary changes in the Western understanding of the cosmic order, discovering a non-empirical realm of the universe that doesn't consist of material things but of forms. These forms are real, even though they are invisible, because they have the potential to appear in the empirical world and act in it. We present arguments that force us to believe, that the empirical world is an emanation out of a cosmic realm of potentiality, whose forms can appear as physical structures in the external world and as archetypal concepts in our mind. Accordingly, the evolution of life now appears no longer as a process of the adaptation of species to their environment, but as the adaptation of minds to increasingly complex forms that exist in the cosmic potentiality. The cosmic connection means that the human mind is a mystical mind. PMID:25379259

  6. Carl Gustav Jung, Quantum Physics and the Spiritual Mind: A Mystical Vision of the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Valadas Ponte, Diogo; Schäfer, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    We describe similarities in the ontology of quantum physics and of Carl Gustav Jung’s psychology. In spite of the fact that physics and psychology are usually considered as unrelated, in the last century, both of these disciplines have led at the same time to revolutionary changes in the Western understanding of the cosmic order, discovering a non-empirical realm of the universe that doesn’t consist of material things but of forms. These forms are real, even though they are invisible, because they have the potential to appear in the empirical world and act in it. We present arguments that force us to believe, that the empirical world is an emanation out of a cosmic realm of potentiality, whose forms can appear as physical structures in the external world and as archetypal concepts in our mind. Accordingly, the evolution of life now appears no longer as a process of the adaptation of species to their environment, but as the adaptation of minds to increasingly complex forms that exist in the cosmic potentiality. The cosmic connection means that the human mind is a mystical mind. PMID:25379259

  7. A model study of factors influencing projected changes in regional sea level over the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardaens, Anne K.; Gregory, J. M.; Lowe, J. A.

    2011-05-01

    In addition to projected increases in global mean sea level over the 21st century, model simulations suggest there will also be changes in the regional distribution of sea level relative to the global mean. There is a considerable spread in the projected patterns of these changes by current models, as shown by the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment (AR4). This spread has not reduced from that given by the Third Assessment models. Comparison with projections by ensembles of models based on a single structure supports an earlier suggestion that models of similar formulation give more similar patterns of sea level change. Analysing an AR4 ensemble of model projections under a business-as-usual scenario shows that steric changes (associated with subsurface ocean density changes) largely dominate the sea level pattern changes. The relative importance of subsurface temperature or salinity changes in contributing to this differs from region to region and, to an extent, from model-to-model. In general, thermosteric changes give the spatial variations in the Southern Ocean, halosteric changes dominate in the Arctic and strong compensation between thermosteric and halosteric changes characterises the Atlantic. The magnitude of sea level and component changes in the Atlantic appear to be linked to the amount of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) weakening. When the MOC weakening is substantial, the Atlantic thermosteric patterns of change arise from a dominant role of ocean advective heat flux changes.

  8. Energy prices will play an important role in determining global land use in the twenty first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2013-03-01

    Global land use research to date has focused on quantifying uncertainty effects of three major drivers affecting competition for land: the uncertainty in energy and climate policies affecting competition between food and biofuels, the uncertainty of climate impacts on agriculture and forestry, and the uncertainty in the underlying technological progress driving efficiency of food, bioenergy and timber production. The market uncertainty in fossil fuel prices has received relatively less attention in the global land use literature. Petroleum and natural gas prices affect both the competitiveness of biofuels and the cost of nitrogen fertilizers. High prices put significant pressure on global land supply and greenhouse gas emissions from terrestrial systems, while low prices can moderate demands for cropland. The goal of this letter is to assess and compare the effects of these core uncertainties on the optimal profile for global land use and land-based GHG emissions over the coming century. The model that we develop integrates distinct strands of agronomic, biophysical and economic literature into a single, intertemporally consistent, analytical framework, at global scale. Our analysis accounts for the value of land-based services in the production of food, first- and second-generation biofuels, timber, forest carbon and biodiversity. We find that long-term uncertainty in energy prices dominates the climate impacts and climate policy uncertainties emphasized in prior research on global land use.

  9. Responses of dune activity and desertification in China to global warming in the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xunming; Yang, Yi; Dong, Zhibao; Zhang, Caixia

    2009-06-01

    Most areas of arid and semiarid China are covered by aeolian sand dunes, sand sheets, and desert steppes, and the existence of the nearly 80 million people who live in this region could be seriously jeopardized if climate change increases desertification. However, the expected trends in desertification during the 21st century are poorly understood. In the present study, we selected the ECHAM4 and HadCM3 global climate models (after comparing them with the results of the GFDL-R30, CGCM2, and CSIRO-Mk2b models) and used simulations of a dune mobility index under IPCC SRES climate scenarios A1FI, A2a, A2b, A2c, B1a, B2a, and B2b to estimate future trends in dune activity and desertification in China. Although uncertainties in climate predictions mean that there is still far to go before we can develop a comprehensive dune activity estimation system, HadCM3 simulations with most greenhouse forcing scenarios showed decreased desertification in most western region of arid and semiarid China by 2039, but increased desertification thereafter, whereas ECHAM4 simulation results showed that desertification will increase during this period. Inhabitants of thecentral region will benefit from reversed desertification from 2010 to 2099, whereas inhabitants of the eastern region will suffer from increased desertification from 2010 to 2099. From 2010 to 2039, most regions will not be significantly affected by desertification, but from 2040 to 2099, the environments of the western and eastern regions will deteriorate due to the significant effects of global warming (particularly the interaction between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration), leading to decreased livestock and grain yields and possibly threatening China's food security.

  10. A person-focused model of care for the twenty-first century: a system-of-systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Greene, Robert A; Dasso, Edwin; Ho, Sam; Genaidy, Ash M

    2014-06-01

    The US health care system is challenged to provide high-quality care and is burdened with unsustainable expenditures, making it difficult for health care participants (patients, payers, providers, caregivers) to create value. This communication presents the theoretical foundation for a person-focused model of care that addresses a number of these challenges. The model integrates aspects of prior models of chronic care with new empiric findings and complex adaptive system (CAS) theory. The model emphasizes the relationship among all health care stakeholders. The health care delivery process is examined in terms of the role of each stakeholder and the value each adds to and receives from the process. The authors present pilot results illustrating the implications of CAS theory in regard to multi-morbidity, disease management programs, multi-morbid households, and person- and household-focused care. The model incorporates the physical, mental, and social dimensions of health, and operationalizes an individual patient's health as a CAS, identifying CASs for each of the other stakeholders as well. Health care can then be conceptualized as a system-of-systems with a person's health as its output. Deploying the model need not require major infrastructure investments or changes. It can be implemented by repurposing, aligning, and better integrating currently available interventions. The authors believe that the model creates not only survival value (health) but also purposeful value. The model offers a unifying focus for all participants in the health care delivery process, thereby constructing a health care system that is structurally person-focused and meaningful for all participants. PMID:24720637

  11. [Primary care pediatrics in the public health system of the twenty-first century. SESPAS report 2012].

    PubMed

    Domnguez Aurrecoechea, Begoa; Valdivia Jimnez, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Today in our country, the primary care pediatrician is the first contact between children and adolescents with the health system, being also a highly resolving specialist that addresses over 90% of the health needs of this population, monitors growth and development and participates in all activities of prevention, health promotion and health education within primary care teams with nurses and family doctors. Witnessing rapid and profound demographic, social, cultural, scientific and technological changes as well as the demands and expectations of health care for citizens, which should enhance the value and response capacity of primary care. These changes also affect infant morbidity and health care priorities in child and adolescent, posing new challenges for primary care practice and reinforce the role of the pediatrician in primary care. Primary care is not only the gateway to the health system. Primary care teams have to take responsibility for the care of people assigned to coordinate the necessary resources and advising citizens on their health problems and his itinerary care by the health system. It identifies the need to foster teamwork within the health department involved nursing staff to take care activities in this age group. It aims to foster a model based on cooperation and complementarity. A recent systematic review recommended maintaining the figure of the pediatrician in primary care teams and strengthen their specific role as first point of contact with the child's health care system, found significant benefits for children. PMID:22196036

  12. How should patients with cystine stone disease be evaluated and treated in the twenty-first century?

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Kim Hovgaard; Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Jung, Helene Ulrik; Lildal, Sren Kissow; Osther, Palle Joern Sloth

    2016-02-01

    Cystinuria continues to be one of the most challenging stone diseases. During the latest decades our knowledge of the molecular basis of cystinuria has expanded. Today 160 different mutations in the SLC3A1 gene and 116 in the SLC7A9 gene are listed. The full implications of type A, B or AB status are not yet fully understood but may have implications for prognosis, management and treatment. Despite better understanding of the molecular basis of cystinuria the principles of recurrence prevention have remained essentially the same through decades. No curative treatment of cystinuria exists, and patients will have a life long risk of stone formation, repeated surgery, impaired renal function and quality of life. Therapy to reduce stone formation is directed towards lowering urine cystine concentration and increasing cystine solubility. Different molecules that could play a role in promoting nucleation and have a modulating effect on cystine solubility may represent new targets for cystinuria research. Investigation of newer thiol-containing drugs with fewer adverse effects is also warranted. Determining cystine capacity may be an effective tool to monitor the individual patient's response. Compliance in cystinuric patients concerning both dietary and pharmacological intervention is poor. Frequent clinical follow-up visits in dedicated centres seem to improve compliance. Cystinuric patients should be managed in dedicated centres offering the complete range of minimal invasive treatment modalities, enabling a personalized treatment approach in order to reduce risk and morbidity of multiple procedures. PMID:26614112

  13. Evaluating CMIP5 models using GPS radio occultation COSMIC temperature in UTLS region during 2006-2013: twenty-first century projection and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, P.; Basha, Ghouse; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Velicogna, Isabella; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2016-02-01

    This paper provides a first overview of the performance of global climate models participating in the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) temperatures. Temperature from CMIP5 models is evaluated with high resolution global positioning system radio occultation (GPSRO) constellation observing system for meteorology, ionosphere, and climate (COSMIC) data during the period of July 2006-December 2013. Future projections of 17 CMIP5 models based on the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenarios are utilized to assess model performance and to identify the biases in the temperature in the UTLS region at eight different pressure levels. The evaluations were carried out vertically, regionally, and globally to understand the temperature uncertainties in CMIP5 models. It is found that the CMIP5 models successfully reproduce the general features of temperature structure in terms of vertical, annual, and inter-annual variation. The ensemble mean of CMIP5 models compares well with the COSMIC GPSRO data with a mean difference of ±1 K. In the tropical region, temperature biases vary from one model to another. The spatial difference between COSMIC and ensemble mean reveals that at 100 hPa, the models show a bias of about ±2 K. With increase in altitude the bias decreases and turns into a cold bias over the tropical and Antarctic regions. The future projections of the CMIP5 models were presented during 2006-2099 under the RCP 8.5 scenarios. Projections show a warming trend at 300, 200, and 100 hPa levels over a wide region of 60°N-45°S. The warming decreases rapidly and becomes cooling with increase in altitudes by the end of twenty-first century. Significant cooling is observed at 30, 20, and 10 hPa levels. At 300/10 hPa, the temperature trend increases/decreases by ~0.82/0.88 K/decade at the end of twenty-first century under RCP 8.5 scenarios.

  14. The Twenty-First Century Workforce: A Contemporary Challenge for Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Starkweather, Kendall N.

    2006-01-01

    More than at any time in recent history, technology education has taken on an important role in American education. The emergence of economic issues and the essential role of technology in the global economy have highlighted the omission of technology in K-12 school programs. When business and industry began recognizing the role of education and…

  15. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers

  16. National Models for Continuing Professional Development: The Challenges of Twenty-First-Century Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Marilyn; Younie, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    If teacher quality is the most critical factor in improving educational outcomes, then why is so little attention drawn to the knowledge and evidence base available to support teachers in improving the quality of their professional knowledge? This paper draws together findings from a range of sources to propose national models for continuing

  17. The Twenty-First Century Workforce: A Contemporary Challenge for Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Starkweather, Kendall N.

    2006-01-01

    More than at any time in recent history, technology education has taken on an important role in American education. The emergence of economic issues and the essential role of technology in the global economy have highlighted the omission of technology in K-12 school programs. When business and industry began recognizing the role of education and

  18. Water security in one blue planet: twenty-first century policy challenges for science.

    PubMed

    Grey, D; Garrick, D; Blackmore, D; Kelman, J; Muller, M; Sadoff, C

    2013-11-13

    Water-related risks threaten society at the local, national and global scales in our inter-connected and rapidly changing world. Most of the world's poor are deeply water insecure and face intolerable water-related risks associated with complex hydrology. Most of the world's wealthy face lower water-related risks and less complex hydrology. This inverse relationship between hydrological complexity and wealth contributes to a divided world. This must be addressed if global water security is to be achieved. Using a risk-based framework provides the potential to link the current policy-oriented discourse on water security to a new and rigorous science-based approach to the description, measurement, analysis and management of water security. To provide the basis for this science-based approach, we propose an encompassing definition rooted in risk science: water security is a tolerable level of water-related risk to society. Water security policy questions need to be framed so that science can marshal interdisciplinary data and evidence to identify solutions. We join a growing group of scientists in asserting a bold vision for science leadership, calling for a new and comprehensive understanding of the planet's water system and society's water needs. PMID:24080615

  19. Subjects to Citizens: Adult Learning and the Challenges of Democracy in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Theme 1 of the "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" boldly proclaimed that active citizenship and full participation of all citizens was the necessary foundation for "the creation of a learning society committed to social justice and general well-being" (UNESCO, 1997, p. 4). The "Declaration" advocated that future societies create "greater

  20. National Models for Continuing Professional Development: The Challenges of Twenty-First-Century Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Marilyn; Younie, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    If teacher quality is the most critical factor in improving educational outcomes, then why is so little attention drawn to the knowledge and evidence base available to support teachers in improving the quality of their professional knowledge? This paper draws together findings from a range of sources to propose national models for continuing…

  1. Regionalizing Postsecondary Education for the Twenty-First Century: Promising Innovations and Capacity Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, L. Allen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, separate sections examine the anchoring ingredients of the regional strategies through which two-year colleges are responding to local, regional, and in some cases broader needs deemed critical to generating and sustaining economic productivity and other forms of social and civic capital. First, drawing on recent European

  2. Educational Psychology in the Twenty-First Century: Challenges for Our Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    This is a critical time for the field of educational psychology. As the roles of colleges and schools of education are being examined, the specific relevance of our research also may be questioned. In this article, I argue that educational psychologists need to engage in specific types of outreach activities so that our research can truly impact…

  3. Australia and India: Facing the Twenty-First Century Skills Challenge. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddie, Francesca M.

    2009-01-01

    The governments of India and Australia are working to enhance cooperation on training, at both official and industry level. As part of the exchange of ideas, Francesca Beddie, General Manager, Research, National Centre for Vocational Education Research, visited India in August 2009 at the invitation of the Australia-India Council. This paper…

  4. Educational Psychology in the Twenty-First Century: Challenges for Our Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    This is a critical time for the field of educational psychology. As the roles of colleges and schools of education are being examined, the specific relevance of our research also may be questioned. In this article, I argue that educational psychologists need to engage in specific types of outreach activities so that our research can truly impact

  5. Transforming the Twenty-First-Century Campus to Enhance the Net-Generation Student Learning Experience: Using Evidence-Based Design to Determine What Works and Why in Virtual/Physical Teaching Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kenn; Newton, Clare

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has seen the rapid emergence of wireless broadband and mobile communications devices which are inexorably changing the way people communicate, collaborate, create and transfer knowledge. Yet many higher education campus learning environments were designed and built in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries prior to

  6. Transforming the Twenty-First-Century Campus to Enhance the Net-Generation Student Learning Experience: Using Evidence-Based Design to Determine What Works and Why in Virtual/Physical Teaching Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kenn; Newton, Clare

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has seen the rapid emergence of wireless broadband and mobile communications devices which are inexorably changing the way people communicate, collaborate, create and transfer knowledge. Yet many higher education campus learning environments were designed and built in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries prior to…

  7. Projected impact of twenty-first century ENSO changes on rainfall over Central America and northwest South America from CMIP5 AOGCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Clark, Martyn P.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the importance that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has on rainfall over the tropical Americas, future changes in ENSO characteristics and teleconnections are important for regional hydroclimate. Projected changes to the ENSO mean state and characteristics, and the resulting impacts on rainfall anomalies over Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador during the twenty-first century are explored for several forcing scenarios using a suite of coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Mean-state warming of eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, drying of Central America and northern Colombia, and wetting of southwest Colombia and Ecuador are consistent with previous studies that used earlier versions of the AOGCMs. Current and projected future characteristics of ENSO (frequency, duration, amplitude) show a wide range of values across the various AOGCMs. The magnitude of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies are currently underestimated by most of the models, but the model ensembles generally simulate the correct sign of the anomalies across the seasons around the peak ENSO effects. While the models capture the broad present-day ENSO-related rainfall anomalies, there is not a clear sense of projected future changes in the precipitation anomalies.

