Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of poloidal flows in tokamaks and MHD pedestal
Guazzotto, L.; Betti, R.
2011-09-15
Poloidal rotation is routinely observed in present-day tokamak experiments, in particular near the plasma edge and in the high-confinement mode of operation. According to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium theory [R. Betti and J. P. Freidberg, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2439 (2000)], radial discontinuities form when the poloidal velocity exceeds the poloidal sound speed (or rather, more correctly, the poloidal magneto-slow speed). Two-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that the transonic discontinuities develop on a time scale of a plasma poloidal revolution to form an edge density pedestal and a localized velocity shear layer at the pedestal location. While such an MHD pedestal surrounds the entire core, the outboard side of the pedestal is driven by the transonic discontinuity while the inboard side is caused by a poloidal redistribution of the mass. The MHD simulations use a smooth momentum source to drive the poloidal flow. Soon after the flow exceeds the poloidal sound speed, the density pedestal and the velocity shear layer form and persist into a quasi steady state. These results may be relevant to the L-H transition, the early stages of the pedestal and edge transport barrier formation.
On the evolution of a magnetic flux rope: Two-dimensional MHD simulation results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teh, W.-L.; Nakamura, T. K. M.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Abdullah, M.
2015-10-01
We use the time-dependent, two-dimensional (2-D), ideal MHD equations to simulate and investigate the evolution of magnetic field and plasma profiles of the typical (T) and crater (C) magnetic flux ropes (FRs). The T-FR has a magnetic pressure peak at the center of the flux rope, while the C-FR has a local dip instead. The simulation starts with a 2-D magnetic flux rope in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, where pressure gradient forces are balanced by Lorentz forces. The magnetic field and plasma pressure profiles for the initial flux rope are derived from the analytical solutions by Zhang et al. (2010). The initial flux rope starts to evolve when the force balance is broken by imposing pressure or magnetic field perturbations onto the equilibrium system. The pressure perturbations are produced by increasing/decreasing the internal plasma pressure of the flux rope, while the magnetic field perturbations are produced by increasing/decreasing the transverse magnetic fields across the flux rope. We conclude that a T-FR can be evolved into a C-FR and vice versa, if the perturbation strength is sufficient, and that the plasma pressure and density in the new equilibrium state could be either increased or decreased for the evolution of C-FR to T-FR and also for the evolution of T-FR to C-FR.
Comparative analysis of numerial methods for two-dimensional high-compression MHD-flow simulation
Aksenov, A.G.; Gerusov, A.V.
1995-01-01
The efficiency of the different numerical algorithms in solving the ideal MHD-equations in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is considered. As the testing problem for estimation of the algorithm efficiency, the dynamics of a noncylindrical skinned Z-pinch was used. The important features of the considered pinch are the high degree of plasma compression, the presence of the shock waves and contact discontinuities, and the unstable behavior of the plasma-magnetic field boundary. The new qualitative results were obtained by numerical simulation of the above problem with the help of a new algorithm. Particularly, the highly nonlinear stage of Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the plasma-magnetic field boundary was analyzed. The instability growth was found to result in the breaking of the plasma jets into vacuum along with the emergence of the magnetic field bubbles in the matter. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bessho, N.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Chandran, B.
2004-12-01
We present two 2D studies of collisionless magnetic reconnection dynamics obtained from our new fully electromagnetic PIC code (ExPIC), and compare them with results obtained earlier from Hall MHD simulations using the same initial conditions. Our studies include realistic values of me/mi. The first study involves the scaling of the maximum electron outflow velocity from the reconnection region in the GEM challenge problem, which, according to Hall MHD models, scales as the electron Alfven speed. Our PIC simulations show flows that are uniformly smaller than the electron Alfven speed, with deviations that increase in magnitude as the mass ratio reaches its actual physical value. The second study involves forced magnetic reconnection in a plasma sheet driven continuously by inward boundary flows. It is observed in the PIC simulations that the reconnection rate in the linear regime increases algebraically in time, and is followed by a sudden impulsive enhancement in the nonlinear regime, qualitatively similar to that seen in Ma and Bhattacharjee's earlier Hall MHD simulation (1996). However, the current sheet produced is more singular and the impulsiveness greater in the Hall MHD simulation than it is in the PIC simulation. Quantitative comparisons between PIC and Hall MHD simulation results will be given, and kinetic mechanisms that produce differences between Hall MHD and PIC models will be discussed.
A Two Dimensional MHD Code Using ALE Method for the Study of Pinch Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ganghua; Kan, Mingxian; Sun, Chengwei; Xie, Long; Zhao, Hailong
2013-10-01
A two dimensional MHD code MDSC (Magnetically Driven Simulation Code) is developed using ALE method for the study of pinch dynamics. The MHD equations are solved in an operator split fashion or time-splitting technique. The thermal, magnetic diffusions and Lagrangian hydrodynamics are computed with mixed differencing scheme of explicit and implicit. Finite differences are computed with a finite volume technique, and a first-order accurate convection scheme was used. Examples of different seed perturbations showed that the code is successful. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.1172277).
An adaptive grid, unsteady model for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panitchob, Supat; Wu, S. T.; Suess, S. T.
1987-01-01
An adaptive grid finite difference method for solving multi-dimensional, time-dependent, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is developed. The method is capable of solving problems that include high gradients due to geometry, propagation of shock waves and unsteady boundary conditions. The grid generation technique is based on variational principles with direct control over grid concentration, smoothness and skewness. An example for a two-dimensional MHD simulation of the propagation of a solar-flare-generated shock wave in solar wind flow in the heliographic equatorial plane is selected for illustration of this method.
Evolution of generalized two-dimensional magnetotail equilibria in ideal and resistive MHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merkin, V. G.; Sitnov, M. I.; Lyon, J. G.
2015-03-01
We present results of two-dimensional (2-D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the terrestrial magnetotail. A regional adaptation of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global MHD model is used. As initial conditions, we employ a class of asymptotic magnetotail equilibria with and without an accumulation of magnetic flux at the tailward end (a Bz hump). The former have been recently shown by full particle simulations to be unstable to a kinetic mode with formal properties of ion tearing. Thus, our goal here is to investigate the evolution of the same equilibria in the MHD approximation and assist in the physical interpretation of the kinetic simulations. This is additionally motivated by the energy principle considerations which suggest that if the system is unstable kinetically, it may also be unstable ideally. To seek dynamical MHD regimes similar to those observed in kinetic simulations, we implement two sets of boundary conditions (velocity balanced, VB, and momentum balanced, MB), one allowing plasma flows through the boundaries and the other inhibiting such flows. The use of more reflecting MB boundary conditions results in suppression of any significant dynamics, and we see no substantial changes beyond initial equilibrium relaxation. On the other hand, VB boundary conditions allow a more efficient relaxation of initial equilibrium and absorb subsequently generated plasma flows. With these boundary conditions we find the equilibrium without a flux accumulation (i.e., with constant magnetic field component normal to the current sheet) to develop an apparently resistive mode accompanied by tailward plasma flows. At the same time, the equilibria with a Bz hump of sufficiently large amplitude develop a different, ideal, mode characterized by spontaneous generation of earthward plasma flows and an exponential growth of the corresponding electric field. This growth is qualitatively similar to the corresponding fully kinetic simulations although no explosive growth of the earthward moving Bz peak is evident in the MHD calculations, just an earthward shift of a part of the initial flux accumulation. We discuss implications of our results for the possibility of existence and impact of such equilibria in the Earth's magnetotail and in global MHD simulations.
Two-dimensional MHD model of the Jovian magnetodisk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kislov, R. A.; Malova, H. V.; Vasko, I. Y.
2015-09-01
A self-consistent stationary axially symmetric MHD model of the Jovian magnetodisk is constructed. This model is a generalization of the models of plane current sheets that have been proposed earlier in order to describe the structure of the current sheet in the magnetotail of the Earth [1, 2]. The model takes centrifugal force, which is induced by the corotation electric field, and the azimuthal magnetic field into account. The configurations of the magnetic field lines for the isothermic (plasma temperature assumed to be constant) and the isentropic (plasma entropy assumed to be constant) models of the magnetodisk are determined. The dependence of the thickness of the magnetodisk on the distance to Jupiter is obtained. The thickness of the magnetodisk and the magnetic field distribution in the isothermic and isentropic models are similar. The inclusion of a low background plasma pressure results in a considerable reduction in the thickness of the magnetodisk. This effect may be attributed to the fact that centrifugal force prevails over the pressure gradient at large distances from the planet. The mechanism of unipolar induction and the related large-scale current system are analyzed. The direct and return Birkeland currents are determined in the approximation of a weak azimuthal magnetic field. The modeling results agree with theoretical estimates from other studies and experimental data.
Hall MHD Modeling of Two-dimensional Reconnection: Application to MRX Experiment
V.S. Lukin; S.C. Jardin
2003-01-09
Two-dimensional resistive Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code is used to investigate the dynamical evolution of driven reconnection in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). The initial conditions and dimensionless parameters of the simulation are set to be similar to the experimental values. We successfully reproduce many features of the time evolution of magnetic configurations for both co- and counter-helicity reconnection in MRX. The Hall effect is shown to be important during the early dynamic X-phase of MRX reconnection, while effectively negligible during the late ''steady-state'' Y-phase, when plasma heating takes place. Based on simple symmetry considerations, an experiment to directly measure the Hall effect in MRX configuration is proposed and numerical evidence for the expected outcome is given.
Two-dimensional acoustic instability in open-cycle supersonic disk MHD generator
Matsuo, Tetsuji; Ishikawa, Motoo; Umoto, Juro
1995-12-31
Both the guide vanes of the outflow disk MHD generator and the multiple inlets of the inflow disk MHD generator induce inlet azimuthal fluctuations, whose propagation along the channel may cause r-{theta} two-dimensional magneto-acoustic instability. The present paper evaluates the growth rate of r-{theta} two-dimensional disturbance during the propagation along supersonic disk channels by means of a sensitivity analysis. The generator analyzed here is a coal-fired outflow supersonic disk MHD generator of commercial scale. The paper proposes a method of sensitivity analysis for the azimuthally nonuniform disturbance. The sensitivity analysis shows that both low and high frequency two-dimensional disturbances have higher growth rate than one-dimensional ones. Time-invariant inlet azimuthal disturbances can tremendously grow during the propagation, which means that the fluctuation induced by the guide vanes may be quite dangerous. The azimuthal direction of traveling waves much affects the growth rate of waves. Two-dimensional time-dependent calculations also show that slight inlet azimuthal disturbances grow large during the propagation along the channel.
Global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the two-dimensional magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leboeuf, J. N.; Tajima, T.; Kennel, C. F.; Dawson, J. M.
1979-01-01
The time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic interaction of the solar wind with a two-dimensional dipole magnetic field has been simulated using a novel Lagrangian particle type of MHD code that can treat local low density or vacuum regions without numerical instability. This enables one to simulate the time-dependent magnetic tail. When the solar wind field is southward, a magnetic field line topology consistent with Dungey's model emerges in steady state. The tail, however, is short, and the x-points are only slightly shifted from their vacuum locations, because of strong numerical resistivity. Different configurations resulting from different relative orientations of the solar wind magnetic field and dipole axis are also presented. While the magnetic field is relatively steady, the density and flow in the magnetosheath are turbulent, as are the bow shock and magnetopause; the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability may account for these phenomena. We also model a 'substorm' as the passage of a rotational discontinuity in the solar wind over the dipole. Both 90 and 180 deg shifts to a southward solar wind field cause a violent readjustment of the magnetic tail which eventually settles down to the Dungey configuration.
Numerical analysis of real gas MHD flow on two-dimensional self-field MPD thrusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xisto, Carlos M.; Páscoa, José C.; Oliveira, Paulo J.
2015-07-01
A self-field magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster is a low-thrust electric propulsion space-system that enables the usage of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles for accelerating a plasma flow towards high speed exhaust velocities. It can produce an high specific impulse, making it suitable for long duration interplanetary space missions. In this paper numerical results obtained with a new code, which is being developed at C-MAST (Centre for Mechanical and Aerospace Technologies), for a two-dimensional self-field MPD thruster are presented. The numerical model is based on the macroscopic MHD equations for compressible and electrically resistive flow and is able to predict the two most important thrust mechanisms that are associated with this kind of propulsion system, namely the thermal thrust and the electromagnetic thrust. Moreover, due to the range of very high temperatures that could occur during the operation of the MPD, it also includes a real gas model for argon.
On the Transition from Two-Dimensional to Three-Dimensional MHD Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thess, A.; Zikanov, Oleg
2004-01-01
We report a theoretical investigation of the robustness of two-dimensional inviscid MHD flows at low magnetic Reynolds numbers with respect to three-dimensional perturbations. We analyze three model problems, namely flow in the interior of a triaxial ellipsoid, an unbounded vortex with elliptical streamlines, and a vortex sheet parallel to the magnetic field. We demonstrate that motion perpendicular to the magnetic field with elliptical streamlines becomes unstable with respect to the elliptical instability once the velocity has reached a critical magnitude whose value tends to zero as the eccentricity of the streamlines becomes large. Furthermore, vortex sheets parallel to the magnetic field, which are unstable for any velocity and any magnetic field, are found to emit eddies with vorticity perpendicular to the magnetic field and with an aspect ratio proportional to N(sup 1/2). The results suggest that purely two-dimensional motion without Joule energy dissipation is a singular type of flow which does not represent the asymptotic behaviour of three-dimensional MHD turbulence in the limit of infinitely strong magnetic fields.
Simulated annealing applied to two-dimensional low-beta reduced magnetohydrodynamics
Chikasue, Y.; Furukawa, M.
2015-02-15
The simulated annealing (SA) method is applied to two-dimensional (2D) low-beta reduced magnetohydrodynamics (R-MHD). We have successfully obtained stationary states of the system numerically by the SA method with Casimir invariants preserved. Since the 2D low-beta R-MHD has two fields, the relaxation process becomes complex compared to a single field system such as 2D Euler flow. The obtained stationary state can have fine structure. We have found that the fine structure appears because the relaxation processes are different between kinetic energy and magnetic energy.
Reconstruction of two-dimensional coherent structures in ideal and resistive Hall MHD: The theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonnerup, Bengt U. Ö.; Teh, Wai-Leong
2009-04-01
We demonstrate that it is possible, in principle, to use data from a single spacecraft to produce reconstructions of two-dimensional, time-independent field and plasma structures in space, in circumstances where the Hall effect is important. Such reconstruction generates maps, in a limited region around the spacecraft path, of magnetic and electric fields, of flow field and current distributions, as well as of the various other plasma parameters that characterize the configuration. It is similar to recent work applicable to ideal MHD, but requires additionally that at least two components (usually the spacecraft spin-plane components) of the electric field have been directly measured. Principal emphasis is on ideal Hall MHD. For this case we have developed and benchmarked a numerical code by use of an exact axisymmetric solution in which the Hall effect is significant. The case where electrical resistivity is present as well, for example, in resistive-dispersive shocks, is discussed briefly to illustrate that reconstruction is possible in this case also. A principal target of Hall reconstruction, without or with resistivity, is the ion diffusion region around a reconnection site; applications to actual observed structures will be presented elsewhere.
Reconstruction of two-dimensional coherent MHD structures in a space plasma: The theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonnerup, Bengt U. Ã.-.; Teh, Wai-Leong
2008-05-01
We develop basic theory for the reconstruction of two-dimensional, time-stationary, ideal, compressible MHD structures in a space plasma from data taken by a single spacecraft as the structures move past it. The MHD equations are solved as a spatial initial-value problem in a manner similar to that used in so-called Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction (e.g., Sonnerup et al., 2006), the difference being that our new method can deal with general structures, not just those governed by a GS-like equation. The approach described here represents a first step toward reconstruction of 2D steady state reconnection configurations, viewed in a frame moving with the X-line: Resistive, electron pressure, and Hall terms are still missing in Ohm's law but resistive and Hall effects can, we argue, ultimately be included. A numerical algorithm to perform the integration has been developed. It is tested by generation of synthetic data from a virtual spacecraft moving through an exact, analytical, axisymmetric solution of the MHD equations; these data are then used for the reconstruction. The exact solution involves isentropic plasma flow at an angle to the magnetic field. In addition to pressure and density, all three magnetic field and flow components are activated in the solution, i.e., they all vary with radius. Results show that the new method works with acceptable accuracy in a rectangular region surrounding the spacecraft path, with the two long sides of the rectangle parallel to the path. As is the case for GS reconstruction, the length of the short sides is limited by spatially growing numerical instability inherent in this type of integration procedure. Applications to actual spacecraft (Cluster) data will be reported separately.
Two-dimensional numerical simulation of MPD flows
Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Chanty, J.M.G.
1987-05-01
A two-dimensional numerical model has been developed in order to analyze electromagnetic plasma accelerators also called Self-Field Magneto-Plasma-Dynamic Thrusters. This model uses a Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic description of the gas considered as a fully ionized, isothermal plasma, and takes into account the Hall effect (nonlinear conductivity) and the interaction between the magnetic field and the fluid dynamics of the plasma. The system of equations is discretized into finite volumes, and is solved by a Newton-Raphson scheme. Results from the MHD model were calculated for a mass flow rate of 6 g/s of argon and for currents up to ten kilo-Amperes. 29 references.
Two-dimensional Simulations of Correlation Reflectometry in Fusion Plasmas
E.J. Valeo; G.J. Kramer; R. Nazikian
2001-07-05
A two-dimensional wave propagation code, developed specifically to simulate correlation reflectometry in large-scale fusion plasmas is described. The code makes use of separate computational methods in the vacuum, underdense and reflection regions of the plasma in order to obtain the high computational efficiency necessary for correlation analysis. Simulations of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasma with internal transport barriers are presented and compared with one-dimensional full-wave simulations. It is shown that the two-dimensional simulations are remarkably similar to the results of the one-dimensional full-wave analysis for a wide range of turbulent correlation lengths. Implications for the interpretation of correlation reflectometer measurements in fusion plasma are discussed.
Two-dimensional MHD reconstruction for studying magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teh, W.; Sonnerup, B.
2007-12-01
A new method for the reconstruction of two-dimensional, coherent structures in a space plasma is developed, using the ideal MHD equations. The reconstruction algorithm is similar to that used in Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction, which is to solve the equations as a spatial initial-value problem. It is benchmarked with an exact analytical solution, in which the pressure, density, all three magnetic field and flow components are functions of radius only, and in which isentropic flow at an angle to the magnetic field is present. The reconstruction results show good agreement with the exact solution, with acceptably small errors within a strip of substantial width around the spacecraft trajectory. The reconstruction scheme is then applied to previously studied magnetopause reconnection events seen by Cluster. In contrast to the case of GS reconstruction, which is performed in the deHoffmann-Teller frame, we now use a frame co-moving with the X-line, in which the axial electric field should ideally be constant. The new reconstruction results are generally consistent with earlier interpretations. We also examine the possibility of including the Hall term in Ohm¡¦s law by use of an iterative procedure.
A two-dimensional MHD global coronal model - Steady-state streamers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.
1993-01-01
We describe a two-dimensional time-dependent, numerical, magnetohydrodynamic model for the determination of the physical properties of coronal streamers from the top of the transition zone (solar radius = 1) to 15 solar radii. Four examples are given: for dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole initial field topologies. The computed parameters are density, temperature, velocity, and magnetic field. In addition to the properties of the solutions, their accuracy is discussed. We use the model as the basis for a general discussion of the way boundary conditions are specified in this and similar simulations.
Lattice Boltzmann simulation for forced two-dimensional turbulence.
Xia, YuXian; Qian, YueHong
2014-08-01
The direct numerical simulations of forced two-dimensional turbulent flow are presented by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The development of an energy-enstrophy double cascade is investigated in the two cases of external force of two-dimensional turbulence, Gaussian force and Kolmogorov force. It is found that the friction force is a necessary condition of the occurrence of a double cascade. The energy spectrum k(-3) in the enstrophy inertial range is in accord with the classical Kraichnan theory for both external forces. The energy spectrum of the Gaussian force case in an inverse cascade is k(-2); however, the Kolmogorov force drives the k(-5/3) energy in a backscatter cascade. The result agrees with Scott's standpoint, which describes nonrobustness of the two-dimensional turbulent inverse cascade. Also, intermittency is found for the enstrophy cascade in two cases of the external force form. Intermittency refers to the nonuniform distribution of saddle points in the two-dimensional turbulent flow. PMID:25215817
Lattice Boltzmann simulation for forced two-dimensional turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, YuXian; Qian, YueHong
2014-08-01
The direct numerical simulations of forced two-dimensional turbulent flow are presented by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The development of an energy-enstrophy double cascade is investigated in the two cases of external force of two-dimensional turbulence, Gaussian force and Kolmogorov force. It is found that the friction force is a necessary condition of the occurrence of a double cascade. The energy spectrum k-3 in the enstrophy inertial range is in accord with the classical Kraichnan theory for both external forces. The energy spectrum of the Gaussian force case in an inverse cascade is k-2; however, the Kolmogorov force drives the k-5/3 energy in a backscatter cascade. The result agrees with Scott's standpoint, which describes nonrobustness of the two-dimensional turbulent inverse cascade. Also, intermittency is found for the enstrophy cascade in two cases of the external force form. Intermittency refers to the nonuniform distribution of saddle points in the two-dimensional turbulent flow.
Toward the Accurate Simulation of Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giussani, Angelo; Nenov, Artur; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K.; Rivalta, Ivan; Dumont, Elise; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco
2015-06-01
Two-dimensional pump-probe electronic spectroscopy is a powerful technique able to provide both high spectral and temporal resolution, allowing the analysis of ultrafast complex reactions occurring via complementary pathways by the identification of decay-specific fingerprints. [1-2] The understanding of the origin of the experimentally recorded signals in a two-dimensional electronic spectrum requires the characterization of the electronic states involved in the electronic transitions photoinduced by the pump/probe pulses in the experiment. Such a goal constitutes a considerable computational challenge, since up to 100 states need to be described, for which state-of-the-art methods as RASSCF and RASPT2 have to be wisely employed. [3] With the present contribution, the main features and potentialities of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy are presented, together with the machinery in continuous development in our groups in order to compute two-dimensional electronic spectra. The results obtained using different level of theory and simulations are shown, bringing as examples the computed two-dimensional electronic spectra for some specific cases studied. [2-4] [1] Rivalta I, Nenov A, Cerullo G, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Int. J. Quantum Chem., 2014, 114, 85 [2] Nenov A, Segarra-Martí J, Giussani A, Conti I, Rivalta I, Dumont E, Jaiswal V K, Altavilla S, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Faraday Discuss. 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00175C [3] Nenov A, Giussani A, Segarra-Martí J, Jaiswal V K, Rivalta I, Cerullo G, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, J. Chem. Phys. submitted [4] Nenov A, Giussani A, Fingerhut B P, Rivalta I, Dumont E, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Submitted [5] Krebs N, Pugliesi I, Hauer J, Riedle E, New J. Phys., 2013,15, 08501
Two dimensional liquid crystal devices and their computer simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bin
The main focus of the dissertation is design and optimization two dimensional liquid crystal devices, which means the liquid crystal director configurations vary in two dimensions. Several optimized and designed devices are discussed in the dissertation. They include long-term bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display (BTN LCD), which is very low power consumption LCD and suitable for E-book application; wavelength tunable liquid crystal Fabry-Perot etalon filter, which is one of the key components in fiber optic telecommunications; high speed refractive index variable devices, which can be used in infrared beam steering and telecommunications; high density polymer wall diffractive liquid crystal on silicon (PWD-LCoS) light valve, which is a promising candidate for larger screen projection display and also can be used in other display applications. Two dimensional liquid crystal director simulation program (relaxation method) and two dimensional optical propagation simulation program (finite-difference time-domain, FDTD method) are developed. The algorithms of these programs are provided. It has been proved that they are the very efficient tools that used in design and optimization the devices described above.
Two-dimensional Lagrangian simulation of suspended sediment
Schoellhamer, David H.
1988-01-01
A two-dimensional laterally averaged model for suspended sediment transport in steady gradually varied flow that is based on the Lagrangian reference frame is presented. The layered Lagrangian transport model (LLTM) for suspended sediment performs laterally averaged concentration. The elevations of nearly horizontal streamlines and the simulation time step are selected to optimize model stability and efficiency. The computational elements are parcels of water that are moved along the streamlines in the Lagrangian sense and are mixed with neighboring parcels. Three applications show that the LLTM can accurately simulate theoretical and empirical nonequilibrium suspended sediment distributions and slug injections of suspended sediment in a laboratory flume.
A two-dimensional MHD global coronal model - Steady-state streamers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.
1992-01-01
A 2D, time-dependent, numerical, MHD model for the simulation of coronal streamers from the solar surface to 15 solar is presented. Three examples are given; for dipole, quadrupole and hexapole (Legendre polynomials P1, P2, and P3) initial field topologies. The computed properties are density, temperature, velocity, and magnetic field. The calculation is set up as an initial-boundary value problem wherein a relaxation in time produces the steady state solution. In addition to the properties of the solutions, their accuracy is discussed. Besides solutions for dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole geometries, the model use of realistic values for the density and Alfven speed while still meeting the requirement that the flow speed be super-Alfvenic at the outer boundary by extending the outer boundary to 15 solar radii.
High order hybrid numerical simulations of two dimensional detonation waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cai, Wei
1993-01-01
In order to study multi-dimensional unstable detonation waves, a high order numerical scheme suitable for calculating the detailed transverse wave structures of multidimensional detonation waves was developed. The numerical algorithm uses a multi-domain approach so different numerical techniques can be applied for different components of detonation waves. The detonation waves are assumed to undergo an irreversible, unimolecular reaction A yields B. Several cases of unstable two dimensional detonation waves are simulated and detailed transverse wave interactions are documented. The numerical results show the importance of resolving the detonation front without excessive numerical viscosity in order to obtain the correct cellular patterns.
Two-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations of colliding flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niklaus, M.; Schmidt, W.; Niemeyer, J. C.
2009-11-01
Context: Colliding flows are a commonly used scenario for the formation of molecular clouds in numerical simulations. Turbulence is produced by cooling, because of the thermal instability of the warm neutral medium. Aims: We carried out a two-dimensional numerical study of colliding flows to test whether statistical properties inferred from adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations are robust with respect to the applied refinement criteria. Methods: We compare probability density functions of various quantities, as well as the clump statistics and fractal dimension of the density fields in AMR simulations to a static-grid simulation. The static grid with 20482 cells matches the resolution of the most refined subgrids in the AMR simulations. Results: The density statistics are reproduced fairly well by AMR. Refinement criteria based on the cooling time or the turbulence intensity appear to be superior to the standard technique of refinement by overdensity. Nevertheless, substantial differences in the flow structure become apparent. Conclusions: In general, it is difficult to separate numerical effects from genuine physical processes in AMR simulations.
Two dimensional simulation of high power laser-surface interaction
Goldman, S.R.; Wilke, M.D.; Green, R.E.L.; Johnson, R.P.; Busch, G.E.
1998-08-01
For laser intensities in the range of 10{sup 8}--10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, and pulse lengths of order 10 {micro}sec or longer, the authors have modified the inertial confinement fusion code Lasnex to simulate gaseous and some dense material aspects of the laser-matter interaction. The unique aspect of their treatment consists of an ablation model which defines a dense material-vapor interface and then calculates the mass flow across this interface. The model treats the dense material as a rigid two-dimensional mass and heat reservoir suppressing all hydrodynamic motion in the dense material. The computer simulations and additional post-processors provide predictions for measurements including impulse given to the target, pressures at the target interface, electron temperatures and densities in the vapor-plasma plume region, and emission of radiation from the target. The authors will present an analysis of some relatively well diagnosed experiments which have been useful in developing their modeling. The simulations match experimentally obtained target impulses, pressures at the target surface inside the laser spot, and radiation emission from the target to within about 20%. Hence their simulational technique appears to form a useful basis for further investigation of laser-surface interaction in this intensity, pulse-width range. This work is useful in many technical areas such as materials processing.
One- and two-dimensional simulations of imploding metal shells
Keinigs, R.K.; Atchison, W.L.; Faehl, R.J.; Thomas, V.A.; Mclenithan, K.D.; Trainor, R.J.
1999-06-01
We report results of one- and two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic simulations of imploding, cylindrical metal shells. One-dimensional simulations are used to calculate implosion velocities of heavy liners driven by 30 MA currents. Accelerated by the j{times}B force, 45 g aluminum/tungsten composite liners achieve velocities on the order of 13 km/s. Used to impact a tungsten target, the liner produces shock pressures of approximately 14 Mbar. The first 2D simulations of these liners are also described. These simulations have focused on two problems: (1) the interaction of the liner with the electrically conducting glide planes, and (2) the effect of realistic surface perturbations on the dynamics of the implosion. The former interaction is confined primarily to the region of the contact point between the liner and glide plane, and does not seriously affect the inner liner surface. However a 0.2 {mu}m surface perturbation has a significant effect on the implosion dynamics. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, S. M.; Wu, S. T.; Smith, Z. K.; Dryer, M.
1984-01-01
The features of a 2.5-dimensional time-dependent MHD numerical code used to simulate the propagation of finite amplitude MHD waves through an inhomogeneous, supersonic superalfvenic medium are described. Basic equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and free energy in a unit volume plasma gas and for magnetic induction are defined. Initial conditions are functions of the radial coordinates and disturbances are introduced at the lower boundary. A set of finite difference equations based on a Lax-Wendroff scheme is used for the simulation. The model is applied to analyzing a solar flare shock wave in steady-state and global transient conditions while propagating at 1 AU heliolongitude.
Two-dimensional numerical simulations of supercritical accretion flows revisited
Yang, Xiao-Hong; Yuan, Feng; Bu, De-Fu; Ohsuga, Ken E-mail: fyuan@shao.ac.cn
2014-01-01
We study the dynamics of super-Eddington accretion flows by performing two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. Compared with previous works, in this paper we include the T {sub θφ} component of the viscous stress and consider various values of the viscous parameter α. We find that when T {sub θφ} is included, the rotational speed of the high-latitude flow decreases, while the density increases and decreases at the high and low latitudes, respectively. We calculate the radial profiles of inflow and outflow rates. We find that the inflow rate decreases inward, following a power law form of M-dot {sub in}∝r{sup s}. The value of s depends on the magnitude of α and is within the range of ∼0.4-1.0. Correspondingly, the radial profile of density becomes flatter compared with the case of a constant M-dot (r). We find that the density profile can be described by ρ(r)∝r {sup –p} and the value of p is almost same for a wide range of α ranging from α = 0.1 to 0.005. The inward decrease of inflow accretion rate is very similar to hot accretion flows, which is attributed to the mass loss in outflows. To study the origin of outflow, we analyze the convective stability of the slim disk. We find that depending on the value of α, the flow is marginally stable (when α is small) or unstable (when α is large). This is different from the case of hydrodynamical hot accretion flow, where radiation is dynamically unimportant and the flow is always convectively unstable. We speculate that the reason for the difference is because radiation can stabilize convection. The origin of outflow is thus likely because of the joint function of convection and radiation, but further investigation is required.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takasao, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Takuma; Nakamura, Naoki; Shibata, Kazunari
2015-06-01
Solar flares are an explosive phenomenon where super-sonic flows and shocks are expected in and above the post-flare loops. To understand the dynamics of post-flare loops, a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (2D MHD) simulation of a solar flare has been carried out. We found new shock structures in and above the post-flare loops, which were not resolved in the previous work by Yokoyama & Shibata. To study the dynamics of flows along the reconnected magnetic field, the kinematics and energetics of the plasma are investigated along selected field lines. It is found that shocks are crucial to determine the thermal and flow structures in the post-flare loops. On the basis of the 2D MHD simulation, we developed a new post-flare loop model, which we defined as the pseudo-2D MHD model. The model is based on the one-dimensional (1D) MHD equations, where all variables depend on one space dimension, and all the three components of the magnetic and velocity fields are considered. Our pseudo-2D model includes many features of the multi-dimensional MHD processes related to magnetic reconnection (particularly MHD shocks), which the previous 1D hydrodynamic models are not able to include. We compared the shock formation and energetics of a specific field line in the 2D calculation with those in our pseudo-2D MHD model, and found that they give similar results. This model will allow us to study the evolution of the post-flare loops in a wide parameter space without expensive computational cost or neglecting important physics associated with magnetic reconnection.
One-and-Two-Dimensional Simulations of Liner Performance at Atlas Parameters
Keinigs, R.K.; Atchison, W.L.; Faehl, R.J.; Mclenithan, K.D.; Trainor, R.J.
1998-10-18
The authors report results of one-and-two-dimensional MHD simulations of an imploding heavy liner in Z-pinch geometry. The driving current has a pulse shape and peak current characteristic of the Atlas pulsed-power facility being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. One-dimensional simulations of heavy composite liners driven by 30 MA currents can achieve velocities on the order of 14 km/sec. Used to impact a tungsten target, the liner produces shock pressures of approximately fourteen megabars. The first 2-D simulations of imploding liners driven at Atlas current parameters are also described. These simulations have focused on the interaction of the liner with the glide planes, and the effect of realistic surface perturbations on the dynamics of the pinch. It is found that the former interaction does not seriously affect the inner liner surface. Results from the second problem indicate that a surface perturbation having amplitude as small as 0.2 {micro}m can have a significant effect on the implosion dynamics.
Seabed disposal project two-dimensional axisymmetric penetrometer simulations
Chavez, P.F.; Dawson, P.R.; Schuler, K.W.
1980-03-01
Preliminary two-dimensional, one-constituent hole closure analyses of an experimental apparatus and the flow of in situ ocean sediments following a penetrometer explacement have been performed. Boundary conditions associated with the experimental apparatus were found to greatly affect cavity response. Difficulties were encountered in modelling penetrometer-sediment interfaces and in obtaining smooth stress histories. The use of a different computer code in later analyses led to more realistic penetrometer-sediment interface models and to improved success in obtaining stress histories. These results along with some recommendations for future work are presented.
Two dimensional fluid simulation in capacitively coupled silane discharges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yuan-Hong; Liu, Xiang-Mei; Wang, Yan; Wang, You-Nian
2011-10-01
A two-dimensional (2D) self-consistent fluid model is developed to describe the formation, subsequent growth, transport and charging mechanisms of nanoparticles in a capacitively coupled silane plasma. In this discharge process, large anions are produced by a series of chemical reactions of anions with silane molecules, while the lower limit of the initial nanoparticles are taken as large anions to directly link the coagulation module with the nucleation module. The influences of source parameters on the electron density, electron temperature, nanoparticle uniformity, and deposition rate, are carefully studied. Moreover, the behavior of silicon plasma mixed with SiH4, N2 and O2 in a pulse modulated capacitively coupled plasma has been also investigated. Results showed a strong dependence of the electron density and electron temperature on the duty cycle and the modulated frequency. Supported by NSFC (No.10775025 and No. 10805008), INSTSP (Grant No: 2011ZX02403-001), and PNCETU (NCET-08-0073).
Atchison, W.L.; Faehl, R.J.; Morgan, D.V.; Reinovsky, R.E.
1997-10-01
Experiments being conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus facility are examining stability issues for driving an aluminum liner with a pulsed magnetic field. The Pegasus facility provides a current of 5 to 8 Megamperes to compress a cylindrical liner. Liners of various size and thickness are used, depending on the specific experimental objectives. In several of these experiments, the outer surface clearly develops perturbations in the mass distribution. These perturbations are strongest when the aluminum is suspected to have melted and in some cases partially vaporized. A series of specific experiments was designed to examine the growth rate of these instabilities. These experiments involved machining a sine wave onto the outer surface of the liner to seed a given wavelength. Two-dimensional MHD calculations, using the measured current profile, were performed to model the behavior of the liner under magnetic field compression. These predictions were made with a 2D Eulerian code complete with a Steinburg-Guinan strength model. The results of these calculations will be discussed in this paper. The density contours at specific times will be compared with the processed radiography.
Two-dimensional computational simulation of eccentric annular cementing displacements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelipenko, S.; Frigaard, I. A.
2004-12-01
We consider a two-dimensional Hele-Shaw type model for displacement flows occurring in the primary cementing of an oil well. The fluids are visco-plastic and may get stuck in the annulus if a critical pressure gradient is not exceeded. The model consists of solving a nonlinear elliptic variational inequality equation for the stream function, coupled to an equation for interface advection, or alternatively a concentration equation for the mass fraction of each fluid. The key difficulty is to accurately compute yielded and unyielded zones of the wellbore fluids, which we accomplish by use of an augmented Lagrangian method to solve the stream function equation. We validate the accuracy of our method against analytical solutions for stable steady-state displacements. We study the convergence of the interface to the steady state, showing that the apparent meta-stability is illusory. We then explore the effects of increasing eccentricity, showing that although the interface may remain stable it becomes unsteady. Initially fully mobile flows are found, but as the eccentricity increases further the narrow side fluids fail to move in the far field. The narrow side interface can progress slowly through the static fluids by a burrowing motion, but for still larger eccentricities even the interface becomes static and a narrow-side mud channel forms.
Riquelme, Mario A.; Quataert, Eliot; Sharma, Prateek; Spitkovsky, Anatoly E-mail: eliot@astro.berkeley.edu E-mail: anatoly@astro.princeton.edu
2012-08-10
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is a crucial mechanism of angular momentum transport in a variety of astrophysical accretion disks. In systems accreting at well below the Eddington rate, such as the central black hole in the Milky Way (Sgr A*), the plasma in the disk is essentially collisionless. We present a nonlinear study of the collisionless MRI using first-principles particle-in-cell plasma simulations. We focus on local two-dimensional (axisymmetric) simulations, deferring more realistic three-dimensional simulations to future work. For simulations with net vertical magnetic flux, the MRI continuously amplifies the magnetic field, B, until the Alfven velocity, v{sub A} , is comparable to the speed of light, c (independent of the initial value of v{sub A} /c). This is consistent with the lack of saturation of MRI channel modes in analogous axisymmetric MHD simulations. The amplification of the magnetic field by the MRI generates a significant pressure anisotropy in the plasma (with the pressure perpendicular to B being larger than the parallel pressure). We find that this pressure anisotropy in turn excites mirror modes and that the volume-averaged pressure anisotropy remains near the threshold for mirror mode excitation. Particle energization is due to both reconnection and viscous heating associated with the pressure anisotropy. Reconnection produces a distinctive power-law component in the energy distribution function of the particles, indicating the likelihood of non-thermal ion and electron acceleration in collisionless accretion disks. This has important implications for interpreting the observed emission-from the radio to the gamma-rays-of systems such as Sgr A*.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riquelme, Mario A.; Quataert, Eliot; Sharma, Prateek; Spitkovsky, Anatoly
2012-08-01
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is a crucial mechanism of angular momentum transport in a variety of astrophysical accretion disks. In systems accreting at well below the Eddington rate, such as the central black hole in the Milky Way (Sgr A*), the plasma in the disk is essentially collisionless. We present a nonlinear study of the collisionless MRI using first-principles particle-in-cell plasma simulations. We focus on local two-dimensional (axisymmetric) simulations, deferring more realistic three-dimensional simulations to future work. For simulations with net vertical magnetic flux, the MRI continuously amplifies the magnetic field, B, until the Alfvn velocity, vA , is comparable to the speed of light, c (independent of the initial value of vA /c). This is consistent with the lack of saturation of MRI channel modes in analogous axisymmetric MHD simulations. The amplification of the magnetic field by the MRI generates a significant pressure anisotropy in the plasma (with the pressure perpendicular to B being larger than the parallel pressure). We find that this pressure anisotropy in turn excites mirror modes and that the volume-averaged pressure anisotropy remains near the threshold for mirror mode excitation. Particle energization is due to both reconnection and viscous heating associated with the pressure anisotropy. Reconnection produces a distinctive power-law component in the energy distribution function of the particles, indicating the likelihood of non-thermal ion and electron acceleration in collisionless accretion disks. This has important implications for interpreting the observed emissionfrom the radio to the gamma-raysof systems such as Sgr A*.
Two-dimensional simulations of the inertial electrostatic confinement device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marocchino, Alberto; Lapenta, Giovanni; Evstatiev, Evstati; Nebel, Richard; Park, Jaeyoung
2006-04-01
We discuss the application of the CELESTE simulation package to the simulation of the experiments conducted at the Los Alamos Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device. Recently considerable experimental advances have been made in understanding of the stability of the virtual cathode and in the physics of POPS. This momentous experimental advance requires a new simulation effort for explaining the new experimental findings, particularly in the area of stability of the configurations obtained experimentally. We have conducted a 2D stability study of the virtual cathode in the IEC device using the DEMOCRITUS package. DEMOCRITUS is a 2D general geometry electrostatic PIC code. In the present study we have done complete stability study and investigate the two-stream instability occuring in the IEC device.
Advances in Realistic MHD Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitiashvili, I.
2014-12-01
Modern high-resolution observations from ground and space telescopes reveal a complicated dynamics of turbulent magnetoconvection and its effects in the solar atmosphere and corona, showing intense interactions across different temporal and spatial scales. Interpretation of the observed complex phenomena and understanding of their origins is impossible without advanced numerical models. The rapid growth of computational capabilities has made possible 3D radiative MHD numerical simulations that reproduce solar conditions with a high degree of realism. Such simulations allow us to determine physical processes hidden from direct observations. They also provide synthetic data for calibration of observational data and for developing and testing ideas for improved diagnostics. In the talk I will discuss current advances and challenges of modeling multi-scale turbulent magnetoconvection, magnetic self-organization phenomena in the photosphere, their dynamical interaction with the chromospheric layers, and modeling of spectro-polarimetric observations for different instruments.
Two dimensional quantum mechanical simulation of low dimensional tunneling devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alper, C.; Palestri, P.; Lattanzio, L.; Padilla, J. L.; Ionescu, A. M.
2015-11-01
We present a 2-D quantum mechanical simulation framework based on self-consistent solutions of the Schrödinger and Poisson equations, using the Finite Element Method followed by tunneling current (direct and phonon assisted) calculation in post-processing. The quantum mechanical model is applied to Germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel FETs (EHBTFET). It is found that 2D direct tunneling through the underlap regions may degrade the subthreshold characteristic of such devices and requires careful device optimization to make the tunneling in the overlap region dominate over the parasitic paths. It is found that OFF and ON state currents for the EHBTFET can be classified as point and line tunneling respectively. Oxide thickness was found to have little impact on the magnitude of the ON current, whereas it impacts the OFF current.
Two-dimensional simulations of pulsational pair-instability supernovae
Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Whalen, Daniel J.
2014-09-01
Massive stars that end their lives with helium cores in the range of 35-65 M {sub ☉} are known to produce repeated thermonuclear outbursts due to a recurring pair-instability. In some of these events, solar masses of material are ejected in repeated outbursts of several × 10{sup 50} erg each. Collisions between these shells can sometimes produce very luminous transients that are visible from the edge of the observable universe. Previous one-dimensional (1D) studies of these events produce thin, high-density shells as one ejection plows into another. Here, in the first multi-dimensional simulations of these collisions, we show that the development of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability truncates the growth of the high-density spike and drives mixing between the shells. The progenitor is a 110 M {sub ☉} solar-metallicity star that was shown in earlier work to produce a superluminous supernova. The light curve of this more realistic model has a peak luminosity and duration that are similar to those of 1D models but a structure that is smoother.
Two-dimensional Simulations of Pulsational Pair-instability Supernovae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Whalen, Daniel J.
2014-09-01
Massive stars that end their lives with helium cores in the range of 35-65 M ? are known to produce repeated thermonuclear outbursts due to a recurring pair-instability. In some of these events, solar masses of material are ejected in repeated outbursts of several 1050 erg each. Collisions between these shells can sometimes produce very luminous transients that are visible from the edge of the observable universe. Previous one-dimensional (1D) studies of these events produce thin, high-density shells as one ejection plows into another. Here, in the first multi-dimensional simulations of these collisions, we show that the development of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability truncates the growth of the high-density spike and drives mixing between the shells. The progenitor is a 110 M ? solar-metallicity star that was shown in earlier work to produce a superluminous supernova. The light curve of this more realistic model has a peak luminosity and duration that are similar to those of 1D models but a structure that is smoother.
One- and two-dimensional STEALTH simulations of fuel-pin transient response. Final report. [BWR; PWR
Wahi, K.K.
1980-08-01
This report presents an assessment of the adaptability of EPRI's one- and two-dimensional STEALTH computer codes to perform transient fuel rod analysis. The ability of the STEALTH code to simulate transient mechanical or thermomechanical loss-of-coolant accident is described. Analytic models of one- and two-dimensional formulations and features included in the two-dimensional simulation are discussed.
Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional multimode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability
Thornber, B.; Zhou, Y.
2015-03-15
The two-dimensional Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occurs as shock waves pass through a perturbed material interface, triggering transition to an inhomogeneous turbulence variable density flow. This paper presents a series of large-eddy-simulations of the two dimensional turbulent RM instability and compares the results to the fully three dimensional simulations. There are two aims for this paper, the first is to explore what numerical resolution is required for a statistically converged solution for a two dimensional inhomogeneous flow field. The second aim is to elucidate the key differences in flow physics between the two dimensional and three dimensional Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities, particularly their asymptotic self-similar regime. Convergence is achieved using 64 independent realisations and grid resolutions up to 4096{sup 2} in the plane. It is shown that for narrowband cases the growth rate θ = 0.48 which is substantially higher than the three-dimensional equivalent. Mix measures are consistently lower compared to three-dimensional, and the kinetic energy distribution is homogeneous at late time. The broadband case has a similar initial growth rate as the three-dimensional case, with a marginally lower θ = 0.63. Mix is similar in magnitude, but is reducing at late time. The spectra in both cases exhibit the dual-cascade expected from two-dimensional turbulence.
Hybrid simulation of whistler excitation by electron beams in two-dimensional non-periodic domains
Woodroffe, J.R. Streltsov, A.V.
2014-11-01
We present a two-dimensional hybrid fluid-PIC scheme for the simulation of whistler wave excitation by relativistic electron beams. This scheme includes a number of features which are novel to simulations of this type, including non-periodic boundary conditions and fresh particle injection. Results from our model suggest that non-periodicity of the simulation domain results in the development of fundamentally different wave characteristics than are observed in periodic domains.
Laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Yanjun; Zhu, Chongyue; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei
2015-11-01
This paper deals with the laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone. Two-dimensional imaging is called as planar imaging. It can reflect the shape of the target and material properties. Two-dimensional imaging has important significance for target recognition. The expression of bistatic laser scattering intensity of lambert cone is obtained based on laser radar eauqtion. The scattering intensity of a micro-element on the target could be obtained. The intensity is related to local angle of incidence, local angle of scattering and the infinitesimal area on the cone. According to the incident direction of laser, scattering direction and normal of infinitesimal area, the local incidence angle and scattering angle can be calculated. Through surface integration and the introduction of the rectangular function, we can get the intensity of imaging unit on the imaging surface, and then get Lambert cone bistatic laser two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation model. We analyze the effect of distinguishability, incident direction, observed direction and target size on the imaging. From the results, we can see that the scattering imaging simulation results of the lambert cone bistatic laser is correct.
Simulation of wave interactions with MHD
Batchelor, Donald B; Abla, G; Bateman, Glenn; Bernholdt, David E; Berry, Lee A; Bonoli, P.; Bramley, R; Breslau, J.; Chance, M.; Chen, J.; Choi, M.; Elwasif, Wael R; Fu, GuoYong; Harvey, R. W.; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Jardin, S. C.; Jenkins, T; Keyes, David E; Klasky, Scott A; Kruger, Scott; Ku, Long-Poe; Lynch, Vickie E; McCune, Douglas; Ramos, J.; Schissel, D.; Schnack,; Wright, J.
2008-07-01
The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation of Wave Interaction with MHD) project are twofold: (1) improve our understanding of interactions that both radio frequency (RF) wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (2) develop an integrated computational system for treating multiphysics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project. The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) has been implemented. Presented here are initial physics results on RF effects on MHD instabilities in tokamaks as well as simulation results for tokamak discharge evolution using the IPS.
Implicit Predictor-Corrector finite difference scheme for the ideal MHD simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, T.; Yu, H.; Lai, S.
2012-12-01
A innovative simulation code for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is developed. We present a multiple-dimensional MHD code based on high-order implicit predictor-corrector finite difference scheme (high-order IPCFD scheme). High-order IPCFD scheme adopts high-order predictor-corrector scheme for the time integration and high-order central difference method as the spatial derivative solver. We use Elimination-of-the-Runoff-Errors (ERE) technology to avoid the numerical oscillations and numerical instability in the simulation results. In one-dimensional MHD problem, our simulation results show good agreement with the Brio & Wu MHD shock tube problem. The divergent B constraint remains fully satisfied, that is the divergent B equals to zero throughout the simulation. When solving the two-dimensional (2D) linear wave in MHD plasma, we clearly obtain the group-velocity Friedrichs diagrams of the MHD waves. Here we demonstrate 2D simulation results of rotor problem, Orszag-Tang vortex system, vortex type K-H instability, and kink type K-H instability by using our IPCFD MHD code and discuss the advantage of our simulation code.
Evidence of Active MHD Instability in EULAG-MHD Simulations of Solar Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawson, Nicolas; Strugarek, Antoine; Charbonneau, Paul
2015-11-01
We investigate the possible development of magnetohydrodynamical instabilities in the EULAG-MHD “millennium simulation” of Passos & Charbonneau. This simulation sustains a large-scale magnetic cycle characterized by solar-like polarity reversals taking place on a regular multidecadal cadence, and in which zonally oriented bands of strong magnetic fields accumulate below the convective layers, in response to turbulent pumping from above in successive magnetic half-cycles. Key aspects of this simulation include low numerical dissipation and a strongly sub-adiabatic fluid layer underlying the convectively unstable layers corresponding to the modeled solar convection zone. These properties are conducive to the growth and development of two-dimensional instabilities that are otherwise suppressed by stronger dissipation. We find evidence for the action of a non-axisymmetric magnetoshear instability operating in the upper portions of the stably stratified fluid layers. We also investigate the possibility that the Tayler instability may be contributing to the destabilization of the large-scale axisymmetric magnetic component at high latitudes. On the basis of our analyses, we propose a global dynamo scenario whereby the magnetic cycle is driven primarily by turbulent dynamo action in the convecting layers, but MHD instabilities accelerate the dissipation of the magnetic field pumped down into the overshoot and stable layers, thus perhaps significantly influencing the magnetic cycle period. Support for this scenario is found in the distinct global dynamo behaviors observed in an otherwise identical EULAG-MHD simulations, using a different degree of sub-adiabaticity in the stable fluid layers underlying the convection zone.
Anisimov, I. O.; Litoshenko, T. E.
2008-10-15
Nonlinear beam-plasma interaction in a two-dimensional geometry was studied via numerical simulations. The generation of Langmuir waves and transverse oscillations of the beam electrons, as well as the formation of cavities of the plasma density, was observed. Correlation between the electric field structure in the stage of electron nonlinearity and the shape of cavities in the late stage of interaction is revealed.
A two-dimensional model simulation of the EL Chichon volcanic eruption cloud
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capone, L. A.; Riegel, C. A.; Toon, O. B.; Whitten, R. C.; Turco, R. P.; Santhanam, K.
1983-01-01
Using a two-dimensional model of sulfate photochemistry, transport, and aerosol microphysics, a 2-year period following the eruptions of El Chichon have been simulated. Present calculations suggest that the residence time of the cloud in the stratosphere exceeds 2 years. The model reproduces the observed optical depth, lidar backscatter, and infrared extinction coefficients, if about 10 megatonnes of SO2 are injected. The major deficiency of the model is a somewhat too rapid transport.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deluca, E. E.; Werne, J.; Rosner, R.; Cattaneo, F.
1990-01-01
Results on the transition from soft to hard turbulence in simulations of two-dimensional Boussinesq convection are reported. The computed probability densities for temperature fluctuations are exponential in form in both soft and hard turbulence, unlike what is observed in experiments. In contrast, a change is obtained in the Nusselt number scaling on Rayleigh number in good agreement with the three-dimensional experiments.
An analytical model for simulating two-dimensional multispecies plume migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jui-Sheng; Liang, Ching-Ping; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Li, Loretta Y.
2016-02-01
The two-dimensional advection-dispersion equations coupled with sequential first-order decay reactions involving arbitrary number of species in groundwater system is considered to predict the two-dimensional plume behavior of decaying contaminant such as radionuclide and dissolved chlorinated solvent. Generalized analytical solutions in compact format are derived through the sequential application of the Laplace, finite Fourier cosine, and generalized integral transform to reduce the coupled partial differential equation system to a set of linear algebraic equations. The system of algebraic equations is next solved for each species in the transformed domain, and the solutions in the original domain are then obtained through consecutive integral transform inversions. Explicit form solutions for a special case are derived using the generalized analytical solutions and are compared with the numerical solutions. The analytical results indicate that the analytical solutions are robust, accurate and useful for simulation or screening tools to assess plume behaviors of decaying contaminants.
