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1

Two-dimensional MHD simulations of accretion disk evaporation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulate the accretion disk evaporation to study the nature of spectral transitions in the black hole binaries. We perform 2 dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations with heat conduction by electrons. We assume axisymmetric accretion disks. We put cold gas torus in hot hydrostatic halo. Weak magnetic fields are initially threaded vertically. Self-gravity and magnetic resistivity are neglected. We use the numerical codes set "CANS "(Coordinated Astronomical Numerical Software). Heat conduction equation and MHD equations are solved separately according to time splitting method. We adopt Lax-Wendroff method for the MHD part and BiCG stabilized method for heat conduction part. We set an absorbing inner boundary condition. We obtain the result that the hot gas emanates from the disk, since there is the heat flow from hot halo to cool accretion disk. Near central objects, the mass flow rate is large. In inner region the corona gas falls to black hole, otherwise in outer region that goes to far from black hole.

Nakamura, Kenji E.

2007-04-01

2

Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of poloidal flows in tokamaks and MHD pedestal

Poloidal rotation is routinely observed in present-day tokamak experiments, in particular near the plasma edge and in the high-confinement mode of operation. According to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium theory [R. Betti and J. P. Freidberg, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2439 (2000)], radial discontinuities form when the poloidal velocity exceeds the poloidal sound speed (or rather, more correctly, the poloidal magneto-slow speed). Two-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that the transonic discontinuities develop on a time scale of a plasma poloidal revolution to form an edge density pedestal and a localized velocity shear layer at the pedestal location. While such an MHD pedestal surrounds the entire core, the outboard side of the pedestal is driven by the transonic discontinuity while the inboard side is caused by a poloidal redistribution of the mass. The MHD simulations use a smooth momentum source to drive the poloidal flow. Soon after the flow exceeds the poloidal sound speed, the density pedestal and the velocity shear layer form and persist into a quasi steady state. These results may be relevant to the L-H transition, the early stages of the pedestal and edge transport barrier formation.

Guazzotto, L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Betti, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2011-09-15

3

Two-dimensional hybrid MHD-kinetic electron simulations of an Alfven wave pulse

in the single-fluid picture via the generalized Ohm's law [Goertz and Boswell, 1979; Wei et al., 1994; Wright et-dimensional hybrid MHD-kinetic model incorporating kinetic electrons is used to simulate a shear AlfveÂ´n wave pulse well established using both ground-based and satellite observations [Xu et al., 1993; Lotko et al

Wright, Andrew N.

4

Two-dimensional simulations of magnetically-driven instabilities

A two-dimensional Eulerian MHD code is used to study the evolution of magnetically-driven instabilities in cylindrical geometry. The code incorporates an equation of state, resistivity, and radiative cooling model appropriate for an aluminum plasma. The simulations explore the effects of initial perturbations, electrical resistivity, and radiative cooling on the growth and saturation of the instabilities. Comparisons are made between the 2-D simulations, previous 1-D simulations, and results from the Pioneer experiments of the Los Alamos foil implosion program.

Peterson, D.; Bowers, R.; Greene, A.E.; Brownell, J.

1986-01-01

5

Merging of Coronal and Heliospheric Numerical Two-dimensional MHD Models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weather research requires investigation of a complex chain of coupled dynamic phenomena occurring simultaneously on various spatial and temporal scales between the Sun and Earth. Specialized physically based numerical models have been developed to address particular aspects of the entire system. However, an integrated modeling approach is necessary to provide a complete picture suitable for interpretation of various remote and in situ observations and for development of forecasting capabilities. In this paper we demonstrate merging of coronal and heliospheric MHD models for a two-dimensional hypothetical case involving a magnetic cloud, shock, streamer belt, and current sheet. The disruption of a sheared helmet streamer launches a coronal mass ejection (CME) (simulated by the coronal model), which evolves during its propagation through interplanetary space (simulated by the heliospheric model). These models employ different physical approximations and numerical grids to simulate physical phenomena over their respective spatial and temporal domains. The merging of the models enables accurate tracking of a CME from its origin in the solar atmosphere to its arrival at Earth.

Odstrcil, D.; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Zoran; Riley, P.; Pizzo, V. J.; Luhmann, J. G.

2002-01-01

6

A Two Dimensional Car Crash Victim Simulation

The purpose of this study was to develop a two dimensional mathematical model of an unrestrained, right, front seat, passenger car occupant, subjected to frontal collision. A 10 degrees of freedom linkage system made of 8 rigid segments connected with revolute joints was used as occupant model. Relative rotation between links were constrained by torsional springs, dampers, Coulomb frictions and

M. Batman; R. Seliktar

1990-01-01

7

On the Transition from Two-Dimensional to Three-Dimensional MHD Turbulence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report a theoretical investigation of the robustness of two-dimensional inviscid MHD flows at low magnetic Reynolds numbers with respect to three-dimensional perturbations. We analyze three model problems, namely flow in the interior of a triaxial ellipsoid, an unbounded vortex with elliptical streamlines, and a vortex sheet parallel to the magnetic field. We demonstrate that motion perpendicular to the magnetic field with elliptical streamlines becomes unstable with respect to the elliptical instability once the velocity has reached a critical magnitude whose value tends to zero as the eccentricity of the streamlines becomes large. Furthermore, vortex sheets parallel to the magnetic field, which are unstable for any velocity and any magnetic field, are found to emit eddies with vorticity perpendicular to the magnetic field and with an aspect ratio proportional to N(sup 1/2). The results suggest that purely two-dimensional motion without Joule energy dissipation is a singular type of flow which does not represent the asymptotic behaviour of three-dimensional MHD turbulence in the limit of infinitely strong magnetic fields.

Thess, A.; Zikanov, Oleg

2004-01-01

8

TWO DIMENSIONAL COMPUTER SIMULATION OF PLASMA IMMERSION

confinement of the secondary electrons #12;2.5D computer simulation with code KARAT Spatial variables of the plasma sheath is followed in the time. #12;Numerical parameters KARAT is run in electrostatic mode vacuum

9

Two-Dimensional Thermal Creep Simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maxwell showed that, even in the absence of gravity, gases flow from hot to cold regions due to asymmetric momentum transfers at the gas-wall interface. The resulting flow is ``thermal creep". In ``Kinetic Theory of Gases" Kennard makes creep velocity estimates, as a function of nabla T, in three space dimensions. In 1995 Ibsen, Soto, and Cordero presented a theoretical estimate for the creep velocity in two dimensions, v_creep = -q/(8p), where q is the heat flux and p is the pressure. Although their simulation results agreed well with this expression, our own simulations show much larger discrepancies. We believe this can be understood as follows: nabla T is a better independent variable than q. (2) Creep velocity exhibits considerable size dependence. We present the results of dynamical simulations of thermal creep, including solutions of the Boltzmann Equation, and a modified transport equation with a velocity-independent collision rule. The special rule affects the shear viscosity more strongly than it does the heat conductivity. We thank Professor Patricio Cordero and his student, Rodrigo Soto, for helpful discussions and suggestions.

Koichiro, Shida; Hoover, William G.

1997-08-01

10

TWO DIMENSIONAL IMMERSED BOUNDARY SIMULATIONS OF SWIMMING JELLYFISH

TWO DIMENSIONAL IMMERSED BOUNDARY SIMULATIONS OF SWIMMING JELLYFISH by Haowen Fang B.Eng., Nanjing Simulations Of Swim- ming Jellyfish Examining Committee: Dr. Weiran Sun, Assistant Professor Chair Dr. John iii #12;Abstract The swimming behavior of jellyfish, driven by the periodic contraction of body

Stockie, John

11

Two-dimensional process simulation using verified phenomenological models

Two-dimensional (2-D) effects are becoming increasingly important in the diffusion of impurities in submicrometer silicon devices. The authors describe a 2-D process simulator, PREDICT2, that handles implant damage effects, annealing, and lateral diffusion. PREDICT2 simulates the diffusion of impurities in silicon by using phenomenological diffusion coefficients. The phenomenological models are verified by comparing simulated and experimental results. This approach is

Richard B. Fair; Carl L. Gardner; Michael J. Johnson; Stephen W. Kenkel; Donald J. Rose; John E. Rose; Ravi Subrahmanyan

1991-01-01

12

Two-DIMENSIONAL WATER FLOOD AND MUDFLOW SIMULATION

of flow conditions, including flow through subdivisions, street flow, and culvert or flood channelTwo-DIMENSIONAL WATER FLOOD AND MUDFLOW SIMULATION By J. S. O'Brien, 1 P. Y. Julien, 2 and W. T-water floodhazards, mudflows,and debris flowson alluvialfans and urban floodplains. Interactive flood

Julien, Pierre Y.

13

TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations

We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle-Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.

Suryadeep Ray

2004-06-01

14

Two-dimensional Simulations of Correlation Reflectometry in Fusion Plasmas

A two-dimensional wave propagation code, developed specifically to simulate correlation reflectometry in large-scale fusion plasmas is described. The code makes use of separate computational methods in the vacuum, underdense and reflection regions of the plasma in order to obtain the high computational efficiency necessary for correlation analysis. Simulations of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasma with internal transport barriers are presented and compared with one-dimensional full-wave simulations. It is shown that the two-dimensional simulations are remarkably similar to the results of the one-dimensional full-wave analysis for a wide range of turbulent correlation lengths. Implications for the interpretation of correlation reflectometer measurements in fusion plasma are discussed.

E.J. Valeo; G.J. Kramer; R. Nazikian

2001-07-05

15

Two dimensional liquid crystal devices and their computer simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main focus of the dissertation is design and optimization two dimensional liquid crystal devices, which means the liquid crystal director configurations vary in two dimensions. Several optimized and designed devices are discussed in the dissertation. They include long-term bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display (BTN LCD), which is very low power consumption LCD and suitable for E-book application; wavelength tunable liquid crystal Fabry-Perot etalon filter, which is one of the key components in fiber optic telecommunications; high speed refractive index variable devices, which can be used in infrared beam steering and telecommunications; high density polymer wall diffractive liquid crystal on silicon (PWD-LCoS) light valve, which is a promising candidate for larger screen projection display and also can be used in other display applications. Two dimensional liquid crystal director simulation program (relaxation method) and two dimensional optical propagation simulation program (finite-difference time-domain, FDTD method) are developed. The algorithms of these programs are provided. It has been proved that they are the very efficient tools that used in design and optimization the devices described above.

Wang, Bin

16

High order hybrid numerical simulations of two dimensional detonation waves

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to study multi-dimensional unstable detonation waves, a high order numerical scheme suitable for calculating the detailed transverse wave structures of multidimensional detonation waves was developed. The numerical algorithm uses a multi-domain approach so different numerical techniques can be applied for different components of detonation waves. The detonation waves are assumed to undergo an irreversible, unimolecular reaction A yields B. Several cases of unstable two dimensional detonation waves are simulated and detailed transverse wave interactions are documented. The numerical results show the importance of resolving the detonation front without excessive numerical viscosity in order to obtain the correct cellular patterns.

Cai, Wei

1993-01-01

17

Simulated ship recognition using two-dimensional PCA

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a fast and robust algorithm for classification and recognition of ships based on the two-dimensional Principal Component Analysis (2DPCA) method. The three-dimensional ship models achieve by modeling software of MultiGen, and then they are projected by Vega simulating software for two-dimensional ship silhouettes. The 2DPCA method as against conventional PCA method for simulated ship recognition using training and testing experiments, as the training and testing sample size is large, and there are great variations in different azimuth and elevation for ship viewpoints. The experiment of ship recognition using the global feature of ships is not satisfied with us, so we proposed an improved 2DPCA method based on the local feature of ships. Some recognition results from simulated data are presented, it shows that the improved 2DPCA method outperform PCA in ship recognition and also superior to PCA in terms of computational efficiency for feature extraction. So our method is more preferable for ship classification and recognition.

Zhao, Guangzhou; Zhu, Guangxi; Peng, Feng; Wang, Shuwen; Xu, Huazhong

2007-11-01

18

Simulations of Incompressible MHD Turbulence

We simulate incompressible MHD turbulence in the presence of a strong background magnetic field. Our major conclusions are: 1) MHD turbulence is most conveniently described in terms of counter propagating shear Alfven and slow waves. Shear Alfven waves control the cascade dynamics. Slow waves play a passive role and adopt the spectrum set by the shear Alfven waves, as does a passive scalar. 2) MHD turbulence is anisotropic with energy cascading more rapidly along k_perp than along k_parallel, where k_perp and k_parallel refer to wavevector components perpendicular and parallel to the local magnetic field. Anisotropy increases with increasing k_perp. 3) MHD turbulence is generically strong in the sense that the waves which comprise it suffer order unity distortions on timescales comparable to their periods. Nevertheless, turbulent fluctuations are small deep inside the inertial range compared to the background field. 4) Decaying MHD turbulence is unstable to an increase of the imbalance between the flux of waves propagating in opposite directions along the magnetic field. 5) Items 1-4 lend support to the model of strong MHD turbulence by Goldreich & Sridhar (GS). Results from our simulations are also consistent with the GS prediction gamma=2/3. The sole notable discrepancy is that 1D power law spectra, E(k_perp) ~ k_perp^{-alpha}, determined from our simulations exhibit alpha ~ 3/2, whereas the GS model predicts alpha = 5/3.

Jason Maron; Peter Goldreich

2001-03-07

19

Large Coherent Structure Formation by Magnetic Stretching Term in Two-Dimensional MHD Turbulence

Using EDQNM approximation, it is shown that the magnetic stretching term is responsible for turning the small-scale turbulent structures into the large coherent magnetic structures in the 2-D MHD turbulence.

Akihiro Ishizawa; Yuji Hattori

1998-10-30

20

Two dimensional simulation of high power laser-surface interaction

For laser intensities in the range of 10{sup 8}--10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, and pulse lengths of order 10 {micro}sec or longer, the authors have modified the inertial confinement fusion code Lasnex to simulate gaseous and some dense material aspects of the laser-matter interaction. The unique aspect of their treatment consists of an ablation model which defines a dense material-vapor interface and then calculates the mass flow across this interface. The model treats the dense material as a rigid two-dimensional mass and heat reservoir suppressing all hydrodynamic motion in the dense material. The computer simulations and additional post-processors provide predictions for measurements including impulse given to the target, pressures at the target interface, electron temperatures and densities in the vapor-plasma plume region, and emission of radiation from the target. The authors will present an analysis of some relatively well diagnosed experiments which have been useful in developing their modeling. The simulations match experimentally obtained target impulses, pressures at the target surface inside the laser spot, and radiation emission from the target to within about 20%. Hence their simulational technique appears to form a useful basis for further investigation of laser-surface interaction in this intensity, pulse-width range. This work is useful in many technical areas such as materials processing.

Goldman, S.R.; Wilke, M.D.; Green, R.E.L.; Johnson, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Busch, G.E. [KMS Fusion, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1998-08-01

21

Two-dimensional simulations of displacement accumulation incorporating shear strain.

Using ultrasound images to track large tissue deformations usually requires breaking up the deformation into steps and then summing the resulting displacement estimates. The accumulated displacement estimation error therefore depends not only on the error in each step but also on the statistical relationships between estimation steps. These relationships have not been thoroughly studied. Building on previous work with one-dimensional (1-D) simulations, the work reported here measured error variance for single-step and accumulated displacement estimates using two-dimensional (2-D) numerical simulations of ultrasound echo signals, subjected to both normal and axial shear strain as well as electronic noise. Previous results from 1-D simulations were confirmed, showing that errors due to electronic noise are negatively correlated between steps and accumulate slowly, while errors due to strain are positively correlated and accumulate quickly. These properties hold for both normal and axial shear strain. An analysis of 2-D kernel size for tissue under normal and axial shear strain was also performed. Under axial shear strain, error variance tends to increase with larger lateral kernel sizes but decrease for larger axial kernel sizes; the opposite relationship holds under normal strain. A combination of these two types of strain limits the practical kernel size in both dimensions. PMID:24275539

Bayer, Matthew; Hall, Timothy J; Neves, Lucio P; Carneiro, A A O

2014-01-01

22

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional hybrid code (particle ions and fluid electrons) is used to simulate EMIC waves in a H+-He+-O+ plasma in a dipole magnetic field. The waves are driven by energetic ring current protons with anisotropic temperature (T$\\perp$p/T$\\parallel$p >1). The initial state of the plasma is derived from an anisotropic MHD code so that the system is in MHD equilibrium, J × B-$\

Hu, Y.; Denton, R. E.; Johnson, J. R.

2010-09-01

23

Simulation of a two-dimensional shear cell

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a two-dimensional (2D) shear cell of Couette type are presented. The simulation is adjusted to corresponding experimental studies and the results are compared with the experimental results of model granulate consisting of about 3000 photoelastic disks. A shear zone next to the rotating inner wall is observed. The distribution of tangential velocity of the disks shows an exponential decrease within the shear zone and the angular velocities of the disks oscillate in the shear zone. The probability distributions of the fluctuational tangential, radial, and angular velocities of the disks become narrower with increasing distance from the inner boundary and are non-Gaussian with exponential flanks. We find a comparatively weak influence of both, the restitution coefficient, and the friction coefficient, on the tangential velocity profile, whereas the packing fraction crucially determines the system's response. The contact network of the disk packing reveals force chains. The mean fabric tensor for each disk shows a different behavior within and outside the shear zone. The probability distribution of normal contact forces shows an exponential decay for high forces.

Schöllmann, Steffen

1999-01-01

24

Two-dimensional MHD solver by fluctuation splitting and dual time stepping

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical solutions of 2D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations by means of a fluctuation splitting (FS) scheme (with a new wave model and dual time stepping technique) is presented. The FS scheme, essentially based on the model explained in Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference, vol. 10, Swansea, 21-25 July 1997; Godunov Symposium, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1-2 May 1997; Physics Symposium, Alanya, Turkey, 27-31 October 1998; J. Comput. Phys. 1999; 153:437-466; Ph.D. Thesis, University of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey, 2000), was extended to include gravitational source effects, limiters to limit oscillations, high order time accuracy through multistage Runge-Kutta steps, and a dual time stepping scheme to drive magnetic field divergence to zero during iterations. The numerical results show that with the new wave model called MHD-B along with its embedded numerical dissipation, correct limiting viscosity solution has been recovered and that it can safely be used in order to investigate steady or time dependent magnetized or neutral compressible flows in two dimensions.

Balc, Ölen; Aslan, Necdet

2007-04-01

25

Two dimensional liquid crystal devices and their computer simulations

The main focus of the dissertation is design and optimization two dimensional liquid crystal devices, which means the liquid crystal director configurations vary in two dimensions. Several optimized and designed devices are discussed in the dissertation. They include long-term bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display (BTN LCD), which is very low power consumption LCD and suitable for E-book application; wavelength

Bin Wang

2002-01-01

26

Numerical simulation of two?dimensional tsunami runup

The hydrodynamic and mathematical problems connected with discontinuity between wet and dry domains, nonlinearity, friction, and computational instability are the main problems that have to be sorted out in the runup computation. A variety of runup models are analyzed, including the boundary conditions used to move the shoreline. Based on the initial experiments one?dimensional and two?dimensional algorithms are constructed. These

Z. Kowalik; T. S. Murty

1993-01-01

27

Modeling and Simulating for Two Dimensional Infrared Photonic Crystal Devices

In order to design infrared devices efficiently, dispersive properties of two dimensional photonic crystal is studied in this paper. A model of eigenfrequencies is created by combining the variational expression with the conformal finite-difference time-domain (C-FDTD) technique. Useful data obtained by presentation can be applied to the analysis of the dispersion curves and design of the near-infrared waveguides.

Hong-Xing Zheng; Dao-Yin Yu

2004-01-01

28

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the degree of two-dimensional curvature of solar wind directional discontinuity (DD) surfaces at 1 AU using magnetic field, density, and velocity data from the WIND and IMP-8 spacecraft for a large number (N = 134) of carefully selected events having large "discontinuity angles" of 90° or greater. The discontinuity angle (?) is measured in the DD's current sheet, the normal (n) to which is estimated by field variance analysis. The fundamental analysis depends on estimates of these DD surface normals at the two spacecraft and the DD's center-times and positions. On average, the transit time from one DD sighting to the other was 36 minutes, and the associated distance along the normal direction was 137 RE. The transition-interval lengths across the DDs are translated into thicknesses and examined for the amount of change between the two spacecraft observing points. The average thickness is relatively large, 14 RE.; the most probable thickness is ?6 RE. All relevant quantities are examined statistically to establish their distributions, average, and degree of change. A weighted average of the radius of curvature is estimated to be 380 RE, but its most probable value is 290 RE. The average ? is 140° with a relatively large spread (? = 28°). The average direction of propagation is: longitude (?n) = 194° and latitude (?n) = 7° (but = 27°), where ?n = 0° is sunward and ?n = 0° is the ecliptic plane. Various parameters are studied with respect to DD type, i.e., rotational or tangential discontinuity (RD or TD), defined in terms of the "ratio" (in percent) of speed of propagation to net speed of the DD surface, where the net speed is the sum of the convection velocity (along n) plus the propagation speed. The RD %-ratio is moderately small, but the TD ratio is very small or zero. The results by this definition of type are favorably compared to those from the more conventional method, which depends on the absolute strength of the normal component of the magnetic field. There is little difference in any average parameter value according to type. However, the average appears to depend slightly on type with the for the RDs being smaller. The discontinuity type was shown to change commonly in either direction (TD to RD or RD to TD) between the two observing positions, i.e., ?40% of the time. It is not clear if these type-changes are spatial or temporal. Shortcomings of the analysis are (1) the need to impose an upper limit on the angular difference of the DD normals between the two observing positions (which eliminated most surfaces of very small radii of curvature), and (2) the inability to distinguish real curvature from shorter-scale surface variations, from only two spacecraft data sets. The results of the study should help to caution us as to the simplistic use of the planar DD surface assumption in projecting, to the distance of Earth's magnetosphere, a distantly observed DD surface (e.g., one near L1), especially for studies that depend on accurately predicting the timing and characteristics of magnetospheric events.

Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.-C.; McClernan, K.

2003-07-01

29

Seabed disposal project two-dimensional axisymmetric penetrometer simulations

Preliminary two-dimensional, one-constituent hole closure analyses of an experimental apparatus and the flow of in situ ocean sediments following a penetrometer explacement have been performed. Boundary conditions associated with the experimental apparatus were found to greatly affect cavity response. Difficulties were encountered in modelling penetrometer-sediment interfaces and in obtaining smooth stress histories. The use of a different computer code in later analyses led to more realistic penetrometer-sediment interface models and to improved success in obtaining stress histories. These results along with some recommendations for future work are presented.

Chavez, P.F.; Dawson, P.R.; Schuler, K.W.

1980-03-01

30

The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is a crucial mechanism of angular momentum transport in a variety of astrophysical accretion disks. In systems accreting at well below the Eddington rate, such as the central black hole in the Milky Way (Sgr A*), the plasma in the disk is essentially collisionless. We present a nonlinear study of the collisionless MRI using first-principles particle-in-cell plasma simulations. We focus on local two-dimensional (axisymmetric) simulations, deferring more realistic three-dimensional simulations to future work. For simulations with net vertical magnetic flux, the MRI continuously amplifies the magnetic field, B, until the Alfven velocity, v{sub A} , is comparable to the speed of light, c (independent of the initial value of v{sub A} /c). This is consistent with the lack of saturation of MRI channel modes in analogous axisymmetric MHD simulations. The amplification of the magnetic field by the MRI generates a significant pressure anisotropy in the plasma (with the pressure perpendicular to B being larger than the parallel pressure). We find that this pressure anisotropy in turn excites mirror modes and that the volume-averaged pressure anisotropy remains near the threshold for mirror mode excitation. Particle energization is due to both reconnection and viscous heating associated with the pressure anisotropy. Reconnection produces a distinctive power-law component in the energy distribution function of the particles, indicating the likelihood of non-thermal ion and electron acceleration in collisionless accretion disks. This has important implications for interpreting the observed emission-from the radio to the gamma-rays-of systems such as Sgr A*.

Riquelme, Mario A.; Quataert, Eliot [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sharma, Prateek [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Banglore 560012 (India); Spitkovsky, Anatoly, E-mail: marh@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: eliot@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: prateek@physics.iisc.ernet.in, E-mail: anatoly@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

2012-08-10

31

Experiments being conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus facility are examining stability issues for driving an aluminum liner with a pulsed magnetic field. The Pegasus facility provides a current of 5 to 8 Megamperes to compress a cylindrical liner. Liners of various size and thickness are used, depending on the specific experimental objectives. In several of these experiments, the outer surface clearly develops perturbations in the mass distribution. These perturbations are strongest when the aluminum is suspected to have melted and in some cases partially vaporized. A series of specific experiments was designed to examine the growth rate of these instabilities. These experiments involved machining a sine wave onto the outer surface of the liner to seed a given wavelength. Two-dimensional MHD calculations, using the measured current profile, were performed to model the behavior of the liner under magnetic field compression. These predictions were made with a 2D Eulerian code complete with a Steinburg-Guinan strength model. The results of these calculations will be discussed in this paper. The density contours at specific times will be compared with the processed radiography.

Atchison, W.L.; Faehl, R.J.; Morgan, D.V.; Reinovsky, R.E.

1997-10-01

32

Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of young Type Ia supernova remnants

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, we investigate the dynamical properties of Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) evolved either in a uniform ambient medium or from an interaction with a dense clump. The initial conditions assume that the expansion of the supernova ejecta is of free inertia with a power-law density distribution in the outer part of the ejecta. To include the effects of the diffusive shock acceleration process and the escape of the accelerated particles from the shock front, we use different adiabatic indices in the simulations to study the dynamical evolution of the Type Ia SNRs. Moreover, we investigate the interactions of a SNR with either a small or a large clump. A double-shock structure with a contact discontinuity is produced as the ejecta flow supersonically in the ambient medium; Rayleigh-Taylor instability is clearly shown as fingers near the contact discontinuity in the contour maps of density, and a high density and a high magnetic field can be triggered because of the instability around the Rayleigh-Taylor fingers. We perform simulations with different adiabatic indices, and the results show that a narrower intershock region is produced with a smaller adiabatic index because a larger compression ratio for the SNR shock is induced. The influence of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability on the morphologies of both the forward and reverse shocks is more significant with a smaller adiabatic index. Finally, the simulations of a SNR interacting with a dense clump show that the morphology of the remnant is greatly twisted after the collision, and a filament with a high density and a high magnetic field can be produced as a SNR colliding with a large dense clump.

Fang, Jun; Zhang, Li

2012-08-01

33

Transport in two-dimensional scattering stochastic media: Simulations and models

Classical monoenergetic transport of neutral particles in a binary, scattering, two-dimensional stochastic media is discussed. The work focuses on the effective representation of the stochastic media, as obtained by averaging over an ensemble of random realizations of the media. Results of transport simulations in two-dimensional stochastic media are presented and compared against results from several models. Problems for which this

O. Haran; D. Shvarts; R. Thieberger

1999-01-01

34

Two-dimensional simulations of the inertial electrostatic confinement device

We discuss the application of the CELESTE simulation package to the simulation of the experiments conducted at the Los Alamos Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device. Recently considerable experimental advances have been made in understanding of the stability of the virtual cathode and in the physics of POPS. This momentous experimental advance requires a new simulation effort for explaining the new

Alberto Marocchino; Giovanni Lapenta; Evstati Evstatiev; Richard Nebel; Jaeyoung Park

2006-01-01

35

One and Two Dimensional Simulations of Whistler Chorus in Dipole Geometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whistler mode chorus may play an important role in radiation belt electron acceleration and pitch angle scattering loss. Thus far self-consistent simulations have been restricted to one-dimension and propagation parallel to the background magnetic field^1, although observations of the largest amplitude whistlers have been highly oblique^2. We perform two dimensional hybrid code simulations of oblique whistler chorus waves in dipole coordinates to determine their evolution and distribution with respect to space, frequency and wave vector. Our hybrid code uses the particle in cell technique in generalized orthogonal coordinates with various boundary conditions. It has fourth order accuracy in space and second order accuracy in time. The particles are advanced using the full Lorentz force equation neglecting the displacement current to eliminate light waves. The initial particle distribution can be obtained from an anisotropic MHD equilibrium code. We simulate oblique whistler chorus in the limit of large plasma frequency/electron gyrofrequency ratio and small wave frequency/electron gyrofrequency ratio. We use energetic particles (ring current electrons) to stimulate the instability, a higher density population of relatively cold electrons, an even higher density population of cold inertialess electrons, and a fixed background of ions. In the real system, the parallel electric field will be canceled on the timescale of whistler waves by the plasma oscillations, while in our system it is cancelled by the free movement of the inertialess electrons. Our model will be more accurate for lower band chorus (wave frequency smaller than half the electron gyrofrequency). Since lower band chorus is dominant in the space observations, this is not a major limitation. 1 Katoh and Omura, JGR, 2007 2 Cattell et al., GRL, 2008.

Wu, S.; Denton, R. E.; Hudson, M. K.

2011-12-01

36

Simulation of deep one- and two-dimensional redshift surveys

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that slice or pencil-beam redshift surveys of galaxies can be simulated in a box with nonequal sides. This method saves a lot of computer time and memory while providing essentially the same results as from whole-cube simulations. A 2457.6/h Mpc-long rod (out to a redshift z = 0.58 in two opposite directions) is simulated using the standard biased cold dark matter model as an example to mimic the recent deep pencil-beam surveys by Broadhurst et al. (1990). The structures (spikes) seen in these simulated samples occur when the narrow pencil-beam pierces walls, filaments, and clusters appearing randomly along the line-of-sight. A statistical test for goodness of fit to a periodic lattice has been applied to the observations and the simulations. It is found that the statistical significance level (P = 15.4 percent) is not strong enough to reject the null hypothesis that the observations and the simulations were drawn at random from the same set.

Park, Changbom; Gott, J. Richard, III

1991-01-01

37

Pores in a two-dimensional network of DNA strands - computer simulations

Formation of random network of DNA strands is simulated on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. We investigate the size distribution of pores in the network. The results are interpreted within theory of percolation on Bethe lattice.

M. J. Krawczyk; K. Kulakowski

2006-09-27

38

Two-dimensional simulations of the inertial electrostatic confinement device

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the application of the CELESTE simulation package to the simulation of the experiments conducted at the Los Alamos Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device. Recently considerable experimental advances have been made in understanding of the stability of the virtual cathode and in the physics of POPS. This momentous experimental advance requires a new simulation effort for explaining the new experimental findings, particularly in the area of stability of the configurations obtained experimentally. We have conducted a 2D stability study of the virtual cathode in the IEC device using the DEMOCRITUS package. DEMOCRITUS is a 2D general geometry electrostatic PIC code. In the present study we have done complete stability study and investigate the two-stream instability occuring in the IEC device.

Marocchino, Alberto; Lapenta, Giovanni; Evstatiev, Evstati; Nebel, Richard; Park, Jaeyoung

2006-04-01

39

Two-dimensional method for unconditionally stable elastic wave simulations.

The stability of the conventional staggered-grid finite-difference time-domain method for elastic wave simulations is limited by the Courant condition and material heterogeneity. Its computational efficiency is significantly hampered when the mesh size is much smaller than a wavelength (for geometric modeling accuracy) and/or with a high impedance contrast. An unconditionally stable alternating direction implicit method is proposed to overcome this issue. It is based on additive operator splitting that renders tri-diagonal matrices for the implicit update of selected field variables. Theoretical analysis of its stability and grid dispersion error are provided. Numerical examples further demonstrate its accuracy and efficiency. PMID:25324071

Shao, Yu; An, Myoung; Wang, Shumin

2014-10-01

40

A two dimensional liquid crystal simulation for thin film transistor liquid crystal displays

A two-dimensional liquid crystal simulation, whose electrode configuration corresponds to that in a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD), was carried out. Simulation results show that the lateral field between buslines and pixel electrode forms a reverse tilt domain. This reverse tilt domain leads to the disclination on the pixel electrode. The distance from the pixel electrode edge to

K. Sumiyoshi; K. Takatori; N. Takahashi; Y. Hirai

1993-01-01

41

ON EFFICIENCY OF MULTIGRID METHODS IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL IMPURITY REDISTRIBUTION SIMULATION

SUMMARY A comprehensive study on efficency of multigrid methods in two-dimensional impurity redistribution simulation is presented. Impurity diffusion equation in non-conformally transformed rectangular simulation domain is considered as a mathematical model for impurity redistribution process. The theoretical part of the study is based on the smoothing efficiency factor predicted by local mode analysis. On the other hand two practi cal

S. Mijalkovic; D. Panti; N. Stojadinovic

42

A higher order scheme for two-dimensional quasi-static crack growth simulations

An efficient scheme for the simulation of quasi-static crack growth in two-dimensional linearly elastic isotropic specimens is presented. The crack growth is simulated in a stepwise manner where an extension to the already existing crack is added in each step. In a local coordinate system each such extension is represented as a polynomial of some, user specified, degree, n. The

Jonas Englund

2007-01-01

43

Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional multimode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-dimensional Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occurs as shock waves pass through a perturbed material interface, triggering transition to an inhomogeneous turbulence variable density flow. This paper presents a series of large-eddy-simulations of the two dimensional turbulent RM instability and compares the results to the fully three dimensional simulations. There are two aims for this paper, the first is to explore what numerical resolution is required for a statistically converged solution for a two dimensional inhomogeneous flow field. The second aim is to elucidate the key differences in flow physics between the two dimensional and three dimensional Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities, particularly their asymptotic self-similar regime. Convergence is achieved using 64 independent realisations and grid resolutions up to 40962 in the plane. It is shown that for narrowband cases the growth rate ? = 0.48 which is substantially higher than the three-dimensional equivalent. Mix measures are consistently lower compared to three-dimensional, and the kinetic energy distribution is homogeneous at late time. The broadband case has a similar initial growth rate as the three-dimensional case, with a marginally lower ? = 0.63. Mix is similar in magnitude, but is reducing at late time. The spectra in both cases exhibit the dual-cascade expected from two-dimensional turbulence.

Thornber, B.; Zhou, Y.

2015-03-01

44

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two dimensional cellular automata model has been developed to simulate and to study grain growth behavior during solidification and recrystallization processes, including predicting mechanical properties of metallic materials or investigating mechanical defects. Using the algorithm implemented, grain growth in model materials (nickel-based and titanium alloys) has been calculated in different thermal fields.

Zinovieva, O.; Zinoviev, A.; Ploshikhin, V.; Romanova, V.; Balokhonov, R.

2015-01-01

45

Theory and simulations of two-dimensional vortex motion driven by a background vorticity gradient

Theory and simulations of two-dimensional vortex motion driven by a background vorticity gradient-dimensional vortex motion in a shear-flow with nonuniform vorticity. Typically, a vortex travels to an extremum, above which the transverse vortex motion is suppressed. A brief account of some of these results has

California at San Diego, University of

46

Two-dimensional imaging of dense tissue-simulating turbid media by use of sonoluminescence

Two-dimensional imaging of dense tissue-simulating turbid media by use of sonoluminescence Qimin for noninvasive cross-sectional imaging of tissuelike turbid media. By use of a sonoluminescence signal generated, known as sonoluminescence SL , was first discovered in 1934.4 The initial observations were multiple

Wang, Lihong

47

Two dimensional simulations of pixel cross-talk in plasma displays

Plasma displays are on the verge of rapid and extensive introduction to the market place for large area information video displays. In the effort to obtain high resolution ac color plasma displays, pixel to pixel cross-talk is an issue that needs to be addressed. To this end we have developed two dimensional fluid models to simulate pixel to pixel cross-talk.

Ramana Veerasingam; Robert B. Campbell; Robert T. McGrath

1996-01-01

48

1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Two-dimensional Simulation of Horseshoe-713 Copyright © 2010 by Authors. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission. #12;2 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics I. Introduction lasma that has been used

Roy, Subrata

49

Two-dimensional simulations of extreme floods on a large watershed

Two-dimensional simulations of extreme floods on a large watershed John F. England Jr. a,*, Mark L. Velleux b , Pierre Y. Julien c a Bureau of Reclamation, Flood Hydrology, 86-68530, Denver Federal Center September 2007; accepted 14 September 2007 KEYWORDS Flash floods; Flood design; Rainfall runoff; Extreme

Julien, Pierre Y.

50

Resistive MHD Jet Simulations with Large Resistivity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Axisymmetric resistive MHD simulations for radially self-similar initial conditions are performed, using the NIRVANA code. The magnetic diffusivity could occur in outflows above an accretion disk, being transferred from the underlying disk into the disk corona by MHD turbulence (anomalous turbulent diffusivity), or as a result of ambipolar diffusion in partially ionized flows. We introduce, in addition to the classical magnetic Reynolds number Rm, which measures the importance of resistive effects in the induction equation, a new number Rb, which measures the importance of the resistive effects in the energy equation. We find two distinct regimes of solutions in our simulations. One is the low-resistivity regime, in which results do not differ much from ideal-MHD solutions. In the high-resistivity regime, results seem to show some periodicity in time-evolution, and depart significantly from the ideal-MHD case. Whether this departure is caused by numerical or physical reasons is of considerable interest for numerical simulations and theory of astrophysical outflows and is currently investigated.

?emelji?, Miljenko; Gracia, José; Vlahakis, Nektarios; Tsinganos, Kanaris

51

Quantitative analysis of voids in percolating structures in two-dimensional N-body simulations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present in this paper a quantitative method for defining void size in large-scale structure based on percolation threshold density. Beginning with two-dimensional gravitational clustering simulations smoothed to the threshold of nonlinearity, we perform percolation analysis to determine the large scale structure. The resulting objective definition of voids has a natural scaling property, is topologically interesting, and can be applied immediately to redshift surveys.

Harrington, Patrick M.; Melott, Adrian L.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

1993-01-01

52

The present article focuses on the numerical simulation of two-dimensional (2D) binary droplet collision outcomes in an incompressible continuum gas. The Weber numbers applied to predict the various collision outcomes are within the range of those reported in the previous experiments. The droplet collision dynamics are numerically predicted by solving, separately in both phases, the unsteady 2D Navier–Stokes equations using

Ashraf Balabel

2012-01-01

53

It is demonstrated by numerical simulation that the addition of a linear drag term on the forced viscous vorticity equation allows the development of statistically steady-state two-dimensional turbulence, which then can be considered an analog of the large scale atmosphere. Two different types and two scales of forcing are applied, and the results are interpreted in terms of a Kovasznay-type

Douglas K. Lilly

1972-01-01

54

Two-dimensional Green`s function Poisson solution appropriate for cylindrical-symmetry simulations

This report describes the numerical procedure used to implement the Green`s function method for solving the Poisson equation in two-dimensional (r,z) cylindrical coordinates. The procedure can determine the solution to a problem with any or all of the applied voltage boundary conditions, dielectric media, floating (insulated) conducting media, dielectric surface charging, and volumetric space charge. The numerical solution is reasonably fast, and the dimension of the linear problem to be solved is that of the number of elements needed to represent the surfaces, not the whole computational volume. The method of solution is useful in the simulation of plasma particle motion in the vicinity of complex surface structures as found in microelectronics plasma processing applications. This report is a stand-alone supplement to the previous Sandia Technical Report SAND98-0537 presenting the two-dimensional Cartesian Poisson solver.

Riley, M.E.

1998-04-01

55

We present simulations of one and two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) and stimulated resonance Raman (SRR) spectra of the dark state (pG) and early red-shifted intermediate (pR) of photoactive yellow protein (PYP). Shifts in the amide I and Glu46 COOH stretching bands distinguish between pG and pR in the IR absorption and 2DIR spectra. The one-dimensional SRR spectra are similar to the spontaneous RR spectra. The two-dimensional SRR spectra show large changes in cross peaks involving the C=O stretch of the two species and are more sensitive to the chromophore structure than 2DIR spectra. PMID:24244064

Preketes, Nicholas K; Biggs, Jason D; Ren, Hao; Andricioaei, Ioan; Mukamel, Shaul

2012-01-01

56

A simulation formalism for the nonlinear response of vibrational excitons is presented and applied to the OH stretching vibrations of neat liquid H2O. The method employs numerical integration of the Schrödinger equation and allows explicit treatment of fluctuating transition frequencies, vibrational couplings, dipole moments, and the anharmonicities of all these quantities, as well as nonadiabatic effects. The split operator technique greatly increases computational feasibility and performance. The electrostatic map for the OH stretching vibrations in liquid water employed in our previous study [A. Paarmann et al., J. Chem. Phys. 128, 191103 (2008)] is presented. The two-dimensional spectra are in close agreement with experiment. The fast 100 fs dynamics are primarily attributed to intramolecular mixing between states in the two-dimensional OH stretching potential. Small intermolecular couplings are sufficient to reproduce the experimental energy transfer time scales. Interference effects between Liouville pathways in excitonic systems and their impact on the analysis of the nonlinear response are discussed. PMID:19485440

Paarmann, A.; Hayashi, T.; Mukamel, S.; Miller, R. J. D.

2009-01-01

57

Inductive ionospheric solver for magnetospheric MHD simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances) and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field). The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km-1 in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current) in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981).

Vanhamäki, H.

2011-01-01

58

The activities described in this report do not constitute a continuum but rather a series of linked smaller investigations in the general area of one- and two-dimensional Stirling machine simulation. The initial impetus for these investigations was the development and construction of the Mechanical Engineering Test Rig (METR) under a grant awarded by NASA to Dr. Terry Simon at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota. The purpose of the METR is to provide experimental data on oscillating turbulent flows in Stirling machine working fluid flow path components (heater, cooler, regenerator, etc.) with particular emphasis on laminar/turbulent flow transitions. Hence, the initial goals for the grant awarded by NASA were, broadly, to provide computer simulation backup for the design of the METR and to analyze the results produced. This was envisaged in two phases: First, to apply an existing one-dimensional Stirling machine simulation code to the METR and second, to adapt a two-dimensional fluid mechanics code which had been developed for simulating high Rayleigh number buoyant cavity flows to the METR. The key aspect of this latter component was the development of an appropriate turbulence model suitable for generalized application to Stirling simulation. A final-step was then to apply the two-dimensional code to an existing Stirling machine for which adequate experimental data exist. The work described herein was carried out over a period of three years on a part-time basis. Forty percent of the first year`s funding was provided as a match to the NASA funds by the Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota, which also made its computing facilities available to the project at no charge.

Goldberg, L.F. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1990-08-01

59

Preliminary results for a two-dimensional simulation of the working process of a Stirling engine

Stirling engines have several potential advantages over existing types of engines, in particular they can use renewable energy sources for power production and their performance meets the demands on the environmental security. In order to design Stirling Engines properly, and to put into effect their potential performance, it is important to more accurately mathematically simulate its working process. At present, a series of very important mathematical models are used for describing the working process of Stirling Engines and these are, in general, classified as models of three levels. All the models consider one-dimensional schemes for the engine and assume a uniform fluid velocity, temperature and pressure profiles at each plane of the internal gas circuit of the engine. The use of two-dimensional CFD models can significantly extend the capabilities for the detailed analysis of the complex heat transfer and gas dynamic processes which occur in the internal gas circuit, as well as in the external circuit of the engine. In this paper a two-dimensional simplified frame (no construction walls) calculation scheme for the Stirling Engine has been assumed and the standard {kappa}-{var{underscore}epsilon} turbulence model has been used for the analysis of the engine working process. The results obtained show that the use of two-dimensional CFD models gives the possibility of gaining a much greater insight into the fluid flow and heat transfer processes which occur in Stirling Engines.

Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

1998-07-01

60

HYBRID AND HALL-MHD SIMULATIONS OF COLLISIONLESS RECONNECTION: EFFECTS OF PLASMA PRESSURE TENSOR

In this study we performed two-dimensional hybrid (particle ions, massless fluid electrons) and Hall-MHD simulations of collisionless reconnection in a thin current sheet. Both calculations include the full electron pressure tensor (instead of a localized resistivity) in the generalized Ohm's law to initiate reconnection, and in both an initial perturbation to the Harris equilibrium is applied. First, electron dynamics from the two calculations are compared, and we find overall agreement between the two calculations in both the reconnection rate and the global configuration. To address the issue of how kinetic treatment for the ions affects the reconnection dynamics, we compared the fluid-ion dynamics from the Hall-MHD calculation to the particle-ion dynamics obtained from the hybrid simulation. The comparison demonstrates that off-diagonal elements of the ion pressure tensor are important in correctly modeling the ion out-of-plane momentum transport from the X point. It is that these effects can be modeled efficiently using a particle Hall-MHD simulation method in which particle ions used in a predictor/corrector to implement the ion gyro-radius corrections. We also investigate the micro- macro-scale coupling in the magnetotail dynamics by using a new integrated approach in which particle Hall-MHD calculations are embedded inside a MHD simulation. Initial results of the simulation concerning current sheet thinning and reconnection dynamics are discussed.

L. YIN; D. WINSKE; ET AL

2001-05-01

61

In recent years evolutionary computing algorithms have been proposed to solve many engineering problems. Genetic algorithms, Neural Networks, and Cellular Automata are the branches of evolutionary computing techniques. In this study, it is proposed to simulate the contaminant transport in porous media using a Cellular Automaton. The physical processes and chemical reactions occurring in the ground water system are intricately connected at various scales of space, time, transport coefficients and molecular concentration. The validity of continuous approach for the simulation of chemical systems with low concentration of species and intracellular environments has become subtle. Due to the difference in scales of various processes that occur in the ground water system, the description of the system can be well defined in the intermediate scale called mesoscopic scale, which is in between microscopic and macroscopic description. Mesoscopic models provide the relationship between various parameters and their evolvement in time, thus establishing the contact between modeling at various scales at the interface. In this paper, a Probabilistic Cellular Automaton (PCA) model has been developed based on the transport and reaction probability values. The developed model was verified and validated for one, two dimensional transport systems and also for the simulation of BTEX transport in two dimensional system in ground water. PMID:19092183

Palanichamy, Jegathambal; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Palani, Sundarambal

2008-01-01

62

Suppressing sampling noise in linear and two-dimensional spectral simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the problem of sampling noise encountered in time-domain simulations of linear and two-dimensional spectroscopies. A new adaptive apodization scheme based on physical arguments is devised for suppressing the noise in order to allow reducing the number of used disorder realisations, but introducing only a minimum of spectral aberrations and thus allowing a potential speed-up of these types of simulations. First, the method is demonstrated on an artificial dimer system, where the effect on slope analysis, typically used to study spectral dynamics, is analysed. It is, furthermore, tested on the simulated two-dimensional infrared spectra in the amide I region of the protein lysozyme. The cross polarisation component is investigated, particularly sensitive to sampling noise, because it relies on cancelling of the dominant diagonal spectral contributions. In all these cases, the adaptive apodization scheme is found to give more accurate results than the commonly used lifetime apodization scheme and in most cases better than the gaussian apodization scheme.

Kruiger, Johannes F.; van der Vegte, Cornelis P.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

2015-02-01

63

Two-dimensional simulations of extreme floods on a large watershed

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryWe investigate the applicability of the Two-dimensional, Runoff, Erosion and Export (TREX) model to simulate extreme floods on large watersheds in semi-arid regions in the western United States. Spatially-distributed extreme storm and channel components are implemented so that the TREX model can be applied to this problem. TREX is demonstrated via calibration, validation and simulation of extreme storms and floods on the 12,000 km 2 Arkansas River watershed above Pueblo, Colorado. The model accurately simulates peak, volume and time to peak for the record June 1921 extreme flood calibration and a May 1894 flood validation. A Probable Maximum Precipitation design storm is used to apply the calibrated model. The distributed model TREX captures the effects of spatial and temporal variability of extreme storms for dam safety purposes on large watersheds, and is an alternative to unit-hydrograph rainfall-runoff models.

England, John F.; Velleux, Mark L.; Julien, Pierre Y.

2007-12-01

64

Nonlinear evolution of tidally distorted accretion disks: Two-dimensional simulations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to a previously published linear analysis, the tidal distortion of accretion disks in binary star systems produces a local hydrodynamic instability to m = 1 internal waves, which may have arbitrarily small wavelengths in the absence of viscosity. The instability is three-dimensional and approximately incrompressible. To explore the nonlinear outcome of this instability, we develop a shearing-sheet approximation on scales comparable to the disk thickness. The large-scale azimuthal variation of the disk is represented by varying the local metric with time (local orbital phase). The hydrodynamic equations can then be posed two-dimensionally on local meridional planes. We solve these equations with a second-order gasdynamical code based on the Total-Variation-Diminishing scheme. Our simulations confirm the predicted linear growth rate. The modes saturate chaotically at velocities scaling as the product of the linear growth rate and the wavelength. If the wavelength is small compared with the disk thickness, the modes remain nearly incompressible even when nonlinear. The two-dimensional power spectrum of velocities after saturation is roughly isotropic and extends over a broad range of scales in an approximately power-law fashion. We measure the heating rate associated with the nonlinear dissipation of the modes. The dissipation implies a secular torque on the disk and a return of angular momentum to the secondary star via the tidal potential. The estimated torque is somewhat larger than the tidal torque produced by maximal disk viscosity (alpha approximately 1). At least in these two-dimensional simulations, however, there is no significant angular momentum flux within the disk.