  8. The role of ENSO and PDO in variability of winter precipitation over North America from twenty first century CMIP5 projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Franco, Ramón; Giorgi, Filippo; Coppola, Erika; Kucharski, Fred

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the combined impact of ENSO and PDO on North American winter climate in current and future climate projections from 11 global models in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) dataset. We first analyze winter sea surface temperature, sea level pressure (SLP) and precipitation anomalies for the historical period 1951-2005, and find that the CMIP5 models reproduce well the constructive interference between ENSO and the PDO compared to observations (i.e. positive ENSO and PDO or negative ENSO and PDO). On the other hand, the destructive interference (positive ENSO and negative PDO or negative ENSO and positive PDO) is less accurately reproduced. Consistently with observations, ENSO events show generally more impact on North American winter climate than PDO events, although there is a robust increase of rainfall in the Southeastern US during the negative PDO phase. For the twenty first century projections, we focus on the 2050-2099 period under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentration scenario and we find an overall strengthening of both the ENSO and PDO signals, and particularly the PDO one, on the SLP and related teleconnections. This results in an enhanced influence of the negative PDO phase on flood conditions in the Southeastern United States, and in drier conditions over the Southwest coasts of North America.

  9. Lights, camera, action research: The effects of didactic digital movie making on students' twenty-first century learning skills and science content in the middle school classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochsner, Karl

    Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and ISTE NET*S, along with the framework from the Partnership for 21st Century Learning Standards, our society demands students not only to learn curriculum, but to think critically, problem solve effectively, and become adept at communicating and collaborating. Didactic digital movie making in the science classroom may be one way that these twenty-first century learning skills may be implemented. An action research study using a mixed-methods approach to collect data was used to investigate if didactic moviemaking can help eighth grade students learn physical science content while incorporating 21st century learning skills of collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills through their group production. Over a five week period, students researched lessons, wrote scripts, acted, video recorded and edited a didactic movie that contained a narrative plot to teach a science strand from the Arizona State Standards in physical science. A pretest/posttest science content test and KWL chart was given before and after the innovation to measure content learned by the students. Students then took a 21st Century Learning Skills Student Survey to measure how much they perceived that communication, collaboration, problem solving and critical thinking were taking place during the production. An open ended survey and a focus group of four students were used for qualitative analysis. Three science teachers used a project evaluation rubric to measure science content and production values from the movies. Triangulating the science content test, KWL chart, open ended questions and the project evaluation rubric, it appeared that science content was gained from this project. Students felt motivated to learn and had positive experience. Students also felt that the repetition of production and watching their movies helped them remember science. Students also perceived that creating the didactic digital movie helped them use collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills throughout their production.

  10. Humanizing Democracy: Matthew Arnold's Nineteenth-Century Call for a Common, Higher, Educative Pursuit of Happiness and Its Relevance to Twenty-first Century Democratic Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Examines a nineteenth century recommendation by Matthew Arnold for democratic educational reform calling for a broadly accessible liberal education to cultivate a magnanimous and civic-minded democratic populace. Discusses how the old vision might become a new blueprint. (SLD)

  11. Lessons from Four "Bronze Muses" or How the Rhetoric of Nineteenth Century African-American Women Can Inform Writing Instruction in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Shirley W.

    Considering the rhetorical strategies four 19th-century black women employed to address various audiences can be helpful in the continuing struggle to find effective means of teaching writing to college students. These four women used a variety of strategies to reach audiences which were, to one degree or another, hostile to them because of their

  12. Variations in northern hemisphere snowfall: An analysis of historical trends and the projected response to anthropogenic forcing in the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasting, John P.

    Snowfall is an important feature of the Earth's climate system that has the ability to influence both the natural world and human activity. This dissertation examines past and future changes in snowfall related to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Snowfall observations for North America, derived snowfall products for the Northern Hemisphere, and simulations performed with 13 coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models are analyzed. The analysis of the spatial pattern of simulated annual trends on a grid point basis from 1951 to 1999 indicates that a transition zone exists above 60 N latitude across the Northern Hemisphere that separates negative trends in annual snowfall in the mid-latitudes and positive trends at higher latitudes. Regional analysis of observed annual snowfall indicates that statistically significant trends are found in western North America, Japan, and southern Russia. A majority of the observed historical trends in annual snowfall elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere, however, are not statistically significant and this result is consistent with model simulations. Projections of future snowfall indicate the presence of a similar transition zone between negative and positive snowfall trends that corresponds with the area between the -10 to -15C isotherms of the multi-model mean temperature of the late twentieth century in each of the fall, winter, and spring seasons. Redistributions of snowfall throughout the entire snow season are likely -- even in locations where there is little change in annual snowfall. Changes in the fraction of precipitation falling as snow contribute to decreases in snowfall across most Northern Hemisphere regions, while changes in precipitation typically contribute to increases in snowfall. Snowfall events less than or equal to 5 cm are found to decrease in the future across most of the Northern Hemisphere, while snowfall events greater than or equal to 20 cm increase in some locations, such as northern Quebec. A signal-to-noise analysis reveals that the projected changes in snowfall are likely to become apparent during the twenty-first century for most locations in the Northern Hemisphere.

  13. Technical Background Papers to Higher Education at the Crossroads: Planning for the Twenty-First Century. Six Commission Staff Reports Prepared for the Commission's 1989-90 Long-Range Planning Project. Report 90-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    This report contains six papers prepared for the California State Postsecondary Education Commission as part of the Commission's long-range planning responsibilities during 89-90 and as background for the Commission's January 1990 report, "Higher Education at the Crossroads. Planning for the Twenty-First Century." The first paper explains the

  14. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Cuadra, Santiago V.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Ferraz, Simone E. T.

    2010-11-01

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5N-15S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4C and in winter between 3 and 5C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of model runs for some regions, as the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador, northern Argentina, Eastern Amazonia and Northeast Brazil, whereas for other regions they are less robust as in Pantanal region of West Central and southeastern Brazil.

  15. Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) projected twenty-first century warming over Southern Africa: Role of Local Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shongwe, Mxolisi; Ntsangwane, Lucky

    2014-05-01

    The warming rates projected by an ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparion Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models (GCMs) over southern Africa (south of 10 degrees latitude) are investigated. The low resolution GCMs forced by four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) have been interpolated to a common resolution using a bilinear interpolation scheme. Warming is defined in terms of absolute differences in annual-mean near-surface air temperatures between two twenty-year time slices (2046-2065 and 2081-2100) and the historical period 1986-2005. In all RCPs, CMIP5 models project a higher warming rate over the southwestern parts centred around the arid Kalahari and Namib deserts and extending towards northern South Africa, eastern Namibia, western Botswana and southern Angola. The higher warming rates over these areas outpace global warming by up to a factor 2 in some GCMs. The projected warming is associated with an increase in heat waves. There is notable consensus across the models with little intermodel spread, suggesting a strong robustness of the projections. The spatial pattern and magnitude of the projected temperature increase relative to global warming is quite similar across the two selected time slices in the twenty-first century. Mechanisms underlying the enhanced warming are investigated. A positive soil moisture-temperature feedback is suggested to contribute to the accelerated temperature increase. A decrease in soil moisture is projected by the GCMs over the area of highest warming. The reduction in soil wetness reduces evapotranspiration rates over the area where evaporation is dependent on available soil moisture. The reduction is evapotranspiration affects the partitioning of turbulent energy fluxes from the soil surface into the atmosphere and translates into an increase of the Bowen ratio featuring an increase in sensible relative to latent heat flux. An increase in sensible heat flux leads to an increase in near-surface temperature. The increase in temperature leads to a higher vapour pressure deficit and evaporative demand and evapotranspiration from the dry soils, possibly leading to a further decrease in soil moisture. A precipitation-soil moisture feedback is also suggested. A decrease in mean precipitation and an increase in drought conditions are projected over the area of enhanced warming. The reduced precipitation results in drier soils. The drier soil translates to reduced evapotranspiration for cloud and rainfall formation. However, the role played by the soil moisture-precipitation feedback loop is still inconclusive and characterized by some degree of uncertainty given that the strength of the local moisture recycling has not been explicitly quantified. An alternative mechanism involving the impact of soil moisture anomalies on boundary-layer stability and precipitation formation will be investigated.

  16. Bridging the climate-induced water gap in the twenty-first century: adaptation support based on water supply, demand, adaptation and financing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jarus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Vitolo, Claudia; Schmitz, Oliver; Meijer, Karen; Van Aalst, Maaike; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity affects large parts of the world. Over the course of the twenty-first century, water demand is likely to increase due to population growth and associated food production, and increased economic activity, while water supply is projected to decrease in many regions due to climate change. Despite recent studies that analyze the effect of climate change on water scarcity, e.g. using climate projections under representative concentration pathways (RCP) of the fifth assessment report of the IPCC (AR5), decision support for closing the water gap between now and 2100 does not exist at a meaningful scale and with a global coverage. In this study, we aimed (i) to assess the joint impact of climatic and socio-economic change on water scarcity, (ii) to integrate impact and potential adaptation in one workflow, (iii) to prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity based on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) to deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. To enable the combination of global coverage with local relevance, we aggregated all results for 1604 water provinces (food producing units) delineated in this study, which is five times smaller than previous food producing units. Water supply was computed using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological and water resources model, parameterized at 5 arcminutes for the whole globe, excluding Antarctica and Greenland. We ran PCR-GLOBWB with a daily forcing derived from five different GCM models from the CMIP5 (GFDL-ESM2M, Hadgem2-ES, IPSL-CMA5-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) that were bias corrected using observation-based WATCH data between 1960-1999. For each of the models all four RCPs (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) were run, producing the ensemble of 20 future projections. The blue water supply was aggregated per month and per water province. Industrial, domestic and irrigation water demands were computed for a limited number of realistic combinations of a shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and RCPs. Our Water And Climate Adaptation Model (WatCAM) was used to compute the water gap based on reservoir capacity, water supply, and water demand. WatCam is based on the existing ModSim (Labadie, 2010) water allocation model, and facilitated the evaluation of nine technological and infrastructural adaptation measures to assess the investments needed to bridge the future water gap. Regional environmental and socio-economic effects of these investments, such as environmental flows or downstream effects, were evaluated. A scheme was developed to evaluate the strategies on robustness and flexibility under climate change and scenario uncertainty, and each measure was linked to possibilities for investment and financing mechanisms. The WatCAM is available as a web modeling service from www.water2invest.com, and enables user specified adaptation measures and the creation of an ensemble of water gap forecasts.

  17. Global Cropland Area Database (GCAD) derived from Remote Sensing in Support of Food Security in the Twenty-first Century: Current Achievements and Future Possibilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Xiong, Jun N.; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Giri, Chandra; Milesi, Cristina; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Congalton, Russ; Tilton, James; Sankey, Temuulen Tsagaan; Massey, Richard; Phalke, Aparna; Yadav, Kamini

    2015-01-01

    The precise estimation of the global agricultural cropland- extents, areas, geographic locations, crop types, cropping intensities, and their watering methods (irrigated or rainfed; type of irrigation) provides a critical scientific basis for the development of water and food security policies (Thenkabail et al., 2012, 2011, 2010). By year 2100, the global human population is expected to grow to 10.4 billion under median fertility variants or higher under constant or higher fertility variants (Table 1) with over three quarters living in developing countries, in regions that already lack the capacity to produce enough food. With current agricultural practices, the increased demand for food and nutrition would require in about 2 billion hectares of additional cropland, about twice the equivalent to the land area of the United States, and lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas productions (Tillman et al., 2011). For example, during 1960-2010 world population more than doubled from 3 billion to 7 billion. The nutritional demand of the population also grew swiftly during this period from an average of about 2000 calories per day per person in 1960 to nearly 3000 calories per day per person in 2010. The food demand of increased population along with increased nutritional demand during this period (1960-2010) was met by the “green revolution” which more than tripled the food production; even though croplands decreased from about 0.43 ha/capita to 0.26 ha/capita (FAO, 2009). The increase in food production during the green revolution was the result of factors such as: (a) expansion in irrigated areas which increased from 130 Mha in 1960s to 278.4 Mha in year 2000 (Siebert et al., 2006) or 399 Mha when you do not consider cropping intensity (Thenkabail et al., 2009a, 2009b, 2009c) or 467 Mha when you consider cropping intensity (Thenkabail et al., 2009a; Thenkabail et al., 2009c); (b) increase in yield and per capita food production (e.g., cereal production from 280 kg/person to 380 kg/person and meat from 22 kg/person to 34 kg/person (McIntyre, 2008); (c) new cultivar types (e.g., hybrid varieties of wheat and rice, biotechnology); and (d) modern agronomic and crop management practices (e.g., fertilizers, herbicide, pesticide applications). However, some of the factors that lead to the green revolution have stressed the environment to limits leading to salinization and decreasing water quality. For example, from 1960 to 2000, the phosphorous use doubled from 10 million tons to 20 MT, pesticide use tripled from near zero to 3 MT, and nitrogen use as fertilizer increased to a staggering 80 MT from just 10 MT (Foley et al., 2007; Khan and Hanjra, 2008). Further, diversion of croplands to bio-fuels is already taking water away from food production; the economics, carbon sequestration, environmental, and food security impacts of biofuel production are net negative (Lal and Pimentel, 2009), leaving us with a carbon debt (Gibbs et al., 2008; Searchinger et al., 2008). Climate models predict that in most regions of the world the hottest seasons on record will become the norm by the end of the century-an outcome that bodes ill for feeding the world (Kumar and Singh, 2005). Also, crop yield increases of the green revolution era have now stagnated (Hossain et al., 2005). Thereby, further increase in food production through increase in cropland areas and\\or increased allocations of water for croplands are widely considered unsustainable and\\or infeasible. Indeed, cropland areas have even begun to decrease in many 3 parts of the World due to factors such as urbanization, industrialization, and salinization. Furthermore, ecological and environmental imperatives such as biodiversity conservation and atmospheric carbon sequestration have put a cap on the possible expansion of cropland areas to other lands such as forests and rangelands. Other important factors limit food security. These include factors such as diversion of croplands to biofuels (Bindraban et al., 2009), limited water resources for irrigation expansion (Turral et al., 2009), limits on agricultural intensifications, loss of croplands to urbanization (Khan and Hanjra, 2008), increasing meat consumption (and associated demands on land and water) (Vinnari and Tapio, 2009), environmental infeasibility for cropland expansion (Gordon et al., 2009), and changing climate have all put pressure on our continued ability to sustain global food security in the twenty-first century. So, how does the World continue to meet its food and nutrition needs?. Solutions may come from bio-technology and precision farming, however developments in these fields are not currently moving at rates that will ensure global food security over next few decades. Further, there is a need for careful consideration of possible harmful effects of bio-technology. We should not be looking back 30– 50 years from now, like we have been looking back now at many mistakes made during the green revolution. During the green revolution the focus was only on getting more yield per unit area. Little thought was put about serious damage done to our natural environments, water resources, and human health as a result of detrimental factors such as uncontrolled use of herbicides-pesticides-nutrients, drastic groundwater mining, and salinization of fertile soils due to over irrigation. Currently, there is talk of a “second green revolution” or even an “ever green revolution”, but clear ideas on what these terms actually mean are still debated and are evolving. One of the biggest issues that are not given adequate focus is the use of large quantities of water for food production. Indeed, an overwhelming proportion (60-90%) of all human water use in India goes for producing their food (Falkenmark, M., & Rockström, 2006). But such intensive water use for food production is no longer tenable due to increasing pressure for water use alternatives such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, environmental flows, bio-fuels, and recreation. This has brought into sharp focus the need to grow more food per drop of water leading to a “blue revolution”

  18. Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (UseIT): Preparing Students for the Twenty-First Century Work Force via a Multidisciplinary and Collaborative Learning Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degroot, R. M.; Jordan, T. H.; Benthien, M. L.; Ihrig, M.; Berti, R.