Two-dimensional numerical simulation of boron diffusion for pyramidally textured silicon
Ma, Fa-Jun Duttagupta, Shubham; Shetty, Kishan Devappa; Meng, Lei; Hoex, Bram; Peters, Ian Marius; Samudra, Ganesh S.
2014-11-14
Multidimensional numerical simulation of boron diffusion is of great relevance for the improvement of industrial n-type crystalline silicon wafer solar cells. However, surface passivation of boron diffused area is typically studied in one dimension on planar lifetime samples. This approach neglects the effects of the solar cell pyramidal texture on the boron doping process and resulting doping profile. In this work, we present a theoretical study using a two-dimensional surface morphology for pyramidally textured samples. The boron diffusivity and segregation coefficient between oxide and silicon in simulation are determined by reproducing measured one-dimensional boron depth profiles prepared using different boron diffusion recipes on planar samples. The established parameters are subsequently used to simulate the boron diffusion process on textured samples. The simulated junction depth is found to agree quantitatively well with electron beam induced current measurements. Finally, chemical passivation on planar and textured samples is compared in device simulation. Particularly, a two-dimensional approach is adopted for textured samples to evaluate chemical passivation. The intrinsic emitter saturation current density, which is only related to Auger and radiative recombination, is also simulated for both planar and textured samples. The differences between planar and textured samples are discussed.
Lattice Boltzmann simulations of a strongly interacting two-dimensional Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brewer, Jasmine; Mendoza, Miller; Young, Ryan E.; Romatschke, Paul
2016-01-01
We present fully nonlinear dissipative fluid dynamics simulations of a strongly interacting trapped two-dimensional Fermi gas using a lattice Boltzmann algorithm. We are able to simulate nonharmonic trapping potentials, temperature-dependent viscosities, as well as a discretized version of the ballistic (noninteracting) behavior. Our approach lends itself to direct comparison with experimental data, opening up the possibility of a precision determination of transport coefficients in the strongly interacting Fermi gas. Furthermore, we predict the presence of a strongly damped ("nonhydrodynamic") component in the quadrupole mode, which should be observable experimentally.
Simulation of two-dimensional Kerr photonic crystals via fast Fourier factorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonnefois, J. J.; Guida, Géraldine; Priou, Alain; Nevière, Michel; Popov, Evgeny
2006-04-01
We present an adaptation of the fast Fourier factorization method to the simulation of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals with a third-order nonlinearity. The algorithm and its performance are detailed and illustrated via the simulation of a Kerr 2D photonic crystal. A change in the transmission spectrum at high intensity is observed. We explain why the change does not reduce to a translation (redshift) but rather consists in a deformation and why one side of the bandgap is more suited to a switching application than the other one.
Goldberg, L.F.
1990-08-01
The activities described in this report do not constitute a continuum but rather a series of linked smaller investigations in the general area of one- and two-dimensional Stirling machine simulation. The initial impetus for these investigations was the development and construction of the Mechanical Engineering Test Rig (METR) under a grant awarded by NASA to Dr. Terry Simon at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota. The purpose of the METR is to provide experimental data on oscillating turbulent flows in Stirling machine working fluid flow path components (heater, cooler, regenerator, etc.) with particular emphasis on laminar/turbulent flow transitions. Hence, the initial goals for the grant awarded by NASA were, broadly, to provide computer simulation backup for the design of the METR and to analyze the results produced. This was envisaged in two phases: First, to apply an existing one-dimensional Stirling machine simulation code to the METR and second, to adapt a two-dimensional fluid mechanics code which had been developed for simulating high Rayleigh number buoyant cavity flows to the METR. The key aspect of this latter component was the development of an appropriate turbulence model suitable for generalized application to Stirling simulation. A final-step was then to apply the two-dimensional code to an existing Stirling machine for which adequate experimental data exist. The work described herein was carried out over a period of three years on a part-time basis. Forty percent of the first year`s funding was provided as a match to the NASA funds by the Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota, which also made its computing facilities available to the project at no charge.
Preliminary results for a two-dimensional simulation of the working process of a Stirling engine
Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.
1998-07-01
Stirling engines have several potential advantages over existing types of engines, in particular they can use renewable energy sources for power production and their performance meets the demands on the environmental security. In order to design Stirling Engines properly, and to put into effect their potential performance, it is important to more accurately mathematically simulate its working process. At present, a series of very important mathematical models are used for describing the working process of Stirling Engines and these are, in general, classified as models of three levels. All the models consider one-dimensional schemes for the engine and assume a uniform fluid velocity, temperature and pressure profiles at each plane of the internal gas circuit of the engine. The use of two-dimensional CFD models can significantly extend the capabilities for the detailed analysis of the complex heat transfer and gas dynamic processes which occur in the internal gas circuit, as well as in the external circuit of the engine. In this paper a two-dimensional simplified frame (no construction walls) calculation scheme for the Stirling Engine has been assumed and the standard {kappa}-{var{underscore}epsilon} turbulence model has been used for the analysis of the engine working process. The results obtained show that the use of two-dimensional CFD models gives the possibility of gaining a much greater insight into the fluid flow and heat transfer processes which occur in Stirling Engines.
Computer simulations of a two-dimensional system with competing interactions.
Stoycheva, Antitsa D; Singer, Sherwin J
2002-03-01
The results and methodology of large scale computer simulations of the two-dimensional dipolar Ising model with long-range interactions are reported. Systems as large as 117,649 particles were studied to elucidate the elementary excitations and phase diagram of two-dimensional systems, such as Langmuir monolayers, thin garnet films, and adsorbed films on solid surfaces, which spontaneously form patterns of stripes, bubbles, and intermediately shaped domains. The challenging numerical investigations of large scale systems with long-range interactions at low temperatures were made possible by combining the fast multipole method and a non-Metropolis Monte Carlo sampling technique. Our simulations provide evidence that, at sufficiently high ratios of the repulsive to the attractive coupling constant for the model, twofold stripe order in the systems of interest is lost through a defect-mediated mechanism. Heat capacity data and the excitations observed in our simulations as the system disorders indicate that it is most likely an instance of a Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition. The results from simulations with and without external field are in excellent agreement with the predictions of an analytic scaling theory [A. D. Stoycheva and S. J. Singer, Phys. Rev. E 64, 016118 (2001)], confirming the phase diagram furnished by the analytic model. The scaling theory suggests that, under certain conditions, defect-mediated stripe melting may be supplanted by Ising like disordering within stripes for small repulsion strength. A qualitative discussion of a model that supports both disordering mechanisms is presented. PMID:11909306
Three- and Two-Dimensional Simulations of Dendritic Solidification with Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Rawahi, Nabeel; Tryggvason, Gretar
2001-11-01
A front tracking method is presented for simulating dendritic solidification of pure substances in the presence of convection. The liquid/solid interface is explicitly tracked and the interface boundary conditions are satisfied at all time steps. The latent heat released during solidification process is calculated using the normal temperature gradient across the interface. Three- and two-dimensional simulations are presented including simulations for the growth with natural convection flow. Simulations show that the undercooled melt flow results in a higher temperature gradient near the tip of the upstream arm which results in increasing the tip velocity and decreasing its radius. The temperature gradient near the tip of the downstream arm is reduced as a result of the increased melt temperature and the flow direction. This leads to a lower tip velocity. The flow promotes the formation of side branches in the upstream side and inhibits it in the downstream side.
Simulation of two-dimensional electronic spectra of phycoerythrin 545 at ambient temperature.
Leng, Xuan; Liang, Xian-Ting
2014-10-30
By using a hierarchical equations-of-motion approach, we reproduce the two-dimensional electronic spectra of phycoerythrin 545 from Rhodomonas CS24 at ambient temperature (294 K). The simulated spectra are in agreement with the experimental results reported in Wong et al. (Nat. Chem. 2012, 4, 396). The evolutions of cross peaks for rephasing spectra and diagonal peaks for nonrephasing spectra have also been plotted. The peaks oscillate with the population times, with frequencies, phases, and amplitudes of the oscillating curves also being qualitatively consistent with the experimental results. PMID:25299464
Observation of ion waves in two-dimensional particle simulation of field-assisted plasma expansion
Patel, K.
1997-05-01
We report the results of two-dimensional particle simulations (computer experiments) of finite plasma expansion between biased plane parallel electrodes. We show that the simulation produces results consistent with the existing one-dimensional analytical model. While the plasma expansion on the low-potential side is space-charge limited, on the opposite side it is due to ambipolar diffusion. The time-dependent simulated ion current to the electrode exhibits a modulation which has not been experimentally observed. This is identified to be a consequence of the oscillation in sheath front ion density which occurs because of the ion acoustic waves generated during the expansion. This modulation, which is greater at lower ion temperatures and nonuniform with respect to the electrode surface, can be used to estimate the transient number density in the plasma. Modifications to conventional experimental detection circuits which could help in the detection of these waves are presented. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Tsuchiya, H.; Morisaki, T.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.
2006-10-15
A sheet-shaped thermal lithium beam probe has been developed for two-dimensional density measurements in the edge region of the torus plasma. A numerical simulation was carried out to confirm the validity of the diagnostics for fast and transient phenomena such as edge localized modes or blobs, etc., where the velocity of blobs is faster than that of the probe beam. It was found in the simulation that the density of the blob itself is reconstructed to be low and unexpected ghosts appear in the reconstructed density profile near the blob, if the conventional reconstruction method is employed. These results invite our attention to the numerical errors in the density reconstruction process. On the other hand, the errors can be corrected by using the simulation results.
SPECSIM2: a program for spectral simulation of anisotropic two-dimensional random fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Dowd, Peter A.
2003-10-01
The authors describe the structure and implementation of SPECSIM2, an ANSI Fortran-77 program for simulating anisotropic two-dimensional random fields via a spectral approach. This new program overcomes the limitation of the previously published version (Pardo-Igúzquiza and Chica-Olmo, Comput. Geosci. 20 (4) (1994) 597), which was confined to the direct generation of isotropic fields with any anisotropy imposed by a subsequent co-ordinate transformation. The diagonal symmetry of the two-dimensional covariance function with respect to the origin, i.e. C( x, y)= C(- x,- y) and C( x,- y)= C(- x, y), implies that its Fourier transform (i.e. the spectral density) is real (the imaginary part vanishes). This observation leads to a straightforward direct simulation of anisotropic fields by the spectral method. Examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the method using semi-variograms with or without nugget effects and with simple or nested structures, as well random fields with several structures that have different anisotropy angles.
3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models
Park, W.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.Y.
1996-12-31
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-{beta} disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, {omega}{sub *i} stabilization and nonlinear island saturation of TAE mode using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D{sup ++} code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree which agree well with experimental data.
Martinez-Sykora, Juan; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo
2012-07-10
The bulk of the solar chromosphere is weakly ionized and interactions between ionized particles and neutral particles likely have significant consequences for the thermodynamics of the chromospheric plasma. We investigate the importance of introducing neutral particles into the MHD equations using numerical 2.5D radiative MHD simulations obtained with the Bifrost code. The models span the solar atmosphere from the upper layers of the convection zone to the low corona, and solve the full MHD equations with non-gray and non-LTE radiative transfer, and thermal conduction along the magnetic field. The effects of partial ionization are implemented using the generalized Ohm's law, i.e., we consider the effects of the Hall term and ambipolar diffusion in the induction equation. The approximations required in going from three fluids to the generalized Ohm's law are tested in our simulations. The Ohmic diffusion, Hall term, and ambipolar diffusion show strong variations in the chromosphere. These strong variations of the various magnetic diffusivities are absent or significantly underestimated when, as has been common for these types of studies, using the semi-empirical VAL-C model as a basis for estimates. In addition, we find that differences in estimating the magnitude of ambipolar diffusion arise depending on which method is used to calculate the ion-neutral collision frequency. These differences cause uncertainties in the different magnetic diffusivity terms. In the chromosphere, we find that the ambipolar diffusion is of the same order of magnitude or even larger than the numerical diffusion used to stabilize our code. As a consequence, ambipolar diffusion produces a strong impact on the modeled atmosphere. Perhaps more importantly, it suggests that at least in the chromospheric domain, self-consistent simulations of the solar atmosphere driven by magnetoconvection can accurately describe the impact of the dominant form of resistivity, i.e., ambipolar diffusion. This suggests that such simulations may be more realistic in their approach to the lower solar atmosphere (which directly drives the coronal volume) than previously assumed.
A two-dimensional simulation of plasma leakage due to dengue infection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nuraini, N.; Windarto, Jayanti, Swarna; Soewono, Edy
2014-03-01
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is a disease caused by Dengue virus infection. One major characteristic in a patient with DHF is the occurrence of plasma leakage. Plasma leakage is a consequence of the immune system mechanism which activates cytokine. As a result, permeability of vascular will increase. Another characteristic in a DHF patient is hypoalbuminea (decreasing of albumin concentration). Plasma leakage can be modelled by constructing mathematical model of albumin concentration in plasma blood due to increasing of cytokine. In this paper, decreasing of albumin concentration in blood plasma is modelled using diffusion equation. In addition, two-dimensional numerical simulations of albumin concentration are also presented. From the simulation, it is found that the greater leakage rate or the wider leakage area, the greater decreasing albumin concentration will be. Furthermore, when time t increases, the albumin concentration decreases to zero.
Vahedi, V.; Birdsall, C.K.; Lieberman, M.A.; DiPeso, G.; Rognlien, T.D.
1992-12-15
Weakly ionized processing plasmas are studied in two-dimensions using a bounded particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code with a Monte Carlo Collision (MCC) package. The MCC package models the collisions between charged and neutral particles, which are needed to obtain a self-sustained plasma and the proper electron and ion energy loss mechanisms. A two-dimensional capacitive RF discharge is investigated in detail. Simple frequency scaling laws for predicting the behavior of some plasma parameters are derived and then compared with simulation results, finding good agreements. We find that as the drive frequency increases, the sheath width decreases, and the bulk plasma becomes more uniform, leading to a reduction of the ion angular spread at the target and an improvement of ion dose uniformity at the driven electrode.
Two-dimensional modeling of sodium boiling in a simulated LMFBR loss-of-flow test
Rose, S.D.
1984-01-01
Loss-of-flow (LOF) accidents are of major importance in LMFBR safety. Tests have been performed to simulate the simultaneous failure of all primary pumps and reactor shutdown systems in a 37-pin electrically heated test bundle installed in the KNS sodium boiling loop at the Institute of Reactor Development, Karlsruhe. The tests simulated LOF conditions of the German prototype LMFBR, the SNR 300. The main objectives of these tests were to characterize the transient boiling development to cladding dryout and to provide data for validation of sodium boiling codes. One particular LOF test, designated L22, at full power was selected as a benchmark exercise for comparison of several codes at the Eleventh Meeting of the Liquid Metal Boiling Working Group (LMBWG) held in Grenoble, France, in October 1984. In this paper, the results of the calculations performed at ORNL with the two-dimensional (2-D) boiling code THORAX are presented.
Simulation study of chiral two dimensional ultraviolet (2DUV) spectroscopy of the protein backbone
Abramavicius, Darius; Jiang, Jun; Bulheller, Benjamin M.; Hirst, Jonathan D.; Mukamel, Shaul
2010-01-01
Amide n –π* and π-π* excitations around 200 nm are prominent spectroscopic signatures of the protein backbone, which are routinely used in ultraviolet (UV) circular dichroism for structure characterization. Recently developed ultrafast laser sources may be used to extend these studies to two dimensions (2D). We apply a new algorithm for modelling protein electronic transitions to simulate two-dimensional ultraviolet (2DUV) photon echo signals in this regime and to identify signatures of protein backbone secondary (and tertiary) structure. Simulated signals for a set of globular and fibrillar proteins and their specific regions reveal characteristic patterns of helical and sheet secondary structures. We investigate how these patterns vary and converge with the size of the structural motif. Specific chiral polarization configurations of the UV pulses are found to be sensitive to aspects of the protein structure. This information significantly augments that available from linear circular dichroism. PMID:20481498
Two-dimensional full-wave code for reflectometry simulations in TJ-II
Blanco, E.; Heuraux, S.; Estrada, T.; Sanchez, J.; Cupido, L.
2004-10-01
A two-dimensional full-wave code in the extraordinary mode has been developed to simulate reflectometry in TJ-II. The code allows us to study the measurement capabilities of the future correlation reflectometer that is being installed in TJ-II. The code uses the finite-difference-time-domain technique to solve Maxwell's equations in the presence of density fluctuations. Boundary conditions are implemented by a perfectly matched layer to simulate free propagation. To assure the stability of the code, the current equations are solved by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Density fluctuation parameters such as fluctuation level, wave numbers, and correlation lengths are extrapolated from those measured at the plasma edge using Langmuir probes. In addition, realistic plasma shape, density profile, magnetic configuration, and experimental setup of TJ-II are included to determine the plasma regimes in which accurate information may be obtained.
Reformation at a low-Mach-number perpendicular shock: Two-dimensional full particle simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umeda, T.; Kidani, Y.; Matsukiyo, S.; Yamazaki, R.
2012-12-01
Large-scale two-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulations are carried out for studying periodic self-reformation of supercritical perpendicular shocks. It is confirmed that the shock reformation becomes absent with specific parameters. When electromagnetic whistler mode waves are strongly excited by the modified two-stream instability, both incoming and reflected ions are strongly scattered and the shock reformation becomes absent. On the other hand, when electrostatic waves are weakly excited or there is no microinstabilities, reflected ions show a coherent behavior and the shock reformation is persistent. In this case, however, the reformation period is modified essentially due to the shock-front ripples. The present simulation result suggests that the persistence and absence of the shock reformation are controlled by the cross-scale coupling between electron-scale microinstabilities and ion-scale shock-front ripples.
Aerodynamic effects of simulated ice shapes on two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alansatan, Sait
An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of simulated glaze ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail. The two dimensional tests involved two NACA 0011 airfoils with chords of 24 and 12 inches. Glaze ice shapes computed with the LEWICE code that were representative of 22.5-min and 45-min ice accretions were simulated with spoilers, which were sized to approximate the horn heights of the LEWICE ice shapes. Lift, drag, pitching moment, and surface pressure coefficients were obtained for a range of test conditions. Test variables included Reynolds number, geometric scaling, control deflection and the key glaze ice features, which were horn height, horn angle, and horn location. For the three-dimensional tests, a 25%-scale business jet empennage (BJE) with a T-tail configuration was used to study the effect of ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance of a swept horizontal tail. Simulated glaze ice shapes included the LEWICE and spoiler ice shapes to represent 9-min and 22.5-min ice accretions. Additional test variables included Reynolds number and elevator deflection. Lift, drag, hinge moment coefficients as well as boundary layer velocity profiles were obtained. The experimental results showed substantial degradation in aerodynamic performance of the airfoils and the swept horizontal tail due to the simulated ice shapes. For the two-dimensional airfoils, the largest aerodynamic penalties were obtained when the 3-in spoiler-ice, which was representative of 45-min glaze ice accretions, was set normal to the chord. Scale and Reynolds effects were not significant for lift and drag. However, pitching moments and pressure distributions showed great sensitivity to Reynolds number and geometric scaling. For the threedimensional study with the swept finite tail, the 22.5-min ice shapes resulted in greater aerodynamic performance degradation than the 9-min ice shapes. The addition of 24-grit roughness to the LEWICE shapes produced greater losses than corresponding smooth ice shapes. Spoiler-ice with constant spanwise height caused larger performance losses than spoiler-ice with height scaled as a function of local chord length. Aerodynamic performance degradation due to the variable height spoiler-ice was similar to that obtained with the corresponding LEWICE shapes.
Substrate influence on two-dimensional solids and liquids: A Monte Carlo simulation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vives, Eduard; Lindgård, Per-Anker
1991-07-01
A general model for two-dimensional solids and liquids on a substrate is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The results can be applied to the case of adsorbed atoms or molecules on surfaces as well as intercalated compounds. We have focused on the study of the melting of a commensurate √3 × √3 structure on a triangular lattice with 1/3 coverage. The evolution of the energy, order parameters, and structure factor has been followed in a wide range of temperatures and substrate-potential strengths. The phase diagram exhibits a broad transition region between the solid and liquid phase for all the cases studied. We have in particular investigated the contribution from the two-dimensional liquid to the Bragg peaks corresponding to the substrate structure. Reiter and Moss and their collaborators have demonstrated that this gives valuable information about the substrate potential. A universal dependence is found between this and the particle fluctuations around the substrate potential wells. This dependence may be useful for an experimental determination of the magnitude of the substrate potential from scattering experiments, in particular for weak potentials and large atomic mean-square displacements.
Topological events in two-dimensional grain growth: Experiments and simulations
Fradkov, V.E.; Glicksman, M.E.; Palmer, M.; Rajan, K. . Materials Engineering Dept.)
1994-08-01
Grain growth in polycrystals is a process that occurs as a result of the vanishing of small grains. The mean topological class of vanishing two-dimensional (2-D) grains was found experimentally to be about 4.5. This result suggests that most vanishing grains are either 4- or 5-sided. A recent theory of 2-D grain growth is explicitly based on this fact, treating the switching as random events. The process of shrinking of 4- and 5-sided two-dimensional grains was observed experimentally on polycrystalline films of transparent, pure succinonitrile (SCN). Grain shrinking was studied theoretically and simulated by computer (both dynamic and Monte Carlo). It was found that most shrinking grains are topologically stable and remain within their topological class until they are much smaller than their neighbors. They discuss differences which were found with respect to the behavior of 2-D polycrystals, a 2-D ideal soap froth, and a 2-D section of a 3-D grain structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, James H.
1993-10-01
Geophysical phenomena are often characterized by smooth continuous power spectral densities having a negative power law slope. Frequently, Fourier transform analysis has been employed to generate synthetic scenes from pseudorandom arrays by passing the stochastic data through a Fourier filter having the desired power spectral dependency. This report examines the possibility of producing two-dimensional synthetic structure by invoking autoregressive/moving average analysis, as contrasted with the Fourier method. Computations that apply multidimensional fast Fourier transforms to large data arrays consume enormous resources and time. An alternative method is needed to reduce the computational burden, achieve circular symmetry, account for correlations in all directions, and lend itself to producing nonstationary scenes. Future editions of the Phillips Laboratory Strategic High Altitude Atmospheric Radiance Code (SHARC) will feature an ability to calculate structured radiance. The method explored herein provides a process to construct a nonstationary database for SHARC that accurately simulates symmetric two-dimensional geophysical power spectra and takes into account correlations along the line of sight that existing methods approximate.
Brownian Dynamics Simulation of two-dimensional nanosheets under extensional flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yueyi; Green, Micah
2014-11-01
We investigated the morphology change of two-dimensional nanosheets under extensional flow using a coarse-grained model. Nanosheets such as graphene are promising materials for a variety of materials and electronics applications; extensional flow fields are used to cast or process liquid nanosheet dispersions in several processing techniques, including spin coating and compression molding. Process parameters, including bending stiffness and Weissenberg numbers can have a significant impact on the nanosheet morphology and the physical properties of the finished products. We use Brownian Dynamics simulations to study the impact of external flow field on a two-dimensional bead-rod lattice model. Our model was previously demonstrated for steady shear flow. Here we studied the change of morphology of graphene over time and varied the sheet size, bending stiffness and Weissenberg number. Our results showed a flattening behavior that increases with Weissenberg number. Our results also showed significant differences between nanosheets as a function of bending stiffness, with contrasting ``plate'' and ``washrag'' results under extension. The intrinsic viscosity first experiences a drop with Weissenberg number followed by a plateau associated with maximum extension.
Kim, J.; McMurray, J. S.; Williams, C. C.; Slinkman, J.
1998-11-24
We report the results of a 2-step two-dimensional (2D) diffusion study by Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM) and 2D TSUPREM IV process simulation. A quantitative 2D dopant profile of gate-like structures consisting heavily implanted n+ regions separated by a lighter doped n-type region underneath 0.56 {mu}m gates is measured with the SCM. The SCM is operated in the constant-change-in-capacitance mode. The 2-D SCM data is converted to dopant density through a physical model of the SCM/silicon interaction. This profile has been directly compared with 2D TSUPREM IV process simulation and used to calibrate the simulation parameters. The sample is then further subjected to an additional diffusion in a furnace for 80 minutes at 1000C. The SCM measurement is repeated on the diffused sample. This final 2D dopant profile is compared with a TSUPREM IV process simulation tuned to fit the earlier profile with no change in the parameters except the temperature and time for the additional diffusion. Our results indicate that there is still a significant disagreement between the two profiles in the lateral direction. TSUPREM IV simulation considerably underestimates the diffusion under the gate region.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Louis F.
1990-01-01
Investigations of one- and two-dimensional (1- or 2-D) simulations of Stirling machines centered around experimental data generated by the U. of Minnesota Mechanical Engineering Test Rig (METR) are covered. This rig was used to investigate oscillating flows about a zero mean with emphasis on laminar/turbulent flow transitions in tubes. The Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) and in particular, its heater, were the subjects of the simulations. The heater was treated as a 1- or 2-D entity in an otherwise 1-D system. The 2-D flow effects impacted the transient flow predictions in the heater itself but did not have a major impact on overall system performance. Information propagation effects may be a significant issue in the simulation (if not the performance) of high-frequency, high-pressure Stirling machines. This was investigated further by comparing a simulation against an experimentally validated analytic solution for the fluid dynamics of a transmission line. The applicability of the pressure-linking algorithm for compressible flows may be limited by characteristic number (defined as flow path information traverses per cycle); this warrants further study. Lastly the METR was simulated in 1- and 2-D. A two-parameter k-w foldback function turbulence model was developed and tested against a limited set of METR experimental data.
Two-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Trapped Ion Mode and Drift Wave Turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kingsbury, Owen Todd
The first chapter is the paper entitled "Two-dimensional numerical simulation of trapped electron mode turbulent transport in a tokamak". Trapped electrons are lumped into hot and cold fluids to treat temperature gradient effects. The ion temperature gradient and dissipative trapped electron modes were simultaneously present. A plasma particle pinch was found only at extremely low collisionalities and a heat conduction pinch was found at moderate collisionalities, although there was no energy flow pinch seen. The second chapter is the paper entitled "Two -dimensional numerical simulation of trapped ion mode turbulence in a tokamak". The simulation of long wavelength trapped ion mode turbulence was used to investigate Bohm (macroscopic) versus gyro-Bohm (microscopic) scaling behavior in tokamaks. A nonlinear two-field model of dissipative trapped ion turbulence evolving trapped ion and trapped electron density fluctuations showed gyro-Bohm-like scaling in contrast to earlier simulation work by Saison, Wimmel, and Sardei (Plasma Physics, Vol. 20, pp. 1 to 20, 1978). In fact nearly all features of trapped ion mode turbulence and transport originally posited by Kadomstev and Pogutse (Reviews of Plasma Physics, Vol. 5) were recovered. The third chapter is the paper entitled "Numerical simulation of drift waves and trapped ion modes". Simulations were used to study the interaction of trapped electron drift waves (DW) and trapped ion modes (TIM). Wavenumber (k) space was divided into long wave and short wave regions at a poloidal wavenumber corresponding to the ion bounce frequency. Two field models were used to describe trapped electron drift wave dynamics at short waves and trapped ion mode dynamics for long waves. The principal result of this study was that the TIM did not contribute to the diffusion significantly, regardless of the model for the nonlinear coupling to the DW. The appendix documents a sparsely populated k -space grid scheme that was invented to perform the TIM/DW simulations. The method did not give physical results and was not used. The argument in the appendix states that it is not possible to mock up the nonlinear convolutions in Fourier representation such that some of the modes need not be included.
SAS4A simulation of the OPERA-15 two-dimensional voiding experiment. [LMFBR
Briggs, L.L.
1984-01-01
A major effort is currently being pursued to validate the SAS4A LMFBR accident analysis code. Part of this effort involves SAS4A analysis of both in-pile and out-of-pile safety experiments. Such an experiment is the fifteen-pin Out-of-Pile Explusion and Reentry Apparatus (OPERA) test run at Argonne National Laboratory. This test uses a fifteen-pin triangular-shaped bundle of simulant fuel pins to demonstrate two-dimensional voiding behavior in a LMFBR subassembly during a Loss-of-Flow (LOF) accident. This experiment was chosen for SAS4A analysis both for its value in code validation and its usefulness in evaluating the limitations of the one-dimensional SAS4A sodium voiding model in accident analysis.
A SPH simulation on large-amplitude sloshing for fluids in a two-dimensional tank
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lishi; Wang, Zhuang; Li, Yuchun
2013-03-01
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a mesh-free adaptive Lagrangian particle method with attractive features for dealing with the free surface flow. This paper applies the SPH method to simulate the large-amplitude lateral sloshing both with and without a floating body, and the vertical parametrically-excited sloshing in a two-dimensional tank. The numerical results show that the SPH approach has an obvious advantage over conventional mesh-based methods in handling nonlinear sloshing problems such as violent fluid-solid interaction, and flow separation and wave-breaking on the free fluid surface. The SPH method provides a new alternative and an effective way to solve these special strong nonlinear sloshing problems.
Lehtinen, O.; Kotakoski, J.; Tolvanen, A.; Nordlund, K.; Keinonen, J.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.
2010-04-15
Using atomistic computer simulations based on analytical potential and density-functional theory models, we study effects of ion irradiation on graphene. We identify the types and concentrations of defects which appear in graphene under impacts of various ions with energies ranging from tens of electron volts to mega-electron volts. For two-dimensional targets, defects beyond single and double vacancies are formed via in-plane recoils. We demonstrate that the conventional approach based on binary-collision approximation and stochastic algorithms developed for bulk solids cannot be applied to graphene and other low-dimensional systems. Finally, taking into account the gas-holding capacity of graphene, we suggest the use of graphene as the ultimate membrane for ion-beam analysis of gases and other volatile systems which cannot be put in the high vacuum required for the operation of ion beams.
Riley, M.E.
1998-03-01
This report describes the numerical procedure used to implement the Green`s function method for solving the Poisson equation in two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates. The procedure can determine the solution to a problem with any or all of applied voltage boundary conditions, dielectric media, floating (insulated) conducting media, dielectric surface charging, periodic (reflective) boundary conditions, and volumetric space charge. The numerical solution is reasonably fast, and the dimension of the linear problem to be solved is that of the number of elements needed to represent the surfaces, not the whole computational volume. The method of solution is useful in the simulation of plasma particle motion in the vicinity of complex surface structures as found in microelectronics plasma processing applications. A FORTRAN implementation of this procedure is available from the author.
Simulation of femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectra of conical intersections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krčmář, Jindřich; Gelin, Maxim F.; Domcke, Wolfgang
2015-08-01
We have simulated femtosecond two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra for an excited-state conical intersection using the wave-function version of the equation-of-motion phase-matching approach. We show that 2D spectra at fixed values of the waiting time provide information on the structure of the vibronic eigenstates of the conical intersection, while the evolution of the spectra with the waiting time reveals predominantly ground-state wave-packet dynamics. The results show that 2D spectra of conical intersection systems differ significantly from those obtained for chromophores with well separated excited-state potential-energy surfaces. The spectral signatures which can be attributed to conical intersections are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Dezhen
2015-11-01
A two-dimensional fluid model is developed to study the filaments (or discharge channels) in atmospheric-pressure discharge with one plate electrode covered by a dielectric layer. Under certain discharge parameters, one or more stable filaments with wide radii could be regularly arranged in the discharge space. Different from the short-lived randomly distributed microdischarges, this stable and thick filament can carry more current and have longer lifetime. Because only one electrode is covered by a dielectric layer in the simulation, the formed discharge channel extends outwards near the dielectric layer and shrinks inwards near the naked electrode, agreeing with the experimental results. In this paper, the evolution of channel is studied, and its behavior is like a streamer or an ionization wave, but the propagation distance is short. The discharge parameters such as voltage amplitude, electrode width, and N2 impurities content could significantly influence the number of discharge channel, which is discussed in the paper.
MHD simulation of the Bastille day event
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linker, Jon; Torok, Tibor; Downs, Cooper; Lionello, Roberto; Titov, Viacheslav; Caplan, Ronald M.; Mikić, Zoran; Riley, Pete
2016-03-01
We describe a time-dependent, thermodynamic, three-dimensional MHD simulation of the July 14, 2000 coronal mass ejection (CME) and flare. The simulation starts with a background corona developed using an MDI-derived magnetic map for the boundary condition. Flux ropes using the modified Titov-Demoulin (TDm) model are used to energize the pre-event active region, which is then destabilized by photospheric flows that cancel flux near the polarity inversion line. More than 1033 ergs are impulsively released in the simulated eruption, driving a CME at 1500 km/s, close to the observed speed of 1700km/s. The post-flare emission in the simulation is morphologically similar to the observed post-flare loops. The resulting flux rope that propagates to 1 AU is similar in character to the flux rope observed at 1 AU, but the simulated ICME center passes 15° north of Earth.
MHD Simulations of Coronal Plumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lionello, Roberto; Velli, M.; Linker, J. A.; Mikic, Z.
2011-05-01
The expansion of a coronal hole filled with a discrete number of higher density coronal plumes is simulated using a time-dependent 2D code. A solar wind model including an exponential coronal heating function and a flux of Alfven waves propagating both inside and outside the structures is taken as a basic state. Different plasma plume profiles are obtained by using different scale heights for the heating rates. Remote sensing and solar wind in situ observations are used to constrain the parameter range of the study. Time dependence due to plume ignition and disappearance is also discussed. Velocity differences of the order of 50 km/s, such as those found in microstreams in the high-speed solar wind, may be easily explained by slightly different heat deposition profiles in different plumes. Statistical pressure balance in the fast wind data may be masked by the large variety of body and surface waves which the higher density filaments may carry, so the absence of pressure balance in the microstreams should not rule out their interpretation as the extension of coronal plumes into interplanetary space. Mixing of plume-interplume material via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability seems to be possible, within the parameter ranges of the models defined here, only at large distances from the Sun, beyond 0.2-0.3 AU. Plasma and composition measurements in the inner heliosphere, such as those which will become available with Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus, should therefore definitely be able to identify plume remnants in the solar wind.
HYBRID AND HALL-MHD SIMULATIONS OF COLLISIONLESS RECONNECTION: EFFECTS OF PLASMA PRESSURE TENSOR
L. YIN; D. WINSKE; ET AL
2001-05-01
In this study we performed two-dimensional hybrid (particle ions, massless fluid electrons) and Hall-MHD simulations of collisionless reconnection in a thin current sheet. Both calculations include the full electron pressure tensor (instead of a localized resistivity) in the generalized Ohm's law to initiate reconnection, and in both an initial perturbation to the Harris equilibrium is applied. First, electron dynamics from the two calculations are compared, and we find overall agreement between the two calculations in both the reconnection rate and the global configuration. To address the issue of how kinetic treatment for the ions affects the reconnection dynamics, we compared the fluid-ion dynamics from the Hall-MHD calculation to the particle-ion dynamics obtained from the hybrid simulation. The comparison demonstrates that off-diagonal elements of the ion pressure tensor are important in correctly modeling the ion out-of-plane momentum transport from the X point. It is that these effects can be modeled efficiently using a particle Hall-MHD simulation method in which particle ions used in a predictor/corrector to implement the ion gyro-radius corrections. We also investigate the micro- macro-scale coupling in the magnetotail dynamics by using a new integrated approach in which particle Hall-MHD calculations are embedded inside a MHD simulation. Initial results of the simulation concerning current sheet thinning and reconnection dynamics are discussed.
The void spectrum in two-dimensional numerical simulations of gravitational clustering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kauffmann, Guinevere; Melott, Adrian L.
1992-01-01
An algorithm for deriving a spectrum of void sizes from two-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of gravitational clustering is tested, and it is verified that it produces the correct results where those results can be anticipated. The method is used to study the growth of voids as clustering proceeds. It is found that the most stable indicator of the characteristic void 'size' in the simulations is the mean fractional area covered by voids of diameter d, in a density field smoothed at its correlation length. Very accurate scaling behavior is found in power-law numerical models as they evolve. Eventually, this scaling breaks down as the nonlinearity reaches larger scales. It is shown that this breakdown is a manifestation of the undesirable effect of boundary conditions on simulations, even with the very large dynamic range possible here. A simple criterion is suggested for deciding when simulations with modest large-scale power may systematically underestimate the frequency of larger voids.
Lu, Meijun; Das, Ujjwal; Bowden, Stuart; Hegedus, Steven; Birmire, Robert
2009-06-09
In this paper, two-dimensional (2D) simulation of interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cells is presented using Sentaurus Device, a software package of Synopsys TCAD. A model is established incorporating a distribution of trap states of amorphous-silicon material and thermionic emission across the amorphous-silicon / crystalline-silicon heterointerface. The 2D nature of IBC-SHJ device is evaluated and current density-voltage (J-V) curves are generated. Optimization of IBC-SHJ solar cells is then discussed through simulation. It is shown that the open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current density (JSC) of IBC-SHJ solar cells increase with decreasing front surface recombination velocity. The JSC improves further with the increase of relative coverage of p-type emitter contacts, which is explained by the simulated and measured position dependent laser beam induced current (LBIC) line scan. The S-shaped J-V curves with low fill factor (FF) observed in experiments are also simulated, and three methods to improve FF by modifying the intrinsic a-Si buffer layer are suggested: (i) decreased thickness, (ii) increased conductivity, and (iii) reduced band gap. With all these optimizations, an efficiency of 26% for IBC-SHJ solar cells is potentially achievable.
Gheisari, R.; Firoozabadi, M. M.; Mohammadi, H.
2014-01-15
A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN) production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN) flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source) was modeled based on an arrangement of D{sub 2}O and solid D{sub 2} (sD{sub 2}). The D{sub 2}O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD{sub 2} as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D) neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ − z) geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD{sub 2}. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD{sub 2} volume) equal to 6.79 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} and 2.20 ×10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}s{sup −1}, respectively.
General Relativistic MHD Simulations of Jet Formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mizuno, Y.; Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Koide, S.; Fishman, G. J.
2005-01-01
We have performed 3-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of jet formation from an accretion disk with/without initial perturbation around a rotating black hole. We input a sinusoidal perturbation (m = 5 mode) in the rotation velocity of the accretion disk. The simulation results show the formation of a relativistic jet from the accretion disk. Although the initial perturbation becomes weakened by the coupling among different modes, it survives and triggers lower modes. As a result, complex non-axisymmetric density structure develops in the disk and the jet. Newtonian MHD simulations of jet formation with a non-axisymmetric mode show the growth of the m = 2 mode but GRMHD simulations cannot see the clear growth of the m = 2 mode.
Simulation and Experimental Studies of Jamming for Model Two-Dimensional Particles Under Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guariguata, A.; Wu, D. T.; Koh, C. A.; Sum, A. K.; Sloan, E. D.
2009-06-01
Jamming and plugging of flowlines with gas hydrates is the most critical issue in the flow assurance of oil and gas production lines. Because solid hydrate particles are often suspended in a fluid, the pipeline jamming and flow constriction formed by hydrates depend not only on particle/wall properties, such as friction, binding forces and mechanical characteristics, but also on the concentration of particles upstream of the restriction, flow velocity, fluid viscosity, and forces between the particles. Therefore, to gain insight into the jamming phenomena, both experiments and computer simulations on two-dimensional model systems have been carried out to characterize the flow of particles in a channel, with the eventual goal of applying that knowledge to gas hydrates jamming. Using the simulation software PFC2d®, we studied the effect of restriction geometry and flow velocity on the jamming process of particles. Results from the simulations were compared to experimental measurements on polyethylene discs floating on water flowing in an open channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Graves, D. B.
2012-08-01
Plasma instabilities are observed in low-pressure inductive discharges in the transition between low density capacitively driven and high density inductively driven discharges when attaching gases are used. A two-dimensional hybrid fluid-analytic simulation is used to determine the space- and time-varying densities of electrons, positive and negative ions, and neutral species, and electron and neutral gas temperatures. The simulation includes both the capacitive and inductive coupling of the source coils to the plasma and the neutral gas dissociation and heating. The plasma is described using the time-dependent fluid equations, along with an analytical sheath model. The simulation is applied to an experiment in Cl2, in which gaps in the electron and positive ion densities versus power curves were observed, with our numerical results indicating the existence of an inductive-capacitive transition instability, corresponding approximately to the observed gaps. The fluid calculation captures various features that are not included in previous global instability models. A method is developed to match the numerical results to the global model formalism, which predicts the existence of the unstable mode, as numerically found. The time and space variations can be used to improve the global model formalism.
Numerical simulation of two-dimensional spatially-developing mixing layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, R. V.; Demuren, A. O.
1994-01-01
Two-dimensional, incompressible, spatially developing mixing layer simulations are performed at Re = 10(exp 2) and 10(exp 4) with two classes of perturbations applied at the inlet boundary; combinations of discrete modes from linear stability theory, and a broad spectrum of modes derived from experimentally measured velocity spectra. The effect of the type and strength of inlet perturbations on vortex dynamics and time-averaged properties are explored. Two-point spatial velocity and autocorrelations are used to estimate the size and lifetime of the resulting coherent structures and to explore possible feedback effects. The computed time-averaged properties such as mean velocity profiles, turbulent statistics, and spread rates show good agreement with experimentally measured values. It is shown that by forcing with a broad spectrum of modes derived from an experimental energy spectrum many experimentally observed phenomena can be reproduced by a 2-D simulation. The strength of the forcing merely affected the length required for the dominant coherent structures to become fully-developed. Thus intensities comparable to those of the background turbulence in many wind tunnel experiments produced the same results, given sufficient simulation length.
Tracking the Mechanism of Fibril Assembly by Simulated Two-Dimensional Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
Lam, A. R.; Rodriguez, J. J.; Rojas, A.; Scheraga, H.A; Mukamel, S.
2013-01-01
Alzheimers disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of plaque deposits in the human brain. The main component of these plaques consists of highly ordered structures called amyloid fibrils, formed by the amyloid ?-peptide (A?). The mechanism connecting A? and AD is yet undetermined. In a previous study, a coarse-grained united-residue model and molecular dynamics simulations were used to model the growth mechanism of A ? amyloid fibrils. Based on these simulations, a dock/lock mechanism was proposed, in which A? fibrils grow by adding monomers at either end of an amyloid fibril template. To examine the structures in the early time-scale formation and growth of amyloid fibrils, simulated two-dimensional ultraviolet spectroscopy is used. These early structures are monitored in the far ultraviolet regime (? = 190250 nm) in which the computed signals originate from the backbone n?* and ??* transitions. These signals show distinct cross-peak patterns that can be used, in combination with molecular dynamics, to monitor local dynamics and conformational changes in the secondary structure of A?-peptides. The protein geometry-correlated chiral xxxy signal and the non-chiral combined signal xyxy- xyyx were found to be sensitive to, and in agreement with, a dock/lock pathway. PMID:23214934
Simulation of Ozone and Long Lived Tracers in the GSFC Two-Dimensional Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Stolarski, Richard S.
1999-01-01
The GSFC two-dimensional transport and chemistry model has been used for a wide variety of scientific and assessment studies of stratospheric ozone. Transport is a key element in the ozone simulations, and we have recently upgraded our model transport formulation to include much of the information about atmospheric transport processes available from existing data sets. To properly evaluate the model transport, it is desirable to examine the effects of transport and photochemistry separately. Recently, high quality observations of several long lived stratospheric tracers have become available from aircraft, balloon, and satellite measurement systems. This data provides a means to do a detailed model transport evaluation, as has been done in the recent Models and Measurements Intercomparison Project II. In this paper, we will discuss the GSFC 2D model simulations of ozone together with model-data comparisons of long lived tracers such as methane and the age of air transport diagnostic. We will show that the model can reproduce many of the transport-sensitive features observed in the stratosphere, and can compare reasonably well with measurements of both total ozone and long lived tracers simultaneously. We will also discuss the model deficiencies in simulating some of the detailed aspects of the observations.
Numerical simulation of steady flow in a two-dimensional total artificial heart model.
Kim, S H; Chandran, K B; Chen, C J
1992-11-01
In this paper, a numerical simulation of steady laminar and turbulent flow in a two-dimensional model for the total artificial heart is presented. A trileaflet polyurethane valve was simulated at the outflow orifice while the inflow orifice had a trileaflet or a flap valve. The finite analytic numerical method was employed to obtain solutions to the governing equations in the Cartesian coordinates. The closure for turbulence model was achieved by employing the k-epsilon-E model. The SIMPLER algorithm was used to solve the problem in primitive variables. The numerical solutions of the simulated model show that regions of relative stasis and trapped vortices were smaller within the ventricular chamber with the flap valve at the inflow orifice than that with the trileaflet valve. The predicted Reynolds stresses distal to the inflow valve within the ventricular chamber were also found to be smaller with the flap valve than with the trileaflet valve. These results also suggest a correlation between high turbulent stresses and the presence of thrombus in the vicinity of the valves in the total artificial hearts. The computed velocity vectors and turbulent stresses were comparable with previously reported in vitro measurements in artificial heart chambers. Analysis of the numerical solutions suggests that geometries similar to the flap valve (or a tilting disk valve) results in a better flow dynamics within the total artificial heart chamber compared to a trileaflet valve. PMID:1487902
Shocked Magnetotail: ARTEMIS Observations and MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Xiaoyan
2015-04-01
Interplanetary shocks can cause magnetospheric disturbances on various scales including kinetic and MHD processes. In this paper we study a shock event using ARTEMIS in situ observations and OpenGGCM MHD simulations, which shows how significant effect of interplanetary shocks could be on the magnetotail. The two ARTEMIS spacecraft were located near the tail current sheet and lobe center at (-60, 1, -5Re_GSM) when the shock arrived and recorded an abrupt tail compression leading to significant enhancements in the plasma density, temperature, magnetic field strength, and cross-tail current density, as well as to tailward flows and current sheet crossings. About 10 min later, the spacecraft entered the sheath solar wind unexpectedly. Two hypotheses are considered: either the tail was cut off by the high solar wind ram pressure (~25-30 nPa), or the compressed tail was pushed aside by the appreciable dawnward solar wind flow imposed by the shock. OpenGGMC simulation results confirmed the second hypothesis and revealed that during this 10 min interval, the lobe center moved dawnward by ~12 Re and the tail width in Y was reduced from ~40 to 26 Re, which eventually exposed ARTEMIS to the sheath solar wind. Comparisons of plasma and magnetic parameters between ARTEMIS in situ observations and simulations showed a satisfied consistence.
Turnbull, D H; Foster, F S
1992-10-01
Two-dimensional (2-D) arrays have been proposed as a solution to the degradation in medical ultrasound image quality occurring as a result of asymmetric focusing properties of linear phased array transducers. The 2-D phased transducer array is also capable of electronically steering the symmetrically focused ultrasound beam throughout a three-dimensional volume. In a companion paper the potential of 2-D transducer arrays for medical imaging has been investigated using simulated B-scan images. In this paper, the advantages of 2-D over linear transducer arrays is demonstrated by simulating images of spherical cysts embedded in a large scattering volume. The large elevation beamwidth in the nearfield of a 5 MHz linear phased transducer array results in a severe reduction in the image contrast measured between a 4 mm diameter cyst and the surrounding scattering media. By employing a 2-D array with symmetric focusing, the contrast between the cyst and surrounding scatterers is significantly improved. The use of additional elements in the elevation direction of a linear array is also investigated. In this case the additional elements are included only to focus, but not to steer the ultrasound beam. Using the contrast characteristics of a 4 mm diameter cyst, it is shown that relatively few elevation elements are required to significantly improve the nearfield imaging capability of the linear array. PMID:1296338
Two-dimensional simulations of the neutron yield in cryogenic deuterium-tritium implosions on OMEGA
Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Radha, P. B.; Marozas, J. A.; Skupsky, S.; Boehly, T. R.; Sangster, T. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; McCrory, R. L.
2010-10-15
Maximizing the neutron yield to obtain energy gain is the ultimate goal for inertial confinement fusion. Nonuniformities seeded by target and laser perturbations can disrupt neutron production via the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth. To understand the effects of perturbations on the neutron yield of cryogenic DT implosions on the Omega Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)], two-dimensional DRACO[P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 056307 (2005)] simulations have been performed to systematically investigate each perturbation source and their combined effects on the neutron-yield performance. Two sources of nonuniformity accounted for the neutron-yield reduction in DRACO simulations: target offset from the target chamber center and laser imprinting. The integrated simulations for individual shots reproduce the experimental yield-over-clean (YOC) ratio within a factor of 2 or better. The simulated neutron-averaged ion temperatures
Simulation of Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy of Peptides Using Localized Normal Modes.
Hanson-Heine, Magnus W D; Husseini, Fouad S; Hirst, Jonathan D; Besley, Nicholas A
2016-04-12
Nonlinear two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2DIR) is most commonly simulated within the framework of the exciton method. The key parameters for these calculations include the frequency of the oscillators within their molecular environments and coupling constants that describe the strength of coupling between the oscillators. It is shown that these quantities can be obtained directly from harmonic frequency calculations by exploiting a procedure that localizes the normal modes. This approach is demonstrated using the amide I modes of polypeptides. For linear and cyclic diamides and hexapeptide Z-Aib-l-Leu-(Aib)2-Gly-Aib-OtBu, the computed parameters are compared with those from existing schemes, and the resulting 2DIR spectra are consistent with experimental observations. The incorporation of conformational averaging of structures from molecular dynamics simulations is discussed, and a hybrid scheme wherein the Hamiltonian matrix from the quantum chemical local-mode approach is combined with fluctuations from empirical schemes is shown to be consistent with experiment. The work demonstrates that localized vibrational modes can provide a foundation for the calculation of 2DIR spectra that does not rely on extensive parametrization and can be applied to a wide range of systems. For systems that are too large for quantum chemical harmonic frequency calculations, the local-mode approach provides a convenient platform for the development of site frequency and coupling maps. PMID:26913672
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghasemi, Amirmahdi; Pathak, Ashish; Chiodi, Robert; Raessi, Mehdi
2013-11-01
Ocean waves represent a vast renewable energy resource, which is mostly untapped. We present a computational tool for simulation of the interactions between waves and two-dimensional oscillating solid bodies representing simple wave energy converters (WECs). The computational tool includes a multiphase flow solver, in which the two-step projection method with GPU acceleration is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. The fictitious domain method is used to capture the interactions of a moving rigid solid body with the two-fluid flow. The solid and liquid volumes are tracked using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method, while the triple points and phase interfaces in three-phase cells are resolved. A consistent mass and momentum transport scheme is used to handle the large density ratio. We present results of two wave generation mechanisms with a piston or flap wave maker, where the theoretical and experimental results were used for validation. Then, simulation results of several simple devices representative of distinct WECs, including a bottom-hinged flap device as well as cylindrical or rectangular terminators are presented. The results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
High-volume fraction simulations of two-dimensional vesicle suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quaife, Bryan; Biros, George
2014-10-01
We consider numerical algorithms for the simulation of the rheology of two-dimensional vesicles suspended in a viscous Stokesian fluid. The vesicle evolution dynamics is governed by hydrodynamic and elastic forces. The elastic forces are due to local inextensibility of the vesicle membrane and resistance to bending. Numerically resolving vesicle flows poses several challenges. For example, we need to resolve moving interfaces, address stiffness due to bending, enforce the inextensibility constraint, and efficiently compute the (non-negligible) long-range hydrodynamic interactions. Our method is based on the work of Rahimian et al. (2010) [33]. It is a boundary integral formulation of the Stokes equations coupled to the interface mass continuity and force balance. We extend the algorithms presented in that paper to increase the robustness of the method and enable simulations with concentrated suspensions. In particular, we propose a scheme in which both intra-vesicle and inter-vesicle interactions are treated semi-implicitly. In addition we use special integration for near-singular integrals and we introduce a spectrally accurate collision detection scheme. We test the proposed methodologies on both unconfined and confined flows for vesicles whose internal fluid may have a viscosity contrast with the bulk medium. Our experiments demonstrate the importance of treating both intra-vesicle and inter-vesicle interactions accurately.
Anatomy of the petroleum geology in Chukchi Sea basin: Two-dimensional simulation
Wei Zengpu; Lerche, I. )
1991-03-01
The Chukchi Sea basin is located offshore from the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). The petroleum exploration history of the Chukchi Sea basin goes back to 1969. Although several wells were drilled, none of them revealed encouraging amounts of oil and gas accumulations. Exploration efforts have been limited mainly to geophysical exploratory work. Increasing recent interest in this area has led to a basin analysis study using available data acquired over the past two decades, in relation to petroleum evolution. This study applies a two-dimensional computer simulation model to the Chukchi Sea basin. An automatic procedure, termed dynamical tomography, uses available measured data to search for the best parameters within a specified range. In an integrated manner the model then simulates (1) geohistory and structural development, (2) thermal history, and (3) organic matter evolution. The outputs include both data tables and plots (in both one and two dimensions). These outputs provide detailed information on the spatial evolution with time of fluid pressure, formation temperature, thermal indicator indices (like Waples' TTI and vitrinite reflectance), porosity, and hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation. In this way the hydrocarbon proneness of various parts of the basin can be evaluated.
GPU-based simulation of the two-dimensional unstable structure of gaseous oblique detonations
Teng, H.H.; Kiyanda, C.B.; Ng, H.D.; Morgan, G.H.; Nikiforakis, N.