Ryu, Dongsu; Goodman, Jeremy

1994-01-01

65

Creation of two-dimensional coulomb crystals of ions in oblate Paul traps for quantum simulations

We develop the theory to describe the equilibrium ion positions and phonon modes for a trapped ion quantum simulator in an oblate Paul trap that creates two-dimensional Coulomb crystals in a triangular lattice. By coupling the internal states of the ions to laser beams propagating along the symmetry axis, we study the effective Ising spin-spin interactions that are mediated via the axial phonons and are less sensitive to ion micromotion. We find that the axial mode frequencies permit the programming of Ising interactions with inverse power law spin-spin couplings that can be tuned from uniform to $r^{-3}$ with DC voltages. Such a trap could allow for interesting new geometrical configurations for quantum simulations on moderately sized systems including frustrated magnetism on triangular lattices or Aharonov-Bohm effects on ion tunneling. The trap also incorporates periodic boundary conditions around loops which could be employed to examine time crystals.

Bryce Yoshimura; Marybeth Stork; Danilo Dadic; W. C. Campbell; J. K. Freericks

2014-06-20

66

A two-dimensional simulation of plasma leakage due to dengue infection

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is a disease caused by Dengue virus infection. One major characteristic in a patient with DHF is the occurrence of plasma leakage. Plasma leakage is a consequence of the immune system mechanism which activates cytokine. As a result, permeability of vascular will increase. Another characteristic in a DHF patient is hypoalbuminea (decreasing of albumin concentration). Plasma leakage can be modelled by constructing mathematical model of albumin concentration in plasma blood due to increasing of cytokine. In this paper, decreasing of albumin concentration in blood plasma is modelled using diffusion equation. In addition, two-dimensional numerical simulations of albumin concentration are also presented. From the simulation, it is found that the greater leakage rate or the wider leakage area, the greater decreasing albumin concentration will be. Furthermore, when time t increases, the albumin concentration decreases to zero.

Nuraini, N.; Windarto, Jayanti, Swarna; Soewono, Edy

2014-03-01

67

Large-Scale Monte Carlo Simulation of Two-Dimensional Classical XY Model Using Multiple GPUs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the two-dimensional classical XY model by the large-scale Monte Carlo simulation of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster algorithm using multiple GPUs on the open science supercomputer TSUBAME 2.0. Simulating systems up to the linear system size L=65536, we investigate the Kosterlitz--Thouless (KT) transition. Using the generalized version of the probability-changing cluster algorithm based on the helicity modulus, we locate the KT transition temperature in a self-adapted way. The obtained inverse KT temperature ?KT is 1.11996(6). We estimate the exponent to specify the multiplicative logarithmic correction, -2r, and precisely reproduce the theoretical prediction -2r=1/8.

Komura, Yukihiro; Okabe, Yutaka

2012-11-01

68

The bulk of the solar chromosphere is weakly ionized and interactions between ionized particles and neutral particles likely have significant consequences for the thermodynamics of the chromospheric plasma. We investigate the importance of introducing neutral particles into the MHD equations using numerical 2.5D radiative MHD simulations obtained with the Bifrost code. The models span the solar atmosphere from the upper layers of the convection zone to the low corona, and solve the full MHD equations with non-gray and non-LTE radiative transfer, and thermal conduction along the magnetic field. The effects of partial ionization are implemented using the generalized Ohm's law, i.e., we consider the effects of the Hall term and ambipolar diffusion in the induction equation. The approximations required in going from three fluids to the generalized Ohm's law are tested in our simulations. The Ohmic diffusion, Hall term, and ambipolar diffusion show strong variations in the chromosphere. These strong variations of the various magnetic diffusivities are absent or significantly underestimated when, as has been common for these types of studies, using the semi-empirical VAL-C model as a basis for estimates. In addition, we find that differences in estimating the magnitude of ambipolar diffusion arise depending on which method is used to calculate the ion-neutral collision frequency. These differences cause uncertainties in the different magnetic diffusivity terms. In the chromosphere, we find that the ambipolar diffusion is of the same order of magnitude or even larger than the numerical diffusion used to stabilize our code. As a consequence, ambipolar diffusion produces a strong impact on the modeled atmosphere. Perhaps more importantly, it suggests that at least in the chromospheric domain, self-consistent simulations of the solar atmosphere driven by magnetoconvection can accurately describe the impact of the dominant form of resistivity, i.e., ambipolar diffusion. This suggests that such simulations may be more realistic in their approach to the lower solar atmosphere (which directly drives the coronal volume) than previously assumed.

Martinez-Sykora, Juan; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo, E-mail: j.m.sykora@astro.uio.no [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

2012-07-10

69

Topological events in two-dimensional grain growth: Experiments and simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grain growth in polycrystals is a process that occurs as a result of the vanishing of small grains. The mean topological class of vanishing two-dimensional (2-D) grains was found experimentally to be about 4.5. This result suggests that most vanishing grains are either 4- or 5-sided. A recent theory of 2-D grain growth is explicitly based on this fact, treating the switchings as random events. The process of shrinking of 4- and 5-sided two-dimensional grains was observed experimentally on polycrystalline films of transparent, pure succinonitrile (SCN). Grain shrinking was studied theoretically and simulated by computer (both dynamic and Monte Carlo). It was found that most shrinking grains are topologically stable and remain within their topological class until they are much smaller than their neighbors. We discuss differences which were found with respect to the behavior of 2-D polycrystals, a 2-D ideal soap froth, and a 2-D section of a 3-D grain structure.

Fradkov, V. E.; Glicksman, M. E.; Palmer, M.; Rajan, K.

1994-08-01

70

Topological events in two-dimensional grain growth: Experiments and simulations

Grain growth in polycrystals is a process that occurs as a result of the vanishing of small grains. The mean topological class of vanishing two-dimensional (2-D) grains was found experimentally to be about 4.5. This result suggests that most vanishing grains are either 4- or 5-sided. A recent theory of 2-D grain growth is explicitly based on this fact, treating the switching as random events. The process of shrinking of 4- and 5-sided two-dimensional grains was observed experimentally on polycrystalline films of transparent, pure succinonitrile (SCN). Grain shrinking was studied theoretically and simulated by computer (both dynamic and Monte Carlo). It was found that most shrinking grains are topologically stable and remain within their topological class until they are much smaller than their neighbors. They discuss differences which were found with respect to the behavior of 2-D polycrystals, a 2-D ideal soap froth, and a 2-D section of a 3-D grain structure.

Fradkov, V.E.; Glicksman, M.E.; Palmer, M.; Rajan, K. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Materials Engineering Dept.)

1994-08-01

71

Forced reconnection in the near magnetotail: Onset and energy conversion in PIC and MHD simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) together with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of magnetotail dynamics, we investigate the evolution toward onset of reconnection and the subsequent energy transfer and conversion. In either case, reconnection onset is preceded by a driven phase, during which magnetic flux is added to the tail at the high-latitude boundaries, followed by a relaxation phase, during which the configuration continues to respond to the driving. The boundary deformation leads to the formation of thin embedded current sheets, which are bifurcated in the near tail, converging to a single sheet farther out in the MHD simulations. The thin current sheets in the PIC simulation are carried by electrons and are associated with a strong perpendicular electrostatic field, which may provide a connection to parallel potentials and auroral arcs and an ionospheric signal even prior to the onset of reconnection. The PIC simulation very well satisfies integral entropy conservation (intrinsic to ideal MHD) during this phase, supporting ideal ballooning stability. Eventually, the current intensification leads to the onset of reconnection, the formation and ejection of a plasmoid, and a collapse of the inner tail. The earthward flow shows the characteristics of a dipolarization front: enhancement of Bz, associated with a thin vertical electron current sheet in the PIC simulation. Both MHD and PIC simulations show a dominance of energy conversion from incoming Poynting flux to outgoing enthalpy flux, resulting in heating of the inner tail. Localized Joule dissipation plays only a minor role.

Birn, J.; Hesse, M.

2014-01-01

72

Forced Reconnection in the Near Magnetotail: Onset and Energy Conversion in PIC and MHD Simulations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) together with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Q1 simulations of magnetotail dynamics, we investigate the evolution toward onset of reconnection and the subsequent energy transfer and conversion. In either case, reconnection onset is preceded by a driven phase, during which magnetic flux is added to the tail at the high-latitude boundaries, followed by a relaxation phase, during which the configuration continues to respond to the driving. The boundary deformation leads to the formation of thin embedded current sheets, which are bifurcated in the near tail, converging to a single sheet farther out in the MHD simulations. The thin current sheets in the PIC simulation are carried by electrons and are associated with a strong perpendicular electrostatic field, which may provide a connection to parallel potentials and auroral arcs and an ionospheric signal even prior to the onset of reconnection. The PIC simulation very well satisfies integral entropy conservation (intrinsic to ideal MHD) during this phase, supporting ideal ballooning stability. Eventually, the current intensification leads to the onset of reconnection, the formation and ejection of a plasmoid, and a collapse of the inner tail. The earthward flow shows the characteristics of a dipolarization front: enhancement of Bz, associated with a thin vertical electron current sheet in the PIC simulation. Both MHD and PIC simulations show a dominance of energy conversion from incoming Poynting flux to outgoing enthalpy flux, resulting in heating of the inner tail. Localized Joule dissipation plays only a minor role.

Birn, J.; Hesse, Michael

2014-01-01

73

A two-dimensional thermomechanical simulation of a gas metal arc welding process

A low heat input gas metal arc (GMA) weld overlay process is being investigated as a possible means to repair Savannah River nuclear reactor tanks in the event cracks are detected in the reactor walls. Two-dimensional thermomechanical simulations of a GMA welding process were performed using the finite element code ABAQUS to assist in the design of the upcoming weld experiments on helium-charged specimens. The thermal model correlated well with existing test data, i.e., fusion zone depth and thermocouple data. In addition, numerical results revealed that after cool-down the final deformation of the workpiece was qualitatively similar to the shape observed experimentally. Based on these analyses, conservative recommendations were made for the workpiece dimensions, weld pass spacing, and thermomechanical boundary conditions to ensure the experiments would be as representative as possible of welding on the reactor walls. 12 refs., 13 figs.

Ortega, A.R.

1990-08-01

74

Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow with a surface-mounted two-dimensional obstacle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we perform a large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow in a channel containing a two-dimensional obstacle on one wall using a dynamic subgrid-scale model (DSGSM) at Re = 3210, based on bulk velocity above the obstacle and obstacle height; the wall layers are fully resolved. The low Re enables us to perform a DNS (Case 1) against which to validate the LES results. The LES with the DSGSM is designated Case 2. In addition, an LES with the conventional fixed model constant (Case 3) is conducted to allow identification of improvements due to the DSGSM. We also include LES at Re = 82,000 (Case 4) using conventional Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model and a wall-layer model. The results will be compared with the experiment of Dimaczek et al.

Yang, Kyung-Soo; Ferziger, Joel H.

1993-01-01

75

Two-dimensional dynamic stall as simulated in a varying freestream

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low speed wind tunnel equipped with a axial gust generator to simulate the aerodynamic environment of a helicopter rotor was used to study the dynamic stall of a pitching blade in an effort to ascertain to what extent harmonic velocity perturbations in the freestream affect dynamic stall. The aerodynamic moment on a two dimensional, pitching blade model in both constant and pulsating airstream was measured. An operational analog computer was used to perform on-line data reduction and plots of moment versus angle of attack and work done by the moment were obtained. The data taken in the varying freestream were then compared to constant freestream data and to the results of two analytical methods. These comparisons show that the velocity perturbations have a significant effect on the pitching moment which can not be consistently predicted by the analytical methods, but had no drastic effect on the blade stability.

Pierce, G. A.; Kunz, D. L.; Malone, J. B.

1978-01-01

76

Percolation analysis of nonlinear structures in scale-free two-dimensional simulations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of applying percolation analysis to several two-dimensional N-body models which simulate the formation of large-scale structure. Three parameters are estimated: total area (a(c)), total mass (M(C)), and percolation density (rho(c)) of the percolating structure at the percolation threshold for both unsmoothed and smoothed (with different scales L(s)) nonlinear with filamentary structures, confirming early speculations that this type of model has several features of filamentary-type distributions. Also, it is shown that, by properly applying smoothing techniques, many problems previously considered detrimental can be dealt with and overcome. Possible difficulties and prospects with the use of this method are discussed, specifically relating to techniques and methods already applied to CfA deep sky surveys. The success of this test in two dimensions and the potential for extrapolation to three dimensions is also discussed.

Dominik, Kurt G.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

1992-01-01

77

This report describes the numerical procedure used to implement the Green`s function method for solving the Poisson equation in two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates. The procedure can determine the solution to a problem with any or all of applied voltage boundary conditions, dielectric media, floating (insulated) conducting media, dielectric surface charging, periodic (reflective) boundary conditions, and volumetric space charge. The numerical solution is reasonably fast, and the dimension of the linear problem to be solved is that of the number of elements needed to represent the surfaces, not the whole computational volume. The method of solution is useful in the simulation of plasma particle motion in the vicinity of complex surface structures as found in microelectronics plasma processing applications. A FORTRAN implementation of this procedure is available from the author.

Riley, M.E.

1998-03-01

78

An improved NMR crystallography strategy is presented for determining the structures of network materials such as zeolites from just a single two-dimensional (2D) NMR correlation spectrum that probes nearest-neighbor interactions, combined with the unit cell parameters and space group information measured in a diffraction experiment. The correlation information contained within a 2D spectrum is converted into a "connectivity matrix" which is incorporated into a cost function whose minimum is searched for using a simulated annealing algorithm. The algorithm was extensively tested on over 150 zeolite frameworks from the International Zeolite Association database of zeolite structures and shown to be very robust and efficient in reconstructing the structures from connectivity information. The structure determination of the pure silica zeolites ITQ-4, Ferrierite, and Sigma-2 from experimental 2D (29)Si double-quantum NMR spectra and powder X-ray diffraction data using this improved approach is also presented. PMID:25466355

Brouwer, Darren H; Horvath, Matthew

2015-02-01

79

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global observation of the GPS satellite constellation for ionospheric diagnostics is now a worldwide activity driven by both practical and scientific objectives. Diagnostic methods exploit an induced frequency-dependent phase change, which is proportional to the path-integrated electron density (TEC). However, intermediate-scale structure causes a stochastic modulation of the GPS signals (scintillation), which is a nuisance for data assimilation. Indeed, sufficiently strong propagation disturbances degrade TEC and ultimately disrupt GPS operations altogether. However, the physical processes that generate intermediate-scale structure are intimately part of ionospheric physics. In the best of all possible worlds irregularity identification and classification would be an integral part of ionospheric diagnostics. A two-dimensional propagation model has been used to explore the ramifications of intermediate scale structure on TEC data assimilation and, particularly tomographic reconstruction. Although two-dimensional models confine structure to a planar region, the results are relevant, with caveats, to propagation through highly anisotropic ionospheric structures. In-plane propagation from a source to an array of receivers is amenable to reconstruction with tomographic filtered back-projection algorithms. The angle-dependent Fourier decomposition of the array signal phase identifies a spectral slice. The signals from which the phase is derived are generated with an oblique forward propagation procedure developed by Costa and Basu Costa:02. Under weak-scatter conditions the signal phase is proportional to the ray path integral. The primary challenge for simulation is realistic simulation of the structure environment. Large scale ESF structure can be constructed with physics-based models, but populating the intermediate scale requires untested structure hypotheses. In particular, there is no clear demarcation between quasi-deterministic variation and definitive stochastic variation. Fractional Brownian motion admits trend-like structure variation at large scales that overlaps physics-based realizations. The two-dimensional constraint makes it feasible to explore a broad range of configurations, including meridional field-aligned structure. The results demonstrate the ramifications of diffractive distortion of path-integrated phase as well as unresolved stochastic structure. Anisotropic structure that subtends the distrubed region complicates the reconstruction procedures, particularly under strong scatter conditions. The utility of backpropagation to mitigate propagation disturbances will also be explored.

Rino, C. L.

2013-12-01

80

Numerical simulation of two-dimensional late-stage coarsening for nucleation and growth

Numerical simulations of two-dimensional late-stage coarsening for nucleation and growth or Ostwald ripening are performed at area fractions 0.05 to 0.4 using the monopole and dipole approximations of a boundary integral formulation for the steady state diffusion equation. The simulations are performed using two different initial spatial distributions. One is a random spatial distribution, and the other is a random spatial distribution with depletion zones around the particles. We characterize the spatial correlations of particles by the radial distribution function, the pair correlation functions, and the structure function. Although the initial spatial correlations are different, we find time-independent scaled correlation functions in the late stage of coarsening. An important feature of the late-stage spatial correlations is that depletion zones exist around particles. A log-log plot of the structure function shows that the slope at small wave numbers is close to 4 and is {minus}3 at very large wave numbers for all area fractions. At large wave numbers we observe oscillations in the structure function. We also confirm the cubic growth law of the average particle radius. The rate constant of the cubic growth law and the particle size distribution functions are also determined. We find qualitatively good agreement between experiments and the present simulations. In addition, the present results agree well with simulation results using the Cahn-Hilliard equation.

Akaiwa, N.; Meiron, D.I. [Applied Mathematics, 217-50, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [Applied Mathematics, 217-50, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

1995-06-01

81

In this paper, two-dimensional (2D) simulation of interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cells is presented using Sentaurus Device, a software package of Synopsys TCAD. A model is established incorporating a distribution of trap states of amorphous-silicon material and thermionic emission across the amorphous-silicon / crystalline-silicon heterointerface. The 2D nature of IBC-SHJ device is evaluated and current density-voltage (J-V) curves are generated. Optimization of IBC-SHJ solar cells is then discussed through simulation. It is shown that the open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current density (JSC) of IBC-SHJ solar cells increase with decreasing front surface recombination velocity. The JSC improves further with the increase of relative coverage of p-type emitter contacts, which is explained by the simulated and measured position dependent laser beam induced current (LBIC) line scan. The S-shaped J-V curves with low fill factor (FF) observed in experiments are also simulated, and three methods to improve FF by modifying the intrinsic a-Si buffer layer are suggested: (i) decreased thickness, (ii) increased conductivity, and (iii) reduced band gap. With all these optimizations, an efficiency of 26% for IBC-SHJ solar cells is potentially achievable.

Lu, Meijun; Das, Ujjwal; Bowden, Stuart; Hegedus, Steven; Birmire, Robert

2009-06-09

82

Interstellar clouds in high-speed, supersonic flows: Two-dimensional simulations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a series of gasdynamical simulations of the interaction of a dense, cool interstellar cloud with a high-speed, supersonic wind that confines and accelerates the embedded cloud. Our goal is to attempt to determine if such clouds can survive various potentially disruptive instabilities, that occur at their peripheries, long enough to be accelerated to speeds which are comparable to the wind velocity. These simulations are performed using two-dimensional, Eulerian gas dynamics on both an axisymmetric (about the cloud axis) and 'slab' geometric grid. The spatial and temporal resolutions of the simulations are varied over a wide range to investigate the effects of small-scale instabilities on the overall acceleration of clouds and the development of large-scale, disruptive instabilities. Also, we study the effects of wind/cloud Mach number variations by changing the wind speed constant at about 12 km/s (which corresponds to a cloud temperature of 10,000 K). The current simulations track the evolution of clouds as they are accelerated to speeds approximately 4-5 times greater than their internal sound speeds. Furthermore, the models with the highest resolution were extended far beyond quasi-linear Rayleigh-Taylor growth times reaching 6-7 Rayleigh-Taylor growth times for the largest scale instabilities before being terminated because of the accumulation of errors at the rear grid boundary.

Schiano, A. V. R.; Christiansen, Wayne A.; Knerr, Jeffrey M.

1995-01-01

83

Two-dimensional multispecies simulations of adjacent pixels separated by a barrier height 80% the gap height in a plasma display pixel cell are performed. The fill gas pressure is 400 torr with 2% xenon in helium. The simulations using a minimum number of excited states of helium and xenon are performed for different cell widths representing different display resolutions. The simulations

Ramana Veerasingam; Robert B. Campbell; Robert T. McGrath

1996-01-01

84

Tracking the Mechanism of Fibril Assembly by Simulated Two-Dimensional Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of plaque deposits in the human brain. The main component of these plaques consists of highly ordered structures called amyloid fibrils, formed by the amyloid ?-peptide (A?). The mechanism connecting A? and AD is yet undetermined. In a previous study, a coarse-grained united-residue model and molecular dynamics simulations were used to model the growth mechanism of A ? amyloid fibrils. Based on these simulations, a dock/lock mechanism was proposed, in which A? fibrils grow by adding monomers at either end of an amyloid fibril template. To examine the structures in the early time-scale formation and growth of amyloid fibrils, simulated two-dimensional ultraviolet spectroscopy is used. These early structures are monitored in the far ultraviolet regime (? = 190–250 nm) in which the computed signals originate from the backbone n?* and ??* transitions. These signals show distinct cross-peak patterns that can be used, in combination with molecular dynamics, to monitor local dynamics and conformational changes in the secondary structure of A?-peptides. The protein geometry-correlated chiral xxxy signal and the non-chiral combined signal xyxy- xyyx were found to be sensitive to, and in agreement with, a dock/lock pathway. PMID:23214934

Lam, A. R.; Rodriguez, J. J.; Rojas, A.; Scheraga, H.A; Mukamel, S.

2013-01-01

85

Numerical simulation of two-dimensional spatially-developing mixing layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional, incompressible, spatially developing mixing layer simulations are performed at Re = 10(exp 2) and 10(exp 4) with two classes of perturbations applied at the inlet boundary; combinations of discrete modes from linear stability theory, and a broad spectrum of modes derived from experimentally measured velocity spectra. The effect of the type and strength of inlet perturbations on vortex dynamics and time-averaged properties are explored. Two-point spatial velocity and autocorrelations are used to estimate the size and lifetime of the resulting coherent structures and to explore possible feedback effects. The computed time-averaged properties such as mean velocity profiles, turbulent statistics, and spread rates show good agreement with experimentally measured values. It is shown that by forcing with a broad spectrum of modes derived from an experimental energy spectrum many experimentally observed phenomena can be reproduced by a 2-D simulation. The strength of the forcing merely affected the length required for the dominant coherent structures to become fully-developed. Thus intensities comparable to those of the background turbulence in many wind tunnel experiments produced the same results, given sufficient simulation length.

Wilson, R. V.; Demuren, A. O.

1994-01-01

86

Simulation of a seawater MHD power generation system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) power generation systems are expected to become popular with the development of superconducting technology because of their low cost and high efficiency. MHD power generation directly utilizes electromotive force, which arises when seawater crosses a magnetic field. The helical-type MHD generator is composed mainly of a helical partition board and electrodes, which include a cathode pipe on the exterior of the generator and an anode rod in the interior. Elementary research on a helical-type MHD power generation system has started at Kobe University, and a numerical simulation of the system has been carried out by FEM (Finite Element Method) at the National Institute for Materials Science. By comparing the simulation results with the theoretical and experimental results, we found that the proposed method is valid for simulating the MHD power generation system.

Liu, Xiaojun; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Takeda, Minoru

2006-05-01

87

Langevin dynamics simulations of a two-dimensional colloidal crystal under confinement and shear

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Langevin dynamics simulations are used to study the effect of shear on a two-dimensional colloidal crystal (with implicit solvent) confined by structured parallel walls. When walls are sheared very slowly, only two or three crystalline layers next to the walls move along with them, while the inner layers of the crystal are only slightly tilted. At higher shear velocities, this inner part of the crystal breaks into several pieces with different orientations. The velocity profile across the slit is reminiscent of shear banding in flowing soft materials, where liquid and solid regions coexist; the difference, however, is that in the latter case the solid regions are glassy while here they are crystalline. At even higher shear velocities, the effect of the shearing becomes smaller again. Also the effective temperature near the walls (deduced from the velocity distributions of the particles) decreases again when the wall velocity gets very large. When the walls are placed closer together, thereby introducing an incommensurability between the periodicity of the confined crystal and the walls, a structure containing a soliton staircase arises in simulations without shear. Introducing shear increases the disorder in these systems until no solitons are visible anymore. Instead, similar structures like in the case without mismatch result. At high shear rates, configurations where the incommensurability of the crystalline structure is compensated by the creation of holes become relevant.

Wilms, D.; Virnau, P.; Sengupta, S.; Binder, K.

2012-06-01

88

Two-dimensional simulations of foil implosion experiments on the Los Alamos capacitor bank

A number of z-pinch experiments have been conducted at Los Alamos on the Pegasus capacitor bank in which 2-cm high, 5-cm radius, thin foil loads were imploded with currents in excess of 3 MA. Two-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations of these implosions have been performed to model the implosion dynamics and subsequent generation of an x-ray pulse. Comparison of the simulation instability development with visible light framing camera photographs show good agreement and illustrate the instability evolution from short to long wavelengths and a final disruption of the imploding plasma shell. The calculations also show good agreement with experimental timing and measured current and voltage waveforms, and also reproduce features characteristic of the x-ray output. These include a broad pulsewidth, and thepresence of multiple peaks and small time scale structures, features which cannot be reproduced by one-dimensional models. X-ray spectra obtained from the calculated pinch also reproduce qualitative features inthe measured spectra.

Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Greene, A.E.; Lee, H.; Matuska, W.

1993-05-01

89

Two-dimensional simulations of foil implosion experiments on the Los Alamos capacitor bank

A number of z-pinch experiments have been conducted at Los Alamos on the Pegasus capacitor bank in which 2-cm high, 5-cm radius, thin foil loads were imploded with currents in excess of 3 MA. Two-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations of these implosions have been performed to model the implosion dynamics and subsequent generation of an x-ray pulse. Comparison of the simulation instability development with visible light framing camera photographs show good agreement and illustrate the instability evolution from short to long wavelengths and a final disruption of the imploding plasma shell. The calculations also show good agreement with experimental timing and measured current and voltage waveforms, and also reproduce features characteristic of the x-ray output. These include a broad pulsewidth, and thepresence of multiple peaks and small time scale structures, features which cannot be reproduced by one-dimensional models. X-ray spectra obtained from the calculated pinch also reproduce qualitative features inthe measured spectra.

Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Greene, A.E.; Lee, H.; Matuska, W.

1993-01-01

90

Solar wind turbulence from MHD to sub-ion scales: high-resolution hybrid simulations

We present results from a high-resolution and large-scale hybrid (fluid electrons and particle-in-cell protons) two-dimensional numerical simulation of decaying turbulence. Two distinct spectral regions (separated by a smooth break at proton scales) develop with clear power-law scaling, each one occupying about a decade in wave numbers. The simulation results exhibit simultaneously several properties of the observed solar wind fluctuations: spectral indices of the magnetic, kinetic, and residual energy spectra in the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) inertial range along with a flattening of the electric field spectrum, an increase in magnetic compressibility, and a strong coupling of the cascade with the density and the parallel component of the magnetic fluctuations at sub-proton scales. Our findings support the interpretation that in the solar wind large-scale MHD fluctuations naturally evolve beyond proton scales into a turbulent regime that is governed by the generalized Ohm's law.

Franci, Luca; Matteini, Lorenzo; Landi, Simone; Hellinger, Petr

2015-01-01

91

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Argon Z-pinch experiments are to be performed on the refurbished Z machine (which we will refer to as ZR here in order to distinguish between pre-refurbishment Z) at Sandia National Laboratories with a new 8 cm diameter double-annulus gas puff nozzle constructed by Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC). The gas exits the nozzle from an outer and inner annulus and a central jet. The amount of gas present in each region can be varied. Here a two-dimensional radiation MHD (2DRMHD) model, MACH2-TCRE, with tabular collisional radiative equilibrium atomic kinetics is used to theoretically investigate stability and K-shell emission properties of several measured (interferometry) initial gas distributions emanating from this new nozzle. Of particular interest is to facilitate that the distributions employed in future experiments have stability and K-shell emission properties that are at least as good as the Titan nozzle generated distribution that was successfully fielded in earlier experiments on the Z machine before it underwent refurbishment. The model incorporates a self-consistent calculation for non-local thermodynamic equilibrium kinetics and ray-trace based radiation transport. This level of detail is necessary in order to model opacity effects, non-local radiation effects, and the high temperature state of K-shell emitting Z-pinch loads. Comparisons of radiation properties and stability of measured AASC gas profiles are made with that of the distribution used in the pre-refurbished Z experiments. Based on these comparisons, an optimal K-shell emission producing initial gas distribution is determined from among the AASC nozzle measured distributions and predictions are made for K-shell yields attainable from future ZR experiments.

Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Chong, Y. K.; Velikovich, A. L.; Dasgupta, A.; Apruzese, J. P.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jennings, C. A.; Waisman, E. M.; Lamppa, D. C.; McKenney, J. L.; Cuneo, M. E.; Krishnan, M.; Coleman, P. L.; Madden, R. E.; Elliott, K. W.

2012-09-01

92

with respect to number of fatigue cycles. Finally, this proposed finite element simulation offers an effective method for identifying fracture and fatigue behaviours of a microstructure. Key words: alumina, crack1 Two-dimensional finite element simulation of fracture and fatigue behaviours of alumina

Boyer, Edmond

93

Platelet Motion near a Vessel Wall or Thrombus Surface in Two-Dimensional Whole Blood Simulations

Computational simulations using a two-dimensional lattice-Boltzmann immersed boundary method were conducted to investigate the motion of platelets near a vessel wall and close to an intravascular thrombus. Physiological volume fractions of deformable red blood cells and rigid platelet-size elliptic particles were studied under arteriolar flow conditions. Tumbling of platelets in the red-blood-cell depleted zone near the vessel walls was strongly influenced by nearby red blood cells. The thickness of the red-blood-cell depleted zone was greatly reduced near a thrombus, and platelets in this zone were pushed close to the surface of the thrombus to distances that would facilitate their cohesion to it. The distance, nature, and duration of close platelet-thrombus encounters were influenced by the porosity of the thrombus. The strong influence on platelet-thrombus encounters of red-blood-cell motion and thrombus porosity must be taken into account to understand the dynamics of platelet attachment to a growing thrombus. PMID:23601323

Skorczewski, Tyler; Erickson, Lindsay Crowl; Fogelson, Aaron L.

2013-01-01

94

Formation of polar stratospheric clouds simulated in a two dimensional model of the atmosphere

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microphysics code has been implemented in a two dimensional model of the atmosphere to study formation of polar stratospheric clouds containing HCl or HNO3. The model range is from pole to pole in latitude and from the ground to about 20 km in altitude. Resolution in latitude is 10 deg and about 0.8 km in altitude. This is an Eulerian model with prescribed eddy diffusion coefficients and the circulation obtained from observations. The chemistry of the model follows the family approach for NO(x), Cl(x) and HO(x) while the ozone is fixed and changed seasonally. The aerosol code is based on an assigned population of condensation, coagulation and sedimentation. Aerosol growth is simulated in nine different size bins ranging between 0.01u and 2.56u. The model has been built to study aerosol layers formation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and has been validated for sulfate aerosol resulting from a rather complex sulfur chemistry.

Visconti, Guido; Pitari, Giovanni

1988-01-01

95

As a generic model system for phase separation in polymer solutions, a coarse-grained model for hexadecane/carbon dioxide mixtures has been studied in two-dimensional geometry. Both the phase diagram in equilibrium (obtained from a finite size scaling analysis of Monte Carlo data) and the kinetics of state changes caused by pressure jumps (studied by large scale molecular dynamics simulations) are presented. The results are compared to previous work where the same model was studied in three-dimensional geometry and under confinement in slit geometry. For deep quenches the characteristic length scale ?(t) of the formed domains grows with time t according to a power law close to [Formula: see text]. Since in this problem both the polymer density ?(p) and the solvent density ?(s) matter, the time evolution of the density distribution P(L)(?(p),?(s),t) in L × L subboxes of the system is also analyzed. It is found that in the first stage of phase separation the system separates locally into low density carbon dioxide regions that contain no polymers and regions of high density polymer melt that are supersaturated with this solvent. The further coarsening proceeds via the growth of domains of rather irregular shapes. A brief comparison of our findings with results of other models is given. PMID:22301356

Reith, Daniel; Bucior, Katarzyna; Yelash, Leonid; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt

2012-03-21

96

We present two methods for solving the electrostatics of point charges and multipoles on the surface of a sphere, \\textit{i.e.} in the space $\\mathcal{S}_{2}$, with applications to numerical simulations of two-dimensional polar fluids. In the first approach, point charges are associated with uniform neutralizing backgrounds to form neutral pseudo-charges, while, in the second, one instead considers bi-charges, \\textit{i.e.} dumbells of antipodal point charges of opposite signs. We establish the expressions of the electric potentials of pseudo- and bi-charges as isotropic solutions of the Laplace-Beltrami equation in $\\mathcal{S}_{2}$. A multipolar expansion of pseudo- and bi-charge potentials leads to the electric potentials of mono- and bi-multipoles respectively. These potentials constitute non-isotropic solutions of the Laplace-Beltrami equation the general solution of which in spherical coordinates is recast under a new appealing form. We then focus on the case of mono- and bi-dipoles and build the theory...

Caillol, Jean-Michel

2015-01-01

97

TWO-DIMENSIONAL BLAST-WAVE-DRIVEN RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY: EXPERIMENT AND SIMULATION

This paper shows results from experiments diagnosing the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability with two-dimensional initial conditions at an embedded, decelerating interface. Experiments are performed at the Omega Laser and use {approx}5 kJ of energy to create a planar blast wave in a dense, plastic layer that is followed by a lower density foam layer. The single-mode interface has a wavelength of 50 {mu}m and amplitude of 2.5 {mu}m. Some targets are supplemented with additional modes. The interface is shocked then decelerated by the foam layer. This initially produces the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability followed and then dominated by Rayleigh-Taylor growth that quickly evolves into the nonlinear regime. The experimental conditions are scaled to be hydrodynamically similar to SN1987A in order to study the instabilities that are believed to occur at the He/H interface during the blast-wave-driven explosion phase of the star. Simulations of the experiment were performed using the FLASH hydrodynamics code.

Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Harding, E. C.; Grosskopf, M. J. [University of Michigan, MI (United States); Robey, H. F.; Remington, B. A.; Edwards, M. J.; Miles, A. R.; Perry, T. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, P.O. Box 5508, L-487, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Blue, B. E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Plewa, T. [Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Dirac Science Library Tallahassee, FL 32306-4120 (United States); Hearn, N. C. [ASC/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, University of Chicago, IL (United States); Knauer, J. P. [Laboratory of Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Arnett, D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Leibrandt, D. R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2009-05-01

98

Simulated two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of the eight-bacteriochlorophyll FMO complex

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein-pigment complex acts as a molecular wire conducting energy between the outer antenna system and the reaction center; it is an important photosynthetic system to study the transfer of excitonic energy. Recent crystallographic studies report the existence of an additional (eighth) bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) in some of the FMO monomers. To understand the functionality of this eighth BChl, we simulated the two-dimensional electronic spectra of both the 7-site (apo form) and the 8-site (holo form) variant of the FMO complex from green sulfur bacteria, Prosthecochloris aestuarii. By comparing the spectrum, it was found that the eighth BChl can affect two different excitonic energy transfer pathways: (1) it is directly involved in the first apo form pathway (6 ? 3 ? 1) by passing the excitonic energy to exciton 6; and (2) it facilitates an increase in the excitonic wave function overlap between excitons 4 and 5 in the second pathway (7 ? 4,5 ? 2 ? 1) and thus increases the possible downward sampling routes across the BChls.

Yeh, Shu-Hao; Kais, Sabre

2014-12-01

99

Simulation of MHD collimation from differential rotation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations indicate that astrophysical outflows from active galactic nuclei are permeated with helical magnetic fields[1]. The most promising theory for the formation of the magnetic configurations in these magnetically driven jets is the coiling of an initial seed field by the differential rotation of the accretion disk surrounding the central object. We have begun simulations that are relevant to these Poynting jets using the NIMROD code[2]. To simulate dynamics on length scales that are significantly larger than the accretion disk, the non-relativistic MHD equations are evolved on a hemispherical logarithmic mesh. The accretion disk is treated as a condition on the lower boundary by applying a Keplerian velocity to the azimuthal component of the fluid velocity and a prescribed flux of mass through the boundary. The magnetic field configuration is initialized to a dipole like field. Formation of a jet outflow is observed later in time. The initial field is coiled up and collimated, driving a large current density on the axis of symmetry. Slipping of magnetic field lines due to non-ideal effects has been investigated. 1. Asada K. et. al., Pub. of the Astr. Soc. of Japan, 54, L39-L43, 2002 2. Sovinec C. et. al., J. Comp. Phys., 195, 355-386, 2004

Carey, Christopher

2005-10-01

100

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a new empirically-based transport algorithm for use in our GSFC two-dimensional transport and chemistry model. The new algorithm contains planetary wave statistics, and parameterizations to account for the effects due to gravity waves and equatorial Kelvin waves. As such, this scheme utilizes significantly more information compared to our previous algorithm which was based only on zonal mean temperatures and heating rates. The new model transport captures much of the qualitative structure and seasonal variability observed in long lived tracers, such as: isolation of the tropics and the southern hemisphere winter polar vortex; the well mixed surf-zone region of the winter sub-tropics and mid-latitudes; the latitudinal and seasonal variations of total ozone; and the seasonal variations of mesospheric H2O. The model also indicates a double peaked structure in methane associated with the semiannual oscillation in the tropical upper stratosphere. This feature is similar in phase but is significantly weaker in amplitude compared to the observations. The model simulations of carbon-14 and strontium-90 are in good agreement with observations, both in simulating the peak in mixing ratio at 20-25 km, and the decrease with altitude in mixing ratio above 25 km. We also find mostly good agreement between modeled and observed age of air determined from SF6 outside of the northern hemisphere polar vortex. However, observations inside the vortex reveal significantly older air compared to the model. This is consistent with the model deficiencies in simulating CH4 in the northern hemisphere winter high latitudes and illustrates the limitations of the current climatological zonal mean model formulation. The propagation of seasonal signals in water vapor and CO2 in the lower stratosphere showed general agreement in phase, and the model qualitatively captured the observed amplitude decrease in CO2 from the tropics to midlatitudes. However, the simulated seasonal amplitudes were attenuated too rapidly with altitude in the tropics. Overall, the simulations with the new transport formulation are in substantially better agreement with observations compared with our previous model transport.

Fleming, E. L.; Jackman, C. H.; Stolarski, R. S.; Considine, D. B.

1998-01-01

101

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed magnetic field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) measurements have been performed for water flowing through porous Fontainebleau sandstones and are compared with flow through a packed bed of monodisperse glass beads. Pulsed gradients were applied both parallel (Z) and perpendicular (X) to the main flow axis simultaneously to obtain the two-dimensional displacement joint probability density P?(X,Z) of the moving spins. The evolution of P?(X,Z) as a function of encoding time ? and flow rate Q is investigated. Good agreement is found between experimental P?(X,Z) and those obtained by numerical simulations of flow through computer-generated structures of equivalent statistical properties to those studied. The simulations are employed to compare a wider range of flow parameters than those accessible by experiment. In addition to averaged quantities, such as dispersion coefficients and moments of displacement distributions, the correlations between displacements in both directions are presented. The average transverse dispersion,

Stapf, S.; Packer, K. J.; Békri, S.; Adler, P. M.

2000-03-01

102

We present two methods for solving the electrostatics of point charges and multipoles on the surface of a sphere, \\textit{i.e.} in the space $\\mathcal{S}_{2}$, with applications to numerical simulations of two-dimensional polar fluids. In the first approach, point charges are associated with uniform neutralizing backgrounds to form neutral pseudo-charges, while, in the second, one instead considers bi-charges, \\textit{i.e.} dumbells of antipodal point charges of opposite signs. We establish the expressions of the electric potentials of pseudo- and bi-charges as isotropic solutions of the Laplace-Beltrami equation in $\\mathcal{S}_{2}$. A multipolar expansion of pseudo- and bi-charge potentials leads to the electric potentials of mono- and bi-multipoles respectively. These potentials constitute non-isotropic solutions of the Laplace-Beltrami equation the general solution of which in spherical coordinates is recast under a new appealing form. We then focus on the case of mono- and bi-dipoles and build the theory of dielectric media in $\\mathcal{S}_{2}$. We notably obtain the expression of the static dielectric constant of a uniform isotropic polar fluid living in $\\mathcal{S}_{2}$ in term of the polarization fluctuations of subdomains of $\\mathcal{S}_{2}$. We also derive the long range behavior of the equilibrium pair correlation function under the assumption that it is governed by macroscopic electrostatics. These theoretical developments find their application in Monte Carlo simulations of the $2D$ fluid of dipolar hard spheres. Some preliminary numerical experiments are discussed with a special emphasis on finite size effects, a careful study of the thermodynamic limit, and a check of the theoretical predictions for the asymptotic behavior of the pair correlation function.

Jean-Michel Caillol

2015-01-22

103

Two-dimensional pulsed-plasma simulation of a chlorine discharge Badri Ramamurthi and Demetre J plasmas are used extensively in microelectronics for etching and deposi- tion of thin films.1 Pulsed power leading to reduced surface charging. In order to improve understanding of pulsed plasmas

Economou, Demetre J.

104

Three Dimensional MHD Simulations of Accretion Disks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using three-dimensional numerical simulations, we have found that the weak-field magnetorotational instability constitutes a hydromagnetic dynamo in astrophysical disks. The magnetorotational instability rapidly generates anisotropic turbulence within the disk, producing significant Maxwell and Reynolds stresses that transport angular momentum outward. The magnetic energy is amplified and maintained far longer than the magnetic decay time. For comparison we consider simple, nonshearing fluids stirred by imposed velocity fields. A magnetic dynamo can be produced, for velocity fields with and without net helicity. Lorentz forces limit the growth of the magnetic field. The dynamo occurs only because the turbulence is artificially sustained by turbulence. Next we consider a simple nonrotating shear flow. Such flows are hydrodynamically unstable to finite amplitude instabilities and this leads to tubulence; however, the combination of turbulence and shear are by themselves insufficient to produce a dynamo. In contrast, a differentially rotating system is hydrodynamically stable to finite amplitude perturbations, but MHD linearly unstable. This is the crucial difference. This field amplification mechanism lies outside the scope of kinematic dynamo theory, which is thus inapplicable to differentially rotating systems.

Hawley, John F.

1996-05-01

105

Numerical simulation of two-dimensional single- and multiple-material flow fields

Over the last several years, Sandia National Laboratories has had an interest in developing capabilities to predict the flow fields around vehicles entering or exiting the water at a wide range of speeds. Such prediction schemes have numerous engineering applications in the design of weapon systems. For example, such a scheme could be used to predict the forces and moments experienced by an air-launched anti-submarine weapon on water-entry. Furthermore, a water-exit prediction capability could be used to model the complicated surface closure jet resulting from a missile being shot out of the water. The CCICE (Cell-Centered Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was chosen to provide the fluid dynamics solver for high speed water-entry and water-exit problems. This implicit time-marching, two-dimensional, conservative, finite-volume code solves the multi-material, compressible, inviscid fluid dynamics equations. The incompressible version of the CCICE code, CCMAC (cell-Centered Marker and Cell), was chosen for low speed water- entry and water-exit problems in order to reduce the computational expense. These codes were chosen to take advantage of certain advances in numerical methods for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) that have taken place at LANL. Notable among these advances is the ability to perform implicit, multi-material, compressible flow simulations, with a fully cell-centered data structure. This means that a single set of control volumes are used, on which a discrete form of the conservation laws is satisfied. This is in control to the more classical staggered mesh methods, in which separate control volumes are defined for mass and momentum. 12 refs.

Lopez, A.R.; Baty, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kashiwa, B.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1992-03-01

106

Numerical simulation of two-dimensional single- and multiple-material flow fields

Over the last several years, Sandia National Laboratories has had an interest in developing capabilities to predict the flow fields around vehicles entering or exiting the water at a wide range of speeds. Such prediction schemes have numerous engineering applications in the design of weapon systems. For example, such a scheme could be used to predict the forces and moments experienced by an air-launched anti-submarine weapon on water-entry. Furthermore, a water-exit prediction capability could be used to model the complicated surface closure jet resulting from a missile being shot out of the water. The CCICE (Cell-Centered Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was chosen to provide the fluid dynamics solver for high speed water-entry and water-exit problems. This implicit time-marching, two-dimensional, conservative, finite-volume code solves the multi-material, compressible, inviscid fluid dynamics equations. The incompressible version of the CCICE code, CCMAC (cell-Centered Marker and Cell), was chosen for low speed water- entry and water-exit problems in order to reduce the computational expense. These codes were chosen to take advantage of certain advances in numerical methods for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) that have taken place at LANL. Notable among these advances is the ability to perform implicit, multi-material, compressible flow simulations, with a fully cell-centered data structure. This means that a single set of control volumes are used, on which a discrete form of the conservation laws is satisfied. This is in control to the more classical staggered mesh methods, in which separate control volumes are defined for mass and momentum. 12 refs.

Lopez, A.R.; Baty, R.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Kashiwa, B.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1992-01-01

107

Two-dimensional simulation of Pinatubo aerosol and its effect on stratospheric ozone

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents time-dependent simulations of the response of the stratosphere to the injection into the atmosphere of massive amounts of sulfur during the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (The Philippines) in June 1991. The study is based on a coupled two-dimensional chemical-dynamical-radiative model to which a microphysical model for sulfate aerosol formation and fate has been added. The study suggests that, during the first year (July 1991 to June 1992) following the volcanic eruption, the observed changes in the ozone amount integrated between 65 deg S and 65 deg N were caused primarily by changes in the meridional circulation (associated with heating by the volcanic cloud in the tropics) and in the photolysis rate of molecules such as ozone (associated with backscattering of light by the cloud). During the second year after the eruption, as the aerosol was dispersed at all latitudes and, in particular, reached the polar region, the largest contribution to ozone reduction resulted from the heterogeneous chemical conversion of N2O5 and ClONO2 on the surface of the aerosol particles. The conversion of the latter compound, and hence the magnitude of the calculated ozone depletion, is highly dependent on the temperature in the lower stratosphere. Despite the fact that the surface area provided by aerosol particles decreased during the second year following the eruption, the calculated ozone depletion remained significant because the conversion of N2O5 is insensitive to the aerosol surface area density for values larger than 1-10 sq microns/cu cm (depending on latitude). The predicted reduction in ozone at 20 km in March during the third year (July 1993 to June 1994) of the model integration is smaller by a factor of 2 than it was during the second year.

Tie, Xuexi; Brasseur, Guy P.; Briegleb, Bruce; Granier, Claire

1994-01-01

108

Two-dimensional simulation of red blood cell motion near a wall under a lateral force

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motion of a red blood cell suspended in a linear shear flow adjacent to a fixed boundary subject to an applied lateral force directed toward the boundary is simulated. A two-dimensional model is used that represents the viscous and elastic properties of normal red blood cells. Shear rates in the range of 100 to 600 s-1 are considered, and the suspending medium viscosity is 1 cP. In the absence of a lateral force, the cell executes a tumbling motion. With increasing lateral force, a transition from tumbling to tank-treading is predicted. The minimum force required to ensure tank-treading increases nonlinearly with the shear rate. Transient swinging motions occur when the force is slightly larger than the transition value. The applied lateral force is balanced by a hydrodynamic lift force resulting from the positive orientation of the long axis of the cell with respect to the wall. In the case of cyclic tumbling motions, the orientation angle takes positive values through most of the cycle, resulting in lift generation. These results are used to predict the motion of a cell close to the outer edge of the cell-rich core region that is generated when blood flows in a narrow tube. In this case, the lateral force is generated by shear-induced dispersion, resulting from cell-cell interactions in a region with a concentration gradient. This force is estimated using previous data on shear-induced dispersion. The cell is predicted to execute tank-treading motions at normal physiological hematocrit levels, with the possibility of tumbling at lower hematocrit levels.

Hariprasad, Daniel S.; Secomb, Timothy W.

2014-11-01

109

Two-dimensional simulation of red blood cell motion near a wall under a lateral force.