    2009-12-01

    UseIT is one of the three undergraduate research programs sponsored by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The program allows students to work in multi-disciplinary collaborative teams to tackle a scientific “Grand Challenge.” The topic varies each year but it always entails performing computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists, educators, and other target audiences. The program allows undergraduates to use the advanced tools of information technology to solve important problems in interdisciplinary earthquake research. Since the program began in 2002, 145 students have participated in UseIT. The program stresses problem solving and interdisciplinary cross training. A key aspect of the UseIT program is its flexible, yet structured, team approach. Students share their diverse skills and interests, creating a powerful synergy through this peer mentoring. The majority of UseIT interns have considerable computer science skill or aptitude, but successful UseIT interns have hailed from nearly three-dozen disciplines, all class levels, and all skill levels. Successful UseIT interns have in common a willingness to step outside their comfort zones and try new things. During the 2009 internship the focus of the program was to deliver SCEC Virtual Display of Objects (VDO) images and animations of faults and earthquake sequences to SCEC, the Earthquake Country Alliance, and other virtual organizations via a content management system that captures the metadata and guides the user. SCEC-VDO is the SCEC intern-developed visualization software that allows the user to see earthquake related phenomena in three and four dimensions. The 2009 Grand Challenge had special relevance for the interns because the products they created were used for The Great California ShakeOut. This talk will discuss lessons learned from this program, how it addresses the needs of the 21st century STEM work force, and highlights of the 2009 internship.

  19. Deweyan Darwinism for the Twenty-First Century: Toward an Educational Method for Critical Democratic Engagement in the Era of the Institute of Education Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer-Kelly, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Our society's preoccupation with making educational policy and practice "scientific" is attested to by the stated mission of the Institute of Education Sciences: "to provide rigorous evidence on which to ground education practice and policy." Early in the twentieth century, John Dewey also advocated for a vision of education guided by science, and…

  20. Deweyan Darwinism for the Twenty-First Century: Toward an Educational Method for Critical Democratic Engagement in the Era of the Institute of Education Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer-Kelly, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Our society's preoccupation with making educational policy and practice "scientific" is attested to by the stated mission of the Institute of Education Sciences: "to provide rigorous evidence on which to ground education practice and policy." Early in the twentieth century, John Dewey also advocated for a vision of education guided by science, and

  1. Christ-Centered, Diverse, and Academically Excellent: The Origins of a Possible Model for Christian Schooling in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, James

    2006-01-01

    During the last third of the twentieth century, Christian schooling in the United States was typically identified with the growing conservative, evangelical Protestant movement of that time period. After several United States Supreme Court cases had effectively secularized public schooling by the mid-1960s, the American educational landscape was

  2. [President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC) Review of the Information Technology for the Twenty-First Century Initiative and Its Implementation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coordination Office for Information Technology Research and Development, Arlington, VA.

    As a part of its ongoing mission, the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC) has completed an initial review of the Information Technology for the 21st Century (IT[squared]) initiative and its implementation plan put forward by the participating federal agencies. This letter conveys the initial conclusions of that review.

  3. Preparing Technicians for the Twenty-First Century in Agriculture, Agribusiness, and Natural Resources. Summary Report of a Conference (Columbus, Ohio, April 15-16, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokma, Arnold L., Ed.; Barrick, Kirby, Ed.

    This report contains summaries of various portions of a conference dealing with preparing technicians for various agricultural occupations as well as the texts of several papers presented at the conference. The keynote address, "Technology for the 21st Century" by John A. Conrads, is presented together with the following reaction panel papers:

  4. The Role, Organization and Financing of Higher Education. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Third Session Paris, France, January 12-15, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondel, Daniele

    This paper suggests that higher education will take on increasing importance in the development of economies and societies in the 21st century for three reasons: (1) cognitive resources are supplanting material resources as a development factor; (2) economies, swept along by innovations and technological advances, are becoming increasingly exigent…

  5. Qualities Required of Education Today To Meet Foreseeable Demands in the Twenty-first Century. International Symposium and Round Table Proceedings (Beijing, China, November 27-December 2, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This report contains proceedings of a United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) international symposium and round table. The main objective of the meeting was to debate long-term goals of education and its role in preparing young people to face the demands of the 21st century. Papers presented include: (1) "Young

  6. The Informal Reading-"Thinking" Inventory: Twenty-First-Century Assessment Formats for Discovering Reading and Writing Needs--and Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Ula; Manzo, Anthony V.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the Informal Reading-"Thinking" Inventory (IR-TI), an informal reading inventory built on an easily recognized legacy model that also branches out into new realms. The IR-TI provides tools for assessing reading the lines, reading between the lines, and reading beyond the lines. This is a 21st-century

  7. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity: how appropriate is Evans blue in the twenty-first century and what are the alternatives?

    PubMed

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld; Habgood, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late nineteenth-century. Their use in blood-brain barrier studies continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction of HRP in the mid twentieth-century was an important advance because its reaction product can be visualized at the electron microscopical level, but it also has limitations. Advantages and disadvantages of these markers will be discussed together with a critical evaluation of alternative approaches. There is no single marker suitable for all purposes. A combination of different sized, visualizable dextrans and radiolabeled molecules currently seems to be the most appropriate approach for qualitative and quantitative assessment of barrier integrity. PMID:26578854

  8. Faculty Work in Schools of Education: Rethinking Roles and Rewards for the Twenty-First Century. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G., Ed.

    This collection of papers points out problems and challenges that face schools, colleges, and departments of education as change agents try to reform them. After "Introduction: Reforming Schools, Colleges, and Departments of Education" (William G. Tierney), nine papers include: (1) "The Public Responsibility of Public Schools of Education"

  9. Aligning American Higher Education with a Twenty-First-Century Public Agenda. Examining the National Purposes of American Higher Education: A Leadership Approach to Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duderstadt, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Today higher education faces the challenge of reconsidering and realigning its public agenda to serve better an era in which educated people, the knowledge they produce, and the innovation and entrepreneurial skills they possess have become the keys to economic prosperity, national security, and social well-being. The imperatives of expanding

  10. Increasing Mississippi river discharge throughout the twenty-first century influenced by changes in climate, land use and atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, B.; Tian, H.; Ren, W.; Yang, J.; Yang, Q.; He, R.; Cai, W. J.; Lohrenz, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that changes in temperature and precipitation (hereafter climate change) would influence river discharge, but the relative importance of climate change, land use, and elevated atmospheric CO2 have not yet been fully investigated. Here we examined how river discharge in the Mississippi River basin in the 21st century might be influenced by these factors using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model driven by atmospheric CO2, downscaled GCMs climate and land use scenarios. Our results suggest that river discharge would be substantially enhanced (10.7-59.8%) by the 2090s compared to the recent decade (2000s), though large discrepancies exist among different climate, atmospheric CO2, and land use change scenarios. Our factorial analyses further indicate that the combined effects of land use change and human-induced atmospheric CO2 elevation on river discharge would outweigh climate change effect under the high emission scenario (A2) of Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. Our study offers the first attempt to project potential changes in river discharge in response to multiple future environmental changes. It demonstrates the importance of land use change and atmospheric CO2 concentrations in projecting future changes in hydrologic processes. The projected increase river discharge implies that riverine fluxes of carbon, nutrients and pesticide from the MRB to the coastal regions would increase in the future, and thus may influence the states of ocean acidification and hypoxia and deteriorate ocean water quality. Further efforts will also be needed to account for additional environmental factors (such as nitrogen deposition, tropospheric ozone pollution, dam construction, etc.) in projecting changes in the hydrological cycle.

  11. The politics of Piketty: what political science can learn from, and contribute to, the debate on Capital in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Hopkin, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Thomas Piketty's imposing volume has brought serious economics firmly into the mainstream of public debate on inequality, yet political science has been mostly absent from this debate. This article argues that political science has an essential contribution to make to this debate, and that Piketty's important and powerful book lacks a clear political theory. It develops this argument by first assessing and critiquing the changing nature of political science and its account of contemporary capitalism, and then suggesting how Piketty's thesis can be complemented, extended and challenged by focusing on the ways in which politics and collective action shape the economy and the distribution of income and wealth. Although Capital's principal message is that 'capital is back' and that without political interventions active political interventions will continue to grow, a political economy perspective would suggest another rather more fundamental critique: the very economic forces Piketty describes are embedded in institutional arrangements which can only be properly understood as political phenomena. In a sense capital itself - the central concept of the book - is almost meaningless without proper consideration of its political foundations. Even if the fact of capital accumulation may respond to an economic logic, the process is embedded in a very political logic. The examples of housing policy and the regulation, and failure to regulate, financial markets are used to illustrate these points. PMID:25516346

  12. Prosperity, Sustainable Employment and Social Justice: Challenges for the German Labor Market in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Möller, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of German labor market reforms on the competitiveness and performance of the German economy. The contribution starts with giving some background information on the rationale behind the reforms and stresses the specific structure of the German economy. We then describe the salient effects of the reforms for…

  13. Accelerators in our past, present, and future: A challenge to radiological protection in the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.H. |

    1993-09-01

    The foundations of many of the subdisciplines of radiological protection laid in accelerator laboratories began with the invention of accelerators. This paper suggests that the discipline of accelerator radiological protection has played and will continue play a more significant part in our lives than is generally recognized. A brief review of some existing uses of accelerators by society is given, and a few probable future uses are described. These future applications will result in the exposure of accelerator (or {open_quotes}mixed{close_quotes}) radiation fields to an increased population. Consequently, what are perceived to be the rather specialized concerns of today`s accelerator health physicists will -- by necessity -- become of general interest to all health physicists.

  14. Lifespan Engagement and the Question of Relevance: Challenges for Music Education Research in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David

    2008-01-01

    The scope of music education research has expanded significantly over the last 50 years. Nevertheless, many studies remain atomistic, with limited contexts for questions, methods, findings and implications. Such approaches may seek to validate instructional strategies within an established music education system, rather than developing a continuum…

  15. Public Service Broadcasting: The Challenges of the Twenty-first Century. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication No. 111.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dave; Raboy, Marc, Ed.

    This report presents a review of key research on public broadcasting and a synthesis of the actuality of public service broadcasting today in the face of increasing globalization, with case studies from 16 countries. Following the General Introduction (Pierre Juneau), the report is divided into two parts. Part 1--"Public Service Television in the

  16. Transformations in the Secondary School Library: Morphing To Meet the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlings, Mildred S.; Van Valkenburg, Julie J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how an independent college preparatory school library in Tennessee serving grades six through twelve has transformed its space to meet student needs. Discusses maximizing space for multipurpose use; changing library personnel duties to meet changing needs; increasing collaboration with teachers; and changes in the library collection.…

  17. Mental health of adolescents reared in institutional care in Turkey: challenges and hope in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Mnir, Kerim

    2010-02-01

    The objectives of the study are (i) to describe and compare the epidemiology of emotional/behavioral problems and associated risk/protective factors among nationally representative samples of institutionally reared and similarly aged community-based adolescents brought up in their natural homes by means of youth self-reports, caregiver/parent, and teacher informants; and (ii) to identify mental health service needs and utilization. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 2005 through April 2006 using an equal probability cluster sample of 11-18 year old adolescents in institutional care settings (N = 350; 163 males, 187 females) and results were compared with similarly aged community sample of youth living in their natural homes (N = 2,206). The Sociodemographic Information Form, Youth Self Report (YSR), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) by caregivers for institutional sample and parents for the community sample, and Teacher's Report Form (TRF) were used to obtain standardized data on demographic characteristics, emotional/behavioral problems, and risk/protective factors. The prevalence of problems behaviors by YSR, caregiver/parent CBCL, and TRF were: 47, 15.1, 20.5% for the institutional versus 10.1, 7.5 and, 9.5% for the community samples, respectively (p < 0.05). Youth self-reports were fourfold, and all informant reports were twofold higher for institutional versus community comparisons. Furthermore, institutional sample had consistently higher rates, not only of Externalizing, but Internalizing, Social Problems, Attention Problems, and Thought Problems, as well as discrete DSM-oriented scales, suggesting that labeling of institutional youth as simply aggressive and delinquent contributes to their further marginalization and does not comprehensively address their mental health needs. In terms of protective factors, we found that: perceived social support, high competency scores, supportive caregiving, getting along well with peers and relatives (positive relationships), and problem solving skills were significantly protective of mental health. On the other hand fatalistic beliefs, cigarette and alcohol use were significantly associated with increased risk for problem behaviors (p < 0.05). The primary reason for institutional placement was family disruption (68.9%), poverty (15.7%), abandonment (8.4%), and physical or sexual abuse (5.4%). Only 31.2% of the youth were in fact true orphans (loss of one or both parents). It is therefore remarkable that in terms of service use, despite consistently high prevalence of problem behaviors across all informant sources, only 2.4% of the youth had received any speciality mental health services during institutional care. In conclusion, there is a pressing need to transform the social and health care policy and to provide family and community-based alternatives for youth currently in institutional care in Turkey. Before this goal is achieved, it is necessary to address their mental health needs urgently and comprehensively. The highest rates of problems by youth self-report also support the view that the youths' own voices ought to be heard and need to inform the reform process regarding their future care. PMID:19644732

  18. Twenty-First-Century Adolescents, Writing, and New Media: Meeting the Challenge with Game Controllers and Laptops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Hannah R.; Price, Debra P.

    2011-01-01

    Today's youth come to the English language arts class with a diverse range of ideas and experiences that give them the ability to develop and blossom into proficient and talented writers for multiple audiences; constant engagement with new media and digital literacies provides them multiple opportunities and multiple channels through which to

  19. Prosperity, Sustainable Employment and Social Justice: Challenges for the German Labor Market in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mller, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of German labor market reforms on the competitiveness and performance of the German economy. The contribution starts with giving some background information on the rationale behind the reforms and stresses the specific structure of the German economy. We then describe the salient effects of the reforms for

  20. Lifespan Engagement and the Question of Relevance: Challenges for Music Education Research in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David

    2008-01-01

    The scope of music education research has expanded significantly over the last 50 years. Nevertheless, many studies remain atomistic, with limited contexts for questions, methods, findings and implications. Such approaches may seek to validate instructional strategies within an established music education system, rather than developing a continuum

  1. Twenty-first century mast cell stabilizers

    PubMed Central

    Finn, D F; Walsh, J J

    2013-01-01

    Mast cell stabilizing drugs inhibit the release of allergic mediators from mast cells and are used clinically to prevent allergic reactions to common allergens. Despite the relative success of the most commonly prescribed mast cell stabilizer, disodium cromoglycate, in use for the preventative treatment of bronchial asthma, allergic conjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis, there still remains an urgent need to design new substances that are less expensive and require less frequent dosing schedules. In this regard, recent developments towards the discovery of the next generation of mast cell stabilizing drugs has included studies on substances isolated from natural sources, biological, newly synthesized compounds and drugs licensed for other indications. The diversity of natural products evaluated range from simple phenols, alkaloids, terpenes to simple amino acids. While in some cases their precise mode of action remains unknown it has nevertheless sparked interest in the development of synthetic derivatives with improved pharmacological properties. Within the purely synthetic class of inhibitors, particular attention has been devoted to the inhibition of important signalling molecules including spleen TK and JAK3. The statin class of cholesterol-lowering drugs as well as nilotinib, a TK inhibitor, are just some examples of clinically used drugs that have been evaluated for their anti-allergic properties. Here, we examine each approach under investigation, summarize the test data generated and offer suggestions for further preclinical evaluation before their therapeutic potential can be realized. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Histamine Pharmacology Update. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-1 PMID:23441583

  2. Catalan in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urla, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    This special issue devoted to Catalonia--one of the most successful and longstanding language movements in Europe--gives a unique opportunity to understand some of the complex social dynamics engendered as language revival unfolds and to appreciate the value of in-depth interviewing, focus groups, and ethnographic work in making sometimes subtle…

  3. Education in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazear, Edward P., Ed.

    In this book, several Hoover Institution scholars search for the answers to failures in U.S. schools and examine the debate over what works and what does not work. Such widely debated topics as national examinations, accountability, performance, and school funding are discussed. The importance of education to both the individual and society as a

  4. Twenty-first century health care.

    PubMed

    Pearson, M

    1999-04-01

    A dynamic, proactive health-care environment is beckoning. Fueled by consumer-led awareness, digital television, the Internet and a preoccupation with preventative health maintenance, it will define a new genre of products. In a series of provocative statements, this visionary article explores what the future may hold for diagnostics and medical devices. PMID:10387620

  5. Catalan in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urla, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    This special issue devoted to Catalonia--one of the most successful and longstanding language movements in Europe--gives a unique opportunity to understand some of the complex social dynamics engendered as language revival unfolds and to appreciate the value of in-depth interviewing, focus groups, and ethnographic work in making sometimes subtle

  6. Molecular parasitology in the twenty first century

    PubMed Central

    Docampo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Protist parasites cause important human and animal diseases and because of their early divergence from other eukaryotes they possess structural and biochemical characteristics not found in other cells. The completion of the genome projects of most human protist parasites and the development of novel molecular tools for their study guarantee a rapid progress in understanding how they invade, modify, and survive within their hosts. The ultimate goal of these studies will be the identification of targets for the design of drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines. In addition, the accessibility of some of these parasites to multiple genetic manipulations have transformed them in model systems in cell and molecular biology studies that could lead to the understanding of basic biological processes, as well as their evolution and pathogenesis. Here we discuss the biochemical and molecular peculiarities of these parasites and the molecular tools available for their study. PMID:22023438