2015-03-10
In this paper, the two-dimensional structure of unstable oblique detonations induced by the wedge from a supersonic combustible gas flow is simulated using the reactive Euler equations with a one-step Arrhenius chemistry model. A wide range of activation energy of the combustible mixture is considered. Computations are performed on the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) to reduce the simulation runtimes. A large computational domain covered by a uniform mesh with high grid resolution is used to properly capture the development of instabilities and the formation of different transverse wave structures. After the initiation point, where the oblique shock transits into a detonation, an instability begins to manifest and in all cases, the left-running transverse waves first appear, followed by the subsequent emergence of right-running transverse waves forming the dual-head triple point structure. This study shows that for low activation energies, a long computational length must be carefully considered to reveal the unstable surface due to the slow growth rate of the instability. For high activation energies, the flow behind the unstable oblique detonation features the formation of unburnt gas pockets and strong vortex-pressure wave interaction resulting in a chaotic-like vortical structure.
Two-dimensional simulations of explosive eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other submarine volcanos
Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, R. P.; Mader, Charles L.; Gittings, M. L.
2004-01-01
Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.
Ito, Hironobu; Jo, Ju-Yeon; Tanimura, Yoshitaka
2015-01-01
Recent developments in two-dimensional (2D) THz-Raman and 2D Raman spectroscopies have created the possibility for quantitatively investigating the role of many dynamic and structural aspects of the molecular system. We explain the significant points for properly simulating 2D vibrational spectroscopic studies of intermolecular modes using the full molecular dynamics approach, in particular, regarding the system size, the treatment of the thermostat, and inclusion of an Ewald summation for the induced polarizability. Moreover, using the simulation results for water employing various polarization functions, we elucidate the roles of permanent and induced optical properties in determining the 2D profiles of the signal. PMID:26798823
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finn, Justin; Shams, Ehsan; Apte, Sourabh V.
2011-02-01
Simulations of bubble entrainment and interactions with two dimensional vortical flows are preformed using a discrete element model. In this Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, solution to the carrier phase is obtained using direct numerical simulation whereas motion of subgrid bubbles is modeled using Lagrangian tracking. The volumetric displacement of the fluid by the finite size of the bubbles is modeled along with interphase momentum-exchange for a realistic coupling of the bubbles to the carrier phase. In order to assess the importance of this volumetric coupling effect, even at low overall volume loading, simulations of a small number of microbubbles entrained in a traveling vortex tube are studied in detail. The test case resembles the experiments conducted by Sridhar and Katz [JFM, 1999] on bubble entrainment in vortex rings. It is shown that under some conditions, the entrainment of eight small bubbles, 1100 μm or less in diameter, result in significant levels of vortex distortion when modeled using the volumetric coupling effect. Neglecting these effects, however, does not result in any vortex distortion due to entrained bubbles. The nondimensionalized vortex strength versus bubble settling locations are compared with experimental data to show collapse of the data along the trends observed in experiments only when the volumetric effects are modeled. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of this distortion observed with volumetric coupling are made using three methods; bubble induced vortex asymmetry, relative change in the decay of angular momentum, and relative change in the peak vorticity. It is found that in all cases the volumetric effects result in a relative increase of the vortex decay rate. The concept of a relative reaction force, defined as the ratio of net bubble to fluid reaction to the local driving force of the vortex, is introduced to analyze this effect. It is shown that the global increases in vortex decay rate are directly proportional to the magnitude of this highly local relative reaction force.
Forced Reconnection in the Near Magnetotail: Onset and Energy Conversion in PIC and MHD Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birn, J.; Hesse, Michael
2014-01-01
Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) together with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Q1 simulations of magnetotail dynamics, we investigate the evolution toward onset of reconnection and the subsequent energy transfer and conversion. In either case, reconnection onset is preceded by a driven phase, during which magnetic flux is added to the tail at the high-latitude boundaries, followed by a relaxation phase, during which the configuration continues to respond to the driving. The boundary deformation leads to the formation of thin embedded current sheets, which are bifurcated in the near tail, converging to a single sheet farther out in the MHD simulations. The thin current sheets in the PIC simulation are carried by electrons and are associated with a strong perpendicular electrostatic field, which may provide a connection to parallel potentials and auroral arcs and an ionospheric signal even prior to the onset of reconnection. The PIC simulation very well satisfies integral entropy conservation (intrinsic to ideal MHD) during this phase, supporting ideal ballooning stability. Eventually, the current intensification leads to the onset of reconnection, the formation and ejection of a plasmoid, and a collapse of the inner tail. The earthward flow shows the characteristics of a dipolarization front: enhancement of Bz, associated with a thin vertical electron current sheet in the PIC simulation. Both MHD and PIC simulations show a dominance of energy conversion from incoming Poynting flux to outgoing enthalpy flux, resulting in heating of the inner tail. Localized Joule dissipation plays only a minor role.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhiming; Hao, Yanpeng; Yang, Lin; Han, Yongxia; Li, Licheng
2015-12-01
A two-dimensional (2D) fluid model is presented to investigate the spatiotemporal generation and dynamic mechanics of dielectric barrier columnar discharges in atmospheric helium. The model was examined with discharge currents measured in experiments and images taken by an intensified charge couple device camera. Based on the model, a columnar discharge was simulated for several cycles after being ignited. The discharge could be regarded as an initial unstable stage for the first three and a half cycles, then a steady state for the following cycles. In the initial stage, the discharge evolves from a uniform pattern into a columnar one. The calculated equipotential lines, 2D radial electric field, and electron density distributions at the edge of uniform discharges show the radial electric field accounts for the shrinking discharge area and the formation of discharge columns in the end. The columnar glow discharges and the Townsend discharges beyond the columns could coexist in the initial stage, and a Townsend discharge might develop into a new glow column in the next half-cycle. The radial electric field surrounding a glow discharge column has an inhibiting effect on the ionization in the peripheral area.
Simulation of Anderson localization in two-dimensional ultracold gases for pointlike disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morong, W.; DeMarco, B.
2015-08-01
Anderson localization has been observed for a variety of media, including ultracold atomic gases with speckle disorder in one and three dimensions. However, observation of Anderson localization in a two-dimensional geometry for ultracold gases has been elusive. We show that a cause of this difficulty is the relatively high percolation threshold of a speckle potential in two dimensions, resulting in strong classical localization. We propose a realistic pointlike disorder potential that circumvents this percolation limit with localization lengths that are experimentally observable. The percolation threshold is evaluated for experimentally realistic parameters, and a regime of negligible classical trapping is identified. Localization lengths are determined via scaling theory, using both exact scattering cross sections and the Born approximation, and by direct simulation of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We show that the Born approximation can underestimate the localization length by four orders of magnitude at low energies, while exact cross sections and scaling theory provide an upper bound. Achievable experimental parameters for observing localization in this system are proposed.
Two-dimensional simulation of organic bulk heterojunction solar cell: influence of the morphology.
Raba, Adam; Cordan, Anne-Sophie; Leroy, Yann
2013-07-01
Recent developments in organic solar cells show interesting power conversion efficiencies. However, with the use of organic semiconductors and bulk heterojunction cells, many new concepts have to be introduced to understand their characteristics. Only few models investigate these new concepts, and most of them are one-dimensional only. In this work, we present a two-dimensional model based on solving the drift-diffusion equations. The model describes the generation of excitons in the donor phase of the active layer and their diffusion towards an interface between the two separate acceptor and donor domains. Then, when the exciton reaches the interface, it forms a charge transfer state which can split into free charges due to the internal potential. Finally, these free charges are transported toward the electrodes within their respective domains (electrons in acceptor domain, holes in donor domain) before being extracted. In this model, we can follow the distribution of each species and link it to the physical processes taken into account. Using the finite element method to solve the equations of the model, we simulate the effect of the bulk heterojunction morphology on photocurrent curves. We concentrate on the morphology parameters such as the mean acceptor/donor domain sizes and the roughness of,the interface between the donor and acceptor domains. Results are discussed in relation with experimental observations. PMID:23901547
Formation of polar stratospheric clouds simulated in a two dimensional model of the atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Visconti, Guido; Pitari, Giovanni
1988-01-01
A microphysics code has been implemented in a two dimensional model of the atmosphere to study formation of polar stratospheric clouds containing HCl or HNO3. The model range is from pole to pole in latitude and from the ground to about 20 km in altitude. Resolution in latitude is 10 deg and about 0.8 km in altitude. This is an Eulerian model with prescribed eddy diffusion coefficients and the circulation obtained from observations. The chemistry of the model follows the family approach for NO(x), Cl(x) and HO(x) while the ozone is fixed and changed seasonally. The aerosol code is based on an assigned population of condensation, coagulation and sedimentation. Aerosol growth is simulated in nine different size bins ranging between 0.01u and 2.56u. The model has been built to study aerosol layers formation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and has been validated for sulfate aerosol resulting from a rather complex sulfur chemistry.
Kato, Tsunehiko N.; Takabe, Hideaki
2010-03-15
A two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation with the realistic ion-to-electron mass ratio of 1836 is carried out to investigate the electrostatic collisionless shocks in relatively high-speed (approx3000 km s{sup -1}) plasma flows and also the influence of both electrostatic and electromagnetic instabilities, which can develop around the shocks, on the shock dynamics. It is shown that the electrostatic ion-ion instability can develop in front of the shocks, where the plasma is under counterstreaming condition, with highly oblique wave vectors as was shown previously. The electrostatic potential generated by the electrostatic ion-ion instability propagating obliquely to the shock surface becomes comparable with the shock potential and finally the shock structure is destroyed. It is also shown that in front of the shock the beam-Weibel instability gradually grows as well, consequently suggesting that the magnetic field generated by the beam-Weibel instability becomes important in long-term evolution of the shock and the Weibel-mediated shock forms long after the electrostatic shock vanished. It is also observed that the secondary electrostatic shock forms in the reflected ions in front of the primary electrostatic shock.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ota, Keigo; Suzuki, Kosuke; Inamuro, Takaji
2012-08-01
Two-dimensional (2D) symmetric flapping flight is investigated by an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM). In this method, we can treat the moving boundary problem efficiently on the Cartesian grid. We consider a model consisting of 2D symmetric flapping wings without mass connected by a hinge with mass. Firstly, we investigate the effect of the Reynolds number in the range of 40-200 on flows around symmetric flapping wings under no gravity field and find that for high Reynolds numbers (Re ⩾ 55), asymmetric vortices with respect to the horizontal line appear and the time-averaged lift force is induced on the wings, whereas for low Reynolds numbers (Re ⩽ 50), only symmetric vortices appear around the wings and no lift force is induced. Secondly, the effect of the initial position of the wings is investigated, and the range of the initial phases where the upward flight is possible is found. The effects of the mass and flapping amplitude are also studied. Finally, we carry out free flight simulations under gravity field for various Reynolds numbers in the range 60 ⩽ Re ⩽ 300 and Froude numbers in the range 3 ⩽ Fr ⩽ 60 and identify the region where upward flight is possible.
Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Casanova, M.; Loiseau, P.; Rozmus, W.; Peng, Z.; Pesme, D.; Hueller, S.; Chapman, T.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.
2010-09-15
In the following work, we analyze one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) full particle-in-cell simulations of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and study the evolution of Langmuir waves (LWs) in the kinetic regime. It is found that SRS reflectivity becomes random due to a nonlinear frequency shift and that the transverse modulations of LWs are induced by (i) the Weibel instability due to the current of trapped particles and (ii) the trapped particle modulational instability (TPMI) [H. Rose, Phys. Plasmas 12, 12318 (2005)]. Comparisons between 1D and 2D cases indicate that the nonlinear frequency shift is responsible for the first saturation of SRS. After this transient interval of first saturation, 2D effects become important: a strong side-scattering of the light, caused by these transverse modulations of the LW and the presence of a nonlinear frequency shift, is observed together with a strong transverse diffusion. This leads to an increase of the Landau damping rate of the LW, contributing to the limiting of Raman backscattering. A model is developed that reproduces the transverse evolution of the magnetic field due to trapped particles. Based on a simple 1D hydrodynamic model, the growth rate for the Weibel instability of the transverse electrostatic mode and magnetic field is estimated and found to be close to the TPMI growth rate [H. Rose et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 042311 (2008)].
Zhao, Yinghe; Wu, Qisheng; Chen, Qian; Wang, Jinlan
2015-11-19
van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy of ultrathin organic films on two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals has become a sovereign area because of their unique advantages in organic electronic devices. However, the dynamic mechanism of the self-assembly remains elusive. Here, we visualize the nanoscale self-assembly of organic molecules on graphene and boron nitride monolayer from a disordered state to a 2D lattice via molecular dynamics simulation for the first time. It is revealed that the assembly toward 2D ordered structures is essentially the minimization of the molecule-molecule interaction, that is, the vdW interaction in nonpolar systems and the vdW and Coulomb interactions in polar systems that are the decisive factors for the formation of the 2D ordering. The role of the substrate is mainly governing the array orientation of the adsorbates. The mechanisms unveiled here are generally applicable to a broad class of organic thin films via vdW epitaxy. PMID:26523464
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Go; Saito, Jun-ichi; Fujita, Yusuke; Tabe, Yuka
2013-08-01
We have carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for monolayers of smectic A and C liquid crystal (LC) phases in order to investigate the in-plane molecular diffusion from the microscopic point of view. In contrast to similar complex two-dimensional systems (e.g., biomembranes) whose molecular diffusion is anomalous, in-plane mean square displacements (MSDs) for both phases increase linearly with passing time similar to typical fluids on the nanosecond time scale. By following the relation between the diffusion and the viscosity in the fluids, we estimated the viscosity coefficients for both LC monolayers, and the obtained values indicate that the smectic A monolayer has a higher viscosity than the smectic C one. Moreover, we investigate the in-plane self-diffusion anisotropy D\\|/D\\bot for smectic C and found that the diffusion parallel to the molecular tilt is 1.5 times larger than that in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropic diffusion property in the smectic C monolayer has not been clearly confirmed thus far.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL BLAST-WAVE-DRIVEN RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY: EXPERIMENT AND SIMULATION
Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Harding, E. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Robey, H. F.; Remington, B. A.; Edwards, M. J.; Miles, A. R.; Perry, T. S.; Blue, B. E.; Plewa, T.; Hearn, N. C.; Arnett, D.; Leibrandt, D. R.
2009-05-01
This paper shows results from experiments diagnosing the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability with two-dimensional initial conditions at an embedded, decelerating interface. Experiments are performed at the Omega Laser and use {approx}5 kJ of energy to create a planar blast wave in a dense, plastic layer that is followed by a lower density foam layer. The single-mode interface has a wavelength of 50 {mu}m and amplitude of 2.5 {mu}m. Some targets are supplemented with additional modes. The interface is shocked then decelerated by the foam layer. This initially produces the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability followed and then dominated by Rayleigh-Taylor growth that quickly evolves into the nonlinear regime. The experimental conditions are scaled to be hydrodynamically similar to SN1987A in order to study the instabilities that are believed to occur at the He/H interface during the blast-wave-driven explosion phase of the star. Simulations of the experiment were performed using the FLASH hydrodynamics code.
Simulation of a two-dimensional model for colloids in a uniaxial electric field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almudallal, Ahmad M.; Saika-Voivod, Ivan
2011-07-01
We perform Monte Carlo simulations of a simplified two-dimensional model for colloidal hard spheres in an external uniaxial ac electric field. Experimentally, the external field induces dipole moments in the colloidal particles, which in turn form chains. We therefore approximate the system as composed of well-formed chains of dipolar hard spheres of a uniform length. The dipolar interaction between colloidal spheres gives rise to an effective interaction between the chains, which we treat as disks in a plane, that includes a short-range attraction and long-range repulsion. Hence, the system favors finite clustering over bulk phase separation, and indeed we observe at low temperature and density that the system does form a cluster phase. As the density increases, percolation is accompanied by a pressure anomaly. The percolated phase, despite being composed of connected, locally crystalline domains, does not bear the typical signatures of a hexatic phase. At very low densities, we find no indication of a “void phase” with a cellular structure seen recently in experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reith, Daniel; Bucior, Katarzyna; Yelash, Leonid; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt
2012-03-01
As a generic model system for phase separation in polymer solutions, a coarse-grained model for hexadecane/carbon dioxide mixtures has been studied in two-dimensional geometry. Both the phase diagram in equilibrium (obtained from a finite size scaling analysis of Monte Carlo data) and the kinetics of state changes caused by pressure jumps (studied by large scale molecular dynamics simulations) are presented. The results are compared to previous work where the same model was studied in three-dimensional geometry and under confinement in slit geometry. For deep quenches the characteristic length scale ℓ(t) of the formed domains grows with time t according to a power law close to \\ell (t)\\propto \\sqrt{t}. Since in this problem both the polymer density ρp and the solvent density ρs matter, the time evolution of the density distribution PL(ρp,ρs,t) in L × L subboxes of the system is also analyzed. It is found that in the first stage of phase separation the system separates locally into low density carbon dioxide regions that contain no polymers and regions of high density polymer melt that are supersaturated with this solvent. The further coarsening proceeds via the growth of domains of rather irregular shapes. A brief comparison of our findings with results of other models is given.
Simulated two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of the eight-bacteriochlorophyll FMO complex
Yeh, Shu-Hao; Kais, Sabre
2014-12-21
The Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein-pigment complex acts as a molecular wire conducting energy between the outer antenna system and the reaction center; it is an important photosynthetic system to study the transfer of excitonic energy. Recent crystallographic studies report the existence of an additional (eighth) bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) in some of the FMO monomers. To understand the functionality of this eighth BChl, we simulated the two-dimensional electronic spectra of both the 7-site (apo form) and the 8-site (holo form) variant of the FMO complex from green sulfur bacteria, Prosthecochloris aestuarii. By comparing the spectrum, it was found that the eighth BChl can affect two different excitonic energy transfer pathways: (1) it is directly involved in the first apo form pathway (6 → 3 → 1) by passing the excitonic energy to exciton 6; and (2) it facilitates an increase in the excitonic wave function overlap between excitons 4 and 5 in the second pathway (7 → 4,5 → 2 → 1) and thus increases the possible downward sampling routes across the BChls.
Large Eddy Simulation of a turbulent flow in two dimensional dunes using an immersed boundary method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agegnehu, Getnet; Smith, Heather D.
2013-11-01
The flow over dunes separates at the crest, generating a shear layer which has a big role for energy dissipation and formation of coherent structures. Large Eddy Simulations using bodyfitted and immersed boundary grids are performed to study the detailed flow dynamics that occurs in a fixed two dimensional dunes. We used a three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic solver; OpenFOAM for this study. The immersed boundary method was implemented using a discrete forcing approach with direct imposition of the boundary conditions. A periodic boundary condition is imposed in both the streamwise and spanwise directions. No-slip and free slip conditions are applied for the bottom and top walls respectively. The flow is forced with a pressure gradient which yields the mean velocity. The numerical results have been quantitatively compared with an experimental data for the mean flow and turbulence profiles. Resolved streamwise velocity profiles from both the immersed boundary and bodyfitted grids are in a good agreement with the experimental data. A good correlation of turbulent intensities and instantaneous flow fields are also observed between the two methods. It is also shown that the numerical model overestimates the vertical velocity profiles in the leeward side of the dune.
MHD Simulation of Plasma Flow through the VASIMR Magnetic Nozzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarditi, A. G.; Shebalin, J. V.
2003-10-01
The VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket, [1]) concept is currently in the experimental development phase at the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center. The current experimental effort is mainly focused on the demonstration of the efficient plasma production (light ion helicon source, [2]) and energy boosting (ion cyclotron resonance heating section). Two other critical issues, the plasma detachment process and the collimation of the plasma plume in the magnetic nozzle, are essential for the near term experimental development and are being addressed through an MHD simulation modeling effort with the NIMROD code [3,4]. The model follows the plasma flow up to few meters from the nozzle throat: at that distance the plasma exhaust parameters reach values comparable with the ionospheric plasma background [5]. Results from two-dimensional simulation runs (cylindrical geometry, assuming azimuthal symmetry) aimed in particular at testing the effectiveness of different open-end boundary condition schemes are presented. [1] F. R. Chang-Diaz, Scientific American, p. 90, Nov. 2000 [2] M. D. Carter, et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 5097-5110, 2002 [3] http://www.nimrodteam.org [4] A. Tarditi et al., 28th Int. Electric Propulsion Conf., IEPC 2003, Toulouse, France, March 2003 [5] A. V. Ilin et al., Proc. 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, Jan. 2002
Caillol, Jean-Michel
2015-04-21
We present two methods for solving the electrostatics of point charges and multipoles on the surface of a sphere, i.e., in the space S{sub 2}, with applications to numerical simulations of two-dimensional (2D) polar fluids. In the first approach, point charges are associated with uniform neutralizing backgrounds to form neutral pseudo-charges, while in the second, one instead considers bi-charges, i.e., dumbells of antipodal point charges of opposite signs. We establish the expressions of the electric potentials of pseudo- and bi-charges as isotropic solutions of the Laplace-Beltrami equation in S{sub 2}. A multipolar expansion of pseudo- and bi-charge potentials leads to the electric potentials of mono- and bi-multipoles, respectively. These potentials constitute non-isotropic solutions of the Laplace-Beltrami equation, the general solution of which in spherical coordinates is recast under a new appealing form. We then focus on the case of mono- and bi-dipoles and build the theory of dielectric media in S{sub 2}. We notably obtain the expression of the static dielectric constant of a uniform isotropic polar fluid living in S{sub 2} in terms of the polarization fluctuations of subdomains of S{sub 2}. We also derive the long range behavior of the equilibrium pair correlation function under the assumption that it is governed by macroscopic electrostatics. These theoretical developments find their application in Monte Carlo simulations of the 2D fluid of dipolar hard spheres. Some preliminary numerical experiments are discussed with a special emphasis on finite size effects, a careful study of the thermodynamic limit, and a check of the theoretical predictions for the asymptotic behavior of the pair correlation function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caillol, Jean-Michel
2015-04-01
We present two methods for solving the electrostatics of point charges and multipoles on the surface of a sphere, i.e., in the space S 2 , with applications to numerical simulations of two-dimensional (2D) polar fluids. In the first approach, point charges are associated with uniform neutralizing backgrounds to form neutral pseudo-charges, while in the second, one instead considers bi-charges, i.e., dumbells of antipodal point charges of opposite signs. We establish the expressions of the electric potentials of pseudo- and bi-charges as isotropic solutions of the Laplace-Beltrami equation in S 2 . A multipolar expansion of pseudo- and bi-charge potentials leads to the electric potentials of mono- and bi-multipoles, respectively. These potentials constitute non-isotropic solutions of the Laplace-Beltrami equation, the general solution of which in spherical coordinates is recast under a new appealing form. We then focus on the case of mono- and bi-dipoles and build the theory of dielectric media in S 2 . We notably obtain the expression of the static dielectric constant of a uniform isotropic polar fluid living in S 2 in terms of the polarization fluctuations of subdomains of S 2 . We also derive the long range behavior of the equilibrium pair correlation function under the assumption that it is governed by macroscopic electrostatics. These theoretical developments find their application in Monte Carlo simulations of the 2D fluid of dipolar hard spheres. Some preliminary numerical experiments are discussed with a special emphasis on finite size effects, a careful study of the thermodynamic limit, and a check of the theoretical predictions for the asymptotic behavior of the pair correlation function.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, E. L.; Jackman, C. H.; Stolarski, R. S.; Considine, D. B.
1998-01-01
We have developed a new empirically-based transport algorithm for use in our GSFC two-dimensional transport and chemistry model. The new algorithm contains planetary wave statistics, and parameterizations to account for the effects due to gravity waves and equatorial Kelvin waves. As such, this scheme utilizes significantly more information compared to our previous algorithm which was based only on zonal mean temperatures and heating rates. The new model transport captures much of the qualitative structure and seasonal variability observed in long lived tracers, such as: isolation of the tropics and the southern hemisphere winter polar vortex; the well mixed surf-zone region of the winter sub-tropics and mid-latitudes; the latitudinal and seasonal variations of total ozone; and the seasonal variations of mesospheric H2O. The model also indicates a double peaked structure in methane associated with the semiannual oscillation in the tropical upper stratosphere. This feature is similar in phase but is significantly weaker in amplitude compared to the observations. The model simulations of carbon-14 and strontium-90 are in good agreement with observations, both in simulating the peak in mixing ratio at 20-25 km, and the decrease with altitude in mixing ratio above 25 km. We also find mostly good agreement between modeled and observed age of air determined from SF6 outside of the northern hemisphere polar vortex. However, observations inside the vortex reveal significantly older air compared to the model. This is consistent with the model deficiencies in simulating CH4 in the northern hemisphere winter high latitudes and illustrates the limitations of the current climatological zonal mean model formulation. The propagation of seasonal signals in water vapor and CO2 in the lower stratosphere showed general agreement in phase, and the model qualitatively captured the observed amplitude decrease in CO2 from the tropics to midlatitudes. However, the simulated seasonal amplitudes were attenuated too rapidly with altitude in the tropics. Overall, the simulations with the new transport formulation are in substantially better agreement with observations compared with our previous model transport.
Two-dimensional fully dynamic SEM simulations of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake cycle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimizu, H.; Hirahara, K.
2014-12-01
Earthquake cycle simulations have been performed to successfully reproduce the historical earthquake occurrences. Most of them are quasi-dynamic, where inertial effects are approximated using the radiation damping proposed by Rice [1993]. Lapusta et al. [2000, 2009] developed a methodology capable of the detailed description of seismic and aseismic slip and gradual process of earthquake nucleation in the entire earthquake cycle. Their fully dynamic simulations have produced earthquake cycles considerably different from quasi-dynamic ones. Those simulations have, however, never been performed for interplate earthquakes at subduction zones. Many studies showed that on dipping faults such as interplate earthquakes at subduction zones, normal stress is changed during faulting due to the interaction with Earth's free surface. This change in normal stress not only affects the earthquake rupture process, but also causes the residual stress variation that might affect the long-term histories of earthquake cycle. Accounting for such effects, we perform two-dimensional simulations of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake cycle. Our model is in-plane and a laboratory derived rate and state friction acts on a dipping fault embedded on an elastic half-space that reaches the free surface. We extended the spectral element method (SEM) code [Ampuero, 2002] to incorporate a conforming mesh of triangles and quadrangles introduced in Komatitsch et al. [2001], which enables us to analyze the complex geometry with ease. The problem is solved by the methodology almost the same as Kaneko et al. [2011], which is the combined scheme switching in turn a fully dynamic SEM and a quasi-static SEM. The difference is the dip-slip thrust fault in our study in contrast to the vertical strike slip fault. With this method, we can analyze how the dynamic rupture with surface breakout interacting with the free surface affects the long-term earthquake cycle. We discuss the fully dynamic earthquake cycle results focusing on the differences from previous quasi-dynamic studies such as Kato and Yoshida [2011]. They proposed a shallow strong patch model to explain the observed huge coseismic slip at the shallow portion close to the Japan Trench and the long recurrence time of several hundreds.
A multiple type-II burst associated with a coronal transient and its MHD simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gergely, T. E.; Kundu, M. R.; Wu, S. T.; Dryer, M.; Smith, Z.; Stewart, R. T.
1984-01-01
A large coronal transient took place on May 8, 1981. The transient was related to an M7.7/2B flare and was associated with at least two coronal type-II bursts. The velocities of the type-II bursts were in the range 1100-1800 km/s, in excess of the transient velocity of 1000 km/s. Two dimensional positions of the type-II radio sources are available from both the Clark Lake and the Culgoora Radio Observatories. Two dimensional MHD simulations of the event are carried out, taking into account the observed velocity, position, and size of the type-II bursts. The multiple shocks observed during the event and their interaction are simulated, and results of the simulation are discussed.
Multiple type-II burst associated with a coronal transient and its MHD simulation
Gergely, T.E.; Kundu, M.R.; Wu, S.T.; Dryer, M.
1984-01-01
A large coronal transient took place on May 8, 1981. The transient was related to an M7.7/2B flare and was associated with at least two coronal type-II bursts. The velocities of the type-II bursts were in the range 1100-1800 km/s, in excess of the transient velocity of 1000 km/s. Two dimensional positions of the type-II radio sources are available from both the Clark Lake and the Culgoora Radio Observatories. Two dimensional MHD simulations of the event are carried out, taking into account the observed velocity, position, and size of the type-II bursts. The multiple shocks observed during the event and their interaction are simulated, and results of the simulation are discussed. 13 references.
Two-dimensional simulation of Pinatubo aerosol and its effect on stratospheric ozone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tie, Xuexi; Brasseur, Guy P.; Briegleb, Bruce; Granier, Claire
1994-01-01
This paper presents time-dependent simulations of the response of the stratosphere to the injection into the atmosphere of massive amounts of sulfur during the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (The Philippines) in June 1991. The study is based on a coupled two-dimensional chemical-dynamical-radiative model to which a microphysical model for sulfate aerosol formation and fate has been added. The study suggests that, during the first year (July 1991 to June 1992) following the volcanic eruption, the observed changes in the ozone amount integrated between 65 deg S and 65 deg N were caused primarily by changes in the meridional circulation (associated with heating by the volcanic cloud in the tropics) and in the photolysis rate of molecules such as ozone (associated with backscattering of light by the cloud). During the second year after the eruption, as the aerosol was dispersed at all latitudes and, in particular, reached the polar region, the largest contribution to ozone reduction resulted from the heterogeneous chemical conversion of N2O5 and ClONO2 on the surface of the aerosol particles. The conversion of the latter compound, and hence the magnitude of the calculated ozone depletion, is highly dependent on the temperature in the lower stratosphere. Despite the fact that the surface area provided by aerosol particles decreased during the second year following the eruption, the calculated ozone depletion remained significant because the conversion of N2O5 is insensitive to the aerosol surface area density for values larger than 1-10 sq microns/cu cm (depending on latitude). The predicted reduction in ozone at 20 km in March during the third year (July 1993 to June 1994) of the model integration is smaller by a factor of 2 than it was during the second year.
Computation and validation of two-dimensional PSF simulation based on physical optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tayabaly, K.; Spiga, D.; Sironi, G.; Canestrari, R.; Lavagna, M.; Pareschi, G.
2015-09-01
The Point Spread Function (PSF) is a key figure of merit for specifying the angular resolution of optical systems and, as the demand for higher and higher angular resolution increases, the problem of surface finishing must be taken seriously even in optical telescopes. From the optical design of the instrument, reliable ray-tracing routines allow computing and display of the PSF based on geometrical optics. However, such an approach does not directly account for the scattering caused by surface micro-roughness, which is interferential in nature. Although the scattering effect can be separately modeled, its inclusion in the ray-tracing routine requires assumptions that are difficult to verify. In that context, a purely physical optics approach is more appropriate as it remains valid regardless of the shape and size of the defects appearing on the optical surface. Such a computation, when performed in two-dimensional consideration, is memory and time consuming because it requires one to process a surface map with a few micron resolution, and the situation becomes even more complicated in case of optical systems characterized by more than one reflection. Fortunately, the computation is significantly simplified in far-field configuration, since the computation involves only a sequence of Fourier Transforms. In this paper, we provide validation of the PSF simulation with Physical Optics approach through comparison with real PSF measurement data in the case of ASTRI-SST M1 hexagonal segments. These results represent a first foundation stone for future development in a more advanced computation taking into account micro-roughness and multiple reflection in optical systems.
Two-dimensional network simulation of diffusion driven coarsening of foam inside a porous medium
Cohen, D.; Patzek, T.W.; Radke, C.J.
1996-04-01
In order to use foams in subsurface applications, it is necessary to understand their stability in porous media. Diffusion driven coarsening of a stationary or nonflowing foam in a porous medium results in changing gas pressures and a coarsening of the foam texture. A two-dimensional network simulation has been created that predicts the behavior of foam in a porous medium by physically specifying the locations of all the lamellae in the system and by solving the complete set of Young-Laplace and diffusion equations. An hourglass approximates the shape of the pores, and the pore walls are considered to be highly water wet. A singularity arises in the system of differential algebraic equations due to the curvature of the pore walls. This singularity is a signal that the system must undergo oscillations or sudden lamellar rearrangements before the diffusion process can continue. Newton-Raphson iteration is used along with Keller`s method of arc-length continuation and a new jump resolution technique to locate and resolve bifurcations in the system of coupled lamellae. Gas bubbles in pore throats are regions of encapsulated pressure. As gas is released from these bubbles during diffusion, the pressure of the bubbles in the pore bodies increases. When the pressure increase is scaled by the characteristic Young-Laplace pressure, the equilibrium time for the diffusion process is scaled by the ratio of the square of the characteristic length to the gas diffusivity and two dimensionless groups. One describes the ease with which gas can diffuse through a lamella, the second represents the amount of gas encapsulated within the pore throats initially. Given this scaling, the resulting plots of pressure versus time and normalized lamellae positions versus time are universal for all system sizes and characteristics. This is true as long as the initial lamella distribution is the same in each case.
Two-dimensional simulation of Pinatubo aerosol and its effect on stratospheric ozone
Tie, X.; Brasseur, G.P.; Briegleb, B.; Granier, C.
1994-10-01
This paper presents time-dependent simulations of the response of the stratosphere to the injection into the atmosphere of massive amounts of sulfur during the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (The Philippines) in June 1991. The study is based on a coupled two-dimensional chemical-dynamical-radiative model to which a microphysical model for sulfate aerosol formation and fate has been added. The study suggests that, during the first year (July 1991 to June 1992) following the volcanic eruption, the observed changes in the ozone amount integrated between 65 deg S and 65 deg N were caused primarily by changes in the meridional circulation (associated with heating by the volcanic cloud in the tropics) and in the photolysis rate of molecules such as ozone (associated with backscattering of light by the cloud). During the second year after the eruption, as the aerosol was dispersed at all latitudes and, in particular, reached the polar region, the largest contribution to ozone reduction resulted from the heterogeneous chemical conversion of N2O5 and ClONO2 on the surface of the aerosol particles. The conversion of the latter compound, and hence the magnitude of the calculated ozone depletion, is highly dependent on the temperature in the lower stratosphere. Despite the fact that the surface area provided by aerosol particles decreased during the second year following the eruption, the calculated ozone depletion remained significant because the conversion of N2O5 is insensitive to the aerosol surface area density for values larger than 1-10 sq microns/cu cm (depending on latitude). The predicted reduction in ozone at 20 km in March during the third year (July 1993 to June 1994) of the model integration is smaller by a factor of 2 than it was during the second year.
Numerical simulation of two-dimensional single- and multiple-material flow fields
Lopez, A.R.; Baty, R.S. ); Kashiwa, B.A. )
1992-01-01
Over the last several years, Sandia National Laboratories has had an interest in developing capabilities to predict the flow fields around vehicles entering or exiting the water at a wide range of speeds. Such prediction schemes have numerous engineering applications in the design of weapon systems. For example, such a scheme could be used to predict the forces and moments experienced by an air-launched anti-submarine weapon on water-entry. Furthermore, a water-exit prediction capability could be used to model the complicated surface closure jet resulting from a missile being shot out of the water. The CCICE (Cell-Centered Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was chosen to provide the fluid dynamics solver for high speed water-entry and water-exit problems. This implicit time-marching, two-dimensional, conservative, finite-volume code solves the multi-material, compressible, inviscid fluid dynamics equations. The incompressible version of the CCICE code, CCMAC (cell-Centered Marker and Cell), was chosen for low speed water- entry and water-exit problems in order to reduce the computational expense. These codes were chosen to take advantage of certain advances in numerical methods for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) that have taken place at LANL. Notable among these advances is the ability to perform implicit, multi-material, compressible flow simulations, with a fully cell-centered data structure. This means that a single set of control volumes are used, on which a discrete form of the conservation laws is satisfied. This is in control to the more classical staggered mesh methods, in which separate control volumes are defined for mass and momentum. 12 refs.
Numerical simulation of two-dimensional single- and multiple-material flow fields
Lopez, A.R.; Baty, R.S.; Kashiwa, B.A.
1992-03-01
Over the last several years, Sandia National Laboratories has had an interest in developing capabilities to predict the flow fields around vehicles entering or exiting the water at a wide range of speeds. Such prediction schemes have numerous engineering applications in the design of weapon systems. For example, such a scheme could be used to predict the forces and moments experienced by an air-launched anti-submarine weapon on water-entry. Furthermore, a water-exit prediction capability could be used to model the complicated surface closure jet resulting from a missile being shot out of the water. The CCICE (Cell-Centered Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was chosen to provide the fluid dynamics solver for high speed water-entry and water-exit problems. This implicit time-marching, two-dimensional, conservative, finite-volume code solves the multi-material, compressible, inviscid fluid dynamics equations. The incompressible version of the CCICE code, CCMAC (cell-Centered Marker and Cell), was chosen for low speed water- entry and water-exit problems in order to reduce the computational expense. These codes were chosen to take advantage of certain advances in numerical methods for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) that have taken place at LANL. Notable among these advances is the ability to perform implicit, multi-material, compressible flow simulations, with a fully cell-centered data structure. This means that a single set of control volumes are used, on which a discrete form of the conservation laws is satisfied. This is in control to the more classical staggered mesh methods, in which separate control volumes are defined for mass and momentum. 12 refs.
Numerical simulation of two-dimensional single- and multiple-material flow fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, A. R.; Baty, R. S.; Kashiwa, B. A.
Over the last several years, Sandia National Laboratories has had an interest in developing capabilities to predict the flow fields around vehicles entering or exiting the water at a wide range of speeds. Such prediction schemes have numerous engineering applications in the design of weapon systems. For example, such a scheme could be used to predict the forces and moments experienced by an air launched antisubmarine weapon on water entry. Furthermore, a water exit prediction capability could be used to model the complicated surface closure jet resulting from a missile being shot out of the water. The CCICE (Cell-Centered Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was chosen to provide the fluid dynamics solver for high speed water entry and water exit problems. This implicit time marching, two dimensional, conservative, finite volume code solves the multi-material, compressible, inviscid fluid dynamics equations. The incompressible version of the CCICE code, CCMAC (Cell-Centered Marker and Cell), was chosen for low speed water entry and water exit problems in order to reduce the computational expense. These codes were chosen to take advantage of certain advances in numerical methods for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) that have taken place at LANL. Notable among these advances is the ability to perform implicit, multi-material, compressible flow simulations, with a fully cell-centered data structure. This means that a single set of control volumes are used, on which a discrete form of the conservation laws is satisfied. This is in control to the more classical staggered mesh methods, in which separate control volumes are defined for mass and momentum.
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of a two-dimensional Bose gas
Pilati, S.; Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.; Giorgini, S.
2005-02-01
The equation of state of a homogeneous two-dimensional Bose gas is calculated using quantum Monte Carlo methods. The low-density universal behavior is investigated using different interatomic model potentials, both finite ranged and strictly repulsive and zero ranged, supporting a bound state. The condensate fraction and the pair distribution function are calculated as a function of the gas parameter, ranging from the dilute to the strongly correlated regime. In the case of the zero-range pseudopotential we discuss the stability of the gaslike state for large values of the two-dimensional scattering length, and we calculate the critical density where the system becomes unstable against cluster formation.
Loinaz, W.; Willey, R.S.
1998-10-01
We perform a Monte Carlo simulation calculation of the critical coupling constant for the continuum two-dimensional ({lambda}/4){phi}{sup 4} theory. The critical coupling constant we obtain is [{lambda}/{mu}{sup 2}]{sub crit}=10.26{sub {minus}.04}{sup +.08}. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Jennifer G.; Nanda, S. K.
2006-08-01
SummaryRiver-training structures, such as spur dikes, are effective engineered methods used to protect banks and improve aquatic habitat. This paper reports the development and application of a two-dimensional depth-averaged hydrodynamic model to simulate suspended sediment concentration distribution in a groyne field. The governing equations of flow hydrodynamic model are depth-averaged two-dimensional Reynold's averaged momentum equations and continuity equation in which the density of sediment laden-flow varies with the concentration of suspended sediment. The depth-averaged two-dimensional convection and diffusion equation was solved to obtain the depth-averaged suspended sediment concentration. The source term is the difference between suspended sediment entrainment and deposition from bed surface. One laboratory experiment was chosen to verify the simulated flow field around a groyne, and the other to verify the suspended sediment concentration distribution in a meandering channel. Then, the model utility was demonstrated in a field case study focusing on the confluence of the Kankakee and Iroquois Rivers in Illinois, United States, to simulate the distribution of suspended sediment concentration around spur dikes. Results demonstrated that the depth-averaged, two-dimensional model can approximately simulate the flow hydrodynamic field and concentration of suspended sediment. Spur dikes can be used to effectively relocate suspended sediment in alluvial channels.
Solar Wind Turbulence from MHD to Sub-ion Scales: High-resolution Hybrid Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franci, Luca; Verdini, Andrea; Matteini, Lorenzo; Landi, Simone; Hellinger, Petr
2015-05-01
We present results from a high-resolution and large-scale hybrid (fluid electrons and particle-in-cell protons) two-dimensional numerical simulation of decaying turbulence. Two distinct spectral regions (separated by a smooth break at proton scales) develop with clear power-law scaling, each one occupying about a decade in wavenumbers. The simulation results simultaneously exhibit several properties of the observed solar wind fluctuations: spectral indices of the magnetic, kinetic, and residual energy spectra in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) inertial range along with a flattening of the electric field spectrum, an increase in magnetic compressibility, and a strong coupling of the cascade with the density and the parallel component of the magnetic fluctuations at sub-proton scales. Our findings support the interpretation that in the solar wind, large-scale MHD fluctuations naturally evolve beyond proton scales into a turbulent regime that is governed by the generalized Ohm’s law.
Po, Hoi Chun; Zhou, Qi
2015-01-01
Bosons have a natural instinct to condense at zero temperature. It is a long-standing challenge to create a high-dimensional quantum liquid that does not exhibit long-range order at the ground state, as either extreme experimental parameters or sophisticated designs of microscopic Hamiltonians are required for suppressing the condensation. Here we show that synthetic gauge fields for ultracold atoms, using either the Raman scheme or shaken lattices, provide physicists a simple and practical scheme to produce a two-dimensional algebraic quantum liquid at the ground state. This quantum liquid arises at a critical Lifshitz point, where a two-dimensional quartic dispersion emerges in the momentum space, and many fundamental properties of two-dimensional bosons are changed in its proximity. Such an ideal simulator of the quantum Lifshitz model allows experimentalists to directly visualize and explore the deconfinement transition of topological excitations, an intriguing phenomenon that is difficult to access in other systems. PMID:26268154
Two-Dimensional Simulation of Left-Handed Metamaterial Flat Lens Using Remcon XFDTD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Reinert, Jason M.
2006-01-01
Remcom's XFDTD software was used to model the properties of a two-dimensional left-handed metamaterial (LHM) flat lens. The focusing capability and attenuation of the material were examined. The results showed strong agreement with experimental results and theoretical predictions of focusing effects and focal length. The inherent attenuation in the model corresponds well with the experimental results and implies that the code does a reasonably accurate job of modeling the actual metamaterial.
Two-dimensional tsunami-dynamo simulations using the finite element method in the time domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minami, T.; Toh, H.
2013-12-01
Conductive seawater moving in the ocean generates an electromotive force. This effect is called 'Oceanic dynamo effect' and transient tsunamis are also involved in this effect. Toh et al. (2011) reported that the 2006 and 2007 Krill earthquake tsunami induced electromagnetic (EM) variations in the northwest Pacific. Manoj et al. (2011) and Suetsugu et al. (2012) also reported that seafloor EM observations detected tsunami passages. Motional induction due to tsunamis, hereafter called 'Tsunami Dynamo Effect', has been studied mainly in the frequency domain. For example, Larsen (1971) derived an analytical solution considering the conductivity structures and the self-induction term, while Sanford (1971) included effects of bathymetry. Recently, Tyler (2005) analytically expected that the vertical component of the tsunami-induced magnetic field has the same waveform and phase as those of the sea level change in deep oceans. Although these works in the frequency domain are very powerful and useful, they are not able to focus on transient properties of the Tsunami Dynamo Effect. For mitigation of tsunami disasters, it is very important to investigate effects due to the first arrival of tsunamis. We, therefore, developed a two-dimensional finite element (FEM) tsunami dynamo simulation code in the time domain to reproduce magnetic tsunami signals observed in the northwest Pacific at the time of the 2011 off the Tohoku earthquake. We adopted FEM with triangular mesh in order to include realistic bathymetry and arbitrary conductivity structures beneath the seafloor. For the time evolution, the Crank Nikolson method was adopted. As a result, our simulation succeeded in reproducing the magnetic tsunami signals, especially in terms of the first wave. It is noticeable that an initial rise in the horizontal magnetic component as large as 1 nT, parallel to the tsunami propagation direction and observed 5 minutes prior to the tsunami arrival, was also induced by the tsunami. We conducted additional numerical experiments to investigate the initial rise. We laid half-space homogeneous conductor beneath the flat seafloor with a depth of 5km and let a Gaussian waveform soliton propagate with a wave height of 1m and a horizontal extent of 100km. As we assigned 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1S/m to the conductivity beneath the seafloor, the peak of the initial rise became approximately 3, 2, <1, and ~0 nT, respectively. The initial rise, hence, vanished with the conductivity of 1S/m beneath the seafloor, because an induced current beneath the seafloor generated a horizontal magnetic field opposite to the initial rise. Our numerical results imply that this initial rise may enable us to detect the tsunami passage prior to the tsunami arrival itself under suitable conditions. In the presentation, we will report the initial rise in the horizontal magnetic component observed prior to the tsunami arrival and discuss its applicability to tsunami early warnings.
Understanding the cause of IV kink in GaAs MESFET`s with two-dimensional numerical simulations
Wilson, M.R.; Zdebel, P.; Wennekers, P.; Anholt, R.
1995-12-31
High performance GaAs MESFET`s have been observed to exhibit kinks in their IV characteristics, particularly when high drain-source voltages are applied. Such characteristics make the design of circuits with high operating voltages difficult since this type of IV anomaly is typically not modeled by circuit simulators. This work has identified the cause of these kinks through the use of two-dimensional numerical device simulation with impact ionization. These simulations have also identified a potential device solution to IV kink. Furthermore, the results of this simulation work were verified by comparison with fabricated devices.
Heat transfer coefficients in two-dimensional Yukawa systems (numerical simulations)
Khrustalyov, Yu. V. Vaulina, O. S.
2013-05-15
New data on heat transfer in two-dimensional Yukawa systems have been obtained. The results of a numerical study of the thermal conductivity for equilibrium systems with parameters close to the conditions of laboratory experiments in dusty plasma are presented. The Green-Kubo relations are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients. The influence of dissipation (internal friction) on the heat transfer processes in nonideal systems is studied. New approximations are proposed for the thermal conductivity and diffusivity for nonideal dissipative systems. The results obtained are compared with the existing experimental and numerical data.
Simulation and study of Fresnel diffraction for arbitrary two-dimensional apertures
Dauger, D.E.
1996-11-01
A stable, efficient algorithm to calculate numerically a Fresnel diffraction image, given any two-dimensional aperture or obstacle, is introduced. The algorithm predicts both the intensity and relative phase of the image. An alternate faster algorithm is presented for a limited class of apertures. Also examined are images formed from a variety of aperture shapes. Using this computational technique, plots on the complex plane are shown to give insight into Fresnel diffraction. With additional modifications to accept parameters from an experimental apparatus, the algorithms model Fresnel diffraction for laboratory situations. In addition, the algorithms are suitable for numerical implementation on personal computers. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komuro, Atsushi; Ono, Ryo
2014-04-01
Gas heating in an atmospheric-pressure streamer discharge was analysed by a two-dimensional streamer discharge simulation model describing internal molecular energy transfer. Our two-dimensional streamer simulation model incorporates concepts from the fast gas heating mechanism proposed by Popov (2011 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44 285201) and our self-developed state-to-state vibrational kinetics. In dry air, gas heating occurs mainly from electron-impact dissociation reactions of O2 molecules and from quenching processes of electronically excited N2(B 3?g, C 3?u) molecules and O(1D) atoms. In humid air, rapid vibration-to-translation transitions of H2O and the exothermicity of the OH formation reactions additionally increase the gas temperature. It is shown that gas heating during the discharge pulse increases with humidity.
Numerical simulation of the flow around two-dimensional partially cavitating hydrofoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Celik, Fahri; Ozden, Yasemin Arikan; Bal, Sakir
2014-09-01
In the present study, a new approach is applied to the cavity prediction for two-dimensional (2D) hydrofoils by the potential based boundary element method (BEM). The boundary element method is treated with the source and doublet distributions on the panel surface and cavity surface by the use of the Dirichlet type boundary conditions. An iterative solution approach is used to determine the cavity shape on partially cavitating hydrofoils. In the case of a specified cavitation number and cavity length, the iterative solution method proceeds by addition or subtraction of a displacement thickness on the cavity surface of the hydrofoil. The appropriate cavity shape is obtained by the dynamic boundary condition of the cavity surface and the kinematic boundary condition of the whole foil surface including the cavity. For a given cavitation number the cavity length of the 2D hydrofoil is determined according to the minimum error criterion among different cavity lengths, which satisfies the dynamic boundary condition on the cavity surface. The NACA 16006, NACA 16012 and NACA 16015 hydrofoil sections are investigated for two angles of attack. The results are compared with other potential based boundary element codes, the PCPAN and a commercial CFD code (FLUENT). Consequently, it has been shown that the results obtained from the two dimensional approach are consistent with those obtained from the others.
Mhamed, M. Cheikh; Lau, C.; Essabaa, S.
2008-02-15
To fulfill the need of a plasma ion source for SPIRAL-2 and EURISOL, capable of producing radioactive ion beams under strong radiation, the first prototype of the IRENA (Ionization by Radial Electrons Neat Adaptation) ion source has been designed. For designing an optimized prototype based on the first one, the influence of the geometrical parameters on the electron trajectories is investigated by means of two-dimensional/three-dimensional (3D) simulations. Due to the strong space charge effect in this kind of ion source, 3D simulations help particularly to better estimate effects on ion confinement and extraction. Simulation constructions will be presented and results discussed.
Numerical simulation model for the study of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) waves in a structured medium
Xiao, Y.
1988-01-01
This dissertation contains two basic parts: a formal development of a numerical simulation model for the study of MHD waves in a structured medium, and an application of the model to the investigation of the propagation of MHD waves in a magnetic slab and their interactions with nonmagnetic surroundings. The numerical model is a time-dependent, two-dimensional, and nonlinear MHD model with gravity and radiative energy loss. The corresponding numerical code is based on the newly developed SINIL (Semi-Implicit-Non-Iterative-Lagrangian) scheme. The MHD governing equations are discretized on a Lagrangian grid, using the control-volume method. The gas dynamic properties are solved explicitly, and the magnetic field is solved implicitly without using numerical iterations. Using this numerical model, three kinds of slab waves are studied, namely, kink type slab waves, sausage type slab waves, and kink-type single interface waves (which are considered as kink-type slab waves in the limit of infinite slab width). In this study, external acoustic waves can only be excited by internal body waves. The excitation of external acoustic waves represents the energy leakage from the internal magnetized region to the external field-free region.
Numerical simulations of Hall MHD small-scale dynamos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez, Daniel O.; Mininni, Pablo D.; Dmitruk, Pablo
2010-11-01
Much of the progress in our understanding of dynamo mechanisms, has been made within the theoretical framework of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). However, for sufficiently diffuse media, the Hall effect eventually becomes non-negligible. We present results from three dimensional simulations of the Hall-MHD equations subjected to random non-helical forcing. We study the role of the Hall effect in the dynamo efficiency for different values of the Hall parameter, using a pseudospectral code to achieve exponentially fast convergence.
Two-Dimensional Coupled Distributed Hydrologic-Hydraulic Model Simulation on Watershed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cea, Miguel; Rodriguez, Martin
2016-03-01
The objective of this work is to develop a coupled distributed model that enables to analyze water movement in watershed as well as analyze the rainfall-runoff. More specifically, it allows to estimate the various hydrologic water cycle variables at each point of the watershed. In this paper, we have carried out a coupled model of a distributed hydrological and two-dimensional hydraulic models. We have incorporated a hydrological rainfall-runoff model calculated by cell based on the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) method to the hydraulic model, leaving it for the hydraulic model (GUAD2D) to conduct the transmission to downstream cells. The goal of the work is demonstrate the improved predictive capability of the coupled Hydrological-Hydraulic models in a watershed.
Two-Dimensional Coupled Distributed Hydrologic-Hydraulic Model Simulation on Watershed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cea, Miguel; Rodriguez, Martin
2015-10-01
The objective of this work is to develop a coupled distributed model that enables to analyze water movement in watershed as well as analyze the rainfall-runoff. More specifically, it allows to estimate the various hydrologic water cycle variables at each point of the watershed. In this paper, we have carried out a coupled model of a distributed hydrological and two-dimensional hydraulic models. We have incorporated a hydrological rainfall-runoff model calculated by cell based on the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) method to the hydraulic model, leaving it for the hydraulic model (GUAD2D) to conduct the transmission to downstream cells. The goal of the work is demonstrate the improved predictive capability of the coupled Hydrological-Hydraulic models in a watershed.