The motion of a red blood cell suspended in a linear shear flow adjacent to a fixed boundary subject to an applied lateral force directed toward the boundary is simulated. A two-dimensional model is used that represents the viscous and elastic properties of normal red blood cells. Shear rates in the range of 100 to 600 s^{-1} are considered, and the suspending medium viscosity is 1 cP. In the absence of a lateral force, the cell executes a tumbling motion. With increasing lateral force, a transition from tumbling to tank-treading is predicted. The minimum force required to ensure tank-treading increases nonlinearly with the shear rate. Transient swinging motions occur when the force is slightly larger than the transition value. The applied lateral force is balanced by a hydrodynamic lift force resulting from the positive orientation of the long axis of the cell with respect to the wall. In the case of cyclic tumbling motions, the orientation angle takes positive values through most of the cycle, resulting in lift generation. These results are used to predict the motion of a cell close to the outer edge of the cell-rich core region that is generated when blood flows in a narrow tube. In this case, the lateral force is generated by shear-induced dispersion, resulting from cell-cell interactions in a region with a concentration gradient. This force is estimated using previous data on shear-induced dispersion. The cell is predicted to execute tank-treading motions at normal physiological hematocrit levels, with the possibility of tumbling at lower hematocrit levels. PMID:25493888

Hariprasad, Daniel S; Secomb, Timothy W

2014-11-01

110

Two-dimensional network simulation of diffusion driven coarsening of foam inside a porous medium

In order to use foams in subsurface applications, it is necessary to understand their stability in porous media. Diffusion driven coarsening of a stationary or nonflowing foam in a porous medium results in changing gas pressures and a coarsening of the foam texture. A two-dimensional network simulation has been created that predicts the behavior of foam in a porous medium by physically specifying the locations of all the lamellae in the system and by solving the complete set of Young-Laplace and diffusion equations. An hourglass approximates the shape of the pores, and the pore walls are considered to be highly water wet. A singularity arises in the system of differential algebraic equations due to the curvature of the pore walls. This singularity is a signal that the system must undergo oscillations or sudden lamellar rearrangements before the diffusion process can continue. Newton-Raphson iteration is used along with Keller`s method of arc-length continuation and a new jump resolution technique to locate and resolve bifurcations in the system of coupled lamellae. Gas bubbles in pore throats are regions of encapsulated pressure. As gas is released from these bubbles during diffusion, the pressure of the bubbles in the pore bodies increases. When the pressure increase is scaled by the characteristic Young-Laplace pressure, the equilibrium time for the diffusion process is scaled by the ratio of the square of the characteristic length to the gas diffusivity and two dimensionless groups. One describes the ease with which gas can diffuse through a lamella, the second represents the amount of gas encapsulated within the pore throats initially. Given this scaling, the resulting plots of pressure versus time and normalized lamellae positions versus time are universal for all system sizes and characteristics. This is true as long as the initial lamella distribution is the same in each case.

Cohen, D.; Patzek, T.W.; Radke, C.J.

1996-04-01

111

for the study of dynamics in complex systems. As the optical equivalent of two- dimensional 2D nuclear magnetic and Department of Chemistry and Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 increases computational feasibility and performance. The electrostatic map for the OH stretching vibrations

Mukamel, Shaul

112

The objective of this paper is modeling the mechanism of high pressure and high temperature catalytic oxidation of natural gas, or methane. The model is two-dimensional steady-state, and includes axial and radial convection and diffusion of mass, momentum and energy, as well as homogeneous (gas phase) and heterogeneous (gas surface) single step irreversible chemical reactions within a catalyst channel. Experimental

Y. Tsujikawa; S. Fujii; H. Sadamori; S. Ito; S. Katsura

1995-01-01

113

Two-dimensional device simulation of AlGaN/GaN heterojunction FET side-gating effect

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Side-gating effects on AlGaN/GaN heterojunction FETs (HFETs) are simulated using a two-dimensional device simulator incorporating the Shockley–Read–Hall (SRH) model for deep traps. With the trap parameters obtained from experiments, the simulation results are in agreement with the experimental results including the “half-recovery” from the side-gating effect and the current reduction in the recovery process from positive side-gate bias application. The simulation indicated that the finite thickness of semi-insulating i-GaN layers suppresses side-gating effects on AlGaN/GaN HFETs with thin i-GaN layers.

Ikawa, Yusuke; Lee, Keunsam; Ao, Jin-Ping; Ohno, Yasuo

2014-11-01

114

Two-dimensional tsunami-dynamo simulations using the finite element method in the time domain

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conductive seawater moving in the ocean generates an electromotive force. This effect is called 'Oceanic dynamo effect' and transient tsunamis are also involved in this effect. Toh et al. (2011) reported that the 2006 and 2007 Krill earthquake tsunami induced electromagnetic (EM) variations in the northwest Pacific. Manoj et al. (2011) and Suetsugu et al. (2012) also reported that seafloor EM observations detected tsunami passages. Motional induction due to tsunamis, hereafter called 'Tsunami Dynamo Effect', has been studied mainly in the frequency domain. For example, Larsen (1971) derived an analytical solution considering the conductivity structures and the self-induction term, while Sanford (1971) included effects of bathymetry. Recently, Tyler (2005) analytically expected that the vertical component of the tsunami-induced magnetic field has the same waveform and phase as those of the sea level change in deep oceans. Although these works in the frequency domain are very powerful and useful, they are not able to focus on transient properties of the Tsunami Dynamo Effect. For mitigation of tsunami disasters, it is very important to investigate effects due to the first arrival of tsunamis. We, therefore, developed a two-dimensional finite element (FEM) tsunami dynamo simulation code in the time domain to reproduce magnetic tsunami signals observed in the northwest Pacific at the time of the 2011 off the Tohoku earthquake. We adopted FEM with triangular mesh in order to include realistic bathymetry and arbitrary conductivity structures beneath the seafloor. For the time evolution, the Crank Nikolson method was adopted. As a result, our simulation succeeded in reproducing the magnetic tsunami signals, especially in terms of the first wave. It is noticeable that an initial rise in the horizontal magnetic component as large as 1 nT, parallel to the tsunami propagation direction and observed 5 minutes prior to the tsunami arrival, was also induced by the tsunami. We conducted additional numerical experiments to investigate the initial rise. We laid half-space homogeneous conductor beneath the flat seafloor with a depth of 5km and let a Gaussian waveform soliton propagate with a wave height of 1m and a horizontal extent of 100km. As we assigned 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1S/m to the conductivity beneath the seafloor, the peak of the initial rise became approximately 3, 2, <1, and ~0 nT, respectively. The initial rise, hence, vanished with the conductivity of 1S/m beneath the seafloor, because an induced current beneath the seafloor generated a horizontal magnetic field opposite to the initial rise. Our numerical results imply that this initial rise may enable us to detect the tsunami passage prior to the tsunami arrival itself under suitable conditions. In the presentation, we will report the initial rise in the horizontal magnetic component observed prior to the tsunami arrival and discuss its applicability to tsunami early warnings.

Minami, T.; Toh, H.

2013-12-01

115

The coexistence curve of the two-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid has been obtained by Monte Carlo simulation in the Gibbs ensemble. The calculated vapor--liquid equilibria show that the apparent critical exponent {beta}{sub {ital e}} has a value near that of an infinitely large system, rather than the classical value, even though the correlation length is constrained by the box size. These results are similar to those for the three-dimensional case.

Singh, R.R.; Pitzer, K.S.; de Pablo, J.J.; Prausnitz, J.M. (College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA) Materials and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (USA))

1990-05-01

116

A major long-range goal of theoretical simulations of solar-generated disturbances (transients, coronal holes, etc.) is the realistic modeling of a propagating disturbance from the sun into and throughout interplanetary space. Simulations of this kind, using MHD fluid theory, must always be confronted with observations in order to assess the degree to which one or the other is inadequate. We describe

M. Dryer; R. S. Steinolfson; Z. K. Smith

1982-01-01

117

Numerical simulations of thermal conductivity in dissipative two-dimensional Yukawa systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical data on the heat transfer constants in two-dimensional Yukawa systems were obtained. Numerical study of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity was carried out for the equilibrium systems with parameters close to conditions of laboratory experiments with dusty plasma. For calculations of heat transfer constants the Green-Kubo formulas were used. The influence of dissipation (friction) on the heat transfer processes in nonideal systems was investigated. The approximation of the coefficient of thermal conductivity is proposed. Comparison of the obtained results to the existing experimental and numerical data is discussed.

Khrustalyov, Yu. V.; Vaulina, O. S.

2012-04-01

118

Numerical simulations of thermal conductivity in dissipative two-dimensional Yukawa systems.

Numerical data on the heat transfer constants in two-dimensional Yukawa systems were obtained. Numerical study of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity was carried out for the equilibrium systems with parameters close to conditions of laboratory experiments with dusty plasma. For calculations of heat transfer constants the Green-Kubo formulas were used. The influence of dissipation (friction) on the heat transfer processes in nonideal systems was investigated. The approximation of the coefficient of thermal conductivity is proposed. Comparison of the obtained results to the existing experimental and numerical data is discussed. PMID:22680584

Khrustalyov, Yu V; Vaulina, O S

2012-04-01

119

Heat transfer coefficients in two-dimensional Yukawa systems (numerical simulations)

New data on heat transfer in two-dimensional Yukawa systems have been obtained. The results of a numerical study of the thermal conductivity for equilibrium systems with parameters close to the conditions of laboratory experiments in dusty plasma are presented. The Green-Kubo relations are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients. The influence of dissipation (internal friction) on the heat transfer processes in nonideal systems is studied. New approximations are proposed for the thermal conductivity and diffusivity for nonideal dissipative systems. The results obtained are compared with the existing experimental and numerical data.

Khrustalyov, Yu. V., E-mail: yuri.khrustalyov@gmail.com; Vaulina, O. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

2013-05-15

120

The SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system is a large-scale digital modeling software system used to simulate flow and transport of solutes in freshwater and estuarine environments. Due to the size, processing requirements, and complexity of the system, there is a need to easily move the system and its associated files between computer sites when required. A series of job control language (JCL) procedures was written to allow transferability between IBM and IBM-compatible computers. (USGS)

Karavitis, G.A.

1984-01-01

121

We reported on a two-dimensional simulation of electrical properties of the radio frequency (rf) sputter amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The a-IGZO TFT used in this work has the following performance: field-effect mobility (mueff) of ~12 cm2\\/V s, threshold voltage (Vth) of ~1.15 V, subthreshold swing (S) of ~0.13 V\\/dec, and on\\/off ratio over 1010. To accurately simulate the

Tze-Ching Fung; Chiao-Shun Chuang; Charlene Chen; Katsumi Abe; Robert Cottle; Mark Townsend; Hideya Kumomi; Jerzy Kanicki

2009-01-01

122

MHD turbulent dynamo in astrophysics: Theory and numerical simulation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis treats the physics of dynamo effects through theoretical modeling of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems and direct numerical simulations of MHD turbulence. After a brief introduction to astrophysical dynamo research in Chapter 1, the following issues in developing dynamic models of dynamo theory are addressed: In Chapter 2, nonlinearity that arises from the back reaction of magnetic field on velocity field is considered in a new model for the dynamo ?-effect. The dependence of ?-coefficient on magnetic Reynolds number, kinetic Reynolds number, magnetic Prandtl number and statistical properties of MHD turbulence is studied. In Chapter 3, the time-dependence of magnetic helicity dynamics and its influence on dynamo effects are studied with a theoretical model and 3D direct numerical simulations. The applicability of and the connection between different dynamo models are also discussed. In Chapter 4, processes of magnetic field amplification by turbulence are numerically simulated with a 3D Fourier spectral method. The initial seed magnetic field can be a large-scale field, a small-scale magnetic impulse, and a combination of these two. Other issues, such as dynamo processes due to helical Alfvénic waves and the implication and validity of the Zeldovich relation, are also addressed in Appendix B and Chapters 4 & 5, respectively. Main conclusions and future work are presented in Chapter 5. Applications of these studies are intended for astrophysical magnetic field generation through turbulent dynamo processes, especially when nonlinearity plays central role. In studying the physics of MHD turbulent dynamo processes, the following tools are developed: (1)A double Fourier transform in both space and time for the linearized MHD equations (Chapter 2 and Appendices A & B). (2)A Fourier spectral numerical method for direct simulation of 3D incompressible MHD equations (Appendix C).

Chou, Hongsong

2001-10-01

123

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boundary conditions (BCs) play an essential role in lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulations. This paper investigates several most commonly applied BCs by evaluating the relative L2-norm errors of the LB simulations for two-dimensional (2-D) Poiseuille flow. It is found that the relative L2-norm error resulting from FHML's BC is smaller than that from other BCs as a whole. Then, based on the FHML's BC, it formulates an LB model for simulating fluid flows in 2-D channel with complex geometries. Afterwards, the flows between two inclined plates, in a pulmonary blood vessel and in a blood vessel with local expansion region, are simulated. The numerical results are in good agreement with the analytical predictions and clearly show that the model is effective. It is expected that the model can be extended to simulate some real biologic flows, such as blood flows in arteries, vessels with stenosises, aneurysms and bifurcations, etc.

Wen, Bing-Hai; Liu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Chao-Ying; Wang, Qiang

2009-10-01

124

The role of condensation and heat conduction in the formation of prominences - An MHD simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of condensation and thermal conduction on the formation of Kippenhahn-Schlueter (K-S) type prominences in quiet regions (QP) due to symmetric mass injection are investigated. To implement this investigation a self-consistent, two-dimensional, nonplanar, time-dependent MHD simulation model is developed. In the model, various values of the injection velocity, density, and magnetic field strength are used to determine the most favorable conditions for the QP formation. Based on these simulation results, it is found that the formation of a K-S type field configuration should be considered as a dynamic process which needs both condensation amd mass injection to supply enough mass to maintain such a configuration to complete the quiescent prominence formation process.

Wu, S. T.; Bao, J. J.; An, C. H.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

1990-01-01

125

A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds

Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.

Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin

2013-10-11

126

High Lundquist Number Resistive MHD Simulations of Magnetic

reconnection (less sensitive dependence on Lundquist number S) both in numerical simulations using Particle reconnection configuration based on the island coalescence instability, using much higher resolutions in 2D island coalescence instability Resistive MHD: , t + [,] = [A,J]+ 2 A t + [,A] = 2

Ng, Chung-Sang

127

Two-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of a Solid State Maxwell Demon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations of the solid-state Maxwell demon proposed by Sheehan, Putnam, and Wright (2002) are presented. These verify the results of the original 1-D analytical model. A detailed description of the 2-D device simulator is given.

Putnam, Andrew R.

2002-11-01

128

Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of transport in a magnetized electronegative plasma

Particle transport in a uniformly magnetized electronegative plasma is studied in two-dimensional (2D) geometry with insulating (dielectric) boundaries. A 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) code is employed, with the results compared to analytic one-dimensional models that approximate the end losses as volume losses. A modified oxygen reaction set is used to scale to the low densities used in PIC codes and also to approximately model other gases. The principal study is the limiting of the transverse electron flow due to strong electron magnetization. The plasma in the PIC calculation is maintained by axial currents that vary across the transverse dimension. For a cosine current profile nearly uniform electron temperature is obtained, which at the B-fields studied (600-1200 G) give a small but significant fraction (0.25 or less) of electron to negative ion transverse loss. For a more transverse-confined current, and approximating the higher mass and attachment reaction rate of iodine, the fraction of electron to negative ion transverse loss can be made very small. The models which have been constructed reasonably approximate the PIC results and indicate that the cross-field transport is nearly classical.

Kawamura, E.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Lieberman, M. A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1770 (United States)

2010-11-15

129

Two dimensional self-consistent fluid simulation of rf inductive sources

The two-dimensional (R - Z) electromagnetic code FMRZ has been written to model inductive sources self-consistently in time. The code models an argon plasma with momentum-transfer, excitation and ionization as electron-neutral reactions and scattering and charge-exchange for the ion-neutral reactions. The electrons and ions are treated as Maxwellian fluid species and a reduced set of Maxwell`s equations is used to advance the electromagnetic fields. The set of equations used in FMRZ is not subject to typical numerical constraints present in many time dynamic codes allowing one to choose appropriate the and space scales to resolve only the frequencies and scale lengths of interest. The model retains nonlinear driving terms which give rise to a pondermotive force that distorts the density profile. Density and power profiles will be used to illustrate the physical effects of various terms in the equations. Trends in average density and temperature compare well with an analytic model.

DiPeso, G.; Vahedi, V.; Hewett, D.W.; Rognlien, T.D.

1993-11-17

130

Simulations of spray autoignition and flame establishment with two-dimensional CMC

The unsteady two-dimensional conditional moment closure (CMC) model with first-order closure of the chemistry and supplied with standard models for the conditional convection and turbulent diffusion terms has been interfaced with a commercial engine CFD code and analyzed with two numerical methods, an 'exact' calculation with the method of lines and a faster fractional-step method. The aim was to examine the sensitivity of the predictions to the operator splitting errors and to identify the extent to which spatial transport terms are important for spray autoignition problems. Despite the underlying simplifications, solution of the full CMC equations allows a single model to be used for the autoignition, flame propagation ('premixed mode'), and diffusion flame mode of diesel combustion, which makes CMC a good candidate model for practical engine calculations. It was found that (i) the conditional averages have significant spatial gradients before ignition and during the premixed mode and (ii) that the inclusion of physical-space transport affects the calculation of the autoignition delay time, both of which suggest that volume-averaged CMC approaches may be inappropriate for diesel-like problems. A balance of terms in the CMC equation before and after autoignition shows the relative magnitude of spatial transport and allows conjectures on the structure of the premixed phase of diesel combustion. Very good agreement with available experimental data is found concerning ignition delays and the effect of background air turbulence on them.

Wright, Y.M.; Boulouchos, K. [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Technology Laboratory, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); De Paola, G.; Mastorakos, E. [Hopkinson Laboratory, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

2005-12-01

131

Hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell simulations of two-dimensional turbulence in plasmas

Turbulence in plasmas is a very challenging problem since it involves wave-particle interactions, which are responsible for phenomena such as plasma dissipation, acceleration mechanisms, heating, temperature anisotropy, and so on. In this work, a hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell numerical code is employed to study local kinetic processes in a two-dimensional turbulent regime. In the present model, ions are treated as a kinetic species, while electrons are considered as a fluid. As recently reported in [S. Servidio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045001 (2012)], nearby regions of strong magnetic activity, kinetic effects manifest through a deformation of the ion velocity distribution function that consequently departs from the equilibrium Maxwellian configuration. Here, the structure of turbulence is investigated in detail in phase space, by evaluating the high-order moments of the particle velocity distribution, i.e., temperature, skewness, and kurtosis. This analysis provides quantitative information about the non-Maxwellian character of the system dynamics. This departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium triggers several processes commonly observed in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

Valentini, F.; Servidio, S.; Veltri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, I-87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Perrone, D. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, 92190 Meudon (France); Califano, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Università di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Matthaeus, W. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

2014-08-15

132

This paper describes a two-dimensional (2D) finite element simulation for fracture and fatigue behaviours of pure alumina microstructures such as those found at hip prostheses. Finite element models are developed using actual Al2O3 microstructures and a bilinear cohesive zone law. Simulation conditions are similar to those found at a slip zone in a dry contact between a femoral head and an acetabular cup of hip prosthesis. Contact stresses are imposed to generate cracks in the models. Magnitudes of imposed stresses are higher than those found at the microscopic scale. Effects of microstructures and contact stresses are investigated in terms of crack formation. In addition, fatigue behaviour of the microstructure is determined by performing simulations under cyclic loading conditions. It is shown that crack density observed in a microstructure increases with increasing magnitude of applied contact stress. Moreover, crack density increases linearly with respect to the number of fatigue cycles within a given con...

Kim, Kyungmok; Géringer, Jean; 10.1177/0954411911422843

2012-01-01

133

An automated reliable method for two-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations

The development of computational fluid dynamics algorithms and increased computational resources have led to the ability to perform complex aerodynamic simulations. Obstacles remain which prevent autonomous and reliable ...

Modisette, James M

2011-01-01

134

Phenol-benzene complexation dynamics: Quantum chemistry calculation, molecular dynamics simulations the nature and dynamics of the phenol-benzene complex in the mixed solvent, benzene/CCl4. Under thermal used for the phenol-benzene interaction in the MD simulations is in good accord with the highest level

Fayer, Michael D.

135

Numerical simulation of two-dimensional fluid flow with strong shocks

Results of an extensive comparison of numerical methods for simulating hydrodynamics are presented and discussed. This study focuses on the simulation of fluid flows with strong shocks in two dimensions. By ''strong shocks,'' we here refer to shocks in which there is substantial entropy production. For the case of shocks in air, we therefore refer to Mach numbers of three

P. Woodward; P. Colella

1984-01-01

136

A two-dimensional reservoir toxics model is essential to establishing effective water resources management and protection. In a reservoir, the fate of a toxic chemical is closely connected with flow regimes and circulation patterns. To better understand the kinetic processes and persistence and predict the dissipation of toxic contaminants in the reservoir during a spill or storm runoff event, a toxics submodel was developed and incorporated into an existing laterally integrated hydrodynamics and transport model. The toxics submodel describes the physical, chemical, and biological processes and predicts unsteady vertical and longitudinal distributions of a toxic chemical. The two-dimensional toxicant simulation model was applied to Shasta Reservoir in California to simulate the physico-chemical processes and fate of a volatile toxic compound, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), during a chemical spill into the Sacramento River in 1991. The predicted MITC concentrations were compared with those observed. The effect of reservoir flow regimes on the transport and fate of the toxic substance was investigated. The results suggested that the persistence of MITC is significantly influenced by different flow regimes. Methyl isothiocyanate is more persistent in the reservoir under an interflow condition due to reduced volatilization from deep layers than under an overflow condition. In the overflow situation, the plume moved more slowly toward the dam and experienced greater dissipation. This analysis can assist in toxic spill control and reservoir management, including field sampling and closure of water intakes. PMID:12708687

Gu, Roy R; Chung, Se-Woong

2003-01-01

137

Hall MHD Simulations of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comets have highly eccentric orbits and a wide range of gas production rates and thus they are ideal subjects to study the interaction between the solar wind and nonmagnetized bodies. Hansen et al. (2007, Space Sci. Rev. 128, 133) used a fluid-based MHD model and a semi-kinetic hybrid particle model to study the plasma environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG), the Rosetta mission target comet, at different heliocentric distances. They showed that for such a weak comet at a large heliocentric distance, the length scales of the cometosheath and the bow shock are comparable to or smaller than the ion gyroradius, which violates the underlying assumption for a valid fluid description of the plasma. As a result, the classical ideal MHD model is not able to always give physical results, while the hybrid model, which accounts for the kinetic effects of ions with both cometary and solar wind origin, is more reliable. However, hybrid models are computationally expensive and the results can be noisy. A compromise approach is Hall MHD [Toth et al., 2008], which includes the Hall term in the MHD equations and allows for the decoupling of the ion and electron fluids. We use a single ion species Hall MHD model to simulate the plasma environment of comet 67P/CG and compare the results with the two models mentioned above. We find that the Hall effect is capable of reproducing some features of the hybrid model and thus extends the applicability of MHD. In addition, this study helps to identify the conditions and regions in the cometary plasma where the Hall effect is not negligible. This work is supported by NSF Planetary Astronomy grant AST0707283 and JPL subcontract 1266313 under NASA grant NMO710889.

Shou, Y.; Combi, M. R.; Rubin, M.; Hansen, K. C.; Toth, G.; Gombosi, T. I.

2012-12-01

138

Testing parallel simulators for two-dimensional lattice-gas automata

This paper describes a test method for lattice-gas automata. The test method consists of inserting test patterns into the initial state of the automation and using a graphics display to detect errors. The test patterns are carefully constructed limit cycles that are disrupted by errors occurring at any level of the simulator system. The patterns can be run independently to test the system for debugging purposes, or they can be run as sub-simulations embedded in a larger lattice-gas simulation to detect faults at runtime. The authors describe the use of this method on a prototype parallel machine for lattice-gas simulations, and discuss the range of systems that can make use of this type of test method. The test patterns detect all significant one-bit errors. The authors include experimental results indicating that multiple bit errors are unlikely to escape detection.

Squier, R.; Steiglitz, K.

1990-01-01

139

Monte Carlo-molecular dynamics simulations for two-dimensional magnets

A combined Monte Carlo-molecular dynamics simulation technique is used to study the dynamic structure factor on a square lattice for isotropic Heisenberg and planar classical ferromagnetic spin Hamiltonians.

Kawabata, C.; takeuchi, M.; Bishop, A.R.

1985-01-01

140

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a method that enables a fast and exact evaluation of the long-range interaction field by simulating the lattice dipolar systems with periodic boundary conditions. The method is based on the combination of the fast-Fourier-transformation technique and the modified Ewald method for the lattice sum calculation. We have used our algorithm for simulations of the quasistatic remagnetization processes in two-dimensional hexagonal lattices of dipoles with the uniaxial on-site anisotropy (anisotropic Heisenberg model with the long-range dipolar interaction), which can be considered as a plausible model of a thin polycrystalline magnetic film with the intergrain exchange and with each crystallite having its own single-grain anisotropy. During the remagnetization process we observe typical ripplelike magnetization structures well known from the experimental observations. The parameters of these structures as functions of the exchange and anisotropy strength are studied.

Berkov, D. V.; Gorn, N. L.

1998-06-01

141

In supernova remnants, the nonlinear amplification of magnetic fields upstream of collisionless shocks is essential for the acceleration of cosmic rays to the energy of the 'knee' at 10{sup 15.5} eV. A nonresonant instability driven by the cosmic ray current is thought to be responsible for this effect. We perform two-dimensional, particle-in-cell simulations of this instability. We observe an initial growth of circularly polarized nonpropagating magnetic waves as predicted in linear theory. It is demonstrated that in some cases the magnetic energy density in the growing waves can grow to at least 10 times its initial value. We find no evidence of competing modes, nor of significant modification by thermal effects. At late times, we observe saturation of the instability in the simulation, but the mechanism responsible is an artifact of the periodic boundary conditions and has no counterpart in the supernova-shock scenario.

Ohira, Yutaka; Takahara, Fumio [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Reville, Brian; Kirk, John G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg 69029 (Germany)], E-mail: yutaka@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp

2009-06-10

142

A two-dimensional incompressible plane-stress finite element is formulated for the simulation of the passive-state mechanics of thin myocardial strips. The formulation employs a total Lagrangian and materially nonlinear approach, being based on a recently proposed structural material law, which is derived from the histological composition of the tissue. The ensuing finite element allows to demonstrate the mechanical properties of a single myocardial layer containing uniformly directed fibers by simulating various loading cases such as tension, compression and shear. The results of these cases show that the fiber direction is considerably stiffer than the cross-fiber direction, that there is significant coupling between these two directions, and that the shear stiffness of the tissue is lower than its tensile and compressive stiffness. PMID:3347024

Horowitz, A; Sheinman, I; Lanir, Y; Perl, M; Sideman, S

1988-02-01

143

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method (MCB-DQM) is employed for the numerical simulation of two-space dimensional nonlinear sine-Gordon equation with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The modified cubic B-spline works as a basis function in the differential quadrature method to compute the weighting coefficients. Accordingly, two dimensional sine-Gordon equation is transformed into a system of second order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The resultant system of ODEs is solved by employing an optimal five stage and fourth-order strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta scheme (SSP-RK54). Numerical simulation is discussed for both damped and undamped cases. Computational results are found to be in good agreement with the exact solution and other numerical results available in the literature.

Shukla, H. S.; Tamsir, Mohammad; Srivastava, Vineet K.

2015-01-01

144

Silicon power MOSFET at low temperatures: A two-dimensional computer simulation study

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how the structure of the unit-cell affects the cryogenic performance of a Si power Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) is an important step toward optimizing of the device for cryogenic operations. In this paper, numerical simulations of the Si power Double Diffused MOSFET' (DMOS) are performed at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. Physically based models for temperature dependent silicon properties are employed in the simulations. The performances of power DMOS' with various unit-cell structures are compared at both room temperature and low temperatures. The effect of the cell structure on the on-resistance and breakdown voltage of the device are analyzed. The simulation results suggest that the device optimized for room temperature operation can be further optimized at cryogenic temperatures.

Ye, Hua; Lee, Changwoo; Raynolds, James; Haldar, Pradeep; Hennessy, Michael J.; Mueller, Eduard K.

2007-04-01

145

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) model, the SEEA discharge on the vacuum insulator surface is simulated by using a 2D PIC-MCC code developed by ourselves. The evolutions of the number of discharge electrons, insulator surface charge, current, and 2D particle distribution are obtained. The effects of the strength of the applied electric field, secondary electron yield coefficient, rise time of the pulse, length of the insulator on the discharge are investigated. The results show that the number of the SEEA electrons presents a quadratic dependence upon the applied field strength. The SEEA current, which is on the order of Ampere, is directly proportional to the field strength and secondary electron yield coefficient. Finally, the electron-stimulated outgassing is included in the simulation code, and a three-phase discharge curve is presented by the simulation, which agrees with the experimental data.

Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiangqin; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui

2015-01-01

146

Two-dimensional Navier--Stokes simulation of deformation and break up of liquid patches

The large deformations and break up of circular 2D liquid patches in a high Reynolds number (Re=1000) gas flow are investigated numerically. The 2D, plane flow Navier--Stokes equations are directly solved with explicit tracking of the interface between the two phases and a new algorithm for surface tension. The numerical method is able to pursue the simulation beyond the breaking or coalescence of droplets. The simulations are able to unveil the intriguing details of the non-linear interplay between the deforming droplets and the vortical structures in the droplet's wake.

S. Zaleski; Jie Li; S. Succi

1996-05-24

147

Two-dimensional segmentation of small convective patterns in radiation hydrodynamics simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Recent results from high-resolution solar granulation observations indicate the existence of a population of small granular cells that are smaller than 600 km in diameter. These small convective cells strongly contribute to the total area of granules and are located in the intergranular lanes, where they form clusters and chains. Aims: We study high-resolution radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the upper convection zone and photosphere to detect small granular cells, define their spatial alignment, and analyze their physical properties. Methods: We developed an automated image-segmentation algorithm specifically adapted to high-resolution simulations to identify granules. The resulting segmentation masks were applied to physical quantities, such as intensity and vertical velocity profiles, provided by the simulation. A new clustering algorithm was developed to study the alignment of small granular cells. Results: Small granules make a distinct contribution to the total area of granules and form clusters of chain-like alignments. The simulation profiles demonstrate a different nature for small granular cells because they exhibit on average lower intensities, lower horizontal velocities, and are located deeper inside of convective layers than regular granules. Their intensity distribution deviates from a normal distribution as known for larger granules, and follows a Weibull distribution.

Lemmerer, B.; Utz, D.; Hanslmeier, A.; Veronig, A.; Thonhofer, S.; Grimm-Strele, H.; Kariyappa, R.

2014-03-01

148

Long-Range Transmission of Pollutants Simulated by a Two-Dimensional Pseudospectral Dispersion Model

The pseudospectral dispersion model (Christensen and Prahm, 1976) is adapted for simulation of the long-range transmission of sulphur pollutants in the European region, covering an area of about 4000 km × 4000 km. Regional `background' concentrations of sulphur oxides are found to be highly dependent on distant sources and to correlate poorly with local source strength during the considered three-

Lars P. Prahm; Ove Christensen

1977-01-01

149

Simulation of Two Dimensional Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Teaching Proteomics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In proteomics, complex mixtures of proteins are separated (usually by chromatography or electrophoresis) and identified by mass spectrometry. We have created 2DE Tandem MS, a computer program designed for use in the biochemistry, proteomics, or bioinformatics classroom. It contains two simulations--2D electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.…

Fisher, Amanda; Sekera, Emily; Payne, Jill; Craig, Paul

2012-01-01

150

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the formation process of linear-shaped charge jet using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Different material yield models are embed to test the performance of SPH method in the simulation of explosive driven metal liner. The effects of different ignition model to the formation of metal jet have also been studied.

Yang Gang; Han Xu; Hu Dean

2011-01-01

151

A two-dimensional resistance simulator using the boundary element method

A new resistance simulator for extraction of the parasitic parameters from VLSI layout is presented. The cal- culation of resistor network is based on the boundary element method (BEM). The computational results indicate that the BEM has an advantage over the finite difference method (FDM) and the finite element method (FEM). Since only discretized equations on the boundary of solved

Zeyi Wang; Qiming Wu

1992-01-01

152

A FORTRAN-77 computer program code that helps solve a variety of aquifer management problems involving the control of groundwater hydraulics. It is intended for use with any standard mathematical programming package that uses Mathematical Programming System input format. The computer program creates the input files to be used by the optimization program. These files contain all the hydrologic information and management objectives needed to solve the management problem. Used in conjunction with a mathematical programming code, the computer program identifies the pumping or recharge strategy that achieves a user 's management objective while maintaining groundwater hydraulic conditions within desired limits. The objective may be linear or quadratic, and may involve the minimization of pumping and recharge rates or of variable pumping costs. The problem may contain constraints on groundwater heads, gradients, and velocities for a complex, transient hydrologic system. Linear superposition of solutions to the transient, two-dimensional groundwater flow equation is used by the computer program in conjunction with the response matrix optimization method. A unit stress is applied at each decision well and transient responses at all control locations are computed using a modified version of the U.S. Geological Survey two dimensional aquifer simulation model. The program also computes discounted cost coefficients for the objective function and accounts for transient aquifer conditions. (Author 's abstract)

Lefkoff, L.J.; Gorelick, S.M.

1987-01-01

153

Numerical simulation of two-dimensional wave propagation in functionally graded materials

The propagation of stress waves in functionally graded materials (FGMs) is studied numerically by means of the composite wave-propagation algorithm. Two distinct models of FGMs are considered: (i) a multilayered metal–ceramic composite with averaged properties within layers; (ii) randomly embedded ceramic particles in a metal matrix with prescribed volume fraction. The numerical simulation demonstrates the applicability of that algorithm to the modelling

Arkadi Berezovski; Juri Engelbrecht; G. A Maugin

2003-01-01

154

Two-dimensional Navier--Stokes simulation of deformation and break up of liquid patches

The large deformations and break up of circular 2D liquid patches in a high Reynolds number (Re=1000) gas flow are investigated numerically. The 2D, plane flow Navier--Stokes equations are directly solved with explicit tracking of the interface between the two phases and a new algorithm for surface tension. The numerical method is able to pursue the simulation beyond the breaking

Stéphane Zaleski; Jie Li; Sauro Succi

1995-01-01

155

A direct SRAM soft-error cross-section simulation with two-dimensional transport calculations

An advance in the simulation methodology for memory circuit soft-error is accomplished by simultaneous calculation of transient charge transport and circuit response for the four cross-coupled CMOS transistors of a SRAM cell following a severe carrier density perturbation. By comparing the critical circuit voltage required for error immunity directly with the experiments, we circumvented limitations imposed by 2D approximation and

J. S. Fur; H. T. Weaver; R. Koga; W. A. Kolasinski

1985-01-01

156

Two-dimensional mesoscale simulations of shock response of dry sand

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations were done to gain insight whether the shock response of dry sand at low stresses would vary with porosity and whether the effects of friction between grains under confinement could be extracted from the planar plate impact experimental data. The sand sample was modeled as grains separated by voids representing porosity. The simulation procedure coupled grain deformations with frictional sliding at grain boundaries. The shock response of dry sand varied considerably with porosity. The sample compacted through pore closure followed by inelastic pore collapse mechanisms affecting the inhomogeneous response and shock rise time. The sample attained final compaction in the shock state long after attaining peak longitudinal velocity/stress. The calculated shock Hugoniot for a sample of high (40%) porosity was in agreement with experimental data. The Us-Up slopes for sand of 10% and 20% porosity were found to be negative. The calculated ?H-?H Hugoniot suggested that the two slopes would become positive at higher stresses in order to approach the solid Z-cut quartz Hugoniot at full compaction. High porosity sand may never exhibit negative slopes. It is concluded that the effects of friction between grains can be successfully extracted from a coupled experimental-computational approach. This requires measuring the velocity profile in the back buffer, elastic buffer material, and code capable of simulating frictional sliding between grains. The dispersion effect increased the slope of the velocity profile with propagation distance but did not result in a wave speed reduction or shock attenuation. This may be due to the small grain size and sample thickness as well as the absence of grain fragmentation in the present simulations.

Dwivedi, S. K.; Pei, L.; Teeter, R.

2015-02-01

157

Simulating the collapse transition of a two-dimensional semiflexible lattice polymer

It has been revealed by mean-field theories and computer simulations that the nature of the collapse transition of a polymer is influenced by its bending stiffness $\\epsilon_{\\rm b}$. In two dimensions, a recent analytical work demonstrated that the collapse transition of a partially directed lattice polymer is always first-order as long as $\\epsilon_{\\rm b}$ is positive [H. Zhou {\\em et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 97}, 158302 (2006)]. Here we employ Monte Carlo simulation to investigate systematically the effect of bending stiffness on the static properties of a 2D lattice polymer. The system's phase-diagram at zero force is obtained. Depending on $\\epsilon_{\\rm b}$ and the temperature $T$, the polymer can be in one of three phases: crystal, disordered globule, or swollen coil. The crystal-globule transition is discontinuous, the globule-coil transition is continuous. At moderate or high values of $\\epsilon_{\\rm b}$ the intermediate globular phase disappears and the polymer has only a discontinuous crystal-coil transition. When an external force is applied, the force-induced collapse transition will either be continuous or discontinuous, depending on whether the polymer is originally in the globular or the crystal phase at zero force. The simulation results also demonstrate an interesting scaling behavior of the polymer at the force-induced globule-coil transition.

Jie Zhou; Zhong-Can Ou-Yang; Haijun Zhou

2008-01-07

158

Two-Dimensional Distribution of Volatiles in the Lunar Regolith from Space Weathering Simulations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present simulations of space weathering effects on ice deposits in regions of permanent shadow on the Moon. These Monte Carlo simulations follow the effects of space weathering processes on the distribution of the volatiles over time. The model output constrains the coherence of volatile deposits with depth, lateral separation, and time. The results suggest that ice sheets become broken and buried with time. As impacts begin to puncture an initially coherent surficial ice sheet, small areas with a deficit of ice compared to surrounding areas are formed first. As time progresses, holes become prevalent and the anomalous regions are local enhancements of ice concentration in a volume. The 3-D distribution is also heterogeneous because the ice is buried to varying depths in different locations. Analysis of the coherence of ice on 10 cm scales predicts that putative ice sheets in anomalous radar craters are < 100 Myr old. Surface frost becomes homogenized within 20 Myr. The simulations show the data from the LCROSS impact and surrounding region are consistent with the ice deposit in Cabeus being >1000 Myr old. For future in situ analysis of cold trap volatiles, a horizontal range of 10 m is sufficient to acquire surface-based measurements of heterogeneously distributed ice. These results also support previous analyses that Mercury's cold traps are young.

Hurley, Dana M.; Lawrence, David J.; Bussey, D. Benjamin J.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Elphic, Richard C.; Gladstone, G. Randall

2012-01-01

159

Two-dimensional solar cell simulations by means of circuit modeling

In this work, the authors present a circuit model to perform multidimensional solar cell simulations. This model allows for incorporating effects of lateral current flows in solar cells, keeping the required time and computer resources relatively low. The use and sensitivity of the model will be described based on its application towards the design of metallization patterns for locally passivated back surface structures. As a second application the authors present the usage of the model to study the influence of different cell parameters such as surface recombination velocities and cell thickness on its performance.

Kerschaver, E. van; Nijs, J.; Mertens, R. [IMEC vzw, Heverlee (Belgium); Ghannam, M. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait)

1997-12-31

160

We analyze the scaling laws for a set of two different species of long flexible polymer chains joined together at one of their extremities (copolymer stars) in space dimension D=2. We use a formerly constructed field-theoretic description and compare our perturbative results for the scaling exponents with recent conjectures for exact conformal scaling dimensions derived by a conformal invariance technique in the context of D=2 quantum gravity. A simple MC simulation brings about reasonable agreement with both approaches. We analyse the remarkable multifractal properties of the spectrum of scaling exponents.

Christian von Ferber; Yurij Holovatch

2002-03-25

161

Two-dimensional multispecies simulations of adjacent pixels separated by a barrier height 80% the gap height in a plasma display pixel cell are performed. The fill gas pressure is 400 torr with 2% xenon in helium. The simulations using a minimum number of excited states of helium and xenon are performed for different cell widths representing different display resolutions. The simulations show plasma transport through the gap to the adjacent pixel which is in the sustained off state. In a sustained off state, there is no discharge in the pixel at the sustained voltage. The simulations show that for low-resolution displays, the plasma overflow does not cause a discharge in the adjacent pixel that is in the sustained off mode, while for a high-resolution display a 20% gap in the barrier height could result in a breakdown in the adjacent off pixel. A higher pixel resolution, or equivalently smaller pixel pitch, requires higher firing and sustained voltages due primarily to increased particle losses as a result of the reduced particle transit times. Finally, using a larger number of excited xenon atomic states, an isolated single pixel is simulated to model the transport of excited states including the radiative states. The model shows that the density profiles peak in the cathode fall region spreading out to the side walls with decreasing intensity.

Veerasingam, R.; Campbell, R.B.; McGrath, R.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-12-01

162

Two Dimensional Simulations of Plastic-Shell, Direct-Drive Implosions on OMEGA

Multidimensional hydrodynamic properties of high-adiabat direct-drive plastic-shell implosions on the OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] are investigated using the multidimensional hydrodynamic code, DRACO. Multimode simulations including the effects of nonuniform illumination and target roughness indicate that shell stability during the acceleration phase plays a critical role in determining target performance. For thick shells that remain integral during the acceleration phase, target yields are significantly reduced by the combination of the long-wavelength ({ell} < 10) modes due to surface roughness and beam imbalance and the intermediate modes (20 {le} {ell} {le} 50) due to single-beam nonuniformities. The neutron-production rate for these thick shells truncates relative to one-dimensional (1-D) predictions. The yield degradation in the thin shells is mainly due to shell breakup at short wavelengths ({lambda} {approx} {Delta}, where {Delta} is the in-flight shell thickness). The neutron-rate curves for the thinner shells have significantly lower amplitudes and a fall-off that is less steep than 1-D rates. DRACO simulation results are consistent with experimental observations.

Radha, P B; Goncharov, V N; Collins, T B; Delettrez, J A; Elbaz, Y; Glebov, V Y; Keck, R L; Keller, D E; Knauer, J P; Marozas, J A; Marshall, F J; McKenty, P W; Meyerhofer, D D; Regan, S P; Sangster, T C; Shvarts, D; Skupsky, S; Srebro, Y; Town, R J; Stoeckl, C

2004-09-27

163

FRANC2D: A two-dimensional crack propagation simulator. Version 2.7: User's guide

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FRANC 2D (FRacture ANalysis Code, 2 Dimensions) is a menu driven, interactive finite element computer code that performs fracture mechanics analyses of 2-D structures. The code has an automatic mesh generator for triangular and quadrilateral elements. FRANC2D calculates the stress intensity factor using linear elastic fracture mechanics and evaluates crack extension using several methods that may be selected by the user. The code features a mesh refinement and adaptive mesh generation capability that is automatically developed according to the predicted crack extension direction and length. The code also has unique features that permit the analysis of layered structure with load transfer through simulated mechanical fasteners or bonded joints. The code was written for UNIX workstations with X-windows graphics and may be executed on the following computers: DEC DecStation 3000 and 5000 series, IBM RS/6000 series, Hewlitt-Packard 9000/700 series, SUN Sparc stations, and most Silicon Graphics models.

Wawrzynek, Paul; Ingraffea, Anthony

1994-01-01

164

Two Dimensional Wake Vortex Simulations in the Atmosphere: Preliminary Sensitivity Studies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical large-eddy simulation model is currently being used to quantify aircraft wake vortex behavior with meteorological observables. The model, having a meteorological framework, permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, and humidity. The addition of grid-scale turbulence as an initial condition appeared to have little consequence. Results show that conventional nondimensionalizations work very well for vortex pairs embedded in stably stratified flows. However, this result is based on simple environments with constant Brunt-Vaisala frequency. Results presented here also show that crosswind profiles exert important and complex interactions on the trajectories of wake vortices. Nonlinear crosswind profiles tended to arrest the descent of wake vortex pairs. The member of the vortex pair with vorticity of same sign as the vertical change in the ambient along-track vorticity may be deflected upwards.

Proctor, F. H.; Hinton, D. A.; Han, J.; Schowalter, D. G.; Lin, Y.-L.

1998-01-01

165

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Triangular Spectral Element Method (TSEM) is presented to simulate elastic wave propagation using an unstructured triangulation of the physical domain. TSEM makes use of a variational formulation of elastodynamics based on unstructured straight-sided triangles that allow enhanced flexibility when dealing with complex geometries and velocity structures. The displacement field is expanded into a high-order polynomial spectral approximation over each triangular subdomain. Continuity between the subdomains of the triangulation is enforced using a multidimensional Lagrangian interpolation built on a set of Fekete points of the triangle. High-order accuracy is achieved by resorting to an analytical computation of the associated internal product and bilinear forms leading to a non-diagonal mass matrix formulation. Therefore, the time stepping involves the solution of a sparse linear algebraic system even in the explicit case. In this paper the accuracy and the geometrical flexibility of the TSEM is explored. Comparison with classical spectral elements on quadrangular grids shows similar results in terms of accuracy and stability even for long simulations. Surface and interface waves are shown to be accurately modelled even in the case of complex topography with the TSEM. Numerical results are presented for 2-D canonical examples as well as more specific problems, such as 2-D elastic wave scattering by a cylinder embedded in an homogeneous half-space. They all illustrate the enhanced geometrical flexibility of the TSEM. This clearly suggests the need of further investigations in computational seismology specifically targeted towards efficient implementations of the TSEM both in the time and the frequency domain.

Mercerat, E. D.; Vilotte, J. P.; Sánchez-Sesma, F. J.

2006-08-01

166

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed, based on the theoretical spectroscopic modeling, how the differences in the folding landscapes of two ?-hairpin peptides trpzip2 and trpzip4 are reflected in their thermal unfolding infrared measurements. The isotope-edited equilibrium FTIR and two dimensional infrared spectra of the two peptides were calculated, using the nonlinear exciton propagation method, at a series of temperatures. The spectra calculations were based on the configuration distributions generated using the GBOBC implicit solvent MD simulation and the integrated tempering sampling technique. Conformational analysis revealed the different local thermal stabilities for these two peptides, which suggested the different folding landscapes. Our study further suggested that the ellipticities of the isotope peaks in the coherent IR signals are more sensitive to these local stability differences compared with other spectral features such as the peak intensities. Our technique can thus be combined with the relevant experimental measurements to achieve a better understanding of the peptide folding behaviors.

Wu, Tianmin; Zhang, Ruiting; Li, Huanhuan; Yang, Lijiang; Zhuang, Wei

2014-02-01

167

A two-dimensional simulation of tritium transport in the vadose zone at the Nevada Test site

The site of a 0.75-kiloton underground nuclear explosion, the Cambric event, was selected for the study of radionuclide transport in the hydrologic environment. Water samples from RNM-2S, a well located 91 m from Cambric, have been analyzed for tritium and other radionuclides since the initiation of pumping. Water from RNM-2S flows to Frenchman Lake via an unlined canal. Flume data indicate canal transmission losses of approximately 2m{sup 3}/day/meter of canal. To determine if infiltrating canal water might be recirculated by RNM-2S, and therefore provide an additional radionuclide input to water samples collected at RNM-2S, a two-dimensional variably saturated solute transport computer model (SATURN, Huyakorn et al., 1983) was used to simulate the movement of tritium from the canal to the water table. Results indicate that recirculated canal water has not had a significant effect on the breakthrough of tritium at RNM-2S.

Ross, W.C.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

1994-09-01

168

We analyzed, based on the theoretical spectroscopic modeling, how the differences in the folding landscapes of two ?-hairpin peptides trpzip2 and trpzip4 are reflected in their thermal unfolding infrared measurements. The isotope-edited equilibrium FTIR and two dimensional infrared spectra of the two peptides were calculated, using the nonlinear exciton propagation method, at a series of temperatures. The spectra calculations were based on the configuration distributions generated using the GB{sup OBC} implicit solvent MD simulation and the integrated tempering sampling technique. Conformational analysis revealed the different local thermal stabilities for these two peptides, which suggested the different folding landscapes. Our study further suggested that the ellipticities of the isotope peaks in the coherent IR signals are more sensitive to these local stability differences compared with other spectral features such as the peak intensities. Our technique can thus be combined with the relevant experimental measurements to achieve a better understanding of the peptide folding behaviors.

Wu, Tianmin; Zhang, Ruiting; Li, Huanhuan; Zhuang, Wei, E-mail: wzhuang@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: lijiangy@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China); Yang, Lijiang, E-mail: wzhuang@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: lijiangy@pku.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2014-02-07

169

A Nonlinear 3D MHD Code NFTC for Numerical Simulations of Plasma Instabilities in Tokamaks

In this report a new nonlinear 3D MHD code NFTC is presented for the numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of plasmas. The nonlinear 3D evolution of a tokamak plasma is described by the full (nonreduced, compressible) MHD system of equations in general toroidal geometry. The equations include a viscosity, resistivity and sources. Arbitrary plasma rotation is included in terms

Y. Q. Liu; A. M. Popov; N. N. Popova; A. V. Pedorenko

1997-01-01

170

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquatic habitat models utilize flow variables which may be predicted with one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models to simulate aquatic habitat quality. Studies focusing on the effects of hydrodynamic model dimensionality on predicted aquatic habitat quality are limited. Here we present the analysis of the impact of flow variables predicted with 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models on simulated spatial distribution of habitat quality and Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fall-spawning Chinook salmon. Our study focuses on three river systems located in central Idaho (USA), which are a straight and pool-riffle reach (South Fork Boise River), small pool-riffle sinuous streams in a large meadow (Bear Valley Creek) and a steep-confined plane-bed stream with occasional deep forced pools (Deadwood River). We consider low and high flows in simple and complex morphologic reaches. Results show that 1D and 2D modeling approaches have effects on both the spatial distribution of the habitat and WUA for both discharge scenarios, but we did not find noticeable differences between complex and simple reaches. In general, the differences in WUA were small, but depended on stream type. Nevertheless, spatially distributed habitat quality difference is considerable in all streams. The steep-confined plane bed stream had larger differences between aquatic habitat quality defined with 1D and 2D flow models compared to results for streams with well defined macro-topographies, such as pool-riffle bed forms. KEY WORDS: one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic models, habitat modeling, weighted usable area (WUA), hydraulic habitat suitability, high and low discharges, simple and complex reaches

Benjankar, R. M.; Sohrabi, M.; Tonina, D.; McKean, J. A.