  7. The Twenty-First-Century Professoriate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plater, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Not long ago, most academic insiders felt confident in saying, "the faculty 'are' the university." The faculty may still be the university, but who are the faculty? From public community colleges to private research universities, America has created the most powerful machine for the development of human capital in the history of the world. Yet an

  8. Transportation in the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.T.

    1991-12-01

    New energy-efficient and environmentally-sound magnetically levitated (maglev) transportation systems are being developed that have the potential to supplement and extend the intercity portion of our transportation system, and to alleviate part of the commuter congestion on our highways. Prototype passenger-carrying maglev vehicles are now operating in Japan and Germany. The capabilities of these systems, described in science fiction over two decades ago, are no longer speculative. They will be capable of transporting 100--150 passengers per vehicles or 1500 passengers per train at speeds of 250--350 mph. While performing many of the same functions of short-haul aircraft, these electrically powered vehicles: do not emit pollutants along the route; use about 1/3 the energy per passenger mile of modern aircraft; do not contact the guideway and therefore minimize maintenance; are silent except for the noise of air passing over the body. This paper assesses current maglev technology. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Transportation in the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    New energy-efficient and environmentally-sound magnetically levitated (maglev) transportation systems are being developed that have the potential to supplement and extend the intercity portion of our transportation system, and to alleviate part of the commuter congestion on our highways. Prototype passenger-carrying maglev vehicles are now operating in Japan and Germany. The capabilities of these systems, described in science fiction over two decades ago, are no longer speculative. They will be capable of transporting 100--150 passengers per vehicles or 1500 passengers per train at speeds of 250--350 mph. While performing many of the same functions of short-haul aircraft, these electrically powered vehicles: do not emit pollutants along the route; use about 1/3 the energy per passenger mile of modern aircraft; do not contact the guideway and therefore minimize maintenance; are silent except for the noise of air passing over the body. This paper assesses current maglev technology. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Educating for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaley, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    In his first inaugural speech, President Obama declared that "our schools fail too many" and an essential component of laying "a new foundation for growth" will be "to transform our schools and colleges and universities to meet the demands of a new age." Concerns about our nation's position in the global education race have led to a focus on

  11. A twenty first century approach to inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.K.

    1998-12-31

    Over the past ten years, visual inspection tooling has changed dramatically. Driven by both the consumer and industrial vision markets, CCD technology is advancing in pace with computer technology. Just ten years ago, cameras were mostly tube type, very expensive, black and white and large in diameter. There were few practical inspection uses. Times have changed. High resolution images are now achievable through a 1 millimeter probe. Very high resolution cameras are available in 6 millimeter diameter. Advancements in robotic, remote positioning now allows one to access previously inaccessible locations. Visual recognition of deposits is now a reality. A recent trip to Mars is testimony to this. Visual inspection is becoming one of the most worthwhile, cost effective technologies for inspections in the world. Current visual technology, and the advancements to come, will save companies billions of dollars.

  12. The Redesign of Teacher Education for the Twenty-First Century. International Perspectives on the Preparation of Educational Personnel. Selected Papers from the Thirtieth Anniversary World Assembly of the International Council of Education for Teaching (Washington, DC, July 11-15, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yff, Joost, Ed.

    This volume is organized according to themes chosen for the 30th Annual World Assembly of the International Council on Education for Teaching (ICET). A keynote speech by Anne Flowers discussed "Teacher Education for the Twenty-First Century." The first theme, "The Redesign of Teacher Education," was discussed through presentations by Anne Flowers,…

  13. The Redesign of Teacher Education for the Twenty-First Century. International Perspectives on the Preparation of Educational Personnel. Selected Papers from the Thirtieth Anniversary World Assembly of the International Council of Education for Teaching (Washington, DC, July 11-15, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yff, Joost, Ed.

    This volume is organized according to themes chosen for the 30th Annual World Assembly of the International Council on Education for Teaching (ICET). A keynote speech by Anne Flowers discussed "Teacher Education for the Twenty-First Century." The first theme, "The Redesign of Teacher Education," was discussed through presentations by Anne Flowers,

  14. Governance in the Twenty-First-Century University: Approaches to Effective Leadership and Strategic Management. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayle, Dennis John; Tewarie, Bhoendradatt; White, A. Quinton, Jr.

    This volume explores approaches to effective leadership and strategic management in the 21st century university by considering the perceptions and attitudes of university leaders toward the institutional structures and organizational cultures from which universities are led and managed. The differences between treating universities as businesses…

  15. Young People's Health as a Challenge for Physical Education in Schools in the Twenty-First Century: The Case of Flanders (Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seghers, Jan; de Martelaer, Kristine; Cardon, Greet

    2009-01-01

    Background: A lack of physical activity (PA) and the occurrence of overweight and obesity among school-aged youth have become a major societal problem. Arising from the general concern about the future generations' health, schools have been found to be potentially important settings to promote positive health behaviour, since all pupils can be

  16. Preparing Adolescents for the Twenty-First Century. Challenges Facing Europe and the United States. Johann Jacobs Foundation Conference Series, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.; Hamburg, David A., Ed.

    This book contains 11 papers based on presentations at a 1994 conference held in Marbach, Germany, and a 1995 conference in Geneva, Switzerland, focusing on frontiers in the education of young adolescents in European countries and the United States. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Klaus J. Jacobs); "Meeting the Essential

  17. Education for All in Latin America in the Twenty-First Century: The Challenges of Jomtien. Development Discussion Paper No. 358.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Fernando M.

    A declaration for achieving universal basic education adopted by the World Conference on Education for All in Jomtien, Thailand, as it relates to Latin America is discussed in this paper. The document then offers an examination of educational expansion in Latin America, a discussion of disproportionate educational budget cuts, and an analysis of

  18. Young People's Health as a Challenge for Physical Education in Schools in the Twenty-First Century: The Case of Flanders (Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seghers, Jan; de Martelaer, Kristine; Cardon, Greet

    2009-01-01

    Background: A lack of physical activity (PA) and the occurrence of overweight and obesity among school-aged youth have become a major societal problem. Arising from the general concern about the future generations' health, schools have been found to be potentially important settings to promote positive health behaviour, since all pupils can be…

  19. Twenty-First Century Challenges. Proceedings of the Golden Anniversary Conference on Graduate Study in Adult Education (Columbus, Ohio, October 17-18, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, David L., Ed.

    This document contains eight papers presented at a conference held to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the graduate school of adult education at Ohio State University. After a foreword by David Boggs, the following papers are included: "Reflections on the Commission of Professors of Adult Education" (Burton Kreitlow);…

  20. University-Community Collaborations for the Twenty-First Century: Outreach Scholarship for Youth and Families. Michigan State University Series on Children, Youth, and Families, Vol. 4; Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 1119.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M., Ed.; Simon, Lou Anna K., Ed.

    The 22 essays and case studies in this book offer a theoretical and practical guide on outreach programs of colleges and universities. The chapters are: (1) "The New American Outreach University: Challenges and Options" (Richard M. Lerner, Lou Anna K. Simon); (2) "The Land-Grant Idea and the Evolving Outreach University" (James T. Bonnen); (3)

  1. Collection Development Challenges for the 21st Century Academic Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Susan

    2004-01-01

    In the down-sized academic library of the twenty-first century, many librarians with little or no formal collection development training or experience are being entrusted with large departmental budgets, occasionally without the collaboration of a department liaison. How do new librarians, or librarians new to a discipline, deal with this

  2. Teaching Thinking: An Agenda for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cathy, Ed.; Mangieri, John N., Ed.

    This book offers ideas and strategies for teaching thinking in schools. Sixteen chapters and a concluding discussion, each preceded by an introductory article, are written by experts recognized in their fields. The chapters include: (1) "Reading and Thinking with History and Science Text" (Isabel L. Beck and Janice A. Dole; (2) "Developing…

  3. Seminar in Critical Inquiry Twenty-first Century Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    LeMone, D. V.

    2002-02-25

    Critical Inquiry, has not only been successful in increasing university student retention rate but also in improving student academic performance beyond the initial year of transition into the University. The seminar course herein reviewed is a balanced combination of student personal and academic skill development combined with a solid background in modern nuclear systems. It is a valid premise to assume that entering students as well as stakeholders of the general public demonstrate equal levels of capability. Nuclear systems is designed to give a broad and basic knowledge of nuclear power, medical, industrial, research, and military systems (nuclear systems) in 20-25 hours.

  4. Urban Pedagogy: A Proposal for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The urban has been studied by students of geography, politics, aesthetics/culture, architects and politicians. Educational researchers in defining the urban as a field of research and practice have looked at schooling and its institutionalized role in cities. A wider discussion of the very character of urban experience and its relevance for

  5. A Library Communication Audit for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Mardi; Liedtka, Theresa; Bednar, Carol

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a case study relating to an internal communication audit conducted in a large academic library that assessed existing information channels during a period of organizational change in order to recommend improvements. A communications task force developed and administered a survey instrument and then analyzed data and reported

  6. Empowerment of Women through Education in Twenty First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.; Jabari, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to the impact of women's education in their empowerment. The development of women's education is discussed in this study. As women's education has become one of the key development objectives in the recent decades, the concept of empowerment has been tied to the range of activities…

  7. Schooling for Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Venezuela's Bolivarian Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Tom G.

    2010-01-01

    The global dominance of neoliberal policy prescriptions in recent decades has been well documented, with particular implications for educational systems. These include reduced public expenditure and provision, the promotion of individual (parental) choice, competition, increased user-pays and the privatisation of education. Against this

  8. Renewal: Remaking America's Schools for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwalwasser, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Harold Kwalwasser has put together a call to action for education reform that makes a clear case for what has to be done in order to educate all children to their full potential. He visited forty high-performing and transforming school districts, charters, parochial, and private schools to understand why they have succeeded where others have

  9. Sympathetic ophthalmia: to the twenty-first century and beyond

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sympathetic ophthalmia is a rare bilateral granulomatous inflammation that follows accidental or surgical insult to the uvea of one eye. Onset of sympathetic ophthalmia can be insidious or acute, with recurrent periods of exacerbation. Clinical presentation shows mutton-fat keratic precipitates, choroidal infiltrations, and Dalen-Fuchs nodules. Histopathology reveals diffuse or nodular granulomatous inflammation of the uvea. Prevention and treatment strategies for sympathetic ophthalmia are currently limited to two modalities, enucleation of the injured eye and immunosuppressive therapy, aimed at controlling inflammation. The etiology and pathophysiology of the disease is still unclear but is largely thought to be autoimmune in nature. Recent insight on the molecular pathology of the disease as well as developments in imaging technology have furthered both the understanding on the autoimmune process in sympathetic ophthalmia and the targeting of prevention and treatment strategies for the future. PMID:23724856

  10. Access Denied? Twenty-First-Century Technology in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Male, Trevor; Burden, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers how developments in technologies have transformed the kind of social interaction possible over the Internet, making it feasible to undertake discourse and dialogue without having to rely solely on text-based mediation. This represents a fundamental change to learning, shifting from passive acquisition of someone else's

  11. Science and Math Curricula in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsberry, Jeffrey; Lindsey, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Describes the mission and goals of the Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU) and its collaboration with Edison Community College (ECC). Topics discussed include information acquisition, integration of curriculum, undergraduate research, and assessment. (JRH)

  12. Strategic nutrition: a vision for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Temple, Norman J

    2016-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that poor nutrition plays a major role in the epidemic of various diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. There has also been much research regarding the role of related factors such as advertising and food prices. Many intervention studies have been carried out where attempts have been made to persuade people to modify their behaviour, such as by making dietary changes, in order to enhance health (health promotion). There has also been much debate on the potential of government policy as a tool for achieving these goals. Various proposals have been made, such as a tax on sugary drinks, the redirection of food subsidies and how the salt content of food can be reduced. However, the great majority of previous papers have considered only single aspects of the topics discussed here. The present paper reviews strategies for improving public health, both health promotion interventions and the use of government policy approaches. Topics discussed include providing advice for the general population and the design of food guides and food labels. This leads to the conclusion that we need an overall strategy that integrates this diverse body of information and formulates a comprehensive action plan. I propose the term 'strategic nutrition'. The implementation of this plan opens up a path to a major advance in public health. PMID:25638207

  13. Toward a University System for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Sheldon

    1994-01-01

    Solving many current urban problems requires reinventing the American university so it becomes a humanistic, morally inspired, civic institution with an inclination and ability to help America become just and fair for all. The article discusses educational reform similar to Benjamin Franklin's original plan for the University of Pennsylvania. (SM)

  14. The Twenty-First Century University: Some Reservations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasser, Henry

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that the university is in the process of transformation and that interpretations of data intended to show the features of this reinvented university are not completely satisfactory. Suggests that previously published views may be too optimistic and hierarchical, and that an egalitarian if pluralistic university structure and

  15. Deep Ecology: Educational Possibilities for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capra, Fritjof

    2013-01-01

    Fritjof Capra's two-part lecture presents the fundamentals of systems thinking and sustainability along with the power of an ecologically comprehensive theory to shape education to fit the needs of human development in relation to the environment. Dr. Capra aims for the big picture emphasizing that effective learning is a system embedded in the…

  16. Twenty-First Century Tools for Vocabulary Management and Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David; Yancey, Trish

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates how a Web-based information architecture can support sophisticated thesaurus management, authority control and indexing. Examines what resources are available to assist in normalizing Web terminology; methods and tools that can be used for normalizing terms across languages and disciplines; how terminology can assist in Web searching;

  17. Harnessing Information Technology in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles R.

    1995-01-01

    Advances in computing hardware and software, voice and electronic communications, electronic mail, and the information highway will affect the work environment for institutional researchers. In addition, as teaching, learning, and administrative processes are reengineered, the traditional analytical skills of these professionals will be useful in

  18. Aeronautical technologies for the twenty-first century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This study gives an overview of the future technologies in aeronautics. This collaborative effort relies upon the input of numerous experts from around the country. Specific issues covered include subsonic transport aircraft, high-speed civil transport aircraft short-haul aircraft, environmental issues, operational issues, aerodynamics, propulsion, materials and structures, avionics and control, and cognitive engineering. The appendices include bibliography, abbreviations and acronyms, and NASA fiscal year 1992 aeronautics funding (table) and participants. The forward states that over the last decade, foreign aircraft manufacturers have made significant inroads into the global aircraft market, to the detriment of U.S. interests. Recommendations are made to counter that trend.

  19. Teaching Thinking: An Agenda for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cathy, Ed.; Mangieri, John N., Ed.

    This book offers ideas and strategies for teaching thinking in schools. Sixteen chapters and a concluding discussion, each preceded by an introductory article, are written by experts recognized in their fields. The chapters include: (1) "Reading and Thinking with History and Science Text" (Isabel L. Beck and Janice A. Dole; (2) "Developing

  20. Mineral resources and consumption in the twenty-first century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, W. David; Singer, Donald A.; DeYoung, Jr., John H.

    2005-01-01

    Modern societies are highly dependent upon energy and mineral resources to produce and deliver the material goods and even the services of everyday life. Although societies' dependence upon fossil fuels is evident and understood by much of the population, few people are as well informed about their dependence upon a wide variety of nonfuel minerals. This ignorance may result from two interrelated conditions. First, in contrast to fossil fuels, few people directly use nonfuel minerals in recognizable forms because most use is as part of manufactured products. Second, the value of raw ($38 billion) and even processed ($397 billion) nonfuel minerals in the United States in 2002 was small relative to the value the industries that consume these materials contribute to the economy ($1,700 billion). That is, although nonfuel mineral inputs are indispensable to construction and to the manufacture of durable and even nondurable goods (USGS 2003), their value is modest compared with the value of the final products.

  1. Informal Learning: A Vision for the Twenty-First Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter; Ball, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    This article presents two responses on the publication of the government's consultation paper on informal adult learning. Ball writes that the publication should be welcomed, not as a friend, and certainly not as either a change in the weather or the climate, but as an opportunity to speak up for the importance of adult learning. This consultative…

  2. Integrative Studies: Teaching for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    The integrative studies model for classroom activities that the author proposes and illustrates in this article combines the chronological focus of traditional disciplines with the thematic orientation of an interdisciplinary approach. A theme or pattern acts as the vehicle for organization. Students are presented with a variety of information…

  3. Toward the Twenty-First Century: Students' Views on Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriweather, Suzanne; Karnes, Frances

    1989-01-01

    Students in a summer leadership training course responded to questions about aspects of leadership in the year 2000, including leader characteristics, leadership training, preparation for leadership, leadership roles, effects of technological advancement, environmental changes, lifestyles, parent roles, international relations and communications,

  4. Libraries and Information Technology: Towards the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Matthew; Retzlaff, Lothar

    1998-01-01

    The authors envisage a new future for libraries, one in which they assume a very proactive role, pushing, as well as pulling information back into the Web, in a manner similar to that in which a private electricity producer feeds back surplus power into the grid as well as taking electricity when needed. (Author)

  5. Is Low Fertility a Twenty-First-Century Demographic Crisis?*

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, S. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Nearly half of the world's population in 2000 lived in countries with fertility rates at or below replacement level, and nearly all countries will reach low fertility levels in the next two decades. Concerns about low fertility, fertility that is well below replacement, are widespread. But there are both persistent rationales for having children and institutional adjustments that can make the widespread intentions for two children attainable, even in increasingly individualistic and egalitarian societies. PMID:14686132

  6. Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia into the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jacqueline M. T.; Molak, Martyna; Black, Karen H.; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Travouillon, Kenny J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.