Karavitis, G.A.
1984-01-01
The SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system is a large-scale digital modeling software system used to simulate flow and transport of solutes in freshwater and estuarine environments. Due to the size, processing requirements, and complexity of the system, there is a need to easily move the system and its associated files between computer sites when required. A series of job control language (JCL) procedures was written to allow transferability between IBM and IBM-compatible computers. (USGS)
Three Dimensional Simulations of Compressible Hall MHD Plasmas
Shaikh, Dastgeer; Shukla, P. K.
2008-10-15
We have developed three dimensional, time dependent, compressible, non-adiabatic, driven and massively parallelized Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate turbulent spectral cascades in a regime where characteristic lengthscales associated with plasma fluctuations are smaller than ion gyro radii. Such regime is ubiquitously present in solar wind and many other collisionless space plasmas. Particularly in the solar wind, the high time resolution databases identify a spectral break at the end of MHD inertial range spectrum that corresponds to a high frequency regime. In the regime, turbulent cascades cannot be explained by the usual MHD models. With the help of our 3D Hall MHD code, we find that characteristic turbulent interactions in the high frequency regime evolve typically on kinetic Alfven time scales. The turbulent fluctuation associated with kinetic Alfven interactions are compressive and anisotropic and possess equipartition of kinetic and magnetic energies.
Lymberopoulos, D.P.; Economou, D.J.
1995-07-01
Over the pst few years multidimensional self-consistent plasma simulations including complex chemistry have been developed which are promising tools for furthering the understanding of reactive gas plasmas and for reactor design and optimization. These simulations must be benchmarked against experimental data obtained in well-characterized systems such as the Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) reference cell. Two-dimensional simulations relevant to the GEC Cell are reviewed in this paper with emphasis on fluid simulations. Important features observed experimentally, such as off-axis maxima in the charge density and hot spots of metastable species density near the electrode edges in capacitively-coupled GEC cells, have been captured by these simulations. Glow discharge plasmas are used extensively in the processing of electronic materials especially for etching and deposition of thin films.
A two-dimensional dispersion module for the TOUGH2 simulator
Oldenburg, C.M.; Pruess, K.
1993-09-01
A standard model for hydrodynamic dispersion has been added to TOUGH2- The dispersion model, intended for use with the EOS7 fluid properties module, accounts for the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion and molecular diffusion in two-dimensional rectangular domains. Because the model.requires Darcy velocity and species concentration gradient vectors at all connections, known vector components (perpendicular to the grid block interfaces) from neighboring connections are interpolated to form the unknown components (parallel to the grid block interfaces) at each connection. Thus the dispersive fluxes depend not only on the primary variables of the two connected grid blocks but on all p variables of the six neighbor grid blocks of each interface. This gives rise to added terms in the Jacobian matrix relative to standard TOUGH2 where fluxes depend only on primary variables in the two connected grid blocks. For flexibility in implementing boundary conditions, the model allows the user to define a flow domain that is a subset of the calculation domain. The PARAM and SELEC blocks of the TOUGH2 input file are used to specify parameters and boundary condition options for the dispersion module. The dispersion module has been verified by comparing computed results to analytical solutions. As an introduction to applications, we demonstrate the solution of a difficult twodimensional flow problem with variable salinity and strong coupling between dispersive and advective flow.
Two dimensional self-consistent fluid simulation of rf inductive sources
DiPeso, G.; Vahedi, V.; Hewett, D.W.; Rognlien, T.D.
1993-11-17
The two-dimensional (R - Z) electromagnetic code FMRZ has been written to model inductive sources self-consistently in time. The code models an argon plasma with momentum-transfer, excitation and ionization as electron-neutral reactions and scattering and charge-exchange for the ion-neutral reactions. The electrons and ions are treated as Maxwellian fluid species and a reduced set of Maxwell`s equations is used to advance the electromagnetic fields. The set of equations used in FMRZ is not subject to typical numerical constraints present in many time dynamic codes allowing one to choose appropriate the and space scales to resolve only the frequencies and scale lengths of interest. The model retains nonlinear driving terms which give rise to a pondermotive force that distorts the density profile. Density and power profiles will be used to illustrate the physical effects of various terms in the equations. Trends in average density and temperature compare well with an analytic model.
Hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell simulations of two-dimensional turbulence in plasmas
Valentini, F.; Servidio, S.; Veltri, P.; Perrone, D.; Califano, F.; Matthaeus, W. H.
2014-08-15
Turbulence in plasmas is a very challenging problem since it involves wave-particle interactions, which are responsible for phenomena such as plasma dissipation, acceleration mechanisms, heating, temperature anisotropy, and so on. In this work, a hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell numerical code is employed to study local kinetic processes in a two-dimensional turbulent regime. In the present model, ions are treated as a kinetic species, while electrons are considered as a fluid. As recently reported in [S. Servidio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045001 (2012)], nearby regions of strong magnetic activity, kinetic effects manifest through a deformation of the ion velocity distribution function that consequently departs from the equilibrium Maxwellian configuration. Here, the structure of turbulence is investigated in detail in phase space, by evaluating the high-order moments of the particle velocity distribution, i.e., temperature, skewness, and kurtosis. This analysis provides quantitative information about the non-Maxwellian character of the system dynamics. This departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium triggers several processes commonly observed in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.
Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of transport in a magnetized electronegative plasma
Kawamura, E.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Lieberman, M. A.
2010-11-15
Particle transport in a uniformly magnetized electronegative plasma is studied in two-dimensional (2D) geometry with insulating (dielectric) boundaries. A 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) code is employed, with the results compared to analytic one-dimensional models that approximate the end losses as volume losses. A modified oxygen reaction set is used to scale to the low densities used in PIC codes and also to approximately model other gases. The principal study is the limiting of the transverse electron flow due to strong electron magnetization. The plasma in the PIC calculation is maintained by axial currents that vary across the transverse dimension. For a cosine current profile nearly uniform electron temperature is obtained, which at the B-fields studied (600-1200 G) give a small but significant fraction (0.25 or less) of electron to negative ion transverse loss. For a more transverse-confined current, and approximating the higher mass and attachment reaction rate of iodine, the fraction of electron to negative ion transverse loss can be made very small. The models which have been constructed reasonably approximate the PIC results and indicate that the cross-field transport is nearly classical.
Monte Carlo simulations of two-dimensional Hubbard models with string bond tensor-network states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jeong-Pil; Wee, Daehyun; Clay, R. T.
2015-03-01
We study charge- and spin-ordered states in the two-dimensional extended Hubbard model on a triangular lattice at 1/3 filling. While the nearest-neighbor Coulomb repulsion V induces charge-ordered states, the competition between on-site U and nearest-neighbor V interactions lead to quantum phase transitions to an antiferromagnetic spin-ordered phase with honeycomb charge order. In order to avoid the fermion sign problem and handle frustrations here we use quantum Monte Carlo methods with the string-bond tensor network ansatz for fermionic systems in two dimensions. We determine the phase boundaries of the several spin- and charge-ordered states and show a phase diagram in the on-site U and the nearest-neighbor V plane. The numerical accuracy of the method is compared with exact diagonalization results in terms of the size of matrices D. We also test the use of lattice symmetries to improve the string-bond ansatz. Work at Mississippi State University was supported by the US Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-06ER46315.
A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds
Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin
2013-10-11
Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daldorff, L. K. S.; Toth, G.; Borovikov, D.; Gombosi, T. I.; Lapenta, G.
2014-12-01
With the new modeling capability in the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) of embedding an implicit Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model iPIC3D into the BATS-R-US magnetohydrodynamics model (Daldorff et al. 2014, JCP, 268, 236) we are ready to locally handle the full physics of the reconnection and its implications on the full system where globally, away from the reconnection region, a magnetohydrodynamic description is satisfactory. As magnetic reconnection is one of the main drivers in magnetospheric and heliospheric plasma dynamics, the self-consistent description of the electron dynamics in the coupled MHD-EPIC model is well suited for investigating the nature of these systems. We will compare the new embedded MHD-EPIC model with pure MHD and Hall MHD simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere.
Global and Kinetic MHD Simulation by the Gpic-MHD Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiroshi, Naitou; Yusuke, Yamada; Kenji, Kajiwara; Wei-li, Lee; Shinji, Tokuda; Masatoshi, Yagi
2011-10-01
In order to implement large-scale and high-beta tokamak simulation, a new algorithm of the electromagnetic gyrokinetic PIC (particle-in-cell) code was proposed and installed on the Gpic-MHD code [Gyrokinetic PIC code for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation]. In the new algorithm, the vorticity equation and the generalized Ohm's law along the magnetic field are derived from the basic equations of the gyrokinetic Vlasov, Poisson, and Ampere system and are used to describe the spatio-temporal evolution of the field quantities of the electrostatic potential varphi and the longitudinal component of the vector potential Az. The basic algorithm is equivalent to solving the reduced-MHD-type equations with kinetic corrections, in which MHD physics related to Alfven modes are well described. The estimation of perturbed electron pressure from particle dynamics is dominant, while the effects of other moments are negligible. Another advantage of the algorithm is that the longitudinal induced electric field, ETz = -∂Az/∂t, is explicitly estimated by the generalized Ohm's law and used in the equations of motion. Furthermore, the particle velocities along the magnetic field are used (vz-formulation) instead of generalized momentums (pz-formulation), hence there is no problem of ‘cancellation', which would otherwise appear when Az is estimated from the Ampere's law in the pz-formulation. The successful simulation of the collisionless internal kink mode by the new Gpic-MHD with realistic values of the large-scale and high-beta tokamaks revealed the usefulness of the new algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wyn, A.; Davies, I. T.; Cox, S. J.
2008-05-01
Surface Evolver simulations of flowing two-dimensional foams are described. These are used for two purposes. Firstly, to extract the location of the T1 s, the changes in bubble topology that occur during plastic flow. It is shown that in linear Couette flow the T1 s are localized in space, becoming more so as the polydispersity of the foam decreases. Secondly, the sedimentation of two circular discs through a foam under gravity is studied. If the discs are sufficiently close, they begin to interact and one moves behind the other during their descent.
Neural field simulator: two-dimensional spatio-temporal dynamics involving finite transmission speed
Nichols, Eric J.; Hutt, Axel
2015-01-01
Neural Field models (NFM) play an important role in the understanding of neural population dynamics on a mesoscopic spatial and temporal scale. Their numerical simulation is an essential element in the analysis of their spatio-temporal dynamics. The simulation tool described in this work considers scalar spatially homogeneous neural fields taking into account a finite axonal transmission speed and synaptic temporal derivatives of first and second order. A text-based interface offers complete control of field parameters and several approaches are used to accelerate simulations. A graphical output utilizes video hardware acceleration to display running output with reduced computational hindrance compared to simulators that are exclusively software-based. Diverse applications of the tool demonstrate breather oscillations, static and dynamic Turing patterns and activity spreading with finite propagation speed. The simulator is open source to allow tailoring of code and this is presented with an extension use case. PMID:26539105
Nichols, Eric J; Hutt, Axel
2015-01-01
Neural Field models (NFM) play an important role in the understanding of neural population dynamics on a mesoscopic spatial and temporal scale. Their numerical simulation is an essential element in the analysis of their spatio-temporal dynamics. The simulation tool described in this work considers scalar spatially homogeneous neural fields taking into account a finite axonal transmission speed and synaptic temporal derivatives of first and second order. A text-based interface offers complete control of field parameters and several approaches are used to accelerate simulations. A graphical output utilizes video hardware acceleration to display running output with reduced computational hindrance compared to simulators that are exclusively software-based. Diverse applications of the tool demonstrate breather oscillations, static and dynamic Turing patterns and activity spreading with finite propagation speed. The simulator is open source to allow tailoring of code and this is presented with an extension use case. PMID:26539105
Advances in Simulation of Wave Interaction with Extended MHD Phenomena
Batchelor, Donald B; Abla, Gheni; D'Azevedo, Ed F; Bateman, Glenn; Bernholdt, David E; Berry, Lee A; Bonoli, P.; Bramley, R; Breslau, Joshua; Chance, M.; Chen, J.; Choi, M.; Elwasif, Wael R; Foley, S.; Fu, GuoYong; Harvey, R. W.; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Jardin, S. C.; Jenkins, T; Keyes, David E; Klasky, Scott A; Kruger, Scott; Ku, Long-Poe; Lynch, Vickie E; McCune, Douglas; Ramos, J.; Schissel, D.; Schnack,; Wright, J.
2009-01-01
The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) provides a framework within which some of the most advanced, massively-parallel fusion modeling codes can be interoperated to provide a detailed picture of the multi-physics processes involved in fusion experiments. The presentation will cover four topics: 1) recent improvements to the IPS, 2) application of the IPS for very high resolution simulations of ITER scenarios, 3) studies of resistive and ideal MHD stability in tokamk discharges using IPS facilities, and 4) the application of RF power in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies to control slowly growing MHD modes in tokamaks and initial evaluations of optimized location for RF power deposition.
Advances in Simulation of Wave Interactions with Extended MHD Phenomena
Batchelor, Donald B; D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Bateman, Glenn; Bernholdt, David E; Bonoli, P.; Bramley, Randall B; Breslau, Joshua; Elwasif, Wael R; Foley, S.; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Jardin, S. C.; Klasky, Scott A; Kruger, Scott E; Ku, Long-Poe; McCune, Douglas; Ramos, J.; Schissel, David P; Schnack, Dalton D
2009-01-01
The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) provides a framework within which some of the most advanced, massively-parallel fusion modeling codes can be interoperated to provide a detailed picture of the multi-physics processes involved in fusion experiments. The presentation will cover four topics: (1) recent improvements to the IPS, (2) application of the IPS for very high resolution simulations of ITER scenarios, (3) studies of resistive and ideal MHD stability in tokamak discharges using IPS facilities, and (4) the application of RF power in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies to control slowly growing MHD modes in tokamaks and initial evaluations of optimized location for RF power deposition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sirait, S. H.; Taruno, W. P.; Khotimah, S. N.; Haryanto, F.
2016-03-01
A simulation to determine capacitance of brain's electrical activity based on two electrodes ECVT was conducted in this study. This study began with construction of 2D coronal head geometry with five different layers and ECVT sensor design, and then both of these designs were merged. After that, boundary conditions were applied on two electrodes in the ECVT sensor. The first electrode was defined as a Dirichlet boundary condition with 20 V in potential and another electrode was defined as a Dirichlet boundary condition with 0 V in potential. Simulated Hodgkin-Huxley -based action potentials were applied as electrical activity of the brain and sequentially were put on 3 different cross-sectional positions. As the governing equation, the Poisson equation was implemented in the geometry. Poisson equation was solved by finite element method. The simulation showed that the simulated capacitance values were affected by action potentials and cross-sectional action potential positions.
Sheehey, P. ); Hammel, J.E.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Scudder, D.W.; Shlachter, J.S. ); Lovberg, R.H.; Riley, R.A. Jr. )
1992-11-01
Deuterium-fiber-initiated Z-pinch experiments have been simulated using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic model, which includes many important experimental details, such as cold-start'' initial conditions, thermal conduction, radiation, actual discharge current versus time, and grids of sufficient size and resolution to allow realistic development of the plasma. When the fiber becomes fully ionized (at a time depending on current ramp and fiber thickness), the simulations show rapidly developing [ital m]=0 instabilities, which originated in the corona surrounding the fiber, drive intense nonuniform heating and rapid expansion of the plasma column. Diagnostics generated from the simulation results, such as shadowgrams and interferograms, are in good agreement with experiment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Zhenyi; Li, Wei; Gatebe, Charles; Poudyal, Rajesh; Stamnes, Knut
2016-01-01
An optimized discrete-ordinate radiative transfer model (DISORT3) with a pseudo-two-dimensional bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is used to simulate and validate ocean glint reflectances at an infrared wavelength (1036 nm) by matching model results with a complete set of BRDF measurements obtained from the NASA cloud absorption radiometer (CAR) deployed on an aircraft. The surface roughness is then obtained through a retrieval algorithm and is used to extend the simulation into the visible spectral range where diffuse reflectance becomes important. In general, the simulated reflectances and surface roughness information are in good agreement with the measurements, and the diffuse reflectance in the visible, ignored in current glint algorithms, is shown to be important. The successful implementation of this new treatment of ocean glint reflectance and surface roughness in DISORT3 will help improve glint correction algorithms in current and future ocean color remote sensing applications.
Lin, Zhenyi; Li, Wei; Gatebe, Charles; Poudyal, Rajesh; Stamnes, Knut
2016-02-20
An optimized discrete-ordinate radiative transfer model (DISORT3) with a pseudo-two-dimensional bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is used to simulate and validate ocean glint reflectances at an infrared wavelength (1036 nm) by matching model results with a complete set of BRDF measurements obtained from the NASA cloud absorption radiometer (CAR) deployed on an aircraft. The surface roughness is then obtained through a retrieval algorithm and is used to extend the simulation into the visible spectral range where diffuse reflectance becomes important. In general, the simulated reflectances and surface roughness information are in good agreement with the measurements, and the diffuse reflectance in the visible, ignored in current glint algorithms, is shown to be important. The successful implementation of this new treatment of ocean glint reflectance and surface roughness in DISORT3 will help improve glint correction algorithms in current and future ocean color remote sensing applications. PMID:26906570
Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiangqin; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui
2015-01-15
Based on the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) model, the SEEA discharge on the vacuum insulator surface is simulated by using a 2D PIC-MCC code developed by ourselves. The evolutions of the number of discharge electrons, insulator surface charge, current, and 2D particle distribution are obtained. The effects of the strength of the applied electric field, secondary electron yield coefficient, rise time of the pulse, length of the insulator on the discharge are investigated. The results show that the number of the SEEA electrons presents a quadratic dependence upon the applied field strength. The SEEA current, which is on the order of Ampere, is directly proportional to the field strength and secondary electron yield coefficient. Finally, the electron-stimulated outgassing is included in the simulation code, and a three-phase discharge curve is presented by the simulation, which agrees with the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiangqin; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui
2015-01-01
Based on the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) model, the SEEA discharge on the vacuum insulator surface is simulated by using a 2D PIC-MCC code developed by ourselves. The evolutions of the number of discharge electrons, insulator surface charge, current, and 2D particle distribution are obtained. The effects of the strength of the applied electric field, secondary electron yield coefficient, rise time of the pulse, length of the insulator on the discharge are investigated. The results show that the number of the SEEA electrons presents a quadratic dependence upon the applied field strength. The SEEA current, which is on the order of Ampere, is directly proportional to the field strength and secondary electron yield coefficient. Finally, the electron-stimulated outgassing is included in the simulation code, and a three-phase discharge curve is presented by the simulation, which agrees with the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kuang Wu; Buechner, Joerg
Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation of Weibel instability in a current-free return beam plasma system Lee, Kuang Wu and Joerg Buechner In the collisionless plasmas of stellar coro-nae and planetary magnetospheres return beams are generated in order to compensate strong flows of accelerated electrons. In this process return beams help to maintain charge neutrality in the electron downflow channels. In laser plasma experiments return beams beams are also observed to compensate injected electrons. In return-beam two-stream systems plasma insta-bilities are excited that cause an electron temperature anisotropy. The latter, in turn, can cause Weibel instability. Weibel instability leads to the excitation of electromagnetic and transverse waves which play a vital role in plasma transport in collisionless plasmas. While, according to previous investigations, electrostatic waves dominate during the initial stage of the instability evolution later strong anomalous (collisionless) transport converts kinetic energy into thermal energy. Finally, during a highly nonlinear stage, obliquely propagating electromagnetic waves are generated which, again, isotropize the system and drive it toward a new equilibrium. By means of solving the corrsponding linear dispersion analysis we obtained the stability conditions in a higher-dimensional return-beam system. Then we used a two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell (2D EM PIC) simulation code to study the nonlnear evolution of the instabilities and the waves, generated in the course of these processes.
Simulation of Two Dimensional Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Teaching Proteomics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fisher, Amanda; Sekera, Emily; Payne, Jill; Craig, Paul
2012-01-01
In proteomics, complex mixtures of proteins are separated (usually by chromatography or electrophoresis) and identified by mass spectrometry. We have created 2DE Tandem MS, a computer program designed for use in the biochemistry, proteomics, or bioinformatics classroom. It contains two simulations--2D electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.…
Simulation of Two Dimensional Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Teaching Proteomics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fisher, Amanda; Sekera, Emily; Payne, Jill; Craig, Paul
2012-01-01
In proteomics, complex mixtures of proteins are separated (usually by chromatography or electrophoresis) and identified by mass spectrometry. We have created 2DE Tandem MS, a computer program designed for use in the biochemistry, proteomics, or bioinformatics classroom. It contains two simulations--2D electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.
A zero-equation turbulence model for two-dimensional hybrid Hall thruster simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cappelli, Mark A.; Young, Christopher V.; Cha, Eunsun; Fernandez, Eduardo
2015-11-01
We present a model for electron transport across the magnetic field of a Hall thruster and integrate this model into 2-D hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. The model is based on a simple scaling of the turbulent electron energy dissipation rate and the assumption that this dissipation results in Ohmic heating. Implementing the model into 2-D hybrid simulations is straightforward and leverages the existing framework for solving the electron fluid equations. The model recovers the axial variation in the mobility seen in experiments, predicting the generation of a transport barrier which anchors the region of plasma acceleration. The predicted xenon neutral and ion velocities are found to be in good agreement with laser-induced fluorescence measurements.
A zero-equation turbulence model for two-dimensional hybrid Hall thruster simulations
Cappelli, Mark A. Young, Christopher V.; Cha, Eunsun; Fernandez, Eduardo
2015-11-15
We present a model for electron transport across the magnetic field of a Hall thruster and integrate this model into 2-D hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. The model is based on a simple scaling of the turbulent electron energy dissipation rate and the assumption that this dissipation results in Ohmic heating. Implementing the model into 2-D hybrid simulations is straightforward and leverages the existing framework for solving the electron fluid equations. The model recovers the axial variation in the mobility seen in experiments, predicting the generation of a transport barrier which anchors the region of plasma acceleration. The predicted xenon neutral and ion velocities are found to be in good agreement with laser-induced fluorescence measurements.
Two-Dimensional Distribution of Volatiles in the Lunar Regolith from Space Weathering Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hurley, Dana M.; Lawrence, David J.; Bussey, D. Benjamin J.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Elphic, Richard C.; Gladstone, G. Randall
2012-01-01
We present simulations of space weathering effects on ice deposits in regions of permanent shadow on the Moon. These Monte Carlo simulations follow the effects of space weathering processes on the distribution of the volatiles over time. The model output constrains the coherence of volatile deposits with depth, lateral separation, and time. The results suggest that ice sheets become broken and buried with time. As impacts begin to puncture an initially coherent surficial ice sheet, small areas with a deficit of ice compared to surrounding areas are formed first. As time progresses, holes become prevalent and the anomalous regions are local enhancements of ice concentration in a volume. The 3-D distribution is also heterogeneous because the ice is buried to varying depths in different locations. Analysis of the coherence of ice on 10 cm scales predicts that putative ice sheets in anomalous radar craters are < 100 Myr old. Surface frost becomes homogenized within 20 Myr. The simulations show the data from the LCROSS impact and surrounding region are consistent with the ice deposit in Cabeus being >1000 Myr old. For future in situ analysis of cold trap volatiles, a horizontal range of 10 m is sufficient to acquire surface-based measurements of heterogeneously distributed ice. These results also support previous analyses that Mercury's cold traps are young.
Simulation of two dimensional electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry for teaching proteomics.
Fisher, Amanda; Sekera, Emily; Payne, Jill; Craig, Paul
2012-01-01
In proteomics, complex mixtures of proteins are separated (usually by chromatography or electrophoresis) and identified by mass spectrometry. We have created 2DE Tandem MS, a computer program designed for use in the biochemistry, proteomics, or bioinformatics classroom. It contains two simulations-2D electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry. The two simulations are integrated together and are designed to teach the concept of proteome analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. 2DE-Tandem MS can be used as a freestanding simulation, or in conjunction with a wet lab, to introduce proteomics in the undergraduate classroom. 2DE Tandem MS is a free program available on Sourceforge at https://sourceforge.net/projects/jbf/. It was developed using Java Swing and functions in Mac OSX, Windows, and Linux, ensuring that every student sees a consistent and informative graphical user interface no matter the computer platform they choose. Java must be installed on the host computer to run 2DE Tandem MS. Example classroom exercises are provided in the Supporting Information. PMID:23166029
Ohira, Yutaka; Takahara, Fumio; Reville, Brian; Kirk, John G.
2009-06-10
In supernova remnants, the nonlinear amplification of magnetic fields upstream of collisionless shocks is essential for the acceleration of cosmic rays to the energy of the 'knee' at 10{sup 15.5} eV. A nonresonant instability driven by the cosmic ray current is thought to be responsible for this effect. We perform two-dimensional, particle-in-cell simulations of this instability. We observe an initial growth of circularly polarized nonpropagating magnetic waves as predicted in linear theory. It is demonstrated that in some cases the magnetic energy density in the growing waves can grow to at least 10 times its initial value. We find no evidence of competing modes, nor of significant modification by thermal effects. At late times, we observe saturation of the instability in the simulation, but the mechanism responsible is an artifact of the periodic boundary conditions and has no counterpart in the supernova-shock scenario.
Mesh refinement in a two-dimensional large eddy simulation of a forced shear layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claus, R. W.; Huang, P. G.; Macinnes, J. M.
1989-06-01
A series of large eddy simulations are made of a forced shear layer and compared with experimental data. Several mesh densities were examined to separate the effect of numerical inaccuracy from modeling deficiencies. The turbulence model that was used to represent small scale, 3-D motions correctly predicted some gross features of the flow field, but appears to be structurally incorrect. The main effect of mesh refinement was to act as a filter on the scale of vortices that developed from the inflow boundary conditions.
Mesh refinement in a two-dimensional large eddy simulation of a forced shear layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Claus, R. W.; Huang, P. G.; Macinnes, J. M.
1989-01-01
A series of large eddy simulations are made of a forced shear layer and compared with experimental data. Several mesh densities were examined to separate the effect of numerical inaccuracy from modeling deficiencies. The turbulence model that was used to represent small scale, 3-D motions correctly predicted some gross features of the flow field, but appears to be structurally incorrect. The main effect of mesh refinement was to act as a filter on the scale of vortices that developed from the inflow boundary conditions.
The role of condensation and heat conduction in the formation of prominences - An MHD simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, S. T.; Bao, J. J.; An, C. H.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.
1990-01-01
The effects of condensation and thermal conduction on the formation of Kippenhahn-Schlueter (K-S) type prominences in quiet regions (QP) due to symmetric mass injection are investigated. To implement this investigation a self-consistent, two-dimensional, nonplanar, time-dependent MHD simulation model is developed. In the model, various values of the injection velocity, density, and magnetic field strength are used to determine the most favorable conditions for the QP formation. Based on these simulation results, it is found that the formation of a K-S type field configuration should be considered as a dynamic process which needs both condensation amd mass injection to supply enough mass to maintain such a configuration to complete the quiescent prominence formation process.
Two Dimensional Simulations of Plastic-Shell, Direct-Drive Implosions on OMEGA
Radha, P B; Goncharov, V N; Collins, T B; Delettrez, J A; Elbaz, Y; Glebov, V Y; Keck, R L; Keller, D E; Knauer, J P; Marozas, J A; Marshall, F J; McKenty, P W; Meyerhofer, D D; Regan, S P; Sangster, T C; Shvarts, D; Skupsky, S; Srebro, Y; Town, R J; Stoeckl, C
2004-09-27
Multidimensional hydrodynamic properties of high-adiabat direct-drive plastic-shell implosions on the OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] are investigated using the multidimensional hydrodynamic code, DRACO. Multimode simulations including the effects of nonuniform illumination and target roughness indicate that shell stability during the acceleration phase plays a critical role in determining target performance. For thick shells that remain integral during the acceleration phase, target yields are significantly reduced by the combination of the long-wavelength ({ell} < 10) modes due to surface roughness and beam imbalance and the intermediate modes (20 {le} {ell} {le} 50) due to single-beam nonuniformities. The neutron-production rate for these thick shells truncates relative to one-dimensional (1-D) predictions. The yield degradation in the thin shells is mainly due to shell breakup at short wavelengths ({lambda} {approx} {Delta}, where {Delta} is the in-flight shell thickness). The neutron-rate curves for the thinner shells have significantly lower amplitudes and a fall-off that is less steep than 1-D rates. DRACO simulation results are consistent with experimental observations.
MHD Pedestal Formation in Time-Dependent Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guazzotto, Luca; Betti, Riccardo; Jardin, Steve
2014-10-01
Finite toroidal and poloidal flows are routinely observed in the edge plasma region of tokamak experiments. MHD theory predicts that when the poloidal velocity is transonic with respect to the poloidal sound speed (csp ≡csBp / B , where Bp is the poloidal field) a transient will develop. After the end of the transient, a steady-state MHD pedestal in plasma density and pressure is left, with the height of the pedestal depending on the poloidal location. The formation of the MHD pedestal was demonstrated with time-dependent simulations with the resistive-MHD code SIM2D. In the present work, we explore the effect of additional physics on the formation of the pedestal. The advanced model implemented in M3DC1 is used to validate and extend SIM2D calculations. Since M3DC1, contrary to SIM2D, was not developed to study transonic transients, this also gives a strong independent verification of the correctness of the MHD pedestal model. Special focus is given to poloidal viscosity, which is already implemented in M3DC1 and is being implemented in SIM2D. Analytic calculations complement and support numerical results. Work supported by US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FG02-93ER54215.
Lefkoff, L.J.; Gorelick, S.M.
1987-01-01
A FORTRAN-77 computer program code that helps solve a variety of aquifer management problems involving the control of groundwater hydraulics. It is intended for use with any standard mathematical programming package that uses Mathematical Programming System input format. The computer program creates the input files to be used by the optimization program. These files contain all the hydrologic information and management objectives needed to solve the management problem. Used in conjunction with a mathematical programming code, the computer program identifies the pumping or recharge strategy that achieves a user 's management objective while maintaining groundwater hydraulic conditions within desired limits. The objective may be linear or quadratic, and may involve the minimization of pumping and recharge rates or of variable pumping costs. The problem may contain constraints on groundwater heads, gradients, and velocities for a complex, transient hydrologic system. Linear superposition of solutions to the transient, two-dimensional groundwater flow equation is used by the computer program in conjunction with the response matrix optimization method. A unit stress is applied at each decision well and transient responses at all control locations are computed using a modified version of the U.S. Geological Survey two dimensional aquifer simulation model. The program also computes discounted cost coefficients for the objective function and accounts for transient aquifer conditions. (Author 's abstract)
Attosecond double-ionization dynamics of aligned H2: Two-dimensional quantum simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shang; Chen, Yanjun
2015-08-01
A fully quantum procedure, based on the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) with two spatial dimensions for every electron, is developed to study the attosecond double-ionization (DI) dynamics from aligned H2 molecules in strong laser fields. Our simulations are able to reproduce the orientation dependence of DI, as observed for N2 in experiments [D. Zeidler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.203003. Our TDSE analyses reveal the important roles of the lateral motion of the electron and two-center interference in the orientation-dependent DI. Our results give suggestions on the ultrafast probing of the dynamics of DI from aligned molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franci, Luca; Hellinger, Petr; Matteini, Lorenzo; Verdini, Andrea; Landi, Simone
2016-03-01
Proton temperature anisotropies between the directions parallel and perpendicular to the mean magnetic field are usually observed in the solar wind plasma. Here, we employ a high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulation in order to investigate the relation between spatial properties of the proton temperature and the peaks in the current density and in the flow vorticity. Our results indicate that, although regions where the proton temperature is enhanced and temperature anisotropies are larger correspond approximately to regions where many thin current sheets form, no firm quantitative evidence supports the idea of a direct causality between the two phenomena. On the other hand, quite a clear correlation between the behavior of the proton temperature and the out-of-plane vorticity is obtained.
FRANC2D: A two-dimensional crack propagation simulator. Version 2.7: User's guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wawrzynek, Paul; Ingraffea, Anthony
1994-01-01
FRANC 2D (FRacture ANalysis Code, 2 Dimensions) is a menu driven, interactive finite element computer code that performs fracture mechanics analyses of 2-D structures. The code has an automatic mesh generator for triangular and quadrilateral elements. FRANC2D calculates the stress intensity factor using linear elastic fracture mechanics and evaluates crack extension using several methods that may be selected by the user. The code features a mesh refinement and adaptive mesh generation capability that is automatically developed according to the predicted crack extension direction and length. The code also has unique features that permit the analysis of layered structure with load transfer through simulated mechanical fasteners or bonded joints. The code was written for UNIX workstations with X-windows graphics and may be executed on the following computers: DEC DecStation 3000 and 5000 series, IBM RS/6000 series, Hewlitt-Packard 9000/700 series, SUN Sparc stations, and most Silicon Graphics models.
Two Dimensional Wake Vortex Simulations in the Atmosphere: Preliminary Sensitivity Studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Proctor, F. H.; Hinton, D. A.; Han, J.; Schowalter, D. G.; Lin, Y.-L.
1998-01-01
A numerical large-eddy simulation model is currently being used to quantify aircraft wake vortex behavior with meteorological observables. The model, having a meteorological framework, permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, and humidity. The addition of grid-scale turbulence as an initial condition appeared to have little consequence. Results show that conventional nondimensionalizations work very well for vortex pairs embedded in stably stratified flows. However, this result is based on simple environments with constant Brunt-Vaisala frequency. Results presented here also show that crosswind profiles exert important and complex interactions on the trajectories of wake vortices. Nonlinear crosswind profiles tended to arrest the descent of wake vortex pairs. The member of the vortex pair with vorticity of same sign as the vertical change in the ambient along-track vorticity may be deflected upwards.
Two dimensional hydrological simulation in elastic swelling/shrinking peat soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camporese, M.; Ferraris, S.; Paniconi, C.; Putti, M.; Salandin, P.; Teatini, P.
2005-12-01
Peatlands respond to natural hydrologic cycles of precipitation and evapotranspiration with reversible deformations due to variations of water content in both the unsaturated and saturated zone. This phenomenon results in short-term vertical displacements of the soil surface that superimpose to the irreversible long-term subsidence naturally occurring in drained cropped peatlands because of bio-oxidation of the organic matter. The yearly sinking rates due to the irreversible process are usually comparable with the short-term deformation (swelling/shrinkage) and the latter must be evaluated to achieve a thorough understanding of the whole phenomenon. A mathematical model describing swelling/shrinkage dynamics in peat soils under unsaturated conditions has been derived from simple physical considerations, and validated by comparison with laboratory shrinkage data. The two-parameter model relates together the void and moisture ratios of the soil. This approach is implemented in a subsurface flow model describing variably saturated porous media flow (Richards' equation), by means of an appropriate modification of the general storage term. The contribution of the saturated zone to total deformation is considered by using information from the elastic storage coefficient. Simulations have been carried out for a drained cropped peatland south of the Venice Lagoon (Italy), for which a large data set of hydrological and deformation measurements has been collected since the end of 2001. The considered domain is representative of a field section bounded by ditches, subject to rainfall and evapotranspiration. The comparison between simulated and measured quantities demonstrates the capability of the model to accurately reproduce both the hydrological and deformation dynamics of peat, with values of the relevant parameters that are in good agreement with the literature.
Can kinetic plasma simulation and MHD talk to each other?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brackbill, J. U.; Lapenta, G.
2007-12-01
Kinetic simulations show faster tearing mode growth and higher amplitude saturation with electron temperature anisotropy. Implicit simulations in 3D show the lower-hybrid drift instability (LHDI) generates anisotropy and that spontaneous, small-scale tearing evolves into rapid, large-scale reconnection. These results for idealized problems on very small scales need to be tested on larger systems with more realistic boundary conditions, for which we need new methods. We extend implicit simulation to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) scales by adding a simple but self-consistent collision model to Celeste. An input parameter switches Celeste from a kinetic simulation to Hall-MHD, and can be given different values in different regions so that MHD and kinetic regions interact, flux conservation conditions are rigorously satisfied, and the two plasma populations mix on ion time scales. In 2D, we simulate the LHDI with uniform collisionality, and it grows and saturates normally at low collision rates, but with reduced temperature anisotropy. We model a finite-width current sheet in the direction of current flow, as in the magnetotail, using adjacent collisional and collision-less regions. The resistance to current flow in the collisional region induces an out-of-plane return current flow in the collision-less region. To study embedding a kinetic region in a larger MHD domain, we introduce a collisional region along the magnetic field direction, which can cause localized reconnection unless done carefully. We characterize the transparency of the boundary between kinetic and MHD regions to the propagation of waves and plasma flow, and evaluate the adequacy of our simple collision model.
Two-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes Time accurate simulations of fan rotor flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boretti, A. A.
1990-01-01
Two numerical methods are presented which describe the unsteady flow field in the blade-to-blade plane of an axial fan rotor. These methods solve the compressible, time-dependent, Euler and the compressible, turbulent, time-dependent, Navier-Stokes conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy. The Navier-Stokes equations are written in Favre-averaged form and are closed with an approximate two-equation turbulence model with low Reynolds number and compressibility effects included. The unsteady aerodynamic component is obtained by superposing inflow or outflow unsteadiness to the steady conditions through time-dependent boundary conditions. The integration in space is performed by using a finite volume scheme, and the integration in time is performed by using k-stage Runge-Kutta schemes, k = 2,5. The numerical integration algorithm allows the reduction of the computational cost of an unsteady simulation involving high frequency disturbances in both CPU time and memory requirements. Less than 200 sec of CPU time are required to advance the Euler equations in a computational grid made up of about 2000 grid during 10,000 time steps on a CRAY Y-MP computer, with a required memory of less than 0.3 megawords.
Two-dimensional Simulations of a VHF H2 Plasma for Different Discharge Gaps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Kuan-Chen; Chiu, Kuo-Feng; Ogiwara, Kohei; Su, Li-Wen; Uchino, Kiichiro; Kawai, Yoshinobu
2015-09-01
A capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) is widely used for plasma applications. Since a tandem silicon thin film solar cells using a VHF plasma source was proposed, a study of a VHF plasma has been popular in solar cell fields. In addition, a high speed deposition of microcrystalline silicon has been achieved by a high pressure depletion method. In plasma etching, a two frequency CCP has been operated at relatively high pressures. Thus, it is important to examine the characteristics of a capacitively coupled VHF plasma at high pressures. However, a spatial distribution of the plasma parameters at a narrow gap has not been measured because of the measurement difficulty. Thus, we examined an axial distribution of the plasma parameters for different discharge gaps by the simulation using Plasma Hybrid Module. A VHF voltage (frequency: 60 MHz) was applied on parallel plate electrodes The discharge gap was varied from 8 mm to 20 mm. The electron temperature around the electrode was higher than that at the center. When the applied voltage was increased, the electron density increased while the electron temperature decreased near the center. The gap dependence of the plasma parameters was also studied.
Voinovich, Peter; Merlen, Alain
2005-12-01
The effect of parametric wave phase conjugation (WPC) in application to ultrasound or acoustic waves in magnetostrictive solids has been addressed numerically by Ben Khelil et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 75-83 (2001)] using 1-D unsteady formulation. Here the numerical method presented by Voinovich et al. [Shock waves 13(3), 221-230 (2003)] extends the analysis to the 2-D effects. The employed model describes universally elastic solids and liquids. A source term similar to Ben Khelil et al.'s accounts for the coupling between deformation and magnetostriction due to external periodic magnetic field. The compatibility between the isotropic constitutive law of the medium and the model of magnetostriction has been considered. Supplementary to the 1-D simulations, the present model involves longitudinal/transversal mode conversion at the sample boundaries and separate magnetic field coupling with dilatation and shear stress. The influence of those factors in a 2-D geometry on the potential output of a magneto-elastic wave phase conjugator is analyzed in this paper. The process under study includes propagation of a wave burst of a given frequency from a point source in a liquid into the active solid, amplification of the waves due to parametric resonance, and formation of time-reversed waves, their radiation into liquid, and focusing. The considered subject is particularly important for ultrasonic applications in acoustic imaging, nondestructive testing, or medical diagnostics and therapy. PMID:16419796
Static field simulation of two-dimensional negative-U Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Bo
As a simplest model which yields high-Tc superconductivity, the negative-U Hubbard model on a 2-D square lattice is investigated in this thesis by using a newly developed static field analysis. The static field approximation is an action saddle-point algorithm, which is used to find partially classical solutions of strongly correlated electron systems. With the introduction of Stratonovich-Hubbard (S-H) fields, the electron-electron interaction is decoupled. The Stratonovich-Hubbard fields are purely static (i.e., classical) and handled by Monte Carlo simulation. For each S-H field configuration (each Monte Carlo step), the "free"-electron subsystem can be diagonalized exactly. This algorithm overcomes the difficulty of pure perturbation theories for handling the strong coupling limit, which exhibits a ground state energy gap in the half-filled spectral density. The single-electron spectral density and the static response functions for charge density and superconducting order are given. The Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition temperatures are estimated by finite-size scaling. Phase diagrams for different interaction strengths are plotted. At optimal interaction strength, U = -4t, and optimal doping,
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandaru, Vinodh; Pracht, Julian; Boeck, Thomas; Schumacher, Jörg
2015-08-01
We consider a plane channel flow of an electrically conducting fluid which is driven by a mean pressure gradient in the presence of an applied magnetic field that is streamwise periodic with zero mean. Magnetic flux expulsion and the associated bifurcation in such a configuration are explored using direct numerical simulations (DNS). The structure of the flow and magnetic fields in the Hartmann regime (where the dominant balance is through Lorentz forces) and the Poiseuille regime (where viscous effects play a significant role) are studied, and detailed comparisons to the existing one-dimensional model of Kamkar and Moffatt (J Fluid Mech 90:107-122, 1982) are drawn to evaluate the validity of the model. Comparisons show good agreement of the model with DNS in the Hartmann regime, but significant differences arising in the Poiseuille regime when nonlinear effects become important. The effects of various parameters like the magnetic Reynolds number, imposed field wavenumber etc. on the bifurcation of the flow are studied. Magnetic field line reconnections occurring during the dynamic runaway reveal a specific two-step pattern that leads to the gradual expulsion of flux in the core region.
Two-Dimensional Optical Measurement of Waves on Liquid Lithium Jet Simulating IFMIF Target Flow
Kazuhiro Itoh; Hiroyuki Koterazawa; Taro Itoh; Yutaka Kukita; Hiroo Kondo; Nobuo Yamaoka; Hiroshi Horiike; Mizuho Ida; Hideo Nakamura; Hiroo Nakamura; Takeo Muroga
2006-07-01
Waves on a liquid-lithium jet flow, simulating a proposed high-energy beam target design, have been measured using an optical technique based on specular reflection of a single laser beam on the jet surface. The stream-wise and spanwise fluctuations of the local free-surface slope were least-square fitted with a sinusoidal curve to makeup the signals lost due to the constriction in the optical arrangement. The waveform was estimated with an assumption that wave phase speed can be calculated using the dispersion relation for linear capillary-gravity waves. The direction of propagation on the jet surface was also evaluated so that the wave amplitudes, calculated by integral of slope angle signal, agree consistently in stream-wise and spanwise direction. These measurements and analyses show that the waves at the measurement location for a jet velocity of 1.2 m/s can best be represented by oblique waves with an inclination of 1.23 rad, a wavelength of 3.8 mm and a wave amplitude of about 0.05 mm. (authors)
Two-dimensional Vlasov Simulation of Driven, Nonlinear Electron Plasma Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hittinger, J. A.; Banks, J. W.; Berger, R. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Brunner, S.
2010-11-01
In the VALHALLA project at LLNL, we are developing advanced, scalable algorithms for the continuum solution of Vlasov-Maxwell that differ from traditional approaches to continuum Vlasov methods.ootnotetextJ. Banks and J.Hittinger, sub. to IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. (Dec 2009), LLNL-JRNL-420843. Here, continuum solution of the Vlasov-Maxwell system using these techniques is extended to two spatial dimensions and two velocity dimensions. We report Vlasov simulation studies of ponderomotively driven electron plasma waves (EPW) with fixed ions. Motivated plasma waves driven by SRS in light speckles, we consider a driving potential with a finite transverse width. This localization introduces losses as the waves propagate transversely out of the driven region and the particles are only transiently trapped. Linearly, the transverse localization leads to constant phase surfaces that defocus the EPW while nonlinearly, the constant phase surfaces from trapping-induced frequency shifts focus the EPW. We show how these processes are affected by the system length and the boundary conditions.
Two-Dimensional Model Simulations of Interannual Variability in the Tropical Stratosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Rosenfeld, Joan; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Meteorological data from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) and constituent data from the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) are used to construct yearly zonal mean dynamical fields for the 1990s for use in the GSFC 2-D chemistry and transport model. This allows for interannual dynamical variability to be included in the model constituent simulations. In this study, we focus on the tropical stratosphere. We find that the phase of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) signals in equatorial CH4, and profile and total column 03 data is resolved quite well using this empirically- based 2-D model transport framework. However. the QBO amplitudes in the model constituents are systematically underestimated relative to the observations at most levels. This deficiency is probably due in part to the limited vertical resolutions of the 2-D model and the UKMO and UARS input data sets. We find that using different heating rate calculations in the model affects the interannual and QBO amplitudes in the constituent fields, but has little impact on the phase. Sensitivity tests reveal that the QBO in transport dominates the ozone interannual variability in the lower stratosphere. with the effect of the temperature QBO being dominant in the tipper stratosphere via the strong temperature dependence of the ozone loss reaction rates. We also find that the QBO in odd nitrogen radicals, which is caused by the QBO modulated transport of NOy, plays a significant but not dominant role in determining the ozone QBO variability in the middle stratosphere. The model mean age of air is in good overall agreement with that determined from tropical lower,middle stratospheric OMS balloon observations of SF6 and CO2. The interannual variability of tile equatorial mean age in the model increases with altitude and maximizes near 40 km, with a range, of 4-5 years over the 1993-2000 time period.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlasis, Alkiviadis; Dessart, Luc; Audit, Edouard
2016-05-01
Some interacting supernovae (SNe) of Type IIn show a sizeable continuum polarization suggestive of a large-scale asymmetry in the circumstellar medium (CSM) and/or the SN ejecta. Here, we extend the recent work of Dessart et al. on superluminous SNe IIn and perform axially-symmetric (i.e. 2D) multigroup radiation hydrodynamics simulations to explore the impact of an imposed large-scale density asymmetry. When the CSM is asymmetric, the latitudinal variation of the radial optical depth τ introduces a strong flux redistribution from the higher density CSM regions, where the shock luminosity is larger, towards the lower density CSM regions where photons escape more freely - this redistribution ceases when τ ≲ 1. Along directions where the CSM density is larger, the shock deceleration is stronger and its progression slower, producing a non-spherical cold-dense shell (CDS). For an oblate CSM density distribution, the photosphere (CDS) has an oblate (prolate) morphology when τ ≳ 1. When the CSM is symmetric and the ejecta asymmetric, the flux redistribution within the CSM now tends to damp the latitudinal variation of the luminosity at the shock. It then requires a larger ejecta asymmetry to produce a sizeable latitudinal variation in the emergent flux. When the interaction is between a SN ejecta and a relic disc, the luminosity boost at early times scales with the disc opening angle - forming a superluminous SN IIn this way requires an unrealistically thick disc. In contrast, interaction with a disc of modest thickness/mass can yield a power that rivals radioactive decay of a standard SN II at nebular times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlasis, Alkiviadis; Dessart, Luc; Audit, Edouard
2016-02-01
Some interacting supernovae (SNe) of type IIn show a sizeable continuum polarisation suggestive of a large scale asymmetry in the circumstellar medium (CSM) and/or the SN ejecta. Here, we extend the recent work of Dessart et al. on super-luminous SNe IIn and perform axially-symmetric (i.e., 2D) multi-group radiation hydrodynamics simulations to explore the impact of an imposed large scale density asymmetry. When the CSM is asymmetric, the latitudinal variation of the radial optical depth τ introduces a strong flux redistribution from the higher-density CSM regions, where the shock luminosity is larger, towards the lower-density CSM regions where photons escape more freely - this redistribution ceases when τ ≲ 1. Along directions where the CSM density is larger, the shock deceleration is stronger and its progression slower, producing a non-spherical cold-dense shell (CDS). For an oblate CSM density distribution, the photosphere (CDS) has an oblate (prolate) morphology when τ ≳ 1. When the CSM is symmetric and the ejecta asymmetric, the flux redistribution within the CSM now tends to damp the latitudinal variation of the luminosity at the shock. It then requires a larger ejecta asymmetry to produce a sizeable latitudinal variation in the emergent flux. When the interaction is between a SN ejecta and a relic disk, the luminosity boost at early times scales with the disk opening angle - forming a super-luminous SN IIn this way requires an unrealistically thick disk. In contrast, interaction with a disk of modest thickness/mass can yield a power that rivals radioactive decay of a standard SN II at nebular times.
CENTRAL REGIONS OF BARRED GALAXIES: TWO-DIMENSIONAL NON-SELF-GRAVITATING HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS
Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Stone, James M.; Yoon, Doosoo; Teuben, Peter J.
2012-03-01
The inner regions of barred galaxies contain substructures such as off-axis shocks, nuclear rings, and nuclear spirals. These substructures may affect star formation, and control the activity of a central black hole (BH) by determining the mass inflow rate. We investigate the formation and properties of such substructures using high-resolution, grid-based hydrodynamic simulations. The gaseous medium is assumed to be infinitesimally thin, isothermal, and non-self-gravitating. The stars and dark matter are represented by a static gravitational potential with four components: a stellar disk, a bulge, a central BH, and a bar. To investigate various galactic environments, we vary the gas sound speed, c{sub s} , as well as the mass of the central BH, M{sub BH}. Once the flow has reached a quasi-steady state, off-axis shocks tend to move closer to the bar major axis as c{sub s} increases. Nuclear rings shrink in size with increasing c{sub s} , but are independent of M{sub BH}, suggesting that the ring position is not determined by the Lindblad resonances. Rings in low-c{sub s} models are narrow since they are occupied largely by gas on x{sub 2}-orbits and well decoupled from nuclear spirals, while they become broad because of large thermal perturbations in high-c{sub s} models. Nuclear spirals persist only when either c{sub s} is small or M{sub BH} is large; they would otherwise be destroyed completely by the ring material on eccentric orbits. The shape and strength of nuclear spirals depend sensitively on c{sub s} and M{sub BH} such that they are leading if both c{sub s} and M{sub BH} are small, weak trailing if c{sub s} is small and M{sub BH} is large, and strong trailing if both c{sub s} and M{sub BH} are large. While the mass inflow rate toward the nucleus is quite small in low-c{sub s} models because of the presence of a narrow nuclear ring, it becomes larger than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when c{sub s} is large, providing a potential explanation of nuclear activity in Seyfert galaxies.
A two-dimensional simulation of tritium transport in the vadose zone at the Nevada Test site
Ross, W.C.; Wheatcraft, S.W.
1994-09-01
The site of a 0.75-kiloton underground nuclear explosion, the Cambric event, was selected for the study of radionuclide transport in the hydrologic environment. Water samples from RNM-2S, a well located 91 m from Cambric, have been analyzed for tritium and other radionuclides since the initiation of pumping. Water from RNM-2S flows to Frenchman Lake via an unlined canal. Flume data indicate canal transmission losses of approximately 2m{sup 3}/day/meter of canal. To determine if infiltrating canal water might be recirculated by RNM-2S, and therefore provide an additional radionuclide input to water samples collected at RNM-2S, a two-dimensional variably saturated solute transport computer model (SATURN, Huyakorn et al., 1983) was used to simulate the movement of tritium from the canal to the water table. Results indicate that recirculated canal water has not had a significant effect on the breakthrough of tritium at RNM-2S.