2013-12-01

171

Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimation of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we developed an aerosol module, designated Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS), that can represent these parameters explicitly by considering new particle formation (NPF), black carbon (BC) aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 µm to resolve both aerosol size (12 bins) and BC mixing state (10 bins) for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters from 1 to 40 nm are resolved using an additional 8 size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module was implemented in the WRF-chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. BC absorption enhancement by coating materials was about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement was estimated to be 10 – 20% over northern East Asia and 20 – 35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast was also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations: NPF increased CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles) over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increased CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles) over southern East Asia. Application of ATRAS to East Asia also showed that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depended strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA processes under different meteorological conditions and emissions.

Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Fast, Jerome D.; Takigawa, M.

2014-09-30

172

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orientational correlations in Langmuir monolayers of nematic and smectic-C liquid crystal (LC) phases are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. In both phases, the orientational correlation functions decay algebraically yet with the different exponents of 1.9 and 0.2 for the nematic and the smectic-C monolayers, respectively. The power law decay, i.e., the absence of long-range orientational order, means the both monolayers should be the ideal 2D system with a continuous symmetry, whereas the large difference in the exponents of power law gives rise to the crucial difference in their optical properties; the nematic monolayer is optically isotropic while the smectic-C monolayer exhibits an anisotropy on the length scale of visible light. Since the exponent is inversely proportional to the molecular exchange energy, the averaged molecular interaction in the nematic monolayer should be an order of magnitude smaller than that in the smectic-C monolayer, which is ascribed to the low molecular density and the weak molecular dipole due to the water molecule. The relation between the molecular interaction and the orientational correlation calculated for the 2D LC system offers much information not only about the 2D LCs but also on the bulk system.

Watanabe, Go; Saito, Jun-Ichi; Kato, Nobuyuki; Tabe, Yuka

2011-02-01

173

Orientational correlations in Langmuir monolayers of nematic and smectic-C liquid crystal (LC) phases are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. In both phases, the orientational correlation functions decay algebraically yet with the different exponents of 1.9 and 0.2 for the nematic and the smectic-C monolayers, respectively. The power law decay, i.e., the absence of long-range orientational order, means the both monolayers should be the ideal 2D system with a continuous symmetry, whereas the large difference in the exponents of power law gives rise to the crucial difference in their optical properties; the nematic monolayer is optically isotropic while the smectic-C monolayer exhibits an anisotropy on the length scale of visible light. Since the exponent is inversely proportional to the molecular exchange energy, the averaged molecular interaction in the nematic monolayer should be an order of magnitude smaller than that in the smectic-C monolayer, which is ascribed to the low molecular density and the weak molecular dipole due to the water molecule. The relation between the molecular interaction and the orientational correlation calculated for the 2D LC system offers much information not only about the 2D LCs but also on the bulk system. PMID:21303144

Watanabe, Go; Saito, Jun-ichi; Kato, Nobuyuki; Tabe, Yuka

2011-02-01

174

Two-dimensional Vlasov Simulation of Driven, Nonlinear Electron Plasma Waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the VALHALLA project at LLNL, we are developing advanced, scalable algorithms for the continuum solution of Vlasov-Maxwell that differ from traditional approaches to continuum Vlasov methods.ootnotetextJ. Banks and J.Hittinger, sub. to IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. (Dec 2009), LLNL-JRNL-420843. Here, continuum solution of the Vlasov-Maxwell system using these techniques is extended to two spatial dimensions and two velocity dimensions. We report Vlasov simulation studies of ponderomotively driven electron plasma waves (EPW) with fixed ions. Motivated plasma waves driven by SRS in light speckles, we consider a driving potential with a finite transverse width. This localization introduces losses as the waves propagate transversely out of the driven region and the particles are only transiently trapped. Linearly, the transverse localization leads to constant phase surfaces that defocus the EPW while nonlinearly, the constant phase surfaces from trapping-induced frequency shifts focus the EPW. We show how these processes are affected by the system length and the boundary conditions.

Hittinger, J. A.; Banks, J. W.; Berger, R. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Brunner, S.

2010-11-01

175

Simulating a two-dimensional frustrated spin system with fermionic resonating-valence-bond states

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frustrated Heisenberg J1-J2 model on a square lattice is numerically investigated by variational Monte Carlo simulations. We propose an antiferromagnetic fermion resonating-valence-bond (AF-fRVB) state that has the ability to examine the entire phase diagram in the J1-J2 model. Two phase transition points, the second order around J2/J1=0.45 and the first order around J2/J1=0.6, can be extracted more clearly than the conventional bosonic RVB state. At the maximally frustrated point (J2/J1=0.5), the AF-fRVB state shows the variational ground-state energy in the thermodynamic limit very close to the one estimated by the projected entangled pair state at the largest bond dimension available. On the other hand, in the frustrated regime 0.4?J2/J1?0.5, AF-fRVB states with exts2 (using the terminology in the field of iron-based superconductors) and dxy pairing symmetries are degenerate in the thermodynamic limit, implying the existence of gapless Dirac excitations in the spinon spectrum.

Chou, Chung-Pin; Chen, Hong-Yi

2014-07-01

176

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of parametric wave phase conjugation (WPC) in application to ultrasound or acoustic waves in magnetostrictive solids has been addressed numerically by Ben Khelil et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 75-83 (2001)] using 1-D unsteady formulation. Here the numerical method presented by Voinovich et al. [Shock waves 13(3), 221-230 (2003)] extends the analysis to the 2-D effects. The employed model describes universally elastic solids and liquids. A source term similar to Ben Khelil et al.'s accounts for the coupling between deformation and magnetostriction due to external periodic magnetic field. The compatibility between the isotropic constitutive law of the medium and the model of magnetostriction has been considered. Supplementary to the 1-D simulations, the present model involves longitudinal/transversal mode conversion at the sample boundaries and separate magnetic field coupling with dilatation and shear stress. The influence of those factors in a 2-D geometry on the potential output of a magneto-elastic wave phase conjugator is analyzed in this paper. The process under study includes propagation of a wave burst of a given frequency from a point source in a liquid into the active solid, amplification of the waves due to parametric resonance, and formation of time-reversed waves, their radiation into liquid, and focusing. The considered subject is particularly important for ultrasonic applications in acoustic imaging, nondestructive testing, or medical diagnostics and therapy.

Voinovich, Peter; Merlen, Alain

2005-12-01

177

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a number of modeling challenges posed by space weather simulations. Most of them arise from the multiscale and multiphysics aspects of the problem. The multiple scales dramatically increase the requirements, in terms of computational resources, because of the need of performing large scale simulations with the proper small-scales resolution. Lately, several suggestions have been made to overcome this difficulty by using various refinement methods which consist in splitting the domain into regions of different resolutions separated by well defined interfaces. The multiphysics issues are generally treated in a similar way: interfaces separate the regions where different equations are solved. This paper presents an innovative approach based on the coexistence of several levels of description, which differ by their resolutions or, potentially, by their physics. Instead of interacting through interfaces, these levels are entirely simulated and are interlocked over the complete extension of the overlap area. This scheme has been applied to a parallelized, two-dimensional, Implicit Moment Method Particle in Cell code in order to investigate its multiscale description capabilities. Simulations of magnetic reconnection and plasma expansion in vacuum are presented and possible implementation options for this scheme on very large systems are also discussed.

Beck, A.; Innocenti, M. E.; Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.

2014-08-01

178

Two-Dimensional Model Simulations of Interannual Variability in the Tropical Stratosphere

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorological data from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) and constituent data from the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) are used to construct yearly zonal mean dynamical fields for the 1990s for use in the GSFC 2-D chemistry and transport model. This allows for interannual dynamical variability to be included in the model constituent simulations. In this study, we focus on the tropical stratosphere. We find that the phase of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) signals in equatorial CH4, and profile and total column 03 data is resolved quite well using this empirically- based 2-D model transport framework. However. the QBO amplitudes in the model constituents are systematically underestimated relative to the observations at most levels. This deficiency is probably due in part to the limited vertical resolutions of the 2-D model and the UKMO and UARS input data sets. We find that using different heating rate calculations in the model affects the interannual and QBO amplitudes in the constituent fields, but has little impact on the phase. Sensitivity tests reveal that the QBO in transport dominates the ozone interannual variability in the lower stratosphere. with the effect of the temperature QBO being dominant in the tipper stratosphere via the strong temperature dependence of the ozone loss reaction rates. We also find that the QBO in odd nitrogen radicals, which is caused by the QBO modulated transport of NOy, plays a significant but not dominant role in determining the ozone QBO variability in the middle stratosphere. The model mean age of air is in good overall agreement with that determined from tropical lower,middle stratospheric OMS balloon observations of SF6 and CO2. The interannual variability of tile equatorial mean age in the model increases with altitude and maximizes near 40 km, with a range, of 4-5 years over the 1993-2000 time period.

Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Rosenfeld, Joan; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

179

3-D MHD Simulation of the Accretion Disk Corona

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution of a magnetic loop in an accretion disk corona is studied by using the resistive MHD code MAB. Axisymmetric corona and infinitesimally-thin accretion disk with the Keplerian velocity profile is used as the initial state. In the accretion disk, conservation of angular momentum prevents the accretion. The microscopic resistivity and viscosity are too small to explain the accretion rate inferred from observations. In this work, we test an idea that the evolution of coronal magnetic fields might make differential rotation flows in the disk to be unstable by leading to the development of coronal magneto- rotational instability (MRI) and enhancement of angular momentum transport in the disk. In our computer simulations, the MHD equations for the accretion disk and its corona are modeled separately. The poloidal component of magnetic field and the velocity field in the disk are used as a boundary condition to advance the coronal flows. The toroidal and radial components of magnetic field are computed in the corona simulation and their boundary values are used in turn to advance the accretion disk flows. This provides a feedback loop between the MHD flows in the accretion disk and its corona. In this report, the evolution of a single coronal magnetic loop and the corresponding angular momentum transport in the disk are considered.

Pankin, A. Y.; Mikic, Z.; Titov, V.; Goodman, J.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Schnack, D. D.

2006-10-01

180

CENTRAL REGIONS OF BARRED GALAXIES: TWO-DIMENSIONAL NON-SELF-GRAVITATING HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

The inner regions of barred galaxies contain substructures such as off-axis shocks, nuclear rings, and nuclear spirals. These substructures may affect star formation, and control the activity of a central black hole (BH) by determining the mass inflow rate. We investigate the formation and properties of such substructures using high-resolution, grid-based hydrodynamic simulations. The gaseous medium is assumed to be infinitesimally thin, isothermal, and non-self-gravitating. The stars and dark matter are represented by a static gravitational potential with four components: a stellar disk, a bulge, a central BH, and a bar. To investigate various galactic environments, we vary the gas sound speed, c{sub s} , as well as the mass of the central BH, M{sub BH}. Once the flow has reached a quasi-steady state, off-axis shocks tend to move closer to the bar major axis as c{sub s} increases. Nuclear rings shrink in size with increasing c{sub s} , but are independent of M{sub BH}, suggesting that the ring position is not determined by the Lindblad resonances. Rings in low-c{sub s} models are narrow since they are occupied largely by gas on x{sub 2}-orbits and well decoupled from nuclear spirals, while they become broad because of large thermal perturbations in high-c{sub s} models. Nuclear spirals persist only when either c{sub s} is small or M{sub BH} is large; they would otherwise be destroyed completely by the ring material on eccentric orbits. The shape and strength of nuclear spirals depend sensitively on c{sub s} and M{sub BH} such that they are leading if both c{sub s} and M{sub BH} are small, weak trailing if c{sub s} is small and M{sub BH} is large, and strong trailing if both c{sub s} and M{sub BH} are large. While the mass inflow rate toward the nucleus is quite small in low-c{sub s} models because of the presence of a narrow nuclear ring, it becomes larger than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when c{sub s} is large, providing a potential explanation of nuclear activity in Seyfert galaxies.

Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Yoon, Doosoo [FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Teuben, Peter J., E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2012-03-01

181

Reduced-MHD Simulations of Toroidally and Poloidally Localized ELMs

Edge localized modes (ELMs) accompany the high-confinement mode (H-mode) in tokamak fusion plasmas. While having the favourable property of removing impurities from the plasma, they can also cause excessive heat loads onto first-wall and divertor structures. Modelling these instabilities in non-linear magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and comparing the results to experimental measurements can contribute to an improved understanding of ELMs. We use the non-linear reduced-MHD code JOREK to study ELMs in the geometry of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. Toroidal mode numbers, poloidal filament sizes, and radial propagation speeds of filaments into the scrape-off layer are in good agreement with observations for type-I ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade. The observed instabilities exhibit a localization of perturbations which is compatible with the "solitary magnetic perturbations" recently discovered in ASDEX Upgrade [R.Wenninger et.al., Solitary Magnetic Perturbations at the ELM Onset, Nucl.Fusion, submitted]. This localizati...

Hoelzl, Matthias; Wenninger, Ronald P; Mueller, Wolf-Christian; Huysmans, Guido T A; Lackner, Karl

2012-01-01

182

Spectral Methods in General Relativistic MHD Simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk I discuss the use of spectral methods in improving the accuracy of a General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) computer code. I introduce SpecCosmo, a GRMHD code developed as a Cactus arrangement at UHCL, and show simulation results using both Fourier spectral methods and finite differencing. This work demonstrates the use of spectral methods with the FFTW 3.3 Fast Fourier Transform package integrated with the Cactus Framework to perform spectral differencing using MPI.

Garrison, David

2012-03-01

183

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A depth-averaged, two-dimensional model was applied to simulate the migration processes of a meandering reach in the West Jordan River in the state of Utah, USA. The sediment continuity equation was solved to determine the rate of bed degradation and aggradation. The rate of bank erosion is calculated by determining bed degradation, lateral erosion, and bank failure. Because bank material in the West Jordan River is stratified with layers of cohesive and non-cohesive materials, a specific bank erosion model was developed to consider stratified layers in the bank surface. This bank erosion model distinguishes itself from other models by relating bank erosion rate with not only flow but also sediment transport near the bank. Additionally, bank height, slope, and thickness of each layer in the bank surface were considered when calculating the rate of bank erosion. The developed model was applied to simulate the processes of meandering migration in the West Jordan River between 1981 and 1992. Historical real-time hydrographic data, as well as field survey data for channel geometry and bed and bank materials, were used as the input data. Simulated cross-sectional geometries after this 12-year period were compared with field measurements, and qualitative and quantitative agreements were reached.

Chen, D.; Duan, J. G.

2005-12-01

184

Magnetic reconnection in Hall MHD simulations including electron inertia

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection is an important physical mechanism of energy conversion in various space plasma physics environments, such as the solar corona or planetary magnetospheres. Theoretical models of magnetic reconnection were first developed within the framework of one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), where the Sweet-Parker regime leads to exceedingly low reconnection rates for most space physics problems. Kinetic plasma effects introduce new spatial and temporal scales into the theoretical description, which might significantly increase the reconnection rates. We work within the framework of two-fluid MHD for a fully ionized hydrogen plasma, retaining the effects of the Hall current and electron inertia. The corresponding equations of motion display three ideal invariants: total energy, electron helicity and ion helicity. We performed 2.5 D Hall MHD simulations including electron inertia using a pseudo-spectral code, which yield exponentially fast numerical convergence. Our results show that reconnection takes place in an electron-dominated region, whose spatial scale is given by the electron skin depth. This region is surrounded by a much larger ion-dominated region, with a spatial scale of the order of the ion skin depth. The computed reconnection rates remain a fair fraction of the Alfven velocity, which is much larger than the Sweet-Parker reconnection rate.

Gomez, D. O.; Andres, N.; Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.

2012-12-01

185

Electron accelerations at high Mach number collisionless shocks are investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with various Alfven Mach numbers, ion-to-electron mass ratios, and the upstream electron {beta}{sub e} (the ratio of the thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure). We find electrons are effectively accelerated at a super-high Mach number shock (M{sub A} {approx} 30) with a mass ratio of M/m = 100 and {beta}{sub e} = 0.5. The electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for accelerating the particles toward the relativistic regime even in two dimensions with a large mass ratio. Buneman instability excited at the leading edge of the foot in the super-high Mach number shock results in a coherent electrostatic potential structure. While multi-dimensionality allows the electrons to escape from the trapping region, they can interact with the strong electrostatic field several times. Simulation runs in various parameter regimes indicate that the electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for producing relativistic particles in extremely high Mach number shocks in supernova remnants, provided that the upstream electron temperature is reasonably low.

Matsumoto, Yosuke [Department of Physics, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro, E-mail: ymatumot@astro.s.chiba-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 1-33, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2012-08-20

186

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo computer simulations with variable shape of the periodic box were performed for a few two-dimensional, hard-body models showing elastically isotropic solid phases. Two examples of homo-molecular (i.e. consisting of identical molecules) systems of anisotropic molecules are discussed which form unusual solid phases, showing negative Poisson's ratio and know as auxetic ones, at densities and pressures higher than the elastically isotropic solid phases. Sharp extremes of the Poisson's ratio were observed for both systems at freezing of the orientational degrees of freedom of the molecules: a minimum was observed for the system for which the auxetic phase with frozen rotation is isotropic and a maximum was found for the other system. This indicates that isotropic auxetic phases can have auxetic precursors with much more negative Poisson's ratios than those characterizing the auxetic phases themselves. An example of a hetero-molecular (i.e. mixture consisting of different molecules), elastically isotropic system is also discussed - the polydisperse hard disc system. The simulations revealed a maximum of the Poisson's ratio in the close packing limit at any nonzero polydispersity. Although no manifestation of any auxetic behaviour has been found in this system, the obtained results indicate other unusual effect - a jump (discontinuity) of the Poisson's ratio at close packing when the polydispersity tends to zero. The results obtained in this work demonstrate that the Poisson's ratio can play the role of a sensitive indicator of (at least) some structural changes in solids.

Tretiakov, K. V.; Wojciechowski, K. W.

2005-03-01

187

Analysis and gyrokinetic simulation of MHD Alfven wave interactions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of low-frequency turbulence in magnetized plasmas is a difficult problem due to both the enormous range of scales involved and the variety of physics encompassed over this range. Much of the progress that has been made in turbulence theory is based upon a result from incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), in which energy is only transferred from large scales to small via the collision of Alfven waves propagating oppositely along the mean magnetic field. Improvements in laboratory devices and satellite measurements have demonstrated that, while theories based on this premise are useful over inertial ranges, describing turbulence at scales that approach particle gyroscales requires new theory. In this thesis, we examine the limits of incompressible MHD theory in describing collisions between pairs of Alfven waves. This interaction represents the fundamental unit of plasma turbulence. To study this interaction, we develop an analytic theory describing the nonlinear evolution of interacting Alfven waves and compare this theory to simulations performed using the gyrokinetic code AstroGK. Gyrokinetics captures a much richer set of physics than that described by incompressible MHD, and is well-suited to describing Alfvenic turbulence around the ion gyroscale. We demonstrate that AstroGK is well suited to the study of physical Alfven waves by reproducing laboratory Alfven dispersion data collected using the LAPD. Additionally, we have developed an initialization alogrithm for use with AstroGK that allows exact Alfven eigenmodes to be initialized with user specified amplitudes and phases. We demonstrate that our analytic theory based upon incompressible MHD gives excellent agreement with gyrokinetic simulations for weakly turbulent collisions in the limit that k?rho i << 1. In this limit, agreement is observed in the time evolution of nonlinear products, and in the strength of nonlinear interaction with respect to polarization and scale. We also examine the effect of wave amplitude upon the validity of our analytic solution, exploring the nature of strong turbulence. In the kinetic limit where k? rhoi ? 1 where incompressible MHD is no longer a valid description, we illustrate how the nonlinear evolution departs from our analytic expression. The analytic theory we develop provides a framework from which more sophisticated of weak and strong inertial-range turbulence theories may be developed. Characterization of the limits of this theory may provide guidance in the development of kinetic Alfven wave turbulence.

Nielson, Kevin Derek

188

MHD simulations of boundary layer formation along the dayside Venus ionopause due to mass loading

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of mass-loaded solar wind flow around the dayside of Venus is presented. For conditions appropriate to a low-altitude ionopause the simulations show that mass loading from the pickup of oxygen ions produces a boundary layer of finite thickness along the ionopause. Within this layer the temperatures exhibit strong gradients normal to and away from the ionopause. Furthermore, there is a shear in the bulk flow velocity across the boundary layer, such that the (predominantly tangential) flow decreases in speed as the ionopause is approached and remains small along the ionopause, consistent with Pioneer Venus observations. The total mass density increases significantly as the flow approaches the ionopause, where the contribution of O(+) to the total number density is a few percent. Numerical simulations are carried out for various mass addition rates and demonstrate that the boundary layer develops when oxygen ion production exceeds approximately 2 x 105/cu m/s. For the upstream solar wind parameters and mass loading rates chosen for these simulations, the results are consistent with observations made on the dayside of Venus for average ionopause conditions near 300 km.

McGary, J. E.; Pontius, D. H.

1994-02-01

189

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present computer simulation study of two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) of water confined in reverse micelles (RMs) of various sizes. The present study is motivated by the need to understand the altered dynamics of confined water by performing layerwise decomposition of water, with an aim to quantify the relative contributions of different layers water molecules to the calculated 2D-IR spectrum. The 0-1 transition spectra clearly show substantial elongation, due to inhomogeneous broadening and incomplete spectral diffusion, along the diagonal in the surface water layer of different sized RMs. Fitting of the frequency fluctuation correlation functions reveal that the motion of the surface water molecules is sub-diffusive and indicate the constrained nature of their dynamics. This is further supported by two peak nature of the angular analogue of van Hove correlation function. With increasing system size, the water molecules become more diffusive in nature and spectral diffusion almost completes in the central layer of the larger size RMs. Comparisons between experiments and simulations establish the correspondence between the spectral decomposition available in experiments with the spatial decomposition available in simulations. Simulations also allow a quantitative exploration of the relative role of water, sodium ions, and sulfonate head groups in vibrational dephasing. Interestingly, the negative cross correlation between force on oxygen and hydrogen of O-H bond in bulk water significantly decreases in the surface layer of each RM. This negative cross correlation gradually increases in the central water pool with increasing RMs size and this is found to be partly responsible for the faster relaxation rate of water in the central pool.

Biswas, Rajib; Furtado, Jonathan; Bagchi, Biman

2013-10-01

190

We present computer simulation study of two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) of water confined in reverse micelles (RMs) of various sizes. The present study is motivated by the need to understand the altered dynamics of confined water by performing layerwise decomposition of water, with an aim to quantify the relative contributions of different layers water molecules to the calculated 2D-IR spectrum. The 0-1 transition spectra clearly show substantial elongation, due to inhomogeneous broadening and incomplete spectral diffusion, along the diagonal in the surface water layer of different sized RMs. Fitting of the frequency fluctuation correlation functions reveal that the motion of the surface water molecules is sub-diffusive and indicate the constrained nature of their dynamics. This is further supported by two peak nature of the angular analogue of van Hove correlation function. With increasing system size, the water molecules become more diffusive in nature and spectral diffusion almost completes in the central layer of the larger size RMs. Comparisons between experiments and simulations establish the correspondence between the spectral decomposition available in experiments with the spatial decomposition available in simulations. Simulations also allow a quantitative exploration of the relative role of water, sodium ions, and sulfonate head groups in vibrational dephasing. Interestingly, the negative cross correlation between force on oxygen and hydrogen of O-H bond in bulk water significantly decreases in the surface layer of each RM. This negative cross correlation gradually increases in the central water pool with increasing RMs size and this is found to be partly responsible for the faster relaxation rate of water in the central pool. PMID:24116645

Biswas, Rajib; Furtado, Jonathan; Bagchi, Biman

2013-10-14

191

Plasmoid dynamics in 3D resistive MHD simulations of magnetic reconnection

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection is a well known plasma process believed to lie at the heart of a variety of phenomena such as sub-storms in the Earth's magnetosphere, solar/stellar and accretion-disk flares, sawteeth activity in fusion devices, etc. During reconnection, the global magnetic field topology changes rapidly, leading to the violent release of magnetic energy. Over the past few years, the basic understanding of this fundamental process has undergone profound changes. The validity of the most basic, and widely accepted, reconnection paradigm - the famous Sweet-Parker (SP) model, which predicts that, in MHD, reconnection is extremely slow, its rate scaling as S-1/2, where S is the Lundquist number of the system - has been called into question as it was analytically demonstrated that, for S ? 1, SP-like current sheets are violently unstable to the formation of a large number of secondary islands, or plasmoids. Subsequent numerical simulations in 2D have confirmed the validity of the linear theory, and shown that plasmoids quickly grow to become wider than the thickness of the original SP current sheet, thus effectively changing the underlying reconnection geometry. Ensuing numerical work has revealed that the process of plasmoid formation, coalescence and ejection from the sheet drastically modifies the steady state picture assumed by Sweet and Parker, and leads to the unexpected result that MHD reconnection is independent of S. In this talk, we review these recent developments and present results from three-dimensional simulations of high-Lundquist number reconnection in the presence of a guide field. A parametric study varying the strength of the guide field is presented. Plasmoid flux and width distribution functions are quantified and compared with corresponding two dimensional simulations.

Samtaney, R.; Loureiro, N. F.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Schekochihin, A. A.

2012-04-01

192

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional simulations of stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBBS) with the BZOHAR^1 code have been extended to include ion-ion collisions and spatial nonuniformity in the mean ion flow. BZOHAR hybrid simulations (particle-in-cell kinetic ions and Boltzmann fluid electrons) have shown^2 that SBBS saturation is dominated by ion trapping effects and secondary instability of the primary ion wave (decay into subharmonic ion waves and ion quasi-modes). Here we address the effects of ion collisions^3 on SBBS saturation and employ the efficient Langevin ion collision algorithm of Ref. 4 and the Fokker-Planck collision operator of Ref. 5. We also report simulations of SBBS with a linear gradient in the mean ion drift, which in conjunction with the nonlinear frequency shift due to ion trapping can introduce auto-resonance effects that may enhance reflectivities.^6 For SBBS in a high-gain limit with ion collisions or inhomogeneity, we find that ion trapping and secondary ion wave instabilities are robust saturation mechanisms. *Work performed for US DOE by UC LLNL under Contr. W-7405-ENG-48. ^1B.I. Cohen, et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 956 (1997). ^2B.I. Cohen, et al., Phys. Plasmas, 12, 052703 (2005),. ^ 3P.W. Rambo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 83 (1997). ^ 4M.E. Jones, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 123, 169, (1996). ^ 5W. M. Manheimer, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 138, 563 (1997). ^ 6E.A. Williams, et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 231 (2004).

Cohen, B. I.

2005-10-01

193

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been known as one of the cause of virus-induced cancer such as cervical cancer and carcinoma. Among other types of cancer, this type has higher chance in being prevented earlier. The main idea is to eradicate the virus as soon as it enters the body by marking it with antibodies; signaling the immune system to dispose of it. However, the antibodies must be trained to recognize the virus. They can be trained by inserting an object similar to the virus allowing them to learn to recognize and surround the inserted object. In response to this, molecular dynamics simulation was chosen to study the antibody-virus interaction. In this work, two-dimensional case that involves HPV and immunoglobulin (Ig) was studied and observed. Two types of objects will be defined; one stands for HPV while another stands for antibodies. The interaction between the two objects will be governed by two forces; Coulomb force and repulsive contact force. Through the definition of some rules and condition, th...

Haris, Luman; Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Haryanto, Freddy; Viridi, Sparisoma

2013-01-01

194

FireStem2D – A Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Simulating Tree Stem Injury in Fires

FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes. PMID:23894599

Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Bohrer, Gil; Bova, Anthony S.; Subramanian, Ravishankar; Frasson, Renato P. M.; Scherzer, Amy; Butler, Bret W.; Dickinson, Matthew B.

2013-01-01

195

Recent observations of gaps and non-axisymmetric features in the dust distributions of transition disks have been interpreted as evidence of embedded massive protoplanets. However, comparing the predictions of planet-disk interaction models to the observed features has shown far from perfect agreement. This may be due to the strong approximations used for the predictions. For example, spiral arm fitting typically uses results that are based on low-mass planets in an isothermal gas. In this work, we describe two-dimensional, global, hydrodynamical simulations of disks with embedded protoplanets, with and without the assumption of local isothermality, for a range of planet-to-star mass ratios 1-10 M_jup for a 1 M_sun star. We use the Pencil Code in polar coordinates for our models. We find that the inner and outer spiral wakes of massive protoplanets (M>5 M_jup) produce significant shock heating that can trigger buoyant instabilities. These drive sustained turbulence throughout the disk when they occur. The str...

Richert, Alexander J W; Boley, Aaron; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Turner, Neal

2015-01-01

196

The hinge region of a mechanical bileaflet valve is implicated in blood damage and initiation of thrombus formation. Detailed fluid dynamic analysis in the complex geometry of the hinge region during the closing phase of the bileaflet valve is the focus of this study to understand the effect of fluid-induced stresses on the activation of platelets. A fixed-grid Cartesian mesh flow solver is used to simulate the blood flow through a two-dimensional geometry of the hinge region of a bi-leaflet mechanical valve. Use of local mesh refinement algorithm provides mesh adaptation based on the gradients of flow in the constricted geometry of the hinge. Leaflet motion is specified from the fluid-structure interaction analysis of the leaflet dynamics during the closing phase from a previous study which focused on the fluid mechanics at the gap between the leaflet edges and the valve housing. A Lagrangian particle tracking method is used to model and track the platelets and to compute the magnitude of the shear stress on the platelets as they pass through the hinge region. Results show that there is a boundary layer separation in the gaps between the leaflet ear and the constricted hinge geometry. Separated shear layers roll up into vortical structures that lead to high residence times combined with exposure to high shear stresses for particles in the hinge region. Particles are preferentially entrained into this re-circulation zone, presenting the possibility of platelet activation, aggregation, and initiation of thrombi. PMID:19154061

Govindarajan, V.; Udaykumar, H.S.; Chandran, K.B.

2009-01-01

197

Global MHD Simulation of Mesoscale Structures at the Magnetospheric Boundary

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research carried out for this protocol was focused on the study of mesoscales structures at the magnetospheric boundary. We investigated three areas: (1) the structure of the magnetospheric boundary for steady solar wind conditions; (2) the dynamics of the dayside magnetospheric boundary and (3) the dynamics of the distant tail magnetospheric boundary. Our approach was to use high resolution three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere. We first considered simple variations of the interplanetary conditions to obtain generic cases that helped us in establishing the basic cause and effect relationships for steady solar wind conditions. Subsequently, we used actual solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters measured by an upstream spacecraft as input to the simulations and compared the simulation results with sequences of events observed by another or several other spacecraft located downstream the bow shock. In particular we compared results with observations made when spacecraft crossed the magnetospheric boundary.

Berchem, Jean

1998-01-01

198

Understanding Accretion Disks through Three Dimensional Radiation MHD Simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I study the structures and thermal properties of black hole accretion disks in the radiation pressure dominated regime. Angular momentum transfer in the disk is provided by the turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI), which is calculated self-consistently with a recently developed 3D radiation magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) code based on Athena. This code, developed by my collaborators and myself, couples both the radiation momentum and energy source terms with the ideal MHD equations by modifying the standard Godunov method to handle the stiff radiation source terms. We solve the two momentum equations of the radiation transfer equations with a variable Eddington tensor (VET), which is calculated with a time independent short characteristic module. This code is well tested and accurate in both optically thin and optically thick regimes. It is also accurate for both radiation pressure and gas pressure dominated flows. With this code, I find that when photon viscosity becomes significant, the ratio between Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress from the MRI turbulence can increase significantly with radiation pressure. The thermal instability of the radiation pressure dominated disk is then studied with vertically stratified shearing box simulations. Unlike the previous results claiming that the radiation pressure dominated disk with MRI turbulence can reach a steady state without showing any unstable behavior, I find that the radiation pressure dominated disks always either collapse or expand until we have to stop the simulations. During the thermal runaway, the heating and cooling rates from the simulations are consistent with the general criterion of thermal instability. However, details of the thermal runaway are different from the predictions of the standard alpha disk model, as many assumptions in that model are not satisfied in the simulations. We also identify the key reasons why previous simulations do not find the instability. The thermal instability has many important implications for understanding the observations of both X-ray binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs). However, direct comparisons between observations and the simulations require global radiation MHD simulations, which will be the main focus of my future work.

Jiang, Yan-Fei

199

On the characterization of magnetic reconnection in global MHD simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional definition of reconnection rate as the electric field parallel to an x-line is problematic in global MHD simulations for several reasons: the x-line itself may be hard to find in a non-trivial geometry such as at the magnetopause, and the lack of realistic resistivity modelling leaves us without reliable non-convective electric field. In this article we describe reconnection characterization methods that avoid those problems and are practical to apply in global MHD simulations. We propose that the reconnection separator line can be identified as the region where magnetic field lines of different topological properties meet, rather than by local considerations. The global convection associated with reconnection is then quantified by calculating the transfer of mass, energy or magnetic field across the boundary of closed and open field line regions. The extent of the diffusion region is determined from the destruction of electromagnetic energy, given by the divergence of the Poynting vector. Integrals of this energy conversion provide a way to estimate the total reconnection efficiency.

Laitinen, T. V.; Janhunen, P.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Palmroth, M.; Koskinen, H. E. J.

2006-11-01

200

Predictive Simulations of Drift Wave Turbulence, Extended MHD, and Heating and Current Drive

Predictive Simulations of Drift Wave Turbulence, Extended MHD, and Heating and Current Drive Peter as it makes steady progress in simulating drift wave turbulence, extended MHD effects, and heating and current on fluctuations, pedestal and SOL coupling, the density limit, radio frequency (RF) wave propagation and heating

201

A method for numerically simulating quantum systems is proposed and applied to the two-dimensional electron fluid at T = 0. This method maps quantum systems onto classical ones in the spirit of the classical-map hypernetted-chain theory and performs simulations on the latter. The results of the simulations are free from the assumption of the hypernetted-chain approximation and the neglect of

Chieko Totsuji; Takashi Miyake; Kenta Nakanishi; Kenji Tsuruta; Hiroo Totsuji

2009-01-01

202

MHD Simulations of Earth's Bow Shock at low Mach Numbers: Standoff Distances

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global, three-dimensional, ideal MHD simulations of Earth's bow shock are reported for low Alfven Mach numbers M(sub A) and quasi-perpendicular magnetic field orientations. The simulations use a hard, infinitely conducting magnetopauause obstacle, with axisymmetric three-dimensional location given by scaled standard model, to directly address previous gasdynamic (GD) and field-aligned MHD (FA-MHD) work. Tests of the simulated shocks' density jumps X for 1.4 approx. less than MA approx. less than 10 and the high M(sub A) shock location, and reproduction of the GD relation between magnetosheath thickness and X for quasi-gasdynamic MHD runs with M(sub A) much greater than M(sub s), confirm that the MHD code is working correctly. The MHD simulations show the standoff distance a(sub s), increasing monotonically with decreasing M(sub A). Significantly larger a(sub s), are found at low M(sub A) than predicted by GD and phenomenological MHD models and FA-MHD simulations, as required qualitatively by observations. The GD and FA-MHD predictions err qualitatively, predicting either constant or decreasing a(sub s), with decreasing M(sub A). This qualitative difference between quasi- perpendicular MHD and FA-MHD simulations is direct evidence for a(sub s), depending on the magnetic field orientation Theta. The enhancement factor over the phenomenological MHD predictions at MA approx. 2.4 agrees quantitatively with one observatiorial estimate. A linear relationship is found between the magnetosheath thickness and X, modified both quantitatively and intrinsically by MHD effects from the GD result. The MHD and GD results agree in the high M(sub A) limit. An MHD theory is developed for a(sub s), restricted to sufficiently perpendicular Theta and high sonic Mach numbers M(sub s). It explains the simulation results with excellent accuracy. Observational and further simulation testing of this MHD theory, and of its predicted M(sub A), Theta, and M(sub s) effects, is desirable.

Cairns, Iver H.; Lyon, J. G.

1995-01-01

203

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow resistance, ventilation, and pollutant removal for idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of different building-height to street-width (aspect) ratios AR are examined using the friction factor f, air exchange rate (ACH), and pollutant exchange rate (PCH), respectively, calculated by large-eddy simulation (LES). The flows are basically classified into three characteristic regimes, namely isolated roughness, wake interference, and skimming flow, as functions of the aspect ratios. The LES results are validated by various experimental and numerical datasets available in the literature. The friction factor increases with decreasing aspect ratio and reaches a peak at AR = 0.1 in the isolated roughness regime and decreases thereafter. As with the friction factor, the ACH increases with decreasing aspect ratio in the wake interference and skimming flow regimes, signifying the improved aged air removal for a wider street canyon. The PCH exhibits a behaviour different from its ACH counterpart in the range of aspect ratios tested. Pollutants are most effectively removed from the street canyon with AR = 0.5. However, a minimum of PCH is found nearby at AR = 0.3, at which the pollutant removal is sharply weakened. Besides, the ACH and PCH are partitioned into the mean and turbulent components to compare their relative contributions. In line with our earlier Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations (Liu et al., Atmos Environ 45:4763-4769, 2011), the current LES shows that the turbulent components contribute more to both ACH and PCH, consistently demonstrating the importance of atmospheric turbulence in the ventilation and pollutant removal for urban areas.

Chung, Tracy N. H.; Liu, Chun-Ho

2013-07-01

204

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multidimensional infrared (IR) spectroscopy has emerged as a viable tool to study molecular structure and dynamics in condensed phases, and the third-order vibrational response function is the central quantity underlying various nonlinear IR spectroscopic techniques, such as pump-probe, photon echo and two-dimensional (2D) IR spectroscopy. In this paper, a new computational method is presented that calculates this nonlinear response function in the classical limit from a series of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, employing a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) force field. The method relies on the stability matrix formalism where the dipole-dipole quantum mechanical commutators appearing in the exact quantum response function are replaced by the corresponding Poisson brackets. We present the formulation and computational algorithm of the method for both the classical and the QM/MM force fields and apply it to the 2D IR spectroscopy of carbon monoxide (CO) and N-methylacetamide (NMA), each solvated in a water cluster. The conventional classical force field with harmonic bond potentials is shown to be incapable of producing a reliable 2D IR signal because intramolecular vibrational anharmonicity, essential to the production of the nonlinear signal, is absent in such a model. The QM/MM force field, on the other hand, produces distinct 2D spectra for the NMA and CO systems with clear vertical splitting and cross peaks, reflecting the vibrational anharmonicities and the vibrational couplings between the underlying vibrational modes, respectively. In the NMA spectrum, the coupling between the amide I and II modes is also well reproduced. While attaining the converged spectrum is found to be challenging with this method, with an adequate amount of computing it can be straightforwardly applied to new systems containing multiple chromophores with little modeling effort, and therefore it would be useful in understanding the multimode 2D IR spectrum of complex molecular systems.

Jeon, Jonggu; Cho, Minhaeng

2010-06-01

205

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional spin models form a useful representation of adsorbed quantum gases. Here, simulations of various such models are used to explore phases which correspond to solids (Ising order), superfluids (Kosterlitz-Thouless order), and supersolids (both) in. hard-core Bose films. The first model studied is the classical XXZ spin Hamiltonian. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). The model is shown to exhibit solid ((VBAR)(lamda)(VBAR) > 1) and superfluid ((VBAR)(lamda)(VBAR) < 1) phases. The transition temperatures are found to drop off to zero at the isotropic point (lamda) = 1 even more abruptly than -1/log(VBAR)(lamda) - 1(VBAR), as proposed by renormalization -group arguments. Next, the same Hamiltonian is simulated for quantum spins. The XY model ((lamda) = 0) has a Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition at T(,KT) = 0.45 (+OR-) 0.05, slightly above which the specific heat has a finite peak. The vortex density has a non-zero value in the low-temperature limit, probably due to quantum fluctuations. The critical temperature remains near the (lamda) = 0 value at least until (lamda) (DBLTURN) -0.8. The Ising transition temperature T(,ising) is measured for Ising-like antiferro- magnets (lamda) < -1 and is found to drop off to zero more gradually than the classical T(,ising) in the isotropic limit (-(lamda))( --->)1('+). Finally, simple arguments are formulated for the classical model to suggest terms that one might add to the Hamiltonian in order to get both phases concurrently. It is concluded that such a term should be quartic in spin operators. An anisotropic (alpha)(SIGMA)(,i)(S(,i)('z))('4) term or a four-site permutation operator are examples of such terms. Here, simulations are performed for the classical XXZ with the quartic term (alpha)(SIGMA)(,i)(S(,i)('z))('4) which provides a simple model exhibiting a supersolid phase. The phase diagram is mapped out in a small region about the tetracritical point where disordered, superfluid, solid, and supersolid phases meet. The system has a non-zero superfluid density even if the solid structure is pinned, supporting the interpretation that the solid is only a long-range periodic modulation of the density function, instead of a structure in which the atoms are fixed to sites as in the traditional picture.

Loh, Eugene Ying, Jr.

206

A grid resolution sensitivity analysis using a two-dimensional flood inundation model has been presented in this paper. Simulations for 6 dam breaches located randomly in the United States were run at 10,30,60,90, and 120 meter resolutions. The dams represent a range of topographic conditions, ranging from 0% slope to 1.5% downstream of the dam. Using 10 meter digital elevation model (DEM) simulation results as the baseline, the coarser simulation results were compared in terms of flood inundation area, peak depths, flood wave travel time, daytime and nighttime population in flooded area, and economic impacts. The results of the study were consistent with previous grid resolution studies in terms of inundated area, depths, and velocity impacts. The results showed that as grid resolution is decreased, the relative fit of inundated area between the baseline and coarser resolution decreased slightly. This is further characterized by increasing over prediction as well as increasing under prediction with decreasing resolution. Comparison of average peak depths showed that depths generally decreased as resolution decreased, as well as the velocity. It is, however, noted that the trends in depth and velocity showed less consistency than the inundation area metrics. This may indicate that for studies in which velocity and depths must be resolved more accurately (urban environments when flow around buildings is important in the calculation of drag effects), higher resolution DEM data should be used. Perhaps the most significant finding from this study is the perceived insensitivity of socio-economic impacts to grid resolution. The difference in population at risk (PAR) and economic cost generally remained within 10% of the estimated impacts using the high resolution DEM. This insensitivity has been attributed to over estimated flood area and associated socio-economic impacts compensating for under estimated flooded area and associated socio-economic impacts. The United States has many dams that are classified as high-hazard potential that need an emergency action plan (EAP). It has been found that the development of EAPs for all high-hazard dams is handicapped due to funding limitations. The majority of the cost associated with developing an EAP is determining the flooded area. The results of this study have shown that coarse resolution dam breach studies can be used to provide an acceptable estimate of the inundated area and economic impacts, with very little computational cost. Therefore, the solution to limited funding may be to perform coarse resolution dam breach studies on high-hazard potential dams and use the results to help prioritize the order in which detailed EAPs should be developed.

Judi, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcpherson, Timothy N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burian, Steven J [UNIV OF UTAH

2009-01-01

207

In a recent paper, Watanabe, {ital et. al.} used direct simulation Monte Carlo to study Rayleigh-B{acute e}nard convection. They reported that, using stress-free boundary conditions, the onset of convection in the simulation occurred at a Rayleigh number much larger than the critical Rayleigh number predicted by linear stability analysis. We show that the source of their discrepancy is their failure to include the temperature jump effect in the calculation of Rayleigh number.

Garcia, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Baras, F.; Mansour, M.M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

1994-06-30

208

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monte Carlo simulation, lattice dynamics in the harmonic approximation, and solution of the hypernetted chain equation were used to study the classical two-dimensional one component plasma. The system consists of a single species of charged particles immersed in a uniform neutralizing background. The particles interact via a l/r potential, where r is the two dimensional separation. Equations of state were calculated for both the liquid and solid phases. Results of calculation of the thermodynamic functions and one and two particle correlation functions are presented.

Gann, R. C.; Chakravarty, S.; Chester, G. V.

1978-01-01

209

Final Report: "Large-Eddy Simulation of Anisotropic MHD Turbulence"

To acquire better understanding of turbulence in flows of liquid metals and other electrically conducting fluids in the presence of steady magnetic fields and to develop an accurate and physically adequate LES (large-eddy simulation) model for such flows. The scientific objectives formulated in the project proposal have been fully completed. Several new directions were initiated and advanced in the course of work. Particular achievements include a detailed study of transformation of turbulence caused by the imposed magnetic field, development of an LES model that accurately reproduces this transformation, and solution of several fundamental questions of the interaction between the magnetic field and fluid flows. Eight papers have been published in respected peer-reviewed journals, with two more papers currently undergoing review, and one in preparation for submission. A post-doctoral researcher and a graduate student have been trained in the areas of MHD, turbulence research, and computational methods. Close collaboration ties have been established with the MHD research centers in Germany and Belgium.

Zikanov, Oleg

2008-06-23

210

Resistive MHD simulations of the Parker instability in galactic disks

Parker instability leads to the formation of tangential discontinuities in a magnetic field and subsequent magnetic reconnection due to a numerical and/or an explicit resistivity. In this paper we investigate the role of the uniform, localized and numerical resistivity on the diffusion of magnetic field lines during the growth phase of Parker instability modes. We propose a new method to quantify the diffusion of magnetic field lines which is attributed to the presence of resistivity in ideal and non-ideal MHD codes. The method relies (1) on integration of magnetic lines in between periodic boundaries, (2) on measurements of the dispersion of magnetic field lines with the left and the right periodic boundaries and (3) on a statistical analysis of shifts of a large set of magnetic lines. The proposed method makes it possible to detect topological evolution of magnetic field. We perform a series of resistive MHD simulations of the Parker instability in uniformly rotating galactic disks. We follow the topological evolution of the magnetic field evolving due to the Parker instability and relate it to the ratio of total to uniform magnetic field in galactic disks. We find that after the onset of the Parker instability, the magnetic field becomes first tangled and later on it evolves toward a uniform state due to the presence of resistivity. A similar effect of a varying contribution of a turbulent magnetic field is observed in arms and inter-arm regions of galaxies.

Grzegorz Kowal; Michal Hanasz; Katarzyna Otmianowska-Mazur

2003-04-11

211

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When analyzing data from an array of spacecraft (such as Cluster or MMS) crossing a site of magnetic reconnection, it is desirable to be able to accurately determine the orientation of the reconnection site. If the reconnection is quasi-two dimensional, there are three key directions, the direction of maximum inhomogeneity (the direction across the reconnection site), the direction of the reconnecting component of the magnetic field, and the direction of rough invariance (the "out of plane" direction). Using simulated spacecraft observations of magnetic reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, we extend our previous tests of the direction-finding method developed by Shi et al. (2005) and the method to determine the structure velocity relative to the spacecraft Vstr. These methods require data from four proximate spacecraft. We add artificial noise and calibration errors to the simulation fields, and then use the perturbed gradient of the magnetic field B and perturbed time derivative dB/dt, as described by Denton et al. (2010). Three new simulations are examined: a weakly three-dimensional, i.e., quasi-two-dimensional, MHD simulation without a guide field, a quasi-two-dimensional MHD simulation with a guide field, and a two-dimensional full dynamics kinetic simulation with inherent noise so that the apparent minimum gradient was not exactly zero, even without added artificial errors. We also examined variations of the spacecraft trajectory for the kinetic simulation. The accuracy of the directions found varied depending on the simulation and spacecraft trajectory, but all the directions could be found within about 10 for all cases. Various aspects of the method were examined, including how to choose averaging intervals and the best intervals for determining the directions and velocity. For the kinetic simulation, we also investigated in detail how the errors in the inferred gradient directions from the unmodified Shi et al. method (using the unperturbed gradient) depended on the amplitude of the calibration errors. For an accuracy of 3 for the maximum gradient direction, the calibration errors could be as large as 3% of reconnection magnetic field, while for the same accuracy for the minimum gradient direction, the calibration errors could only be as large as 0.03% of the reconnection magnetic field. These results suggest that the maximum gradient direction can normally be determined by the unmodified Shi et al. method, while the modified method or some other method must be used to accurately determine the minimum gradient direction. The structure velocity was found with magnitude accurate to 2% and direction accurate to within 5%.

Denton, R.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Swisdak, M.; Birn, J.; Drake, J. F.; Heese, M.

2012-01-01

212

We present new 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of a supernova-driven, stratified interstellar medium. These simulations were run using the Waagan (2009) positivity preserving scheme for ideal MHD implemented in the Flash code. The scheme is stable even for the Mach numbers approaching 100 found in this problem. We have previously shown that the density distribution arising from hydrodynamical versions of these simulations creates low-density pathways through which Lyman continuum photons can travel to heights |z| > 1 kpc. This naturally produces the warm ionized medium through photoionization due primarily to O stars near the plane. However, our earlier models reproduce the peak but not the width of the observed emission measure distribution. Here, we examine whether inclusion of magnetic fields and a greater vertical extent to the simulation domain produce a gas distribution that better matches the observations. We further study the change of magnetic energy over time in our models, showing that it ...

Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Joung, M Ryan; Waagan, Knut; Klingenberg, Christian; Wood, Kenneth; Benjamin, Robert A; Federrath, Christoph; Haffner, L Matthew

2011-01-01

213

MHD simulation of deuterium-fiber-initiated Z-pinches with two-fluid effects

Two-dimensional ``cold-start`` resistive MHD computations of formation and evolution of deuterium-fiber-initiated Z-pinches have been extended to include separate ion and electron energy equations and finite-Larmor-radius ordered terms. In the Ohm`s Law (magnetic field evolution) equation, Hall and diamagnetic pressure terms have been added, and corresponding terms have been added to the energy equations. Comparison is made of the results of these computations with previous computations and with experiments.

Sheehey, P. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Lindemuth, I.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-05-01

214

MHD simulation of deuterium-fiber-initiated Z-pinches with two-fluid effects

Two-dimensional cold-start'' resistive MHD computations of formation and evolution of deuterium-fiber-initiated Z-pinches have been extended to include separate ion and electron energy equations and finite-Larmor-radius ordered terms. In the Ohm's Law (magnetic field evolution) equation, Hall and diamagnetic pressure terms have been added, and corresponding terms have been added to the energy equations. Comparison is made of the results of these computations with previous computations and with experiments.

Sheehey, P. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics); Lindemuth, I.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1993-01-01

215

Once a toxic chemical spill or runoff enters a reser- voir, its fate and transport processes are governed by A two-dimensional reservoir toxics model is essential to establish- various factors including flow conditions, chemical and ing effective water resources management and protection. In a reser- voir, the fate of a toxic chemical is closely connected with flow regimes biological conditions

Roy R. Gu; Se-Woong Chung

2003-01-01

216

,9,10 -Crystallins are oligomers that exhibit chaperone activity, interact with unfolded proteins, and preventStudy of the D-Crystallin Protein Using Two-Dimensional Infrared (2DIR) Spectroscopy: Experiment *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Cataracts is a misfolding protein disease in which one

Mukamel, Shaul

217

MHD Simulations of the Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using three-dimensional MHD simulations, we model the quasi-static evolution and the onset of eruption of twisted magnetic flux ropes in the solar corona. We present simulations where the eruption is triggered by either the onset of the torus instability or the helical kink instability of the line-tied coronal flux rope. The simulations show that S (or inverse S) shaped current sheets develop along topological structures identified as Quasi Separatrix Layers (QSLs), during the quasi-static phase before the eruption. Reconnections in the current sheets effectively add twisted flux to the flux rope and thus allow it to rise quasi-statically to the critical height for the onset of the torus instability. We examine the thermal features produced by the current sheet formation and the associated reconnections and found that they can explain some of the observed features in coronal prominence cavities as well as in pre-eruption active regions. We also present simulations of the development of a homologous sequence of CMEs caused by the repeated formation and partial eruption of kink unstable flux ropes as a result of continued flux emergence. It is found that such homologous CMEs tend to be cannibalistic, leading to the formation of more energetic, highly twisted ejecta.

Fan, Yuhong; Chatterjee, Piyali

218

A Flux-Limited Numerical Method for the MHD Equations to Simulate Propulsive Plasma Flows

A Flux-Limited Numerical Method for the MHD Equations to Simulate Propulsive Plasma Flows K. Sankaran , L. Martinelli and E.Y. ChoueiriÂ§ Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department Princeton to be effective tools in plasma propulsion research, a higher order accu- rate solver that captures MHD shocks

Choueiri, Edgar

219

MHD Simulation for Free Surface Hg Jet Dispersal at Low Magnetic Reynolds Numbers

MHD Simulation for Free Surface Hg Jet Dispersal at Low Magnetic Reynolds Numbers Du, Jian Advisor of the MHD processes of mercury jet dispersal Â· Conclusion and Future plan Abstract MERIT Project Review is embedded in the rectangular Cartesian grid, and solution is treated as a cell-centered quantity Â· Using

McDonald, Kirk

220

MHD Simulations of the Plasma Flow in the Magnetic Nozzle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of plasma through a magnetic nozzle is simulated by solving the governing equations for the plasma flow in the presence of an static magnetic field representing the applied nozzle. This work will numerically investigate the flow and behavior of the plasma as the inlet plasma conditions and magnetic nozzle field strength are varied. The MHD simulations are useful for addressing issues such as plasma detachment and to can be used to gain insight into the physical processes present in plasma flows found in thrusters that use magnetic nozzles. In the model, the MHD equations for a plasma, with separate temperatures calculated for the electrons and ions, are integrated over a finite cell volume with flux through each face computed for each of the conserved variables (mass, momentum, magnetic flux, energy) [1]. Stokes theorem is used to convert the area integrals over the faces of each cell into line integrals around the boundaries of each face. The state of the plasma is described using models of the ionization level, ratio of specific heats, thermal conductivity, and plasma resistivity. Anisotropies in current conduction due to Hall effect are included, and the system is closed using a real-gas equation of state to describe the relationship between the plasma density, temperature, and pressure.A separate magnetostatic solver is used to calculate the applied magnetic field, which is assumed constant for these calculations. The total magnetic field is obtained through superposition of the solution for the applied magnetic field and the self-consistently computed induced magnetic fields that arise as the flowing plasma reacts to the presence of the applied field. A solution for the applied magnetic field is represented in Fig. 1 (from Ref. [2]), exhibiting the classic converging-diverging field pattern. Previous research was able to demonstrate effects such as back-emf at a super-Alfvenic flow, which significantly alters the shape of the magnetic field in both the near- and far-field regions. However, in that work the downstream domain was constrained to a channel of constant cross-sectional area. In the present work we seek to address this issue by modeling the downstream region with a domain that permits free expansion of the plasma, permitting a better evaluation of the downstream effects the applied field has on the plasma. The inlet boundary conditions and applied magnetic field values will also be varied to determine the effect the initial plasma energy content and applied magnetic field energy density have on the near- and far-field plasma properties on the MHD code. This will determine the effect of inlet boundary conditions on the results downstream and address issues related to the restrictive numerical domain previously used.

Smith, T. E. R.; Keidar, M.; Sankaran, K.; olzin, K. A.

2013-01-01

221

Magnetosheath dynamics and lobe reconnection as seen from a global beyond-MHD simulation Vlasiator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations have been successful in describing systems where the important spatial scales are larger than ion gyro radii and the plasma has a well-defined temperature. The weakness of global MHD simulations is their inability to model the multi-temperature, multi-component plasmas in the inner magnetosphere, where most of space-borne technology, including communication and navigation systems reside. We are developing a global Vlasov-hybrid simulation called the Vlasiator, where electrons are massless MHD fluid, but protons are modelled as distribution functions evolved in time using the Vlasov equation. This approach does not include the noise present in kinetic-hybrid simulations, but is computationally extremely challenging requiring petascale computations with thousands of cores. Here, we briefly review the status of the new six-dimensional Vlasiator. We carry out a test particle simulation and propagate the distribution functions using the electromagnetic fields of the GUMICS-4 global MHD simulation. We test and validate Vlasiator in a global setup by comparing the results from the test particle simulation against the standalone GUMICS-4 global MHD simulation. We find that the magnetosheath and magnetopause plasma properties from the test particle simulation are in rough agreement with the results from the GUMICS-4 simulation; however, also important differences arising from the kinetic treatment of plasma are observed. These beyond-MHD effect include the magnetosheath flow pattern changes after a newly established lobe reconnection within one hemisphere.

Palmroth, M.; Honkonen, I.; Kempf, Y.; von Alfthan, S.; Sandroos, A.

2012-04-01

222

Driving Coronal MHD Simulations with Flux Evolution Models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar corona and solar wind strongly influences space weather at Earth. While coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most obvious source of this influence, the structure and dynamics of the ambient solar corona and solar wind also play an important role. Coronal structure leads to the partitioning of the solar wind into fast and slow streams, which are the source of recurrent geomagnetic activity. The geo-effectiveness of CMEs is in part determined by their interaction with the ambient wind, and the connection of the ambient interplanetary magnetic field to CME-related shocks and impulsive solar flares determines where solar energetic particles propagate. MHD simulations of the solar corona based on maps of the solar magnetic field have been demonstrated to describe many aspects of coronal structure. However, these models are typically integrated to steady state, using synoptic or daily-updated magnetic maps to derive the boundary conditions. The Sun's magnetic flux is always evolving, and these changes in the flux affect the structure and dynamics of the corona and heliosphere. In this presentation, we describe an approach to evolutionary models of the corona and so wind, using time-dependent boundary conditions. A key aspect of our approach is the use of the Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport (ADAPT) model to develop time-evolving boundary conditions for the magnetic field. ADAPT incorporates data assimilation techniques into the Worden and Harvey (2000) flux evolution model, making it an especially suitable candidate for providing boundary conditions to MHD models. We describe initial results and compare them with more traditional approaches. Research supported by AFOSR, NASA, and NSF.

Linker, J.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.; Downs, C.; Arge, C. N.; Henney, C. J.

2013-12-01

223

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finite element modeling alternatives as well as the utility and limitations of the two dimensional structural response computer code CIVM-JET 4B for predicting the transient, large deflection, elastic plastic, structural responses of two dimensional beam and/or ring structures which are subjected to rigid fragment impact were investigated. The applicability of the CIVM-JET 4B analysis and code for the prediction of steel containment ring response to impact by complex deformable fragments from a trihub burst of a T58 turbine rotor was studied. Dimensional analysis considerations were used in a parametric examination of data from engine rotor burst containment experiments and data from sphere beam impact experiments. The use of the CIVM-JET 4B computer code for making parametric structural response studies on both fragment-containment structure and fragment-deflector structure was illustrated. Modifications to the analysis/computation procedure were developed to alleviate restrictions.

Stagliano, T. R.; Witmer, E. A.; Rodal, J. J. A.

1979-01-01

224

High Resolution Simulations of Relativistic Hydrodynamic and MHD Turbulence

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a program of simulations designed to investigate the basic properties of relativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We employ a well-tested 5th-order accurate numerical scheme at resolutions of up to 2048^3 zones for hydrodynamic turbulence, and a minimally diffusive 2nd-order scheme at resolutions of up to 1024^3 in the case of relativistic MHD. For the hydrodynamic case, we simulate a relativistically hot gas in a cubic periodic domain continuously driven at large scales with Lorentz factor of about 3. We find that relativistic turbulent velocity fluctuations with ? ? > 1 persist from the driving scale down to scales an order of magnitude smaller, demonstrating the existence of a sustained relativistic turbulent cascade. The power spectrum of the fluid 4-velocity is broadly Kolmogorov-like, roughly obeying a power law with 5/3 index between scales 1/10 and 1/100 of the domain. Departures from 5/3 scaling are larger for the power spectrum of 3-velocity. We find that throughout the inertial interval, 25% of power is in dilatational modes, which obey strict power law scaling between 1/2 and 1/100 of the domain with an index of 1.88. Our program also explores turbulent amplification of magnetic fields in the conditions of merging neutron stars, using a realistic equation of state for dense nuclear matter (? ˜ 10^13 g/cm^3). We find that very robustly, seed fields are amplified to magnetar strength (? 4 * 10^16 Gauss) within ˜1 micro-second for fluid volumes near the size of the NS crust thickness <10 meters. We present power spectra of the kinetic and magnetic energy taken long into the fully stationary evolution of the highest resolution models, finding the magnetic energy to be in super-equipartition (4 times larger) with the kinetic energy through the inertial range. We believe that current global simulations of merging NS binaries are insufficiently resolved for studying field amplification via turbulent processes. Larger magnetic fields, as found in our high resolution local simulations, may have consequences for gravitational wave signals, GRB precursor events, radio afterglows, and optical afterglows due to emission from ejected radioactive r-process material.

Zrake, Jonathan; MacFadyen, A.

2013-01-01

225

In cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, the U.S. Geological Survey determined hydrologic and hydraulic parameters for the Gasconade River at the site of a proposed bridge replacement and highway realignment of State Highway 17 near Waynesville, Missouri. Information from a discontinued streamflow-gaging station on the Gasconade River near Waynesville was used to determine streamflow statistics for analysis of the 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods at the site. Analysis of the streamflow-gaging stations on the Gasconade River upstream and downstream from Waynesville indicate that flood peaks attenuate between the upstream gaging station near Hazelgreen and the Waynesville gaging station, such that the peak discharge observed on the Gasconade River near Waynesville will be equal to or only slightly greater (7 percent or less) than that observed near Hazelgreen. A flood event occurred on the Gasconade River in March 2008, and a flood measurement was obtained near the peak at State Highway 17. The elevation of high-water marks from that event indicated it was the highest measured flood on record with a measured discharge of 95,400 cubic feet per second, and a water-surface elevation of 766.18 feet near the location of the Waynesville gaging station. The measurements obtained for the March flood resulted in a shift of the original stage-discharge relation for the Waynesville gaging station, and the streamflow statistics were modified based on the new data. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow model was used to simulate flow conditions on the Gasconade River in the vicinity of State Highway 17. A model was developed that represents existing (2008) conditions on State Highway 17 (the 'model of existing conditions'), and was calibrated to the floods of March 20, 2008, December 4, 1982, and April 14, 1945. Modifications were made to the model of existing conditions to create a model that represents conditions along the same reach of the Gasconade River with preliminary proposed replacement bridges and realignment of State Highway 17 (the 'model of proposed conditions'). The models of existing and proposed conditions were used to simulate the 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence floods, as well as the March 20, 2008 flood. Results from the model of proposed conditions show that the proposed replacement structures and realignment of State Highway 17 will result in additional backwater upstream from State Highway 17 ranging from approximately 0.18 foot for the 25-year flood to 0.32 foot for the 500-year flood. Velocity magnitudes in the proposed overflow structures were greater than in the existing structures [by as much as 4.9 feet per second in the left (west) overflow structure for the 500-year flood], and shallow, high-velocity flow occurs at the upstream edges of the abutments of the proposed overflow structures in the 100- and 500-year floods where flow overtops parts of the existing road embankment that will be left in place in the proposed scenario. Velocity magnitude in the main channel of the model of proposed conditions increased by a maximum of 1.2 feet per second over the model of existing conditions, with the maximum occurring approximately 1,500 feet downstream from existing main channel structure J-802.

Huizinga, Richard J.

2008-01-01

226

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical considerations relevant to the rate of thermal relaxation of a two-dimensional plasma in a strong uniform dc magnetic field are developed. The Vahala-Montgomery (1971) kinetic description is completed by providing a cut-off time for the time of interaction of two particles contributing to the collision term. The kinetic equation is shown to predict that thermal relaxation varies as a function of defined dimensionless time.

Hsu, J.-Y.; Joyce, G.; Montgomery, D.

1974-01-01

227

High-resolution 3D relativistic MHD simulations of jets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic magnetized jets are key elements in active galactic nuclei and in other astrophysical environments. Their structure and evolution involve a complex non-linear physics that can be approached by numerical studies only. Still, owing to a number of challenging computational aspects, only a few numerical investigations have been undertaken so far. In this paper, we present high-resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations of relativistic magnetized jets carrying an initially toroidal magnetic field. The presence of a substantial toroidal component of the field is nowadays commonly invoked and held responsible for the process of jet acceleration and collimation. We find that the typical nose cone structures, commonly observed in axisymmetric two-dimensional simulations, are not produced in the three-dimensional case. Rather, the toroidal field gives rise to strong current-driven kink instabilities leading to jet wiggling. However, it appears to be able to maintain a highly relativistic spine along its full length. By comparing low- and high-resolution simulations, we emphasize the impact of resolution on the jet dynamical properties.

Mignone, A.; Rossi, P.; Bodo, G.; Ferrari, A.; Massaglia, S.

2010-02-01

228

CHEM2D is a two-dimensional, three-phase, nine-component finite-difference chemical flood simulator. It can simulate waterfloods, polymer floods, and micellar/polymer floods using heterogeneous one- or two-dimensional (areal or cross-sectional) reservoir models. At present only one injection and four production wells are available. The user may specify well performance as either pressure or rate constrained. A constant time step size or a variable time step size determined by extrapolation of concentration changes may be specified. Volume I of this report provides a discussion of the formulation and algorithms used within CHEM2D. Included in Volume I are a number of validation and illustrative examples, as well as the FORTRAN code. The CHEM2D user's manual, Volume II, contains both the input data sets for the examples presented in Volume I and an example output. All appendices and a phase behavior calculation program are collected in Volume III.

Fanchi, J.R.

1985-04-01

229

Numerical simulations exhibiting backscattering enhancement of electromagnetic waves from two-dimensional dielectric random rough surfaces (three-dimensional scattering problem) are presented. The StrattonChu surface integral equation formulation is used with the method of moments to solve for the tangential and normal components of surface fields. The solution of the matrix equation is calculated efficiently by using the sparse-matrix canonical grid (SMCG) method.

Kyung Pak; Leung Tsang; Joel Johnson

1997-01-01

230

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transient, numerical simulations of the de-icing of composite aircraft components by electrothermal heating were performed for a two dimensional rectangular geometry. The implicit Crank-Nicolson formulation was used to insure stability of the finite-difference heat conduction equations and the phase change in the ice layer was simulated using the Enthalpy method. The Gauss-Seidel point iterative method was used to solve the system of difference equations. Numerical solutions illustrating de-icer performance for various composite aircraft structures and environmental conditions are presented. Comparisons are made with previous studies. The simulation can also be used to solve a variety of other heat conduction problems involving composite bodies.

Chao, D. F. K.

1983-01-01

231

3D MHD simulations of radial wire arrays

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 3D resistive MHD simulations evaluating multi-MA radial wire arrays as a potential compact, high intensity source for inertial confinement fusion and laboratory astrophysics. A radial wire array consists of wires running radially outwards from a central electrode, and was first investigated at the 1 MA level on the MAGPIE generator at Imperial College. Originally used as a method of producing magnetic tower laboratory jets relevant to astrophysics[1], they have also shown potential as a high power x-ray source. Able to produce x-ray pulses with a rise time and peak power comparable to cylindrical wire arrays, radial arrays occupy a smaller volume and may consequently be able to access higher power densities. We discuss simulation results reproducing radial array experiments performed on the MAGPIE facility as a means of benchmarking our model. This model is then used to evaluate radial wire arrays in the multi-MA regime for planned experiments on the Saturn generator of Sandia National Laboratories. [1] A. Ciardi et al, Phys. Plasmas 14, 056501 (2007)

Jennings, C.; Ampleford, D.; Ciardi, A.; Chittenden, J.; Bland, S.; Niasse, N.

2008-04-01

232

Multifluid MHD Simulation of the Magnetosphere of Uranus

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between Uranus' intrinsic magnetic field and the solar wind is quite different from the magnetospheric interactions of the Earth, Mercury, Jupiter and Saturn due to several factors. Uranus' large obliquity, coupled with the fact that its dipole moment is off-centered and highly tilted relative to the rotation axis, leads to unique, and seasonally dependent, interaction geometries with the solar wind. We present initial results from adapting a multifluid MHD simulation to examine these seasonally dependent geometries in terms of the global magnetospheric structure, magnetopause and bow shock location, and magnetotail configuration. Specifically we compare these characteristics modeled for solstice conditions, when the solar wind is directed nearly parallel to the rotation axis, and equinox conditions, when the solar wind is nearly perpendicular to the rotation axis. The Voyager 2 spacecraft encountered Uranus near solstice, and was able to observed the magnetic field structure and plasma characteristics of a twisted magnetotail [Behannon et al., 1987], and we use such magnetometer and plasma observations as a basis for benchmarking our simulations for the solstice scenario. The equinox geometry has no flyby observations for comparison, but recent auroral observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope [Lamy et al., 2012] give some indication of the magnetospheric interaction with the solar wind.

Cao, X.; Paty, C. S.

2013-12-01

233

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self-consistent approach is proposed to determine the temperature dependent thermal conductivity k(T) of fused silica, for a range of temperatures up to material evaporation using a CO2 laser irradiation. Calculation of the temperature of silica using a two-dimensional axi-symmetric code was linked step by step as the laser power was increased with experimental measurements using infrared thermography. We show that previously reported k(T) does not reproduce the temporal profile as well as our adaptive fit which shows that k(T) evolves with slope discontinuities at the annealing temperature and the softening temperature.

Combis, Patrick; Cormont, Philippe; Gallais, Laurent; Hebert, David; Robin, Lucile; Rullier, Jean-Luc

2012-11-01

234

A self-consistent approach is proposed to determine the temperature dependent thermal conductivity k(T) of fused silica, for a range of temperatures up to material evaporation using a CO{sub 2} laser irradiation. Calculation of the temperature of silica using a two-dimensional axi-symmetric code was linked step by step as the laser power was increased with experimental measurements using infrared thermography. We show that previously reported k(T) does not reproduce the temporal profile as well as our adaptive fit which shows that k(T) evolves with slope discontinuities at the annealing temperature and the softening temperature.

Combis, Patrick [CEA DAM Ile-de-France, F-91297 ARPAJON (France); Cormont, Philippe; Hebert, David; Robin, Lucile; Rullier, Jean-Luc [CEA CESTA, F-33114 LE BARP (France); Gallais, Laurent [Institut Fresnel, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Universite, Ecole Centrale Marseille, 13013 Marseille (France)

2012-11-19

235

3D MHD Simulations of Laboratory Plasma Jets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jets and outflows are thought to be an integral part of accretion phenomena and are associated with a large variety of objects. In these systems, the interaction of magnetic fields with an accretion disk and/or a magnetized central object is thought to be responsible for the acceleration and collimation of plasma into jets and wider angle flows. In this paper we present three-dimensional MHD simulations of magnetically driven, radiatively cooled laboratory jets that are produced on the MAGPIE experimental facility. The general outflow structure comprises an expanding magnetic cavity which is collimated by the pressure of an extended plasma background medium, and a magnetically confined jet which develops within the magnetic cavity. Although this structure is intrinsically transient and instabilities in the jet and disruption of the magnetic cavity ultimately lead to its break-up, a well collimated, “knotty” jet still emerges from the system; such clumpy morphology is reminiscent of that observed in many astrophysical jets. The possible introduction in the experiments of angular momentum and axial magnetic field will also be discussed.

Ciardi, A.; Lebedev, S. V.; Frank, A.; Blackman, E. G.; Ampleford, D. J.; Jennings, C. A.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lery, T.; Bland, S. N.; Bott, S. C.; Hall, G. N.; Rapley, J.; Vidal, F. A. Suzuki; Marocchino, A.

2007-01-01

236

On the propagation of blobs in the magnetotail: MHD simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the magnetotail, we investigate the fate of entropy-enhanced localized magnetic flux tubes ("blobs"). Such flux tubes may be the result of a slippage process that also generates entropy-depleted flux tubes ("bubbles") or of a rapid localized energy increase, for instance, from wave absorption. We confirm the expectation that the entropy enhancement leads to a tailward motion and that the speed and distance traveled into the tail increase with the entropy enhancement, even though the blobs tend to break up into pieces. The vorticity on the outside of the blobs twists the magnetic field and generates field-aligned currents predominantly of region-2 sense (earthward on the dusk side and tailward on the dawn side), which might provide a possibility for remote identification from the ground. The breakup, however, leads to more turbulent flow patterns, associated with opposite vorticity and the generation of region-1 sense field-aligned currents of lower intensity but approximately equal integrated magnitude.

Birn, J.; Nakamura, R.; Hesse, M.

2013-09-01

237

A complete anisotropic, inhomogeneous electrical conductivity tensor, which includes Spitzer, Pedersen, and Hall conductivities is included in an MHD simulation to describe how MHD shock waves may form, propagate, and resistively heat the atmosphere from the photosphere through the chromosphere. The MHD model includes an energy equation. The initial state is defined by FAL density, pressure, and temperature profiles, and

F. Kazeminezhad; M. L. Goodman

2008-01-01

238

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate results of a numerical analysis on functionality of waveguide circulators working in the spectral range of optical communication. Studied circulators were silicon-based three-port waveguide splitters where working elements were slabs of two-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals (2D MPCs) with different structural parameters. An optimized circulator had a 2D MPC slab-hexagonal array of cylindrical air holes in silicon with a magneto-optical defect made of bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet and demonstrated an insertion loss of 9 dB and an isolation of 16 dB. If compared to circulators reported in Z. Wan and S. Fan [Appl. Phys. B 81, 369 (2005)], the studied circulators are attractive for realization due to the relative simplicity of their designs.

Yayoi, Kazuo; Tobinaga, Kazuma; Kaneko, Yusuke; Baryshev, Alexander V.; Inoue, Mitsuteru

2011-04-01

239

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of a supernova-driven, stratified interstellar medium. These simulations were run using the Waagan (2009) positivity preserving scheme for ideal MHD implemented in the Flash code. The scheme is stable even for the Mach numbers approaching 100 found in this problem. We have previously shown that the density distribution arising from hydrodynamical versions of these simulations creates low-density pathways through which Lyman continuum photons can travel to heights |z| > 1 kpc. This naturally produces the warm ionized medium through photoionization due primarily to O stars near the plane. However, our earlier models reproduce the peak but not the width of the observed emission measure distribution. Here, we examine whether inclusion of magnetic fields and a greater vertical extent to the simulation domain produce a gas distribution that better matches the observations. We further study the change of magnetic energy over time in our models, showing that it appears to reach a steady state after a few hundred megayears, presumably supported by a turbulent dynamo driven by the supernova explosions.

Low, M.-M. M.; Hill, A. S.; Joung, M. R.; Waagan, K.; Klingenberg, C.; Wood, K.; Benjamin, R. A.; Federrath, C.; Haffner, L. M.

2012-07-01

240

It has been suggested that a charge-neutral beam consisting of ions and electrons may serve as an alternate to the plasma contractor for collecting electrons from the ionosphere. The collecting area of the beam would be determined by the distance it can penetrate the local magnetic field. A charge-neutral beam can transverse a magnetic field by virtue of collective effects for the proper parameter regime. This phenomenon is studied using a two-dimensional (three-velocity) electrostatic code. A polarization electric field forms across the beam as it penetrates the magnetic field. In vacuum the beam penetrates 4.5 sub i into the field, rho a gyroradius of a beam ion traveling at injection velocity. Loss of ions from the polarization layer produces a net electron current in the beam. The beam curves slightly due to the resulting j x B force. Injection into a tenuous plasma with a plasma-to-beam density ratio of 1/100 shortens the penetration length to 2.7 rho. The plasma partially shields the polarization field of the beam. Consequently, more beams ions are lost. The net beam current is enhanced resulting in a more pronounced curvature. Injection into a marginally dense plasma with a density ratio of 1/10 results in a pronounced deflection of the beam.

Livesey, W.A.; Pritchett, P.L.

1989-10-01

241

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of molecular dynamics was used to investigate the effect of strengthening-phase particles on the process of plastic deformation in two-dimensional nanocrystalline material at given temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and the maximum shear stress. We consider the deformation of a single-phase nanocrystal (material 1); a nanocrystal with particles located at grain boundaries and triple junctions and having atoms whose size is 10% larger than that of the matrix atoms (material 2), 10% less than the size of the matrix atoms (material 3), and is equal to it (material 4). The rate of creep for materials 1 and 2 was approximately the same, but the deformation mechanisms were different. The lowest creep rate was obtained for material 4. It has been shown that in the presence of second-phase inclusions, despite the small grain size, a significant contribution to the material deformation comes from the motion of dislocations, especially in the case of material 2 with incoherent particles. The understanding of the deformation processes developed using model polycrystals can be used for elucidating the precipitation-hardening mechanisms of alloys and the structure evolution of such materials during plastic deformation.

Baimova, Yu. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.; Nazarov, A. A.

2012-03-01

242

The kinetic processes accompanying plasma column formation in an inhomogeneous discharge in a Ne/Xe/HCl gas mixture at a pressure of 4 atm were investigated by using a two-dimensional model. Two cathode spots spaced by 0.7 cm were initiated by distorting the cathode surface at local points, which resulted in an increase in the field strength in the cathode region. Three regimes differing in the charging voltage, electric circuit inductance, and electric field strength at the local cathode points were considered. The spatiotemporal distributions of the discharge current; the electron density; and the densities of excited xenon atoms, HCl(v = 0) molecules in the ground state, and HCl(v > 0) molecules in vibrational levels were calculated. The development of the discharge with increasing the electron density from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} was analyzed, and three characteristic stages in the evolution of the current distribution were demonstrated. The width of the plasma column was found to depend on the energy deposited in the discharge. The width of the plasma column was found to decrease in inverse proportion to the deposited energy due to spatiotemporal variations in the rates of electron production and loss. The calculated dependences of the cross-sectional area of the plasma column on the energy deposited in the discharge agree with the experimental results.

Bychkov, Yu. I., E-mail: bych-yu@yandex.ru; Yampolskaya, S. A.; Yastremskii, A. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2013-05-15

243

Possibility of real time scale MHD simulation above an active region

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MHD simulations of preflare situation in the corona above the real active region (AR) are performed without any assumptions about the solar flare mechanism. All conditions for simulation are taken from observations. Such approach is directed to understand the flare mechanism. The observed SOHO MDI magnetic maps are used. The special numerical methods are developed and realized in the PERESVET code for numerical simulation in the real time scale. The first results of real time scale MHD simulation during several first minutes are presented. Initiation of current sheet (CS) creation in the vicinity of the magnetic field X-line is shown. The possibilities of real time scale MHD simulation of preflare situation on modern computers using the developed mathematical methods are discussed.

Podgorny, A. I.; Podgorny, I. M.

2013-12-01

244

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of a new relativistic two-dimensional particle-in-cell code for simulation of laser-driven ion acceleration are presented. It is shown that a complex electric field structure arose during the laser-target interaction as well as the evolution of the ion and electron concentration for the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration scheme took place. During computation the influence of parameters such as target thickness and width, target starting position inside cavity and its atomic composition, as well as laser pulse length and beam width are examined. Values adopted for the calculation reflect the experimental conditions.

Jab?o?ski, S?awomir

2014-05-01

245

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our latest results based on large-scale two dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations for the magnetic reconnection process in the configuration of island coalescence instability. These simulations are performed using a fairly standard pseudo spectral code, which has been well tested for accuracy, convergence, and compared well with codes using other methods. Cases with a range of Lundquist number S are run using resolutions up to 81922 and thus with S up to 2 × 105. It is found that the reconnection rate is consistent with the Sweet-Parker theory with no tearing instability of the Sweet-Parker current sheet or secondary island (plasmoid) formation when simulations are well resolved and without external noise. However, secondary islands have been observed to form, with faster reconnection rate in simulations superimposed with turbulence (noise). We will present results on the scaling of reconnection rate with S, as well as turbulence levels. This work is supported by a NASA grant NNX08BA71G, and a NSF grant AGS-0962477.

Ragunathan, S.; Ng, C.

2010-12-01

246

2-D MHD and Hall-MHD local simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability at the Ionopause of Mars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previous simulation results and comparison with Cluster spacecraft data have shown that reconnection can be generated in thin current layers produced by the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI) at the Earth's magnetosphere. Our simulation studies of the KHI for the Earth's magnetospheric parameters have shown that reconnection due to KHI can facilitate efficient plasma transport from the solar wind to the magnetosphere during northward IMF conditions producing diffusion coefficients of the order 109 m2/s. When the magnetic fields are initially parallel and the asymmetry is small across the initial shear flow layer the reconnection inside KH vortices occurs always first at the high-density spine of the vortex -leading to plasma transport from high-density magnetosheath to low density magnetosphere. We expect that in Mars and Venus this process may be reversed because the plasma inside the ionopause is more dense that in the solar wind. Although, Mars and Venus are un-magnetized the IMF will have a strong impact on the evolution of the KHI. We will present a systematic parameter study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the ionopause of Mars using 2-D local MHD and Hall-MHD approximations. The efficiency and direction of the plasma transport will be investigated for the typical plasma and magnetic field profiles observed in the vicinity of the Martian ionopause.

Beales, J.; Nykyri, K.; Otto, A.; Eastwood, J.; Brain, D.

2008-12-01

247

A numerical study of the alpha model for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows

A numerical study of the alpha model for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows Pablo turbulence and compare the results of numerical solutions of the primitive MHD equations with their alpha-model the "Lagrangian-averaged" model, for two-dimensional incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence

Pouquet, Annick

248

3D Global MHD Simulation of the Saturn Magnetospheric Plasma Interaction with Titan's Ionosphere

The interaction between Titan's ionosphere and its surrounding plasma is simulated using our 3D multi-species MHD model.We compare the simulation results with the observations obtained during the T9 flyby, using the upstream plasma parameters measured during the flyby. The Hall term (JXB) is also included in the model to investigate the ion gyro-radii effect.

Yingjuan Ma; A. F. Nagy; T. E. Cravens; G. Toth; F. J. Crary; A. J. Coates; M. K. Dougherty

2006-01-01

249

3D MHD Free Surface Fluid Flow Simulation Based on Magnetic-Field Induction Equations

1 3D MHD Free Surface Fluid Flow Simulation Based on Magnetic-Field Induction Equations H.L. HUANG, a penalty factor is introduced in order to force the local divergence free condition of the magnetic fields boundaries is null. These simulation results for lithium film free surface flows under NSTX outboard mid

California at Los Angeles, University of

250

3D MHD free surface fluid flow simulation based on magnetic-field induction equations

3D MHD free surface fluid flow simulation based on magnetic-field induction equations H.L. Huang 1 in order to force the local divergence free condition of the magnetic fields. The second is that we extend. These simulation results for lithium film free surface flows under NSTX outboard mid-plane magnetic field

Abdou, Mohamed

251

This paper assesses the accuracy of the simplified frame cavity conduction/convection and radiation models presented in ISO 15099 and used in software for rating and labeling window products. Temperatures and U-factors for typical horizontal window frames with internal cavities are compared; results from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations with detailed radiation modeling are used as a reference. Four different frames were studied. Two were made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and two of aluminum. For each frame, six different simulations were performed, two with a CFD code and four with a building-component thermal-simulation tool using the Finite Element Method (FEM). This FEM tool addresses convection using correlations from ISO 15099; it addressed radiation with either correlations from ISO 15099 or with a detailed, view-factor-based radiation model. Calculations were performed using the CFD code with and without fluid flow in the window frame cavities; the calculations without fluid flow were performed to verify that the CFD code and the building-component thermal-simulation tool produced consistent results. With the FEM-code, the practice of subdividing small frame cavities was examined, in some cases not subdividing, in some cases subdividing cavities with interconnections smaller than five millimeters (mm) (ISO 15099) and in some cases subdividing cavities with interconnections smaller than seven mm (a breakpoint that has been suggested in other studies). For the various frames, the calculated U-factors were found to be quite comparable (the maximum difference between the reference CFD simulation and the other simulations was found to be 13.2 percent). A maximum difference of 8.5 percent was found between the CFD simulation and the FEM simulation using ISO 15099 procedures. The ISO 15099 correlation works best for frames with high U-factors. For more efficient frames, the relative differences among various simulations are larger. Temperature was also compared, at selected locations on the frames. Small differences was found in the results from model to model. Finally, the effectiveness of the ISO cavity radiation algorithms was examined by comparing results from these algorithms to detailed radiation calculations (from both programs). Our results suggest that improvements in cavity heat transfer calculations can be obtained by using detailed radiation modeling (i.e. view-factor or ray-tracing models), and that incorporation of these strategies may be more important for improving the accuracy of results than the use of CFD modeling for horizontal cavities.

Gustavsen, Arlid; Kohler, Christian; Dalehaug, Arvid; Arasteh, Dariush

2008-12-01

252

A Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Two-Dimensional Cu--O Chain Structure in YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to study the two-dimensional (2D) structure of the copper-oxygen chains in YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x. The simulation was performed on an arbitrary Cu--O chain plane in a cell, taking into account interactions with atoms located on nearest neighbor planes. A layered 2D screened Coulomb potential developed by Fan and Malozovsky(Y.M. Malozovsky and J.D. Fan, Phys. Rev. B49), 4334 (1994); J.D. Fan and Y.M. Malozovsky, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 11, 1677 (1996). is found to be sufficient to produce the lattice structure. This pair potential is derived microscopically, accounting for the exchange correlation effects in a layered lattice with an isotropic 2D electron spectrum; the MD results support the validity of the potential.

Edis, T.; Fan, J. D.; Bagayoko, D.; Zhao, G. L.; Malozovsky, Y. M.

1998-03-01

253

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation was used to study the two-dimensional (2D) structure of a YBa2Cu3O6+x cuprate plane, which forms a square lattice in the insulating state. The simulation was performed on an arbitrary Cu-1 plane in a cell, taking into account interactions with atoms located on nearest-neighbor planes. A layered 2D screened-Coulomb potential developed by Fan and Malozovsky [Phys. Rev. B 49, 4334 (1994) and J. Phys. Chem. Solids 11, 1677 (1996)] is found to be sufficient to produce the square lattice structure. This pair potential is derived microscopically, accounting for the exchange correlation effects in a layered lattice with an isotropic 2D electron spectrum; the MD results support the validity of the potential.

Fan, J. D.; Zhao, G. L.; Edis, T.; Malozovsky, Y. M.

1997-11-01

254

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to study the two-dimensional (2D) structure of a YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x cuprate plane, which forms a square lattice in the insulating state. The simulation was performed on an arbitrary Cu-1 plane in a cell, taking into account interactions with atoms located on nearest neighbor planes. A layered 2D screened Coulomb potential developed by Fan and Malozovsky(Y.M. Malozovsky and J.D. Fan, Phys. Rev. B49), 4334 (1994); J.D. Fan and Y.M. Malozovsky, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 11, 1677 (1996). is found to be sufficient to produce the square lattice structure. This pair potential is derived microscopically, accounting for the exchange correlation effects in a layered lattice with an isotropic 2D electron spectrum; the MD results support the validity of the potential.

Edis, T.; Fan, J. D.; Zhao, G. L.; Malozovsky, Y. M.

1997-10-01

255

Modeling extreme (Carrington-type) space weather events using three-dimensional MHD code simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is growing concern over possible severe societal consequences related to adverse space weather impacts on man-made technological infrastructure and systems. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made towards the modeling of space weather events. Three-dimensional (3-D) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have been at the forefront of this transition, and have played a critical role in advancing our understanding of space weather. However, the modeling of extreme space weather events is still a major challenge even for existing global MHD models. In this study, we introduce a specially adapted University of Michigan 3-D global MHD model for simulating extreme space weather events that have a ground footprint comparable (or larger) to the Carrington superstorm. Results are presented for an initial simulation run with ``very extreme'' constructed/idealized solar wind boundary conditions driving the magnetosphere. In particular, we describe the reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the associated ground induced geoelectric field to such extreme driving conditions. We also discuss the results and what they might mean for the accuracy of the simulations. The model is further tested using input data for an observed space weather event to verify the MHD model consistence and to draw guidance for future work. This extreme space weather MHD model is designed specifically for practical application to the modeling of extreme geomagnetically induced electric fields, which can drive large currents in earth conductors such as power transmission grids.

Ngwira, C. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Glocer, A.

2013-12-01

256

An approximate two-dimensional solver of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operator has been developed using the assumption that the particle probability distribution function is independent of gyroangle in the limit of strong magnetic field. The isotropic one-dimensional scheme developed for nonlinear Fokker-Planck-Landau equation by Buet and Cordier [J. Comput. Phys. 179, 43 (2002)] and for linear Fokker-Planck-Landau equation by Chang and Cooper [J. Comput. Phys. 6, 1 (1970)] have been modified and extended to two-dimensional nonlinear equation. In addition, a method is suggested to apply the new velocity-grid based collision solver to Lagrangian particle-in-cell simulation by adjusting the weights of marker particles and is applied to a five dimensional particle-in-cell code to calculate the neoclassical ion thermal conductivity in a tokamak plasma. Error verifications show practical aspects of the present scheme for both grid-based and particle-based kinetic codes.

Yoon, E. S.; Chang, C. S., E-mail: cschang@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, DaeJeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-03-15

257

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have adopted the transport scenarios used in Part 1 to examine the sensitivity of stratospheric aircraft perturbations to transport changes in our 2-D model. Changes to the strength of the residual circulation in the upper troposphere and stratosphere and changes to the lower stratospheric K(sub zz) had similar effects in that increasing the transport rates decreased the overall stratospheric residence time and reduced the magnitude of the negative perturbation response in total ozone. Increasing the stratospheric K(sub yy) increased the residence time and enhanced the global scale negative total ozone response. However, increasing K(sub yy) along with self-consistent increases in the corresponding planetary wave drive, which leads to a stronger residual circulation, more than compensates for the K(sub yy)-effect, and results in a significantly weaker perturbation response, relative to the base case, throughout the stratosphere. We found a relatively minor model perturbation response sensitivity to the magnitude of K(sub yy) in the tropical stratosphere, and only a very small sensitivity to the magnitude of the horizontal mixing across the tropopause and to the strength of the mesospheric gravity wave drag and diffusion. These transport simulations also revealed a generally strong correlation between passive NO(sub y) accumulation and age of air throughout the stratosphere, such that faster transport rates resulted in a younger mean age and a smaller NO(y) mass accumulation. However, specific variations in K(sub yy) and mesospheric gravity wave strength exhibited very little NO(sub y)-age correlation in the lower stratosphere, similar to 3-D model simulations performed in the recent NASA "Models and Measurements" II analysis. The base model transport, which gives the most favorable overall comparison with inert tracer observations, simulated a global/annual mean total ozone response of -0.59%, with only a slightly larger response in the northern compared to the southern hemisphere. For transport scenarios which gave tracer simulations within some agreement with measurements, the annual/globally averaged total ozone response ranged from -0.45% to -0.70%. Our previous 1995 model exhibited overly fast transport rates, resulting in a global/annually averaged perturbation total ozone response of -0.25%, which is significantly weaker compared to the 1999 model. This illustrates how transport deficiencies can bias model simulations of stratospheric aircraft.

Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.

1999-01-01

258

The triangular lattice model with nearest-neighbor attraction and third-neighbor repulsion, introduced by Pekalski, Ciach, and Almarza [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 114701 (2014)] is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Introduction of appropriate order parameters allowed us to construct a phase diagram, where different phases with patterns made of clusters, bubbles or stripes are thermodynamically stable. We observe, in particular, two distinct lamellar phases—the less ordered one with global orientational order and the more ordered one with both orientational and translational order. Our results concern spontaneous pattern formation on solid surfaces, fluid interfaces or membranes that is driven by competing interactions between adsorbing particles or molecules.

Almarza, N. G. [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Pekalski, J.; Ciach, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland)] [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland)

2014-04-28

259

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress waves, known as acoustic emissions (AEs), are released by localized inelastic deformation events during the progressive failure of brittle rocks. Although several numerical models have been developed to simulate the deformation and damage processes of rocks, such as non-linear stress-strain behaviour and localization of failure, only a limited number have been capable of providing quantitative information regarding the associated seismicity. Moreover, the majority of these studies have adopted a pseudo-static approach based on elastic strain energy dissipation that completely disregards elastodynamic effects. This paper describes a new AE modelling technique based on the combined finite-discrete element method (FEM/DEM), a numerical tool that simulates material failure by explicitly considering fracture nucleation and propagation in the modelling domain. Given the explicit time integration scheme of the solver, stress wave propagation and the effect of radiated seismic energy can be directly captured. Quasi-dynamic seismic information is extracted from a FEM/DEM model with a newly developed algorithm based on the monitoring of internal variables (e.g. relative displacements and kinetic energy) in proximity to propagating cracks. The AE of a wing crack propagation model based on this algorithm are cross-analysed by traveltime inversion and energy estimation from seismic recordings. Results indicate a good correlation of AE initiation times and locations, and scaling of energies, independently calculated with the two methods. Finally, the modelling technique is validated by simulating a laboratory compression test on a granite sample. The micromechanical parameters of the heterogeneous model are first calibrated to reproduce the macroscopic stress-strain response measured during standard laboratory tests. Subsequently, AE frequency-magnitude statistics, spatial clustering of source locations and the evolution of AE rate are investigated. The distribution of event magnitude tends to decay as power law while the spatial distribution of sources exhibits a fractal character, in agreement with experimental observations. Moreover, the model can capture the decrease of seismic b value associated with the macrorupture of the rock sample and the transition of AE spatial distribution from diffuse, in the pre-peak stage, to strongly localized at the peak and post-peak stages, as reported in a number of published laboratory studies. In future studies, the validated FEM/DEM-AE modelling technique will be used to obtain further insights into the micromechanics of rock failure with potential applications ranging from laboratory-scale microcracking to engineering-scale processes (e.g. excavations within mines, tunnels and caverns, petroleum and geothermal reservoirs) to tectonic earthquakes triggering.

Lisjak, A.; Liu, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Mahabadi, O. K.; Grasselli, G.

2013-10-01

260

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we examine the sensitivity of long lived tracers to changes in the base transport components in our 2-D model. Changes to the strength of the residual circulation in the upper troposphere and stratosphere and changes to the lower stratospheric K(sub zz) had similar effects in that increasing the transport rates decreased the overall stratospheric mean age, and increased the rate of removal of material from the stratosphere. Increasing the stratospheric K(sub yy) increased the mean age due to the greater recycling of air parcels through the middle atmosphere, via the residual circulation, before returning to the troposphere. However, increasing K(sub yy) along with self-consistent increases in the corresponding planetary wave drive, which leads to a stronger residual circulation, more than compensates for the K(sub yy)-effect, and produces significantly younger ages throughout the stratosphere. Simulations with very small tropical stratospheric K(sub yy) decreased the globally averaged age of air by as much as 25% in the middle and upper stratosphere, and resulted in substantially weaker vertical age gradients above 20 km in the extratropics. We found only very small stratospheric tracer sensitivity to the magnitude of the horizontal mixing across the tropopause, and to the strength of the mesospheric gravity wave drag and diffusion used in the model. We also investigated the transport influence on chemically active tracers and found a strong age-tracer correlation, both in concentration and calculated lifetimes. The base model transport gives the most favorable overall comparison with a variety of inert tracer observations, and provides a significant improvement over our previous 1995 model transport. Moderate changes to the base transport were found to provide modest agreement with some of the measurements. Transport scenarios with residence times ranging from moderately shorter to slightly longer relative to the base case simulated N2O lifetimes that were within the observational estimates of Volk et al. [1997]. However, only scenarios with rather fast transport rates were comparable with the Volk et al. estimates of CFCl3 lifetimes. This is inconsistent with model-measurement comparisons of mean age in which the base model or slightly slower transport rates compared the most favorably with balloon SF6 data. For all comparisons shown, large transport changes away from the base case resulted in simulations that were outside the range of measurements, and in many cases, far outside this range.

Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Stolarski, Richard S.

1999-01-01

261

We study the superconducting vortex states induced by the interplay of long-range Pearl repulsion and short-range intervortex attraction using Langevin dynamics simulations. We show that at low temperatures the vortices form an ordered Abrikosov lattice both in low and high fields. The vortices show distinctive modulated structures at intermediate fields depending on the effective intervortex attraction: ordered vortex chain and kagome-like vortex structures for weak attraction; bubble, stripe and antibubble lattices for strong attraction. Moreover, in the regime of the chain state, the vortices display structural transitions from chain to labyrinthine (or disordered chain) and/or to disordered states depending on the strength of the disorder. PMID:24589983

Xu, X B; Fangohr, H; Gu, M; Chen, W; Wang, Z H; Zhou, F; Shi, D Q; Dou, S X

2014-03-19

262

Resistive MHD and kinetic simulations of 2D magnetotail equilibria leading to reconnection onset

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in theory and fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of 2D magnetotail-like configurations has revealed an important class of equilibria, which can be unstable to ion tearing instability and eventually result in explosive dissipation of energy, fast plasma sheet flows, dipolarizations and changes in initial magnetic topology (reconnection). Such configurations are characterized by an increase of magnetic flux at the tailward end of the equilibrium state. While the instability and subsequent reconfiguration of the initial state exhibit kinetic signatures, the question remains, which parts of the process can be reproduced using reduced plasma models, e.g., resistive and Hall MHD. In this presentation we explore the stability of the new class of magnetotail equilibria to the resistive tearing mode and investigate its properties as a function of equilibrium parameters, e.g., the current sheet thickness and the amount of flux accumulation at the tailward end of the equilibrium, as well as other system parameters, e.g., resistivity and Lundquist number. We discuss comparative aspects of the system behavior in kinetic and resistive MHD simulations, in particular, what, if any, parameters of the MHD system lead to similar growth rates of the instability. Since the theoretical onset condition of the kinetic tearing mode can be expressed fully in MHD terms, we also investigate the effects of including this criterion as an additional constraint on the tearing onset in our resistive MHD simulations. This work is a first step toward inclusion of a kinetically-motivated description of reconnection onset in global MHD simulations of the magnetosphere.

Merkin, V. G.; Sitnov, M. I.; Lyon, J.; Cassak, P.