    2011-01-01

    The 13th Conference on Australasian Vertebrate Evolution Palaeontology and Systematics (CAVEPS) took place in Perth, Western Australia, from 27 to 30 April 2011. This biennial meeting was jointly hosted by Curtin University, the Western Australian Museum, Murdoch University and the University of Western Australia. Researchers from diverse disciplines addressed many aspects of vertebrate evolution, including functional morphology, phylogeny, ecology and extinctions. New additions to the fossil record were reported, especially from hitherto under-represented ages and clades. Yet, application of new techniques in palaeobiological analyses dominated, such as dental microwear and geochronology, and technological advances, including computed tomography and ancient biomolecules. This signals a shift towards increased emphasis in interpreting broader evolutionary patterns and processes. Nonetheless, further field exploration for new fossils and systematic descriptions will continue to shape our understanding of vertebrate evolution in this little-studied, but most unusual, part of the globe. PMID:21715395

  7. The Entrepreneurial University in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Burton Clark's 1998 monograph, "Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: Organizational Pathways of Transformation," has become seminal in the literature on entrepreneurialism in universities. In this paper I re-examine the validity of Clark's analysis through an interview study of one of his original entrepreneurial universities, namely Warwick

  8. United Kingdom: Skills Development for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, John; Cohen, Judith; Martin, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The Learning and Skills Development Agency (LSDA), together with the British Council, provides the leadership for the UNEVOC centre in the United Kingdom (UK). LSDA is a strategic national agency whose mission is to improve the quality of post-16 education and training in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It does this by conducting research to…

  9. Wisdom and Lifelong Learning in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trowbridge, Richard Hawley

    2007-01-01

    While research indicates that humans tend potentially to develop towards wisdom in later years, a review of mainly participant-determined groups and courses in 338 lifelong learning centers for older people shows little interest in wisdom or personal development activities. With the suggestion that this apparent lack of interest may be partially

  10. Clostridium difficile infection in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, Chandrabali

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming gram-positive bacillus, and the leading cause of antibiotic-associated nosocomial diarrhea and colitis in the industrialized world. With the emergence of a hypervirulent strain of C. difficile (BI/NAP1/027), the epidemiology of C. difficile infection has rapidly changed in the last decade. C. difficile infection, once thought to be an easy to treat bacterial infection, has evolved into an epidemic that is associated with a high rate of mortality, causing disease in patients thought to be low-risk. In this review, we discuss the changing face of C .difficile infection and the novel treatment and prevention strategies needed to halt this ever growing epidemic. PMID:26038491

  11. Electronic Survey Administration: Assessment in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Danny R.; Wygant, Steven A.; Brown, Bruce L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in electronic data collection have opened broad new possibilities for educational assessment. Potentially significant savings in time, money, and effort make Web-based and e-mail-based surveys more and more attractive as alternatives to mail surveys and face-to-face interviews. Yet, as with any major change, questions and obstacles…

  12. United Kingdom: Skills Development for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, John; Cohen, Judith; Martin, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The Learning and Skills Development Agency (LSDA), together with the British Council, provides the leadership for the UNEVOC centre in the United Kingdom (UK). LSDA is a strategic national agency whose mission is to improve the quality of post-16 education and training in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It does this by conducting research to

  13. Teaching Privacy in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edbrooke, Odette; Ambrose, Meg Leta

    2012-01-01

    What would Benjamin Franklin's Facebook page look like? Would he be "friends" with William Pierce, James Madison, or Alexander Hamilton? Would there have been a separate Facebook group for the framers of the Constitution, where they would have posted comments on the wall regarding the different stipulations that needed inclusion in the document?

  14. The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A.; Cape, J. Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J.; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N.; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F.; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

    2013-01-01

    Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr−1) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3−) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr−1 to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40–70 Tg N yr−1 to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr−1) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 102–103 years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced. PMID:23713126

  15. Why America's Disadvantaged Communities Need Twenty-First Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Blenda J.

    2006-01-01

    In most contemporary discussions about the achievement gap--between rich and poor students, and between Asian and white students on the one hand, and African American and Hispanic students on the other--the underlying assumption is that educational reform can eliminate it. Educational reform efforts, focused on testing and data-driven

  16. Schooling for Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Venezuela's Bolivarian Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Tom G.

    2010-01-01

    The global dominance of neoliberal policy prescriptions in recent decades has been well documented, with particular implications for educational systems. These include reduced public expenditure and provision, the promotion of individual (parental) choice, competition, increased user-pays and the privatisation of education. Against this…

  17. Formal Operations from a Twenty-First Century Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Deanna

    2008-01-01

    The author reflects on Piaget's 1972 article, "Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood," addressed to questions regarding what he alleged to be the final, most advanced level of cognition in his developmental stage theory--formal operations, as described in his 1958 volume coauthored with Inhelder, "The growth of logical thinking from

  18. Twenty-first century brain banking: at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Graeber, Manuel B

    2008-05-01

    Brain banks form an increasingly important resource for research. In view of declining autopsy rates, brain banks are also gaining importance for medical diagnostics, quality control and teaching. In the case of neurodegenerative diseases, brain banks have become drivers of discovery and are yielding invaluable taxonomic references for neuropathologists. This article provides comments on two recent landmark papers in the field (Bell JE et al. Acta Neuropathol 2008. doi:10.1007/s00401-008-0358-8; Vonsattel JP et al. Acta Neuropathol 2008. doi:10.1007/s00401-007-0311-9). Professionalisation of brain banking standards, ethical principles safeguarding the running of a brain bank and a proposed code of conduct for brain bank staff are outlined and discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the need to enable sustainability of the human brain tissue resource in the face of increased financial pressures on medical institutions and raised public expectations towards ethical human brain banking in a globalised economic environment. It is proposed that brain banks undergo rigorous international audit as a prerequisite for their registration with the relevant national neuropathological society. This promises to be an important safeguard so that proper standards can be assured when tissue is handed out to commercial companies. Honesty, accountability and complete transparency are mandatory to allow long-lasting success of the brain banking operation by guaranteeing that the best possible use is made of the tissue. Preferred access by private tissue users must be avoided and money must never be allowed to buy access to a brain bank. Since brain banks operate internationally, any mistake made may be felt around the globe and could endanger the public's willingness to donate brains for research. The much-needed increase in the number of control brain donations will only be achievable if broad-based support from the general public can be won and maintained. PMID:18347804

  19. Is Dance a Sport?: A Twenty-First-Century Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a new debate which has emerged for dancers. For many years dancers debated dance as art versus entertainment. This age-old debate still exists without a consensus, yet there is suddenly a new generation of dancers with a fresh debate. Legions of young performers are fervently proclaiming that their dance is actually a sport.…

  20. Capital in the twenty-first century: a critique.

    PubMed

    Soskice, David

    2014-12-01

    I set out and explain Piketty's model of the dynamics of capitalism based on two equations and the r?>?g inequality (his central contradiction of capitalism). I then take issue with Piketty's analysis of the rebuilding of inequality from the 1970s to the present on three grounds: First, his model is based on the (neo-classical) assumption that companies are essentially passive actors who invest the amount savers choose to accumulate at equilibrium output - leading to the counterintuitive result that companies respond to the secular fall in growth (and hence their product markets) from the 1970s on by increasing their investment relative to output; this does indeed imply increased inequality on Piketty's ? measure, the ratio of capital to output. I suggest a more realistic model in which businesses determine investment growth based on their expectations of output growth, with monetary policy bringing savings into line with business-determined investment; the implication of this model is that ? does not change at all. And in fact as other recent empirical work which I reference has noted, ? has not changed significantly over these recent decades. Hence Piketty's central analysis of the growth of contemporary inequality requires rethinking. Second, despite many references to the need for political economic analysis, Piketty's analysis of the growth of inequality in the period from the 1970s to the present is almost devoid of it, his explanatory framework being purely mathematical. I sketch what a political economic framework might look like during a period when politics was central to inequality. Third, inequality in fact rose on a variety of dimensions apart from ? (including poverty which Piketty virtually makes no reference to in this period), but it is unclear what might explain why inequality rose in these other dimensions. PMID:25516344

  1. Families and Elder Care in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookman, Ann; Kimbrel, Delia

    2011-01-01

    Although most Americans know that the U.S. population is aging, they are far less informed about the reality of providing elders with personal care, health care, and social support. Families--particularly women--have always been critical in providing elder care, but the entry of so many women into the paid labor force has made elder care…

  2. Deep Ecology: Educational Possibilities for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capra, Fritjof

    2003-01-01

    Presents fundamentals of systems thinking and sustainability within an ecological theory to shape education to the needs of human development in relation to the environment. Emphasizes that effective learning is a system embedded in the web of life, giving humans the ability to see the interconnectedness of the environment, community, and the…

  3. AIR QUALITY MODELING FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes recent and evolving advances in the science of numerical air quality simulation modeling. Emphasis is placed on new developments in particulate matter modeling and atmospheric chemistry, diagnostic modeling tools, and integrated modeling systems. New...

  4. Development Imperatives for the Twenty-First Century in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arikpo, Arikpo B.; Etor, Robert B.; Usang, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Development as a growth process is what every person, nation and state seeks from day to day. The issues of development and better welfare are generally important to the average man and woman, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Nigeria and other African countries need to instigate the principles and strategies that will bring about

  5. The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A; Cape, J Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

    2013-07-01

    Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr(-1)) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3(-)) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr(-1) to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40-70 Tg N yr(-1) to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr(-1)) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 10(2)-10(3) years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced. PMID:23713126

  6. Formal Operations from a Twenty-First Century Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Deanna

    2008-01-01

    The author reflects on Piaget's 1972 article, "Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood," addressed to questions regarding what he alleged to be the final, most advanced level of cognition in his developmental stage theory--formal operations, as described in his 1958 volume coauthored with Inhelder, "The growth of logical thinking from…

  7. Teaching Privacy in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edbrooke, Odette; Ambrose, Meg Leta

    2012-01-01

    What would Benjamin Franklin's Facebook page look like? Would he be "friends" with William Pierce, James Madison, or Alexander Hamilton? Would there have been a separate Facebook group for the framers of the Constitution, where they would have posted comments on the wall regarding the different stipulations that needed inclusion in the document?…

  8. Urban Pedagogy: A Proposal for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The urban has been studied by students of geography, politics, aesthetics/culture, architects and politicians. Educational researchers in defining the urban as a field of research and practice have looked at schooling and its institutionalized role in cities. A wider discussion of the very character of urban experience and its relevance for…

  9. Undergraduate surgical education for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, R W; Donnelly, M B; Young, B; Nash, P P; Witte, F M; Griffen, W O

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the problems associated with current undergraduate surgical education and discusses the requirements necessary for its improvement during the third and fourth years of medical school. It asserts that, coincident with the emphasis on faculty research and publication and expanded resident patient care duties, teaching, particularly medical student teaching, has assumed a very low priority. Third-year medical students are attached to surgical teams, where their education is haphazard and disorganized. Furthermore, because any teaching that occurs is teacher oriented rather than student centered, knowledge is accumulated passively and is not well retained. Traditional evaluation using shelf multiple choice examinations and ward ratings by residents and faculty may provide inaccurate assessments of the students' performance. The undergraduate surgical education program should be directed by a faculty member who has been grounded in educational techniques and research and supported by a department chairman committed to bettering the program. In the clerkship, medical students should be assigned to faculty rather than to services and should be presented problems that require solution. Students also should be provided with the resources to solve the problems and should be given sufficient time to solve them. Some operating room experience and bedside teaching should occur during the clerkship. A variety of evaluation and testing methods based on the learning objectives of the clerkship should be used. Third-year students should not be promoted until they have demonstrated their acquisition of appropriate knowledge and skills.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1466617

  10. A Humanities Class for the Twenty-first Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Sue; Wenk, John

    1997-01-01

    Describes two double-period humanities courses taught in the 10th and the 11th grades (based on the rigorous New York State Regents standards) that interweave literature, history, political philosophy, art, historical documents, and personal experience. Describes the 10th-grade course that includes Western civilization and the 11th-grade course…

  11. Cosmopolitan cities: the frontier in the twenty-first century?

    PubMed Central

    Sevincer, A. Timur; Kitayama, Shinobu; Varnum, Michael E. W.

    2015-01-01

    People with independent (vs. interdependent) social orientation place greater priority on personal success, autonomy, and novel experiences over maintaining ties to their communities of origin. Accordingly, an independent orientation should be linked to a motivational proclivity to move to places that offer economic opportunities, freedom, and diversity. Such places are cities that can be called “cosmopolitan.” In support of this hypothesis, Study 1 found that independently oriented young adults showed a preference to move to cosmopolitan rather than noncosmopolitan cities. Study 2 used a priming manipulation and demonstrated a causal impact of independence on residential preferences for cosmopolitan cities. Study 3 established ecological validity by showing that students who actually moved to a cosmopolitan city were more independent than those who either moved to a noncosmopolitan city or never moved. Taken together, the findings illuminate the role of cosmopolitan settlement in the contemporary cultural change toward independence and have implications for urban development and economic growth. PMID:26528195

  12. Deep Ecology: Educational Possibilities for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capra, Fritjof

    2003-01-01

    Presents fundamentals of systems thinking and sustainability within an ecological theory to shape education to the needs of human development in relation to the environment. Emphasizes that effective learning is a system embedded in the web of life, giving humans the ability to see the interconnectedness of the environment, community, and the

  13. Two-Generation Programs in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Most of the authors in this issue of "Future of Children" focus on a single strategy for helping both adults and children that could become a component of two-generation programs. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, on the other hand, look at actual programs with an explicit two-generation focus that have been tried in the…

  14. Space transportation for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, J. G.; Sandlin, A. C.; Clayton, J.

    The Congressional committees that authorize NASA funding requested that the National Research Council (NRC) assess future requirements for space transportation as well as the benefits, technological feasibility, and roles of various Earth-to-orbit transportation system options. The study, " From Earth to Orbit - An Assessment of Transportation Options," was completed by a blue ribbon panel March 1992. 1 Launch requirements considered include assembly and operation of Space Station Freedom, Mission to Planet Earth, human exploration of space, and the launch requirements of space science missions and experiments. Launch vehicles for national security purposes were factored in as well. Launch vehicle systems studied include existing and proposed expendable launch vehicles, the National Launch System, other potential followons to the Shuttle system, single-stage-to-orbit vehicles, and systems designed for very heavy lift. Past, present, and potential propulsion systems, as well as international propulsion systems were also investigated. This paper: 1) summarizes the principal conclusions of the NRC study, " From Earth to Orbit - An Assessment of Transportation Options," 2) includes several comments by the authors referring to the NRC report in hindsight, and 3) discusses the determination of future requirements for larger launch vehicles for Space Exploration Initiative applications (SEI).

  15. The Casualties of the Twenty-First-Century Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David McKay

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses academic freedom that is currently under threat at many public two-year schools, which serve almost one-half of the nation's first-year college students. The growing reliance on part-time faculty exacerbates the problem, with many adjuncts feeling muzzled for fear of losing their jobs. The problem of academic freedom at

  16. Access Denied? Twenty-First-Century Technology in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Male, Trevor; Burden, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers how developments in technologies have transformed the kind of social interaction possible over the Internet, making it feasible to undertake discourse and dialogue without having to rely solely on text-based mediation. This represents a fundamental change to learning, shifting from passive acquisition of someone else's…

  17. Water and Food in the Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marsily, Ghislain; Abarca-del-Rio, Rodrigo

    2015-09-01

    In 2000, the World population was 6.2 billion people; it reached 7 billion in 2012 and is expected to reach 9.5 billion (±0.4) in 2050 and 11 billion (±1.5) in 2100, according to the 2012 UN projections (Gerland et al. in Science 346:234-237, 2014). The trend after 2100 is still one of the global demographic growths, but after 2060, Africa is the only continent where the population would still increase. The amount of water consumed annually to produce the food necessary to meet the needs of the populations varies greatly between countries, from about 600 to 2500 m3/year per capita (Zimmer in L'empreinte eau. Les faces cachées d'une ressource vitale. Charles Léopold Meyer, Paris, 2013), depending on their wealth, their food habits, and the percentage of food waste they generate (on average, 30 % of the food produced is wasted). In 2000, the total food production was on the order of 3300 million tons (in cereal equivalents). In 2014, it is estimated that about 0.8 billion inhabitants of the planet suffer from hunger (FAO in World agriculture: towards 2030-2050. FAO, Rome, 2014. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/Y3557E/y3557e00.HTM) and do not get the nutrition they need to be in good health or, in the case of children, to grow properly (both physically and intellectually). This food deficit was on the order of 40 million tons of cereal equivalents in 2014. The number of inhabitants with a food deficit was about 0.85 billion before the 2008 crisis and was decreasing annually, but it increased abruptly after 2008 up to 1 billion inhabitants and is slowly decreasing now. Assuming a World average water consumption for food of 1300 m3/year per capita in 2000, 1400 m3/year in 2050, and 1500 m3/year in 2100, a volume of water of around 8200 km3/year was needed in 2000, 13,000 km3/year will be needed in 2050, and 16,500 km3/year in 2100 (Marsily in L'eau, un trésor en partage. Dunod, Paris, 2009). Can bioenergy be added to food production? Will that much water be available on Earth, and where will it come from? Is climate change going to modify the answers to these questions? Can severe droughts occur? Can there be conflicts related to a food deficit? Some preliminary answers and scenarios for food production will be given in this paper from a hydrologist's viewpoint.