Boriskina, Svetlana V; Sewell, Phillip; Benson, Trevor M; Nosich, Alexander I
2004-03-01
A fast and accurate method is developed to compute the natural frequencies and scattering characteristics of arbitrary-shape two-dimensional dielectric resonators. The problem is formulated in terms of a uniquely solvable set of second-kind boundary integral equations and discretized by the Galerkin method with angular exponents as global test and trial functions. The log-singular term is extracted from one of the kernels, and closed-form expressions are derived for the main parts of all the integral operators. The resulting discrete scheme has a very high convergence rate. The method is used in the simulation of several optical microcavities for modern dense wavelength-division-multiplexed systems. PMID:15005404
Wu, Tianmin; Zhang, Ruiting; Li, Huanhuan; Zhuang, Wei E-mail: lijiangy@pku.edu.cn; Yang, Lijiang E-mail: lijiangy@pku.edu.cn
2014-02-07
We analyzed, based on the theoretical spectroscopic modeling, how the differences in the folding landscapes of two β-hairpin peptides trpzip2 and trpzip4 are reflected in their thermal unfolding infrared measurements. The isotope-edited equilibrium FTIR and two dimensional infrared spectra of the two peptides were calculated, using the nonlinear exciton propagation method, at a series of temperatures. The spectra calculations were based on the configuration distributions generated using the GB{sup OBC} implicit solvent MD simulation and the integrated tempering sampling technique. Conformational analysis revealed the different local thermal stabilities for these two peptides, which suggested the different folding landscapes. Our study further suggested that the ellipticities of the isotope peaks in the coherent IR signals are more sensitive to these local stability differences compared with other spectral features such as the peak intensities. Our technique can thus be combined with the relevant experimental measurements to achieve a better understanding of the peptide folding behaviors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Tianmin; Zhang, Ruiting; Li, Huanhuan; Yang, Lijiang; Zhuang, Wei
2014-02-01
We analyzed, based on the theoretical spectroscopic modeling, how the differences in the folding landscapes of two β-hairpin peptides trpzip2 and trpzip4 are reflected in their thermal unfolding infrared measurements. The isotope-edited equilibrium FTIR and two dimensional infrared spectra of the two peptides were calculated, using the nonlinear exciton propagation method, at a series of temperatures. The spectra calculations were based on the configuration distributions generated using the GBOBC implicit solvent MD simulation and the integrated tempering sampling technique. Conformational analysis revealed the different local thermal stabilities for these two peptides, which suggested the different folding landscapes. Our study further suggested that the ellipticities of the isotope peaks in the coherent IR signals are more sensitive to these local stability differences compared with other spectral features such as the peak intensities. Our technique can thus be combined with the relevant experimental measurements to achieve a better understanding of the peptide folding behaviors.
Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Fast, Jerome D.; Takigawa, M.
2014-09-30
Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimation of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we developed an aerosol module, designated Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS), that can represent these parameters explicitly by considering new particle formation (NPF), black carbon (BC) aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 µm to resolve both aerosol size (12 bins) and BC mixing state (10 bins) for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters from 1 to 40 nm are resolved using an additional 8 size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module was implemented in the WRF-chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. BC absorption enhancement by coating materials was about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement was estimated to be 10 – 20% over northern East Asia and 20 – 35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast was also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations: NPF increased CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles) over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increased CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles) over southern East Asia. Application of ATRAS to East Asia also showed that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depended strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA processes under different meteorological conditions and emissions.
Hall MHD Simulations of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shou, Y.; Combi, M. R.; Rubin, M.; Hansen, K. C.; Toth, G.; Gombosi, T. I.
2012-12-01
Comets have highly eccentric orbits and a wide range of gas production rates and thus they are ideal subjects to study the interaction between the solar wind and nonmagnetized bodies. Hansen et al. (2007, Space Sci. Rev. 128, 133) used a fluid-based MHD model and a semi-kinetic hybrid particle model to study the plasma environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG), the Rosetta mission target comet, at different heliocentric distances. They showed that for such a weak comet at a large heliocentric distance, the length scales of the cometosheath and the bow shock are comparable to or smaller than the ion gyroradius, which violates the underlying assumption for a valid fluid description of the plasma. As a result, the classical ideal MHD model is not able to always give physical results, while the hybrid model, which accounts for the kinetic effects of ions with both cometary and solar wind origin, is more reliable. However, hybrid models are computationally expensive and the results can be noisy. A compromise approach is Hall MHD [Toth et al., 2008], which includes the Hall term in the MHD equations and allows for the decoupling of the ion and electron fluids. We use a single ion species Hall MHD model to simulate the plasma environment of comet 67P/CG and compare the results with the two models mentioned above. We find that the Hall effect is capable of reproducing some features of the hybrid model and thus extends the applicability of MHD. In addition, this study helps to identify the conditions and regions in the cometary plasma where the Hall effect is not negligible. This work is supported by NSF Planetary Astronomy grant AST0707283 and JPL subcontract 1266313 under NASA grant NMO710889.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roggan, Andre; Mueller, Gerhard J.
1994-12-01
A computer model is presented enabling the determination of optimized laser parameters in advance of a LITT treatment. Besides, a real-time simulation of the spatial temperature- and damage distribution can be performed during the treatment. Input parameters for the simulation are the specific optical and thermal properties of the tissue. The optical properties of human liver and human prostate were measured at 850 nm and 1064 nm using a double- integrating sphere technique and inverse Monte-Carlo simulations. The thermal tissue properties were calculated from the individual water contents. The calculation of the spatial intensity distribution is carried out by performing a fast three-dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation in small time steps. The change of the optical tissue properties during the process of coagulation is taken into account. The corresponding temperature distribution is calculated by a numerical solution of the two-dimensional bio-heat transport equation in cylindrical geometry. Finally the degree of tissue damage is determined by solving the Arrhenius formulas numerically. Blood perfusion of the tissue can be considered as an internal cooling effect. Comparison of the calculated temperature behavior with experimental data shows good agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, A.; Innocenti, M. E.; Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.
2014-08-01
There are a number of modeling challenges posed by space weather simulations. Most of them arise from the multiscale and multiphysics aspects of the problem. The multiple scales dramatically increase the requirements, in terms of computational resources, because of the need of performing large scale simulations with the proper small-scales resolution. Lately, several suggestions have been made to overcome this difficulty by using various refinement methods which consist in splitting the domain into regions of different resolutions separated by well defined interfaces. The multiphysics issues are generally treated in a similar way: interfaces separate the regions where different equations are solved. This paper presents an innovative approach based on the coexistence of several levels of description, which differ by their resolutions or, potentially, by their physics. Instead of interacting through interfaces, these levels are entirely simulated and are interlocked over the complete extension of the overlap area. This scheme has been applied to a parallelized, two-dimensional, Implicit Moment Method Particle in Cell code in order to investigate its multiscale description capabilities. Simulations of magnetic reconnection and plasma expansion in vacuum are presented and possible implementation options for this scheme on very large systems are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baran, Adam J.
This dissertation presents original research into the melting process of a downward facing cryogenic solid hydrogen surface subject to a two dimensional axisymmetric jet impingement flow of superheated hydrogen vapor. The motivation for the study is to investigate concepts of storing rocket propellants as a solid and rapidly melting the solid for liquid propellant delivery to a rocket engine. The present study considers a more favorable liquid removal arrangement than prior (1970s) experiments which melted solid hydrogen at the bottom of a cryostat. This is a numerical study that involves computation fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of four distinct physical phenomena: (1) melting, (2) jet impingement heat transfer (JIHT), (3) multiphase transport, and (4) film breakup/droplet formation. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used with the V2F turbulence model in a commercial CFD Navier-Stokes solver (FLUENT) to investigate the multiphase nature of melt transport and its interaction with the vapor stream; i.e., the phenomena relevant to effective heat transfer between the vapor and the melting interface. The goal of the research is: (1) to develop a numerical method to study the problem and (2) evaluate several simple configurations to begin investigating relevant phenomena for the purpose of enhancing melting rate. Many options exist for the vapor to interact with the solid surface. The scope of this initial research is limited to a steady jet of single phase superheated hydrogen vapor at fixed jet exit conditions (T = 525 R and Re = 11,000) at a fixed jet standoff ( H/D = 1.0). Condensation/vaporization are not considered. Although film breakup/droplet formation is a phenomenon where two dimensional features evolve into three dimensional events, this phenomenon is approximated as two dimensional to allow a computationally tractable problem for this initial study. Calculations are performed validating the numerical method for melting and JIHT against known results. Validation of film breakup/droplet formation is cited in the literature. A numerical method is developed to model the four physical phenomena. Four simple configurations are evaluated and a fundamental understanding is obtained of the multiphase melt transport and vapor interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piotrowski, J.; Goska, R.; Chen, B.; Krajewski, W. F.; Young, N.; Weber, L.
2009-12-01
In June 2008, the state of Iowa experienced an unprecedented flood event which resulted in an economic loss of approximately $2.88 billion. Flooding in the Iowa River corridor, which exceeded the previous flood of record by 3 feet, devastated several communities, including Coralville and Iowa City, home to the University of Iowa. Recognizing an opportunity to capture a unique dataset detailing the impacts of the historic flood, the investigators contacted the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM), which performed an aerial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) survey along the Iowa River. The survey, conducted immediately following the flood peak, provided coverage of a 60-mile reach. The goal of the present research is to develop a process by which flood extents and water surface elevations can be accurately extracted from the LiDAR data set and to evaluate the benefit of such data in calibrating one- and two-dimensional hydraulic models. Whereas data typically available for model calibration include sparsely distributed point observations and high water marks, the LiDAR data used in the present study provide broad-scale, detailed, and continuous information describing the spatial extent and depth of flooding. Initial efforts were focused on a 10-mile, primarily urban reach of the Iowa River extending from Coralville Reservoir, a United States Army Corps of Engineers flood control project, downstream through the Coralville and Iowa City. Spatial extent and depth of flooding were estimated from the LiDAR data. At a given cross-sectional location, river channel and floodplain measurements were compared. When differences between floodplain and river channel measurements were less than a standard deviation of the vertical uncertainty in the LiDAR survey, floodplain measurements were classified as flooded. A flood water surface DEM was created using measurements classified as flooded. A two-dimensional, depth-averaged numerical model of a 10-mile reach of the Iowa River corridor was developed using the United States Bureau of Reclamation SRH-2D hydraulic modeling software. The numerical model uses an unstructured numerical mesh and variable surface roughness, assigned according to observed land use and cover. The numerical model was calibrated using inundation extents and water surface elevations derived from the LiDAR data. It was also calibrated using high water marks and land survey data collected daily during the 2008 flood. The investigators compared the two calibrations to evaluate the benefit of high-resolution LiDAR data in improving the accuracy of a two-dimensional urban flood simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Tao; Mao, Tian; Wang, Yungang; Zeng, Zhongcao; Xia, Chunliang; Wu, Fenglei; Wang, Le
2014-08-01
With the rapid increase of GPS/GNSS receivers being deployed and operated in China, real-time GPS data from nearly a thousand sites are available at the National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorology Administration. However, it is challenging to generate a high-quality regional total electron content (TEC) map with the traditional two-dimensional (2-D) retrieval scheme because a large horizontal gradient has been reported over east-south Asia due to the northern equatorial ionization anomaly. We developed an Ionosphere Data Assimilation Analysis System (IDAAS), which is described in this study, using an International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model as the background and applying a Kalman filter for updated observations. The IDAAS can reconstruct a three-dimensional ionosphere with the GPS slant TEC. The inverse slant TEC correlates well with observations both for GPS sites involved in the reconstruction and sites that are not involved. Based on the IDAAS, simulations were performed to investigate the deviation relative to the slant-to-vertical conversion (STV). The results indicate that the relative deviation induced by slant-to-vertical conversion may be significant in certain instances, and the deviation varies from 0% to 40% when the elevation decreases from 90° to 15°, while the relative IDAAS deviation is much smaller and varies from -5% to 15% without an elevation dependence. Compared with ‘true TEC’ map derived from the model, there is large difference in STV TEC map but no obvious discrepancy in IDAAS map. Generally, the IDAAS TEC map is much closer to the “true TEC” than is STV TEC map is. It is suggested that three-dimensional inversion technique is necessary for GPS observations of low elevation at an equatorial anomaly region, wherein the high horizontal electron density gradient may produce significant slant-to-vertical deviations using the two-dimensional STV inversion method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindley, Brandon; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Tianyu
2012-03-01
We develop a tricomponent (ternary) hydrodynamic model for multiphase flows of biomass and solvent mixtures, which we employ to simulate biofilm. In this model, the three predominant effective components in biofilms, which are the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) network, the bacteria, and the effective solvent (consisting of the solvent and nutrient, etc.), are modeled explicitly. The tricomponent fluid mixture is assumed incompressible as a whole, while intercomponent mixing, dissipation, and conversion are allowed among the effective components. Bacterial growth and EPS production due to the growing bacterial population are modeled in the biomass transport equations. Bacterial decay due to starvation and natural causes is accounted for in the bacterial population dynamics to capture the possible bacterial population reduction due to the depletion of the nutrient. In the growth regime for biofilms, the mixture behaves like a multiphase viscous fluid, in which the molecular relaxation is negligible in the corresponding time scale. In this regime, the dynamics of biofilm growth in the solvent (water) are simulated using a two-dimensional finite difference solver that we developed, in which the distribution and evolution of the EPS and bacterial volume fractions are investigated. The hydrodynamic interaction between the biomass and the solvent flow field is also simulated in a shear cell environment, demonstrating the spatially and temporally heterogeneous distribution of the EPS and bacteria under shear. This model together with the numerical codes developed provides a predictive tool for studying biomass-flow interaction and other important biochemical interactions in the biofilm and solvent fluid mixture.
Riconda, C.; Weber, S.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Adam, J.-C.; Heron, A.
2006-08-15
Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of laser-plasma interaction using a plane-wave geometry show strong bursty stimulated Brillouin backscattering, rapid filamentation, and subsequent plasma cavitation. It is shown that the cavitation is not induced by self-focusing. The electromagnetic fields below the plasma frequency that are excited are related to transient soliton-like structures. At the origin of these solitons is a three-wave decay process exciting new modes in the plasma. The cavitation is responsible for a strong local reduction of the reflectivity and goes along with an efficient but transient heating of the electrons. Once heating ceases, transmission starts to increase. Local as well as global average reflectivities attain a very low value due to strong plasma density variations brought about by the cavitation process. On the one hand, the simulations confirm the existence of a new mechanism of cavity and soliton formation in nonrelativistic laser-plasma interaction in two dimensions, which was shown to exist in one-dimensional simulations [S. Weber, C. Riconda, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 055005 (2005)]. On the other hand, new aspects are introduced inherently related to the additional degree of freedom.
A two-dimensional simulation of the GEC RF reference cell using a hybrid fluid-Monte Carlo method
Pak, H.; Riley, M.E.
1992-12-01
A two-dimensional fluid-Monte Carlo hybrid model is used to simulate the GEC reference cell. The 2-D model assumes azimuthal symmetry and accounts for the ground shield about the electrodes as well as the grounded chamber walls. The hybrid model consists of a Monte Carlo method for generating rates and a fluid model for transporting electrons and ions. In the fluid model, the electrons are transported using the continuity equation; and the electric fields are solved self-consistently using Poisson`s equation. The Monte Carlo model transports electrons using the fluid-generated periodic electric field. The ionization rates are then obtained using the electron energy distribution function. An averaging method is used to speed the solution by transporting the ions in a time-averaged electric field with a corrected ambipolar-type diffusion. The simulation switches between the conventional and the averaging fluid model. Typically, the simulation runs from 10`s to 100`s of averaging fluid cycles before reentering the conventional fluid model for 10`s of cycles. Speed increases of a factor of 100 are possible.
Kadowaki, Hiroko; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Funamoto, Kenichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki
2016-02-01
Information on hemodynamics is essential for elucidation of mechanisms and development of novel diagnostic methods for circulatory diseases. Two-dimensional ultrasonic-measurement-integrated (2D-UMI) simulation can correctly reproduce an intravascular blood flow field and hemodynamics by feeding back an ultrasonic measurement to the numerical blood flow simulation. In this method, it is critically important to give the correct cross-sectional average inflow velocity (inflow velocity) as the boundary condition. However, systematic study has not been done on the relative validity and effectiveness of existing inflow velocity estimation methods for various target flow fields. The aim of this study was to examine the existing methods systematically and to establish a method to accurately estimate inflow velocities for various vessel geometries and flow conditions in 2D-UMI simulations. A numerical experiment was performed for 2D-UMI simulation of blood flow models in a straight vessel with inflow velocity profiles symmetric and asymmetric to the vessel axis using existing evaluation functions based on Doppler velocity error for the inflow velocity estimation. As a result, it was clarified that a significantly large estimation error occurs in the asymmetric flow due to a nonfeedback domain near the downstream end of the calculation domain. Hence, a new inflow velocity estimation method of 2D-UMI simulation is proposed in which the feedback and evaluation domains are extended to the downstream end. Further numerical experiments of 2D-UMI simulation for two realistic vessel geometries of a healthy blood vessel and a stenosed one confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26241967
Large eddy simulations of MHD Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chhiber, R.; Wan, M.; Usmanov, A. V.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Goldstein, M. L.
2014-12-01
Increases in computer power, while important, are not likely to have a large impact on the problem of simulating turbulence at high Reynolds number. The energy and anisotropy are contained predominantly in the larger scales of motion, but most of the computational effort in a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is expended on the smallest dissipative motions. We present preliminary results from a large eddy simulation (LES) with periodic cubic geometry, where we do not attempt to simulate all the wavenumber modes up to the viscous cut-off. Only the large scales are explicitly resolved, while the interaction of the large scales with the smaller scales is modeled. The model is localized by dynamical calculation of the closure parameters. The performance of different models is evaluated by comparison of LES results with data from a higher resolution DNS. We intend this study to form a basis for the implementation of the large eddy simulation technique in a global simulation of the solar wind.
Global Hall-MHD simulations of magnetorotational instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahimi, Fatima; Lefebvre, B.; Forest, C. B.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2010-11-01
Hall-MHD numerical simulations of the Madison Plasma Couette Flow Experiment (MPCX) have been performed using the extended MHD code NIMROD. The MPCX has been constructed to study the Magnetorotational Instability (MRI) in an unmagnetized and fast flowing plasma. The two-fluid Hall effect, which is relevant to some astrophysical situations such as protostellar disks, is also expected to be important in the MPCX. We first derive the local Hall dispersion relation including resistivity and viscosity, extending earlier work by S. Balbus and C. Terquem. The predictions of the local analysis are compared with global linear stability analysis of the MRI for a range of magnetic Prandtl and magnetic Reynolds numbers. It is found that in all cases the MHD stability limit and mode structure are altered by the Hall term. Two-fluid physics also affects significantly the nonlinear evolution and the saturation of the axisymmetric MRI. To further study momentum transport and self-generation of magnetic field in an MRI-driven turbulent state, we have carried out fully nonlinear MHD computations. Non-axisymmetric modes play an increasingly important role as the magnetic Reynolds number increases, and grow to large amplitudes. Supported by NSF grant 0962244.
MHD Simulations of Plasma Thruster in application to VASIMR project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novakowski, S. V.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Ilin, A.
1998-11-01
The results of the computer simulation of the MHD processes occuring in the plasma of the thruster in VASIMR rocket (F. R. Chang-Diaz, Research Status of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket, in Bull. of the APS, Vol. 42, No. 10, p. 2057 ) are presented. The geometry of the thruster chamber and the exaust region is considered and a set of self-consistent MHD equations are solved with the aid of the specifically developed computer code THRUSTER. Different configurations with a different magnetic nozzle shape are considered for the purpose of finding the optimal parameters for thruster efficiency. The results of the simulation, namely the data on the density, temperature and velocity profiles are compared to the experimental data. The role of effects due to self-consistent magnetic field of plasma are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zhifang; Wu, Mingyu; Du, Aimin
2016-02-01
In this paper, ion heating by Alfvén waves associated with dipolarization in the near-Earth magnetotail is investigated by performing a two-dimensional (2-D) global-scale hybrid simulation. In our simulation, the earthward propagating plasma flow is initialized by the E × B drift near the equatorial plane due to the existence of the dawn-dusk convection electric field. When the earthward flow reaches the strong dipole field region, it is braked by the geomagnetic field and simultaneously leads to the pileup of the magnetic flux. This continuous pileup finally results in the formation of the large-scale dipolarization. Dipolarization first appears around (x, z) = (-10.5, 0.3)RE (where RE is the radius of Earth) and subsequently spreads tailward. In the dipolarization region, Alfvén waves are excited and cause the scattering and heating of ions. The heating is mainly on the perpendicular direction. Therefore, the ion temperature anisotropy can be formed in the dipolarization region. Our work provides one possible mechanism for the ion heating and anisotropic distributions observed near the dipolarization region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Y.; Amano, T.; Hoshino, M.
2012-12-01
Electron accelerations at high Mach number collision-less shocks are investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell simulations with various Alfven Mach numbers, ion-to-electron mass ratios, and the upstream electron βe (the ratio of the thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure). We found electrons are effectively accelerated at a super-high Mach number shock (MA ~ 30) with a mass ratio of M/m=100 and βe=0.5. The electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for accelerating the particles toward the relativistic regime even in two dimensions with the large mass ratio. Buneman instability excited at the leading edge of the foot in the super-high Mach number shock results in a coherent electrostatic potential structure. While multi-dimensionality allows the electrons to escape from the trapping region, they can interact with the strong electrostatic field several times. Simulation runs in various parameter regimes indicate that the electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for producing relativistic particles in extremely-high Mach number shocks in supernova remnants, provided that the upstream electron temperature is reasonably low. Matsumoto et al., Astrophys. J., 755, 109, 2012.
Nenov, Artur; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco; Rivalta, Ivan
2015-08-11
First-principles simulations of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy in the ultraviolet region (2DUV) require computationally demanding multiconfigurational approaches that can resolve doubly excited and charge transfer states, the spectroscopic fingerprints of coupled UV-active chromophores. Here, we propose an efficient approach to reduce the computational cost of accurate simulations of 2DUV spectra of benzene, phenol, and their dimer (i.e., the minimal models for studying electronic coupling of UV-chromophores in proteins). We first establish the multiconfigurational recipe with the highest accuracy by comparison with experimental data, providing reference gas-phase transition energies and dipole moments that can be used to construct exciton Hamiltonians involving high-lying excited states. We show that by reducing the active spaces and the number of configuration state functions within restricted active space schemes, the computational cost can be significantly decreased without loss of accuracy in predicting 2DUV spectra. The proposed recipe has been successfully tested on a realistic model proteic system in water. Accounting for line broadening due to thermal and solvent-induced fluctuations allows for direct comparison with experiments. PMID:26574458
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Schneider, Hans R.; Shia, Run-Lie; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sze, Nien-Dak
1993-01-01
Spatial and seasonal distribution of ozone and other trace gases are simulated using a interactive two-dimensional model of the stratosphere updated to include full gas phase chemistry. The model consists of a primitive equation dynamics module, a full radiative transfer scheme, and a comprehensive gas phase chemistry module. The circulation is derived from heating rates in the stratosphere that are calculated using model-generated ozone. In the troposphere, parameterized heating rates are adopted. The eddy momentum flux divergence in the zonal mean momentum equation is given by the eddy fluxes of potential vorticity. Eddy fluxes of potential vorticity and tracers are parameterized using a set of predetermined diffusion coefficients. The adopted values for K(sub yy), show a hemispherical asymmetry in that the values in the lower stratosphere are consistently smaller in the southern hemisphere. The asymmetry in K(sub yy) and in the parameterization of the tropospheric heating rate results in an asymmetry in the circulation giving rise to unique signatures in the trace gas distributions. The model successfully simulates the observed asymmetry in the column abundance of the springtime ozone maxima between northern and southern hemisphere. Results for other trace gases are in agreement with the gross observed features although specific differences exist.
Yu, Zhicong; Noo, Frdric; Dennerlein, Frank; Wunderlich, Adam; Lauritsch, Gnter; Hornegger, Joachim
2012-01-01
Mathematical phantoms are essential for the development and early-stage evaluation of image reconstruction algorithms in x-ray computed tomography (CT). This note offers tools for computer simulations using a two-dimensional (2D) phantom that models the central axial slice through the FORBILD head phantom. Introduced in 1999, in response to a need for a more robust test, the FORBILD head phantom is now seen by many as the gold standard. However, the simple Shepp-Logan phantom is still heavily used by researchers working on 2D image reconstruction. Universal acceptance of the FORBILD head phantom may have been prevented by its significantly-higher complexity: software that allows computer simulations with the Shepp-Logan phantom is not readily applicable to the FORBILD head phantom. The tools offered here address this problem. They are designed for use with Matlab, as well as open-source variants, such as FreeMat and Octave, which are all widely used in both academia and industry. To get started, the interested user can simply copy and paste the codes from this PDF document into Matlab M-files. PMID:22713335
Economou, D.J.; Wise, R.S.; Lymberopoulos, D.P.; Bartel, T.
1995-08-01
The authors present a two-dimensional direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) study of the rarefied reactive flow of neutrals and ions in a low pressure inductively coupled plasma reactor. The spatially-dependent rate coefficients of electron impact reactions and the electrostatic field were obtained from a fluid plasma simulation. Neutral and ion etching of polysilicon with chlorine gas was studied with emphasis on the reaction uniformity along the wafer. Substantial gradients in total gas density were observed across the reactor invalidating the commonly made assumption of constant gas density. The flow was nonequilibrium with differences in the species translational temperatures, and 100 K temperature jumps near the walls. When etching was limited by ions the etch rate was highest at the wafer center. When etching was limited by neutrals, the etch rate was highest at the wafer edge. In such case, the etch uniformity changed significantly depending on the reactivity of the ring surrounding the wafer. The ion angular distribution was several degrees off normal and it was different at the wafer edge compared to the rest of the wafer.
Takao, Yoshinori; Kusaba, Naoki; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi
2010-11-15
Two-dimensional axisymmetric particle-in-cell simulations with Monte Carlo collision calculations (PIC-MCC) have been conducted to investigate argon microplasma characteristics of a miniature inductively coupled plasma source with a 5-mm-diameter planar coil, where the radius and length are 5 mm and 6 mm, respectively. Coupling the rf-electromagnetic fields to the plasma is carried out based on a collisional model and a kinetic model. The former employs the cold-electron approximation and the latter incorporates warm-electron effects. The numerical analysis has been performed for pressures in the range 370-770 mTorr and at 450 MHz rf powers below 3.5 W, and then the PIC-MCC results are compared with available experimental data and fluid simulation results. The results show that a considerably thick sheath structure can be seen compared with the plasma reactor size and the electron energy distribution is non-Maxwellian over the entire plasma region. As a result, the distribution of the electron temperature is quite different from that obtained in the fluid model. The electron temperature as a function of rf power is in a reasonable agreement with experimental data. The pressure dependence of the plasma density shows different tendency between the collisional and kinetic model, implying noncollisional effects even at high pressures due to the high rf frequency, where the electron collision frequency is less than the rf driving frequency.
Intensity contrast from MHD simulations and HINODE observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afram, N.; Unruh, Y. C.; Solanki, S. K.; Schüssler, M.; Lagg, A.; Vögler, A.
2011-02-01
Context. Changes in the solar surface area, which is covered by small-scale magnetic elements, are thought to cause long-term changes in the solar spectral irradiance, which are important for determining the impact on Earth's climate. Aims: To study the effect of small-scale magnetic elements on the total and spectral irradiance, we derive their contrasts from 3-D MHD simulations of the solar atmosphere. These calculations are necessary because measurements of small-scale flux tube contrasts are confined to a few wavelengths and affected by scattered light and instrument defocus, even for space observations. Methods: To test the contrast calculations, we compare rms contrasts from simulations with those obtained with the broad-band filter imager mounted on the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode satellite and also analyse centre-to-limb variations (CLV). The 3-D MHD simulations include the interaction between convection and magnetic flux tubes. They are performed by assuming non-grey radiative transfer and using the MURaM code. The simulations have an average vertical magnetic field of 0 G, 50 G, and 200 G. Emergent intensities are calculated with the spectral synthesis code ATLAS9 and are convolved with a theoretical point-spread function to account for the properties of the observations' optical system. Results: We find reasonable agreement between simulated and observed intensity distributions in the visible continuum bands. Agreement is poorer for the CN and G-bands. The analysis of the simulations uncovers a potentially more realistic centre-to-limb behaviour than calculations based on 1-D model atmospheres. Conclusions: We conclude that starting from 3-D MHD simulations represents a powerful approach to obtaining intensity contrasts for a wide wavelength coverage and different positions across on the solar disk. This also paves the way for future calculations of facular and network contrast as a function of magnetic fluxes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ito, Hironobu; Tanimura, Yoshitaka
2016-02-01
Full classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of two-dimensional (2D) infrared-Raman and 2D Raman spectroscopies of liquid water were carried out to elucidate a mode-mode coupling mechanism using a polarizable water model for intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational spectroscopy (POLI2VS). This model is capable of describing both infrared and Raman spectra. Second-order response functions, which consist of one molecular polarizability and two molecular dipole moments for 2D IR-Raman and three molecular polarizabilities for 2D Raman spectroscopies, were calculated using an equilibrium-non-equilibrium hybrid MD approach. The obtained signals were analyzed using a multi-mode Brownian oscillator (BO) model with nonlinear system-bath interactions representing the intramolecular OH stretching, intramolecular HOH bending, hydrogen bonded (HB)-intermolecular librational motion and HB-intermolecular vibrational (translational) motion of liquid water. This model was applied through use of hierarchal Fokker-Planck equations. The qualitative features of the peak profiles in the 2D spectra obtained from the MD simulations are accurately reproduced with the BO model. This indicates that this model captures the essential features of the intermolecular and intramolecular motion. We elucidate the mechanisms governing the 2D signal profiles involving anharmonic mode-mode coupling, the nonlinearities of the polarizability and dipole moment, and the vibrational dephasing processes of liquid water even in the case that the 2D spectral peaks obtained from the MD simulation overlap or are unclear. The mode coupling peaks caused by electrical anharmonic coupling (EAHC) and mechanical anharmonic coupling (MAHC) are observed in all of the 2D spectra. We find that the strength of the MAHC between the OH-stretching and HB-intermolecular vibrational modes is comparable to that between the OH-stretching and HOH bending modes. Moreover, we find that this OH-stretching and HB-intermolecular vibrational coupling should be observed as off-diagonal cross peaks in the 2D spectra.
Ito, Hironobu; Tanimura, Yoshitaka
2016-02-21
Full classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of two-dimensional (2D) infrared-Raman and 2D Raman spectroscopies of liquid water were carried out to elucidate a mode-mode coupling mechanism using a polarizable water model for intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational spectroscopy (POLI2VS). This model is capable of describing both infrared and Raman spectra. Second-order response functions, which consist of one molecular polarizability and two molecular dipole moments for 2D IR-Raman and three molecular polarizabilities for 2D Raman spectroscopies, were calculated using an equilibrium-non-equilibrium hybrid MD approach. The obtained signals were analyzed using a multi-mode Brownian oscillator (BO) model with nonlinear system-bath interactions representing the intramolecular OH stretching, intramolecular HOH bending, hydrogen bonded (HB)-intermolecular librational motion and HB-intermolecular vibrational (translational) motion of liquid water. This model was applied through use of hierarchal Fokker-Planck equations. The qualitative features of the peak profiles in the 2D spectra obtained from the MD simulations are accurately reproduced with the BO model. This indicates that this model captures the essential features of the intermolecular and intramolecular motion. We elucidate the mechanisms governing the 2D signal profiles involving anharmonic mode-mode coupling, the nonlinearities of the polarizability and dipole moment, and the vibrational dephasing processes of liquid water even in the case that the 2D spectral peaks obtained from the MD simulation overlap or are unclear. The mode coupling peaks caused by electrical anharmonic coupling (EAHC) and mechanical anharmonic coupling (MAHC) are observed in all of the 2D spectra. We find that the strength of the MAHC between the OH-stretching and HB-intermolecular vibrational modes is comparable to that between the OH-stretching and HOH bending modes. Moreover, we find that this OH-stretching and HB-intermolecular vibrational coupling should be observed as off-diagonal cross peaks in the 2D spectra. PMID:26896979
Tie, X.; Lin, X.; Brasseur, G. |
1994-08-01
We have developed a coupled two-dimensional dynamical/chemical/microphysical model to study the global distribution of stratospheric sulfate aerosols. We use this model to simulate the global distribution of volcanic aerosols after the eruption of El Chichon in Mexico in April 1982. The simulated background aerosol distribution are highly dispersed, while a slight latitudinal gradient is also noticed. The calculated background aerosol surface area and mass are about 0.7 to 1.0 sq microns/cu cm and 0.3 to 0.5 parts per billion by mass, respectively, at midlatitude in the northern hemisphere, in fair agreement with available observations. After the eruption of El Chichon in April 1982, the stratospheric aerosol load rapidly increases in the tropics at an altitude of 20 to 25 km. The aerosol area in the tropics reaches a maximum 50 sq microns/ cu cm in the lower stratosphere, which is about 70-100 times the background aerosol area. Six months after the eruption, volcanic aerosols spread out globally but are still centered in the tropics. One year after the eruption the enhanced aerosol begins to decrease and tends to become uniformly distributed in the lower stratosphere. Two years after the eruption the global aerosol is about 5 times the background aerosol load in the lower stratosphere. The e-folding time of the aerosol load is about 10 months in the tropics during the postvolcanic period. Compared to observations (in terms of spatial, temporal, and size distributions), the model quantitatively simulates the evolution of volcanic aerosol clouds. Thus this model could be a useful tool for studying the impacts of volcanic eruptions on stratospheric ozone and climate.
Banks, J. W.; Berger, R. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Hittinger, J. A. F.; Brunner, S.
2011-05-15
Two-dimensional Vlasov simulations of nonlinear electron plasma waves are presented, in which the interplay of linear and nonlinear kinetic effects is evident. The plasma wave is created with an external traveling wave potential with a transverse envelope of width {Delta}y such that thermal electrons transit the wave in a ''sideloss'' time, t{sub sl{approx}{Delta}}y/v{sub e}. Here, v{sub e} is the electron thermal velocity. The quasisteady distribution of trapped electrons and its self-consistent plasma wave are studied after the external field is turned off. In cases of particular interest, the bounce frequency, {omega}{sub be}=k{radical}(e{phi}/m{sub e}), satisfies the trapping condition {omega}{sub be}t{sub sl}>2{pi} such that the wave frequency is nonlinearly downshifted by an amount proportional to the number of trapped electrons. Here, k is the wavenumber of the plasma wave and {phi} is its electric potential. For sufficiently short times, the magnitude of the negative frequency shift is a local function of {phi}. Because the trapping frequency shift is negative, the phase of the wave on axis lags the off-axis phase if the trapping nonlinearity dominates linear wave diffraction. In this case, the phasefronts are curved in a focusing sense. In the opposite limit, the phasefronts are curved in a defocusing sense. Analysis and simulations in which the wave amplitude and transverse width are varied establish criteria for the development of each type of wavefront. The damping and trapped-electron-induced focusing of the finite-amplitude electron plasma wave are also simulated. The damping rate of the field energy of the wave is found to be about the sideloss rate, {nu}{sub e{approx}}t{sub sl}{sup -1}. For large wave amplitudes or widths {Delta}y, a trapping-induced self-focusing of the wave is demonstrated.
2015-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) optical spectroscopy techniques based on ultrashort laser pulses have been recently extended to the optical domain in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. UV-active aromatic side chains can thus be used as local highly specific markers for tracking dynamics and structural rearrangements of proteins. Here we demonstrate that 2D electronic spectra of a model proteic system, a tetrapeptide with two aromatic side chains, contain enough structural information to distinguish between two different configurations with distant and vicinal side chains. For accurate simulations of the 2DUV spectra in solution, we combine a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach based on wave function methods, accounting for interchromophores coupling and environmental effects, with nonlinear response theory. The proposed methodology reveals effects, such as charge transfer between vicinal aromatic residues that remain concealed in conventional exciton Hamiltonian approaches. Possible experimental setups are discussed, including multicolor experiments and signal manipulation techniques for limiting undesired background contributions and enhancing 2DUV signatures of specific electronic couplings. PMID:24803989
Large-Eddy Simulation for the Mechanism of Pollutant Removal from a Two-Dimensional Street Canyon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michioka, Takenobu; Sato, Ayumu; Takimoto, Hiroshi; Kanda, Manabu
2011-02-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) is conducted to investigate the mechanism of pollutant removal from a two-dimensional street canyon with a building-height to street-width (aspect) ratio of 1. A pollutant is released as a ground-level line source at the centre of the canyon floor. The mean velocities, turbulent fluctuations, and mean pollutant concentration estimated by LES are in good agreement with those obtained by wind-tunnel experiments. Pollutant removal from the canyon is mainly determined by turbulent motions, except in the adjacent area to the windward wall. The turbulent motions are composed of small vortices and small-scale coherent structures of low-momentum fluid generated close to the plane of the roof. Although both small vortices and small-scale coherent structures affect pollutant removal, the pollutant is largely emitted from the canyon by ejection of low-momentum fluid when the small-scale coherent structures appear just above the canyon where the pollutant is retained. Large-scale coherent structures also develop above the canyon, but they do not always affect pollutant removal.
FireStem2D – A Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Simulating Tree Stem Injury in Fires
Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Bohrer, Gil; Bova, Anthony S.; Subramanian, Ravishankar; Frasson, Renato P. M.; Scherzer, Amy; Butler, Bret W.; Dickinson, Matthew B.
2013-01-01
FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes. PMID:23894599
FireStem2D--a two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires.
Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K; Bohrer, Gil; Bova, Anthony S; Subramanian, Ravishankar; Frasson, Renato P M; Scherzer, Amy; Butler, Bret W; Dickinson, Matthew B
2013-01-01
FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes. PMID:23894599
Nenov, Artur; Rivalta, Ivan; Cerullo, Giulio; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco
2014-02-20
Two-dimensional (2D) optical spectroscopy techniques based on ultrashort laser pulses have been recently extended to the optical domain in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. UV-active aromatic side chains can thus be used as local highly specific markers for tracking dynamics and structural rearrangements of proteins. Here we demonstrate that 2D electronic spectra of a model proteic system, a tetrapeptide with two aromatic side chains, contain enough structural information to distinguish between two different configurations with distant and vicinal side chains. For accurate simulations of the 2DUV spectra in solution, we combine a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach based on wave function methods, accounting for interchromophores coupling and environmental effects, with nonlinear response theory. The proposed methodology reveals effects, such as charge transfer between vicinal aromatic residues that remain concealed in conventional exciton Hamiltonian approaches. Possible experimental setups are discussed, including multicolor experiments and signal manipulation techniques for limiting undesired background contributions and enhancing 2DUV signatures of specific electronic couplings. PMID:24803989
Quick Time-dependent Ionization Calculations Depending on MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Chengcai; Raymond, John C.; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold
2014-06-01
Time-dependent ionization is important in astrophysical environments where the thermodynamic time scale is shorter than ionization time scale. In this work, we report a FORTRAN program that performs fast non-equilibrium ionization calculations based on parallel computing. Using MHD simulation results, we trace the movements of plasma in a Lagrangian framework, and obtain evolutionary history of temperature and electron density. Then the time-dependent ionization equations are solved using the eigenvalue method. For any complex temperature and density histories, we introduce a advanced time-step strategy to improve the computational efficiency. Our tests show that this program has advantages of high numerical stability and high accuracy. In addition, it is also easy to integrate this solver with the other MHD routines.
Spectral Methods in General Relativistic MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garrison, David
2012-03-01
In this talk I discuss the use of spectral methods in improving the accuracy of a General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) computer code. I introduce SpecCosmo, a GRMHD code developed as a Cactus arrangement at UHCL, and show simulation results using both Fourier spectral methods and finite differencing. This work demonstrates the use of spectral methods with the FFTW 3.3 Fast Fourier Transform package integrated with the Cactus Framework to perform spectral differencing using MPI.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Considine, David B.
1998-01-01
We have developed a new empirically-based transport algorithm for use in our GSFC two-dimensional transport and chemistry assessment model. The new algorithm contains planetary wave statistics, and parameterizations to account for the effects due to gravity waves and equatorial Kelvin waves. We will present an overview of the new algorithm, and show various model-data comparisons of long-lived tracers as part of the model validation. We will also show how the new algorithm gives substantially better agreement with observations compared to our previous model transport. The new model captures much of the qualitative structure and seasonal variability observed methane, water vapor, and total ozone. These include: isolation of the tropics and winter polar vortex, the well mixed surf-zone region of the winter sub-tropics and mid-latitudes, and the propagation of seasonal signals in the tropical lower stratosphere. Model simulations of carbon-14 and strontium-90 compare fairly well with observations in reproducing the peak in mixing ratio at 20-25 km, and the decrease with altitude in mixing ratio above 25 km. We also ran time dependent simulations of SF6 from which the model mean age of air values were derived. The oldest air (5.5 to 6 years) occurred in the high latitude upper stratosphere during fall and early winter of both hemispheres, and in the southern hemisphere lower stratosphere during late winter and early spring. The latitudinal gradient of the mean ages also compare well with ER-2 aircraft observations in the lower stratosphere.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.
1994-01-01
Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated polluted layers is most similar to our cases with inland mountains.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savoini, P.; Lembége, B.; Stienlet, J.
2010-09-01
The foreshock region is populated by energetic backstreaming particles (electrons and ions) issued from the shock after having interacted with it. Several aspects concerning the origin of these high-energy particles and their corresponding acceleration mechanisms are still unresolved. The present study is focused on a quasi-perpendicular curved shock and associated electron foreshock region (i.e., for 90° ≥ $\\theta$Bn ≥ 45°, where $\\theta$Bn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field). Two-dimensional full-particle simulation is used in order to include self-consistently the electron and ion dynamics, the full dynamics of the shock, the curvature effects and the time-of-flight effects. All expected salient features of the bow shock are recovered both for particles and for electromagnetic fields. Present simulations evidence that the fast-Fermi acceleration (magnetic mirror) mechanism, which is commonly accepted, is certainly not the unique process responsible for the formation of energetic backstreaming electrons. Other mechanisms also contribute. More precisely, three different classes of backstreaming electrons are identified according to their individual penetration depth within the shock front: (i) “magnetic mirrored” electrons which only suffer a specular reflection at the front, (ii) “trapped” electrons which succeed to penetrate the overshoot region and suffer a local trapping within the parallel electrostatic potential at the overshoot, and (iii) “leaked” electrons which penetrate even much deeper into the downstream region. “Trapped” and “leaked” electrons succeed to find appropriate conditions to escape from the shock and to be reinjected back upstream. All these different types of electrons contribute together to the formation of energetic field-aligned beam. The acceleration mechanisms associated to each electron class and/or escape conditions are analyzed and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kercek, A.; Hillebrandt, W.; Truran, J. W.
1998-09-01
We present the results of two-dimensional calculations of turbulent nuclear burning of hydrogen-rich material accreted onto a white dwarf of 1.0 Msun. The main aim of the present paper is to investigate the question as to whether and how the general properties of the burning are affected by numerical resolution effects. In particular, we want to see whether or not convective overshooting into the surface layers of the C+O white dwarf can lead to self-enrichment of the initially solar composition of the hydrogen-rich envelope with carbon and oxygen from the underlying white dwarf core. Our explicit hydrodynamic code is based on the PPM-method and computes the onset of the thermonuclear runaway on a Cartesian grid. Only part of the white dwarf's surface is covered by the computational grid and curvature effects are ignored. In contrast to previous works we do not observe fast mixing of carbon and oxygen from the white dwarf's surface into the envelope by violent overshooting of large eddies. The main features of the flow fields in our simulations are the appearance of small persistent coherent structures of very high vorticity (and velocity) compared to the background flow. Their typical linear scales are about 10 to 20 grid zones and thus their physical size depends on the numerical resolution, i.e, their size decreases with increasing resolution. For the early phase of the thermonuclear runaway (TNR) they dominate the flow patterns and result in very little overshoot and mixing. Only at late times, after steady slow mixing and with increasing nuclear energy production, do these structures become weak, but show up again once hydrogen has mainly been burnt and the energy generation rate drops. On the other hand, there are no big differences between high and low resolution simulations, as far as the overall properties of the TNR are concerned. The two simulations which are presented here show only moderate differences in spatially integrated quantities such as laterally averaged temperature, energy generation rate, and chemical composition. We have not expanded both simulations equally long, but for the physical time under consideration the major difference seems to be that the highly resolved simulation is a bit less violent. In conclusion, we do find some self-enrichment, but on time-scales much longer than in previous calculations.
Visual analysis of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frank, M.; Barleon, L.; Müller, U.
2001-08-01
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) offers a unique opportunity to study the behavior of two-dimensional turbulent flows. A strong external magnetic field B perpendicular to the flow direction of an electrically conducting fluid will suppress velocity gradients in the direction of B. The resulting approximation is known as quasi-two-dimensional MHD. An experimental configuration is presented which meets this requirement, along with a spatially extended probe used to visualize the two-dimensional flow kinematics inside the opaque liquid metal flow. As a prototypical example, the wake behind a circular cylinder is investigated for Reynolds numbers up to R=10 000. New and unexpected vortex patterns are observed that deviate significantly from usual hydrodynamic flows. Also, stability limits for the transition from stationary to nonstationary flow patterns are experimentally determined for the cylinder wake and another type of shear flow profile. These results confirm existing theoretical predictions and thus validate the quasi-two-dimensional approach.
3D MHD Simulations of Spheromak Compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuber, James E.; Woodruff, Simon; O'Bryan, John; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; Darpa Spheromak Team
2015-11-01
The adiabatic compression of compact tori could lead to a compact and hence low cost fusion energy system. The critical scientific issues in spheromak compression relate both to confinement properties and to the stability of the configuration undergoing compression. We present results from the NIMROD code modified with the addition of magnetic field coils that allow us to examine the role of rotation on the stability and confinement of the spheromak (extending prior work for the FRC). We present results from a scan in initial rotation, from 0 to 100km/s. We show that strong rotational shear (10km/s over 1cm) occurs. We compare the simulation results with analytic scaling relations for adiabatic compression. Work performed under DARPA grant N66001-14-1-4044.
MHD Simulations of Plasma Dynamics with Non-Axisymmetric Boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Chris; Levesque, Jeffrey; Morgan, Kyle; Jarboe, Thomas
2015-11-01
The arbitrary geometry, 3D extended MHD code PSI-TET is applied to linear and non-linear simulations of MCF plasmas with non-axisymmetric boundaries. Progress and results from simulations on two experiments will be presented: 1) Detailed validation studies of the HIT-SI experiment with self-consistent modeling of plasma dynamics in the helicity injectors. Results will be compared to experimental data and NIMROD simulations that model the effect of the helicity injectors through boundary conditions on an axisymmetric domain. 2) Linear studies of HBT-EP with different wall configurations focusing on toroidal asymmetries in the adjustable conducting wall. HBT-EP studies the effect of active/passive stabilization with an adjustable ferritic wall. Results from linear verification and benchmark studies of ideal mode growth with and without toroidal asymmetries will be presented and compared to DCON predictions. Simulations of detailed experimental geometries are enabled by use of the PSI-TET code, which employs a high order finite element method on unstructured tetrahedral grids that are generated directly from CAD models. Further development of PSI-TET will also be presented including work to support resistive wall regions within extended MHD simulations. Work supported by DoE.
Magnetic reconnection in Hall MHD simulations including electron inertia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, D. O.; Andres, N.; Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.
2012-12-01
Magnetic reconnection is an important physical mechanism of energy conversion in various space plasma physics environments, such as the solar corona or planetary magnetospheres. Theoretical models of magnetic reconnection were first developed within the framework of one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), where the Sweet-Parker regime leads to exceedingly low reconnection rates for most space physics problems. Kinetic plasma effects introduce new spatial and temporal scales into the theoretical description, which might significantly increase the reconnection rates. We work within the framework of two-fluid MHD for a fully ionized hydrogen plasma, retaining the effects of the Hall current and electron inertia. The corresponding equations of motion display three ideal invariants: total energy, electron helicity and ion helicity. We performed 2.5 D Hall MHD simulations including electron inertia using a pseudo-spectral code, which yield exponentially fast numerical convergence. Our results show that reconnection takes place in an electron-dominated region, whose spatial scale is given by the electron skin depth. This region is surrounded by a much larger ion-dominated region, with a spatial scale of the order of the ion skin depth. The computed reconnection rates remain a fair fraction of the Alfven velocity, which is much larger than the Sweet-Parker reconnection rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamb, K. G.; Warn-Varnas, A.
2015-05-01
The interaction of barotropic tides with Luzon Strait topography generates some of the world's largest internal solitary waves which eventually shoal and dissipate on the western side of the northern South China Sea. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of the shoaling of a single internal solitary wave at the site of the Asian Seas International Acoustic Experiment (ASIAEX) have been undertaken in order to investigate the sensitivity of the shoaling process to the stratification and the underlying bathymetry and to explore the influence of rotation. The bulk of the simulations are inviscid; however, exploratory simulations using a vertical eddy-viscosity confined to a near bottom layer, along with a no-slip boundary condition, suggest that viscous effects may become important in water shallower than about 200 m. A shoaling solitary wave fissions into several waves. At depths of 200-300 m the front of the leading waves become nearly parallel to the bottom and develop a very steep back as has been observed. The leading waves are followed by waves of elevation (pedestals) that are conjugate to the waves of depression ahead and behind them. Horizontal resolutions of at least 50 m are required to simulate these well. Wave breaking was found to occur behind the second or third of the leading solitary waves, never at the back of the leading wave. Comparisons of the shoaling of waves started at depths of 1000 and 3000 m show significant differences and the shoaling waves can be significantly non-adiabatic even at depths greater than 2000 m. When waves reach a depth of 200 m, their amplitudes can be more than 50% larger than the largest possible solitary wave at that depth. The shoaling behaviour is sensitive to the presence of small-scale features in the bathymetry: a 200 m high bump at 700 m depth can result in the generation of many mode-two waves and of higher mode waves. Sensitivity to the stratification is considered by using three stratifications based on summer observations. They primarily differ in the depth of the thermocline. The generation of mode-two waves and the behaviour of the waves in shallow water is sensitive to this depth. Rotation affects the shoaling waves by reducing the amplitude of the leading waves via the radiation of long trailing inertia-gravity waves. The nonlinear-dispersive evolution of these inertia-gravity waves results in the formation of secondary mode-one wave packets.
Analysis and gyrokinetic simulation of MHD Alfven wave interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielson, Kevin Derek
The study of low-frequency turbulence in magnetized plasmas is a difficult problem due to both the enormous range of scales involved and the variety of physics encompassed over this range. Much of the progress that has been made in turbulence theory is based upon a result from incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), in which energy is only transferred from large scales to small via the collision of Alfven waves propagating oppositely along the mean magnetic field. Improvements in laboratory devices and satellite measurements have demonstrated that, while theories based on this premise are useful over inertial ranges, describing turbulence at scales that approach particle gyroscales requires new theory. In this thesis, we examine the limits of incompressible MHD theory in describing collisions between pairs of Alfven waves. This interaction represents the fundamental unit of plasma turbulence. To study this interaction, we develop an analytic theory describing the nonlinear evolution of interacting Alfven waves and compare this theory to simulations performed using the gyrokinetic code AstroGK. Gyrokinetics captures a much richer set of physics than that described by incompressible MHD, and is well-suited to describing Alfvenic turbulence around the ion gyroscale. We demonstrate that AstroGK is well suited to the study of physical Alfven waves by reproducing laboratory Alfven dispersion data collected using the LAPD. Additionally, we have developed an initialization alogrithm for use with AstroGK that allows exact Alfven eigenmodes to be initialized with user specified amplitudes and phases. We demonstrate that our analytic theory based upon incompressible MHD gives excellent agreement with gyrokinetic simulations for weakly turbulent collisions in the limit that k⊥rho i << 1. In this limit, agreement is observed in the time evolution of nonlinear products, and in the strength of nonlinear interaction with respect to polarization and scale. We also examine the effect of wave amplitude upon the validity of our analytic solution, exploring the nature of strong turbulence. In the kinetic limit where k⊥ rhoi ≳ 1 where incompressible MHD is no longer a valid description, we illustrate how the nonlinear evolution departs from our analytic expression. The analytic theory we develop provides a framework from which more sophisticated of weak and strong inertial-range turbulence theories may be developed. Characterization of the limits of this theory may provide guidance in the development of kinetic Alfven wave turbulence.
Garcia, A.L.; Baras, F.; Mansour, M.M.
1994-06-30
In a recent paper, Watanabe, {ital et. al.} used direct simulation Monte Carlo to study Rayleigh-B{acute e}nard convection. They reported that, using stress-free boundary conditions, the onset of convection in the simulation occurred at a Rayleigh number much larger than the critical Rayleigh number predicted by linear stability analysis. We show that the source of their discrepancy is their failure to include the temperature jump effect in the calculation of Rayleigh number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richert, Alexander J. W.; Lyra, Wladimir; Boley, Aaron; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Turner, Neal
2015-05-01
Recent observations of gaps and non-axisymmetric features in the dust distributions of transition disks have been interpreted as evidence of embedded massive protoplanets. However, comparing the predictions of planet-disk interaction models to the observed features has shown far from perfect agreement. This may be due to the strong approximations used for the predictions. For example, spiral arm fitting typically uses results that are based on low-mass planets in an isothermal gas. In this work, we describe two-dimensional, global, hydrodynamical simulations of disks with embedded protoplanets, with and without the assumption of local isothermality, for a range of planet-to-star mass ratios 1-10 {{M}J} for a 1 {{M}? } star. We use the Pencil Code in polar coordinates for our models. We find that the inner and outer spiral wakes of massive protoplanets (M? 5 {{M}J}) produce significant shock heating that can trigger buoyant instabilities. These drive sustained turbulence throughout the disk when they occur. The strength of this effect depends strongly on the mass of the planet and the thermal relaxation timescale; for a 10 {{M}J} planet embedded in a thin, purely adiabatic disk, the spirals, gaps, and vortices typically associated with planet-disk interactions are disrupted. We find that the effect is only weakly dependent on the initial radial temperature profile. The spirals that form in disks heated by the effects we have described may fit the spiral structures observed in transition disks better than the spirals predicted by linear isothermal theory.