2013-12-01

263

A numerical simulation using the multiple relaxation time lattice-Boltzmann method is carried out for the purpose of investigating fluid flow over two vibrating side-by-side circular cylinders and the effect of moving the cylinders on the wake characteristics. As a benchmark problem to assess the validity and efficiency of the model, the calculation was carried out at Reynolds number of 200 and four pitch ratios (T/D , where D is the cylinder diameter while T is the center-to-center spacing between the two cylinders) of 1.2, 1.6, 2.2, and 3.2, respectively. The calculated results indicate that the vibration of the cylinder pair has significant influence on the wake patterns. When the amplitude of vibration is big enough, the vibration locks up the vortex shedding and formation. For each cylinder vibration frequency, there exists a threshold of vibration amplitude for the lock-up phenomenon. With the vibration frequency is increased, the threshold of vibration amplitude decreases. PMID:18999533

Xu, Yousheng; Liu, Yang; Xia, Yong; Wu, Fengmin

2008-10-01

264

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aeroacoustic sound generated from the flow around two NACA four-digit airfoils is investigated numerically, at relatively low Reynolds numbers that do not prompt boundary-layer transition. By using high-order finite-difference schemes to discretize compressible Navier-Stokes equations, the sound scattered on airfoil surface is directly resolved as an unsteady pressure fluctuation. As the wavelength of an emitted noise is shortened compared to the airfoil chord, the diffraction effect on non-compact chord length appears more noticeable, developing multiple lobes in directivity. The instability mechanism that produces sound sources, or unsteady vortical motions, is quantitatively examined, also by using a linear stability theory. While the evidence of boundary-layer instability waves is captured in the present result, the most amplified frequency in the boundary shear layer does not necessarily agree with the primary frequency of a trailing-edge noise, when wake instability is dominant in laminar flow. This contradicts the observation of other trailing-edge noise studies at higher Reynolds numbers. However, via acoustic disturbances, the boundary-layer instability may become more significant, through the resonance with the wake instability, excited by increasing a base-flow Mach number. Evidence suggests that this would correspond to the onset of an acoustic feedback loop. The wake-flow frequencies derived by an absolute-instability analysis are compared with the frequencies realized in flow simulations, to clarify the effect of an acoustic feedback mechanism, at a low Reynolds number.

Ikeda, Tomoaki; Atobe, Takashi; Takagi, Shohei

2012-01-01

265

TOWARDS FLUID SIMULATIONS OF DISPERSIVE MHD WAVES IN A WARM COLLISIONLESS PLASMA

with analytic predictions of the Landau damping rate for various plasma parameters and wave characteristics and heat flux tensors. Wave- particle resonances present at the hydrodynamical scales (Landau dampingTOWARDS FLUID SIMULATIONS OF DISPERSIVE MHD WAVES IN A WARM COLLISIONLESS PLASMA G. Bugnon, R

Passot, Thierry

266

TOWARDS FLUID SIMULATIONS OF DISPERSIVE MHD WAVES IN A WARM COLLISIONLESS PLASMA

A Landau fluid model suited for the description of the weakly nonlinear dynamics of long wavelength dispersive MHD waves in a magnetized collisionless plasma is presented, that should be useful to study the formation and stability of solitary structures such as magnetic holes or shocklets observed for example in the solar wind and the terrestrial magnetosheath. First simulations in a

G. Bugnon; R. Goswami; T. Passot; P. L. Sulem

2004-01-01

267

Towards fluid simulations of dispersive MHD waves in a warm collisionless plasma

A Landau fluid model suited for the description of the weakly nonlinear dynamics of long wavelength dispersive MHD waves in a magnetized collisionless plasma is presented, that should be useful to study the formation and stability of solitary structures such as magnetic holes or shocklets observed for example in the solar wind and the terrestrial magnetosheath. First simulations in a

G. Bugnon; R. Goswami; T. Passot; P. L. Sulem

2006-01-01

268

Two-Dimensional Colloidal Alloys

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3?m diameter) and small (1?m diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ?. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations.

Law, Adam D.; Buzza, D. Martin A.; Horozov, Tommy S.

2011-03-01

269

Two-dimensional colloidal alloys.

We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3 ?m diameter) and small (1 ?m diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ?. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations. PMID:21517357

Law, Adam D; Buzza, D Martin A; Horozov, Tommy S

2011-03-25

270

Plasma wave signatures in the magnetotail reconnection region - MHD simulation and ray tracing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An MHD simulation was performed to obtain a self-consistent model of magnetic field and plasma density near the X point reconnection region. The MHD model was used to perform extensive ray tracing calculations in order to clarify the propagation characteristics of the plasma waves near the X point reconnection region. The dynamic wave spectra possibly observed by the Geotail spacecraft during a typical cross-tail trajectory are reconstructed. By comparing the extensive ray tracing calculations with the plasma wave data from Geotail, it is possible to perform a kind of 'remote sensing' to identify the location and structure of potential X point reconnection regions.

Omura, Yoshiharu; Green, James L.

1993-01-01

271

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

Juday, Richard D. (inventor)

1992-01-01

272

A two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation is performed to investigate weakly magnetized perpendicular shocks with a magnetization parameter of {sigma} = 6 x 10{sup -5}, which is equivalent to a high Alfven Mach number M{sub A} of {approx}130. It is shown that current filaments form in the foot region of the shock due to the ion-beam-Weibel instability (or the ion filamentation instability) and that they generate a strong magnetic field there. In the downstream region, these current filaments also generate a tangled magnetic field that is typically 15 times stronger than the upstream magnetic field. The thermal energies of electrons and ions in the downstream region are not in equipartition and their temperature ratio is T{sub e}/T{sub i} {approx} 0.3-0.4. Efficient electron acceleration was not observed in our simulation, although a fraction of the ions are accelerated slightly on reflection at the shock. The simulation results agree very well with the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. It is also shown that electrons and ions are heated in the foot region by the Buneman instability (for electrons) and the ion-acoustic instability (for both electrons and ions). However, the growth rate of the Buneman instability is significantly reduced due to the relatively high temperature of the reflected ions. For the same reason, ion-ion streaming instability does not grow in the foot region.

Kato, Tsunehiko N.; Takabe, Hideaki, E-mail: kato-t@ile.osaka-u.ac.j [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2010-09-20

273

The two-dimensional finite-difference model for simulation of groundwater flow was modified to enable simulation of surface-water/groundwater interactions during periods of low streamflow. Changes were made to the program code in order to calculate surface-water heads for, and flow either to or from, contiguous surface-water bodies; and to allow for more convenient data input. Methods of data input and output were modified and entries (RSORT and HDRIVER) were added to the COEF and CHECKI subroutines to calculate surface-water heads. A new subroutine CALC was added to the program which initiates surface-water calculations. If CALC is not specified as a simulation option, the program runs the original version. The subroutines which solve the ground-water flow equations were not changed. Recharge, evapotranspiration, surface-water inflow, number of wells, pumping rate, and pumping duration can be varied for any time period. The Manning formula was used to relate stream depth and discharge in surface-water streams. Interactions between surface water and ground water are represented by the leakage term in the ground-water flow and surface-water mass balance equations. Documentation includes a flow chart, data deck instructions, input data, output summary, and program listing. Numerical results from the modified program are in good agreement with published analytical results. (USGS)

Ozbilgin, M.M.; Dickerman, D.C.

1984-01-01

274

Numerical simulation study of disk MHD generator for nonequilibrium plasma (NPG) system

Design and performance prediction of a disk-shaped magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, which is applied to the nonequilibrium plasma generator (NPG) system, have been carried out by means of a quasi-one-dimensional numerical simulation. The calculations have been performed for generator with constant height which is planned to be used for NPG-MHD disk generator pulse power demonstration. A maximum enthalpy extraction ratio obtained from the present calculation reached up to 20%, and, in this case, the electron temperature of working plasma fluctuated in the unstable regime against ionization instability. Taking into account this phenomenon, in order to obtain much higher generator performance, the MHD channel, in which electron temperature was kept at 5000 K, was designed. With this channel, enthalpy extraction ratio of 40% and output power of 7.2 MW were achieved without major modification of the supersonic nozzle, the inlet swirl vanes and the configuration of magnet system.

Tsunoda, Kazumi [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Harada, Nob [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan)

1995-12-31

275

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe a cell-centered Lagrangian scheme devoted to the numerical simulation of solid dynamics on two-dimensional unstructured grids in planar geometry. This numerical method, utilizes the classical elastic-perfectly plastic material model initially proposed by Wilkins [M.L. Wilkins, Calculation of elastic-plastic flow, Meth. Comput. Phys. (1964)]. In this model, the Cauchy stress tensor is decomposed into the sum of its deviatoric part and the thermodynamic pressure which is defined by means of an equation of state. Regarding the deviatoric stress, its time evolution is governed by a classical constitutive law for isotropic material. The plasticity model employs the von Mises yield criterion and is implemented by means of the radial return algorithm. The numerical scheme relies on a finite volume cell-centered method wherein numerical fluxes are expressed in terms of sub-cell force. The generic form of the sub-cell force is obtained by requiring the scheme to satisfy a semi-discrete dissipation inequality. Sub-cell force and nodal velocity to move the grid are computed consistently with cell volume variation by means of a node-centered solver, which results from total energy conservation. The nominally second-order extension is achieved by developing a two-dimensional extension in the Lagrangian framework of the Generalized Riemann Problem methodology, introduced by Ben-Artzi and Falcovitz [M. Ben-Artzi, J. Falcovitz, Generalized Riemann Problems in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge Monogr. Appl. Comput. Math. (2003)]. Finally, the robustness and the accuracy of the numerical scheme are assessed through the computation of several test cases.

Maire, Pierre-Henri; Abgrall, Rémi; Breil, Jérôme; Loubère, Raphaël; Rebourcet, Bernard

2013-02-01

276

In this paper, we describe a cell-centered Lagrangian scheme devoted to the numerical simulation of solid dynamics on two-dimensional unstructured grids in planar geometry. This numerical method, utilizes the classical elastic-perfectly plastic material model initially proposed by Wilkins [M.L. Wilkins, Calculation of elastic–plastic flow, Meth. Comput. Phys. (1964)]. In this model, the Cauchy stress tensor is decomposed into the sum of its deviatoric part and the thermodynamic pressure which is defined by means of an equation of state. Regarding the deviatoric stress, its time evolution is governed by a classical constitutive law for isotropic material. The plasticity model employs the von Mises yield criterion and is implemented by means of the radial return algorithm. The numerical scheme relies on a finite volume cell-centered method wherein numerical fluxes are expressed in terms of sub-cell force. The generic form of the sub-cell force is obtained by requiring the scheme to satisfy a semi-discrete dissipation inequality. Sub-cell force and nodal velocity to move the grid are computed consistently with cell volume variation by means of a node-centered solver, which results from total energy conservation. The nominally second-order extension is achieved by developing a two-dimensional extension in the Lagrangian framework of the Generalized Riemann Problem methodology, introduced by Ben-Artzi and Falcovitz [M. Ben-Artzi, J. Falcovitz, Generalized Riemann Problems in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge Monogr. Appl. Comput. Math. (2003)]. Finally, the robustness and the accuracy of the numerical scheme are assessed through the computation of several test cases.

Maire, Pierre-Henri, E-mail: maire@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [CEA/CESTA, 15 Avenue des Sablières, CS 60001 33116 Le Barp cedex (France)] [CEA/CESTA, 15 Avenue des Sablières, CS 60001 33116 Le Barp cedex (France); Abgrall, Rémi, E-mail: remi.abgrall@math.u-bordeau1.fr [INRIA and Univ. Bordeaux, F-33405 Talence (France)] [INRIA and Univ. Bordeaux, F-33405 Talence (France); Breil, Jérôme, E-mail: breil@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [Univ. Bordeaux, CEA, CNRS, CELIA, UMR5107, F-33400 Talence (France)] [Univ. Bordeaux, CEA, CNRS, CELIA, UMR5107, F-33400 Talence (France); Loubère, Raphaël, E-mail: raphael.loubere@math.univ-toulouse.fr [CNRS Institut de Mathématiques de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse (France)] [CNRS Institut de Mathématiques de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse (France); Rebourcet, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.rebourcet@cea.fr [CEA/DAM Ile de France, 91 297 Arpajon cedex (France)] [CEA/DAM Ile de France, 91 297 Arpajon cedex (France)

2013-02-15

277

Oblique MHD cosmic-ray modified shocks: Two-fluid numerical simulations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the first results of time dependent, two-fluid, cosmic-ray (CR) modified, MHD shock simulations. The calculations were carried out with a new numerical code for 1-D ideal MHD. By coupling this code with the CR energy transport equation we can simulate the time-dependent evolution of MHD shocks including the acceleration of the CR and their feedback on the shock structures. We report tests of the combined numerical method including comparisons with analytical steady state results published earlier by Webb, as well as internal consistency checks for more general MHD CR shock structures after they appear to have converged to dynamical steady states. We also present results from an initial time dependent simulation which extend the parameter space domain of previous analytical models. These new results support Webb's suggestion that equilibrium oblique shocks are less effective than parallel shocks in the acceleration of CR. However, for realistic models of anisotropic CR diffusion, oblique shocks may achieve dynamical equilibrium on shorter timescale than parallel shocks.

Frank, Adam; Jones, T. W.; Ryu, Dongsu

1991-01-01

278

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some regions of a laser driven inertial fusion target, the electron mean-free path can become comparable to or even longer than the electron temperature gradient scale-length. This can be particularly important in shock-ignited (SI) targets, where the laser-spike heated corona reaches temperatures of several keV. In this case, thermal conduction cannot be described by a simple local conductivity model and a Fick's law. Fluid codes usually employ flux-limited conduction models, which preserve causality, but lose important features of the thermal flow. A more accurate thermal flow modeling requires convolution-like non-local operators. In order to improve the simulation of SI targets, the non-local electron transport operator proposed by Schurtz-Nicolaï-Busquet [G. P. Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] has been implemented in the DUED fluid code. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations of SI targets have been performed. 1D simulations of the ablation phase highlight that while the shock profile and timing might be mocked up with a flux-limiter; the electron temperature profiles exhibit a relatively different behavior with no major effects on the final gain. The spike, instead, can only roughly be reproduced with a fixed flux-limiter value. 1D target gain is however unaffected, provided some minor tuning of laser pulses. 2D simulations show that the use of a non-local thermal conduction model does not affect the robustness to mispositioning of targets driven by quasi-uniform laser irradiation. 2D simulations performed with only two final polar intense spikes yield encouraging results and support further studies.

Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.

2014-01-01

279

In some regions of a laser driven inertial fusion target, the electron mean-free path can become comparable to or even longer than the electron temperature gradient scale-length. This can be particularly important in shock-ignited (SI) targets, where the laser-spike heated corona reaches temperatures of several keV. In this case, thermal conduction cannot be described by a simple local conductivity model and a Fick's law. Fluid codes usually employ flux-limited conduction models, which preserve causality, but lose important features of the thermal flow. A more accurate thermal flow modeling requires convolution-like non-local operators. In order to improve the simulation of SI targets, the non-local electron transport operator proposed by Schurtz-Nicolaï-Busquet [G. P. Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] has been implemented in the DUED fluid code. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations of SI targets have been performed. 1D simulations of the ablation phase highlight that while the shock profile and timing might be mocked up with a flux-limiter; the electron temperature profiles exhibit a relatively different behavior with no major effects on the final gain. The spike, instead, can only roughly be reproduced with a fixed flux-limiter value. 1D target gain is however unaffected, provided some minor tuning of laser pulses. 2D simulations show that the use of a non-local thermal conduction model does not affect the robustness to mispositioning of targets driven by quasi-uniform laser irradiation. 2D simulations performed with only two final polar intense spikes yield encouraging results and support further studies.

Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A. [Dipartimento SBAI, Università di Roma “La Sapienza” and CNISM, Roma 00161 (Italy)] [Dipartimento SBAI, Università di Roma “La Sapienza” and CNISM, Roma 00161 (Italy)

2014-01-15

280

Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic studies of implosion modes of nested wire array z-pinches

Implosion dynamics of nested wire arrays in (r, ?) geometry was studied with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (2D MHD) simulations. Three different implosion modes are obtained by just changing the wire number of the outer array, when the other conditions, such as the initial radius, length, mass of each array, the wire number of the inner array, and the discharge voltage waveform, are fixed. Simulation results show that the effect of discrete wires, which cannot be described by the thin shell inductive model, will influence the distribution of current between the outer and inner arrays at the early stage, and the discrepancy between results from MHD and thin shell model increases with the interwire gap of the outer array.

Huang, Jun; Ding, Ning, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Xue, Chuang; Sun, Shunkai [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

2014-07-15

281

Large-scale two-dimensional (2D) full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out for studying the relationship between the dynamics of a perpendicular shock and microinstabilities generated at the shock foot. The structure and dynamics of collisionless shocks are generally determined by Alfven Mach number and plasma beta, while microinstabilities at the shock foot are controlled by the ratio of the upstream bulk velocity to the electron thermal velocity and the ratio of the plasma-to-cyclotron frequency. With a fixed Alfven Mach number and plasma beta, the ratio of the upstream bulk velocity to the electron thermal velocity is given as a function of the ion-to-electron mass ratio. The present 2D full PIC simulations with a relatively low Alfven Mach number (M{sub A} ? 6) show that the modified two-stream instability is dominant with higher ion-to-electron mass ratios. It is also confirmed that waves propagating downstream are more enhanced at the shock foot near the shock ramp as the mass ratio becomes higher. The result suggests that these waves play a role in the modification of the dynamics of collisionless shocks through the interaction with shock front ripples.

Umeda, Takayuki, E-mail: umeda@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Kidani, Yoshitaka [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)] [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Matsukiyo, Shuichi, E-mail: matsukiy@esst.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Earth System Science and Technology, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)] [Earth System Science and Technology, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Yamazaki, Ryo, E-mail: ryo@phys.aoyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan)] [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan)

2014-02-15

282

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy Reanalysis 2 data are used to calculate the monthly mean meridional circulation and eddy diffusivity from 1979 to 2002 for use in the California Institute of Technology-Jet Propulsion Laboratory two-dimensional (2-D) chemistry and transport model (CTM). This allows for an investigation of the impact of dynamics on the interannual variability of the tropical total column ozone for all years for which the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet merged total ozone data are available. The first two empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the deseasonalized and detrended stratospheric stream function capture 88% of the total variance on interannual timescales. The first EOF, accounting for over 70% of the interannual variance, is related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and its interaction with annual cycles, the QBO-annual beat (QBO-AB). The 2-D CTM provides realistic simulations of the seasonal and interannual variability of ozone in the tropics. The equatorial ozone anomaly from the model is close to that derived from the observations. The phase and amplitude of the QBO are well captured by the model. The magnitude of the QBO signal is somewhat larger in the model than it is in the data. The QBO-AB found in the simulated ozone agrees well with that in the observed data.

Jiang, Xun; Camp, Charles D.; Shia, Runlie; Noone, David; Walker, Christopher; Yung, Yuk L.

2004-08-01

283

Numerical observations of two-dimensional compressible convection

The time dependence and spatial structure of convective flows in a two-dimensional atmosphere spanning several density scale heights in the vertical direction is investigated by means of numerical simulation of the anelastic equations. As an approximation to the full magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations filtering out sound waves and fast MHD waves, the anelastic equations are derived by an asymptotic expansion procedure valid in the limit of small superadiabatic temperature gradient and inverse plasma beta. Problems of mass continuity are addressed and it is seen that the presence of a higher order velocity field, which might not vanish at the boundaries, is needed to maintain physical consistency. Numerical solutions on a rectangular Cartesian mesh obtained with the finite-difference, predicter-corrector code SOHO are shown, and algorithm details, tests, and consistency checks are discussed. Focusing on a polytropic atmosphere in the limit of zero magnetic field with an aspect ratio of one, a superadiabatic ratio of 4.0 x 10/sup -3/, and a bottom to top density ratio of 22.4, a set of numerical solutions are presented where the viscosity plays the role of the order parameter. In terms of conventional dimensionless parameters, the set of solutions (which includes results from the onset of convection well into the regime where chaos is present) is represented by Prandtl numbers in the range 10.0-0.05 and normalized Rayleigh numbers in the range 2.9-558.

Ginet, G.P.

1987-01-01

284

MHD simulation of the solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere of Mercury

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show MHD simulations of the solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere of Mercury. We use the open source codes Pluto and MPI-AMRVAC in 3 dimensional spherical geometry. In order to appreciate the limits of the MHD approach in the context of Mercury's environment we do first compare our simulations with hybrid simulation (e.g. Trávní?ek et al, Icarus, 209, pp 11-22, 2010). We do also compare magnetic field profiles from the magnetometer on Messenger with profiles sampled along the corresponding spacecraft trajectory in the simulations. These comparisons show that despite the lack of kinetic effects, MHD simulation provide a more than fair description of the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury at low computational cost making it a useful tool to help decrypt data from current and future exploratory missions in the hermean magnetosphere (e.g. Bepi Colombo-MMO). The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under the grant agreement SHOCK (project number 284515).

Varela, Jacobo; Pantellini, Filippo; Moncuquet, Michel

2014-05-01

285

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a simple cavitation model is developed under the framework of homogeneousone-fluid model, in which the perfect mixture of liquid and vapor phases is assumed. In most of conventional models, the vapor phase is considered as a dispersed phase against the liquid phase as a continuous phase, while in the present model, two extreme conditions are considered: for low void fraction, dispersed vapor bubbles in continuous liquid phase, while for high void fraction, dispersed droplets in continuous vapor phase. The growth of bubbles and droplets are taken into account in the mass transfer between vapor and liquid phases, and are switched according to the local void fraction. The model is applied for the simulation of cavitating flow in a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle, and the result is compared with that using a conventional model. To enhance the unsteadiness of cavitation due to the instability at the cavity interphase, the turbulent shear stress is modified depending upon the continuous phases in combination with the proposed cavitation model, which drastically reduces the turbulent viscosity for high void fraction region. As a result, the unsteadiness of cavitation observed in experiments is well reproduced.

Yamamoto, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Tsuda, S. I.

2015-01-01

286

The influence of an applied magnetic field on plasma-related devices has a wide range of applications. Its effects on a plasma have been studied for years; however, there are still many issues that are not understood well. This paper reports a detailed kinetic study with the two-dimension-in-space and three-dimension-in-velocity particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collision method on the role of E×B drift in a capacitive argon discharge, similar to the experiment of You et al.[Thin Solid Films 519, 6981 (2011)]. The parameters chosen in the present study for the external magnetic field are in a range common to many applications. Two basic configurations of the magnetic field are analyzed in detail: the magnetic field direction parallel to the electrode with or without a gradient. With an extensive parametric study, we give detailed influences of the drift on the collective behaviors of the plasma along a two-dimensional domain, which cannot be represented by a 1 spatial and 3 velocity dimensions model. By analyzing the results of the simulations, the occurring collisionless heating mechanism is explained well.

Fan, Yu; Zou, Ying; Sun, Jizhong; Wang, Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Stirner, Thomas [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf, Edlmairstr. 6-8, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany)] [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf, Edlmairstr. 6-8, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany)

2013-10-15

287

We discuss the implementation and characterization of the source of a slow, intense, and collimated beam of rubidium atoms. The cold atomic beam is produced by two-dimensional magneto-optical trapping in directions transverse to the atomic beam axis and unbalanced Doppler cooling in the axial direction. The vacuum design allows use of relatively low laser power and a considerably simplified assembly. The atomic beam has a high flux of about 2x10{sup 10} atoms/s at a total cooling laser power of 55 mW. It has a narrow longitudinal velocity distribution with mean velocity 15 m/s with full width at half maximum 3.5 m/s and has a low divergence of 26 mrad. The high flux enables ultrafast loading of about 10{sup 10} atoms into a three-dimensional (3D) magneto-optical trap within 500 ms. The variation of the atomic beam flux was studied as a function of the rubidium vapor pressure, cooling laser power, transverse cooling laser beam length, detuning of the cooling laser, and relative intensities of the cooling beams along the atomic beam axis. We also discuss a detailed comparison of our measurements of the cold atomic beam with a 3D numerical simulation.

Chaudhuri, Saptarishi; Roy, Sanjukta; Unnikrishnan, C. S. [Fundamental Interactions Laboratory, Gravitation Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai-400005 (India)

2006-08-15

288

Background Stereopsis is believed to be advantageous for surgical tasks that require precise hand-eye coordination. We investigated the effects of short-term and long-term absence of stereopsis on motor task performance in three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) viewing conditions. Methods 30 participants with normal stereopsis and 15 participants with absent stereopsis performed a simulated surgical task both in free space under direct vision (3D) and via a monitor (2D), with both eyes open and one eye covered in each condition. Results The stereo-normal group scored higher, on average, than the stereo-absent group with both eyes open under direct vision (p<0.001). Both groups performed comparably in monocular and binocular monitor viewing conditions (p=0.579). Conclusions High-grade stereopsis confers an advantage when performing a fine motor task under direct vision. However, stereopsis does not appear advantageous to task performance under 2D viewing conditions, such as in video-assisted surgery. PMID:25185439

Bloch, Edward; Uddin, Nabil; Gannon, Laura; Rantell, Khadija; Jain, Saurabh

2015-01-01

289

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional computational model of a single red blood cell (RBC) floating in a plasma-alcohol solution through a microchannel with stenosis was created using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method with moving mesh for a fluid structure interaction problem. Cell deformability and stability were studied in a plasma-alcohol solution at different fluid flow conditions during movement through the channel with stenosis. Different results were obtained for different input parameters. Motion through 45% and 70% stenoses with the high and law velocities of the RBC and different viscosities was analyzed and successfully simulated. Results show that changes in RBC deformability were due to the effects of alcohol. Changes in behavior during motion were also observed. At low shear rate and high surrounding fluid viscosity the RBC showed a tendency to rotate during movement. The proposed model with its coupling of structural and fluid analysis techniques could be useful to understand the effect of alcohol on the RBC passing through stenosis.

Ni, Aleksey; Cheema, Taqi Ahmad; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Park, Cheol Woo

2014-08-01

290

A two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) model is proposed to study the wake field and stopping power induced by a nonrelativistic charged particle moving perpendicular to the external magnetic field in two-component plasmas. The effects of the magnetic field on the wake potential and the stopping due to the polarization of both the plasma ions and electrons are discussed. The velocity fields of plasma ions and electrons are investigated, respectively, in the weak and strong magnetic field cases. Our simulation results show that in the case of weak magnetic field and high ion velocity, the wakes exhibit typical V-shaped cone structures and the opening cone angles decrease with the increasing ion velocity. As the magnetic field becomes strong, the wakes lose their typical V-shaped structures and become highly asymmetrical. Similar results can be obtained in the case of low ion velocity and strong magnetic field. In addition, stopping power is calculated and compared with previous one-dimensional and full three-dimensional PIC results.

Hu Zhanghu; Song Yuanhong; Wang Younian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2010-08-15

291

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing concern over possible severe societal consequences related to adverse space weather impacts on man-made technological infrastructure. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made toward the first-principles modeling of space weather events, and three-dimensional (3-D) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have been at the forefront of this transition, thereby playing a critical role in advancing our understanding of space weather. However, the modeling of extreme space weather events is still a major challenge even for the modern global MHD models. In this study, we introduce a specially adapted University of Michigan 3-D global MHD model for simulating extreme space weather events with a Dst footprint comparable to the Carrington superstorm of September 1859 based on the estimate by Tsurutani et. al. (2003). Results are presented for a simulation run with "very extreme" constructed/idealized solar wind boundary conditions driving the magnetosphere. In particular, we describe the reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the associated induced geoelectric field on the ground to such extreme driving conditions. The model setup is further tested using input data for an observed space weather event of Halloween storm October 2003 to verify the MHD model consistence and to draw additional guidance for future work. This extreme space weather MHD model setup is designed specifically for practical application to the modeling of extreme geomagnetically induced electric fields, which can drive large currents in ground-based conductor systems such as power transmission grids. Therefore, our ultimate goal is to explore the level of geoelectric fields that can be induced from an assumed storm of the reported magnitude, i.e., Dst˜=-1600 nT.

Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Glocer, Alex

2014-06-01

292

An MHD simulation model of time-dependent co-rotating solar wind

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a treatment of observation-based time-dependent boundary conditions for the inner boundary sphere in the time-dependent three-dimensional MHD simulations of the global solar wind. With this boundary treatment, we obtain super-Alfvenic MHD solutions of time-dependent co-rotating solar wind structures. The boundary variables on the inner boundary sphere, at 50 solar radii in this study, are assumed to change linearly from one instant to the next. A new feature is that, in order to maintain the divergence-free condition of the magnetic field, the changes of the time-dependent boundary magnetic field are expressed as the potential field in a thin shell volume. The solar magnetic field data from the Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) and the solar wind speed data from the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations at Nagoya University, Japan, are used as the input boundary data. The solar wind simulated with the time-dependent boundary condition is compared with the near-Earth and Ulysses in situ measurement data and the solar wind simulated with the fixed boundary condition over a 7-month period in 1991. Reasonable agreements with the in situ measurements are obtained. The differences between the two simulations in the interplanetary field line paths are significant. The three-dimensional time-dependent MHD solution of the global solar wind will help enhance space weather models and other fields in heliophysics.

Hayashi, K.

2012-08-01

293

Modeling of substorm development with a kinematic effect by the global MHD simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection is considered to play an important role in space phenomena such as substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. Recently, Tanaka and Fujita reproduced substorm evoution process by numerical simulation with the global MHD code. In the MHD framework, the dissipation model is used for modeling of the kinetic effects. They found that the normalized reconnection viscosity, one of the dessipation model employed there, gave a large effect for the substorm development though that viscosity was assumed to be a constant parameter. It is well known that magnetric reconnection is controlled by microscopic kinetic mechanism. Horiuchi et al. investigated the roles of microscopic plasma instabilities on the violation of the frozen-in condition by examining the force balance equation based on explicit electromagnetic particle simulation for an ion-scale current sheet, and concluded that the growth of drift kink instability can create anomalous resistivity leading to the excitation of collisionless reconnection. They estimated the effective resistivity based on the particle simulation data. In this paper, we perform substorm simulation by using the global MHD code with this anomalous resistivity obtained in their microscopic approach istead of the emprical resistivity model, and investigate the relationship between the substorm development and the anomalous resistivity model.

den, Mitsue; Fujita, Shigeru; Tanaka, Takashi; Horiuchi, Ritoku

294

Numerical Simulation of 3-D Supersonic Viscous Flow in an Experimental MHD Channel

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 3-D supersonic viscous flow in an experimental MHD channel has been numerically simulated. The experimental MHD channel is currently in operation at NASA Ames Research Center. The channel contains a nozzle section, a center section, and an accelerator section where magnetic and electric fields can be imposed on the flow. In recent tests, velocity increases of up to 40% have been achieved in the accelerator section. The flow in the channel is numerically computed using a new 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm that has been developed to efficiently compute MHD flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime. The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equations which can then be solved in a very e5uent manner. To account for upstream (elliptic) effects, the flowfield can be computed using multiple streamwise sweeps with an iterated PNS algorithm. The new algorithm has been used to compute two test cases that match the experimental conditions. In both cases, magnetic and electric fields are applied to the flow. The computed results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

Kato, Hiromasa; Tannehill, John C.; Gupta, Sumeet; Mehta, Unmeel B.

2004-01-01

295

Substorm effects in MHD and test particle simulations of magnetotail dynamics

Recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations demonstrate that a global tail instability, initiated by localized breakdown of MHD, can cause plasmoid formation and ejection as well as dipolarization and the current diversion of the substorm current wedge. The connection between the reconnection process and the current wedge signatures is provided by earthward flow from the reconnection site. Its braking and diversion in the inner magnetosphere causes dipolarization and the magnetic field distortions of the current wedge. The authors demonstrate the characteristic properties of this process and the current systems involved. The strong localized electric field associated with the flow burst and the dipolarization is also the cause of particle acceleration and energetic particle injections. Test particle simulations of orbits in the MHD fields yield results that are quite consistent with observed injection signatures.

Birn, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hesse, M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center

1998-12-31

296

Gas Core Reactor Numerical Simulation Using a Coupled MHD-MCNP Model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis is provided in this report of using two head-on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks to achieve supercritical nuclear fission in an axially elongated cylinder filled with UF4 gas as an energy source for deep space missions. The motivation for each aspect of the design is explained and supported by theory and numerical simulations. A subsequent report will provide detail on relevant experimental work to validate the concept. Here the focus is on the theory of and simulations for the proposed gas core reactor conceptual design from the onset of shock generations to the supercritical state achieved when the shocks collide. The MHD model is coupled to a standard nuclear code (MCNP) to observe the neutron flux and fission power attributed to the supercritical state brought about by the shock collisions. Throughout the modeling, realistic parameters are used for the initial ambient gaseous state and currents to ensure a resulting supercritical state upon shock collisions.

Kazeminezhad, F.; Anghaie, S.

2008-01-01

297

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ag/AgX sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) is the only superconducting round wire (RW) with high critical current density (Jc) at high magnetic (>25 T) and is thus a strong candidate for high field magnets for nuclear magnetic resonance and high energy physics. A significant remaining challenge, however, is the relatively poor electromechanical behavior of Bi2212 RW, yet there is little understanding of the relationships between the internal Bi2212 microstructure and the mechanical behavior. This is in part due to the complex microstructures within the Bi2212 filaments and the uncertain role of interfilamentary bridges. Here, two-dimensional peridynamic simulations are used to study the stress distribution of the Bi2212 RWs under an axial tensile load. The simulations use scanning electron micrographs obtained from high Jc wires as a starting point to study the impact of various defects on the distribution of stress concentration within the Bi2212 microstructure and Ag. The flexibility of the peridynamic approach allows various defects, including those captured from SEM micrographs and artificially created defects, to be inserted into the microstructure for systematic study. Furthermore, this approach allows the mechanical properties of the defects to be varied, so the effects of porosity and both soft and hard secondary phases are evaluated. The results show significant stress concentration around defects, interfilamentary bridges and the rough Bi2212/Ag interface. In general, the stress concentration resulting from porosity is greater than that of solid-phase inclusions. A clear role of the defect geometry is observed. Results indicate that crack growth is likely to initiate at the Ag/Bi2212 interface or at voids, but that voids may also arrest crack growth in certain circumstances. These results are consistent with experimental studies of Bi2212 electromechanical behavior and magneto-optical imaging of crack growth.

Le, Q. V.; Chan, W. K.; Schwartz, J.

2014-11-01

298

We present our simulation results of the interaction between Saturn's magnetospheric plasma flow and Titan's atmosphere\\/ionosphere by using a multi-species global MHD model. A chemical model is used to describe Titan's atmosphere\\/ionosphere, which is based on 10 neutral and 7 ion spieces. This new model uses spherical coordinates (similar to our Mars model) leading to very good(~28km) altitude resolution. The

Y. Ma; A. F. Nagy; T. Cravens; I. Sokolov

2004-01-01

299

High-fidelity three dimensional MHD simulations of argon gas-puff Z-pinches

Summary form only given. We have performed 3-D, resistive, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations with MACH3 of argon gas-puff Z-pinches inside an array of 12 current return posts from realistic initial conditions using a collisional radiative equilibrium (CRE) model to predict K-shell and L-shell radiation output. Initial gas puff conditions, including densities, temperatures, and velocities were imported from a 2-D azimuthally symmetric

M. H. Frese; S. D. Frese

2006-01-01

300

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed numerical simulations of the Madison Plasma Couette Flow Experiment (MPCX) using the extended MHD code NIMROD (nimrodteam.org). The plasma Couette flow experiment has recently been constructed at UW-Madison to study magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a hot, unmagnetized and fast flowing plasma. Plasma is confined by a strong multipole magnetic field at the plasma surface, and it rotates through the generated toroidal ExB flow at the boundaries. As proof of principle we first numerically obtain an experimentally relevant flow, a Taylor-Couette flow generated by tangential electric field using the boundary condition ExB. Two-fluid Hall effect which is relevant to some astrophysical situations such as protostellar disks is also expected to be important in the MPCX. We extend the MHD model by including the Hall term both in linear and nonlinear MRI computations. Global linear stability analysis of MRI is numerically investigated both in MHD and Hall-MHD regimes for a range of magnetic Prandtl and magnetic Reynolds numbers. We find that in all cases the MHD stability limit is affected by the Hall term depending on the sign of the product of the components of the angular velocity and magnetic field along the perturbation wavenumber, as predicted by the earlier local linear studies. Global modal structure of MRI with Hall term is investigated and compared with the local approximations. Preliminary results of possible self-generation of the magnetic field by MRI-driven turbulence in the MPCX configuration will also be presented. This work is supported by NSF.

Ebrahimi, Fatima; Lefebvre, B.; Forest, C.; Bhattacharjee, A.

2010-05-01

301

Comparison of solar photospheric bright points between Sunrise observations and MHD simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bright points (BPs) in the solar photosphere are thought to be the radiative signatures (small-scale brightness enhancements) of magnetic elements described by slender flux tubes or sheets located in the darker intergranular lanes in the solar photosphere. They contribute to the ultraviolet (UV) flux variations over the solar cycle and hence may play a role in influencing the Earth's climate. Here we aim to obtain a better insight into their properties by combining high-resolution UV and spectro-polarimetric observations of BPs by the Sunrise Observatory with 3D compressible radiation magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations. To this end, full spectral line syntheses are performed with the MHD data and a careful degradation is applied to take into account all relevant instrumental effects of the observations. In a first step it is demonstrated that the selected MHD simulations reproduce the measured distributions of intensity at multiple wavelengths, line-of-sight velocity, spectral line width, and polarization degree rather well. The simulated line width also displays the correct mean, but a scatter that is too small. In the second step, the properties of observed BPs are compared with synthetic ones. Again, these are found to match relatively well, except that the observations display a tail of large BPs with strong polarization signals (most likely network elements) not found in the simulations, possibly due to the small size of the simulation box. The higher spatial resolution of the simulations has a significant effect, leading to smaller and more numerous BPs. The observation that most BPs are weakly polarized is explained mainly by the spatial degradation, the stray light contamination, and the temperature sensitivity of the Fe i line at 5250.2 Å. Finally, given that the MHD simulations are highly consistent with the observations, we used the simulations to explore the properties of BPs further. The Stokes V asymmetries increase with the distance to the center of the mean BP in both observations and simulations, consistent with the classical picture of a production of the asymmetry in the canopy. This is the first time that this has been found also in the internetwork. More or less vertical kilogauss magnetic fields are found for 98% of the synthetic BPs underlining that basically every BP is associated with kilogauss fields. At the continuum formation height, the simulated BPs are on average 190 K hotter than the mean quiet Sun, the mean BP field strength is found to be 1750 G, and the mean inclination is 17°, supporting the physical flux-tube paradigm to describe BPs. On average, the synthetic BPs harbor downflows increasing with depth. The origin of these downflows is not yet understood very well and needs further investigation.

Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Schüssler, M.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Feller, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Hirzberger, J.

2014-08-01

302

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed an analysis of fluid instabilities below the neutrinospheres of the collapsed cores of supernova progenitors using a methodology introduced by Bruenn and Dineva [28, 29, 31]. In an extensive survey we found that the rate of lepton diffusion always exceeds the rate of thermal diffusion and as a result we do not anywhere see the neutron finger instability as described by the Livermore group [16, 17]. A new instability, lepto-entropy fingers, extending from a radius of 10 15 km out to the vicinity of the neutrinosphere, driven by the cross-response functions (i.e. the dependence of lepton transport on entropy perturbations and vice versa) was discovered. This instability has a maximum growth rate of the order of 100 s-1 with a scale of approximately 1/20 the distance of a perturbed fluid element from the core center [18]. This instability has probably already been seen in some multi-dimensional core collapse calculations. To test our results predicting the presence of doubly diffusive instabilities below the neutrinosphere of a proto-supernova, we have performed two dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with radial ray neutrino transport. This entailed rewriting RadHyd, which is the merger of EVH-1 hydrodynamics and MGFLD neutrino transport developed by Bruenn and DiNisco [43], for two dimensions. In particular, hydrodynamic evolution along angular arrays was included, as was MPI message passing capabilities, in order to utilize massively parallel computer platform such as FAU's BOCA4 Beowulf cluster. This work was partially funded by a grant from the DOE Office of Science, Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program.

Raley, Elizabeth

2004-12-01

303

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetic island plays an important role in magnetic reconnection. In this paper, using a series of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the magnetic structures of a magnetic island formed during multiple X line magnetic reconnections, considering the effects of the guide field in symmetric and asymmetric current sheets. In a symmetric current sheet, the current in the x direction forms a tripolar structure inside a magnetic island during antiparallel reconnection, which results in a quadrupole structure of the out-of-plane magnetic field. With the increase of the guide field, the symmetry of both the current system and out-of-plane magnetic field inside the magnetic island is distorted. When the guide field is sufficiently strong, the current forms a ring along the magnetic field lines inside a magnetic island. At the same time, the current carried by the energetic electrons accelerated in the vicinity of the X lines forms another ring at the edge of the magnetic island. Such a dual-ring current system enhances the out-of-plane magnetic field inside the magnetic island with a dip in the center of the magnetic island. In an asymmetric current sheet, when there is no guide field, electrons flow toward the X lines along the separatrices from the side with a higher density and are then directed away from the X lines along the separatrices to the side with a lower density. The formed current results in the enhancement of the out-of-plane magnetic field at one end of the magnetic island and the attenuation at the other end. With the increase of the guide field, the structures of both the current system and the out-of-plane magnetic field are distorted.

Huang, Can; Lu, Quanming; Lu, San; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Shui

2014-02-01

304

PROPERTIES OF UMBRAL DOTS AS MEASURED FROM THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE DATA AND MHD SIMULATIONS

We studied bright umbral dots (UDs) detected in a moderate size sunspot and compared their statistical properties to recent MHD models. The study is based on high-resolution data recorded by the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory and three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of sunspots. Observed UDs, living longer than 150 s, were detected and tracked in a 46 minute long data set, using an automatic detection code. A total of 1553 (620) UDs were detected in the photospheric (low chromospheric) data. Our main findings are (1) none of the analyzed UDs is precisely circular, (2) the diameter-intensity relationship only holds in bright umbral areas, and (3) UD velocities are inversely related to their lifetime. While nearly all photospheric UDs can be identified in the low chromospheric images, some small closely spaced UDs appear in the low chromosphere as a single cluster. Slow-moving and long-living UDs seem to exist in both the low chromosphere and photosphere, while fast-moving and short-living UDs are mainly detected in the photospheric images. Comparison to the 3D MHD simulations showed that both types of UDs display, on average, very similar statistical characteristics. However, (1) the average number of observed UDs per unit area is smaller than that of the model UDs, and (2) on average, the diameter of model UDs is slightly larger than that of observed ones.

Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Rempel, M. [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Kitai, R.; Watanabe, H. [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Kyoto 607-8417 (Japan)

2012-02-01

305

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in theory and fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of 2D magnetotail-like configurations has revealed an important class of equilibria, which can be unstable to ion tearing instability and eventually result in explosive dissipation of energy, fast plasma sheet flows, dipolarizations and changes in initial magnetic topology (reconnection). Such configurations are characterized by an increase of magnetic flux at the tailward end of the equilibrium state. This presentation addresses the question of how such equilibria behave in ideal and resistive MHD approximations and how this behavior compares with the fully kinetic description. We explore the stability of the equilibria to resistive tearing as well as to possible ideal instabilities and their dependence on the equilibrium parameters, e.g., the current sheet thickness, the amount of flux accumulation at the tailward end of the equilibrium, resistivity and Lundquist number. We also discuss how the time evolution of the system (instability growth rates) depends on these parameters and how the time constants are related between MHD and kinetic descriptions. We discuss the implications of our findings for the treatment of reconnection onset in global MHD simulations.

Merkin, Viacheslav; Sitnov, Mikhail; Lyon, John; Cassak, Paul

306

Hybrid MHD-kinetic electron simulations of global standing modes (Invited)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetic Field Line Resonances (FLRs) are an example of large scale global structures that can directly couple energy from large perpendicular scale lengths to small scale kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) and inertial Alfven wave (IAW) scale lengths and ultimately in to the acceleration of particles to carry the field aligned currents. In this presentation, we will summarize the methodology and results of a hybrid MHD-kinetic electron model of FLRs which self consistently couples the cold plasma MHD equations to a system of kinetic guiding center electrons in a dipolar geometry. Results will highlight the cascade of energy evident in these simulations from large to small scale and will demonstrate that the deposition of this wave energy into electron acceleration is a significant sink of wave energy. The calculated wave spectra evident in this cascade will also be compared with observations and advances to the model using a gyrokinetic description of ion dynamics will be discussed.

Damiano, P. A.; Johnson, J.; Kim, E.

2010-12-01

307

Explosive Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection: A New Approach of MHD-Turbulent Simulation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent flows are often observed in association with magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas, and it is often hypothesized that the turbulence can contribute to the fast magnetic reconnection through the enhancement of magnetic dissipation. In this presentation, we demonstrate that an explosive turbulent reconnection can happen by using a new turbulent MHD simulation, in which the evolution of the turbulent transport coefficients are self-consistently solved together with the standard MHD equations. In our model, the turbulent electromotive force defined by the correlation of turbulent fluctuations between v and B is added to the Ohm's law. We discuss that the level of turbulent can control the topology of reconnection, namely the transition from the Sweet-Parker reconnection to the Petscheck reconnection occurs when the level of fluctuations becomes of order of the ambient physical quantities, and show that the growth of the turbulent Petscheck reconnection becomes much faster than the conventional one.

Hoshino, Masahiro; Yokoi, Nobumitsu; Higashimori, Katsuaki

2013-04-01

308

An MHD Simulation of an Emerging Bipole in the Presence of the Solar Wind

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on an MHD simulation of a bipole emerging from the solar surface in the presence of the solar wind. The initial field configuration is obtained from a source surface model, with the field at the solar surface defined by a dipole and a bipolar region near the polar axis. We use a 2.5 dimensional MHD code to model the evolution of the bipole in the presence of the solar wind and show that the emerging bipole creates an embedded coronal hole at the location of the spine of the patch of opposite polarity of the emerged bipole. This result is in contrast to source surface models which predict an X-point along the spine. We study the size and properties of the new coronal hole.

Allred, J. C.; MacNeice, P. J.; Antiochos, S. K.

2006-12-01

309

FTE Dependence on IMF Orientation and Presence of Hall Physics in Global MHD Simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flux Transfer Events (FTEs) are poleward traveling flux ropes that form in the dayside magnetopause and represent significant coupling of the solar wind to the magnetosphere during times of southward IMF. In the 35 years since their discovery, FTEs have been extensively observed and modeled; however, there is still no consensus on their generation mechanism. Previous modeling efforts have shown that FTE occurrence and size depend on the resistivity model that is used in simulations and the structure of X-lines in the magnetopause. We use Hall OpenGGCM, a global Hall-MHD code, to study the formation and propagation of FTEs in the dayside magnetopause using synthetic solar wind conditions. We examine large scale FTE structure and nearby magnetic separators for a range of IMF clock angles and dipole tilts. In addition, we investigate how FTE formation and recurrence rate depends on the presence of the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law compared with resistive MHD.

Maynard, K. M.; Germaschewski, K.; Lin, L.; Raeder, J.

2013-12-01

310

Radiation-MHD Simulations of HII Region Expansion in Turbulent Molecular Clouds

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use numerical simulations to investigate how the expansion of an HII region is affected by an ambient magnetic field. First we consider the test problem of expansion in a uniform medium with a unidirectional magnetic field. We then describe the expansion of an HII region in a turbulent medium, taking as our initial conditions the results of and MHD turbulence simulation. We find that although in the uniform medium case the magnetic field does produce interesting effects over long length and timescales, in the turbulent medium case the main effect of the magnetic field is to reduce the efficiency of fragmentation of the molecular gas.

Arthur, S. J.; Henney, W. J.; Mellema, G.; de Colle, F.; Vázquez-Semadeni, E.

2011-04-01

311

Disturbances of three cometary magnetospheres as explained by an MHD simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outstanding disturbances of the plasma tails were observed in 1989 in three comets, Brorsen-Metcalf, Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko, and Aarseth-Brewington. Time variations of the tails were obtained from photographs provided by many astronomers. A 2-D MHD simulation was performed varying the speed and the direction of the solar wind flow. The simulation agreed quite well with the observations. Solar flares were identified as the sources of these disturbances. It was found that the sudden change in direction of the plasma tail axis occurs when the comet crosses a discontinuity surface of the solar wind structure accompanied by solar flares.

Kozuka, Y.; Saito, T.; Konno, Ichishiro; Oki, T.

1990-01-01

312

MHD simulations of coronal mass ejections - Importance of the driving mechanism

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of the form of the driving mechanism in MHD simulations of coronal mass ejections is investigated. A model simulation problem is devised, and it is found that the use of a simple form for the initial corona, with an upward moving parcel of cold, dense plasma as the driving mechanism, can produce results that are consistent with many of the features observed by coronagraphs. The results imply that the nature of the driving mechanism may play an important role in determining the dynamical evolution of mass ejections.

Linker, J. A.; Van Hoven, G.; Schnack, D. D.