  18. Is Dance a Sport?: A Twenty-First-Century Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a new debate which has emerged for dancers. For many years dancers debated dance as art versus entertainment. This age-old debate still exists without a consensus, yet there is suddenly a new generation of dancers with a fresh debate. Legions of young performers are fervently proclaiming that their dance is actually a sport.

  19. Nursing in the era of globalisation: challenges for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alcione Leite

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to reflect about issues related to the processes of globalization and the global impacts on health, pointing out some challenges for Nursing in the twenty-first century. In this sense, the author outlines the forms and trends of globalization in the contemporary world, and the drastic impacts on human health and environment. To respond to the challenges of the globalized world, some ways are indicated, among which, the strengthening of nursing discipline stands out, together with some guidelines for education, research and Nursing care, in a local and global scope. PMID:18833464

  20. TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL RREL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM - ABSTRACT PROCEEDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tho Twenty-first Annual Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) Research Symposium was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 4-7, 1995. he purpose of this Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed projects funded by the U...

  1. The Twenty-First NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Twenty-First NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held in Tampa, FL, April 26 through April 30, 1993. It provides some comprehensive general papers on the application of finite elements in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre-and postprocessing with other auxiliary programs and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

  2. Tin Oxide Chemistry from the Last Decade of the Nineteenth Century to the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century: Towards the Development of a Big-Picture Approach to the Teaching and Learning of Chemistry while Focussing on a Specific Compound or Class of Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Berg, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of the electron in 1897 deeply impacted the nature of chemistry in the twentieth century. A revolution in the theoretical structure of chemistry as well as in the instrumental tools used in chemical analysis occurred as a result of this discovery. The impact of this revolution on tin oxide chemistry over approximately a 100 year

  3. Tin Oxide Chemistry from the Last Decade of the Nineteenth Century to the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century: Towards the Development of a Big-Picture Approach to the Teaching and Learning of Chemistry while Focussing on a Specific Compound or Class of Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Berg, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of the electron in 1897 deeply impacted the nature of chemistry in the twentieth century. A revolution in the theoretical structure of chemistry as well as in the instrumental tools used in chemical analysis occurred as a result of this discovery. The impact of this revolution on tin oxide chemistry over approximately a 100 year…

  4. Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

  5. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  6. 76 FR 13799 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...In this document, the Commission proposes to adopt rules that implement provisions in section 104 of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (CVAA), the most significant piece of accessibility legislation since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990. This proceeding would update and amend the Commission's rules to ensure that individuals......

  7. Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these

  8. Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

  9. 21st Century Skills: The Challenges Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotherham, Andrew J.; Willingham, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The skills that students need for the 21st century are not really new, assert Rotherham and Willingham. Critical thinking, problem solving, information literacy, and global awareness have been important to human progress throughout history, at least among the elites in different societies. What is new is the extent to which individual and

  10. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  11. Poisson's ratio over two centuries: challenging hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, G. Neville

    2013-01-01

    This article explores Poisson's ratio, starting with the controversy concerning its magnitude and uniqueness in the context of the molecular and continuum hypotheses competing in the development of elasticity theory in the nineteenth century, moving on to its place in the development of materials science and engineering in the twentieth century, and concluding with its recent re-emergence as a universal metric for the mechanical performance of materials on any length scale. During these episodes France lost its scientific pre-eminence as paradigms switched from mathematical to observational, and accurate experiments became the prerequisite for scientific advance. The emergence of the engineering of metals followed, and subsequently the invention of composites—both somewhat separated from the discovery of quantum mechanics and crystallography, and illustrating the bifurcation of technology and science. Nowadays disciplines are reconnecting in the face of new scientific demands. During the past two centuries, though, the shape versus volume concept embedded in Poisson's ratio has remained invariant, but its application has exploded from its origins in describing the elastic response of solids and liquids, into areas such as materials with negative Poisson's ratio, brittleness, glass formation, and a re-evaluation of traditional materials. Moreover, the two contentious hypotheses have been reconciled in their complementarity within the hierarchical structure of materials and through computational modelling. PMID:24687094

  12. Poisson's ratio over two centuries: challenging hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Greaves, G Neville

    2013-03-20

    This article explores Poisson's ratio, starting with the controversy concerning its magnitude and uniqueness in the context of the molecular and continuum hypotheses competing in the development of elasticity theory in the nineteenth century, moving on to its place in the development of materials science and engineering in the twentieth century, and concluding with its recent re-emergence as a universal metric for the mechanical performance of materials on any length scale. During these episodes France lost its scientific pre-eminence as paradigms switched from mathematical to observational, and accurate experiments became the prerequisite for scientific advance. The emergence of the engineering of metals followed, and subsequently the invention of composites-both somewhat separated from the discovery of quantum mechanics and crystallography, and illustrating the bifurcation of technology and science. Nowadays disciplines are reconnecting in the face of new scientific demands. During the past two centuries, though, the shape versus volume concept embedded in Poisson's ratio has remained invariant, but its application has exploded from its origins in describing the elastic response of solids and liquids, into areas such as materials with negative Poisson's ratio, brittleness, glass formation, and a re-evaluation of traditional materials. Moreover, the two contentious hypotheses have been reconciled in their complementarity within the hierarchical structure of materials and through computational modelling. PMID:24687094

  13. Developing Creativity Ecosystems: Preparing College Students for Tomorrow's Innovation Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Eileen; Thomas, Ben; DeLaRosby, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Eileen Hulme, Ben Thomas, and Hal DeLaRosby argue for the importance of creativity as a learning outcome and challenge higher education to produce students capable of becoming the innovative leaders the twenty-first-century economy requires.

  14. Policy challenges for child welfare in the new century.

    PubMed

    McGowan, B G; Walsh, E M

    2000-01-01

    Recent changes in public policy reflect increased efforts to scapegoat poor women and children and to polarize the objectives of child protection and family preservation. This article challenges various stakeholders in the child welfare field to move beyond the quick-fix solutions and bureaucratic overregulation precipitated by horror stories of child abuse in the media. The new century presents an opportunity to pursue differential intervention strategies that protect children while empowering poor families and communities. PMID:10659389

  15. Up to the Challenge: The Role of Career and Technical Education and 21st Century Skills in College and Career Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights the demand for skills in the global economy and the ways in which educators can meet this demand by drawing on both career and technical education and the Partnership for 21st Century Skills' Framework for 21st Century Learning. Twenty-first century skills and career and technical education are essential in every state,

  16. Revisioning, Re-educating, Regenerating, and Recommitting Nursing for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Karren; Burton, Laurel; Rehwaldt, Maureen

    1997-01-01

    Nursing should commit to a vision of relationship-centered care that includes team building, participatory decision making, trustworthiness, self-esteem, low control needs, and openness to new knowledge. (SK)

  17. Complexity-Based Learning--An Alternative Learning Design for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Foo Seong David

    2014-01-01

    In programme delivery, while the international trend in education has seen a shift from teacher-centred to student-centred learning and from transmission to reflective approaches, most leadership programmes have remained heavily teacher-centred. A key feature of teacher-centred learning relies on practices of course-driven programmes. This feature…

  18. Researching Language-in-Education in Diverse, Twenty-First Century Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Jones, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The two opening sections of this Afterword show how the studies in this collection reflect wider trends in research related to language-in-education policy and practice in contemporary contexts of linguistic and cultural diversity: namely, the turn towards interpretive research and the diversification of research sites. The third section focuses

  19. From Crisis to Opportunity: French and Foreign Language Studies in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Samia I.

    2003-01-01

    In response to falling enrollments in French and a diminishing pool of high school teachers, faculty at Auburn University tried to turn the tide through a series of curricular and advocacy initiatives. They introduced new French majors in education and in international trade and a collaborative major with the Consumer Affairs Department in French

  20. Teaching the American Civil War in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugleston, William F.

    1998-01-01

    Observes that there is a paradox between public interest in history and the lack of interest expressed by many college students. Discusses problems related to teaching the history of the American Civil War and proposes four approaches that teachers can use to make the Civil War relevant to contemporary events. (DSK)

  1. The Laboratory in Science Education: Foundations for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstein, Avi; Lunetta, Vincent N.

    2004-01-01

    The laboratory has been given a central and distinctive role in science education, and science educators have suggested that rich benefits in learning accrue from using laboratory activities. Twenty years have been elapsed since we published a frequently cited, critical review of the research on the school science laboratory (Hofstein & Lunetta,

  2. Preparing the Social Studies Teacher for the Mid Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follo, Eric

    2000-01-01

    Forecasts what the social studies will be like in the year 2050 A.D. Discusses issues such as the nature of school, the teaching of religion and morality, the type of knowledge taught, and characteristics and preparation of social studies teachers. (CMK)

  3. Engaging the Creative Arts to Meet the Needs of Twenty-First-Century Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Nagel, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    As we navigate through a new form of economic era where science, technology, knowledge and services will replace consumer goods as drivers of growth, and the workplace will increasingly value creative abilities, there appears a need for an educational paradigm shift. However, within an Australian context of increasing school accountability, a…

  4. Training in the Twenty-First Century: Where Do We Go from Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spikes, W. Franklin, III

    Seven trends are emerging in the corporate training and development sector of human resource development (HRD). First, there is an increasing corporate commitment for training. Employers are viewing training today as an essential element in their competitive business strategies. Second, customer service training is becoming the competitive weapon…

  5. Aging and Lifelong Disabilities: Partnership for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansello, Edward F.; Rose, Thomas

    This document contains presentations from the Wingspread Conference, a conference held in June 1987 to examine issues posed by the increasing longevity of older Americans with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. An executive summary and the following papers are included: (1) "Aging and Lifelong Disabilities: Problems and Prospects"

  6. Creating a vision for the twenty-first century healthcare organization.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, A M

    2000-01-01

    Management approaches used by healthcare organizations have often lagged behind other businesses in more competitive industries. Companies operating in such dynamic environments have found that to cope with the rapid pace of change they must have an articulated understanding of their organization's capabilities and consensus on where the organization is headed based on predictions about the future operating environment. This statement of identity and strategic direction takes the form of a vision statement that serves as the compass for the organization's decisions for a five- to ten-year period. This article discusses the importance of vision statements in tomorrow's healthcare organizations, presents an overview of future scenarios that may provide context for organizational visions, and suggests a process for developing a vision statement. A case study is presented to illustrate how a vision statement is created. Following the guidelines presented in this article and reviewing the case study should assist healthcare executives and their boards in crafting better visions of their organizations' futures, developing more effective strategies to realize these visions, and adapting to more frequent and more significant change. PMID:11067422

  7. Student Workers: Essential Partners in the Twenty-First Century Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Firouzeh

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a case study that best illustrates the value of student workers in university libraries, focusing particularly on how this kind of creative endeavor benefits everyone involved--the library, the students, the faculty, and at the end of the project: the university community. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. Empowering Twenty-First Century Assessment Practices: Designing Technologies as Agents of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Deb; Crichton, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The overarching questions guiding this interprofessional design-based research study are: (1) How might a suite of assessment tools help K-7 educators visualize learning in their classrooms and (2) How might these visualization approaches inform K-7 educators' changes in classroom assessment? Recognized by their administrators as having

  9. The Art of Negotiation: What the Twenty-First Century Business Student Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClendon, Bill; Burke, Debra D.; Willey, Lorrie

    2010-01-01

    Negotiation skills are vital for concluding international treaties on subjects ranging from arms agreements, and rights in outer space to trade agreements. Yet the importance of being able to negotiate effectively is not limited to international treaties or crises situations. Using negotiation exercises represents a student-centered approach to…

  10. The Public School Superintendency in the Twenty-First Century: The Quest To Define Effective Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet Y.

    This study examines research on public school leadership effectiveness, focusing specifically on the superintendent. It begins with a discussion of the historical mission to define leadership effectiveness, followed by a review of existing research on effective school districts and superintendents. The report also analyzes how superintendent…

  11. Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, K A; Coad, L; Taylor, G; Lee, M E; Maisels, F

    2013-01-01

    Humans have hunted wildlife in Central Africa for millennia. Today, however, many species are being rapidly extirpated and sanctuaries for wildlife are dwindling. Almost all Central Africa's forests are now accessible to hunters. Drastic declines of large mammals have been caused in the past 20 years by the commercial trade for meat or ivory. We review a growing body of empirical data which shows that trophic webs are significantly disrupted in the region, with knock-on effects for other ecological functions, including seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Plausible scenarios for land-use change indicate that increasing extraction pressure on Central African forests is likely to usher in new worker populations and to intensify the hunting impacts and trophic cascade disruption already in progress, unless serious efforts are made for hunting regulation. The profound ecological changes initiated by hunting will not mitigate and may even exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change for the region. We hypothesize that, in the near future, the trophic changes brought about by hunting will have a larger and more rapid impact on Central African rainforest structure and function than the direct impacts of climate change on the vegetation. Immediate hunting regulation is vital for the survival of the Central African rainforest ecosystem. PMID:23878333

  12. Competing Views of Embryos for the Twenty-First Century: Textbooks and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maienschein, Jane; Wellner, Karen

    2013-01-01

    It might seem that an embryo is an embryo, and that there would be a fact of the matter. That seems especially true with respect to the way embryos are presented in textbooks, including high school biology textbooks. This paper looks at three co-existing, competing, and often conflicting views of embryos. Then with a close study of twentieth

  13. STEM education: A deficit framework for the twenty first century? A sociocultural socioscientific response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Dana L.

    2014-06-01

    The ubiquitous of STEM education initiatives in recent years has created a bandwagon that has moved at nearly light speed. The impulse of the science education community and policy-makers is to grab hold for dear life or be marginalized from subsequent discussions about the necessity and consequences of using STEM initiatives to prepare and inform our next generation of citizens. This commentary questions the prudence of STEM-related science education goals, as typically represented and discussed in the literature, and likens the current practice to a deficit framework. A sociocultural perspective framed through socioscientific considerations is offered as an alternative conceptualization as well as surplus model to hegemonic STEM practices.

  14. Amphibian declines in the twenty-first century: why we need assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Clulow, John; Trudeau, Vance L; Kouba, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Each amphibian species is evolutionarily distinct, having developed highly specialized and diverse reproductive strategies in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. These unique reproductive patterns and mechanisms, key to species propagation, have only been explored in a limited number of laboratory models. Although the development of applied reproductive technologies for amphibians has proven useful for a few threatened species, the real benefit of this technology has been new insights into the reproductive adaptations, behavior, endocrinology, and physiological mechanisms that have evolved over millions of years. As the basic fundamental database on amphibian reproductive physiology has grown, so has the applied benefit for species conservation. In particular, technologies such as non-invasive fecal and urinary hormone assays, hormone treatments for induced breeding or gamete collection, in vitro fertilization, and the ability to establish genome resource banks have all played important roles in monitoring or managing small populations of captive species. Amphibians have the ability to produce a large excess of germplasm (up to 10,000 ovulated eggs in a single reproductive event) that if not collected and preserved, would represent a wasted valuable resource. We discuss the current state of knowledge in assisted reproductive technologies for amphibians and why their extinction crisis means these available tools can no longer be implemented as small-scale, last-ditch efforts. The reproductive technologies must be established early as a key component of large-scale species recovery. PMID:25091914

  15. A Painter's View of the Cosmos In the Twenty-first Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cro-Ken, K.

    2016-01-01

    I am an ecosystem artist who uses paint to bring nature's “invisible forces” into view. My eco-sensitive palette recreates the push-pull forces that shape and mold all things. As a result, I create microscopic and telescopic views of earth and places scattered throughout our universe. Self-similarity led me to realize that if I want my mind to wonder into the far reaches of the universe, I must draw closer to nature. I show how space looks and appears and, more importantly, how it moves. My speed element palette is a portal through which I peer into the universe at scales great and small using paint as my lens. Microscopes, telescopes, the Internet, and even eyeglasses are portals through which technology affords us the ability to see that which is unseen to the unaided eye. Rather than see the world and then paint, the opposite is true for me. My work is revelatory, not representational and, as such, seeks similar occurrences in nature. Just as a planet's surface is a visual record of past events, so too do speed element experiments reveal traces of the past. It would be more accurate to call a painting that comes to rest a “painted.” It is video that captures images that eluded capture by the canvas and could more accurately be called a “painting. ” Simply put, I manipulate space, time, and matter—and the matter is never just paint.