Ohsuga, Ken; Mineshige, Shin
2011-07-20
We present the detailed global structure of black hole accretion flows and outflows through newly performed two-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. By starting from a torus threaded with weak toroidal magnetic fields and by controlling the central density of the initial torus, {rho}{sub 0}, we can reproduce three distinct modes of accretion flow. In model A, which has the highest central density, an optically and geometrically thick supercritical accretion disk is created. The radiation force greatly exceeds the gravity above the disk surface, thereby driving a strong outflow (or jet). Because of mild beaming, the apparent (isotropic) photon luminosity is {approx}22L{sub E} (where L{sub E} is the Eddington luminosity) in the face-on view. Even higher apparent luminosity is feasible if we increase the flow density. In model B, which has moderate density, radiative cooling of the accretion flow is so efficient that a standard-type, cold, and geometrically thin disk is formed at radii greater than {approx}7 R{sub S} (where R{sub S} is the Schwarzschild radius), while the flow is radiatively inefficient otherwise. The magnetic-pressure-driven disk wind appears in this model. In model C, the density is too low for the flow to be radiatively efficient. The flow thus becomes radiatively inefficient accretion flow, which is geometrically thick and optically thin. The magnetic-pressure force, together with the gas-pressure force, drives outflows from the disk surface, and the flow releases its energy via jets rather than via radiation. Observational implications are briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Wang, Y.
2016-03-01
In this work, a discrete gas-kinetic scheme (DGKS) is presented for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows. This scheme is developed from the circular function-based GKS, which was recently proposed by Shu and his co-workers [L. M. Yang, C. Shu, and J. Wu, J. Comput. Phys. 274, 611 (2014), 10.1016/j.jcp.2014.06.033]. For the circular function-based GKS, the integrals for conservation forms of moments in the infinity domain for the Maxwellian function-based GKS are simplified to those integrals along the circle. As a result, the explicit formulations of conservative variables and fluxes are derived. However, these explicit formulations of circular function-based GKS for viscous flows are still complicated, which may not be easy for the application by new users. By using certain discrete points to represent the circle in the phase velocity space, the complicated formulations can be replaced by a simple solution process. The basic requirement is that the conservation forms of moments for the circular function-based GKS can be accurately satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. In this work, it is shown that integral quadrature by four discrete points on the circle, which forms the D2Q4 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integrals. Numerical results showed that the present scheme can provide accurate numerical results for incompressible and compressible viscous flows with roughly the same computational cost as that needed by the Roe scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Tracy N. H.; Liu, Chun-Ho
2013-07-01
Flow resistance, ventilation, and pollutant removal for idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of different building-height to street-width (aspect) ratios AR are examined using the friction factor f, air exchange rate (ACH), and pollutant exchange rate (PCH), respectively, calculated by large-eddy simulation (LES). The flows are basically classified into three characteristic regimes, namely isolated roughness, wake interference, and skimming flow, as functions of the aspect ratios. The LES results are validated by various experimental and numerical datasets available in the literature. The friction factor increases with decreasing aspect ratio and reaches a peak at AR = 0.1 in the isolated roughness regime and decreases thereafter. As with the friction factor, the ACH increases with decreasing aspect ratio in the wake interference and skimming flow regimes, signifying the improved aged air removal for a wider street canyon. The PCH exhibits a behaviour different from its ACH counterpart in the range of aspect ratios tested. Pollutants are most effectively removed from the street canyon with AR = 0.5. However, a minimum of PCH is found nearby at AR = 0.3, at which the pollutant removal is sharply weakened. Besides, the ACH and PCH are partitioned into the mean and turbulent components to compare their relative contributions. In line with our earlier Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations (Liu et al., Atmos Environ 45:4763-4769, 2011), the current LES shows that the turbulent components contribute more to both ACH and PCH, consistently demonstrating the importance of atmospheric turbulence in the ventilation and pollutant removal for urban areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Jiangdi
The graphite intercalation compounds (GIC's) provide us with very interesting examples of a two-dimensional (2D) system of interacting particles in a periodic host lattice. The competition of the interatomic or intermolecular interaction with the host-intercalant interaction determines the structure and dynamics of the intercalated layer (Moss et al., 1988). X-ray diffraction and neutron scattering techniques have been traditionally used to investigate this interacting system, but molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, which is applied here for the first time to these materials, has been widely used in a variety of modern scientific research activities over the past twenty years. A central problem in MD simulation is the choice of a proper interaction potential that governs the motion of particles in the system. Fortunately, Visscher and Falicov (1971) have provided a fundamental theory of the 2D screened Coulombic pair interaction potential appropriate to these alkali liquids and Plischke (1981) has worked out an explicit expression of this potential suitable for the GIC system. Furthermore, Reiter and Moss (1986) have developed a theory whereby the host modulation potential can be determined by experiment and this experimental potential has been used in the present work. Both static and dynamic properties of the system C_{24}Rb, a 2D Rb liquid modulated by its host graphite substrate, were investigated at room temperature by means of MD simulation to compare with experimental scattering data. Very good agreement with the static structure factor, S(q), and with the Fourier transform of the number density of atoms, < rho^'_{rm qsc {HK}}>, between MD and experiment was achieved. The extension to the dynamical response, S(q,omega) was also done. This comparison gave excellent agreement with the experimentally determined transverse and longitudinal peaks in the phonon density of states, with the diffusion constant and with the root mean square amplitude of thermal displacement associated with the "solid-like" component of the 2D liquid structure induced by the host potential. Finally a real -space picture of this modulated 2D liquid emerges which consists of fluctuating "solid" domains, or registered islands of Rb, that form and decay in a time scale long compared to the vibrational period of an atom within such a domain. These domains appear to coexist with a liquid -like fraction that was found by Zabel et al. (1986) to decrease with decreasing temperature, vanishing at the freezing point.
Judi, David R; Mcpherson, Timothy N; Burian, Steven J
2009-01-01
A grid resolution sensitivity analysis using a two-dimensional flood inundation model has been presented in this paper. Simulations for 6 dam breaches located randomly in the United States were run at 10,30,60,90, and 120 meter resolutions. The dams represent a range of topographic conditions, ranging from 0% slope to 1.5% downstream of the dam. Using 10 meter digital elevation model (DEM) simulation results as the baseline, the coarser simulation results were compared in terms of flood inundation area, peak depths, flood wave travel time, daytime and nighttime population in flooded area, and economic impacts. The results of the study were consistent with previous grid resolution studies in terms of inundated area, depths, and velocity impacts. The results showed that as grid resolution is decreased, the relative fit of inundated area between the baseline and coarser resolution decreased slightly. This is further characterized by increasing over prediction as well as increasing under prediction with decreasing resolution. Comparison of average peak depths showed that depths generally decreased as resolution decreased, as well as the velocity. It is, however, noted that the trends in depth and velocity showed less consistency than the inundation area metrics. This may indicate that for studies in which velocity and depths must be resolved more accurately (urban environments when flow around buildings is important in the calculation of drag effects), higher resolution DEM data should be used. Perhaps the most significant finding from this study is the perceived insensitivity of socio-economic impacts to grid resolution. The difference in population at risk (PAR) and economic cost generally remained within 10% of the estimated impacts using the high resolution DEM. This insensitivity has been attributed to over estimated flood area and associated socio-economic impacts compensating for under estimated flooded area and associated socio-economic impacts. The United States has many dams that are classified as high-hazard potential that need an emergency action plan (EAP). It has been found that the development of EAPs for all high-hazard dams is handicapped due to funding limitations. The majority of the cost associated with developing an EAP is determining the flooded area. The results of this study have shown that coarse resolution dam breach studies can be used to provide an acceptable estimate of the inundated area and economic impacts, with very little computational cost. Therefore, the solution to limited funding may be to perform coarse resolution dam breach studies on high-hazard potential dams and use the results to help prioritize the order in which detailed EAPs should be developed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dryer, M.; Smith, Z. K.; Coates, A. J.; Johnstone, A. D.
1991-01-01
Large disturbances in the interplanetary medium were observed by several spacecraft during a period of enhanced solar activity in early February 1986. The locations of six solar flares and the spacecraft considered here encompassed more than 100 deg of heliolongitude. These flares during the minimum of cycle 21 set the stage for an extensive multispacecraft comparison performed with a two-dimensional, MHD numerical experiment. The plasma instruments on the Giotto spacecraft, on its way to encounter Comet Halley in March 1986, made measurements of the solar wind for up to 8 hours/day during February. Solar wind measurements from the Johnstone Plasma Analyzer experiment on Giotto are compared with the MHD simulation of the interplanetary medium throughout these events. Using plasma data obtained by the IMP-8 satellite in addition, it appears that an extended period of high solar wind speed is required as well as the simulated flares to represent the interplanetary medium in this case. The plasma and magnetometer data from Vega-1 is compared with the MHD simulation. This comparison tends to support an interpretation that the major solar wind changes at both Giotto and Vega-1 on February 8, 1986 were due to a shock from a W 05 deg solar flare on February 6, 1986 (06:25 UT). The numerical experiment is considered, qualitatively, to resemble the observations at the former spacecraft, but it has less success at the latter one.
Garcia, A.L.; Baras, F.; Mansour, M.M.
1995-04-01
In a recent paper, Watanabe, Kaburaki, and Yokokawa [Phys. Rev. E 49, 4060 (1994)] used a direct simulation Monte Carlo method to study Rayleigh-Benard convection. They reported that, using stress-free boundary conditions, the onset of convection in the simulation occurred at a Rayleigh number much larger than the critical Rayleigh number predicted by a linear stability analysis. We show that the source of the discrepancy is their omission of a temperature jump effect in the calculation of the Rayleigh number.
Magnetic flux ropes in 3-dimensional MHD simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ogino, Tatsuki; Walker, Raymond J.; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha
1990-01-01
The interaction of the solar wind and the earth's magnetosphere is presently simulated by a 3D, time-dependent, global MHD method in order to model the magnetopause and magnetotail generation of magnetic flux ropes. It is noted that strongly twisted and localized magnetic flux tubes simular to magnetic flux ropes appear at the subpolar magnetopause when the IMF has a large azimuthal component, as well as a southward component. Plasmoids are generated in the magnetotail after the formation of a near-earth magnetic neutral line; the magnetic field lines have a helical structure that is connected from dawn to dusk.
Relativistic MHD simulations of stellar core collapse and magnetars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Font, José A.; Cerdá-Durán, Pablo; Gabler, Michael; Müller, Ewald; Stergioulas, Nikolaos
2011-02-01
We present results from simulations of magneto-rotational stellar core collapse along with Alfvén oscillations in magnetars. These simulations are performed with the CoCoA/CoCoNuT code, which is able to handle ideal MHD flows in dynamical spacetimes in general relativity. Our core collapse simulations highlight the importance of genuine magnetic effects, like the magneto-rotational instability, for the dynamics of the flow. For the modelling of magnetars we use the anelastic approximation to general relativistic MHD, which allows for an effective suppression of fluid modes and an accurate description of Alfvén waves. We further compute Alfvén oscillation frequencies along individual magnetic field lines with a semi-analytic approach. Our work confirms previous results based on perturbative approaches regarding the existence of two families of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), with harmonics at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. Additional material is presented in the accompanying contribution by Gabler et al (2010b) in these proceedings.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gann, R. C.; Chakravarty, S.; Chester, G. V.
1978-01-01
Monte Carlo simulation, lattice dynamics in the harmonic approximation, and solution of the hypernetted chain equation were used to study the classical two-dimensional one component plasma. The system consists of a single species of charged particles immersed in a uniform neutralizing background. The particles interact via a l/r potential, where r is the two dimensional separation. Equations of state were calculated for both the liquid and solid phases. Results of calculation of the thermodynamic functions and one and two particle correlation functions are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forjan, Gary F.
2009-06-01
Explaining the nature of the million degree solar corona is a question that has been challenging astrophysicists for over 60 years. While many theories have been proposed to explain the nature of the heating mechanism, there is as yet no single answer to this question. An important step toward finding a solution would be to first determine where in the atmosphere the heating is occurring, for this would narrow the different theoretical possibilities for its cause. >From an observational standpoint, recent measurements by instruments on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft revealed that many coronal loops in active regions on the sun are nearly isothermal in their coronal parts. Loop modeling using pseudo-stereoscopic methods applied to SOHO EIT data indicated that temperature gradients were much smaller than predicted from scaling laws. From these and other observations, some authors conclude that the heating results from processes operating in the chromospheric and transition regions. On the other hand, many observed loop properties may be explained by assuming that the heating mechanism is due to the idea of tangled magnetic fields combined with a growing instability that becomes turbulent and releases impulsive energy through magnetic reconnection. Some authors claim that these energy releases occur at higher altitudes in the corona and are responsible for supplying the majority of coronal heating. Clearly, current observations along with numerical modeling results are interpreted differently depending on the researcher and vigorous debate continues over the nature of the heating process and whether it is located near the chromosphere/lower transition region or in the corona. In this work we attempt to determine if there are observational discriminators derived through computer modeling that can distinguish where the heating occurs. To accomplish this we first use an astrophysical magneto-hydrodynamics computer code to model a solar flux tube having the physical conditions of a one million degree quiet sun corona. A series of experiments is then performed in which energy of various durations and peak intensities is injected at different locations along the flux tube. These experiments are evolved over time and the differences in the temperature, density and velocity profiles are observed. In performing the simulations, the details of the energy transport processes including thermal conduction, convection, radiative cooling, and the nature of the heating sources are studied. The purpose in examining these processes is that they give insight into the validity of various assumptions used by other authors in their analytical models of the corona. It is expected that the determination of the positional and temporal characteristics of the heating will lead to an understanding of the exact physical process responsible for the heating. Most work currently being done in coronal modeling is accomplished with limited one-dimensional codes that do not include a magnetic field. The primary justification for using such codes is that thermal conduction is constrained to operate only along the magnetic field lines. Our work uses a two-dimensional code and includes a magnetic field. This is more physically realistic and allows for the examination of any interaction between the plasma and the magnetic field. In the course of performing these experiments, a major computational goal was to develop the computer code needed to correctly model conduction only along the field lines and quantitatively compare the effects of isotropic vs. magnetic field-aligned thermal conduction on the evolution of the plasma in the flux tube. The results indicate that assuming all conduction is along the loop axis in one-dimensional loop models is more accurate than assuming isotropic conduction in multi-dimensional models. However, there are differences between the one-dimensional and two-dimensional models. Our work has produced three main results. First, we developed the techniques and computer code to model physically correct conduction as a vector quantity in multi-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic codes. Secondly, the results of our calculations under solar coronal conditions indicate that one-dimensional models are more accurate than two-dimensional models with isotropic conduction. Finally, there are differences in the dynamics of coronal loops depending on where energy release occurs but that there are currently no observations capable of detecting these differences.
Understanding Accretion Disks through Three Dimensional Radiation MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Yan-Fei
I study the structures and thermal properties of black hole accretion disks in the radiation pressure dominated regime. Angular momentum transfer in the disk is provided by the turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI), which is calculated self-consistently with a recently developed 3D radiation magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) code based on Athena. This code, developed by my collaborators and myself, couples both the radiation momentum and energy source terms with the ideal MHD equations by modifying the standard Godunov method to handle the stiff radiation source terms. We solve the two momentum equations of the radiation transfer equations with a variable Eddington tensor (VET), which is calculated with a time independent short characteristic module. This code is well tested and accurate in both optically thin and optically thick regimes. It is also accurate for both radiation pressure and gas pressure dominated flows. With this code, I find that when photon viscosity becomes significant, the ratio between Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress from the MRI turbulence can increase significantly with radiation pressure. The thermal instability of the radiation pressure dominated disk is then studied with vertically stratified shearing box simulations. Unlike the previous results claiming that the radiation pressure dominated disk with MRI turbulence can reach a steady state without showing any unstable behavior, I find that the radiation pressure dominated disks always either collapse or expand until we have to stop the simulations. During the thermal runaway, the heating and cooling rates from the simulations are consistent with the general criterion of thermal instability. However, details of the thermal runaway are different from the predictions of the standard alpha disk model, as many assumptions in that model are not satisfied in the simulations. We also identify the key reasons why previous simulations do not find the instability. The thermal instability has many important implications for understanding the observations of both X-ray binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs). However, direct comparisons between observations and the simulations require global radiation MHD simulations, which will be the main focus of my future work.
Global MHD Simulation of Mesoscale Structures at the Magnetospheric Boundary
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berchem, Jean
1998-01-01
The research carried out for this protocol was focused on the study of mesoscales structures at the magnetospheric boundary. We investigated three areas: (1) the structure of the magnetospheric boundary for steady solar wind conditions; (2) the dynamics of the dayside magnetospheric boundary and (3) the dynamics of the distant tail magnetospheric boundary. Our approach was to use high resolution three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere. We first considered simple variations of the interplanetary conditions to obtain generic cases that helped us in establishing the basic cause and effect relationships for steady solar wind conditions. Subsequently, we used actual solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters measured by an upstream spacecraft as input to the simulations and compared the simulation results with sequences of events observed by another or several other spacecraft located downstream the bow shock. In particular we compared results with observations made when spacecraft crossed the magnetospheric boundary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, W. C.; Liu, Chun-Ho
2011-06-01
A large-eddy simulation (LES) model, using the one-equation subgrid-scale (SGS) parametrization, was developed to study the flow and pollutant transport in and above urban street canyons. Three identical two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of unity aspect ratio, each consisting of a ground-level area source of constant pollutant concentration, are evenly aligned in a cross-flow in the streamwise direction x. The flow falls into the skimming flow regime. A larger computational domain is adopted to accurately resolve the turbulence above roof level and its influence on the flow characteristics in the street canyons. The LES calculated statistics of wind and pollutant transports agree well with other field, laboratory and modelling results available in the literature. The maximum wind velocity standard deviations σ i in the streamwise ( σ u ), spanwise ( σ v ) and vertical ( σ w ) directions are located near the roof-level windward corners. Moreover, a second σ w peak is found at z ≈ 1.5 h ( h is the building height) over the street canyons. Normalizing σ i by the local friction velocity u *, it is found that σ u / u * ≈ 1.8, σ v / u * ≈ 1.3 and σ w / u * ≈ 1.25 exhibiting rather uniform values in the urban roughness sublayer. Quadrant analysis of the vertical momentum flux u'' w'' shows that, while the inward and outward interactions are small, the sweeps and ejections dominate the momentum transport over the street canyons. In the x direction, the two-point correlations of velocity R v, x and R w, x drop to zero at a separation larger than h but R u, x (= 0.2) persists even at a separation of half the domain size. Partitioning the convective transfer coefficient Ω T of pollutant into its removal and re-entry components, an increasing pollutant re-entrainment from 26.3 to 43.3% in the x direction is revealed, suggesting the impact of background pollutant on the air quality in street canyons.
Coupled simulation of kinetic pedestal growth and MHD ELM crash
Park, G-Y; Cummings, J.; Chang, C S; Podhorszki, Norbert; Klasky, Scott A; Ku, S.; Pankin, A.; Samtaney, Ravi; Shoshani, A.; Snyder, P.; Sugiyama, L.
2009-01-01
Edge pedestal height and the accompanying ELM crash are critical elements of ITER physics yet to be understood and predicted through high performance computing. An entirely self-consistent first principles simulation is being pursued as a long term research goal, and the plan is planned for completion in time for ITER operation. However, a proof-of-principle work has already been established using a computational tool that employs the best first principles physics available at the present time. A kinetic edge equilibrium code XGC0, which can simulate the neoclassically dominant pedestal growth from neutral ionization (using a phenomenological residual turbulence diffusion motion superposed upon the neoclassical particle motion) is coupled to an extended MHD code M3D, which can perform the nonlinear ELM crash. The stability boundary of the pedestal is checked by an ideal MHD linear peeling-ballooning code, which has been validated against many experimental data sets for the large scale (type I) ELMs onset boundary. The coupling workflow and scientific results to be enabled by it are described.
Coupled simulation of kinetic pedestal growth and MHD ELM crash
Park, G.; Cummings, J.; Chang, C. S.; Klasky, Scott A; Ku, S.; Podhorszki, Norbert; Pankin, A.; Samtaney, Ravi; Shoshani, A.; Snyder, P.; Strauss, H.; Sugiyama, L.; CPES Team, the
2007-01-01
Edge pedestal height and the accompanying ELM crash are critical elements of ITER physics yet to be understood and predicted through high performance computing. An entirely self-consistent first principles simulation is being pursued as a long term research goal, and the plan is planned for completion in time for ITER operation. However, a proof-of-principle work has already been established using a computational tool that employs the best first principles physics available at the present time. A kinetic edge equilibrium code XGC0, which can simulate the neoclassically dominant pedestal growth from neutral ionization (using a phenomenological residual turbulence diffusion motion superposed upon the neoclassical particle motion) is coupled to an extended MHD code M3D, which can perform the nonlinear ELM crash. The stability boundary of the pedestal is checked by an ideal MHD linear peeling-ballooning code, which has been validated against many experimental data sets for the large scale (type I) ELMs onset boundary. The coupling workflow and scientific results to be enabled by it are described.
2D Hall-MHD simulations of multiple dipolarization fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guzdar, P. N.; Swisdak, M. M.; Hassam, A.; Sitnov, M. I.
2010-12-01
Dipolarization fronts which are characterized by a steep increase or jump in the z component of the earth’s tail magnetic field have been reported in satellite data as well as kinetic simulations. It was recently shown using 2D MHD simulations (Guzdar et al., A simple MHD model for the formation of multiple dipolarization fronts, GRL, in press, 2010) that the observed multiple dipolarization fronts can be explained by the nonlinear state of the interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz “mushroom” like structures which can develop during the process of dipolarization after a reconnection event. We have now extended the code to include Hall effects and find that on these sharp fronts which can be of the order of the ion skin depth, wave-like structures develop which has large amplitude primarily on these fronts but also radiate waves away from the fronts in the plasma bubbles structures. The characteristics of these waves are determined by the velocity of the front and the strength of the magnetic field and the density in these fronts.
MHD and Hall MHD simulations of 3-D turbulence lead by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Y.; Seki, K.
2007-12-01
The entry process of the solar wind plasma into the magnetosphere during the northward IMF condition has been controversial in contrast to the Dungey's reconnection model for the southward IMF case. The major candidate processes are the double lobe reconnection model [Song et al., 1999], in which newly closed magnetic field lines on the dayside magnetopause capture the solar wind plasma, and the turbulent transport by the Kelvin- Helmholtz instability (KHI) driven by the fast solar wind flow. We have shown by simulation studies that the strong flow turbulence is a natural consequence of the nonlinear development of the KHI through the secondary instability [Matsumoto and Hoshino, 2004, 2006], which significantly contribute to the formation of a large scale mixing area (e.g., LLBL). Recently, we have studied the 3-D nonlinear evolution of the KHI by performing MHD simulations [Matsumoto and Seki, 2007]. The KH vortex is also susceptible to "the 3-D secondary instability" which converts the rotating energy into the magnetic energy by generating large amplitude magnetic fluctuations which finally lead the system to turbulent state. The fundamental mechanism is similar to the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) which has usually been applied to the accretion disk. Sano and Stone [2002] showed that the Hall term (ion kinetic) effect is important in the nonlinear saturation of the MRI as well as in the linear growth [Balbus and Terquem, 2001]; the direction of the initial magnetic field with respect to the angular velocity separates the fate of the instability. By analogy with their studies on the MRI, we have also examined an ion kinetic effect on the 3-D nonlinear evolution of the KHI. 3-D Hall MHD simulation showed a faster and more turbulent evolution of the secondary instability when the magnetic field directed opposite to the angular velocity of the vortex. On the other hand, it was inhibited when the magnetic field was set in the same direction. The results indicate importance of the ion dynamics in rapidly rotating plasma in which a vortex finally collapses into turbulence. The detailed mechanism which separates the natures of the secondary instability is also addressed in this presentation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stagliano, T. R.; Witmer, E. A.; Rodal, J. J. A.
1979-01-01
Finite element modeling alternatives as well as the utility and limitations of the two dimensional structural response computer code CIVM-JET 4B for predicting the transient, large deflection, elastic plastic, structural responses of two dimensional beam and/or ring structures which are subjected to rigid fragment impact were investigated. The applicability of the CIVM-JET 4B analysis and code for the prediction of steel containment ring response to impact by complex deformable fragments from a trihub burst of a T58 turbine rotor was studied. Dimensional analysis considerations were used in a parametric examination of data from engine rotor burst containment experiments and data from sphere beam impact experiments. The use of the CIVM-JET 4B computer code for making parametric structural response studies on both fragment-containment structure and fragment-deflector structure was illustrated. Modifications to the analysis/computation procedure were developed to alleviate restrictions.
Simulations of Pulse Detonation Engines with MHD Thrust Augmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeineh, Christopher; Roth, Timothy; Cole, Lord; Karagozian, Ann; Cambier, Jean-Luc
2008-11-01
Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) have received significant attention in recent years due to their potentially superior performance over constant-pressure engines. Yet unsteady chamber pressures cause the PDRE flow to be either over-expanded or under-expanded for the majority of the cycle, with substantial performance loss in atmospheric flight applications. The present computational studies examine the potential benefits of using magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) thrust augmentation by extracting energy via a generator in the PDRE nozzle and applying it to a separate, secondary stream. In the present studies, which involve both transient quasi-1D and 2D numerical simulations, the energy extracted from the nozzle flow is directly applied to a by-pass air stream through an MHD accelerator. The air stream is first shocked by the under-expanded nozzle flow and raised to high temperature, allowing thermal ionization. The specific conditions for thrust augmentation are examined. Alternative configurations utilizing a magnetic piston in the PDRE chamber are also explored. Results show potential performance gains but with significant challenges, depending on the operating and flight conditions.
Final Report: "Large-Eddy Simulation of Anisotropic MHD Turbulence"
Zikanov, Oleg
2008-06-23
To acquire better understanding of turbulence in flows of liquid metals and other electrically conducting fluids in the presence of steady magnetic fields and to develop an accurate and physically adequate LES (large-eddy simulation) model for such flows. The scientific objectives formulated in the project proposal have been fully completed. Several new directions were initiated and advanced in the course of work. Particular achievements include a detailed study of transformation of turbulence caused by the imposed magnetic field, development of an LES model that accurately reproduces this transformation, and solution of several fundamental questions of the interaction between the magnetic field and fluid flows. Eight papers have been published in respected peer-reviewed journals, with two more papers currently undergoing review, and one in preparation for submission. A post-doctoral researcher and a graduate student have been trained in the areas of MHD, turbulence research, and computational methods. Close collaboration ties have been established with the MHD research centers in Germany and Belgium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passos, D. M. D. C.; Charbonneau, P.
2014-12-01
The steady advance in computer power has finally enabled us to explore the solar dynamo problem by means of 3D global magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of the convection zone.Using the EULAG-MHD code, we have succeeded in producing simulations of the Sun's magnetic activity cycles that resemble the observed evolutionary patterns of the large-scale solar magnetic field. In these simulations the anelastic ideal MHD equations are solved in a thick, rotating shell of electrically conducting fluid, under solar-like stratification and thermal forcing. Since these simulations are fully dynamical in all time and spatial resolved scales, they achieve highly turbulent regimes and naturally produce variable amplitude solutions.We have recently been able to produce a simulation that spans for 1650 years and that produced 40 complete sunspot like cycles, the longest of its kind so far.This allows to perform statistical studies and establish direct comparisons with the observed solar cycle. Some of the main similarities and differences between the statistical properties of simulated and observed cycles are presented here (e.g. evidence for Gnevyshev-Ohl patterns, Gleissberg modulation or hemispheric coupling). Additionally, by studying the behaviour of the large scale flows in the simulation (differential rotation and meridional circulation) we also find evidence for solar cycle modulation of the deep equatorward flow in the meridional circulation. This result is briefly discussed as well as its implications for current helioseismic measurement methodologies and for classical kinematic mean-field flux transport dynamo simulations.
Reconnection events in two-dimensional Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Donato, S.; Servidio, S.; Carbone, V.; Dmitruk, P.; Shay, M. A.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Cassak, P. A.
2012-09-15
The statistical study of magnetic reconnection events in two-dimensional turbulence has been performed by comparing numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD). The analysis reveals that the Hall term plays an important role in turbulence, in which magnetic islands simultaneously reconnect in a complex way. In particular, an increase of the Hall parameter, the ratio of ion skin depth to system size, broadens the distribution of reconnection rates relative to the MHD case. Moreover, in HMHD the local geometry of the reconnection region changes, manifesting bifurcated current sheets and quadrupolar magnetic field structures in analogy to laminar studies, leading locally to faster reconnection processes in this case of reconnection embedded in turbulence. This study supports the idea that the global rate of energy dissipation is controlled by the large scale turbulence, but suggests that the distribution of the reconnection rates within the turbulent system is sensitive to the microphysics at the reconnection sites.
Reconnection events in two-dimensional Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donato, S.; Servidio, S.; Dmitruk, P.; Carbone, V.; Shay, M. A.; Cassak, P. A.; Matthaeus, W. H.
2012-09-01
The statistical study of magnetic reconnection events in two-dimensional turbulence has been performed by comparing numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD). The analysis reveals that the Hall term plays an important role in turbulence, in which magnetic islands simultaneously reconnect in a complex way. In particular, an increase of the Hall parameter, the ratio of ion skin depth to system size, broadens the distribution of reconnection rates relative to the MHD case. Moreover, in HMHD the local geometry of the reconnection region changes, manifesting bifurcated current sheets and quadrupolar magnetic field structures in analogy to laminar studies, leading locally to faster reconnection processes in this case of reconnection embedded in turbulence. This study supports the idea that the global rate of energy dissipation is controlled by the large scale turbulence, but suggests that the distribution of the reconnection rates within the turbulent system is sensitive to the microphysics at the reconnection sites.
Combis, Patrick; Cormont, Philippe; Hebert, David; Robin, Lucile; Rullier, Jean-Luc; Gallais, Laurent
2012-11-19
A self-consistent approach is proposed to determine the temperature dependent thermal conductivity k(T) of fused silica, for a range of temperatures up to material evaporation using a CO{sub 2} laser irradiation. Calculation of the temperature of silica using a two-dimensional axi-symmetric code was linked step by step as the laser power was increased with experimental measurements using infrared thermography. We show that previously reported k(T) does not reproduce the temporal profile as well as our adaptive fit which shows that k(T) evolves with slope discontinuities at the annealing temperature and the softening temperature.
Fanchi, J.R.
1985-04-01
CHEM2D is a two-dimensional, three-phase, nine-component finite-difference chemical flood simulator. It can simulate waterfloods, polymer floods, and micellar/polymer floods using heterogeneous one- or two-dimensional (areal or cross-sectional) reservoir models. At present only one injection and four production wells are available. The user may specify well performance as either pressure or rate constrained. A constant time step size or a variable time step size determined by extrapolation of concentration changes may be specified. Volume I of this report provides a discussion of the formulation and algorithms used within CHEM2D. Included in Volume I are a number of validation and illustrative examples, as well as the FORTRAN code. The CHEM2D user's manual, Volume II, contains both the input data sets for the examples presented in Volume I and an example output. All appendices and a phase behavior calculation program are collected in Volume III.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denton, R.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Swisdak, M.; Birn, J.; Drake, J. F.; Heese, M.
2012-01-01
When analyzing data from an array of spacecraft (such as Cluster or MMS) crossing a site of magnetic reconnection, it is desirable to be able to accurately determine the orientation of the reconnection site. If the reconnection is quasi-two dimensional, there are three key directions, the direction of maximum inhomogeneity (the direction across the reconnection site), the direction of the reconnecting component of the magnetic field, and the direction of rough invariance (the "out of plane" direction). Using simulated spacecraft observations of magnetic reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, we extend our previous tests of the direction-finding method developed by Shi et al. (2005) and the method to determine the structure velocity relative to the spacecraft Vstr. These methods require data from four proximate spacecraft. We add artificial noise and calibration errors to the simulation fields, and then use the perturbed gradient of the magnetic field B and perturbed time derivative dB/dt, as described by Denton et al. (2010). Three new simulations are examined: a weakly three-dimensional, i.e., quasi-two-dimensional, MHD simulation without a guide field, a quasi-two-dimensional MHD simulation with a guide field, and a two-dimensional full dynamics kinetic simulation with inherent noise so that the apparent minimum gradient was not exactly zero, even without added artificial errors. We also examined variations of the spacecraft trajectory for the kinetic simulation. The accuracy of the directions found varied depending on the simulation and spacecraft trajectory, but all the directions could be found within about 10 for all cases. Various aspects of the method were examined, including how to choose averaging intervals and the best intervals for determining the directions and velocity. For the kinetic simulation, we also investigated in detail how the errors in the inferred gradient directions from the unmodified Shi et al. method (using the unperturbed gradient) depended on the amplitude of the calibration errors. For an accuracy of 3 for the maximum gradient direction, the calibration errors could be as large as 3% of reconnection magnetic field, while for the same accuracy for the minimum gradient direction, the calibration errors could only be as large as 0.03% of the reconnection magnetic field. These results suggest that the maximum gradient direction can normally be determined by the unmodified Shi et al. method, while the modified method or some other method must be used to accurately determine the minimum gradient direction. The structure velocity was found with magnitude accurate to 2% and direction accurate to within 5%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Benxin; Shin, Yung C.
2007-05-01
In laser shock peening (LSP) under a water-confinement regime, laser-matter interaction near the coating-water interface can induce very high pressures in the order of gigapascals, which can impart compressive residual stresses into metal workpieces to improve fatigue and corrosion properties. For axisymmetric laser spots with finite size, the pressure generation near the water-coating interface is a two dimensional process in nature. This is in particular the case for microscale LSP performed with very small laser spots, which is a very promising technique to improve the reliability performance of microdevices. However, models capable of predicting two dimensional (2D) spatial distributions of the induced pressures near the coating-water interface in LSP have rarely been reported in literature. In this paper, a predictive 2D axisymmetric model is developed by numerically solving the hydrodynamic equations, supplemented with appropriate equations of state of water and the coating material. The model can produce 2D spatial distributions of material responses near the water-coating interface in LSP, and is verified through comparisons with experimental measurements. The model calculation shows that the effect of radial release wave on pressure spatial distributions becomes more significant as the laser spot size decreases, indicating the importance of a 2D model, particularly for microscale LSP.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, D. F. K.
1983-01-01
Transient, numerical simulations of the de-icing of composite aircraft components by electrothermal heating were performed for a two dimensional rectangular geometry. The implicit Crank-Nicolson formulation was used to insure stability of the finite-difference heat conduction equations and the phase change in the ice layer was simulated using the Enthalpy method. The Gauss-Seidel point iterative method was used to solve the system of difference equations. Numerical solutions illustrating de-icer performance for various composite aircraft structures and environmental conditions are presented. Comparisons are made with previous studies. The simulation can also be used to solve a variety of other heat conduction problems involving composite bodies.
MHD Simulations of the Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Yuhong; Chatterjee, Piyali
Using three-dimensional MHD simulations, we model the quasi-static evolution and the onset of eruption of twisted magnetic flux ropes in the solar corona. We present simulations where the eruption is triggered by either the onset of the torus instability or the helical kink instability of the line-tied coronal flux rope. The simulations show that S (or inverse S) shaped current sheets develop along topological structures identified as Quasi Separatrix Layers (QSLs), during the quasi-static phase before the eruption. Reconnections in the current sheets effectively add twisted flux to the flux rope and thus allow it to rise quasi-statically to the critical height for the onset of the torus instability. We examine the thermal features produced by the current sheet formation and the associated reconnections and found that they can explain some of the observed features in coronal prominence cavities as well as in pre-eruption active regions. We also present simulations of the development of a homologous sequence of CMEs caused by the repeated formation and partial eruption of kink unstable flux ropes as a result of continued flux emergence. It is found that such homologous CMEs tend to be cannibalistic, leading to the formation of more energetic, highly twisted ejecta.
Numerical simulation of MHD flow with boundary layer separation
Ivanov, V.A.
1994-12-31
The numerical results of the viscous flow in the MHD channel under strong MHD interaction are presented and discussed. The separation of the flow from the walls of the channel is the results of the MHD deceleration. The separation of the flow is accompanied by the generation of the stationary shock wave. The flow is unsymmetric due to the influence of the Hall effect. The separation is occurred earlier on the anode than on the cathode and separation bubble on the anode wall is greater than on the cathode wall. MHD energy is consumed in the separation bubbles and local temperature grows.
MHD Simulations of the Plasma Flow in the Magnetic Nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, T. E. R.; Keidar, M.; Sankaran, K.; olzin, K. A.
2013-01-01
The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of plasma through a magnetic nozzle is simulated by solving the governing equations for the plasma flow in the presence of an static magnetic field representing the applied nozzle. This work will numerically investigate the flow and behavior of the plasma as the inlet plasma conditions and magnetic nozzle field strength are varied. The MHD simulations are useful for addressing issues such as plasma detachment and to can be used to gain insight into the physical processes present in plasma flows found in thrusters that use magnetic nozzles. In the model, the MHD equations for a plasma, with separate temperatures calculated for the electrons and ions, are integrated over a finite cell volume with flux through each face computed for each of the conserved variables (mass, momentum, magnetic flux, energy) [1]. Stokes theorem is used to convert the area integrals over the faces of each cell into line integrals around the boundaries of each face. The state of the plasma is described using models of the ionization level, ratio of specific heats, thermal conductivity, and plasma resistivity. Anisotropies in current conduction due to Hall effect are included, and the system is closed using a real-gas equation of state to describe the relationship between the plasma density, temperature, and pressure.A separate magnetostatic solver is used to calculate the applied magnetic field, which is assumed constant for these calculations. The total magnetic field is obtained through superposition of the solution for the applied magnetic field and the self-consistently computed induced magnetic fields that arise as the flowing plasma reacts to the presence of the applied field. A solution for the applied magnetic field is represented in Fig. 1 (from Ref. [2]), exhibiting the classic converging-diverging field pattern. Previous research was able to demonstrate effects such as back-emf at a super-Alfvenic flow, which significantly alters the shape of the magnetic field in both the near- and far-field regions. However, in that work the downstream domain was constrained to a channel of constant cross-sectional area. In the present work we seek to address this issue by modeling the downstream region with a domain that permits free expansion of the plasma, permitting a better evaluation of the downstream effects the applied field has on the plasma. The inlet boundary conditions and applied magnetic field values will also be varied to determine the effect the initial plasma energy content and applied magnetic field energy density have on the near- and far-field plasma properties on the MHD code. This will determine the effect of inlet boundary conditions on the results downstream and address issues related to the restrictive numerical domain previously used.
Stordal, F.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Horntveth, K.
1985-06-01
Numerous studies have been concerned with the possibility of a reduction of the stratospheric ozone layer. Such a reduction could lead to an enhanced penetration of ultraviolet (UV) radiation to the ground, and, as a result, to damage in the case of several biological processes. It is pointed out that the distributions of many trace gases, such as ozone, are governed in part by transport processes. The present investigation presents a two-dimensional photochemistry-transport model using the residual circulation. The global distribution of both ozone and components with ground sources computed in this model is in good agreement with the observations even though slow diffusion is adopted. The agreement is particularly good in the Northern Hemisphere. The results provide additional support for the idea that tracer transport in the stratosphere is mainly of advective nature. 104 references.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stordal, F.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Horntveth, K.
1985-06-01
Numerous studies have been concerned with the possibility of a reduction of the stratospheric ozone layer. Such a reduction could lead to an enhanced penetration of ultraviolet (UV) radiation to the ground, and, as a result, to damage in the case of several biological processes. It is pointed out that the distributions of many trace gases, such as ozone, are governed in part by transport processes. The present investigation presents a two-dimensional photochemistry-transport model using the residual circulation. The global distribution of both ozone and components with ground sources computed in this model is in good agreement with the observations even though slow diffusion is adopted. The agreement is particularly good in the Northern Hemisphere. The results provide additional support for the idea that tracer transport in the stratosphere is mainly of advective nature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Ping; Thelin, Peter; Nordlund, Erik; Sadarangani, Chandur
2006-04-01
A four-quadrant transducer (4QT) electric machine is an integrated electric machine used for hybrid electric vehicles. In this article a 4QT prototype machine that is radially integrated by two permanent-magnet synchronous machines is analyzed. Skewed slots are adopted for the two machines, and the multislice two-dimensional time-stepping finite element method is used to calculate the performance. The dividing method of the 4QT, the choice of calculated cutplanes and the determination of the number of slices are discussed. The no-load and load performance of the 4QT are calculated. The 4QT prototype machine was tested. The tested no-load line-to-line back electromotive force curves are in good agreement with the calculated ones, which verifies the feasibility of the proposed method.
Moran, S. D.; Preketes, N. K.; Zhang, T. O.; Zanni, M. T.; Mukamel, S.
2013-01-01
Cataracts is a misfolding protein disease in which one of its major components is the γD-crystallin protein. The conformational structure of the aggregated γD-crystallin and the interactions that cause aggregation are largely unknown. A recent experimental two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy study determined that the C-terminal domain has a high propensity to form β-sheets whereas the N-terminal domain forms a disordered structure in the fiber state. We present a combined computational molecular dynamics (MD) and infrared spectroscopy study of the local dynamics of these domains. The computed 2DIR signals agree remarkably well with experiment. We show that both domains having a Greek key structural fold experience different electrostatic environments, which may be related to the fact that the C-terminal domain is more structurally stable than the N-terminal domain. We correlate the vibrational couplings to known energy dissipation mechanisms and reveal their origin. PMID:23972032
Zhang, Ya; Jiang, Wei; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian
2015-02-15
Isochoric heating of an aluminum target by proton beams has been studied with a two-dimensional self-consistent electromagnetic quantum-hydrodynamic model, including the nonlinear quantum effects. It is shown that most protons deposit their energy within several micrometers near the surface, and the aluminum metal target is heated up to several electron volts in tens of Mbar pressure regime within one picosecond. Comparison between electrostatic and electromagnetic cases shows that the strength of electromagnetic field is much smaller than that of the electrostatic field at initial stage but increases more rapidly and becomes larger at later time. The results show that the time evolution of electric field has a significant influence on the interaction of intense beams with a solid target, while the effect of the self-magnetic field is small for non-relativistic beams considered here.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stordal, F.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Horntveth, K.
1985-01-01
Numerous studies have been concerned with the possibility of a reduction of the stratospheric ozone layer. Such a reduction could lead to an enhanced penetration of ultraviolet (UV) radiation to the ground, and, as a result, to damage in the case of several biological processes. It is pointed out that the distributions of many trace gases, such as ozone, are governed in part by transport processes. The present investigation presents a two-dimensional photochemistry-transport model using the residual circulation. The global distribution of both ozone and components with ground sources computed in this model is in good agreement with the observations even though slow diffusion is adopted. The agreement is particularly good in the Northern Hemisphere. The results provide additional support for the idea that tracer transport in the stratosphere is mainly of advective nature.
High Resolution Simulations of Relativistic Hydrodynamic and MHD Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zrake, Jonathan; MacFadyen, A.
2013-01-01
We present a program of simulations designed to investigate the basic properties of relativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We employ a well-tested 5th-order accurate numerical scheme at resolutions of up to 2048^3 zones for hydrodynamic turbulence, and a minimally diffusive 2nd-order scheme at resolutions of up to 1024^3 in the case of relativistic MHD. For the hydrodynamic case, we simulate a relativistically hot gas in a cubic periodic domain continuously driven at large scales with Lorentz factor of about 3. We find that relativistic turbulent velocity fluctuations with Γ β > 1 persist from the driving scale down to scales an order of magnitude smaller, demonstrating the existence of a sustained relativistic turbulent cascade. The power spectrum of the fluid 4-velocity is broadly Kolmogorov-like, roughly obeying a power law with 5/3 index between scales 1/10 and 1/100 of the domain. Departures from 5/3 scaling are larger for the power spectrum of 3-velocity. We find that throughout the inertial interval, 25% of power is in dilatational modes, which obey strict power law scaling between 1/2 and 1/100 of the domain with an index of 1.88. Our program also explores turbulent amplification of magnetic fields in the conditions of merging neutron stars, using a realistic equation of state for dense nuclear matter (ρ ˜ 10^13 g/cm^3). We find that very robustly, seed fields are amplified to magnetar strength (≥ 4 * 10^16 Gauss) within ˜1 micro-second for fluid volumes near the size of the NS crust thickness <10 meters. We present power spectra of the kinetic and magnetic energy taken long into the fully stationary evolution of the highest resolution models, finding the magnetic energy to be in super-equipartition (4 times larger) with the kinetic energy through the inertial range. We believe that current global simulations of merging NS binaries are insufficiently resolved for studying field amplification via turbulent processes. Larger magnetic fields, as found in our high resolution local simulations, may have consequences for gravitational wave signals, GRB precursor events, radio afterglows, and optical afterglows due to emission from ejected radioactive r-process material.
MHD simulations of the parametric decay of large-amplitude Alfven waves in the expanding solar wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Zanna, Luca; Landi, Simone; Matteini, Lorenzo; Verdini, Andrea; Velli, Marco
2015-04-01
The nonlinear evolution and parametric decay of large-amplitude Alfven are investigated by performing two-dimensional, compressible MHD simulations within the expanding box model, to mimic the waves propagation in the solar wind plasma. The linear and nonlinear phases of the parametric decay instability are studied for both circularly polarized waves in parallel propagation and for arc-polarized waves in oblique propagation, in the monochromatic case and in the presence of a spectrum of modes. In the oblique case, direct excitation of daughter modes transverse to the local background field is observed, and this transverse cascade seems to be favored for monochromatic mother waves. The expansion effect reduces the instability growth rate, and it can even suppress its onset for the lowest frequency modes considered here, possibly explaining the persistence of these outgoing waves in the solar wind.
An MHD simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with the outflowing plasma from a comet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ogino, T.; Walker, R. J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.
1986-01-01
The interaction between the solar wind and the outflowing plasmas from a comet has been studied by using a two-dimensional time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation. The model reproduced several features of the comet-solar wind interaction predicted by earlier theories and observed on the recent cometary probes. These include the formation of the contact surface and the cometary magnetotail. For a constant interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) the cometary plasma captures field lines which drape over the comet to form an antiparallel magnetic field configuration in the tail and a thin plasma sheet. Eventually, tail magnetic reconnection begins to occur at several points. When the IMF orientation is reversed dayside magnetic reconnection occurs at the subsolar point and a large disturbance propagation down the tail.
Multifluid MHD Simulation of the Magnetosphere of Uranus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, X.; Paty, C. S.
2013-12-01
The interaction between Uranus' intrinsic magnetic field and the solar wind is quite different from the magnetospheric interactions of the Earth, Mercury, Jupiter and Saturn due to several factors. Uranus' large obliquity, coupled with the fact that its dipole moment is off-centered and highly tilted relative to the rotation axis, leads to unique, and seasonally dependent, interaction geometries with the solar wind. We present initial results from adapting a multifluid MHD simulation to examine these seasonally dependent geometries in terms of the global magnetospheric structure, magnetopause and bow shock location, and magnetotail configuration. Specifically we compare these characteristics modeled for solstice conditions, when the solar wind is directed nearly parallel to the rotation axis, and equinox conditions, when the solar wind is nearly perpendicular to the rotation axis. The Voyager 2 spacecraft encountered Uranus near solstice, and was able to observed the magnetic field structure and plasma characteristics of a twisted magnetotail [Behannon et al., 1987], and we use such magnetometer and plasma observations as a basis for benchmarking our simulations for the solstice scenario. The equinox geometry has no flyby observations for comparison, but recent auroral observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope [Lamy et al., 2012] give some indication of the magnetospheric interaction with the solar wind.
Bychkov, Yu. I. Yampolskaya, S. A.; Yastremskii, A. G.
2013-05-15
The kinetic processes accompanying plasma column formation in an inhomogeneous discharge in a Ne/Xe/HCl gas mixture at a pressure of 4 atm were investigated by using a two-dimensional model. Two cathode spots spaced by 0.7 cm were initiated by distorting the cathode surface at local points, which resulted in an increase in the field strength in the cathode region. Three regimes differing in the charging voltage, electric circuit inductance, and electric field strength at the local cathode points were considered. The spatiotemporal distributions of the discharge current; the electron density; and the densities of excited xenon atoms, HCl(v = 0) molecules in the ground state, and HCl(v > 0) molecules in vibrational levels were calculated. The development of the discharge with increasing the electron density from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} was analyzed, and three characteristic stages in the evolution of the current distribution were demonstrated. The width of the plasma column was found to depend on the energy deposited in the discharge. The width of the plasma column was found to decrease in inverse proportion to the deposited energy due to spatiotemporal variations in the rates of electron production and loss. The calculated dependences of the cross-sectional area of the plasma column on the energy deposited in the discharge agree with the experimental results.
The evolution of cross helicity in driven/dissipative two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosh, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D.
1988-01-01
The paper presents a series of incompressible two-dimensional simulations of driven/dissipative MHD turbulence where the amount of correlation between the kinetic and magnetic forcing is regulated, thereby controlling the amount of cross helicity injection. It is shown that correlated forcing provides a strong source of magnetofluid cross helicity. The clear appearance of the 'minority species effect,' which is the most striking and systematic effect during this driven dynamic alignment process, is discussed.
MHD simulation of RF current drive in MST
Hendries, E. R.; Anderson, J. K.; Forest, C. B.; Reusch, J. A.; Seltzman, A. H.; Sovinec, C. R.; Diem, S.; Harvey, R. W.
2014-02-12
Auxiliary heating and current drive using RF waves such as the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) promises to advance the performance of the reversed field pinch (RFP). In previous computational work [1], a hypothetical edge-localized current drive is shown to suppress the tearing activity which governs the macroscopic transport properties of the RFP. The ideal conditions for tearing stabilization include a reduced toroidal induction, and precise width and radial position of the Gaussian-shaped external current drive. In support of the EBW experiment on the Madison Symmetric Torus, an integrated modeling scheme now incorporates ray tracing and Fokker-Plank predictions of auxiliary current into single fluid MHD. Simulations at low Lundquist number (S ∼ 10{sup 4}) generally agree with the previous work; significantly more burdensome simulations at MST-like Lundquist number (S ∼ 3×10{sup 6}) show unexpected results. The effect on nonlinearly saturated current profile by a particular RF-driven external force decreases in magnitude and widens considerably as the Lundquist number increases toward experimental values. Simulations reproduce the periodic current profile relaxation events observed in experiment (sawteeth) in the absence of current profile control. Reduction of the tearing mode amplitudes is still observable; however, reduction is limited to periods between the large bursts of magnetic activity at each sawtooth. The sawtoothing pattern persists with up to 10 MW of externally applied RF power. Periods with prolonged low tearing amplitude are predicted with a combination of external current drive and a reduced toroidal loop voltage, consistent with previous conclusions. Finally, the resistivity profile is observed to have a strong effect on the optimal externally driven current profile for mode stabilization.
MHD simulation of RF current drive in MST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendries, E. R.; Anderson, J. K.; Diem, S.; Forest, C. B.; Harvey, R. W.; Reusch, J. A.; Seltzman, A. H.; Sovinec, C. R.
2014-02-01
Auxiliary heating and current drive using RF waves such as the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) promises to advance the performance of the reversed field pinch (RFP). In previous computational work [1], a hypothetical edge-localized current drive is shown to suppress the tearing activity which governs the macroscopic transport properties of the RFP. The ideal conditions for tearing stabilization include a reduced toroidal induction, and precise width and radial position of the Gaussian-shaped external current drive. In support of the EBW experiment on the Madison Symmetric Torus, an integrated modeling scheme now incorporates ray tracing and Fokker-Plank predictions of auxiliary current into single fluid MHD. Simulations at low Lundquist number (S ˜ 104) generally agree with the previous work; significantly more burdensome simulations at MST-like Lundquist number (S ˜ 3×106) show unexpected results. The effect on nonlinearly saturated current profile by a particular RF-driven external force decreases in magnitude and widens considerably as the Lundquist number increases toward experimental values. Simulations reproduce the periodic current profile relaxation events observed in experiment (sawteeth) in the absence of current profile control. Reduction of the tearing mode amplitudes is still observable; however, reduction is limited to periods between the large bursts of magnetic activity at each sawtooth. The sawtoothing pattern persists with up to 10 MW of externally applied RF power. Periods with prolonged low tearing amplitude are predicted with a combination of external current drive and a reduced toroidal loop voltage, consistent with previous conclusions. Finally, the resistivity profile is observed to have a strong effect on the optimal externally driven current profile for mode stabilization.
Observations and MHD Simulations for a Shocked Magnetotail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. Z.; Angelopoulos, V.; Raeder, J.; Oliveira, D.; Shi, Q.