1990-01-01

313

General relativistic MHD simulations of monopole magnetospheres of black holes

In this paper we report the results of the first ever time-dependent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the magnetically dominated monopole magnetospheres of black holes. It is found that the numerical solution evolves towards a stable steady-state solution which is very close to the corresponding force-free solution found by Blandford and Znajek. Contrary to the recent claims, the particle inertia does not become dynamically important near the event horizon and the force-free approximation provides a proper framework for magnetically dominated magnetospheres of black holes. For the first time, our numerical simulations show the development of an ultra-relativistic particle wind from a rotating black hole. However, the flow remains Poynting dominated all the way up to the fast critical point. This suggests that the details of the so-called ``astrophysical load'', where the electromagnetic energy is transferred to particles, may have no effect on the efficiency of the Blandford-Znajek mechanism.

S. S. Komissarov

2004-03-10

314

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed two-dimensional stellar dynamical analysis of a sample of 44 cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of individual central galaxies with stellar masses of 2 × 1010 M? ? M* ? 6 × 1011 M?. Kinematic maps of the stellar line-of-sight velocity, velocity dispersion and higher order Gauss-Hermite moments h3 and h4 are constructed for each central galaxy and for the most massive satellites. The amount of rotation is quantified using the ?R-parameter. The velocity, velocity dispersion, h3 and h4 fields of the simulated galaxies show a diversity similar to observed kinematic maps of early-type galaxies in the ATLAS3D survey. This includes fast (regular), slow and misaligned rotation, hot spheroids with embedded cold disc components as well as galaxies with counter-rotating cores or central depressions in the velocity dispersion. We link the present-day kinematic properties to the individual cosmological formation histories of the galaxies. In general, major galaxy mergers have a significant influence on the rotation properties resulting in both a spin-down as well as a spin-up of the merger remnant. Lower mass galaxies with significant (?18 per cent) in situ formation of stars since z ? 2, or with additional gas-rich major mergers - resulting in a spin-up - in their formation history, form elongated (? ˜ 0.45) fast rotators (?R ˜ 0.46) with a clear anticorrelation of h3 and v/?. An additional formation path for fast rotators includes gas-poor major mergers leading to a spin-up of the remnants (?R ˜ 0.43). This formation path does not result in anticorrelated h3 and v/?. The formation histories of slow rotators can include late major mergers. If the merger is gas rich, the remnant typically is a less flattened slow rotator with a central dip in the velocity dispersion. If the merger is gas poor, the remnant is very elongated (? ˜ 0.43) and slowly rotating (?R ˜ 0.11). The galaxies most consistent with the rare class of non-rotating round early-type galaxies grow by gas-poor minor mergers alone. In general, more massive galaxies have less in situ star formation since z ˜ 2, rotate slower and have older stellar populations. We discuss general implications for the formation of fast and slowly rotating galaxies as well as the weaknesses and strengths of the underlying models.

Naab, Thorsten; Oser, L.; Emsellem, E.; Cappellari, Michele; Krajnovi?, D.; McDermid, R. M.; Alatalo, K.; Bayet, E.; Blitz, L.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Bureau, M.; Crocker, A.; Davies, R. L.; Davis, T. A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, P.-A.; Hirschmann, M.; Johansson, P. H.; Khochfar, S.; Kuntschner, H.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Ven, G. van de; Weijmans, A.; Young, L. M.

2014-11-01

315

A fully three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, MHD interplanetary global model (3D IGM) has been used, for the first time, to study the relationship between different forms of solar activity and transient variations of the north-south component, Bz, of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at 1 AU. One form of solar activity, the flare, is simulated by using a pressure pulse at

C.-C. Wu; M. Dryer; S. T. Wu

1996-01-01

316

THE SUBMILLIMETER BUMP IN Sgr A* FROM RELATIVISTIC MHD SIMULATIONS

Recent high resolution observations of the Galactic center black hole allow for direct comparison with accretion disk simulations. We compare two-temperature synchrotron emission models from three-dimensional, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations to millimeter observations of Sgr A*. Fits to very long baseline interferometry and spectral index measurements disfavor the monochromatic face-on black hole shadow models from our previous work. Inclination angles {<=}20{sup 0} are ruled out to 3{sigma}. We estimate the inclination and position angles of the black hole, as well as the electron temperature of the accretion flow and the accretion rate, to be i=50{sup o+35o}{sub -15}{sup o}, {xi}=-23{sup o+97o}{sub -22}{sup o}, T{sub e} = (5.4 {+-} 3.0) x 10{sup 10} K, and M-dot =5{sup +15}{sub -2}x10{sup -9} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, respectively, with 90% confidence. The black hole shadow is unobscured in all best-fit models, and may be detected by observations on baselines between Chile and California, Arizona, or Mexico at 1.3 mm or .87 mm either through direct sampling of the visibility amplitude or using closure phase information. Millimeter flaring behavior consistent with the observations is present in all viable models and is caused by magnetic turbulence in the inner radii of the accretion flow. The variability at optically thin frequencies is strongly correlated with that in the accretion rate. The simulations provide a universal picture of the 1.3 mm emission region as a small region near the midplane in the inner radii of the accretion flow, which is roughly isothermal and has {nu}/{nu} {sub c} {approx} 1-20, where {nu} {sub c} is the critical frequency for thermal synchrotron emission.

Dexter, Jason [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Fragile, P. Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); McKinney, Jonathan C., E-mail: jdexter@u.washington.ed [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

2010-07-10

317

MHD simulations of homologous and cannibalistic coronal mass ejections

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the development of a homologous sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and demonstrate their so-called cannibalistic behavior. These CMEs originate from the repeated formations and partial eruptions of kink unstable flux ropes as a result of the continued emergence of a twisted flux rope across the lower boundary into a pre-existing coronal potential arcade field. The simulations show that a CME erupting into the open magnetic field created by a preceding CME has a higher speed, and therefore tends to be cannibalistic, catching up and merging with the preceding one into a single fast CME. All the CMEs attained speeds of about 1000 km/s as they exit the domain. The reformation of a twisted flux rope after each CME eruption during the sustained flux emergence can naturally explain the X-ray observations of repeated reformations of sigmoids and “sigmoid-under-cusp” configurations at a low-coronal source of homologous CMEs.

Fan, Yuhong; Chatterjee, Piyali

2014-06-01

318

Constrained Transport vs. Divergence Cleanser Options in Astrophysical MHD Simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous work, we presented results from global numerical simulations of the evolution of black hole accretion disks using the Cosmos++ GRMHD code. In those simulations we solved the magnetic induction equation using an advection-split form, which is known not to satisfy the divergence-free constraint. To minimize the build-up of divergence error, we used a hyperbolic cleanser function that simultaneously damped the error and propagated it off the grid. We have since found that this method produces qualitatively and quantitatively different behavior in high magnetic field regions than results published by other research groups, particularly in the evacuated funnels of black-hole accretion disks where Poynting-flux jets are reported to form. The main difference between our earlier work and that of our competitors is their use of constrained-transport schemes to preserve a divergence-free magnetic field. Therefore, to study these differences directly, we have implemented a constrained transport scheme into Cosmos++. Because Cosmos++ uses a zone-centered, finite-volume method, we can not use the traditional staggered-mesh constrained transport scheme of Evans & Hawley. Instead we must implement a more general scheme; we chose the Flux-CT scheme as described by Toth. Here we present comparisons of results using the divergence-cleanser and constrained transport options in Cosmos++.

Lindner, Christopher C.; Fragile, P.

2009-01-01

319

Three-dimensional MHD Simulation of the Caltech Plasma Jet Experiment: First Results

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are believed to play an essential role in astrophysical jets with observations suggesting the presence of helical magnetic fields. Here, we present three-dimensional (3D) ideal MHD simulations of the Caltech plasma jet experiment using a magnetic tower scenario as the baseline model. Magnetic fields consist of an initially localized dipole-like poloidal component and a toroidal component that is continuously being injected into the domain. This flux injection mimics the poloidal currents driven by the anode-cathode voltage drop in the experiment. The injected toroidal field stretches the poloidal fields to large distances, while forming a collimated jet along with several other key features. Detailed comparisons between 3D MHD simulations and experimental measurements provide a comprehensive description of the interplay among magnetic force, pressure, and flow effects. In particular, we delineate both the jet structure and the transition process that converts the injected magnetic energy to other forms. With suitably chosen parameters that are derived from experiments, the jet in the simulation agrees quantitatively with the experimental jet in terms of magnetic/kinetic/inertial energy, total poloidal current, voltage, jet radius, and jet propagation velocity. Specifically, the jet velocity in the simulation is proportional to the poloidal current divided by the square root of the jet density, in agreement with both the experiment and analytical theory. This work provides a new and quantitative method for relating experiments, numerical simulations, and astrophysical observation, and demonstrates the possibility of using terrestrial laboratory experiments to study astrophysical jets.

Zhai, Xiang; Li, Hui; Bellan, Paul M.; Li, Shengtai

2014-08-01

320

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Loading and consequent unloading of magnetic flux is an essential element of the substorm cycle in Earth's magnetotail. We are unaware of an available global MHD magnetospheric simulation model that includes a loading- unloading cycle in its behavior. Given the central role that MHD models presently play in the development of our understanding of magnetospheric dynamics, and given the present plans for the central role that these models will play in ongoing space weather prediction programs, it is clear that this failure must be corrected. A 2-dimensional numerical driven current-sheet model has been developed that incorporates an idealized current- driven instability with a resistive MHD system. Under steady loading, the model exhibits a global loading- unloading cycle. The specific mechanism for producing the loading-unloading cycle will be discussed. It will be shown that scale-free avalanching of electromagnetic energy through the model, from loading to unloading, is carried by repetitive bursts of localized reconnection. Each burst leads, somewhat later, to a field configuration that is capable of exciting a reconnection burst again. This process repeats itself in an intermittent manner while the total field energy in the system falls. At the end of an unloading interval, the total field energy is reduced to well below that necessary to initiate the next unloading event and, thus, a loading-unloading cycle results. It will be shown that, in this model, it is the topology of bursty localized reconnection that is responsible for the appearance of the loading-unloading cycle.

Klimas, A. J.; Uritsky, V.; Vassiliadis, D.; Baker, D. N.

2005-01-01

321

Simulation of 3-D Nonequilibrium Seeded Air Flow in the NASA-Ames MHD Channel

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 3-D nonequilibrium seeded air flow in the NASA-Ames experimental MHD channel has been numerically simulated. The channel contains a nozzle section, a center section, and an accelerator section where magnetic and electric fields can be imposed on the flow. In recent tests, velocity increases of up to 40% have been achieved in the accelerator section. The flow in the channel is numerically computed us ing a 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm that has been developed to efficiently compute MHD flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime: The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equations which can then be solved in a very efficient manner. The algorithm has been extended in the present study to account for nonequilibrium seeded air flows. The electrical conductivity of the flow is determined using the program of Park. The new algorithm has been used to compute two test cases that match the experimental conditions. In both cases, magnetic and electric fields are applied to the seeded flow. The computed results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

Gupta, Sumeet; Tannehill, John C.; Mehta, Unmeel B.

2004-01-01

322

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last ten years, an eruptive flare model based on a loss of equilibrium in a coronal flux rope has been developed (Forbes and Priest 1995, Lin and Forbes 2000) and has been tested by observations from SOHO and RHESSI. We present fully self-consistent resistive and Hall MHD simulations of the model beginning from an equilibrium solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation in which a flux rope is nested in an arcade. The system is then driven by photospheric converging flows. It is found that the system evolves into a configuration with a thin current sheet which grows progressively thinner and longer, driving the flux rope upward. Magnetic reconnection in the thin current sheet eventually leads to the accelerated expulsion of the flux rope, as anticipated qualitatively by earlier theoretical calculations. In the resistive MHD model, the reconnection rate as well as the acceleration is controlled by the resistivity. In the Hall MHD model, the current sheet becomes thinner and more dynamic, the acceleration is faster and much more weakly dependent on the resistivity (at high values of the Lundquist number). Comparisons will be made with an eruptive event on 2003 November 18.

Ma, Z.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Forbes, T.

2005-12-01

323

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Milne-Eddington (M-E) inversion codes for the radiative transfer equation are the most widely used tools to infer the magnetic field from observations of the polarization signals in photospheric and chromospheric spectral lines. Unfortunately, a comprehensive comparison between the different M-E codes available to the solar physics community is still missing, and so is a physical interpretation of their inferences. In this contribution we offer a comparison between three of those codes (VFISV, ASP/HAO, and HeLIx+). These codes are used to invert synthetic Stokes profiles that were previously obtained from realistic non-grey three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (3D MHD) simulations. The results of the inversion are compared with each other and with those from the MHD simulations. In the first case, the M-E codes retrieve values for the magnetic field strength, inclination and line-of-sight velocity that agree with each other within ?B ? 35 (Gauss), ?? ? 1.2°, and ?v ? 10 m s-1, respectively. Additionally, M-E inversion codes agree with the numerical simulations, when compared at a fixed optical depth, within ?B ? 130 (Gauss), ?? ? 5°, and ?v ? 320 m s-1. Finally, we show that employing generalized response functions to determine the height at which M-E codes measure physical parameters is more meaningful than comparing at a fixed geometrical height or optical depth. In this case the differences between M-E inferences and the 3D MHD simulations decrease to ?B ? 90 (Gauss), ?? ? 3°, and ?v ? 90 m s-1.

Borrero, J. M.; Lites, B. W.; Lagg, A.; Rezaei, R.; Rempel, M.

2014-12-01

324

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) we have been developing a new research environment named "OneSpaceNet". The OneSpaceNet is a cloud-computing environment to provide the researchers rich resources for research studies, such as super-computers, large-scale disk area, licensed applications, database and communication devices. The large-scale disk area is rovided via Gfarm, which is one of the distributed file systems. This paper first proposes a distributed data-type and/or data-intensive processing system that are provided via Gfarm as a solution to large-scale data processing in the context of distributed data management and data processing environments in the field of solar-terrestrial physics. The usefulness of a system composed of many file system nodes was examined using large-scale computer simulation data. In the parallel 3D visualization of computer simulation data varying in terms of data processing granularity, optimized load balancing through FIFO scheduling or pipe-line scheduling yielded parallelization efficacy. Using the large-scale data processing system, we have developed a magnetic flux tracing system of global MHD simulations. Under the assumption of magnetic field frozen-in theory of ideal MHD plasma, we trace an element (or elements) of plasma at all steps of global MHD simulation, and visualize magnetic flux (magnetic field lines) penetrating the element(s). Since this system depends on the frozen-in theory, we need to examine when and where this assumption breaks before we apply it for physical data analyses. Figure (a) and Figure (b) show magnetic field lines in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetopause visualized via present system. Both figures show that the magnetic field lines are scattered as they advance downward. In the present talk we discuss the error in the tracings and the restrictions to apply for this technique.

Murata, K. T.; Watari, S.; Kubota, Y.; Fukazawa, K.; Tsubouchi, K.; Fujita, S.; Tanaka, T.; Den, M.; Murayama, Y.

2011-12-01

325

Five model flows of increasing complexity belonging to the class of stationary two-dimensional planar field-aligned magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows are presented which are well suited to the quantitative evaluation of MHD codes. The physical properties of these five flows are investigated using characteristic theory. Grid convergence criteria for flows belonging to this class are derived from characteristic theory, and grid convergence

H. De Sterck; A. Cs??k; D. Vanden Abeele; S. Poedts; H. Deconinck

2001-01-01

326

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, secondary island formation due to the tearing instability of the Sweet-Parker current sheet was identified as a possible mechanism that can lead to fast reconnection (less sensitive dependence on Lundquist number S) both in numerical simulations using Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method (Daughton et al. 2009), as well as using resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (Lapenta 2008; Bhattacharjee et al. 2009). This instability is thought to appear when S is greater than a certain threshold. These recent results prompt us to perform more resistive MHD simulations of a basic reconnection configuration based on the island coalescence instability, using much higher resolutions and larger S. Our simulations are based on a fairly standard pseudo spectral code, which has been tested for accuracy, convergence, and compared well with codes using other methods (Ng et al. 2008). In our simulations, formation of plasmoids were not found, except when insufficient resolution was used, or when a small amount of noise was added externally. The reconnection rate is found to follow the Sweet-Parker scaling when no noise is added, but increases to a level independent of S with noise, when plasmoids form. Latest results with S up to 2×105 will be presented.

Ng, C. S.; Ragunathan, S.

2011-10-01

327

Relativistic modeling capabilities in PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for HED plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the incorporation of relativistic modeling capabilities into the PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas, and present the latest hybrid X-pinch simulation results. The use of fully relativistic equations enables the model to remain self-consistent in simulations of such relativistic phenomena as X-pinches and laser-plasma interactions. By suitable formulation of the relativistic generalized Ohm's law as an evolution equation, we have reduced the recovery of primitive variables, a major technical challenge in relativistic codes, to a straightforward algebraic computation. Our code recovers expected results in the non-relativistic limit, and reveals new physics in the modeling of electron beam acceleration following an X-pinch. Through the use of a relaxation scheme, relativistic PERSEUS is able to handle nine orders of magnitude in density variation, making it the first fluid code, to our knowledge, that can simulate relativistic HED plasmas.

Hamlin, Nathaniel D.; Seyler, Charles E.

2014-12-01

328

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection is considered to play an important role in space phenomena such as substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. Tanaka and Fujita reproduced substorm evolution process by numerical simulation with the global MHD code [1]. In the MHD framework, the dissipation model is introduced for modeling of the kinetic effects. They found that the normalized reconnection viscosity, one of the dissipation model employed there, gave a large effect for the dipolarization, central phenomenon in the substorm development process, though that viscosity was assumed to be a constant parameter. It is well known that magnetic reconnection is controlled by microscopic kinetic mechanism. Frozen-in condition is broken due to particle kinetic effects and collisionless reconnection is triggered when current sheet is compressed as thin as ion kinetic scales under the influence of external driving flow [2, 3]. Horiuchi and his collaborators showed that reconnection electric field generated by microscopic physics evolves inside ion meandering scale so as to balance the flux inflow rate at the inflow boundary, which is controlled by macroscopic physics [2]. That is, effective resistivity generated through this process can be expressed by balance equation between micro and macro physics. In this paper, we perform substorm simulation by using the global MHD code developed by Tanaka [3] with this effective resistivity instead of the empirical resistivity model. We obtain the AE indices from simulation data, in which substorm onset can be seen clearly, and investigate the relationship between the substorm development and the effective resistivity model. [1] T. Tanaka, A, Nakamizo, A. Yoshikawa, S. Fujita, H. Shinagawa, H. Shimazu, T. Kikuchi, and K. K. Hashimoto, J. Geophys. Res. 115 (2010) A05220,doi:10.1029/2009JA014676. [2] W. Pei, R. Horiuchi, and T. Sato, Physics of Plasmas,Vol. 8 (2001), pp. 3251-3257. [3] A. Ishizawa, and R. Horiuchi, Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 95, 045003 (2005). [4] T. Tanaka, J. Comp. Phys. 111 (1994) 381.

Den, M.; Horiuchi, R.; Fujita, S.; Tanaka, T.

2011-12-01

329

Overview of the Simulation of Wave Interactions with MHD Project (SWIM)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SWIM center has the scientific objectives of: improving our understanding of interactions that both RF wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, improving our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas, developing an integrated computational system for treating multi-physics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project, addressing mathematics issues related to the multi-scale, coupled physics of RF waves and extended MHD, and optimizing the integrated system on high performance computers. Our Center has now built an end-to-end computational system that allows existing physics codes to be able to function together in a parallel environment and connects them to utility software components and data management systems. We have used this framework to couple together state-of-the-art fusion energy codes to produce a unique and world-class simulation capability. A physicist's overview of the Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) will be given and applications described. For example the IPS is being employed to support ITER with operational scenario studies.

Batchelor, Donald

2010-11-01

330

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on the Japanese National Aerospace Laboratory two dimensional transonic wind tunnel, completed at the end of 1979 is presented. Its construction is discussed in detail, and the wind tunnel structure, operation, test results, and future plans are presented.

1982-01-01

331

Tongkumchum, P. Two-dimensional box plot Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2005, 27(4) : 859-866 In this paper we propose a two-dimensional box plot, a simple bivariate extension of the box plot and the scatter plot. This plot comprises a pair of trapeziums oriented in the direction of a fitted straight line, with symbols denoting extreme values. The choice for the fitted

Phattrawan Tongkumchum

332

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The poloidal mode field line resonance in the Earth's dipole magnetic field is investigated using cold plasma ideal MHD simulations in dipole geometry. In order to excite the poloidal mode resonance, we use either an initial or a continuous velocity perturbation to drive the system. The perturbation is localized at magnetic shell L = 7 with plasma flow in the radial direction (electric field component in the azimuthal direction). It is found that with the initial perturbation alone, no polodial mode resonance can be obtained and the initially localized perturbation spreads out across all magnetic L shells. With the continuous perturbation, oscillating near the poloidal resonance frequency, a global-scale poloidal cavity mode can be obtained. For the first time, a localized guided poloidal mode resonance is obtained when a radial component of electric field is added to the initial perturbation such that the curl of the electric field is everywhere perpendicular to the background dipole magnetic field. During the localized poloidal resonance, plasma vortices parallel/antiparallel to the background dipole magnetic field B(sub 0). This circular flow, elongated radially, results in twisting of magnetic field flux tubes, which, in turn, leads to the slowdown of the circular plasma flow and reversal of the plasma vortices. The energy associated with the localized poloidal resonance is conserved as it shifts back and forth between the oscillating plasma vortices and the alternately twisted magnetic flux tubes. In the simulations the eigenfunctions associated with the localized poloidal resonance are grid-scale singular functions. This result indicates that ideal MHD is inadequate to describe the underlying problem and nonideal MHD effects are needed for mode broadening.

Ding, D. Q.; Denton, . E.; Hudson, M. K.; Lysak, R. L.

1995-01-01

333

Beaver Lake is considered a primary watershed of concern in the State of Arkansas. As such, information is needed to assess water quality, especially nutrient enrichment, nutrient-algal relations, turbidity, and sediment issues within the system. A previously calibrated two-dimensional, laterally averaged model of hydrodynamics and water quality was used for the evaluation of changes in input nutrient and sediment concentrations on the water quality of the reservoir for the period of April 2001 to April 2003. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were increased and decreased and tested independently and simultaneously to examine the nutrient concentrations and algal response in the reservoir. Suspended-solids concentrations were increased and decreased to identify how solids are distributed in the reservoir, which can contribute to decreased water clarity. The Beaver Lake model also was evaluated using a conservative tracer. A conservative tracer was applied at various locations in the reservoir model to observe the fate and transport and how the reservoir might react to the introduction of a conservative substance, or a worst-case spill scenario. In particular, tracer concentrations were evaluated at the locations of the four public water-supply intakes in Beaver Lake. Nutrient concentrations in Beaver Lake increased proportionally with increases in loads from the three main tributaries. An increase of 10 times the calibrated daily input nitrogen and phosphorus in the three main tributaries resulted in daily mean total nitrogen concentrations in the epilimnion that were nearly 4 times greater than the calibration concentrations at site L2 and more than 2 times greater than the calibrated concentrations at site L5. Increases in daily input nitrogen in the three main tributaries independently did not correspond in substantial increases in concentrations of nitrogen in Beaver Lake. The greatest proportional increase in phosphorus occurred in the epilimnion at sites L3 and L4 and the least increase occurred at sites L2 and L5 when calibrated daily input phosphorus concentrations were increased. When orthophosphorus was increased in all three tributaries simultaneously by a factor of 10, daily mean orthophosphorus concentrations in the epilimnion of the reservoir were almost 11 times greater than the calibrated concentrations at sites L2 and L5, and 15 times greater in the epilimnion of the reservoir at sites L3 and L4. Phosphorus concentrations in Beaver Lake increased less when nitrogen and phosphorus were increased simultaneously than when phosphorus was increased independently. The greatest simulated increase in algal biomass (represented as chlorophyll a) occurred when nitrogen and phosphorus were increased simultaneously in the three main tributaries. On average, the chlorophyll a values only increased less than 1 microgram per liter when concentrations of nitrogen or phosphorous were increased independently by a factor of 10 at all three tributaries. In comparison, when nitrogen and phosphorus were increased simultaneously by a factor of 10 for all three tributaries, the chlorophyll a concentration increased by about 10 micrograms per liter on average, with a maximum increase of about 57 micrograms per liter in the epilimnion at site L3 in Beaver Lake. Changes in algal biomass with changes in input nitrogen and phosphorus were variable through time in the Beaver Lake model from April 2001 to April 2003. When calibrated daily input nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were increased simultaneously for the three main tributaries, the increase in chlorophyll a concentration was the greatest in late spring and summer of 2002. Changes in calibrated daily input inorganic suspended solids concentrations were examined because of the effect they may have on water clarity in Beaver Lake. The increase in total suspended solids was greatest in the hypolimnion at the upstream end of Beaver Lake, and negligible changes

Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed

2007-01-01

334

Observations and 3D MHD simulations of a solar active region jet

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We study an active region jet originating from NOAA 8531 on May 15 1999. We perform 3D MHD numerical simulations of magnetic flux emergence and its subsequent reconnection with preexisting magnetic flux. Then, we compare the physical properties of the observed jet with the reconnecting outflow produced in the numerical model. Methods: We report observations of this jet using a series of TRACE 171 Å filtergrams, simultaneous observations from SUMER in Ne viii 770Å and C iv 1548 Å as well as MDI magnetograms. In the numerical simulation, the full compressible and resistive MHD equations are solved, including viscous and Ohmic heating. Results: A high-velocity upflow (?100 km s-1) is observed after the emergence of new magnetic flux at the edge of the active region. The jet is recorded over a range of temperatures between 105 K and 1.5 × 106 K. In our numerical experiments, we find that the jet is the result of magnetic reconnection between newly emerging flux and the preexisting magnetic field of the active region. Conclusions: The hot and high-velocity bidirectional flows occur as a result of the interaction between oppositely directed magnetic fields. Observations and numerical results are strongly suggestive of effective reconnection process being responsible for producing jets when emerging flux appears in solar active regions.

Gontikakis, C.; Archontis, V.; Tsinganos, K.

2009-11-01

335

Milne-Eddington (M-E) inversion codes for the radiative transfer equation are the most widely used tools to infer the magnetic field from observations of the polarization signals in photospheric and chromospheric spectral lines. Unfortunately, a comprehensive comparison between the different M-E codes available to the solar physics community is still missing, and so is a physical interpretation of their inferences. In this contribution we offer a comparison between three of those codes (VFISV, ASP/HAO, and HeLIx$^+$). These codes are used to invert synthetic Stokes profiles that were previously obtained from realistic non-grey three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (3D MHD) simulations. The results of the inversion are compared with each other and with those from the MHD simulations. In the first case, the M-E codes retrieve values for the magnetic field strength, inclination and line-of-sight velocity that agree with each other within $\\sigma_B \\leq 35$ (Gauss), $\\sigma_\\gamma \\leq 1.2\\deg$, and $\\sigma_{\\r...

Borrero, J M; Lagg, A; Rezaei, R; Rempel, M

2014-01-01

336

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In global modeling, magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) coupling physically connects a global magnetospheric (GM) model and a global ionospheric-thermospheric (GIT) model. The field-aligned current from the GM model and the conductance distributions from the GIT model are used in a Poisson equation derived from the ionospheric Ohm's law combined with current continuity to determine the electrostatic potential in the ionosphere. In current GM models, this electrostatic potential is mapped to the inner boundary of the GM simulation to determine electrostatic boundary conditions on the electric field and MHD velocity there. Inductive effects and the finite Alfven transit time between the low-altitude GM boundary and the high-altitude GIT boundary (MI gap region) are neglected in this formulation of MI coupling. Using fields and currents derived from Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry GM simulations, and conductance distributions derived from its standalone empirical conductance model in the MI coupling Poisson equation, we have computed the fast Fourier transform of the electrostatic field at the low-altitude LFM simulation boundary as described above, and the FFT of the inductive electric field at the boundary under the assumption that ? 0 ? P vA ? 1, where ? P is the ionospheric Pedersen conductance and vA is the smallest value of the Alfven speed in the MI gap region. In this regime, the complete electric field at the low-altitude simulation boundary includes the usual mapped electrostatic field with an inductive addition for which the finite Alfven transit time and the diversion of field-aligned into polarization currents in the gap region are negligible (Lotko, 2004). By comparing the boundary-averaged spectra of the electrostatic and so-determined inductive fields, we confirm that the purely electrostatic formulation of MI coupling is valid when the MHD state varies on times scales exceeding about 200 s. For faster MHD time variations, the inductive electric field is shown to be larger than the electrostatic field at the low-altitude boundary and is thus non-negligible. For example, inductive corrections are expected to be important for sudden impulse events and substorm-related Pi2 fluctuations. We are currently implementing the inductive MI coupling algorithm of Lotko (2004) in the LFM global simulation. Lotko, W. (2004), Inductive magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, JASTP 66, 1443-1456.

Xi, S.; Lotko, W.; Zhang, B.; Brambles, O.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Lyon, J.; Merkin, V. G.

2010-12-01

337

LARGE EDDY SIMULATION FOR TURBULENT MHD FLOWS A. LABOVSKY AND C. TRENCHEA

], electromagnetic turbulence control in induction furnaces [54], electromagnetic damping of buoyancy- driven flow dedicated to both experimental and theoretical investigations on the influence of electromagnetic force reactors, electromagnetic casting of metals, MHD sea water propulsion. The MHD effects arising from

Trenchea, Catalin

338

MHD Modeling in Complex 3D Geometries: Towards Predictive Simulation of SIHI Current Drive

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HIT-SI experiment studies Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI) for the purpose of forming and sustaining a spheromak plasma. A spheromak is formed in a nearly axisymmetric flux conserver, with a bow tie cross section, by means of two semi-toroidal injectors. The plasma-facing surfaces of the device, which are made of copper for its low resistivity, are covered in an insulating coating in order to operate in a purely inductive manner. Following formation, the spheromak flux and current are increased during a quiescent period marked by a decrease in the global mode activity. A proposed mechanism, Imposed Dynamo Current Drive (IDCD), is expected to be responsible for this phase of quiescent current drive. Due to the geometric complexity of the experiment, previous numerical modeling efforts have used a simplified geometry that excludes the injector volumes from the simulated domain. The effect of helicity injection is then modeled by boundary conditions on this reduced plasma volume. The work presented here has explored and developed more complete computational models of the HIT-SI device. This work is separated into 3 distinct but complementary areas: 1) Development of a 3D MHD equilibrium code that can incorporate the non-axisymmetric injector fields present in HIT-SI and investigation of equilibria of interest during spheromak sustainment. 2) A 2D axisymmetric MHD equilibrium code that was used to explore reduced order models for mean-field evolution using equations derived from IDCD theory including coupling to 3D equilibria. 3) A 3D time-dependent non-linear MHD code that is capable of modeling the entire plasma volume including dynamics within the injectors. Although HIT-SI was the motivation for, and experiment studied in this research, the tools and methods developed are general --- allowing their application to a broad range of magnetic confinement experiments. These tools constitute a significant advance for modeling plasma dynamics in devices with complex boundary geometries.

Hansen, Christopher James

339

Nonlinear excitation of low-n harmonics in reduced MHD simulations of edge-localized modes

Nonlinear simulations of the early ELMphase based on a typical type-I ELMy ASDEX Upgrade discharge have been carried out using the reduced MHD code JOREK. The analysis is focused on the evolution of the toroidal Fourier spectrum. It is found that during the nonlinear evolution, linearly subdominant low-n Fourier components, in particular the n = 1, grow to energies comparable with linearly dominant harmonics. A simple model is developed, based on the idea that energy is transferred among the toroidal harmonics via second order nonlinear interaction. The simple model reproduces and explains very well the early nonlinear evolution of the toroidal spectrum in the JOREK simulations. Furthermore, it is shown for the n = 1 harmonic, that its spatial structure changes significantly during the transition from linear to nonlinearly driven growth. The rigidly growing structure of the linearly barely unstable n = 1 reaches far into the plasma core. In contrast, the nonlinearly driven n = 1 has a rigidly growing structur...

Krebs, Isabel; Lackner, Karl; Guenter, Sibylle

2013-01-01

340

Pi2 Pulsations: Generation and Propagation Based on Global MHD Simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of substorm events that occurred on October 23-24, 2002 and September 14, 2004 we investigate Pi2 perturbations at 6 RE and their relationship to dipolarization fronts (DFs) and bursty flows in the plasma sheet. We demonstrate that the simulations contain both DFs and fluctuations at Pi2 frequencies. The DFs are accompanied by fast earthward flows and originate from a neutral line ~15-30 RE down tail. Pi2 period fluctuations are identified in pressure (magnetic, thermal, dynamic and total), velocity and magnetic field components at -6 RE after DFs penetrate the braking region boundary. The braking region is the area between dipolar field lines and stretched tail field lines where flows from the tail divert around the inner magnetosphere. We identify the wave modes associated with the DFs passage and attempt to determine if and how those waves propagate earthward to generate the Pi2 signatures observed on the ground.

Ream, J. B.; Walker, R. J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; El-Alaoui, M.; Kivelson, M.; Goldstein, M. L.

2013-12-01

341

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faraday rotation observations of natural radio sources allow remote diagnostics of the density and magnetic field of the solar corona. We use linear polarization observations made with the NRAO Very Large Array at frequencies of 1465 and 1665 MHz of 33 polarized radio sources occulted by the solar corona within 5 to 14 solar radii. The measurements were made during May 1997 (Mancuso and Spangler, 2000), March 2005 and april 2005 (Ingleby et al., 2005), corresponding to Carrington rotation number 1922, 1923, 2027 and 2028. We compare the observed Faraday rotation values with values extracted from MHD steady-state simulations of the solar corona using the BATS-R-US model. The simulations are driven by magnetogram data taken at the same time as the observed data. We present the agreement between the model and the Faraday rotation measurements, and we discuss the contraints imposed on models of the quiet corona and CMEs by these observations.

LE CHAT, G.; Kasper, J. C.; Cohen, O.; Spangler, S.

2013-05-01

342

Two-dimensional spatially developing mixing layers

Two-dimensional, incompressible, spatially developing mixing layer simulations are performed with two classes of perturbations applied at the inlet boundary: (1) combinations of discrete modes from linear stability theory, and (2) a broad spectrum of modes derived from experimentally measured velocity spectra. The discrete modes from linear theory are obtained by solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equation, and linear stability analysis is used to investigate the effect of Reynolds number on the stability of mixing layers. Two-point spatial velocity and autocorrelations are used to estimate the size and lifetime of the resulting coherent structures and to explore possible feedback effects. It is shown that by forcing with a broad spectrum of modes derived from an experimental energy spectrum, many experimentally observed phenomena can be reproduced by a two-dimensional simulation.

Wilson, R.V.; Demuren, A.O. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-04-01

343

Two-dimensional material nanophotonics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional materials exhibit diverse electronic properties, ranging from insulating hexagonal boron nitride and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulphide, to semimetallic graphene. In this Review, we first discuss the optical properties and applications of various two-dimensional materials, and then cover two different approaches for enhancing their interactions with light: through their integration with external photonic structures, and through intrinsic polaritonic resonances. Finally, we present a narrow-bandgap layered material -- black phosphorus -- that serendipitously bridges the energy gap between the zero-bandgap graphene and the relatively large-bandgap transition metal dichalcogenides. The plethora of two-dimensional materials and their heterostructures, together with the array of available approaches for enhancing the light-matter interaction, offers the promise of scientific discoveries and nanophotonics technologies across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Han; Xiao, Di; Dubey, Madan; Ramasubramaniam, Ashwin

2014-12-01

344

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the inner heliosphere over a 9-year period from 2001 to 2009, from 50 Rs to 1250 Rs, is simulated by means of the time-dependent three-dimensional MHD simulation with a new treatment handling the observation-based temporally evolving boundary data. The inner boundary magnetic field is calculated from the solar surface magnetic field data made at Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO), and the plasma speed data is from the maps constructed by means of the MHD tomography analysis using the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) data. The density and temperatures are determined by empirical relation functions that are derived from Helios data. In this way, all inner boundary values of the solar wind flowing outward are from measurements. The two ground-based observations, WSO magnetic field and IPS solar wind data, have been long conducted, and we used these two dataset to drive the simulation system over the 9-year span well covering the solar cycle 23. The simulated interplanetary MHD variables are compared with the in-situ measurements, OMNI (nearby the Earth) and the Ulysses. Overall, except the poloidal component of the magnetic field, the simulated MHD variables derived agree very well with the in-situ data.

Hayashi, Keiji; Washimi, H.; Tokumaru, M.

2012-05-01

345

MHD SIMULATIONS OF ACCRETION ONTO Sgr A*: QUIESCENT FLUCTUATIONS, OUTBURSTS, AND QUASIPERIODICITY

High-resolution observations of Sgr A* have revealed a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from intense rapid flares to quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), making this object an ideal system to study the properties of low luminosity accreting black holes. In this paper, we use a pseudospectral algorithm to construct and evolve a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the accretion disk in Sgr A*. Assuming a hybrid thermal-nonthermal emission scheme and calibrating the parameters by observations, we show that the MHD turbulence in the environment of Sgr A* can by itself only produce factor two fluctuations in luminosity. These fluctuations cannot explain the magnitude of flares observed in this system. However, we also demonstrate that external forcing of the accretion disk, which may be generated by the 'clumpy material' raining down onto the disk from the large-scale flow, do produce outbursts qualitatively similar to those observed by XMM-Newton in X-rays and by ground-based facilities in the near infrared. Strong, but short-term QPOs emerge naturally in the simulated light curves. We attribute these to nonaxisymmetric density perturbations that emerge as the disk evolves back toward its quiescent state.

Chan Chikwan [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Liu Siming [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Bldg Rm 620, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Fryer, Christopher L.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Oezel, Feryal; Melia, Fulvio [Department of Physics, the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel [Computational Computer Science Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2009-08-10

346

MHD Simulation of a Disk Subjected to Lense-Thirring Precession

When matter orbits around a central mass obliquely with respect to the mass's spin axis, the Lense-Thirring effect causes it to precess at a rate declining sharply with radius. Ever since the work of Bardeen & Petterson (1975), it has been expected that when a fluid fills an orbiting disk, the orbital angular momentum at small radii should then align with the mass's spin. Nearly all previous work has studied this alignment under the assumption that a phenomenological "viscosity" isotropically degrades fluid shears in accretion disks, even though it is now understood that internal stress in flat disks is due to anisotropic MHD turbulence. In this paper we report a pair of matched simulations, one in MHD and one in pure (non-viscous) HD in order to clarify the specific mechanisms of alignment. As in the previous work, we find that disk warps induce radial flows that mix angular momentum of different orientation; however, we also show that the speeds of these flows are generically transonic and are only very...

Sorathia, Kareem A; Hawley, John F

2013-01-01

347

Two-Species, 3D, MHD Simulation of Europa's Interaction with Jupiter's Magnetosphere

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of Europa with the Jovian a magnetosphere has been studied by using a two species in ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model. This model considers the upstream plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere and the molecular oxygen ions in the ionosphere of Europa, separately. We present results a from simulation studies, which take into account impact ionization, recombination, and the effect of a possible induced dipole magnetic field of Europa. The total mass loading of the magnetospheric flow and the ionization frequency used in the model are consistent with the estimates of Europa's ionosphere and atmosphere. The multi-species MHD equations are solved by using a finite volume, high-order, Godunov-type method on an adoptively refined unstructured grid, which allows a detailed modeling of the region near Europa's surface, while still resolving both the upstream region and the satellite's wake. We have paid special attention to the wake of Europa, in order to be able to make comparisons with the Galileo's E4 flyby observations, as well as other model calculations. The calculated escape flux of a O2+ down the tail was found to be about 5.6 x 10(exp 25) s(sup -1).

Liu, Yifan; Nagy, Andrew F.; Kabin, Konstantin; Combi, Michael R.; DeZeeuw, Darren L.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Powell, Kenneth G.

2000-01-01

348

A simple, yet robust, 3D resistive MHD code for simulations of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Details are presented of the 3D resistive MHD code Gorgon. The code performs explicit hydrodynamics on a regular, Cartesian, Eulerian grid. Both the thermal and the magnetic field diffusion equations are backwards differenced and solved implicitly by iterative matrix solution. In the magnetic case, all three components of the field are diffused simultaneously, which results in a 3n x 3n matrix with 29 non-zero diagonals. The divergence of B is intrinsically conserved by the finite difference schemes used in both the diffusion and advection routines. Additional modules which simulate the effects of multiple temperatures, LTE ionisation, different equations of state, and radiation loss are described. Data is presented from separate 3D benchmark tests of the thermal and magnetic field diffusion routines and from 3D MHD instability benchmark tests of the entire code. Different variants of this code have used extensively in the study of wire array Z-pinches for inertial confinement fusion, to model the generation of hypersonic, radiatively cooled, laboratory plasma jets and for the study of magnetically collimated jets from Active Galactic Nuclei. Results from each research topic will be presented.

Chittenden, Jeremy P.

2002-03-01

349

3D MHD simulations of the flapping instability - magnetic reconnection interaction.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's magnetotail is susceptible to MHD-scale kink-like oscillations that bend the current sheet in the equatorial plane. An analytical theory developed recently suggests that the oscillations can exist if normal and tangential magnetic field gradients are non-zero, hence the name (double-gradient mode). The mode is stable if the product of these two gradients is positive, and unstable if the product is negative. The latter case was successfully reproduced recently by large-scale MHD simulations. In the present report we investigate the interaction of localised magnetic reconnection pulse and the flapping instability. Grad-Shafranov equation solution provides for the initial tail-like condition, and reconnection is started by adding anomalous resistivity at the current sheet center. Plasma flows significantly increase the local gradients at the jet front, leading to much faster flapping mode development. Notably, if the initial configuration is flapping unstable, then the reconnection jet shows evidences of a kink-like bending in the equatorial plane. In the nonlinear stage the front extent in the vertical ("Z" GSM) direction increases due to instability, hence local generation of the mode can lead to structuring of magnetotail dipolarization fronts and is of potential importance for tail dynamics.

Divin, Andrey; Erkaev, Nikolay; Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano; Korovinskiy, Daniil; Semenov, Vladimir; Kubyshkina, Daria

350

This study uses two conjunctions between Cluster and Double Star TC-1 spacecraft together with global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate the large-scale configuration of magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. Both events involve southward interplanetary magnetic fields with significant B y components. The first event occurred on 8 May 2004, while both spacecraft were exploring the dawn flank of the

J. Berchem; A. Marchaudon; M. Dunlop; C. P. Escoubet; J. M. Bosqued; H. Reme; I. Dandouras; A. Balogh; E. Lucek; C. Carr; Z. Pu

2008-01-01

351

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use the global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code BATS-R-US to model multipoint observations of Flux Transfer Event (FTE) signatures. Simulations with high spatial and temporal resolution predict that cavities of weak magnetic field strength protruding into the magnetosphere trail FTEs. These predictions are consistent with recently reported multi-point Cluster observations of traveling magnetopause erosion regions (TMERs).

Kuznetsova, M. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hesse, M.; Wang, Y.; Rastaetter, L.; Toth, G.; Ridley, A.

2009-01-01

352

This study uses two conjunctions between Cluster and Double Star TC-1 spacecraft together with global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate the large-scale configuration of magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. Both events involve southward interplanetary magnetic fields with significant By components. The first event occurred on 8 May 2004, while both spacecraft were exploring the dawn flank of the magnetosphere;

J. Berchem; A. Marchaudon; M. Dunlop; C. P. Escoubet; J. M. Bosqued; H. Reme; I. Dandouras; A. Balogh; E. Lucek; C. Carr; Z. Pu

2008-01-01

353

Two dimensional radiation detecting apparatus

A two-dimensional X-ray detecting apparatus is comprised of an amorphous silicon layer for trapping electrons in a pattern corresponding to an intensity distribution when it is receiving X-rays, and a scanning device for scanning the surface of the amorphous silicon layer with a laser beam to take out electrons trapped in the silicon layer.

Sugimoto, H.; Naruse, Y.

1985-10-15

354

Modeling CME-shock-driven storms in 2012-2013: MHD test particle simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Van Allen Probes spacecraft have provided detailed observations of the energetic particles and fields environment for coronal mass ejection (CME)-shock-driven storms in 2012 to 2013 which have now been modeled with MHD test particle simulations. The Van Allen Probes orbital plane longitude moved from the dawn sector in 2012 to near midnight and prenoon for equinoctial storms of 2013, providing particularly good measurements of the inductive electric field response to magnetopause compression for the 8 October 2013 CME-shock-driven storm. An abrupt decrease in the outer boundary of outer zone electrons coincided with inward motion of the magnetopause for both 17 March and 8 October 2013 storms, as was the case for storms shortly after launch. Modeling magnetopause dropout events in 2013 with electric field diagnostics that were not available for storms immediately following launch have improved our understanding of the complex role that ULF waves play in radial transport during such events.

Hudson, M. K.; Paral, J.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M.; Baker, D. N.; Foster, J. C.; Turner, D. L.; Wygant, J. R.

2015-02-01

355

The magnetic topology of the plasmoid flux rope in a MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection

On the basis of a three-dimensional MHD simulation we discuss the magnetic topology of a plasmoid that forms by a localized reconnection process in a magnetotail configuration including a net dawn-dusk magnetic field component B/sub yN/. As a consequence of b/sub yN/ /ne/ 0 the plasmid gets a helical flux rope structure rather than an isolated island or bubble structure. Initially all field lines of the plasmid flux rope remain connected with the Earth, while at later times a gradually increasing amount of flux tubes becomes separated, connecting to either the distant boundary or to the flank boundaries. In this stage topologically different flux tubes become tangled and wrapped around each other, consistent with predictions on the basis of ad-hoc plasmid models. 10 refs., 8 figs.

Birn, J.; Hesse, M.

1989-01-01

356

Testing the connection between radio mini-halos and core gas sloshing with MHD simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio mini-halos are diffuse, steep-spectrum synchrotron sources associated with a fraction of relaxed clusters of galaxies. Observations of some mini-halo sources indicate a correlation between the radio emission and the X-ray signature of gas sloshing, ``cold fronts.'' Some authors have suggested turbulence associated with the sloshing motions may reaccelerate relativistic electrons, resulting in emission associated with the fronts. We present MHD simulations of core gas sloshing in a galaxy cluster, where we measure the turbulence created by these motions and employ passive tracer particles to act as relativistic electrons that may be reaccelerated by such turbulence. Our preliminary results support such a link between sloshing motions and particle reacceleration.

ZuHone, J.; Markevitch, M.; Brunetti, G.

357

The magnetic topology of the plasmoid flux rope in a MHD-simulation of magnetotail reconnection

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the basis of a 3D MHD simulation, the magnetic topology of a plasmoid that forms by a localized reconnection process in a magnetotail configuration (including a net dawn-dusk magnetic field component B sub y N is discussed. As a consequence of B sub y N not equalling 0, the plasmoid assumes a helical flux rope structure rather than an isolated island or bubble structure. Initially all field lines of the plasmoid flux rope remain connected with the earth, while at later times a gradually increasing amount of flux tubes becomes separated, connecting to either the distant boundary or to the flank boundaries. In this stage, topologically different flux tubes become tangled and wrapped around each other, consistent with predictions on the basis of an ad hoc plasmoid model.

Birn, J.; Hesse, M.

1990-01-01

358

A discontinuous Galerkin method for solving the fluid and MHD equations in astrophysical simulations

A discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method suitable for large-scale astrophysical simulations on Cartesian meshes as well as arbitrary static and moving Voronoi meshes is presented. Most major astrophysical fluid dynamics codes use a finite volume (FV) approach. We demonstrate that the DG technique offers distinct advantages over FV formulations on both static and moving meshes. The DG method is also easily generalized to higher than second-order accuracy without requiring the use of extended stencils to estimate derivatives (thereby making the scheme highly parallelizable). We implement the technique in the AREPO code for solving the fluid and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. By examining various test problems, we show that our new formulation provides improved accuracy over FV approaches of the same order, and reduces post-shock oscillations and artificial diffusion of angular momentum. In addition, the DG method makes it possible to represent magnetic fields in a locally divergence-free way, improving th...

Mocz, Philip; Sijacki, Debora; Hernquist, Lars

2013-01-01

359

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous work we demonstrated that a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of Saturn's magnetosphere in which periodicity is imposed by rotating vortical flows in the ionosphere reproduces many reported periodically varying properties of the system. Here we shall show that previously unreported features of the MHD simulation of Saturn's magnetosphere illuminate additional measured properties of the system. By averaging over a rotation period, we identify a global electric field whose magnitude is a few tenths of a mV/m (see Figure 1). The electric field intensity decreases with radial distance in the middle magnetosphere, consistent with drift speeds v=E/B of a few km/s towards the morning side and relatively independent of radial distance. The electric field within 10 RS in the equatorial plane is oriented from post-noon to post-midnight, in excellent agreement with observations [e.g., Thomsen et al., 2012; Andriopoulou et al., 2012, 2013; Wilson et al., 2013]. By following the electric field over a full rotation phase we identify oscillatory behavior whose magnitude is consistent with the reported fluctuations of measured electric fields. Of particular interest is the nature of the fast mode perturbations that produce periodic displacement of the magnetopause and flapping of the current sheet. Figure (2) shows the total perturbation pressure (the sum of magnetic and thermal pressure) in the equatorial plane at a rotation phase for which the ionospheric flow near noon is equatorward. By following the perturbations over a full rotation period, we demonstrate properties of the fast mode wave launched by the rotating flow structures and thereby characterize the 'cam' signal originally proposed by Espinosa et al. [2003].