  16. The Professional Status of Educational Research: Professionalism and Developmentalism in Twenty-First-Century Working Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda

    2013-01-01

    "How helpful and how necessary is it for at least some of us to see ourselves as professional educational researchers?" asked Donald McIntyre in his 1996 presidential address to the British Educational Research Association. Still pertinent to consideration of the direction in which the British educational research community ought to…

  17. Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century: Radon, smoking and lung cancer risks

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-04-01

    This document describes the relationship between indoor radon exposure, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. The author explains the sources of radon, the tissues at risk, the human populations most likely to be affected, and the estimates of lung cancer in the population. 6 refs., 2 tabs. (TEM)

  18. How to Use Pragmatism Pragmatically? Suggestions for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert J. J.

    2009-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to indicate how one should understand John Dewey's attention to and appreciation for the methods and views of modern science. Against the idea that Dewey is a believer in the methods and views of modern science--which would make his philosophy into a form of positivism or scientism--the author argues that Dewey's

  19. The epidemiology of firearm violence in the twenty-first century United States.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2015-03-18

    This brief review summarizes the basic epidemiology of firearm violence, a large and costly public health problem in the United States for which the mortality rate has remained unchanged for more than a decade. It presents findings for the present in light of recent trends. Risk for firearm violence varies substantially across demographic subsets of the population and between states in patterns that are quite different for suicide and homicide. Suicide is far more common than homicide and its rate is increasing; the homicide rate is decreasing. As with other important health problems, most cases of fatal firearm violence arise from large but low-risk subsets of the population; risk and burden of illness are not distributed symmetrically. Compared with other industrialized nations, the United States has uniquely high mortality rates from firearm violence. PMID:25533263

  20. Complexity-Based Learning--An Alternative Learning Design for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Foo Seong David

    2014-01-01

    In programme delivery, while the international trend in education has seen a shift from teacher-centred to student-centred learning and from transmission to reflective approaches, most leadership programmes have remained heavily teacher-centred. A key feature of teacher-centred learning relies on practices of course-driven programmes. This feature

  1. Desiderata for Controlled Medical Vocabularies in the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James.J.

    2012-01-01

    Builders of medical informatics applications need controlled medical vocabularies to support their applications and it is to their advantage to use available standards. In order to do so, however, these standards need to address the requirements of their intended users. Over the past decade, medical informatics researchers have begun to articulate some of these requirements. This paper brings together some of the common themes which have been described, including: vocabulary content, concept orientation, concept permanence, nonsemantic concept identifiers, poly-hierarchy, formal definitions, rejection of not elsewhere classified terms, multiple granularities, multiple consistent views, context representation, graceful evolution, and recognized redundancy. Standards developers are beginning to recognize and address these desiderata and adapt their offerings to meet them. PMID:9865037

  2. Engaging the Creative Arts to Meet the Needs of Twenty-First-Century Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Nagel, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    As we navigate through a new form of economic era where science, technology, knowledge and services will replace consumer goods as drivers of growth, and the workplace will increasingly value creative abilities, there appears a need for an educational paradigm shift. However, within an Australian context of increasing school accountability, a

  3. Promoting Gender Equality at Work: Turning Vision into Reality for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Date-Bah, Eugenia, Ed.

    This document contains papers in which 12 experienced gender specialists examine the various developments and elements affecting women's participation as equal players in the workplace and propose actions and policies promoting sex equity in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Preface" (Mary Chinery-Hesse); "Introduction " (Eugenia…

  4. From Crisis to Opportunity: French and Foreign Language Studies in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Samia I.

    2003-01-01

    In response to falling enrollments in French and a diminishing pool of high school teachers, faculty at Auburn University tried to turn the tide through a series of curricular and advocacy initiatives. They introduced new French majors in education and in international trade and a collaborative major with the Consumer Affairs Department in French…

  5. Why American Business Demands Twenty-First Century Skills: An Industry Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruett, Karen

    2006-01-01

    A solid global strategy must be part of every organization's DNA. For Dell, this means expanding into new countries where it can use its direct model to provide value to customers and create more productive, healthier communities. It also means hiring employees who think and act globally and have a commitment to learn how to work with cultures

  6. Global Learning as General Education for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Jacqueline C.

    2012-01-01

    Global awareness has emerged as a valued learning outcome in higher education. Students need repeated and on-going learning opportunities to develop the global competencies and habits of mind that are necessary to navigate our increasingly interconnected and complex world. This paper argues that situating an introductory global studies course into

  7. Austerity/Immiseration Capitalism and Islamophobia--or Twenty-First-Century Multicultural Socialism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article is in three parts. In part one, the author begins by examining the onset of austerity/immiseration capitalism in the United Kingdom. Austerity/immiseration capitalism has witnessed the decline of state multiculturalism and increasing attempts to deflect attention away from the failures of capitalism by playing the "race

  8. Toward the twenty-first century: lessons from lead and lessons yet to learn

    SciTech Connect

    Silbergeld, E.K. )

    1990-06-01

    A consideration of recent research on lead is instructive for developing research strategies in environmental toxicology. Lead research has demonstrated fruitful interactions between clinical and basic science. Thus, while epidemiological studies have suggested that central nervous system (CNS) effects in children are observed at the lowest increments of lead exposure, basic research has elucidated some of the molecular events that underly this lack of threshold at the neuronal level. Similarly, clinical studies indicate that early exposure to lead produces functionally irreversible damage to the CNS; experimental research demonstrates that this irreversibility may involve failure to remove lead from brain, permanent effects on synaptogenesis; and chelant-induced redistribution of lead from the periphery to the CNS. Lead toxicokinetics demand reevaluation. New data on release of bone stores of lead during physiological conditions of demineralization indicate that mobilization of bone lead adds to in utero exposure of the fetus. Furthermore, postmenopausal demineralization of bone can increase blood lead levels in women by 25%; this raises concern about the potential effects of lead in an aging population and the difficulties in comprehensive exposure assessment. 32 refs.

  9. The Community College in the Twenty-First Century. A Systems Approach;.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Michael Scott

    The thesis of the book is that the problems community colleges face were inherent from the beginning and became more prominent because the particular vantage points from which the schools were viewed prohibited the taking of any action on the problems. Chapter one presents a portrait of what the colleges have become, establishing the governing

  10. STEM Education: A Deficit Framework for the Twenty First Century? A Sociocultural Socioscientific Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidler, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous of STEM education initiatives in recent years has created a bandwagon that has moved at nearly light speed. The impulse of the science education community and policy-makers is to grab hold for dear life or be marginalized from subsequent discussions about the necessity and consequences of using STEM initiatives to prepare and inform…

  11. Why American Business Demands Twenty-First Century Skills: An Industry Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruett, Karen

    2006-01-01

    A solid global strategy must be part of every organization's DNA. For Dell, this means expanding into new countries where it can use its direct model to provide value to customers and create more productive, healthier communities. It also means hiring employees who think and act globally and have a commitment to learn how to work with cultures…

  12. Unruly Bodies: The Rhetorical Domestication of Twenty-First-Century Veterans of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achter, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Veterans of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with visually identifiable injuries possess "unruly" bodies that render the story of war in efficient, emotional terms. The injured veteran's explicit connection of war with injury motivates state and mainstream news discourse that domesticates veterans' bodies, managing representations of injured veterans…

  13. SBWR design update: Passively safe, nuclear power generation for the twenty first century

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, H.A.; Torbeck, J.E.; Billig, P.F.; Duncan, J.D.; Herzog, M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the current state of design, development and testing of a new generation of Boiling Water Reactors, the SBWR. The SBWR is a plant that will be significantly simpler to build, operate and maintain compared to operating plants. In this paper, the design and performance of the reference 670 MWe SBWR is summarized, the economics of SBWR power generation is addressed and the current developments in component testing and integrated system testing are given. This paper specifically discusses the current innovations and key reference design features of the SBWR including the RPV, depressurization system, pressure suppression system, flammability control system (based on passive autocatalytic recombiners), gravity driven cooling system, the passive containment cooling system, isolation condenser system and other unique engineered safety features that rely on gravity or stored energy to ensure core cooling, decay heat removal, and ATWS mitigation. The component and integrated system development testing summarized includes key results of recently concluded PANTHERS condenser tests conducted at SIET in Italy, GIRAFFE non-condensable gas testing by Toshiba in Japan, and the ongoing testing at the PANDA facility at PSI in Switzerland.

  14. Twenty-First Century Vocational Education in the United Kingdom: What Would Dickens Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, Lorna

    2004-01-01

    The article examines the reasons why the United Kingdom's approach to vocational education is more confused and impoverished than ever, despite its central importance to contemporary society. Instead of celebrating skill and vocational knowledge, the United Kingdom has embroiled itself in tortuous debates about parity of esteem, while…

  15. Twenty First Century Cyberbullying Defined: An Analysis of Intent, Repetition and Emotional Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Carol Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent and impact that cyberbullying has on the undergraduate college student and provide a current definition for the event. A priori power analysis guided this research to provide an 80 percent probability of detecting a real effect with medium effect size. Adequate research power was essential to

  16. Competing Views of Embryos for the Twenty-First Century: Textbooks and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maienschein, Jane; Wellner, Karen

    2013-01-01

    It might seem that an embryo is an embryo, and that there would be a fact of the matter. That seems especially true with respect to the way embryos are presented in textbooks, including high school biology textbooks. This paper looks at three co-existing, competing, and often conflicting views of embryos. Then with a close study of twentieth…

  17. Synthesizing Family, Career, and Culture: A Model for Counseling in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Kathy M., Ed.; Rotter, Joseph C., Ed.; Gold, Joshua M., Ed.

    Career and work constitute a major portion of most people's lives; families have an impact on people's careers; and their culture determines a great deal about how they approach family and work. The family counseling, career, and multicultural literature has given little attention to these dynamics. This text provides a multifaceted framework for

  18. Evidence-Based Practice: A Framework for Twenty-First-Century Scientist-Practitioner Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chwalisz, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    A consensus has long existed that the scientist-practitioner model has failed to reflect what was envisioned by the Boulder Conference participants and endorsed by counseling psychology at the Greyston and Georgia Conferences. Counseling psychology's commitment, however, to the scientist-practitioner model has not faltered. Furthermore,

  19. Registers, Schools and Scales: Comments on Language and Identity in Twenty-First Century Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Monolingual speakers of a national language continue to be the ideal figures on which national identities and senses of community are built. Yet this longstanding equation between nation and language is being contested by other ideologies. Alternatives are emerging from such disparate social locations as the European Union, now advocating for

  20. Rice cropping density and intensity lessened in southeast China during the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bingwen; Qi, Wen; Tang, Zhenghong; Chen, Chongcheng; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and updated time series maps of paddy rice distribution and planting intensity will greatly improve our knowledge. Unfortunately, spatiotemporal explicit information on rice fields is relatively limited, and considerable uncertainties still exist as regards to its inter-annual variations in China. In this study, an improved rice mapping methodology was proposed through combined consideration of vegetation phenology and surface moisture variations from different seasonal rice. This method was applied to southeast China based on 500m 8day composite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhance Vegetation Indices with two bands (EVI2) during the period 2001-2013. Its efficiency was validated with 763 ground survey sites, with an overall accuracy of 95.02% and the kappa index of 0.9217. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated that rice cropping density and intensity lessened in southeast China during the period 2001-2013. Particularly, the paddy rice-planted areas reduced by 30.09%, changing from 231,005 to 161,484km(2). Among them, the planted areas of double rice decreased by 49.34%, changing from 34,215 to 17,335km(2). Therefore, averaged rice cropping intensity in southeast China decreased from 1.148 to 1.107. The primary dynamic patterns were from single rice or a rotation of rice plus other crops to non-rice (93,386km(2)) and double rice to non-double rice (24,132km(2)). When analyzed at provincial and altitudinal gradient levels, it was obvious that areas with greater rice cropping density or intensity were associated with more remarkable reductions. Graphical abstract The left graph shows that the rice cropping density lessened in Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Anhui, Jiangsu, Henan provinces and other three provincial-level administrative units (Zhejiang, Fujian and Shanghai) from 2001 to 2013. The middle graph indicates the movement of gravity center as well as the variations in the total planted areas of single rice, rice plus others and double rice. The right graph denotes that the rice cropping intensity decreased in each provincial-level administrative unit from 2001 to 2013. PMID:26627210

  1. Transatlantic Recognition Issues: Seeking New Directions in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, E. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Both the US and European higher education systems have long histories of transatlantic cooperation, a tradition that it is important to preserve and enhance even in the context of increased competition and important systemic reforms in both North America and Europe. The Bologna Process has led to several systemic reforms in European higher

  2. The Professional Status of Educational Research: Professionalism and Developmentalism in Twenty-First-Century Working Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda

    2013-01-01

    "How helpful and how necessary is it for at least some of us to see ourselves as professional educational researchers?" asked Donald McIntyre in his 1996 presidential address to the British Educational Research Association. Still pertinent to consideration of the direction in which the British educational research community ought to

  3. Unruly Bodies: The Rhetorical Domestication of Twenty-First-Century Veterans of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achter, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Veterans of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with visually identifiable injuries possess "unruly" bodies that render the story of war in efficient, emotional terms. The injured veteran's explicit connection of war with injury motivates state and mainstream news discourse that domesticates veterans' bodies, managing representations of injured veterans

  4. Age and Clinical Depression: Today's Youth in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerman, Gerald L.

    1976-01-01

    Clinical depression is on the increase in adolescence and young adulthood. Reasons for this are: (1) an increase in the number of people in this age group; and (2) the sheer number of people which creates stress. The author speculates whether reactive depression in youth will lead to more depression in adulthood. (Author/EJT)

  5. The Art of Negotiation: What the Twenty-First Century Business Student Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClendon, Bill; Burke, Debra D.; Willey, Lorrie

    2010-01-01

    Negotiation skills are vital for concluding international treaties on subjects ranging from arms agreements, and rights in outer space to trade agreements. Yet the importance of being able to negotiate effectively is not limited to international treaties or crises situations. Using negotiation exercises represents a student-centered approach to

  6. 76 FR 55585 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... description,'' which is the insertion of audio narrated descriptions of a television program's key visual... description,'' which is the insertion of audio narrated descriptions of a television program's key visual... modifications.\\5\\ We anticipate that these revised and reinstated rules will afford better access to...

  7. 76 FR 14856 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... ``Informal Complaints and Inquiries'', in the Federal Register on December 15, 2009 (74 FR 66356) which... referred to as ``audio description,'' which is the insertion of audio narrated descriptions of a television... afford better access to television programs for individuals who are blind or visually impaired,...

  8. Online Business Education in the Twenty-First Century: An Analysis of Potential Target Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joel R.; Haase, Ilene M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the potential for online business education. Highlights include a background of distance education for higher education; the interest of corporate America in distance education; and results of a survey of Internet users that focused on potential customers for online business education and considered demographics, service expectations,…

  9. Teaching World History in the Twenty-First Century: A Resource Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roupp, Heidi, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This practical handbook is designed to help anyone who is preparing to teach a world history course--or wants to teach it better. It opens with Peter Stearns's essay "Where Did World History Come From?" and closes with Jerry Bentley's annotated bibliographic guide to the essential content knowledge for teaching world history. In between,

  10. Extremely large telescope: a twenty-five meter aperture for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, Frank N.; Sebring, Thomas A.; Ray, Frank B.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1997-03-01

    The 10-meter class Hobby-Eberly telescope (HET), now nearing completion, provides technology for optical Arecibo-type telescopes which can be extrapolated to even larger apertures. Utilizing a fixed elevation angle and a spherical segmented primary mirror provides cost effective and pragmatic solutions to mirror mounting and fabrication. Arecibo-type tracking implies a greatly reduced tracking mass and no change to the gravity vector for the primary mirror. Such a telescope can address 70 percent of the available sky and exhibit optical quality easily sufficient for effective spectroscopy and photometry. The extremely large telescope takes advantage of several key engineering approaches demonstrated by the HET project to achieve a cost comparable to similarly-sized radio rather than optical telescopes. These engineering approaches include: bolted pre-manufactured primary mirror truss, factory manufactured geodesic enclosure dome, air bearing rotation of primary mirror, tracker, and dome systems directly on concrete piers, and tracking via a hexapod system. Current estimates put the cost of the ELT at $200 million for a 25-meter aperture utilizing a 33-meter primary mirror array. Construction of the ELT would provide the astronomy community with an optical telescope nearly an order of magnitude larger than even the largest telescopes in operation or under construction today.