2014-12-01
Recent studies disclosed that interplanetary shocks not only raise global auroral activity, but also cause significant tail disturbances, ranging from ULF wave excitation to abrupt cross-tail current sheet thinning and current density increase, generation of burst bulk flows and dipolarization fronts, and to magnetic reconnection enhancement. In addition, shocks can also cause significant deformation of the magnetotail at ~60 Re and beyond. In this paper we study a shock event using ARTEMIS in situ observations and OpenGGCM MHD simulations. The two ARTEMIS spacecraft were located near the tail current sheet and lobe center at (-60, 1, -5Re_GSM) when the shock arrived and recorded an abrupt tail compression leading to significant enhancements in the plasma density, temperature, magnetic field strength, and cross-tail current density, as well as to tailward flows. However, ~10 min later, the spacecraft entered the sheath solar wind unexpectedly. Two hypotheses are considered: either the tail was cut off by the high solar wind ram pressure (~25-30 nPa), or the compressed tail was pushed aside by the appreciable Vy solar wind flow component imposed by the shock. OpenGGMC simulation results confirmed the second hypothesis and disclosed that for this event the magnetic pressure played a dominant role at X=-60 Re for the compression. In addition to the shock normal direction and shock compression, the anisotropic (transverse) magnetic pressure also contributed to the significant reduction of the lobe Y dimension. Therefore, during this 10 min interval, the lobe center moved dawnward by ~12 Re and the tail width in Y was reduced from 40 to 26 Re, which eventually exposed ARTEMIS to the sheath solar wind. Comparisons of plasma and magnetic parameters between ARTEMIS in situ observations and simulations showed a satisfied consistence.
Dayside reconnection in 3D global Hall MHD numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, L.; Germaschewski, K.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Maynard, K.; Sullivan, B. P.; Raeder, J.
2012-12-01
We investigate magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause using three dimensional global resistive Hall MHD numerical simulations with the new code, Hall OpenGGCM. Runs are performed with constant spatially uniform resistivity and steady southward IMF conditions at various values of Lundquist number and ion-skin depth to determine scaling. Our results show that in the high Lundquist number limit, Hall physics can allow magnetic flux-pileup to be locally suppressed. The pileup scalings obtained are compared with the stagnation point flow solutions of Sonnerup and Priest [J. Plasma Phys., 14, 1975], and the Hall mediated flux pileup analysis of Dorelli [Phys. Plasmas, 10, 2003]. We also investigate how asymmetric reconnection manifests itself in 3D Hall simulations with particular attention to the 2D analysis of Cassak and Shay [Phys. Plasmas, 14, 2007]. While the theory appears to give reasonable predictions for the offset locations of the x-point and stagnation points, the expressions given for the reconnection electric field and outflow velocities do not agree with what we observe and likely require remediation to account for realistic global geometry. Much like what is observed in 2D collisionless reconnection studies, Hall physics in these global simulations gives rise to more compact dissipation regions with bifurcations in current density extending polewards (when viewed in the GSEx-GSEz plane) which bulge outwards into the magnetosheath. We note also that at larger Lundquist numbers, macroscopic dissipation region structures appear to filament along the flanks of the magnetopause due to the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The bearing of Hall physics on the relative frequency and character of poleward propagating flux transfer events is also discussed.
Reconnection in the Solar Corona: Observations and MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoyama, T.
This paper covers following topics. First, I discuss the present status of our understanding on solar flares based on the magnetic reconnection model from both the observational and theoretical point of views. We have now many pieces of evidence that support the model, such as cusped flare loops, loop-top hard X-ray sources, and plasmoid ejections above a flaring loops. Recently, new classes of evidence have been added to these. The downward moving feature observed above the evolving flare arcades is consistent with the downward reconnection jet from the reconnection X-point. More directly the reconnection inflow pattern was found by an EIT observation above a cusp-shaped flare loops. At the same time, the MHD simulations are also evolving by including various thermal processes, such as non-linear non-isotropic heat conduction, and radiative coolings. Nevertheless, our understanding for magnetic reconnection is not enough. There are several open questions which we must answer. One is the 'what is the diffusion mechanism at the X-point of the reconnection ?' The scale gap between the microscopic processes and the global flare loops is enormous. The other important question is 'what triggers the reconnection ?' Global instability or loss-of-equilibrium will be achieved by some unknown process.
Hall MHD simulations of collisionless multiple X line reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, C. X.; Jin, S. P.; Wei, F. S.
2011-03-01
A Hall MHD simulation of multiple X line reconnection, in which a diffusion region around the standing X line and the moving plasmoids are involved, is presented. The observed features of Hall magnetic and electric fields in the diffusion region and the direction reversal of the electron flow in the vicinity of the magnetic separatrices are displayed in case 1 with the guide field By0 = 0. During the passage of a tailward moving plasmoid the bipolar By waveform signatures caused by the Hall current and the Hall electric field signatures in case 1 are qualitatively in line with the observations from the Geotail and Cluster spacecraft. Case 2 with By0 = 0.15 is carried out to investigate the reconnection configuration on the earthward side of the X line. The peaking signature of the positive By correlated with the bipolar (-/+) Bz is observed while an earthward moving plasmoid passes though the given point below the current sheet and close to the midplane; but the negative By is recorded at the given point above the current sheet. Such positive and negative By signatures, which are comparable with the observations from Cluster 3 and other Cluster spacecraft, are attributed to the By asymmetric structures associated with the Hall effect. The enhancement and variation of the electric field detected by Cluster 3 might be related to the -V' × B electric field associated with the earthward movement of the X line.
Maier, Thomas A; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Summers, Michael Stuart; Schulthess, Thomas C
2010-01-01
Using dynamic cluster quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we study the superconducting behavior of a 1=8 doped two-dimensional Hubbard model with imposed unidirectional stripelike charge-density-wave modulation. We find a significant increase of the pairing correlations and critical temperature relative to the homogeneous system when the modulation length scale is sufficiently large. With a separable form of the irreducible particle-particle vertex, we show that optimized superconductivity is obtained for a moderate modulation strength due to a delicate balance between the modulation enhanced pairing interaction, and a concomitant suppression of the bare particle-particle excitations by a modulation reduction of the quasiparticle weight.
A Fully Conservative Scheme for Direct Simulation of MHD at Low Magnetic Reynolds Number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, M. J.; Li, J. F.
2011-09-01
A fully conservative scheme, which can conserve mass, momentum and kinetic energy in the case of infinity Reynolds number, has been designed for simulation of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flows at low magnetic Reynolds numbers. The convective term and the pressure term are discretized by employing a central-symmetrical scheme, and the Lorentz force is calculated by designing a consistent and conservative scheme on a staggered mesh. The consistent and conservative scheme can guarantee the calculated current density conserve the charge and the calculated Lorentz force conserve the momentum. The fully conservative scheme is in favor of direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) of MHD instability and MHD turbulence. The validation and verification of the scheme has been conducted for MHD at low magnetic field or high magnetic field, conductive wall or insulated wall, uniform magnetic field or strong gradient of magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hur, Min Young; Lee, Ho-Jun; Lee, Hae June; Choe, Won Ho; Seon, Jong Ho
2013-09-01
Oscillations of the plasma potential have been observed in many Hall thruster experiments. It was estimated that the oscillations are triggered by the interaction between the plasma and the dielectric materials such as secondary electron emission, but detailed mechanism has not been proven. In this paper, the effects of the interaction between the plasma and dielectric material are simulated with a two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code for the acceleration channel of the hall thruster. Especially, the simulation code is parallelized using graphic processing units (GPUs). To analyze the effect, the simulation is confirmed to change following two parameters, magnetic flux density and secondary electron emission coefficient (SEEC). The particle trajectory is presented with the variation of the SEEC and magnetic flux density as well as its curvature. This research is supported by a ``Core technology development of high Isp electric propulsion system for space exploration'' from National Space Lab. sponsored by the National Reshearch Foundation of korea (NRF).
Gustavsen, Arlid; Kohler, Christian; Dalehaug, Arvid; Arasteh, Dariush
2008-12-01
This paper assesses the accuracy of the simplified frame cavity conduction/convection and radiation models presented in ISO 15099 and used in software for rating and labeling window products. Temperatures and U-factors for typical horizontal window frames with internal cavities are compared; results from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations with detailed radiation modeling are used as a reference. Four different frames were studied. Two were made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and two of aluminum. For each frame, six different simulations were performed, two with a CFD code and four with a building-component thermal-simulation tool using the Finite Element Method (FEM). This FEM tool addresses convection using correlations from ISO 15099; it addressed radiation with either correlations from ISO 15099 or with a detailed, view-factor-based radiation model. Calculations were performed using the CFD code with and without fluid flow in the window frame cavities; the calculations without fluid flow were performed to verify that the CFD code and the building-component thermal-simulation tool produced consistent results. With the FEM-code, the practice of subdividing small frame cavities was examined, in some cases not subdividing, in some cases subdividing cavities with interconnections smaller than five millimeters (mm) (ISO 15099) and in some cases subdividing cavities with interconnections smaller than seven mm (a breakpoint that has been suggested in other studies). For the various frames, the calculated U-factors were found to be quite comparable (the maximum difference between the reference CFD simulation and the other simulations was found to be 13.2 percent). A maximum difference of 8.5 percent was found between the CFD simulation and the FEM simulation using ISO 15099 procedures. The ISO 15099 correlation works best for frames with high U-factors. For more efficient frames, the relative differences among various simulations are larger. Temperature was also compared, at selected locations on the frames. Small differences was found in the results from model to model. Finally, the effectiveness of the ISO cavity radiation algorithms was examined by comparing results from these algorithms to detailed radiation calculations (from both programs). Our results suggest that improvements in cavity heat transfer calculations can be obtained by using detailed radiation modeling (i.e. view-factor or ray-tracing models), and that incorporation of these strategies may be more important for improving the accuracy of results than the use of CFD modeling for horizontal cavities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, S.
2002-09-01
We consider a nematogenic lattice model, associated with a 2-dimensional lattice; the nearest-neighbour interaction potential, proposed by Gruhn and Hess [Z. Naturforsch. A 51 (1996) 1], is defined via an approximate mapping from the elastic free-energy density, and has already been studied by simulation in 3 dimensions [S. Romano, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 12 (1998) 2305]. The present simulation results show that the model produces homeotropic anchoring, and a weaker uniaxial orientational order, now surviving up to temperatures higher than the transition temperature of the 3-dimensional counterpart, possibly at all finite temperatures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackman, Charles H.; Douglas, Anne R.; Brueske, Kurt F.
1992-01-01
A 2D photochemical model has been utilized to investigate the influence of testing of the NASP on the stratosphere. Effluents of H2, H2O, NO, NO2, OH, H, and O from the experimental vehicles are predicted to slightly disturb the stratosphere. The European Sanger spacecraft possible influence on the stratosphere has been simulated and is predicted to also be minor.
Zeng, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Shuo-Fu; Qin, Xiao-Sheng; Huang, Guo-He; Li, Jian-Bing
2003-05-01
The paper establishes the relationship between the settling efficiency and the sizes of the sedimentation tank through the process of numerical simulation, which is taken as one of the constraints to set up a simple optimum designing model of sedimentation tank. The feasibility and advantages of this model based on numerical calculation are verified through the application of practical case. PMID:12938985
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freidberg, Jeffrey P.
2014-06-01
1. Introduction; 2. The ideal MHD model; 3. General properties of ideal MHD; 5. Equilibrium: one-dimensional configurations; 6. Equilibrium: two-dimensional configurations; 7. Equilibrium: three-dimensional configurations; 8. Stability: general considerations; 9. Alternate MHD models; 10. MHD stability comparison theorems; 11. Stability: one-dimensional configurations; 12. Stability: multi-dimensional configurations; Appendix A. Heuristic derivation of the kinetic equation; Appendix B. The Braginskii transport coefficients; Appendix C. Time derivatives in moving plasmas; Appendix D. The curvature vector; Appendix E. Overlap limit of the high b and Greene-Johnson stellarator models; Appendix F. General form for q(y); Appendix G. Natural boundary conditions; Appendix H. Upper and lower bounds on dQKIN.
Substorm features in MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) simulations of magnetotail dynamics
Birn, J.; Hesse, M.
1990-01-01
We present a review and extended analysis of characteristic results from our nonideal three-dimensional MHD simulations of unstable magnetotail evolution, which develops without the necessity of external driving or prescribed localization on nonideal effects. These modes involve magnetic reconnection at a near-Earth site in the tail, consistent with the near-Earth neutral line model of substorms. The evolution tailward of the reconnection site is characterized by plasmoid formation and ejection into the far tail, plasma sheet thinning between the near-Earth neutral line (X line) and the departing plasmoid, and fast tailward flow, which occupies large sections of the plasma sheet at larger distance from the X line, while it occurs only in very limited space and time sections close to the X line. The region earthward of the X line is characterized by dipolarization, propagating from midnight toward the flank regions and, perhaps, tailward. It is associated with the signatures of the substorm current wedge: reduction and diversion of cross-tail current from a region surrounding the reconnection site and increase of Region 1 type field-aligned currents. A mapping of these currents to the Earth on the basis of an empirical magnetic field model shows good agreement of the mapped current system with the observed Region 1 field-aligned current system and its substorm associated changes, including also a nightward and equatorward shift of the peaks of the field-aligned current density. The evolution of the mappings of the boundaries of the closed field line region bears strong resemblance to the formation and expansion of he auroral bulge. The consistency of all of these details with observed substorm features strongly supports the idea that substorm evolution in the tail is that of a large scale nonideal instability.
Relativistic MHD simulations of poynting flux-driven jets
Guan, Xiaoyue; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai
2014-01-20
Relativistic, magnetized jets are observed to propagate to very large distances in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use three-dimensional relativistic MHD simulations to study the propagation of Poynting flux-driven jets in AGNs. These jets are already assumed to be being launched from the vicinity (∼10{sup 3} gravitational radii) of supermassive black holes. Jet injections are characterized by a model described in Li et al., and we follow the propagation of these jets to ∼parsec scales. We find that these current-carrying jets are always collimated and mildly relativistic. When α, the ratio of toroidal-to-poloidal magnetic flux injection, is large the jet is subject to nonaxisymmetric current-driven instabilities (CDI) which lead to substantial dissipation and reduced jet speed. However, even with the presence of instabilities, the jet is not disrupted and will continue to propagate to large distances. We suggest that the relatively weak impact by the instability is due to the nature of the instability being convective and the fact that the jet magnetic fields are rapidly evolving on Alfvénic time scales. We present the detailed jet properties and show that far from the jet launching region, a substantial amount of magnetic energy has been transformed into kinetic energy and thermal energy, producing a jet magnetization number σ < 1. In addition, we have also studied the effects of a gas pressure supported 'disk' surrounding the injection region, and qualitatively similar global jet behaviors were observed. We stress that jet collimation, CDIs, and the subsequent energy transitions are intrinsic features of current-carrying jets.
Two-dimensional numerical simulation of O-mode to Z-mode conversion in the ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cannon, P. D.; Honary, F.; Borisov, N.
2016-03-01
Experiments in the illumination of the F region of the ionosphere via radio frequency waves polarized in the ordinary mode (O-mode) have revealed that the magnitude of artificial heating-induced effects depends strongly on the inclination angle of the pump beam, with a greater modification to the plasma observed when the heating beam is directed close to or along the magnetic zenith direction. Numerical simulations performed using a recently developed finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code are used to investigate the contribution of the O-mode to Z-mode conversion process to this effect. The aspect angle dependence and angular size of the radio window for which conversion of an O-mode pump wave to the Z-mode occurs is simulated for a variety of plasma density profiles including 2-D linear gradients representative of large-scale plasma depletions, density-depleted plasma ducts, and periodic field-aligned irregularities. The angular shape of the conversion window is found to be strongly influenced by the background plasma profile. If the Z-mode wave is reflected, it can propagate back toward the O-mode reflection region leading to resonant enhancement of the electric field in this region. Simulation results presented in this paper demonstrate that this process can make a significant contribution to the magnitude of electron density depletion and temperature enhancement around the resonance height and contributes to a strong dependence of the magnitude of plasma perturbation with the direction of the pump wave.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Weber, S.
2014-05-01
Laser-plasma interaction and hot electron generation play a crucial role in the context of inertial confinement fusion and in particular in the shock-ignition concept. Here we present a fully kinetic large-scale two-dimensional simulation studying laser-plasma interaction and hot electron generation in a relatively long and hot coronal plasma. The simulation shows saturation of the reflectivity of an intense spike pulse and absorption taking place close to a quarter critical density in particular, due to cavitation and stimulated Raman scattering. The signatures of steady two-plasmon decay are observed, but the hot electron number produced by this instability is low in comparison with the other two processes. The spectral and angular distribution of the back-scattered light is presented and the energy and angular characteristics of hot electrons due to individual absorption processes are studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisjak, A.; Liu, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Mahabadi, O. K.; Grasselli, G.
2013-10-01
Stress waves, known as acoustic emissions (AEs), are released by localized inelastic deformation events during the progressive failure of brittle rocks. Although several numerical models have been developed to simulate the deformation and damage processes of rocks, such as non-linear stress-strain behaviour and localization of failure, only a limited number have been capable of providing quantitative information regarding the associated seismicity. Moreover, the majority of these studies have adopted a pseudo-static approach based on elastic strain energy dissipation that completely disregards elastodynamic effects. This paper describes a new AE modelling technique based on the combined finite-discrete element method (FEM/DEM), a numerical tool that simulates material failure by explicitly considering fracture nucleation and propagation in the modelling domain. Given the explicit time integration scheme of the solver, stress wave propagation and the effect of radiated seismic energy can be directly captured. Quasi-dynamic seismic information is extracted from a FEM/DEM model with a newly developed algorithm based on the monitoring of internal variables (e.g. relative displacements and kinetic energy) in proximity to propagating cracks. The AE of a wing crack propagation model based on this algorithm are cross-analysed by traveltime inversion and energy estimation from seismic recordings. Results indicate a good correlation of AE initiation times and locations, and scaling of energies, independently calculated with the two methods. Finally, the modelling technique is validated by simulating a laboratory compression test on a granite sample. The micromechanical parameters of the heterogeneous model are first calibrated to reproduce the macroscopic stress-strain response measured during standard laboratory tests. Subsequently, AE frequency-magnitude statistics, spatial clustering of source locations and the evolution of AE rate are investigated. The distribution of event magnitude tends to decay as power law while the spatial distribution of sources exhibits a fractal character, in agreement with experimental observations. Moreover, the model can capture the decrease of seismic b value associated with the macrorupture of the rock sample and the transition of AE spatial distribution from diffuse, in the pre-peak stage, to strongly localized at the peak and post-peak stages, as reported in a number of published laboratory studies. In future studies, the validated FEM/DEM-AE modelling technique will be used to obtain further insights into the micromechanics of rock failure with potential applications ranging from laboratory-scale microcracking to engineering-scale processes (e.g. excavations within mines, tunnels and caverns, petroleum and geothermal reservoirs) to tectonic earthquakes triggering.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Stolarski, Richard S.
1999-01-01
In this study, we examine the sensitivity of long lived tracers to changes in the base transport components in our 2-D model. Changes to the strength of the residual circulation in the upper troposphere and stratosphere and changes to the lower stratospheric K(sub zz) had similar effects in that increasing the transport rates decreased the overall stratospheric mean age, and increased the rate of removal of material from the stratosphere. Increasing the stratospheric K(sub yy) increased the mean age due to the greater recycling of air parcels through the middle atmosphere, via the residual circulation, before returning to the troposphere. However, increasing K(sub yy) along with self-consistent increases in the corresponding planetary wave drive, which leads to a stronger residual circulation, more than compensates for the K(sub yy)-effect, and produces significantly younger ages throughout the stratosphere. Simulations with very small tropical stratospheric K(sub yy) decreased the globally averaged age of air by as much as 25% in the middle and upper stratosphere, and resulted in substantially weaker vertical age gradients above 20 km in the extratropics. We found only very small stratospheric tracer sensitivity to the magnitude of the horizontal mixing across the tropopause, and to the strength of the mesospheric gravity wave drag and diffusion used in the model. We also investigated the transport influence on chemically active tracers and found a strong age-tracer correlation, both in concentration and calculated lifetimes. The base model transport gives the most favorable overall comparison with a variety of inert tracer observations, and provides a significant improvement over our previous 1995 model transport. Moderate changes to the base transport were found to provide modest agreement with some of the measurements. Transport scenarios with residence times ranging from moderately shorter to slightly longer relative to the base case simulated N2O lifetimes that were within the observational estimates of Volk et al. [1997]. However, only scenarios with rather fast transport rates were comparable with the Volk et al. estimates of CFCl3 lifetimes. This is inconsistent with model-measurement comparisons of mean age in which the base model or slightly slower transport rates compared the most favorably with balloon SF6 data. For all comparisons shown, large transport changes away from the base case resulted in simulations that were outside the range of measurements, and in many cases, far outside this range.
Yoon, E. S.; Chang, C. S.
2014-03-15
An approximate two-dimensional solver of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operator has been developed using the assumption that the particle probability distribution function is independent of gyroangle in the limit of strong magnetic field. The isotropic one-dimensional scheme developed for nonlinear Fokker-Planck-Landau equation by Buet and Cordier [J. Comput. Phys. 179, 43 (2002)] and for linear Fokker-Planck-Landau equation by Chang and Cooper [J. Comput. Phys. 6, 1 (1970)] have been modified and extended to two-dimensional nonlinear equation. In addition, a method is suggested to apply the new velocity-grid based collision solver to Lagrangian particle-in-cell simulation by adjusting the weights of marker particles and is applied to a five dimensional particle-in-cell code to calculate the neoclassical ion thermal conductivity in a tokamak plasma. Error verifications show practical aspects of the present scheme for both grid-based and particle-based kinetic codes.
Wang, D; Yates, S R; Gao, S
2011-01-01
Understanding the control mechanisms of fumigant movement in soil is a fundamental step for developing management strategies to reduce atmospheric emissions. Most soil fumigants including chloropicrin (CP) are applied by shank injection, and the application process often leaves vertical soil fractures that would potentially cause preferential fumigant movement and increased emissions. This potential transport pathway was evaluated by comparing cumulative emissions and soil air concentrations of CP from direct field measurements with those predicted using analytical and numerical models after assuming either point or rectangle sources for the injected CP. Results clearly showed that shank-injected CP, when treated as vertical rectangle sources, produced cumulative emission losses similar to the field measurements. Treating the shanked CP as point sources caused approximately 50% underprediction than the field measurements. The study also demonstrated that fumigant cumulative emissions can be predicted, with reasonable accuracy, using either analytical or numerical simulations. PMID:21869506
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J.
2013-07-01
We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20-100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 104 T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by 50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.
Xu, X B; Fangohr, H; Gu, M; Chen, W; Wang, Z H; Zhou, F; Shi, D Q; Dou, S X
2014-03-19
We study the superconducting vortex states induced by the interplay of long-range Pearl repulsion and short-range intervortex attraction using Langevin dynamics simulations. We show that at low temperatures the vortices form an ordered Abrikosov lattice both in low and high fields. The vortices show distinctive modulated structures at intermediate fields depending on the effective intervortex attraction: ordered vortex chain and kagome-like vortex structures for weak attraction; bubble, stripe and antibubble lattices for strong attraction. Moreover, in the regime of the chain state, the vortices display structural transitions from chain to labyrinthine (or disordered chain) and/or to disordered states depending on the strength of the disorder. PMID:24589983
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djouder, M.; Kermoun, F.; Mitiche, M. D.; Lamrous, O.
2016-01-01
Dust particles observed in universe as well as in laboratory and technological plasma devices are still under investigation. At low temperature, these particles are strongly negatively charged and are able to form a 2D or 3D coulomb crystal. In this work, our aim was to check the ideal gas law validity for a 2D single-layer dust crystal recently reported in the literature. For this purpose, we have simulated, using the molecular dynamics method, its thermodynamic properties for different values of dust particles number and confinement parameters. The obtained results have allowed us to invalidate the ideal gas behaviour and to propose an effective equation of state which assumes a near zero dust temperature. Furthermore, the value of the calculated sound velocity was found to be in a good agreement with experimental data published elsewhere.
Northrop, Paul W. C.; Pathak, Manan; Rife, Derek; De, Sumitava; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Subramanian, Venkat R.
2015-03-09
Lithium-ion batteries are an important technology to facilitate efficient energy storage and enable a shift from petroleum based energy to more environmentally benign sources. Such systems can be utilized most efficiently if good understanding of performance can be achieved for a range of operating conditions. Mathematical models can be useful to predict battery behavior to allow for optimization of design and control. An analytical solution is ideally preferred to solve the equations of a mathematical model, as it eliminates the error that arises when using numerical techniques and is usually computationally cheap. An analytical solution provides insight into the behavior of the system and also explicitly shows the effects of different parameters on the behavior. However, most engineering models, including the majority of battery models, cannot be solved analytically due to non-linearities in the equations and state dependent transport and kinetic parameters. The numerical method used to solve the system of equations describing a battery operation can have a significant impact on the computational cost of the simulation. In this paper, a model reformulation of the porous electrode pseudo three dimensional (P3D) which significantly reduces the computational cost of lithium ion battery simulation, while maintaining high accuracy, is discussed. This reformulation enables the use of the P3D model into applications that would otherwise be too computationally expensive to justify its use, such as online control, optimization, and parameter estimation. Furthermore, the P3D model has proven to be robust enough to allow for the inclusion of additional physical phenomena as understanding improves. In this study, the reformulated model is used to allow for more complicated physical phenomena to be considered for study, including thermal effects.
Northrop, Paul W. C.; Pathak, Manan; Rife, Derek; De, Sumitava; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Subramanian, Venkat R.
2015-03-09
Lithium-ion batteries are an important technology to facilitate efficient energy storage and enable a shift from petroleum based energy to more environmentally benign sources. Such systems can be utilized most efficiently if good understanding of performance can be achieved for a range of operating conditions. Mathematical models can be useful to predict battery behavior to allow for optimization of design and control. An analytical solution is ideally preferred to solve the equations of a mathematical model, as it eliminates the error that arises when using numerical techniques and is usually computationally cheap. An analytical solution provides insight into the behaviormore » of the system and also explicitly shows the effects of different parameters on the behavior. However, most engineering models, including the majority of battery models, cannot be solved analytically due to non-linearities in the equations and state dependent transport and kinetic parameters. The numerical method used to solve the system of equations describing a battery operation can have a significant impact on the computational cost of the simulation. In this paper, a model reformulation of the porous electrode pseudo three dimensional (P3D) which significantly reduces the computational cost of lithium ion battery simulation, while maintaining high accuracy, is discussed. This reformulation enables the use of the P3D model into applications that would otherwise be too computationally expensive to justify its use, such as online control, optimization, and parameter estimation. Furthermore, the P3D model has proven to be robust enough to allow for the inclusion of additional physical phenomena as understanding improves. In this study, the reformulated model is used to allow for more complicated physical phenomena to be considered for study, including thermal effects.« less
Comparison of Iridium Determined Field-Aligned Current Patterns with MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.; Goodrich, C. C.; Waters, C. L.; Merkine, V. G.
2002-05-01
The engineering magnetometers aboard the 70+ Iridium satellites arranged in six equally spaced polar orbital planes provide a unique database for determination of global field-aligned currents [Waters et al., 2001]. In this study we compare these field-aligned currents with MHD simulation results to quantitatively evaluate the MHD results in a global way. We report analysis for three events of steady interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation, stable to within 25o of the average direction. The start times of these intervals are August~11, 1999 (22:36), November~23, 1999 (07:15), and August~10, 2000 (22:11), and the events extend between eight and ten hours in duration. The IMF clock angles for the events are -124o, 125o, and 160o, respectively, and the IMF cone angles for all three intervals are within 25o of 90o. The solar wind flow speeds for the events averages 430, 453, and 386~km/s, and the mean solar wind densities are 3.7, 3.6, and 12.0 {cm}-3, respectively. The field aligned current densities in the MHD simulations are evaluated at the inner simulation boundary (2~Re) and mapped on dipole field lines to ionospheric altitudes. Preliminary results show a reasonably good agreement in the morphology of the Region-1 currents, although the field-aligned currents of the MHD simulations are displaced somewhat poleward with respect to the Iridium patterns. DMSP particle source identifications are used to compare source regions of Region 1 in the observed FAC maps with those in the MHD simulations. The Region-2 currents show expectedly larger differences since ring current drift physics necessary to drive these currents in the magnetosphere is not implemented in the MHD evaluations. The ratio between Region~1 and Region~2 is used to measure the relative deficit of Region-2 currents in the MHD simulation results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beyer, C.; Ballarini, E.; Bauer, R.; Griebler, C.; Bauer, S.
2011-12-01
The biodegradation of oxidizable hydrocarbon contaminants in the subsurface requires the presence of compatible microbial communities as well as sufficient amounts of electron acceptors and nutrients. In this context, transverse mixing, driven by dispersion and diffusion, is one of the main mechanisms governing the availability of dissolved electron acceptors at a hydrocarbon plume fringe. Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons limited by transverse mixing has been studied experimentally in 2D bench-scale flow-through tanks, filled with a saturated porous medium. Flow of groundwater through the tanks was induced by pumping water at one side through injection ports, and simultaneously extracting water at the other side of the tank. An ethylbenzene plume was established by injection through the central inlet port. A mixture of unlabeled and fully deuterium-labeled isotopomers was used in order to investigate the spatial distribution of degradation processes via monitoring of compound-specific stable isotope fractionation. In the first phase of the experiment, aerobic biodegradation was studied. For this purpose, the tank was recharged with water containing oxygen as a dissolved electron acceptor and the aerobic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 was inoculated. Later, nitrate was added to the recharge water as an additional electron acceptor and the denitrifying strain Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 was amended to study competitive aerobic/anaerobic biodegradation. A numerical reactive transport model of the experiment was set up for a model based interpretation of the observed degradation patterns. In a sensitivity analysis, the influence of the relevant hydrodynamic parameters on the observable distributions of ethylbenzene isotopomers, oxygen and nitrate was studied. Subsequent model calibration allowed for a good agreement with ethylbenzene concentrations measured at the tank outlet ports as well as oxygen concentrations, which were measured at several profiles perpendicular to the flow direction along the plume. Simulated microbial growth was strongest near the central tank inlet, where both, oxygen and ethylbenzene were available at high concentrations, and along the transverse mixing zone at the fringe of the developed ethylbenzene plume. Model based interpretation of the aerobic/anaerobic phase with competitive biodegradation proved to be ambiguous due to uncertainties regarding the actual stoichiometry of the specific denitrification reaction. Also, the simulated isotopic patterns were very sensitive to the assumed initial distribution of the A. aromaticum EbN1 biomass. Ethylbenzene concentrations and isotopic patterns predicted by the numerical model match the measurements quite well for the first half of the aerobic/anaerobic phase. A distinct increase in biodegradation dynamics later on hints at a change in biodegradation dynamics during the course of the experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikeda, Tomoaki; Atobe, Takashi; Takagi, Shohei
2012-01-01
The aeroacoustic sound generated from the flow around two NACA four-digit airfoils is investigated numerically, at relatively low Reynolds numbers that do not prompt boundary-layer transition. By using high-order finite-difference schemes to discretize compressible Navier-Stokes equations, the sound scattered on airfoil surface is directly resolved as an unsteady pressure fluctuation. As the wavelength of an emitted noise is shortened compared to the airfoil chord, the diffraction effect on non-compact chord length appears more noticeable, developing multiple lobes in directivity. The instability mechanism that produces sound sources, or unsteady vortical motions, is quantitatively examined, also by using a linear stability theory. While the evidence of boundary-layer instability waves is captured in the present result, the most amplified frequency in the boundary shear layer does not necessarily agree with the primary frequency of a trailing-edge noise, when wake instability is dominant in laminar flow. This contradicts the observation of other trailing-edge noise studies at higher Reynolds numbers. However, via acoustic disturbances, the boundary-layer instability may become more significant, through the resonance with the wake instability, excited by increasing a base-flow Mach number. Evidence suggests that this would correspond to the onset of an acoustic feedback loop. The wake-flow frequencies derived by an absolute-instability analysis are compared with the frequencies realized in flow simulations, to clarify the effect of an acoustic feedback mechanism, at a low Reynolds number.
Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J.
2013-07-15
We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20–100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 × 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ∼50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.
Large Eddy Simulations of 2D Lattice Boltzmann MHD Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flint, Christopher; Vahala, George; Vahala, Linda; Soe, Min
2014-10-01
Dellar's LBM of 2D incompressible MHD introduced both a velocity and magnetic distribution functions. As a result div B = 0 is automatically enforced through the trace of an antisymmetric perturbed tensor. We have extended this algorithm to 3D MHD turbulence, with excellent parallelization to many thousands of cores. In LES of MHD turbulence, only the subgrid modes are modeled for using some ad hoc closure scheme. In the Smagorinsky model, the filtered Reynolds stresses are modeled by mean field gradient terms. Recently, Ansumali et al. have developed an LES for Navier-Stokes turbulence by filtering the underlying mesoscopic LB. The filtered LB equations are then subjected to the Chapman-Enskog expansion. A Smagorinsky LES is recovered with no ad hoc assumptions other than the subgrid terms contribute at the transport time scales. This forces a relationship between the filter width and the Knudsen number. Here we extend these ideas to MHD turbulence and achieve closures under the simple assumption that the subgrid terms affect the evolution on the transport time scale. These ideas will first be tested on the flow of 2D jets in a magnetic field. The DNS data base is being generated from a multiple relaxation time (MRT) model for both the velocity and magnetic fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jiaxing; Goldberger, Joshua E.
2015-04-01
It has been 10 years since Geim and Novoselov isolated single-layer graphene and uncovered the unique Fermi-Dirac physics in this two-dimensional (2D) material. This seminal work has encouraged a re-exploration of 2D materials, and the discovery of novel properties both when exfoliated into single-layers, and in the bulk. Furthermore, these systems has led to numerous exciting applications for layered materials ranging from electrochemical capacitors, to transparent conductors, to thermal management devices, to Terahertz electronics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toth, G.; Daldorff, L. K. S.; Jia, X.; Gombosi, T. I.; Lapenta, G.
2014-12-01
We have recently developed a new modeling capability to embed theimplicit Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model iPIC3D into the BATS-R-USmagnetohydrodynamic model. The PIC domain can cover the regions wherekinetic effects are most important, such as reconnection sites. TheBATS-R-US code, on the other hand, can efficiently handle the rest ofthe computational domain where the MHD or Hall MHD description issufficient. As one of the very first applications of the MHD-EPICalgorithm (Daldorff et al. 2014, JCP, 268, 236) we simulate theinteraction between Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma with Ganymede'smagnetosphere, where the separation of kinetic and global scalesappears less severe than for the Earth's magnetosphere. Because theexternal Jovian magnetic field remains in an anti-parallel orientationwith respect to Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field, magneticreconnection is believed to be the major process that couples the twomagnetospheres. As the PIC model is able to describe self-consistentlythe electron behavior, our coupled MHD-EPIC model is well suited forinvestigating the nature of magnetic reconnection in thisreconnection-driven mini-magnetosphere. We will compare the MHD-EPICsimulations with pure Hall MHD simulations and compare both modelresults with Galileo plasma and magnetic field measurements to assess therelative importance of ion and electron kinetics in controlling theconfiguration and dynamics of Ganymede's magnetosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Min; Koehler, Andrew D.; Gupta, Amit; Nishida, Toshikazu; Thompson, Scott E.
2010-11-01
The gauge factor of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor was determined theoretically, considering the effect of stress on the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sheet carrier density and electron mobility. Differences in the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization between the AlGaN and GaN layers, with and without external mechanical stress, were investigated to calculate the stress-altered 2DEG density. Strain was incorporated into a sp3d5-sp3 empirical tight-binding model to obtain the change in electron effective masses under biaxial and uniaxial stress. The simulated longitudinal gauge factor (-7.9±5.2) is consistent with experimental results (-2.4±0.5) obtained from measurements eliminating parasitic charge trapping effects through continuous subbandgap optical excitation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noge, Hiroshi; Saito, Kimihiko; Sato, Aiko; Kaneko, Tetsuya; Kondo, Michio
2015-08-01
The performance of interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction solar cells having overlapped p/i and n/i a-Si:H layers on the back has been investigated by two-dimensional simulation in comparison with the conventional cell structure having a gap between p/i and n/i layers. The results show that narrower overlap width leads to higher short circuit current and conversion efficiency, especially for poor heterojunction interface and thinner silicon substrate of the cells in addition to narrower uncovered width of p/i layer by a metal electrode. This is similar to the gap width dependence in the conventional cells, since both overlap and gap act as dead area for diffused excess carriers in the back contacts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasama, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Anri
2009-10-01
To investigate the effect of charged substances on the properties of ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), the site percolation property of a finite-size two-dimensional square-lattice system was analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. We found that the variation in the aspect ratio (width/length) of the channel leads to two important features: the sensitivity of the ISFET is enhanced with a decrease in width and/or an increase in length; however, ISFET having a rather wide and/or short channel produces the best performance in quantitative analysis. The results of this study would be applicable to the design of an ultrasensitive and quantitatively analyzable ISFET.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinagawa, H.; Tsugawa, T.; Matsumura, M.; Iyemori, T.; Saito, A.; Maruyama, T.; Jin, H.; Nishioka, M.; Otsuka, Y.
2013-10-01
Unusual ionospheric variations were observed in the M9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake on 11 March 2011. Among various kinds of features in the ionosphere, significant depletion of total electron content (TEC) near the epicenter was observed after the earthquake. Although previous studies have suggested that the coseismic ionospheric variations are associated with atmospheric perturbation caused by vertical displacement of the sea surface, the mechanism of the TEC depletion has not been fully understood. In this paper, a two-dimensional nonlinear nonhydrostatic compressible atmosphere-ionosphere model is employed to investigate the ionospheric variations in the vicinity of the epicenter. The simulation results reveal that an impulsive pressure pulse produced by a sudden uplift of the sea surface leads to local atmospheric expansion in the thermosphere and that the expansion of the thermosphere combined with the effect of inclined magnetic field lines in the ionosphere causes the sudden TEC depletion above the epicenter region.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rhee, Hyop S.; Begg, Lester L.; Wetch, Joseph R.; Jang, Jong H.; Juhasz, Albert J.
1990-01-01
An innovative pumped loop concept for 600 K space power system radiators utilizing direct contact heat transfer, which facilitates repeated startup/shutdown of the power system without complex and time-consuming coolant thawing during power startup, is under development. The heat transfer process with melting/freezing of Li in an NaK flow was studied through two-dimensional time-dependent numerical simulations to characterize and predict the Li/NaK radiator performance during startup (thawing) and shutdown (cold-trapping). Effects of system parameters and the criteria for the plugging domain are presented together with temperature distribution patterns in solid Li and subsequent melting surface profile variations in time.
Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Donahue, Neil M; Chuang, Wayne; Hildebrandt Ruiz, Lea; Ng, Nga L; Wang, Yangjun; Hao, Jiming
2015-02-17
We evaluate the one-dimensional volatility basis set (1D-VBS) and two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) in simulating the aging of SOA derived from toluene and α-pinene against smog-chamber experiments. If we simulate the first-generation products with empirical chamber fits and the subsequent aging chemistry with a 1D-VBS or a 2D-VBS, the models mostly overestimate the SOA concentrations in the toluene oxidation experiments. This is because the empirical chamber fits include both first-generation oxidation and aging; simulating aging in addition to this results in double counting of the initial aging effects. If the first-generation oxidation is treated explicitly, the base-case 2D-VBS underestimates the SOA concentrations and O:C increase of the toluene oxidation experiments; it generally underestimates the SOA concentrations and overestimates the O:C increase of the α-pinene experiments. With the first-generation oxidation treated explicitly, we could modify the 2D-VBS configuration individually for toluene and α-pinene to achieve good model-measurement agreement. However, we are unable to simulate the oxidation of both toluene and α-pinene with the same 2D-VBS configuration. We suggest that future models should implement parallel layers for anthropogenic (aromatic) and biogenic precursors, and that more modeling studies and laboratory research be done to optimize the "best-guess" parameters for each layer. PMID:25581402
Totsuji, Chieko; Miyake, Takashi; Nakanishi, Kenta; Tsuruta, Kenji; Totsuji, Hiroo
2009-01-28
A method for numerically simulating quantum systems is proposed and applied to the two-dimensional electron fluid at T = 0. This method maps quantum systems onto classical ones in the spirit of the classical-map hypernetted-chain theory and performs simulations on the latter. The results of the simulations are free from the assumption of the hypernetted-chain approximation and the neglect of the bridge diagrams. A merit of this method is the applicability to systems with geometrical complexity and finite sizes including the cases at finite temperatures. Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations are performed corresponding to two previous proposals for the 'quantum' temperature and an improvement in the description of the diffraction effect. It is shown that one of these two proposals with the improved diffraction effect gives significantly better agreement with quantum Monte Carlo results reported previously for the range of 5?r(s)?40. These results may serve as the basis for the application of this method to finite non-periodic systems like quantum dots and systems at finite temperatures. PMID:21715808
Two-Dimensional Colloidal Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Law, Adam D.; Buzza, D. Martin A.; Horozov, Tommy S.
2011-03-01
We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3μm diameter) and small (1μm diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ξ. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations.
Two-dimensional colloidal alloys.
Law, Adam D; Buzza, D Martin A; Horozov, Tommy S
2011-03-25
We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3 μm diameter) and small (1 μm diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ξ. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations. PMID:21517357
MHD simulations for investigating interaction processes between a CME and ambient solar wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Junmo; Magara, Tetsuya
2016-05-01
The interaction between coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and ambient solar winds is one of the important issues of space weather because it affects the trajectory of a flying CME, which determines whether the CME hits the Earth and produces geomagnetic disturbances or not. In this study, two-step 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations including a spheromak-type CME and an ambient solar wind are performed to investigate their interaction processes such as deflection and rotation of a CME. We perform the 1st-step MHD simulation using averaged surface magnetic field data to construct a steady state with an ambient solar wind. A spheromak-type CME is then injected through the solar surface, and subsequent evolution is reproduced by performing the 2nd-step MHD simulation. We discuss key parameters that characterize interaction processes between a CME and ambient solar wind.
A Comparison Study of Three CESE Schemes in MHD Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Zhen; Zhou, Yu-Fen
2010-08-01
The space-time conservation element and solution element (CESE) scheme is a new second order numerical scheme based on the concept of space-time conservation integration. In order to further overcome excessive numerical damping due to small Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number and to obtain a high quality solution, a Courant number insensitive (CNIS) scheme and a high-order scheme have been proposed by Chang et al. for fluid mechanics problems recently. In this study, to explore the potential capability of applications of the CNIS CESE scheme and the high-order CESE scheme to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, several benchmark MHD problems are calculated in one and two dimensions: (i) Brio and Wu's shock tube, (ii) Dai and Woodward's case, (iii) the Orszag-Tang vortex problem, (iv) the Riemann problem. The numerical results just prove that the CNIS scheme is more accurate and can keep the divergence free condition of the magnetic field, even if the CFL number is < 1. Meanwhile, the tests show that the high order CESE scheme possesses the ability to solve MHD problems but is sensitive to the Courant number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maire, Pierre-Henri; Abgrall, Rémi; Breil, Jérôme; Loubère, Raphaël; Rebourcet, Bernard
2013-02-01
In this paper, we describe a cell-centered Lagrangian scheme devoted to the numerical simulation of solid dynamics on two-dimensional unstructured grids in planar geometry. This numerical method, utilizes the classical elastic-perfectly plastic material model initially proposed by Wilkins [M.L. Wilkins, Calculation of elastic-plastic flow, Meth. Comput. Phys. (1964)]. In this model, the Cauchy stress tensor is decomposed into the sum of its deviatoric part and the thermodynamic pressure which is defined by means of an equation of state. Regarding the deviatoric stress, its time evolution is governed by a classical constitutive law for isotropic material. The plasticity model employs the von Mises yield criterion and is implemented by means of the radial return algorithm. The numerical scheme relies on a finite volume cell-centered method wherein numerical fluxes are expressed in terms of sub-cell force. The generic form of the sub-cell force is obtained by requiring the scheme to satisfy a semi-discrete dissipation inequality. Sub-cell force and nodal velocity to move the grid are computed consistently with cell volume variation by means of a node-centered solver, which results from total energy conservation. The nominally second-order extension is achieved by developing a two-dimensional extension in the Lagrangian framework of the Generalized Riemann Problem methodology, introduced by Ben-Artzi and Falcovitz [M. Ben-Artzi, J. Falcovitz, Generalized Riemann Problems in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge Monogr. Appl. Comput. Math. (2003)]. Finally, the robustness and the accuracy of the numerical scheme are assessed through the computation of several test cases.
Maire, Pierre-Henri; Breil, Jérôme; Loubère, Raphaël; Rebourcet, Bernard
2013-02-15
In this paper, we describe a cell-centered Lagrangian scheme devoted to the numerical simulation of solid dynamics on two-dimensional unstructured grids in planar geometry. This numerical method, utilizes the classical elastic-perfectly plastic material model initially proposed by Wilkins [M.L. Wilkins, Calculation of elastic–plastic flow, Meth. Comput. Phys. (1964)]. In this model, the Cauchy stress tensor is decomposed into the sum of its deviatoric part and the thermodynamic pressure which is defined by means of an equation of state. Regarding the deviatoric stress, its time evolution is governed by a classical constitutive law for isotropic material. The plasticity model employs the von Mises yield criterion and is implemented by means of the radial return algorithm. The numerical scheme relies on a finite volume cell-centered method wherein numerical fluxes are expressed in terms of sub-cell force. The generic form of the sub-cell force is obtained by requiring the scheme to satisfy a semi-discrete dissipation inequality. Sub-cell force and nodal velocity to move the grid are computed consistently with cell volume variation by means of a node-centered solver, which results from total energy conservation. The nominally second-order extension is achieved by developing a two-dimensional extension in the Lagrangian framework of the Generalized Riemann Problem methodology, introduced by Ben-Artzi and Falcovitz [M. Ben-Artzi, J. Falcovitz, Generalized Riemann Problems in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge Monogr. Appl. Comput. Math. (2003)]. Finally, the robustness and the accuracy of the numerical scheme are assessed through the computation of several test cases.
Bankura, Arindam; Chandra, Amalendu
2015-01-28
The dynamics of proton transfer (PT) through hydrogen bonds in a two-dimensional water layer confined between two graphene sheets at room temperature are investigated through ab initio and quantum-classical simulations. The excess proton is found to be mostly solvated as an Eigen cation where the hydronium ion donates three hydrogen bonds to the neighboring water molecules. In the solvation shell of the hydronium ion, the three coordinated water molecules with two donor hydrogen bonds are found to be properly presolvated to accept a proton. Although no hydrogen bond needs to be broken for transfer of a proton to such presolvated water molecules from the hydronium ion, the PT rate is still found to be not as fast as it is for one-dimensional chains. Here, the PT is slowed down as the probability of finding a water with two donor hydrogen bonds in the solvation shell of the hydronium ion is found to be only 25%-30%. The hydroxide ion is found to be solvated mainly as a complex anion where it accepts four H-bonds through its oxygen atom and the hydrogen atom of the hydroxide ion remains free all the time. Here, the presolvation of the hydroxide ion to accept a proton requires that one of its hydrogen bonds is broken and the proton comes from a neighboring water molecule with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds. The coordination number reduction by breaking of a hydrogen bond is a slow process, and also the population of water molecules with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds is only 20%-25% of the total number of water molecules. All these factors together tend to slow down the hydroxide ion migration rate in two-dimensional water layers compared to that in three-dimensional bulk water.
Ozbilgin, M.M.; Dickerman, D.C.
1984-01-01
The two-dimensional finite-difference model for simulation of groundwater flow was modified to enable simulation of surface-water/groundwater interactions during periods of low streamflow. Changes were made to the program code in order to calculate surface-water heads for, and flow either to or from, contiguous surface-water bodies; and to allow for more convenient data input. Methods of data input and output were modified and entries (RSORT and HDRIVER) were added to the COEF and CHECKI subroutines to calculate surface-water heads. A new subroutine CALC was added to the program which initiates surface-water calculations. If CALC is not specified as a simulation option, the program runs the original version. The subroutines which solve the ground-water flow equations were not changed. Recharge, evapotranspiration, surface-water inflow, number of wells, pumping rate, and pumping duration can be varied for any time period. The Manning formula was used to relate stream depth and discharge in surface-water streams. Interactions between surface water and ground water are represented by the leakage term in the ground-water flow and surface-water mass balance equations. Documentation includes a flow chart, data deck instructions, input data, output summary, and program listing. Numerical results from the modified program are in good agreement with published analytical results. (USGS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, Cheryl; Fernandez, Eduardo; Cappelli, Mark
2012-10-01
We use a numerical model to study quasi-coherent plasma fluctuations and their impact on cross-field electron transport. We consider the case of an annular discharge, subject to a radial magnetic field and an axial electric field. Motivated by experimental evidence of anomalously high electron mobility across the magnetic field in Hall thruster discharges, we choose a two-dimensional axial-azimuthal (z-θ) simulation geometry. The model includes a continuously-replenished heavy (Xe) neutral background, with an imposed radial magnetic field and an applied axial electric potential. We use a hybrid fluid-Particle-In-Cell treatment; the ion and neutral species are treated as collisionless particles, while the electrons are treated as a fluid continuum. Using numerical simulations to resolve the azimuthal electron dynamics, we focus on understanding the role played by fluctuations, particularly those that propagate with components perpendicular to both the applied electric and magnetic fields. Preliminary simulations predict dispersive ``tilted'' wave fluctuations in the plasma density and electron velocities. These fluctuations appear to contribute to an enhanced overall electron mobility, which is significantly higher than that based on classical scattering.
Liang, Xian-Ting
2014-07-28
A framework for simulating electronic spectra from photon-echo experiments is constructed by using a numerical path integral technique. This method is non-Markovian and nonperturbative and, more importantly, is not limited by a fixed form of the spectral density functions of the environment. Next, a two-dimensional (2D) third-order electronic spectrum of a dimer system is simulated. The spectrum is in agreement with the experimental and theoretical results previously reported [for example, M. Khalil, N. Demirdöven, and A. Tokmakoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 047401 (2003)]. Finally, a 2D third-order electronic spectrum of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex is simulated by using the Debye, Ohmic, and Adolphs and Renger spectral density functions. It is shown that this method can clearly produce the spectral signatures of the FMO complex by using only the Adolphs and Renger spectral density function. Plots of the evolution of the diagonal and cross-peaks show that they are oscillating with the population time.
Kato, Tsunehiko N.; Takabe, Hideaki
2010-09-20
A two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation is performed to investigate weakly magnetized perpendicular shocks with a magnetization parameter of {sigma} = 6 x 10{sup -5}, which is equivalent to a high Alfven Mach number M{sub A} of {approx}130. It is shown that current filaments form in the foot region of the shock due to the ion-beam-Weibel instability (or the ion filamentation instability) and that they generate a strong magnetic field there. In the downstream region, these current filaments also generate a tangled magnetic field that is typically 15 times stronger than the upstream magnetic field. The thermal energies of electrons and ions in the downstream region are not in equipartition and their temperature ratio is T{sub e}/T{sub i} {approx} 0.3-0.4. Efficient electron acceleration was not observed in our simulation, although a fraction of the ions are accelerated slightly on reflection at the shock. The simulation results agree very well with the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. It is also shown that electrons and ions are heated in the foot region by the Buneman instability (for electrons) and the ion-acoustic instability (for both electrons and ions). However, the growth rate of the Buneman instability is significantly reduced due to the relatively high temperature of the reflected ions. For the same reason, ion-ion streaming instability does not grow in the foot region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Kristin Lee Morgenstern
Oxygenic photosynthesis is key to life on this planet, and photosystem II is key to oxygenic photosynthesis. The only natural molecule capable of splitting water, it has been studied extensively with a wide range of linear and nonlinear spectroscopic methods. Still, the energy and charge transfer pathways remain poorly understood. Two dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) extends previous non-linear spectroscopics into an additional frequency axis, uncovering information about electronic coupling and energy transfer that is difficult to discern in other methods. This thesis presents technical advances to 2DES with a pulse shaper in the pump-probe geometry, particularly phase-cycling for isolating signals of interest and for reducing scatter signals. This method is applied to the first 2DES measurements of the Qy band of the D1D2-cyt. b559 reaction center of photosystem II (PSII RC). A new method for extracting kinetic information from such a rich data set is presented: two dimensional decay associated spectra. The 2DES data directly reveal excitonic coupling between blue and red states within the band. The rapid growth of a cross-peak below the diagonal provides unambiguous evidence for energy equilibration within the reaction center on the order of 100 fs. Spectrally dependent lifetimes of 2--3 ps are observed, in agreement with a recent model in which charge separation occurs along two distinct pathways. Slower time constants of ˜7 ps and ˜50 ps are consistent with slow energy transfer from peripheral chlorophylls and secondary charge transfer, respectively. The first simulations of the PSII RC are presented and compared to experiment. The simulations examine a well-tested model for the excitonic structure of the PSII RC, which provides a good description for linear absorption, linear dichroism, circular dichroism, steady-state fluorescence, triplet-minus-singlet as well as Stark spectra. The resulting simulations match neither the experimental lineshapes nor the observed kinetics, revealing the power of 2DES for constraining theoretical models. An improved version of this model is proposed that gives qualitatively better lineshapes, although still fails to predict the observed kinetics. The thesis concludes with a brief discussion of future experimental and simulation work that is needed that builds on the work presented here.