Kivelson, M.; Jia, X.

2013-12-01

360

Global MHD simulations of stratified and turbulent protoplanetary discs. I. Model properties

We present the results of global 3-D MHD simulations of stratified and turbulent protoplanetary disc models. The aim of this work is to develop thin disc models capable of sustaining turbulence for long run times, which can be used for on-going studies of planet formation in turbulent discs. The results are obtained using two codes written in spherical coordinates: GLOBAL and NIRVANA. Both are time--explicit and use finite differences along with the Constrained Transport algorithm to evolve the equations of MHD. In the presence of a weak toroidal magnetic field, a thin protoplanetary disc in hydrostatic equilibrium is destabilised by the magnetorotational instability (MRI). When the resolution is large enough (25 vertical grid cells per scale height), the entire disc settles into a turbulent quasi steady-state after about 300 orbits. Angular momentum is transported outward such that the standard alpha parameter is roughly 4-6*10^{-3}. We find that the initial toroidal flux is expelled from the disc midplane and that the disc behaves essentially as a quasi-zero net flux disc for the remainder of the simulation. As in previous studies, the disc develops a dual structure composed of an MRI--driven turbulent core around its midplane, and a magnetised corona stable to the MRI near its surface. By varying disc parameters and boundary conditions, we show that these basic properties of the models are robust. The high resolution disc models we present in this paper achieve a quasi--steady state and sustain turbulence for hundreds of orbits. As such, they are ideally suited to the study of outstanding problems in planet formation such as disc--planet interactions and dust dynamics.

Sebastien Fromang; Richard P. Nelson

2006-06-29

361

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal evolution of a current sheet with initial perturbations is studied by using the threedimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The magnetic reconnection is considered to be the main engine of the energy rele ase in solar flares. The structure of the diffusion region is, however, not stil l understood under the circumstances with enormously large magnetic Reynolds num ber as the solar corona. In particular, the relationship between the flare's macroscopic physics and the microscopic ones are unclear. It is generally believed that the MHD turbulence s hould play a role in the intermediate scale. The initial current sheet is in an approximately hydromagnetic equilibrium with anti-parallel magnetic field in the y-direction. We imposed a finite-amplitude perturbations (=50ee what happens. Special attention is paid upon the evolution of a three-dimens ional structure in the direction along the initial electric current (z-direction ). Our preliminary results are as follows: (1) In the early phase of the evolut ion, high wavenumber modes in the z-direction are excited and grow. (2) Many "X "-type neutral points (lines) are generated along the magnetic neutral line (pla ne) in the current sheet. When they evolve into the non-linear phase, three-dime nsional structures in the z-direction also evolve. The spatial scale in the z-di rection seems to be almost comparable with that in the xy-plane. (3) The energy release rate is reduced in case of 3D simulations compared with 2D ones probably because of the reduction of the inflow cross sections by the formation of pattc hy structures in the current sheet.

Yokoyama, Takaaki

362

MHD Simulations of Near-Surface Convection in Cool Main-Sequence Stars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar photospheric magnetic field is highly structured owing to its interaction with the convective flows. Its local structure has a strong influence on the profiles of spectral lines not only by virtue of the Zeeman effect, but also through the modification of the thermodynamical structure (e.g. line weakening in hot small-scale magnetic structures). Many stars harbor surface magnetic fields comparable to or larger than the Sun at solar maximum. Therefore, a strong influence of the field on the surface convection and on spectral line profiles can be expected. We carried out 3D local-box MHD simulations of unipolar magnetized regions (average fields of 20, 100, and 500G) with parameters corresponding to six main-sequence stars (spectral types F3V to M2V). The influence of the magnetic field on the convection and the local thermodynamical structure were analyzed in detail. For three spectral lines, we determined the impact of the magnetic field on the disc-integrated Stokes-I profiles. Line weakening has in many cases a stronger impact on the spectral line profiles than the Zeeman effect. Moreover, for some stars, the correlation between the magnetic field and the vertical velocity strongly influences the line shapes. These effects can impair determinations of stellar magnetic fields since currently used methods neglect the local structure of the magnetic field and its interaction with the convective flows. The MHD simulations presented can be used to quantify these effects and thus help to improve magnetic field measurements of cool main-sequence stars.

Beeck, Benjamin; Schussler, Manfred; Reiners, Ansgar

2015-01-01

363

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider 3D nonlinear MHD simulations of an emerging flux tube, from the convection zone into the corona, focusing on the coronal part of the simulations. We first analyze the statistical nature and spatial structure of the electric field, calculating histograms and making use of iso-contour visualizations. Then test-particle simulations are performed for electrons, in order to study heating and acceleration phenomena, as well as to determine HXR emission. This study is done by comparatively exploring quiet, turbulent explosive, and mildly explosive phases of the MHD simulations. Also, the importance of collisional and relativistic effects is assessed, and the role of the integration time is investigated. Particular aim of this project is to verify the quasi- linear assumptions made in standard transport models, and to identify possible transport effects that cannot be captured with the latter. In order to determine the relation of our results to Fermi acceleration and Fokker-Planck modeling, we determine the standard transport coefficients. After all, we find that the electric field of the MHD simulations must be downscaled in order to prevent an un-physically high degree of acceleration, and the value chosen for the scale factor strongly affects the results. In different MHD time-instances we find heating to take place, and acceleration that depends on the level of MHD turbulence. Also, acceleration appears to be a transient phenomenon, there is a kind of saturation effect, and the parallel dynamics clearly dominate the energetics. The HXR spectra are not yet really compatible with observations, we have though to further explore the scaling of the electric field and the integration times used.

Vlahos, Loukas; Archontis, Vasilis; Isliker, Heinz

364

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We re-examine the basic premises of a single-spacecraft data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2005), for determining the axis orientation and proper frame velocity of quasi two-dimensional, quasi-steady structures of magnetic field and plasma. The method, which is based on Faraday's law, makes use of magnetic and electric field data measured by a single spacecraft traversing the structure, although in many circumstances the convection electric field, - v × B, can serve as a proxy for E. It has been used with success for flux ropes observed at the magnetopause but has usually failed to provide acceptable results when applied to real space data from reconnection events as well as to virtual data from numerical MHD simulations of such events. In the present paper, the reasons for these shortcomings are identified, analyzed, and discussed in detail. Certain basic properties of the method are presented in the form of five theorems, the last of which makes use of singular value decomposition to treat the special case where the magnetic variance matrix is non-invertible. These theorems are illustrated using data from analytical models of flux ropes and also from MHD simulations as well as a 2-D kinetic simulation of reconnection. The results make clear that the method requires the presence of a significant, non-removable electric field distribution in the plane transverse to the invariant direction and that it is sensitive to deviations from strict two-dimensionality and strict time stationarity.

Sonnerup, Bengt U. Ö.; Denton, Richard E.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Swisdak, M.

2013-05-01

365

Small Scale Plasmoids in the Post-Plasmoid Plasma Sheet: Origin of MHD Turbulence?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of MHD turbulence can be observed in the Earth's magnetotail, but the origin of the turbulence is still a long-standing problem. We study the small-scale fluctuations excited in coll-sionless magnetic reconnection by using a two-dimensional, particle-in-cell numerical simulation, and propose that the magnetic diffusion region of reconnection may be one of the possible regions to excite a strong MHD turbulence. The magnetic field turbulence observed in the post-plasmoid plasma sheet is compared with the fluctuations obtained in the computer simulation.

Hoshino, M.

366

energy range from <10 eV to >200 keVe1. Precipitating ion fluxes in this region are consistent with the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL). A global MHD simulation of this event (using input from the Wind spacecraft upstream from the Earth's bow shock) reproduces Geotail and Interball\\/Tail spacecraft observations in the outer magnetosphere and magnetosheath. These results demonstrate that the simulation faithfully

S. A. Fuselier; J. Berchem; K. J. Trattner; R. Friedel

2002-01-01

367

Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2014/2015 represents the tenth anniversary of modern graphene research. Over this decade, graphene has proven to be attractive for thin-film transistors owing to its remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. Even its major drawback--zero bandgap--has resulted in something positive: a resurgence of interest in two-dimensional semiconductors, such as dichalcogenides and buckled nanomaterials with sizeable bandgaps. With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched portfolio of properties of two-dimensional crystals, beyond the capability of conventional thin films for ubiquitous flexible systems.

Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

2014-12-01

368

Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization

The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized.

Amaral, R.L.P.G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea S/N, Boa Viagem, Niteroi, CEP, 24210-340 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: rubens@if.uff.br; Belvedere, L.V. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea S/N, Boa Viagem, Niteroi, CEP, 24210-340 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rothe, K.D. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2005-12-15

369

Two-Dimensional Thermofield Bosonization

The main objective of this paper is to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. In order to emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized.

R. L. P. G. Amaral; L. V. Belvedere; K. D. Rothe

2005-04-01

370

Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

2006-12-01

371

Two-Dimensional Quantum Antiferromagnets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review presents some theoretical advances in the field of quantum magnetism in two-dimensional systems, and quantum spin liquids in particular. The first version published in 2005 has been updated for the present second edition of the book: the section devoted to the kagome antiferromagnet (Sec. 7) has been completely rewritten, as well as the concluding section (Sec. 8). The other sections (Secs. 1-6) are unchanged from the first edition of the book.

Misguich, Grégoire; Lhuillier, Claire

2013-03-01

372

ON THE ORIGIN OF THE TYPE II SPICULES: DYNAMIC THREE-DIMENSIONAL MHD SIMULATIONS

Recent high temporal and spatial resolution observations of the chromosphere have forced the definition of a new type of spicule, 'type II's', that are characterized by rising rapidly, having short lives, and by fading away at the end of their lifetimes. Here, we report on features found in realistic three-dimensional simulations of the outer solar atmosphere that resemble the observed type II spicules. These features evolve naturally from the simulations as a consequence of the magnetohydrodynamical evolution of the model atmosphere. The simulations span from the upper layer of the convection zone to the lower corona and include the emergence of a horizontal magnetic flux. The state-of-art Oslo Staggered Code is used to solve the full MHD equations with non-gray and non-LTE radiative transfer and thermal conduction along the magnetic field lines. We describe in detail the physics involved in a process which we consider a possible candidate for the driver mechanism that produces type II spicules. The modeled spicule is composed of material rapidly ejected from the chromosphere that rises into the corona while being heated. Its source lies in a region with large field gradients and intense electric currents, which lead to a strong Lorentz force that squeezes the chromospheric material, resulting in a vertical pressure gradient that propels the spicule along the magnetic field, as well as Joule heating, which heats the jet material, forcing it to fade.

MartInez-Sykora, Juan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Moreno-Insertis, Fernando, E-mail: j.m.sykora@astro.uio.no, E-mail: viggo.hansteen@astro.uio.no, E-mail: fmi@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain)

2011-07-20

373

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional model is presented for the hydrodynamics and chemistry of an oxy-acetylene torch reactor for chemical vapor deposition of diamond, and it is validated against spectroscopy and growth rate data from the literature. The model combines the laminar equations for flow, heat, and mass transfer with combustion and deposition chemistries, and includes multicomponent diffusion and thermodiffusion. A two-step solution approach is used. In the first step, a lumped chemistry model is used to calculate the flame shape, temperatures and hydrodynamics. In the second step, a detailed, 27 species / 119 elementary reactions gas phase chemistry model and a 41 species / 67 elementary reactions surface chemistry model are used to calculate radicals and intermediates concentrations in the gas phase and at the surface, as well as growth rates. Important experimental trends are predicted correctly, but there are some discrepancies. The main problem lies in the use of the Miller-Melius hydrocarbon combustion mechanism for rich oxy-acetylene flames. [J. A. Miller and C. F. Melius, Combustion and Flame 91, 21 (1992)]. Despite this problem, some aspects of the diamond growth process are clarified. It is demonstrated that gas-phase diffusion limitations play a minor role in the diamond growth process, which is determined by surface kinetics. Except for atomic hydrogen, gas phase diffusion is also of minor importance for the transport of species in and behind the flame front. Finally, it is shown that penetration of nitrogen from the ambient air into the flame cannot explain the observed changes at the center of the diamond films as reported in the literature.

Okkerse, M.; Kleijn, C. R.; van den Akker, H. E. A.; de Croon, M. H. J. M.; Marin, G. B.

2000-10-01

374

Simulation of a particle-laden combustion flow in an MHD second stage combustor

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Argonne two-phase combustion flow computer code is used to simulate reacting flows to aid the development of an advanced combustor for magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase two-dimensional, steady state, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for multiple gas species. The combustion code includes turbulence, integral combustion, and particle evaporation submodels. The newly developed integral combustion submodel makes calculations more efficient and more stable while still preserving major physical effects of the complex combustion processes. The combustor under investigation is a magnetohydrodynamic second stage combustor in which opposed jets of oxidizer are injected into a confined cross-stream of hot coal gas flow following a first stage swirl combustor. The simulation is intended to enhance the understanding of seed particle evolution in the combustor and evaluate the effects of combustor operation conditions on seed particle evolution and vapor dispersion, which directly affect overall magnetohydrodynamic power generation. Simulation results show that oxidizer jet angle and particle size have great effect on the particle evolution and vapor dispersion. At a jet angle of about 130 deg, the particle evaporation rate is the highest because of the highest average gas temperature. For particles having a smaller mean diameter, particle evaporation is more complete and vapor dispersion is more uniform.

Chang, S. L.; Lottes, S. A.

375

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in observational capabilities and numerical modeling have provided unique high-resolution information demonstrating complicated dynamics and structures of turbulent flows and magnetic field on the Sun. The realistic approach to numerical simulations is based on physical first principles and takes into account compressible fluid flow in a highly stratified magnetized medium, 3D multi-bin radiative energy transfer between fluid elements, a real-gas equation of state, ionization, and excitation of all abundant species, magnetic effects and sub-grid turbulence. We present new results of 3D radiative MHD simulations of the upper solar convection zone and chromosphere that reveal a fundamental role of small-scale vortex dynamics, and compare the numerical results and predictions with observational results from the 1.6 m clear aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Observatory. In particular, we investigate formation and dynamics of ubiquitous small-scale vortex tubes mostly concentrated in the intergranular lanes and their role in magnetic structuring and acoustic emission of the Sun. These whirlpool-like flows are characterized by very strong horizontal shear velocities (7 - 11 km/s) and downflows (~7 km/s), and are accompanied by sharp decreases in temperature, density and pressure at the surface. High-speed whirlpool flows can attract and capture other vortices, penetrate into the low chromosphere, and form stable magnetic flux tubes. The simulations also reveal a strong connection between acoustic wave excitation events and the dynamics of vortex tubes. In this talk, we will discuss different aspects of small-scale turbulent dynamics of the low atmosphere from the high-resolution simulations in comparison with recent NST observations, and the strategy for future synergies of numerical simulations and observations with large aperture solar telescopes.

Kitiashvili, I.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R.; Kosovichev, A.; Mansour, N.; Wray, A.; Yurchyshyn, V.

2012-12-01

376

Simulation studies of long-range magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling via MHD waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long range coupling among different regions of space plasma is primarily via various waves in addition to direct flow. In the magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere (M-IT) system, the coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere and among different regions of the ionosphere is through either the Alfven waves propagating along the magnetic field lines or the compressional waves propagating perpendicular to (or oblique to) the magnetic field lines when the flow is subsonic. In this study, we investigate magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere coupling by numerically solving time-dependent continuity, momentum, and energy equations for the electrons, ions and neutrals, as well as Maxwell equations (Ampere's and Faraday's laws) and photochemistry. By including inertial terms of the momentum equations and solutions of the Maxwell equations, we retain all the possible MHD waves in the numerical simulations so that we can self-consistently examine the dynamic M-IT coupling. Simulation results for the 1-D ionosphere/thermosphere response to an imposed convection velocity at the top boundary are presented to show how the long-range coupling between the magnetosphere-ionosphere and among the different ionosphere regions is facilitated.

Tu, J.; Song, P.

2012-12-01

377

Attempts to Simulate Anisotropies of Solar Wind Fluctuations Using MHD with a Turning Magnetic Field

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine a "two-component" model of the solar wind to see if any of the observed anisotropies of the fields can be explained in light of the need for various quantities, such as the magnetic minimum variance direction, to turn along with the Parker spiral. Previous results used a 3-D MHD spectral code to show that neither Q2D nor slab-wave components will turn their wave vectors in a turning Parker-like field, and that nonlinear interactions between the components are required to reproduce observations. In these new simulations we use higher resolution in both decaying and driven cases, and with and without a turning background field, to see what, if any, conditions lead to variance anisotropies similar to observations. We focus especially on the middle spectral range, and not the energy-containing scales, of the simulation for comparison with the solar wind. Preliminary results have shown that it is very difficult to produce the required variances with a turbulent cascade.

Ghosh, Sanjoy; Roberts, D. Aaron

2010-01-01

378

The Biermann Battery in Cosmological MHD Simulations of Population III Star Formation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of the first self-consistent three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamical simulations of Population III star formation including the Biermann battery effect. We find that the Population III stellar cores formed including this effect are both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those from hydrodynamics-only (non-MHD) cosmological simulations. We observe peak magnetic fields of ~=10-9 G in the center of our star-forming halo at z~=17.55 at a baryon density of nB~1010 cm-3. The magnetic fields created by the Biermann battery effect are predominantly formed early in the evolution of the primordial halo at low density and large spatial scales, and then grow through compression and by shear flows. The fields seen in this calculation are never large enough to be dynamically important (with ?>=1015 at all times before the termination of our calculation), and should be considered the minimum possible fields in existence during Population III star formation. The lack of magnetic support lends credibility to assumptions made in previous calculations regarding the lack of importance of magnetic fields in Population III star formation. In addition, these magnetic fields may be seed fields for the stellar dynamo or the magnetorotational instability at higher densities and smaller spatial scales.

Xu, Hao; O'Shea, Brian W.; Collins, David C.; Norman, Michael L.; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai

2008-12-01

379

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed analysis of the properties of magnetic reconnection at large-scale current sheets in a very high cadence 2.5D MHD simulation of sympathetic magnetic breakout coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from a pseudostreamer source region. We examine the resistive tearing and breakup of the three main current sheets into chains of X- and O-type null points and follow the dynamics of magnetic island growth, their merging, transit, and ejection with the reconnection exhaust. For each current sheet, we quantify the evolution of the length-to-width aspect ratio (up to ~100:1), Lundquist number (~10^4), and reconnection rate (inflow-to-outflow ratios reaching ~0.15). We examine the statistical and spectral properties of the fluctuations in the current sheets resulting from the plasmoid instability, including the distribution of magnetic island width, mass, and flux content. We show that the temporal evolution of the spectral index of the reconnection-generated magnetic energy density fluctuations appear to reflect global properties of the current sheet evolution. Our results are in excellent agreement with recent, high resolution reconnection-in-a-box simulations even though our current sheets' formation, growth, and dynamics are intrinsically coupled to the global evolution of sequential sympathetic CME eruptions.

Lynch, Ben; Edmondson, Justin K.; Kazachenko, Maria D.; Guidoni, Silvina E.

2015-04-01

380

Numerical Simulation of Turbulent MHD Flows Using an Iterative PNS Algorithm

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm has been developed to efficiently compute magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime. In this regime, the electrical conductivity is low and the induced magnetic field is negligible compared to the applied magnetic field. The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equation which can then be solved in a very efficient manner. To account for upstream (elliptic) effects, the flowfields are computed using multiple streamwise sweeps with an iterated PNS algorithm. Turbulence has been included by modifying the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model to account for MHD effects. The new algorithm has been used to compute both laminar and turbulent, supersonic, MHD flows over flat plates and supersonic viscous flows in a rectangular MHD accelerator. The present results are in excellent agreement with previous complete Navier-Stokes calculations.

Kato, Hiromasa; Tannehill, John C.; Mehta, Unmeel B.

2003-01-01

381

Fast training and testing procedures are crucial in biometrics recognition research. Conventional algorithms, e.g., principal component analysis (PCA), fail to efficiently work on large-scale and high-resolution image data sets. By incorporating merits from both two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA)-based image decomposition and fast numerical calculations based on Haarlike bases, this technical correspondence first proposes binary 2DPCA (B-2DPCA). Empirical studies demonstrated the advantages of B-2DPCA compared with 2DPCA and binary PCA. PMID:18632407

Pang, Yanwei; Tao, Dacheng; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong

2008-08-01

382

Numerical MHD Simulation of Flux-Rope Formed Ejecta Interaction with Bi-modal Solar Wind

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent SOHO and WIND observations have shown that CMEs could be accelerated or decelerated due to their interactions with the solar wind. These interactions will result in different solar wind signatures. In order to understand the physics of CME interaction with non-uniform solar wind during propagation, we combined our previously developed two-dimensional planar bi-modal solar wind model (Wang et al. 1996) and streamer and flux-rope model (Wu et al. 1995) to study the fast and slow wind interactions with the propagating CME. This simulation is carried out up to the inner heliosphere ( ~30 Rs (solar radii)). The results will show the effect of CME propagation speed by the fast and slow speed solar wind, and the shock formation and their comparison with the uniform solar wind. Also the features of the deflection of CME propagation due to streamer will be discussed. STW and AHW acknowledge AFOSR, NSF, JPL, and AAMU subcontract of NASA prime contract. Wang, A. H., S. T. Wu, S. T. Suess, and G. Poletto, Global Model of Corona with Heat and Momentum Addition, J. Geophys. Res., 103, A2, 1413-1922, 1996. Wu, S. T., W. P. Guo, and J. F. Wang, Dynamical Evolution of Coronal Streamer Bubble System: I. A Self-consistent Planar Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation, Solar Physics, 157, 325-348, 1995.

Wu, S. T.; Wang, A. H.; Tsurutani, B.; Tan, A.

2001-12-01

383

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By coupling the non-equilibrium extrapolation scheme for boundary condition with the multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method, this paper finds that the stability of the multi-relaxation-time model can be improved greatly, especially on simulating high Reynolds number (Re) flow. As a discovery, the super-stability analysed by Lallemand and Luo is verified and the complex structure of the cavity flow is also exhibited in our numerical simulation when Re is high enough. To the best knowledge of the authors, the maximum of Re which has been investigated by direct numerical simulation is only around 50 000 in the literature; however, this paper can readily extend the maximum to 1000 000 with the above combination.

Chai, Zhen-Hua; Shi, Bao-Chang; Zheng, Lin

2006-08-01

384

Formation and Eruption of an Active Region Sigmoid: NLFFF Modeling and MHD Simulation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a magnetic analysis of the formation and eruption of an active region sigmoid in AR 11283 from 2011 September 4 to 6, which is jointly based on observations, static nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation and dynamic MHD simulation. A time sequence of NLFFF model's outputs are used to reproduce the evolution of the magnetic field of the region over three days leading to a X-class flare near the end of 2011 September 6. In the first day, a new bipolar emerges into the negative polarity of a pre-existing mature bipolar, forming a magnetic topology with a coronal null on the magnetic separatrix surface between the two flux system, while the field is still near potential at the end of the day. After then photospheric shearing and twisting build up non-potentiality in the embedded core region, with a flux rope (FR) formed there above the polarity inversion line by tether-cutting reconnection between the strongly sheared field lines. Within this duration, the core field has gained a magnetic free energy of ˜ 1032 erg. In this core a sigmoid is observed distinctly at 22:00 UT on September 6, closely before its eruption at 22:12 UT. Comparison of the SDO/AIA observations with coronal magnetic field suggests that the sigmoid is formed by emission due to enhanced current sheet along the BPSS (bald-patch separatrix surface, in which the field lines graze the line-tied photosphere at the neutral line) that separates the FR from the ambient flux. Quantitative inspection of the pre-eruption field on 22:00 UT suggests a mechanism for the eruption: tether cutting at the null triggers a torus instability of the FR--overlying field system. This pre-eruption NLFFF is then input into a time-dependent MHD model to simulate the fast magnetic evolution during eruption, which successfully reproduces the observations. The highly asymmetric magnetic environment along with the lateral location of the null leads to a strongly inclined non-radial direction of the eruption. The study of this kind provides important insights in a quantitative way to many open issues on the formation and eruption of sigmoidal FR.

Jiang, C.; Wu, S.; Feng, X.; Hu, Q.

2013-12-01

385

A renormalization group analysis of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The renormalization group (RNG) method is used to study the physics of two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. It is shown that, for a turbulent magnetofluid in two dimensions, no RNG transformation fixed point exists on account of the coexistence of energy transfer to small scales and mean-square magnetic flux transfer to large scales. The absence of a fixed point renders the RNG method incapable of describing the 2D MHD system. A similar conclusion is reached for 2D hydrodynamics, where enstrophy flows to small scales and energy to large scales. These analyses suggest that the applicability of the RNG method to turbulent systems is intrinsically limited, especially in the case of systems with dual-direction transfer.

Liang, Wenli Z.; Diamond, P. H.

1993-01-01

386

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar wind fluctuations are known to be anisotropic, both in wave vector and in field fluctuation directions. Various sets of two-spacecraft observations, in addition to ensembles of correlations from a single spacecraft, show there is some preference for wave vector directions nearly perpendicular to the mean magnetic field. Many studies have also shown that magnetic field (and to a lesser extent the velocity field) has a minimum variance direction typically along the mean magnetic field direction, and that this persists even as the mean field turns to nearly perpendicular to the radial in the outer heliosphere. The requirement that the wave vectors and fluctuations must turn with the mean field eliminates simple views of planar Alfvén waves or quasi-two-dimensional fluctuations or superpositions of these. In previously reported simulation work, we have shown that inhomogeneity transverse to the radial flow direction as well as nonlinear interactions are required to explain the observations. We now have added to our simulation code non-radial wave vectors to the inflow population of waves, as well as three-dimensional microstreams (radial flows that depend on both transverse directions). This paper will explore the extent to which these additions aid in solving the anisotropy and minimum variance problems. Preliminary results are similar to those found with 2-D simulations which showed some turning of wave vectors due to shear, but as yet no clear minimum variance signature. We will use higher resolution simulations to determine if part of the problem is that the scale of our assumed population of fluctuations is too large.

Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, M. L.; Deane, A. E.

2002-12-01

387

There has been a great concern about the origin of the parallel electric field in the frame of fluid equations in the auroral acceleration region. This paper proposes a new method to simulate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations that include the electron convection term and shows its efficiency with simulation results in one dimension. We apply a third-order semi-discrete central scheme to investigate the characteristics of the electron convection term including its nonlinearity. At a steady state discontinuity, the sum of the ion and electron convection terms balances with the ion pressure gradient. We find that the electron convection term works like the gradient of the negative pressure and reduces the ion sound speed or amplifies the sound mode when parallel current flows. The electron convection term enables us to describe a situation in which a parallel electric field and parallel electron acceleration coexist, which is impossible for ideal or resistive MHD.

Matsuda, K.; Terada, N.; Katoh, Y. [Space and Terrestrial Plasma Physics Laboratory, Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Misawa, H. [Planetary Plasma and Atmospheric Research Center, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)

2011-08-15

388

1 Simulating the thermo-chemical magmatic and tectonic evolution of1 Venus' mantle and lithosphere Numerical convection models of the thermo-chemical evolution of Venus are compared to present-8 day overturn interspersed by periods of quiescence13 effectively loses Venus' heat while giving lower rates

Tackley, Paul J.

389

Predictions of an exact numerical model for scattering from a surface randomly rough in two directions are compared with experimental data. The numerical model is based on Monte Carlo simulation using an iterative version of the method of moments known as the sparse-matrix flat-surface iterative approach (SMFSIA). Experimental data is obtained from millimeter wave laboratory experiments in which the bistatic

Joel T. Johnson; Leung Tsang; Robert T. Shin; K. Pak; Chi H. Chan; Akira Ishimaru; Yasuo Kuga

1996-01-01

390

The characteristics and design of a high-accuracy and high-sensitivity 2-dimensional camera for the measurement of the end-point of the trajectory of accelerated heavy ion beams of positron emitter isotopes are described. Computer simulation methods have been used in order to insure that the design would meet the demanding criteria of ability to obtain the location of the centroid of a point source in the X-Y plane with errors smaller than 1 mm, with an activity of 100 nanoCi, in a counting time of 5 sec or less. A computer program which can be developed into a general purpose analysis tool for a large number of positron emitter camera configurations is described in its essential parts. The validation of basic simulation results with simple measurements is reported, and the use of the program to generate simulated images which include important second order effects due to detector material, geometry, septa, etc. is demonstrated. Comparison between simulated images and initial results with the completed instrument shows that the desired specifications have been met.

Llacer, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Batho, E.K.; Poskanzer, J.A.

1982-05-01

391

High-latitude observations from the Polar spacecraft on 21 January 1998 show a region of closed magnetic field lines containing several distinct solar wind ion populations in the energy range from 200 keV e-1. Precipitating ion fluxes in this region are consistent with the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL). A global MHD simulation of this event (using input from the Wind spacecraft

S. A. Fuselier; J. Berchem; K. J. Trattner; R. Friedel

2002-01-01

392

High-latitude observations from the Polar spacecraft on 21 January 1998 show a region of closed magnetic field lines containing several distinct solar wind ion populations in the energy range from 200 keV e?1. Precipitating ion fluxes in this region are consistent with the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL). A global MHD simulation of this event (using input from the Wind spacecraft

S. A. Fuselier; J. Berchem; K. J. Trattner; R. Friedel

2002-01-01

393

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms that accelerate ionized particles to the energies required to produce the observed high-energy emission in solar flares are not well understood. Drake et al. (2006) proposed a kinetic mechanism for accelerating electrons in contracting magnetic islands formed by reconnection. In this model, particles that gyrate around magnetic field lines transit from island to island, increasing their energy by Fermi acceleration in those islands that are contracting. Macroscopic regions filled with a large number of these small islands are required to achieve the large observed rates of energetic electron production in flares, but at the moment it is impossible to simulate sufficiently large-scale systems using kinetic models. Our recent high-resolution, compressible MHD simulations of a breakout eruptive flare (Karpen et al. 2012) allow us to resolve in detail the generation and evolution of macroscopic magnetic islands in the flare current sheet, and to study the Drake et al. mechanism in a configuration that more closely represents the flare atmosphere and structure. Based on the Drake et al. studies, we characterize island contractions in our simulations as the islands move away from the main reconnection site toward the flare arcade. To that end, with our null-tracking capabilities, we follow the creation and evolution of X- and O-type (island) nulls that result from spatially and temporally localized reconnection. Preliminary results show that the initial energy of particles could be increased by up to an order of magnitude in a typical contracting island, before it reconnects with the underlying arcade. We conclude that this mechanism is a promising candidate for electron acceleration in flares, but further research is needed, including extending our results to 3D flare conditions.

Guidoni, Silvina; Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C. Richard

2014-06-01

394

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to better identify the role of the magnetic topology on ITG and TEM instabilities, different MHD equilibria with increasing complexity are calculated using the CHEASE code [1]. We start from the geometry of the s-? cyclone benchmark case [2], consider the corresponding circular numerical equilibrium, and then successively add a non zero value of a consistent with the kinetic profiles, an elongation of 1.68, a triangularity of 0.15, and finally an up-down asymmetry corresponding to a single-null diverted geometry. This gives the opportunity to study separately the effect of each main characteristics of the equilibrium on microinstabilities in core plasmas. Linear local electrostatic gyrokinetic simulations of these different numerical equilibria and of their corresponding analytical descriptions (Miller-type representations [3]) are performed using the codes GS2 [4, 5] and GYRO[6]. It is observed that each modification of the equilibrium has an influence on the results of gyrokinetic simulations. The effect of the ? parameter can compensate the stabilizing effect of an increase in the elongation. A comparison between the up-down symmetric shaped equilibrium and its corresponding diverted configuration show a non negligible effect on the growth rate of ITG and TEM turbulence. The comparison between the local Miller model and using a full equilibrium shows that it is mainly the indirect change of elongation in the plasma core which influences the results. The global aim is to provide well defined benchmark cases including real geometry and kinetic electrons physics, since this is not analyzed by the cyclone case. In addition, the goal is to define a procedure for testing of local simulations inspired by experimental constraints and results.

Burckel, A.; Sauter, O.; Angioni, C.; Candy, J.; Fable, E.; Lapillonne, X.

2010-11-01

395

Counter equatorial electrojet and overshielding after substorm onset: Global MHD simulation study

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By performing a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, we have demonstrated for the first time that an electrojet at the dayside magnetic equator can be reversed and an overshielding condition can be established in the inner magnetosphere after substorm onset without northward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field. Near the substorm onset, the plasma pressure is highly enhanced in the inner magnetosphere on the nightside. The Region 2 field-aligned current diverges from the diamagnetic current on the surface of the dayside extension of the high-pressure region, which is connected to the ionosphere in the relatively low-conductivity region a few degrees equatorward of the main auroral oval that is formed as the projection of the plasma sheet. The separation of the equatorward boundary of the auroral region and the equatorward boundary of the Region 2 current results in dusk-dawn electric fields that generate a counter electrojet (CEJ) at the dayside magnetic equator. Poleward electric fields in a narrow latitudinal width, which may be regarded as subauroral ion drift and subauroral polarization stream, are simultaneously intensified. The dusk-dawn electric fields may propagate to the inner magnetosphere along a field line as shear Alfvén waves. Then, the inner magnetosphere is completely constrained by the overshielding condition. The intensity and polarity of the CEJ depend largely on at least the ionospheric conductivity that is related to the plasma pressure (probably associated with diffuse aurora). This may explain the observational fact that overshielding does not always occur after onset.

Ebihara, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Kikuchi, T.

2014-09-01

396

Non-thermal emission from relativistic MHD simulations of PWNe: from synchrotron to inverse Compton

In this paper we complete the set of diagnostic tools for synchrotron emitting sources presented by Del Zanna et al. (Astron. Astrophys. 453, 621, 2006) with the computation of inverse Compton radiation from the same relativistic particles. Moreover we investigate, for the first time, the gamma-ray emission properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae in the light of the axisymmetric jet-torus scenario. The method consists in evolving the relativistic MHD equations and the maximum energy of the emitting particles. The particle energy distribution function is split in two components: the radio one connected to a relic population born at the outburst of the supernova and the other associated to the wind population continuously accelerated at the termination shock and emitting up to the gamma-ray band. We consider the general Klein-Nishina cross section and three different photon targets: the nebular synchrotron photons, far-infrared thermal ones and the cosmic microwave background. The overall synchrotron spectrum is fitted assuming an excess of injected particles and a steeper power law with respect to previous models. The TeV emission has the correct shape but is in excess of the data. This is due to the nebular magnetic field structure as obtained by the simulations. The jet-torus morphology is visible in high-resolution gamma-ray synthetic maps too. We present a preliminary exploration of time variability in the X and gamma-ray bands.

D. Volpi; L. Del Zanna; E. Amato; N. Bucciantini

2008-04-08

397

First MHD simulation of collapse and fragmentation of magnetized molecular cloud cores

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first paper about fragmentation and mass outflow in molecular clouds by using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) nested-grid simulations. The binary star formation process is studied, paying particular attention to the fragmentation of a rotating magnetized molecular cloud. We assume an isothermal rotating and magnetized cylindrical cloud in hydrostatic balance. Non-axisymmetric as well as axisymmetric perturbations are added to the initial state and the subsequent evolutions are studied. The evolution is characterized by three parameters: the amplitude of the non-axisymmetric perturbations, the rotation speed and the magnetic field strength. As a result, it is found that non-axisymmetry hardly evolves in the early phase, but begins to grow after the gas contracts and forms a thin disc. Disc formation is strongly promoted by the rotation speed and the magnetic field strength. There are two types of fragmentation: that from a ring and that from a bar. Thin adiabatic cores fragment if their thickness is less than 1/4 of the radius. For the fragments to survive, they should be formed in a heavily elongated barred core or a flat round disc. In the models showing fragmentation, outflows from respective fragments are found as well as those driven by the rotating bar or the disc.

Machida, Masahiro N.; Tomisaka, Kohji; Matsumoto, Tomoaki

2004-02-01

398

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations of galaxy clusters show that temperatures of the intracluster medium (ICM) lie in the range of 10-100 million K. We would expect this gas to cool via radiative cooling; however, we do not observe this cooling. One way of keeping the ICM hot involves the coupling of jets emanating from supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies within the cluster with the ICM. The energies involved in the bubbles that these jets inflate in the ICM can provide sufficient energy to heat the gas. However, we do not know how the jet energy becomes thermalized; we present a mechanism that will thermalize the jet energy. The jets have a duty cycle which can cause a shock wave to run across a previously inflated underdense bubble in the ICM. The resulting instability (Richtmyer-Meshkov) causes energy from the shock/jet to transform into rotational kinetic energy, which can then thermalize through turbulence and viscosity. We present the results of shock/bubble interactions with 2D and 3D hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations.

Friedman, Samuel H.; Heinz, S.

2010-01-01

399

This is a sequel to a recent work of Gaudin, who studied the classical equilibrium statistical mechanics of the two-dimensional Coulomb gas on a lattice at a special value of the coupling constant Gamma such that the model is exactly solvable. This model is briefly reviewed, and it is shown that the correlation functions obey the sum rules that characterize a conductive phase. A related model in which the particles are constrained to move on an array of equidistant parallel lines has simpler mathematics, and the asymptotic behavior of its correlation functions is studied in some detail. In the low-density limit, the lattice model is expected to have the same properties as a system of charged, hard disks; the correlation functions, internal energy, and specific heat of the latter are discussed.

Cornu, F.; Jancovici, B.

1987-10-01

400

Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

Written for chemists and biochemists who are not NMR spectroscopists, but who wish to use the new techniques of two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, this book brings together for the first time much of the practical and experimental data needed. It also serves as information source for industrial, academic, and graduate student researchers who already use NMR spectroscopy, but not yet in two dimensions. The authors describe the use of 2-D NMR in a wide variety of chemical and biochemical fields, among them peptides, steroids, oligo- and poly-saccharides, nucleic acids, natural products (including terpenoids, alkaloids, and coal-derived heterocyclics), and organic synthetic intermediates. They consider throughout the book both the advantages and limitations of using 2-D NMR.

Croasmun, W.R.; Carlson, R.M.K.

1987-01-01

401

We report Monte Carlo simulations of the initial stages of self-assembly of the HIV-1 capsid protein (CA), using a coarse-grained representation that mimics the CA backbone structure and intermolecular contacts observed experimentally. A simple representation of N-terminal domain/N-terminal domain and N-terminal domain/C-terminal domain interactions, coupled with the correct protein shape, is sufficient to drive formation of an ordered lattice with the correct hexagonal symmetry in two dimensions. We derive an approximate concentration/temperature phase diagram for lattice formation, and we investigate the pathway by which the lattice develops from initially separated CA dimers. Within this model, lattice formation occurs in two stages: 1), condensation of CA dimers into disordered clusters; and 2), nucleation of the lattice by the appearance of one hexamer unit within a cluster. Trimers of CA dimers are important early intermediates, and pentamers are metastable within clusters. Introduction of a preformed hexamer at the beginning of a Monte Carlo run does not directly seed lattice formation, but does facilitate the formation of large clusters. We discuss possible connections between these simulations and experimental observations concerning CA assembly within HIV-1 and in vitro. PMID:21689538

Chen, Bo; Tycko, Robert

2011-01-01

402

Nonlinear MHD Simulation of Negative Central Shear Discharges in the DIII--D Tokamak

The nonlinear stability properties of DIII--D negative central magnetic shear discharges have been analyzed with a new nonlinear three-dimensional MHD code NFTC. The NFTC code solves the full (non-reduced, compressible) MHD equations in general toroidal geometry using a straight field line flux coordinate system. The effects of plasma rotation in the presence of resistivity and viscosity are included in the

A. M. Popov; Y. Q. Liu; A. D. Turnbull; M. S. Chu

1996-01-01

403

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was the feasibility study of a particular architecture of a digital signal processing machine operating in real time which could do in a pipeline fashion the computation of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of a time-domain sampled complex digital data stream. The particular architecture makes use of simple identical processors (called inner product processors) in a linear organization called a systolic array. Through computer simulation the new architecture to compute the FFT with systolic arrays was proved to be viable, and computed the FFT correctly and with the predicted particulars of operation. Integrated circuits to compute the operations expected of the vital node of the systolic architecture were proven feasible, and even with a 2 micron VLSI technology can execute the required operations in the required time. Actual construction of the integrated circuits was successful in one variant (fixed point) and unsuccessful in the other (floating point).

Boriakoff, Valentin

1994-01-01

404

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI) has long been suggested to operate on the magnetospheric boundary, where the magnetosheath plasma streams past the magnetosphere. The instability is thought to be responsible for inducing various wave populations in the magnetosphere and for mass, momentum and energy transport across the magnetospheric boundary. Waves attributed to the KHI have been observed at the Earth's magnetosphere flanks as well as at Saturn and Mercury during spacecraft crossings, and remotely at boundaries of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Recent high-resolution global 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the magnetosphere confirm the existence of pronounced perturbations of the magnetospheric boundary, which are thought to be due to KHI. Such global simulations had been challenging in the past because of the need to encompass the entire magnetosphere, while sufficiently resolving the boundary layer. Here we present results of such a high-resolution simulation of the magnetosphere, using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model, under steady northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) conditions. We find the magnetospheric boundary to be globally unstable, including the high-latitude boundary layer (meridional plane), where magnetic tension is apparently not sufficient to stabilize the growth of oscillations. Roughly beyond the terminator, global modes, coupled into the surface modes, become apparent, so that the entire body of the magnetosphere is engaged in an oscillatory motion. The wave vector of the surface oscillations has a component perpendicular to the background flow and tangential to the shear layer (in the equatorial plane, k_z component of the wave vector), which is consistent with the generation of field-aligned currents that flow on closed field lines between the inner portion of the boundary layer and the ionosphere. We calculate the distribution of wave power in the equatorial plane and find it consistent with the existence of a double-vortex sheet, with vortex trains propagating along the inner and outer edges of the boundary layer. The double-vortex sheet is most apparent in the simulation past the terminator plane, but is transient and appears to be unstable, and is most likely a consequence of non-linear development of the velocity shear layer with a finite width. We compute the salient characteristics of the KH waves, including phase speeds, spectra and growth rates. The latter are compared with linear theory and found to be in excellent agreement. Finally, we find that the plasma compressibility is a key factor in controlling the growth rate of the KHI at the magnetosphere flanks in our simulations.

Merkin, V. G.; Lyon, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.

2013-12-01

405

The HPM Applied to MHD Nanofluid Flow over a Horizontal Stretching Plate

The nonlinear two-dimensional forced-convection boundary-layer magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) incompressible flow of nanofluid over a horizontal stretching flat plate with variable magnetic field including the viscous dissipation effect is solved using the homotopy perturbation method (HPM). In the present work, our results of the HPM are compared with the results of simulation using the finite difference method, Keller's box-scheme. The comparisons

S. S. Nourazar; M. Habibi Matin; M. Simiari

2011-01-01

406

In this paper we report the results of axisymmetric relativistic MHD simulations for the problem of Kerr black hole immersed into a rarefied plasma with ''uniform'' magnetic field. The long term solution shows properties which are significantly different from those of the initial transient phase studied recently by Koide(2003). The topology of magnetic field lines within the ergosphere is similar to that of the split-monopole model with a strong current sheet in the equatorial plane. Closer inspection reveals a system of isolated magnetic islands inside the sheet and ongoing magnetic reconnection. No regions of negative hydrodynamic ''energy at infinity'' are seen inside the ergosphere and the so-called MHD Penrose process does not operate. Yet, the rotational energy of the black hole continues to be extracted via purely electromagnetic mechanism of Blandford and Znajek(1977). However, this is not followed by development of strong relativistic outflows from the black hole. Combined with results of other recent simulations this signals a potential problem for the standard MHD model of relativistic astrophysical jets should they still be observed at distances as small as few tens of gravitational radii from the central black hole.

S. S. Komissarov

2005-01-27

407

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On March 24, 1995 the Geotail spacecraft observed large fluctuations of the magnetic field and plasma properties in the Low Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL) about 15 R(sub E) tailward of the dusk meridian. Although the magnetospheric and the magnetosheath field were strongly northward, the B(sub z) component showed strong short duration fluctuations in which B(sub z) could even reach negative values. We have used two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations with magnetospheric and magnetosheath input parameters specifically chosen for this. Geotail event to identify the processes which cause the observed boundary properties. It is shown that these fluctuations can be explained by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability if the k vector of the instability has a component along the magnetic field direction. The simulation results show many of the characteristic properties of the Geotail observations. In particular, the quasi-periodic strong fluctuations are well explained by satellite crossings through the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices. It is illustrated how the interior structure of the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices leads to the rapid fluctuations in the Geotail observations. Our results suggest an average Kelvin-Helmholtz wavelength of about 5 R(sub E) with a vortex size of close to 2 R(sub E) for an average repetition time of 2.5 minutes. The growth time for these waves implies a source region of about 10 to 16 R(sub E) upstream from the location of the Geotail spacecraft (i.e., near the dusk meridian). The results also indicate a considerable mass transport of magnetosheath material into the magnetosphere by magnetic reconnection in the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices.

Fairfield, Donald H.; Otto, A.

1999-01-01

408

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic experimental setup of a Fabry-Perot etalon between a collimating and a focusing lens is modified by introducing 2D rectangular lattices between the etalon and the collimating lens. Consequently, the irradiance of the interference fringes on a screen in the focal plane of the focusing lens changes and is modified by the diffraction pattern of the 2D lattice. The constructive interference directions resulting from both the etalon and the diffraction by the 2D lattice have to correlate in order to obtain maximum irradiance. Considering this experiment in a didactical context and analysing how a 2D rectangular lattice is seen through the etalon, the investigation provides us with the concept of an optical space containing a row of virtual 2D lattices. Due to the partially reflecting plane surfaces of the etalon, different virtual images of the 2D lattice form a 3D lattice with a tetragonal or orthorhombic structure. As an optical interface, the simple setup with a 2D lattice and an etalon models a 3D lattice. Using a laser, the diffraction pattern of a 2D lattice and etalon can be used to optically simulate 3D x-ray diffraction. The experiments can be included wherever undergraduate or graduate students have to follow up Laue's formulation of x-ray diffraction.

Sommer, W.

2013-03-01

409

Numerical study of the performance of a current carrying non uniformity MHD generator

The first results of the numerical simulation activity carried on in the frame of the Trilateral Project on MHD Power Generation with Plasma Nonuniformities - Gas Interacting Flows, are presented. The numerical simulations are done by means of one dimensional and two dimensional time dependent models of the nonuniform plasma flow inside the MHD generator channel. Firstly an ideal nonuniform structure is considered. It consists of slabs of hot plasma (clots or plasma vanes) perpendicular to the channel axis. The hot plasma slabs are separated by cold gas. A constant velocity distribution along the channel is assumed as optimal loading criterion. The enthalpy extraction obtained by means of one dimensional calculations, increases with the decrease of the fraction between clot volume and volume of the cold gas. A reference case with a 16 m channel and a volume traction of 0.175 results to have an enthalpy extraction of about 0.36. The current distribution along the channel, obtained by means of one dimensional calculations, is utilised as input for the two dimensional calculations. When simulating the channel operation with the two dimensional time dependent model, the reference case with a slab structure of the clot shows a behaviour with one dimensional characteristics. The generator performance obtained is approximately equal to that given by the one dimensional simulation. Two dimensional effects are introduced by considering the clot separated from the insulating wall. The cold gas circulating around the clot, creates vortexes which degrade the structure of the flow.

Bityurin, V.A.; Likhachev, A.P. [Institute for High Temperature, Moscow (Russian Federation); Borghi, C.A.; Ribani, P.L. [Univ. of Bologna (Italy)] [and others

1993-12-31

410

Two-dimensional equilibrium in coronal magnetostatic flux tubes: an accurate equilibrium solver

To study linearized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, continuous spectra, and instabilities in coronal magnetic flux tubes that are anchored in dense chromospheric and photospheric regions, a two-dimensional numerical code, called PARIS, has been developed. PARIS solves the pertinent nonlinear Grad-Shafranov type, partial differential equation for the magnetic flux on a flux coordinate grid. Both a straight field line coordinate system and

A. J. C Beliën; S Poedts; J. P Goedbloed

1997-01-01

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We find and investigate via numerical simulations self-sustained two-dimensional turbulence in a magnetohydrodynamic flow with a maximally simple configuration: plane, noninflectional (with a constant shear of velocity), and threaded by a parallel uniform background magnetic field. This flow is spectrally stable, so the turbulence is subcritical by nature and hence it can be energetically supported just by a transient growth mechanism due to shear flow non-normality. This mechanism appears to be essentially anisotropic in the spectral (wave-number) plane and operates mainly for spatial Fourier harmonics with streamwise wave numbers less than the rati