  11. Patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: twenty-first century lepers.

    PubMed

    Mozzillo, K L; Ortiz, N; Miller, L G

    2010-06-01

    In the recent past, there has been a rapid increase in the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, especially community-associated (CA)-MRSA. Many media descriptions of MRSA are sensational and focus on its potential for severe disease and contagiousness. Our objective is to describe psychological and social morbidity associated with MRSA infection via a case series of five patients with CA-MRSA infection. We also analyse the resulting stigmatization associated with being diagnosed with MRSA infection. We learned that patients describe a variety of stigmatization related to their diagnosis of MRSA, including being shunned at home and in the workplace. Patients describe being asked by family, colleagues, and clients to take extraordinary measures to prevent MRSA transmission. Consequences of MRSA diagnoses have included erosion or termination of key personal and business relationships. In conclusion, stigmatization resulting from the diagnosis of MRSA can have profound personal and social morbidity. Media and public health awareness of MRSA infection needs to be balanced with information about how MRSA transmission is usually preventable with simple hygienic measures. PMID:20236730

  12. The New Face of Genetics: Creating A Multimedia Educational Tool for the Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Audrey

    In the study of certain genetic conditions, it is important to understand the specific "dysmorphology" associated with them. This describes the unique anatomical manifestations of the genetic condition. Traditionally, students learn about dysmorphology by reading text descriptions or looking at photographs of affected individuals. The New Face of Genetics is a film project that aims to teach students dysmorphology by featuring people who have specific genetic conditions. The goal is to enhance students' understanding of these conditions as well as to impart the humanity and beauty of the people who appear in the film. Students will have the opportunity to see dysmorphic features on the animated human form as well as meet individuals who are living with genetic difference. The target audience includes genetic counseling students and other medical professionals. Three short films were made in this format to demonstrate how this type of educational tool can be made. The featured conditions were Marfan syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome and Joubert syndrome. Future work will be carried out by other genetic counseling students who will make additional films based on our templates. A compendium of approximately 20 films will be eventually completed and released to genetic counseling programs and medical schools.

  13. Global response of glacier runoff to twenty-first century climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, Andrew; Hock, Regine; Radi?, Valentina

    2014-04-01

    The hydrology of many important river systems in the world is influenced by the presence of glaciers in their upper reaches. We assess the global-scale response of glacier runoff to climate change, where glacier runoff is defined as all melt and rain water that runs off the glacierized area without refreezing. With an elevation-dependent glacier mass balance model, we project monthly glacier runoff for all mountain glaciers and ice caps outside Antarctica until 2100 using temperature and precipitation scenarios from 14 global climate models. We aggregate results for 18 glacierized regions. Despite continuous glacier net mass loss in all regions, trends in annual glacier runoff differ significantly among regions depending on the balance between increased glacier melt and reduction in glacier storage as glaciers shrink. While most regions show significant negative runoff trends, some regions exhibit steady increases in runoff (Canadian and Russian Arctic), or increases followed by decreases (Svalbard and Iceland). Annual glacier runoff is dominated by melt in most regions, but rain is a major contributor in the monsoon-affected regions of Asia and maritime regions such as New Zealand and Iceland. Annual net glacier mass loss dominates total glacier melt especially in some high-latitude regions, while seasonal melt is dominant in wetter climate regimes. Our results highlight the variety of glacier runoff responses to climate change and the need to include glacier net mass loss in assessments of future hydrological change.

  14. The Adventurous School: Vision, Community and Curriculum for Primary Education in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jane; Maskell, Kathy; Allinson, David; Bailey, Rosemary; Bates, Fernanda; Davies, Sian; Gallimore, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    "The Adventurous School" tells the uplifting stories of three primary schools who took charge of renewing their vision, their place in the community and their curriculum to become environments where children, teachers, parents and partners thrived. The book takes the reader through each school's five year journey and gives real-life practical

  15. Twenty-first Century Lattice Gauge Theory: Results from the QCD Lagrangian

    SciTech Connect

    Kronfeld, Andreas S.; /Fermilab

    2012-03-01

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) reduces the strong interactions, in all their variety, to an elegant nonabelian gauge theory. It clearly and elegantly explains hadrons at short distances, which has led to its universal acceptance. Since its advent, however, many of its long-distance, emergent properties have been believed to be true, without having been demonstrated to be true. This paper reviews a variety of results in this regime that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian. This body of work sheds light on the origin of hadron masses, its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, as well as on other intriguing features such as the phase structure of QCD. In addition, nonperturbative QCD is quantitatively important to many aspects of particle physics (especially the quark flavor sector), nuclear physics, and astrophysics. This review also surveys some of the most interesting connections to those subjects.

  16. Ceremony Earth: Digitizing Silko's Novel for Students of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Many students the author has taught get frustrated when they read Leslie Silko's canonical Native American novel, "Ceremony". Not only do they struggle with Silko's disruptions of linear temporality and her collapsing of binary oppositions, but they also struggle with the novel's geographic and cultural location. To help students better understand

  17. Minimalism and Beyond: Second Language Acquisition for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcom, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a general overview of two books--"The Second Time Around: Minimalism and Second Language Acquisition" and "Second Language Syntax: A Generative Introduction--and shows how the respond to key issues in second language acquisition, including the process of second language acquisition, access to universal grammar, the role of the first

  18. School Leadership in the Twenty-First Century: Different Approaches to Common Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This article identifies the major themes that emerge from the five selected articles in this special issue. Collectively, they demonstrate some trends occurring in the area of school leadership, but also show that individual countries are looking at these trends in different ways. It is an example of what might be called thinking globally but

  19. Accessing Canadian Federal Information: A Depository Program for the Twenty-First Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnassi, Bruno

    This paper examines the current status and future of Canada's Depository Service Program (DSP) for government information. The first section discusses the depository model, including changes due to information technology and decentralization of government authority. Access and preservation are addressed in the second section, including the…

  20. Are catenas relevant to soil maps and pedology in Iowa in the twenty-first century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Jennifer; Burras, C. Lee

    2014-05-01

    The modern intensity of agriculture brings to question whether anthropogenic impacts on soil profiles and catenas in agricultural areas are minor or dominant pedogenic influences. Answering this question is crucial to evaluating the modern relevance of historic soil maps, which use the traditional catena model as their foundation. This study quantifies the magnitude of change within the soil profile and across the landscape that result from decadal scale agriculture. Four benchmark catenas located on the Des Moines Lobe in Iowa, USA, were re-examined to determine the changes that occurred in the soils over the intervening years. The first site was initially studied by Walker and Ruhe in the mid 1960's. Burras and Scholtes initially examined the second catena in the early 1980's, while the remaining two catenas were first studied in the early 1990's by Steinwand and Fenton, and the late 1990's by Konen. Thus, the catenas were re-sampled for this study roughly 50, 30, 20, and 15 years, respectively, after the initial study. In this part of Iowa, continuous row crop agriculture (primarily Zea mays and Glycine max) and extensive subsurface drainage are very common. All study sites are closed-basin catenas located within 40 km of each other with a parent material of Late Wisconsinan glacial till. Soil cores to a depth of approximately two meters were taken with a truck mounted Giddings hydraulic soil sampler at 27 to 30 meter intervals along one transect for each of the four catenas, resulting in a total of forty-eight cores. The soil cores were then brought to the laboratory where soil descriptions and laboratory analyses are being completed. Soil descriptions include information about horizon type and depth, Munsell color, texture, rock fragments, structure, consistence, clay films, roots, pores, presence of carbonates, and redoximorphic features. Laboratory analyses include bulk density, particle size, total carbon and nitrogen content, cation exchange capacity, stable aggregate content, and pH. The resulting data is being analyzed and compared to historic data and models of pedogenesis. Preliminary and anticipated results indicate that soil properties such as bulk density, pH, geometric mean particle size, structure, A-horizon thickness, carbon distribution, depth to carbonates, and redoximorphic features have been altered by agricultural land use over the past 50 years. This indicates that anthropogenic impacts due to agriculture are a significant pedogenic influence, which is decreasing the scientific value of historic soil maps.

  1. Reading and Society in Russia in the First Years of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, B. V.; Zorkaia, N. A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the changes in the attitude of Russia's reading public in terms of frequency and intensiveness and the factors that influence these changes. In comparison with the situation in the late Soviet era and with the perestroika years, the picture of mass reading by Russians over the 1990s and, especially, in the first years of the

  2. The Changing Face of English Universities: Reinventing Collegiality for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnes, Bernard; Wend, Petra; By, Rune Todnem

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the creation and expansion of the English university system. We show how the enormous increase in student numbers, which began with the Robbins Report (1963), led to successive governments cutting universities' funding and compelling them to act more like business enterprises than educational institutions. In turn,

  3. Ceremony Earth: Digitizing Silko's Novel for Students of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Many students the author has taught get frustrated when they read Leslie Silko's canonical Native American novel, "Ceremony". Not only do they struggle with Silko's disruptions of linear temporality and her collapsing of binary oppositions, but they also struggle with the novel's geographic and cultural location. To help students better understand…

  4. Partnerships in Education. Preparing Teachers for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon, Ed.

    This book offers a selection of 14 conference papers that present a variety of innovative partnerships for the preparation of teachers and school administrators. Part 1, "Teacher Preparation Partnerships," presents 4 papers: (1) "Ten Years of the Hawaii School/University Partnership" (J.P. Dolly, P.A. Whitesell, and A.P. Port); (2) "The Colton

  5. Responding to Testing Needs in the Twenty-First Century with an Old Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    This articles discusses ways to respond to the need for criterion referenced information using Bayes' theorem, a method coupled with criterion referenced testing in the early 1970s. The theorem determines the most likely classification for an examinee from a dichotomous choice or through placement on a categorical or interval scale. A discussion

  6. Developing Media Literacy in Cyberspace: Pedagogy and Critical Learning for the Twenty-First-Century Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frechette, Julie D.

    By joining bodies of research in media theory, cultural studies, and critical pedagogy, this book offers a vision of learning that values social empowerment over technical skills. An inquiry into the existence and range of models equipped to cultivate critical teaching and learning in the Internet-supported classroom, the book argues that media

  7. Critical Media Literacy: Crucial Policy Choices for a Twenty-First-Century Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellner, Douglas; Share, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The concept of critical media literacy expands the notion of literacy to include different forms of mass communication and popular culture, as well as deepens the potential of literacy education to critically analyze relationships between media and audiences, information and power. The authors argue that critical media literacy is crucial for…

  8. The Centre-periphery in Knowledge Production in the Twenty-first Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppers, Catherine A. Odora

    2000-01-01

    Examines the new configurations in global relations and the centrality of knowledge as the emerging currency in that relationship. Argues that the centre-periphery fault line and dichotomy may be less obvious to the younger generation, taking into account the vacuum created by the collapse of the Soviet Union. Includes references. (CMK)

  9. Developing Media Literacy in Cyberspace: Pedagogy and Critical Learning for the Twenty-First-Century Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frechette, Julie D.

    By joining bodies of research in media theory, cultural studies, and critical pedagogy, this book offers a vision of learning that values social empowerment over technical skills. An inquiry into the existence and range of models equipped to cultivate critical teaching and learning in the Internet-supported classroom, the book argues that media…

  10. Seekers after Truth? Images of Postgraduate Research and Researchers in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Western cultural practices contribute to our understanding of the purpose of higher education and how we are to conduct ourselves in educational contexts. In this article, entitled "Seekers after truth?", I analyse recent works of popular fiction which draw on and contribute to the idea that postgraduate research is a process of locating and…

  11. Twenty-First Century Lattice Gauge Theory: Results from the Quantum Chromodynamics Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronfeld, Andreas S.

    2012-11-01

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) reduces the strong interactions, in all their variety, to a simple nonabelian gauge theory. It clearly and elegantly explains hadrons at short distances, which has led to its universal acceptance. Since its advent, however, many of its long-distance, emergent properties have been believed to be true without having been demonstrated to be true. This article reviews various results in this regime that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian. This research sheds light on the origin of hadron masses, its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, and other intriguing features such as the phase structure of QCD. Also, nonperturbative QCD is quantitatively important to many aspects of particle physics (especially the quark flavor sector), nuclear physics, and astrophysics. This review also surveys some of the most interesting connections to those subjects.

  12. Comprehensive approach to the new Sunshine Program which supports the twenty-first century. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    Contents: fundamentals of developing energy and environmental technology that will make continual growth possible; overall evolution of development of energy and environmental technology; an outline of important projects in the development of energy and environmental technology; conclusions.

  13. Promoting Gender Equality at Work: Turning Vision into Reality for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Date-Bah, Eugenia, Ed.

    This document contains papers in which 12 experienced gender specialists examine the various developments and elements affecting women's participation as equal players in the workplace and propose actions and policies promoting sex equity in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Preface" (Mary Chinery-Hesse); "Introduction " (Eugenia

  14. Contrasting patterns of early twenty-first-century glacier mass change in the Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Kb, Andreas; Berthier, Etienne; Nuth, Christopher; Gardelle, Julie; Arnaud, Yves

    2012-08-23

    Glaciers are among the best indicators of terrestrial climate variability, contribute importantly to water resources in many mountainous regions and are a major contributor to global sea level rise. In the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya region (HKKH), a paucity of appropriate glacier data has prevented a comprehensive assessment of current regional mass balance. There is, however, indirect evidence of a complex pattern of glacial responses in reaction to heterogeneous climate change signals. Here we use satellite laser altimetry and a global elevation model to show widespread glacier wastage in the eastern, central and south-western parts of the HKKH during 2003-08. Maximal regional thinning rates were 0.66??0.09 metres per year in the Jammu-Kashmir region. Conversely, in the Karakoram, glaciers thinned only slightly by a few centimetres per year. Contrary to expectations, regionally averaged thinning rates under debris-mantled ice were similar to those of clean ice despite insulation by debris covers. The 2003-08 specific mass balance for our entire HKKH study region was -0.21??0.05?m?yr(-1) water equivalent, significantly less negative than the estimated global average for glaciers and ice caps. This difference is mainly an effect of the balanced glacier mass budget in the Karakoram. The HKKH sea level contribution amounts to one per cent of the present-day sea level rise. Our 2003-08 mass budget of -12.8??3.5 gigatonnes (Gt) per year is more negative than recent satellite-gravimetry-based estimates of -5??3?Gt?yr(-1) over 2003-10 (ref. 12). For the mountain catchments of the Indus and Ganges basins, the glacier imbalance contributed about 3.5% and about 2.0%, respectively, to the annual average river discharge, and up to 10% for the Upper Indus basin. PMID:22914167

  15. STEM Education: A Deficit Framework for the Twenty First Century? A Sociocultural Socioscientific Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidler, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous of STEM education initiatives in recent years has created a bandwagon that has moved at nearly light speed. The impulse of the science education community and policy-makers is to grab hold for dear life or be marginalized from subsequent discussions about the necessity and consequences of using STEM initiatives to prepare and inform

  16. Critical Digital Literacies: Following Feminist Composition Theories into Twenty-First Century Contact Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Jessica B.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines how the interests of feminist composition theory, digital media, and new literacies studies intersect within the research context of the first-year writing classroom. Specifically, this project examines what happens to the "contact zone" (Pratt 1991; Bizzell 1994) of first-year composition when we introduce digital

  17. Teaching World History in the Twenty-First Century: A Resource Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roupp, Heidi, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This practical handbook is designed to help anyone who is preparing to teach a world history course--or wants to teach it better. It opens with Peter Stearns's essay "Where Did World History Come From?" and closes with Jerry Bentley's annotated bibliographic guide to the essential content knowledge for teaching world history. In between,…

  18. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  19. Virtual Libraries and Education in Virtual Worlds: Twenty-First Century Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Lori; Lindbloom, Mary-Carol; Peters, Tom; Pope, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    As the use of the Internet and time spent on the Internet by individuals grows, and the use of virtual worlds like Active Worlds and Second Life increases, the library needs to have an interactive place and role in these worlds as well as a bricks and mortar space. This article provides an overview of what some libraries are doing in these worlds,

  20. Reforming Chinese Characters in the PRC and Japan: New Directions in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a comparative evaluation of Chinese character reform in the People's Republic of China and Japan, with a particular focus on the latest changes announced in 2009 to the existing script policies in the two countries. The first Chinese script reform took place in 1956 and the first Japanese script reform in 1946, both for the