Modeling extreme (Carrington-type) space weather events using three-dimensional MHD code simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngwira, C. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Glocer, A.
2013-12-01
There is growing concern over possible severe societal consequences related to adverse space weather impacts on man-made technological infrastructure and systems. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made towards the modeling of space weather events. Three-dimensional (3-D) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have been at the forefront of this transition, and have played a critical role in advancing our understanding of space weather. However, the modeling of extreme space weather events is still a major challenge even for existing global MHD models. In this study, we introduce a specially adapted University of Michigan 3-D global MHD model for simulating extreme space weather events that have a ground footprint comparable (or larger) to the Carrington superstorm. Results are presented for an initial simulation run with ``very extreme'' constructed/idealized solar wind boundary conditions driving the magnetosphere. In particular, we describe the reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the associated ground induced geoelectric field to such extreme driving conditions. We also discuss the results and what they might mean for the accuracy of the simulations. The model is further tested using input data for an observed space weather event to verify the MHD model consistence and to draw guidance for future work. This extreme space weather MHD model is designed specifically for practical application to the modeling of extreme geomagnetically induced electric fields, which can drive large currents in earth conductors such as power transmission grids.
Integrated Physics Advances in Simulation of Wave Interactions with Extended MHD Phenomena
Batchelor, Donald B; D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Bateman, Glenn; Bernholdt, David E; Berry, Lee A; Bonoli, P.; Bramley, R; Breslau, J.; Chance, M.; Chen, J.; Choi, M.; Elwasif, Wael R; Fu, GuoYong; Harvey, R. W.; Houlberg, Wayne A; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Jardin, S. C.; Keyes, David E; Klasky, Scott A; Kruger, Scott; Ku, Long-Poe; McCune, Douglas; Schissel, D.; Schnack, D.; Wright, J. C.
2007-06-01
The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation of Wave Interaction with MHD) project are: (A) To improve our understanding of interactions that both RF wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (B) To develop an integrated computational system for treating multi-physics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project (FSP).
MHD simulation of a magnetized target in an imploding conical cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Cheng
2015-11-01
Conical imploding magnetic target fusion (MTF) is a new concept, in which the compression comes from both fast mechanic implosion and synchronized theta-pinching or Z-pinching. The compressed magnetized target has a moving end, an increasing external current, and an accumulating high density. Magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) simulation could help revealing the details of the evolving plasma and finding the parameters (imploding speed, fuel amount, theta-pinch or Z-pinch current profile, etc.) required to reach Lawson Criterion. Preliminary 2D MHD simulation results of a conical imploding theta-pinch are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chaoxu; Feng, Xueshang; Guo, Jianpeng; Ye, Yudong
2013-05-01
The existence of small-scale plasmoids associated with the Hall effect has been often observed in the magnetotail. They are considered as the signature of multiple X-line collisionless reconnection. To study these plasmoids structures, we present some Cluster observations and Hall MHD simulations of their features. In this study, the observation survey is divided into two types. The first one is the isolated plasmoid with two typical plasmoid events the flux-rope-like plasmoid on 3 August 2001 and the closed-loop-like plasmoid on 22 August 2001. The second type contains multiple successive plasmoids, on 12 September 2001 with three neighboring plasmoids structures observed during a substorm. Especially for the second plasmoid, three main features were observed, including a core field in the plasmoid, a quadrupole magnetic field near the X line, and a local plasma convection within the plasmoid. The Grad-Shafranov reconstruction method was used to recover the two-dimensional magnetic field maps for this plasmoid. These results may provide evidence that the small-scale plasmoids frequently observed in the magnetotail may be produced by multiple X-line collisionless reconnection. To study the impact of crosstail magnetic field on the structures of small-scale plasmoids, a 2.5-D Hall MHD simulation was performed. In the case with a guide field By0, the in-plane plasma inflows carrying Byflux enter into the plasmoid due to magnetic reconnection. However, there is no such By flux transport process for the case without guide field. These results demonstrate that a crosstail magnetic field is an important factor in the formation of flux-rope-like plasmoids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, S.
2003-04-01
Over the last few years, it has been recognized that on can construct, in different ways, a nematogenic lattice model with pairwise additive interactions, which approximately reproduce the elastic free energy density, and where the parameters defining the pair potential are expressed in terms of elastic constants. An anisotropic nematogenic pair interaction of this kind, originally proposed by Gruhn and Hess [Z. Naturforsch. A 51 (1996) 1] has been investigated by Monte Carlo simulation, for particle centers of mass associated with both a three- and a two-dimensional lattice. Another approximate procedure for the mapping had also been proposed, and studied by simulation on a three-dimensional lattice (Luckhurst and Romano [Liq. Cryst. 26 (1999) 871]) continuing along this line, we investigate here the 2-dimensional lattice counterpart, by means of Mean Field theory and Monte Carlo simulations. In 2 dimensions, the anisotropic character of these potential models does not preclude the existence of orientational order at finite temperature. The model produces a ground state where particles are aligned in the lattice plane; both Mean Field (MF) predictions and simulation results for the second-rank ordering tensor show a low-temperature régime where the system becomes biaxial, with the main director aligned along a lattice axis; at higher temperature there is a transition to uniaxial order with negative order parameter, and director orthogonal to the lattice plane; this orientational order survives up to temperatures higher than the transition temperature of the 3-dimensional counterpart, possibly at all finite temperatures. MF predictions and simulation results appear to agree qualitatively, but in quantitative terms the MF prediction for the transition temperature is some 56% too high.
Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.
2014-01-15
In some regions of a laser driven inertial fusion target, the electron mean-free path can become comparable to or even longer than the electron temperature gradient scale-length. This can be particularly important in shock-ignited (SI) targets, where the laser-spike heated corona reaches temperatures of several keV. In this case, thermal conduction cannot be described by a simple local conductivity model and a Fick's law. Fluid codes usually employ flux-limited conduction models, which preserve causality, but lose important features of the thermal flow. A more accurate thermal flow modeling requires convolution-like non-local operators. In order to improve the simulation of SI targets, the non-local electron transport operator proposed by Schurtz-Nicolaï-Busquet [G. P. Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] has been implemented in the DUED fluid code. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations of SI targets have been performed. 1D simulations of the ablation phase highlight that while the shock profile and timing might be mocked up with a flux-limiter; the electron temperature profiles exhibit a relatively different behavior with no major effects on the final gain. The spike, instead, can only roughly be reproduced with a fixed flux-limiter value. 1D target gain is however unaffected, provided some minor tuning of laser pulses. 2D simulations show that the use of a non-local thermal conduction model does not affect the robustness to mispositioning of targets driven by quasi-uniform laser irradiation. 2D simulations performed with only two final polar intense spikes yield encouraging results and support further studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanevce, Ana; Kuciauskas, Darius; Levi, Dean H.; Allende Motz, Alyssa M.; Johnston, Steven W.
2015-07-01
We use two-dimensional numerical simulations to analyze high spatial resolution time-resolved spectroscopy data. This analysis is applied to two-photon excitation time-resolved photoluminescence (2PE-TRPL) but is broadly applicable to all microscopic time-resolved techniques. By solving time-dependent drift-diffusion equations, we gain insight into carrier dynamics and transport characteristics. Accurate understanding of measurement results establishes the limits and potential of the measurement and enhances its value as a characterization method. Diffusion of carriers outside of the collection volume can have a significant impact on the measured decay but can also provide an estimate of carrier mobility as well as lifetime. In addition to material parameters, the experimental conditions, such as spot size and injection level, can impact the measurement results. Although small spot size provides better resolution, it also increases the impact of diffusion on the decay; if the spot size is much smaller than the diffusion length, it impacts the entire decay. By reproducing experimental 2PE-TRPL decays, the simulations determine the bulk carrier lifetime from the data. The analysis is applied to single-crystal and heteroepitaxial CdTe, material important for solar cells, but it is also applicable to other semiconductors where carrier diffusion from the excitation volume could affect experimental measurements.
Umeda, Takayuki Kidani, Yoshitaka; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Ryo
2014-02-15
Large-scale two-dimensional (2D) full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out for studying the relationship between the dynamics of a perpendicular shock and microinstabilities generated at the shock foot. The structure and dynamics of collisionless shocks are generally determined by Alfven Mach number and plasma beta, while microinstabilities at the shock foot are controlled by the ratio of the upstream bulk velocity to the electron thermal velocity and the ratio of the plasma-to-cyclotron frequency. With a fixed Alfven Mach number and plasma beta, the ratio of the upstream bulk velocity to the electron thermal velocity is given as a function of the ion-to-electron mass ratio. The present 2D full PIC simulations with a relatively low Alfven Mach number (M{sub A} ∼ 6) show that the modified two-stream instability is dominant with higher ion-to-electron mass ratios. It is also confirmed that waves propagating downstream are more enhanced at the shock foot near the shock ramp as the mass ratio becomes higher. The result suggests that these waves play a role in the modification of the dynamics of collisionless shocks through the interaction with shock front ripples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Xun; Camp, Charles D.; Shia, Runlie; Noone, David; Walker, Christopher; Yung, Yuk L.
2004-08-01
The National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy Reanalysis 2 data are used to calculate the monthly mean meridional circulation and eddy diffusivity from 1979 to 2002 for use in the California Institute of Technology-Jet Propulsion Laboratory two-dimensional (2-D) chemistry and transport model (CTM). This allows for an investigation of the impact of dynamics on the interannual variability of the tropical total column ozone for all years for which the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet merged total ozone data are available. The first two empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the deseasonalized and detrended stratospheric stream function capture 88% of the total variance on interannual timescales. The first EOF, accounting for over 70% of the interannual variance, is related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and its interaction with annual cycles, the QBO-annual beat (QBO-AB). The 2-D CTM provides realistic simulations of the seasonal and interannual variability of ozone in the tropics. The equatorial ozone anomaly from the model is close to that derived from the observations. The phase and amplitude of the QBO are well captured by the model. The magnitude of the QBO signal is somewhat larger in the model than it is in the data. The QBO-AB found in the simulated ozone agrees well with that in the observed data.
Resistive MHD and kinetic simulations of 2D magnetotail equilibria leading to reconnection onset
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merkin, V. G.; Sitnov, M. I.; Lyon, J.; Cassak, P.
2013-12-01
Recent progress in theory and fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of 2D magnetotail-like configurations has revealed an important class of equilibria, which can be unstable to ion tearing instability and eventually result in explosive dissipation of energy, fast plasma sheet flows, dipolarizations and changes in initial magnetic topology (reconnection). Such configurations are characterized by an increase of magnetic flux at the tailward end of the equilibrium state. While the instability and subsequent reconfiguration of the initial state exhibit kinetic signatures, the question remains, which parts of the process can be reproduced using reduced plasma models, e.g., resistive and Hall MHD. In this presentation we explore the stability of the new class of magnetotail equilibria to the resistive tearing mode and investigate its properties as a function of equilibrium parameters, e.g., the current sheet thickness and the amount of flux accumulation at the tailward end of the equilibrium, as well as other system parameters, e.g., resistivity and Lundquist number. We discuss comparative aspects of the system behavior in kinetic and resistive MHD simulations, in particular, what, if any, parameters of the MHD system lead to similar growth rates of the instability. Since the theoretical onset condition of the kinetic tearing mode can be expressed fully in MHD terms, we also investigate the effects of including this criterion as an additional constraint on the tearing onset in our resistive MHD simulations. This work is a first step toward inclusion of a kinetically-motivated description of reconnection onset in global MHD simulations of the magnetosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hao-Ran; Ding, Hang
2015-08-01
We propose an approach to simulate flows with moving contact lines (MCLs) on curved substrates on a Cartesian mesh. The approach combines an immersed boundary method with a three-component diffuse-interface model and a characteristic MCL model. The immersed boundary method is able to accurately enforce the no-slip boundary condition at the solid surface, thereby circumventing the penetration of the gas and the liquid into the solid by convection. On the other hand, using the three-component diffuse-interface model can prevent the gas and liquid from infiltrating into the solid substrate through the diffusive fluxes during the interface evolution. A combination of these two methods appears to effectively conserve the mass of the phases in the computation. The characteristic MCL model not only allows the contact lines to move on the curved boundaries, but makes the gas-liquid interface to intersect the solid object at an angle in consistence with the prescribed contact angle, even with the variation of surface tangent at the solid substrate. We examine the performance of the approach through a variety of numerical experiments. The mass conservation and interface shapes at equilibrium were tested through the simulation of drop spreading on a circular cylinder. The dynamic behaviors of moving contact lines were validated by simulating the droplet spreading on a flat substrate, and we compared the numerical results against theoretical predictions and previous experimental observations. The method was also applied to the simulations of flows with curved boundaries and moving contact lines, such as drop impact on a sphere and water entry of a sphere. Finally, we studied the penetration process of a two-dimensional drop into a porous substrate that consists of a cluster of circular cylinders.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiltberger, M. J.; Lyon, J.; Elkington, S. R.; Merkin, V. G.
2013-12-01
Global scale magnetohydrodynamic simulations have been used to successfully study the evolution of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system under a variety of solar wind conditions. Early studies with the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model show the presence of flow channels in substorm simulations that had characteristics similar to those seen in observations of bursty bulk flows (BBFs) observed by numerous spacecraft, such as AMPTE and Geotail. More recently the THEMIS constellation has provided a unique opportunity to track the evolution of dipolarization fronts (DFs) from the mid-tail into the inner magnetosphere. Additionally, advances in high performance computing capability make it possible to conduct ultra-high resolution global simulations. In this paper we present comparisons between these ultra-high resolution simulations and the observations of THEMIS. The comparisons include a case study for a DF that was well observed on February 27, 2009 and statistical properties of the flow and electromagnetic field signatures seen in observations and MHD simulations with idealized solar wind conditions. In addition to these comparisons we will present results of using test-particle simulations of electrons driven by the simulated fields to study particle energization in regions around DFs.
Phase transition-like behavior of magnetospheric substorms: Global MHD simulation results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, X.; Sitnov, M. I.; Sharma, S. A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Goodrich, C. C.; Guzdar, P. N.; Milikh, G. M.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Lyon, J. G.
2003-01-01
Using nonlinear dynamical techniques, we statistically investigate whether the simulated substorms from global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models have a combination of global and multiscale features, revealed in substorm dynamics by [2000] and featured the phase transition-like behavior. We simulate seven intervals of total duration of 280 hours from the data set used in the above works [, 1985]. We analyze the input-output (vBs-pseudo AL index) system obtained from the global MHD model and compare the results to those inferred from the original set (vBs-observed AL index). The analysis of the coupled vBs-pseudo AL index system shows the first-order phase transition map, which is consistent with the map obtained for the vBs-observed AL index system. Although the comparison between observations and global MHD simulations for individual events may vary, the overall global transition pattern during the substorm cycle revealed by singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is statistically consistent between simulations and observations. The coupled vBs-pseudo AL index system also shows multiscale behavior (scale-invariant power law dependence) in SSA power spectrum. Besides, we find the critical exponent of the nonequilibrium transitions in the magnetosphere, which reflects the multiscale aspect of the substorm activity, different from power law frequency of autonomous systems. The exponent relates input and output parameters of the magnetosphere. We also discuss the limitations of the global MHD model in reproducing the multiscale behavior when compared to the real system.
Plasma wave signatures in the magnetotail reconnection region - MHD simulation and ray tracing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Omura, Yoshiharu; Green, James L.
1993-01-01
An MHD simulation was performed to obtain a self-consistent model of magnetic field and plasma density near the X point reconnection region. The MHD model was used to perform extensive ray tracing calculations in order to clarify the propagation characteristics of the plasma waves near the X point reconnection region. The dynamic wave spectra possibly observed by the Geotail spacecraft during a typical cross-tail trajectory are reconstructed. By comparing the extensive ray tracing calculations with the plasma wave data from Geotail, it is possible to perform a kind of 'remote sensing' to identify the location and structure of potential X point reconnection regions.
Chaudhuri, Saptarishi; Roy, Sanjukta; Unnikrishnan, C. S.
2006-08-15
We discuss the implementation and characterization of the source of a slow, intense, and collimated beam of rubidium atoms. The cold atomic beam is produced by two-dimensional magneto-optical trapping in directions transverse to the atomic beam axis and unbalanced Doppler cooling in the axial direction. The vacuum design allows use of relatively low laser power and a considerably simplified assembly. The atomic beam has a high flux of about 2x10{sup 10} atoms/s at a total cooling laser power of 55 mW. It has a narrow longitudinal velocity distribution with mean velocity 15 m/s with full width at half maximum 3.5 m/s and has a low divergence of 26 mrad. The high flux enables ultrafast loading of about 10{sup 10} atoms into a three-dimensional (3D) magneto-optical trap within 500 ms. The variation of the atomic beam flux was studied as a function of the rubidium vapor pressure, cooling laser power, transverse cooling laser beam length, detuning of the cooling laser, and relative intensities of the cooling beams along the atomic beam axis. We also discuss a detailed comparison of our measurements of the cold atomic beam with a 3D numerical simulation.
Lai, Chintu
1977-01-01
Two-dimensional unsteady flows of homogeneous density in estuaries and embayments can be described by hyperbolic, quasi-linear partial differential equations involving three dependent and three independent variables. A linear combination of these equations leads to a parametric equation of characteristic form, which consists of two parts: total differentiation along the bicharacteristics and partial differentiation in space. For its numerical solution, the specified-time-interval scheme has been used. The unknown, partial space-derivative terms can be eliminated first by suitable combinations of difference equations, converted from the corresponding differential forms and written along four selected bicharacteristics and a streamline. Other unknowns are thus made solvable from the known variables on the current time plane. The computation is carried to the second-order accuracy by using trapezoidal rule of integration. Means to handle complex boundary conditions are developed for practical application. Computer programs have been written and a mathematical model has been constructed for flow simulation. The favorable computer outputs suggest further exploration and development of model worthwhile. (Woodard-USGS)
Bloch, Edward; Uddin, Nabil; Gannon, Laura; Rantell, Khadija; Jain, Saurabh
2015-01-01
Background Stereopsis is believed to be advantageous for surgical tasks that require precise hand-eye coordination. We investigated the effects of short-term and long-term absence of stereopsis on motor task performance in three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) viewing conditions. Methods 30 participants with normal stereopsis and 15 participants with absent stereopsis performed a simulated surgical task both in free space under direct vision (3D) and via a monitor (2D), with both eyes open and one eye covered in each condition. Results The stereo-normal group scored higher, on average, than the stereo-absent group with both eyes open under direct vision (p<0.001). Both groups performed comparably in monocular and binocular monitor viewing conditions (p=0.579). Conclusions High-grade stereopsis confers an advantage when performing a fine motor task under direct vision. However, stereopsis does not appear advantageous to task performance under 2D viewing conditions, such as in video-assisted surgery. PMID:25185439
Fan, Yu; Zou, Ying; Sun, Jizhong; Wang, Dezhen; Stirner, Thomas
2013-10-15
The influence of an applied magnetic field on plasma-related devices has a wide range of applications. Its effects on a plasma have been studied for years; however, there are still many issues that are not understood well. This paper reports a detailed kinetic study with the two-dimension-in-space and three-dimension-in-velocity particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collision method on the role of E×B drift in a capacitive argon discharge, similar to the experiment of You et al.[Thin Solid Films 519, 6981 (2011)]. The parameters chosen in the present study for the external magnetic field are in a range common to many applications. Two basic configurations of the magnetic field are analyzed in detail: the magnetic field direction parallel to the electrode with or without a gradient. With an extensive parametric study, we give detailed influences of the drift on the collective behaviors of the plasma along a two-dimensional domain, which cannot be represented by a 1 spatial and 3 velocity dimensions model. By analyzing the results of the simulations, the occurring collisionless heating mechanism is explained well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Futko, S. I.; Chornyi, A. D.; Shulitskii, B. G.; Labunov, V. A.
2016-01-01
The two-dimensional axisymmetric gasdynamic, concentration, and heat fields arising in an injection reactor of chemical vapor deposition in the process of synthesis of arrays of carbon nanotubes in it from hydrocarbons and organometallic compounds were numerically simulated for the purpose of investigating the features of these fields. It was established that, even in the case of laminar flow of a gas mixture over the surface of a substrate positioned in this reactor, in it there arise vortices introducing a significant heterogeneity into the gas flow. The influence of changes in the gasdynamic and temperature fields in the indicated reactor on the characteristics of an array of carbon nanotubes grown on the surface of the substrate was analyzed. Parametric calculations of the dependences of the velocity of the gas flow, the gas temperature, and the concentration of reagents in the reactor on the hydrocarbon flow rate, the temperature of the process, and the length of the injection needle have been performed. These calculations have shown that the regimes of heating and mixing of reagents in an injection reactor of chemical vapor deposition correspond to those of an ideal-mixing reactor. The results obtained can be used for determining the conditions necessary for the growth of homogeneous arrays of carbon nanotubes with a high rate on the surface of a substrate in a reactor of chemical vapor deposition.
Liu Xiangmei; Song Yuanhong; Xu Xiang; Wang Younian
2011-08-15
A two-dimensional (2D) self-consistent fluid model is developed to describe the formation, subsequent growth, transport, and charging mechanisms of nanoparticles in a capacitively coupled silane discharge applied by two very high frequency (VHF) sources with phase shift. In this discharge process, large anions are produced by a series of chemical reactions of anions with silane molecules, while the lower limit of the initial nanoparticles are taken as large anions (Si{sub 12}H{sub 25}{sup -} and Si{sub 12}H{sub 24}{sup -}) to directly link the coagulation module with the nucleation module. And then, by using the coagulation module, the particle number density quickly decreases over several orders of magnitude, whereas the particle size strongly increases. We investigate in particular the growth of the nanoparticles ranging in size from {approx}1 to 50 nm in coagulation processes. The influences of controlled phase shifts between VHF (50 MHz) voltages on the electron density, electron temperature, nanoparticle uniformity, and deposition rate, are carefully studied. It is found from our simulation that the plasma density and nanoparticle density become center high and more uniform as the phase shift increases from 0 to 180 deg. Moreover, the role of phase-shift control in the silane discharge diluted with hydrogen gas is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Aleksey; Cheema, Taqi Ahmad; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Park, Cheol Woo
2014-08-01
A two-dimensional computational model of a single red blood cell (RBC) floating in a plasma-alcohol solution through a microchannel with stenosis was created using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method with moving mesh for a fluid structure interaction problem. Cell deformability and stability were studied in a plasma-alcohol solution at different fluid flow conditions during movement through the channel with stenosis. Different results were obtained for different input parameters. Motion through 45% and 70% stenoses with the high and law velocities of the RBC and different viscosities was analyzed and successfully simulated. Results show that changes in RBC deformability were due to the effects of alcohol. Changes in behavior during motion were also observed. At low shear rate and high surrounding fluid viscosity the RBC showed a tendency to rotate during movement. The proposed model with its coupling of structural and fluid analysis techniques could be useful to understand the effect of alcohol on the RBC passing through stenosis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yi; Timofeyev, Ilya
2014-05-01
We employ an efficient list-based kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method to study traffic flow models on one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) lattices based on the exclusion principle and Arrhenius microscopic dynamics. This model implements stochastic rules for cars' movements based on the configuration of the traffic ahead of each car. In particular, we compare two different look-ahead rules: one is based on the distance from the car under consideration to the car in front of it, and the other one is based on the density of cars ahead. The 1D numerical results of these two rules suggest different coarse-grained macroscopic limits in the form of integro-differential Burgers equations. The 2D results of both rules exhibit a sharp phase transition from freely flowing to fully jammed, as a function of the initial density of cars. However, the look-ahead rule based on the density of the traffic produces more realistic results. The KMC simulations reported in this paper are compared with those from other well-known traffic flow models and the corresponding empirical results from real traffic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiang-Mei; Song, Yuan-Hong; Xu, Xiang; Wang, You-Nian
2011-08-01
A two-dimensional (2D) self-consistent fluid model is developed to describe the formation, subsequent growth, transport, and charging mechanisms of nanoparticles in a capacitively coupled silane discharge applied by two very high frequency (VHF) sources with phase shift. In this discharge process, large anions are produced by a series of chemical reactions of anions with silane molecules, while the lower limit of the initial nanoparticles are taken as large anions (Si12H25- and Si12H24-) to directly link the coagulation module with the nucleation module. And then, by using the coagulation module, the particle number density quickly decreases over several orders of magnitude, whereas the particle size strongly increases. We investigate in particular the growth of the nanoparticles ranging in size from 1 to 50 nm in coagulation processes. The influences of controlled phase shifts between VHF (50 MHz) voltages on the electron density, electron temperature, nanoparticle uniformity, and deposition rate, are carefully studied. It is found from our simulation that the plasma density and nanoparticle density become center high and more uniform as the phase shift increases from 0 to 180. Moreover, the role of phase-shift control in the silane discharge diluted with hydrogen gas is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Ohyung; Oh, Byung Joo; Whang, Ki-Woong
2012-07-01
The discharge characteristics and factors related to the luminous efficacy of mercury-free flat fluorescent lamps (MFFLs) with three different types of coplanar, counter and combination electrode configurations were studied via a two-dimensional numerical simulation. The spatiotemporal distributions of the potential, electric field, electron density, Xe** density and current waveforms of the MFFLs were obtained and analysed. The MFFL with the combination electrode configuration shows the highest vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) efficacy value. The vertical electrode in the MFFL with the combination electrode configuration prevents the electric field at the gap space from decreasing rapidly, and extends the discharge path. The effects of the vertical electrode help one to increase the Xe excitation efficacy. In addition, a new auxiliary electrode was proposed in the original MFFL with the combination electrode configuration. The MFFL with the new auxiliary electrode has broader distributions of electrons and Xe** species, and a higher VUV efficacy value than the original MFFL with the combination electrode configuration at the same voltage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shkurenkov, I. A.; Mankelevich, Yu A.; Rakhimova, T. V.
2013-02-01
The results of two-dimensional modelling of a radio-frequency dielectric barrier discharge (RF DBD) in a hydrogen-oxygen stoichiometric mixture under atmospheric pressure are presented. The production of active species and the possibility of ignition of the mixture are studied. It is shown that the production of active species in the discharge is enough to reduce the ignition temperature significantly. A detailed description of the ion production and loss is presented. The processes of electron attachment are very fast, while the detachment processes depend on the type of ion. The electron detachment, charge recombination, and conversion of negative and positive ions are very important here. The current discharge consists of breakdowns that occur in each half-period, and it resembles the standard DBDs of kilohertz frequency. The surface charge is not uniform over the electrode area and the RF DBD consists of micro-discharges, which are not so pronounced as in the DBDs of kilohertz frequency. Two additional types of RF DBDs, the dual-frequency RF DBD and frequency-modulated RF DBD, are simulated for the purpose of controlling the ratio between the input power absorbed by electrons and ions in this discharge.
MECHANISMS FOR MHD POYNTING FLUX GENERATION IN SIMULATIONS OF SOLAR PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETOCONVECTION
Shelyag, S.; Mathioudakis, M.; Keenan, F. P.
2012-07-01
We investigate the generation mechanisms of MHD Poynting flux in the magnetized solar photosphere. Using radiative MHD modeling of the solar photosphere with initial magnetic configurations that differ in their field strength and geometry, we show the presence of two different mechanisms for MHD Poynting flux generation in simulations of solar photospheric magnetoconvection. The weaker mechanism is connected to vertical transport of weak horizontal magnetic fields in the convectively stable layers of the upper photosphere, while the stronger is the production of Poynting flux in strongly magnetized intergranular lanes experiencing horizontal vortex motions. These mechanisms may be responsible for the energy transport from the solar convection zone to the higher layers of the solar atmosphere.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, S. T.; Song, M. T.; Martens, P. C. H.; Dryer, M.
1991-01-01
A situation wherein a bipolar magnetic field embedded in a stratified solar atmosphere undergoes symmetrical shear motion at the footpoints is investigated via a 2D (nonplanar) MHD simulation. It was found that the vertical plasma flow velocities grow exponentially, leading to a new type of global MHD instability. The growth rate increases almost linearly until it reaches the same order of magnitude as the Alfven speed. Then a nonlinear MHD instability occurs beyond this point. It was found that the central loops are pinched by opposing Lorentz forces, and the outer closed loops stretch upward with the vertically-rising mass flow. The nonlinear dynamical shearing instability is illustrated by a numerical example that is given for three different values of the plasma beta that span several orders of magnitude.
Collisionless Reconnection Dynamics Using PIC and Hall MHD Simulations: A Comparative Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bessho, N.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Chandran, B.
2004-11-01
We present a comparative study of 2D collisionless reconnection dynamics using PIC and Hall MHD simulations, beginning with the same initial conditions. Our PIC studies include realistic values of the electron-to-ion mass ratio. The first study involves the scaling of the maximum electron outflow velocity. We demonstrate that the electron outflow velocity scales as the electron Alfven speed when that speed is measured using the magnetic field at the outer limit of the electron diffusion region, consistent with earlier Hall MHD studies. The second study involves forced magnetic reconnection driven by inward boundary flows, which exhibits an impulsive increase in the reconnection rate, also consistent with earlier Hall MHD studies. The onset of the impulsive phase is shown to coincide with the simultaneous arrival of the initial forcing pulses at the neutral line, and does not rely on an intrinsically kinetic mechanism.
Phase Transition-like Behavior of Magnetospheric Substorms: Global MHD Simulation Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, X.; Sitnov, M.; Sharma, A. S.; Papadopoulos, K.; Guzdar, P. N.; Goodrich, C. C.; Milikh, G. M.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Lyon, J. G.
2001-12-01
Because of their relevance to massive global energy loading and unloading, lots of observations and studies have been made for magnetic substorm events. Using nonlinear dynamical techniques, we investigate whether the simulated substorms from global MHD models have the non-equilibrium phase transition-like features revealed by \\markcite{Sitnov et al. [2000]}. We simulated 6 intervals of total duration of 240 hours from the same data set used in Sitnov et al. [2000]. We analyzed the input-output (vBs--pseudo-AL index) system obtained from the global MHD model and compared the results to those in \\markcite{Sitnov et al. [2000, 2001]}. The analysis of the coupled vBs--pseudo-AL index system shows the first-order phase transition map, which is consistent with the map obtained for the vBs--observed-AL index system from Sitnov et al. [2000]. The explanation lies in the cusp catastrophe model proposed by Lewis [1991]. Although, the comparison between observation and individual global MHD simulations may vary, the overall global transition pattern during the substorm cycle revealed by Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) is consistent between simulations and observations. This is an important validation of the global MHD simulations of the magnetosphere. The coupled vBs--pseudo-AL index system shows multi-scale behavior (scale-invarianet power-law dependence) in singular power spectrum. We found critical exponents of the non-equilibrium transitions in the magnetosphere, which reflect the multi-scale aspect of the substorm activity, different from power-law frequency of autonomous systems. The exponents relate input and output parameters of the magnetosphere and distinguish the second order phase transition model from the self-organized criticality model. We also discuss the limitations of the global MHD model in reproducing the multi-scale behavior when compared to the real system.
Oblique MHD cosmic-ray modified shocks: Two-fluid numerical simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frank, Adam; Jones, T. W.; Ryu, Dongsu
1991-01-01
We present the first results of time dependent, two-fluid, cosmic-ray (CR) modified, MHD shock simulations. The calculations were carried out with a new numerical code for 1-D ideal MHD. By coupling this code with the CR energy transport equation we can simulate the time-dependent evolution of MHD shocks including the acceleration of the CR and their feedback on the shock structures. We report tests of the combined numerical method including comparisons with analytical steady state results published earlier by Webb, as well as internal consistency checks for more general MHD CR shock structures after they appear to have converged to dynamical steady states. We also present results from an initial time dependent simulation which extend the parameter space domain of previous analytical models. These new results support Webb's suggestion that equilibrium oblique shocks are less effective than parallel shocks in the acceleration of CR. However, for realistic models of anisotropic CR diffusion, oblique shocks may achieve dynamical equilibrium on shorter timescale than parallel shocks.
Three-dimensional Hall-MHD simulations of counter-helicity spheromak merging and FRC formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belova, E. V.; Inomoto, M.
2005-10-01
Initial results are presented of 2D and 3D simulations of counter-helicity spheromak merging using Hall-MHD version of the HYM code. In the code, the Hall electric field is subcycled on the ideal MHD time scale, which decreases the computational time by a factor of five compared to explicit numerical scheme. Calculations are performed for values of normalized ion skin depth comparable to that in counter-helicity spheromak merging experiments di=0.03-0.05. Hall-MHD simulation show significant differences of the radial current, toroidal magnetic field and radial flow profiles compared to the resistive MHD simulations. Depending on the polarity of the initial toroidal fields, the reconnection X-point is shifted downward or upward in radial direction, the radial current contours have ``V''-shaped (or inverted ``V'') structure, and radial component of ion flow is strongly non-symmetric relative to X-point. These results are explained by the structure of the electron flows, and found to be in agreement with MRX measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, Q. V.; Chan, W. K.; Schwartz, J.
2014-11-01
Ag/AgX sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) is the only superconducting round wire (RW) with high critical current density (Jc) at high magnetic (>25 T) and is thus a strong candidate for high field magnets for nuclear magnetic resonance and high energy physics. A significant remaining challenge, however, is the relatively poor electromechanical behavior of Bi2212 RW, yet there is little understanding of the relationships between the internal Bi2212 microstructure and the mechanical behavior. This is in part due to the complex microstructures within the Bi2212 filaments and the uncertain role of interfilamentary bridges. Here, two-dimensional peridynamic simulations are used to study the stress distribution of the Bi2212 RWs under an axial tensile load. The simulations use scanning electron micrographs obtained from high Jc wires as a starting point to study the impact of various defects on the distribution of stress concentration within the Bi2212 microstructure and Ag. The flexibility of the peridynamic approach allows various defects, including those captured from SEM micrographs and artificially created defects, to be inserted into the microstructure for systematic study. Furthermore, this approach allows the mechanical properties of the defects to be varied, so the effects of porosity and both soft and hard secondary phases are evaluated. The results show significant stress concentration around defects, interfilamentary bridges and the rough Bi2212/Ag interface. In general, the stress concentration resulting from porosity is greater than that of solid-phase inclusions. A clear role of the defect geometry is observed. Results indicate that crack growth is likely to initiate at the Ag/Bi2212 interface or at voids, but that voids may also arrest crack growth in certain circumstances. These results are consistent with experimental studies of Bi2212 electromechanical behavior and magneto-optical imaging of crack growth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, Jeong Hyun; Eden, J. Gary
2006-12-01
Cylindrical microcavity plasma devices with diameters (D) in the 100-300μm range and a dielectric barrier structure similar to that described by Park et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 99, 026107 (2006)] for Al /Al2O3 devices have been investigated numerically. A two-dimensional fluid simulation of microplasmas in Ne/7% Xe gas mixtures with pD values (where p is the total gas pressure) in the 3-9Torrcm interval yields the temporal history of the spatially resolved electron and ion number densities in response to a 250kHz bipolar excitation wave form. Calculations show two distinct regions of plasma development, along the microcavity axis and near the wall, each of which dominates the plasma characteristics in separate pD regions. For low pD values (<4Torrcm ), the negative glow produced at the cavity wall extends to the microcavity axis which, in combination with the strong axial electric field, produces an intense glow discharge on axis. For 4≲pD≲6Torrcm, a weakened axial discharge is observed early in the life of the plasma but the radial variation of the electron density flattens. Further increases in the gas pressure (to the largest pD values investigated, 6-9Torrcm) result in the retreat of the negative glow to the vicinity of the microcavity wall, thereby producing a diffuse but annular discharge. Even at the higher pD values, the axial discharge appears to facilitate ignition of the negative glow. The predictions of the simulations are consistent with the behavior of Al /Al2O3 microplasma devices for which D =100-300μm.
Trinkunas, G; Holzwarth, A R
1994-01-01
Kinetic modeling of the exciton migration in the cyanobacterial photosystem I core complex from Synechococcus sp. was performed by an exact solution of the Pauli master equation for exciton motion. A square two-dimensional 10 x 10 pigment lattice and a Förster dipole-dipole coupling between chromophores was assumed. We calculated decay-associated spectra and lifetimes and compared them to the corresponding experimental data from picosecond fluorescence and transient absorption obtained by global analysis. Seven spectral chlorophyll(Chl) forms, identical in shape but shifted in their absorption maximums, were used to describe the non-homogeneous broadening of the PS I-100 particle absorption spectrum. The optimized Chl lattice arrangement best reproducing the experimental decay-associated spectra as well as the steady-state fluorescence spectrum indicated the long-wavelength-absorbing Chls forming a cluster in the corner of the lattice with the reaction center (RC) placed apart at a distance of two lattice constants. The variable parameters, i.e., the charge separation rate in the RC and the lattice constant a, were found to be optimal at kRC = 2.3 ps-1 and a = 1.14 nm, respectively. The surprising conclusions of the simulations is that Chls with absorption maxima as long a 724 nm have to be taken into account to describe the time-resolved spectra of this PS I particle properly. The dependencies of the exciton decay in the model PS I particle on the excitation wavelength and on the temperature are discussed. We also show that the excited state decay of similar PS I particles that lack the long-wavelength absorbing Chls is nearly mono-exponential. Various critical factors that limit the general reliability of the conclusions of such simulations are discussed in detail. PMID:8161695
MHD simulation of direct laser-driven magnetic-flux compression with Nautilus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, C. D.; Loverich, J.; Hakim, A.
2011-10-01
Direct laser-driven magnetic-flux compression is an innovative approach to achieve magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). A cylindrical target with initial seed magnetic field is compressed by energetic laser beams. The magnetic field that is ``frozen-in'' the plasma gets compressed with the target. The resulting high magnetic field reduces electron thermal conductivity and improves alpha particle confinement, thus providing an additional thermal insulation of the fuel forming the hot spot. Numerical simulations of magneto-inertial fusion implosions require realistic equation of states, thermonuclear fusion energy generation and laser energy deposition coupling with MHD equations. These simulations are important in stability and scaling studies of MIF implosions. Nautilus is a multidimensional shock-capturing MHD simulation framework developed at Tech-X. Incorporated with PROPACEOS equation of states, fusion reaction and laser ray tracing modules, it is utilized to perform direct laser-driven magnetic-flux compression implosions. Simulation results and relevant Nautilus features are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westerhof, E.; de Blank, H. J.; Pratt, J.
2016-03-01
Two dimensional reduced MHD simulations of neoclassical tearing mode growth and suppression by ECCD are performed. The perturbation of the bootstrap current density and the EC drive current density perturbation are assumed to be functions of the perturbed flux surfaces. In the case of ECCD, this implies that the applied power is flux surface averaged to obtain the EC driven current density distribution. The results are consistent with predictions from the generalized Rutherford equation using common expressions for Δ \\text{bs}\\prime and Δ \\text{ECCD}\\prime . These expressions are commonly perceived to describe only the effect on the tearing mode growth of the helical component of the respective current perturbation acting through the modification of Ohm’s law. Our results show that they describe in addition the effect of the poloidally averaged current density perturbation which acts through modification of the tearing mode stability index. Except for modulated ECCD, the largest contribution to the mode growth comes from this poloidally averaged current density perturbation.
Global Hall-MHD simulations of magnetorotational instability in a plasma Couette flow experiment
Ebrahimi, F.; Lefebvre, B.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Forest, C. B.
2011-06-15
Global MHD and Hall-MHD numerical simulations relevant to the Madison plasma Couette flow experiment (MPCX) have been performed using the extended MHD code NIMROD. The MPCX has been constructed to study the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a plasma. The two-fluid Hall effect, which is relevant to some astrophysical situations such as protostellar disks, is also expected to be important in the MPCX. Here, we first derive the local Hall dispersion relation including viscosity, extending earlier work by Balbus and Terquem [Astrophys. J. 552, 235 (2001)]. The predictions of the local analysis are then compared with nonlocal calculations of linear stability of the MRI for a parameter range relevant to the MPCX. It is found that the MHD stability limit and mode structure are altered by the Hall term, and nonlocal analysis is necessary to obtain quantitatively reliable predictions for MPCX. Two-fluid physics also significantly changes the nonlinear evolution and saturation of the axisymmetric MRI. Both the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses contribute significantly to momentum transport. In the Hall regime, when the magnetic field is parallel to the rotation axis, the Maxwell stress is larger than the Reynolds stress (similar to the MHD regime). However, when the magnetic field is antiparallel to the rotation axis in the Hall regime, the Reynolds stress is much larger than the Maxwell stress. To further study the role of non-axisymmetric modes, we have also carried out fully nonlinear MHD computations. Non-axisymmetric modes play an increasingly important role as the magnetic Reynolds number increases and grow to large amplitudes in a saturated turbulent state.
Global Hall-MHD simulations of magnetorotational instability in a plasma Couette flow experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahimi, F.; Lefebvre, B.; Forest, C. B.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2011-06-01
Global MHD and Hall-MHD numerical simulations relevant to the Madison plasma Couette flow experiment (MPCX) have been performed using the extended MHD code NIMROD. The MPCX has been constructed to study the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a plasma. The two-fluid Hall effect, which is relevant to some astrophysical situations such as protostellar disks, is also expected to be important in the MPCX. Here, we first derive the local Hall dispersion relation including viscosity, extending earlier work by Balbus and Terquem [Astrophys. J. 552, 235 (2001)]. The predictions of the local analysis are then compared with nonlocal calculations of linear stability of the MRI for a parameter range relevant to the MPCX. It is found that the MHD stability limit and mode structure are altered by the Hall term, and nonlocal analysis is necessary to obtain quantitatively reliable predictions for MPCX. Two-fluid physics also significantly changes the nonlinear evolution and saturation of the axisymmetric MRI. Both the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses contribute significantly to momentum transport. In the Hall regime, when the magnetic field is parallel to the rotation axis, the Maxwell stress is larger than the Reynolds stress (similar to the MHD regime). However, when the magnetic field is antiparallel to the rotation axis in the Hall regime, the Reynolds stress is much larger than the Maxwell stress. To further study the role of non-axisymmetric modes, we have also carried out fully nonlinear MHD computations. Non-axisymmetric modes play an increasingly important role as the magnetic Reynolds number increases and grow to large amplitudes in a saturated turbulent state.
Non-linear MHD simulations of ELMs in JET and quantitative comparisons to experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pamela, S.; Eich, T.; Frassinetti, L.; Sieglin, B.; Saarelma, S.; Huijsmans, G.; Hoelzl, M.; Becoulet, M.; Orain, F.; Devaux, S.; Chapman, I.; Lupelli, I.; Solano, E.; Contributors, JET
2016-01-01
A subset of JET ITER-like wall (ILW) discharges, combining electron density and temperature as well as divertor heat flux measurements, has been collected for the validation of non-linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of edge-localised-modes (ELMs). This permits a quantitative comparison of simulation results against experiments, which is required for the validation of predicted ELM energy losses and divertor heat fluxes in future tokamaks like ITER. This paper presents the first results of such a quantitative comparison, and gives a perspective of what will be necessary to achieve full validation of non-linear codes like JOREK. In particular, the present study highlights the importance of pre-ELM equilibria and parallel energy transport models in MHD simulations, which form the underlying basis of ELM physics.
The Contribution of Jets to Coronal and Solar Wind Energetics: MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lionello, Roberto; Torok, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran; Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark
2016-05-01
Transient collimated plasma eruptions in the corona, commonly known as coronal jets, are among the most interesting manifestations of solar activity.We use the 3D MHD model with thermodynamics developed at PSI to investigate the origin, dynamics, and plasma properties of coronal jets.Our model is coupled with 3D MHD flux emergence simulations, i.e, we use boundary conditions provided by such simulations to drive a time-dependent coronal evolution. It includes parametric coronal heating, radiative losses, and thermal conduction in the energy equations.This enables us to simulate the energy transfer in coronal jets in a more realistic manner than done so far and to study the amount of energy and mass transported by these phenomena into the higher corona and inner heliosphere. We discuss our results and compare them with previous estimations obtained from observations.
Test-particle Orbit Simulations in Fields from a Realistic 3D MHD Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Decker, R. B.; Opher, M.; Hill, M. E.
2007-05-01
Models designed to explore the global structure of the heliosphere have become increasing sophisticated. Incentives to increase and to further explore the predictive capabilities of such models include the entry of the Voyager spacecraft into the foreshock region of the termination shock (TS), Voyager 1 in mid-2002 and Voyager 2 in late 2004, and the crossing of the TS and passage into the heliosheath (HSH) of Voyager 1 in 2004 day 351. Using the electric and magnetic fields generated by a MHD model of a 3D, asymmetric heliosphere [Opher et al., Ap. J. L., 640, 2006], we have developed full-particle and adiabatic-orbit codes to simulate the motion of test particles in the solar wind, TS, and HSH environments. The full-particle orbits are necessary to investigate energetic ion (e.g., anomalous and galactic cosmic ray) motion at the TS and within the heliospheric current sheet that is included in the MHD model. Adiabatic orbits are used to study particle motion in the much larger volume of the HSH where the non-homogeneous model fields produce complex guiding center motions, including mirroring in local field compressions. We will present results from these orbit computations, which are intended to provide an initial, albeit simplified, look at the propagation of high-energy charged particles, in the scatter-free limit, in the best model of the TS/HSH field configurations currently available. We will also display drift paths of high-energy ions in the HSH fields using the guiding center drift equations that are applicable in the limit of diffusive propagation.
MHD simulation of the solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere of Mercury
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varela, Jacobo; Pantellini, Filippo; Moncuquet, Michel
2014-05-01
We show MHD simulations of the solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere of Mercury. We use the open source codes Pluto and MPI-AMRVAC in 3 dimensional spherical geometry. In order to appreciate the limits of the MHD approach in the context of Mercury's environment we do first compare our simulations with hybrid simulation (e.g. Trávníček et al, Icarus, 209, pp 11-22, 2010). We do also compare magnetic field profiles from the magnetometer on Messenger with profiles sampled along the corresponding spacecraft trajectory in the simulations. These comparisons show that despite the lack of kinetic effects, MHD simulation provide a more than fair description of the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury at low computational cost making it a useful tool to help decrypt data from current and future exploratory missions in the hermean magnetosphere (e.g. Bepi Colombo-MMO). The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under the grant agreement SHOCK (project number 284515).
Effects of the driving mechanism in MHD simulations of coronal mass ejections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linker, J. A.; Van Hoven, G.; Schnack, D. D.
1990-01-01
Results of time-dependent MHD simulations of mass ejections in the solar coronal are presented. Previous authors have shown that results from simulations using a thermal driving mechanism are consistent with the observations only if an elaborate model of the initial corona is used. The first simulation effort, using a simple model of a plasmoid as the driving mechanism and a simple model of the initial corona, produces results that are also consistent with many observational features, suggesting that the nature of the driving mechanism plays an important role in determining the subsequent evolution of mass ejections. First simulations are based on the assumption that mass ejections are driven by magnetic forces.
Huizinga, Richard J.
2007-01-01
The evaluation of scour at bridges throughout the State of Missouri has been ongoing since 1991, and most of these evaluations have used one-dimensional hydraulic analysis and application of conventional scour depth prediction equations. Occasionally, the complex conditions of a site dictate a more thorough assessment of the stream hydraulics beyond a one-dimensional model. This was the case for structure A-1700, the Interstate 155 bridge crossing the Mississippi River near Caruthersville, Missouri. To assess the complex hydraulics at this site, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow model was used to simulate flow conditions on the Mississippi River in the vicinity of the Interstate 155 structure A-1700. The model was used to simulate flow conditions for three discharges: a flood that occurred on April 4, 1975 (the calibration flood), which had a discharge of 1,658,000 cubic feet per second; the 100-year flood, which has a discharge of 1,960,000 cubic feet per second; and the project design flood, which has a discharge of 1,974,000 cubic feet per second. The project design flood was essentially equivalent to the flood that would cause impending overtopping of the mainline levees along the Mississippi River in the vicinity of structure A-1700. Discharge and river-stage readings from the flood of April 4, 1975, were used to calibrate the flow model. The model was then used to simulate the 100-year and project design floods. Hydraulic flow parameters obtained from the three flow simulations were applied to scour depth prediction equations to determine contraction, local pier, and abutment scour depths at structure A-1700. Contraction scour and local pier scour depths computed for the project design discharge generally were the greatest, whereas the depths computed for the calibration flood were the least. The maximum predicted total scour depth (contraction and local pier scour) for the calibration flood was 66.1 feet; for the 100-year flood, the maximum predicted total scour depth was 74.6 feet; for the project design flood, the maximum predicted total scour depth was 93.0 feet. If scour protection did not exist, bent 14 and piers 15 through 21 would be substantially exposed or undermined by the predicted total scour depths in all of the flood simulations. However, piers 18 through 21 have a riprap blanket around the base of each, and the riprap blanket observed on the right bank around bent 14 is thought to extend around the base of pier 15, which would limit the amount of scour that would occur at these piers. Furthermore, the footings and caissons that are not exposed by computed contraction scour may arrest local pier scour, which will limit local pier scour at several bents and piers. Nevertheless, main-channel piers 16 and 17 and all of the bents on the left (as viewed facing downstream) overbank are moderately to substantially exposed by the predicted scour depths from the three flood simulations, and there is no known scour protection at these piers or bents. Abutment scour depths were computed for structure A-1700, but abutment scour is expected to be mitigated by the presence of guidebanks upstream from the bridge abutments, as well as riprap revetment on the abutment and guidebank faces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Glocer, Alex
2014-06-01
There is a growing concern over possible severe societal consequences related to adverse space weather impacts on man-made technological infrastructure. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made toward the first-principles modeling of space weather events, and three-dimensional (3-D) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have been at the forefront of this transition, thereby playing a critical role in advancing our understanding of space weather. However, the modeling of extreme space weather events is still a major challenge even for the modern global MHD models. In this study, we introduce a specially adapted University of Michigan 3-D global MHD model for simulating extreme space weather events with a Dst footprint comparable to the Carrington superstorm of September 1859 based on the estimate by Tsurutani et. al. (2003). Results are presented for a simulation run with "very extreme" constructed/idealized solar wind boundary conditions driving the magnetosphere. In particular, we describe the reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the associated induced geoelectric field on the ground to such extreme driving conditions. The model setup is further tested using input data for an observed space weather event of Halloween storm October 2003 to verify the MHD model consistence and to draw additional guidance for future work. This extreme space weather MHD model setup is designed specifically for practical application to the modeling of extreme geomagnetically induced electric fields, which can drive large currents in ground-based conductor systems such as power transmission grids. Therefore, our ultimate goal is to explore the level of geoelectric fields that can be induced from an assumed storm of the reported magnitude, i.e., Dst˜=-1600 nT.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Glocer, Alex
2014-01-01
There is a growing concern over possible severe societal consequences related to adverse space weather impacts on man-made technological infrastructure. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made toward the first-principles modeling of space weather events, and three-dimensional (3-D) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have been at the forefront of this transition, thereby playing a critical role in advancing our understanding of space weather. However, the modeling of extreme space weather events is still a major challenge even for the modern global MHD models. In this study, we introduce a specially adapted University of Michigan 3-D global MHD model for simulating extreme space weather events with a Dst footprint comparable to the Carrington superstorm of September 1859 based on the estimate by Tsurutani et. al., (2003). Results are presented for a simulation run with "very extreme" constructed/idealized solar wind boundary conditions driving the magnetosphere. In particular, we describe the reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the associated induced geoelectric field on the ground to such extreme driving conditions. The model setup is further tested using input data for an observed space weather event of Halloween storm October 2003 to verify the MHD model consistence and to draw additional guidance for future work. This extreme space weather MHD model setup is designed specifically for practical application to the modeling of extreme geomagnetically induced electric fields, which can drive large currents in ground-based conductor systems such as power transmission grids. Therefore, our ultimate goal is to explore the level of geoelectric fields that can be induced from an assumed storm of the reported magnitude, i.e., Dst approx. = -1600 nT.
Numerical Simulation of 3-D Supersonic Viscous Flow in an Experimental MHD Channel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kato, Hiromasa; Tannehill, John C.; Gupta, Sumeet; Mehta, Unmeel B.
2004-01-01
The 3-D supersonic viscous flow in an experimental MHD channel has been numerically simulated. The experimental MHD channel is currently in operation at NASA Ames Research Center. The channel contains a nozzle section, a center section, and an accelerator section where magnetic and electric fields can be imposed on the flow. In recent tests, velocity increases of up to 40% have been achieved in the accelerator section. The flow in the channel is numerically computed using a new 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm that has been developed to efficiently compute MHD flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime. The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equations which can then be solved in a very e5uent manner. To account for upstream (elliptic) effects, the flowfield can be computed using multiple streamwise sweeps with an iterated PNS algorithm. The new algorithm has been used to compute two test cases that match the experimental conditions. In both cases, magnetic and electric fields are applied to the flow. The computed results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Modeling of substorm development with a kinematic effect by the global MHD simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
den, Mitsue; Fujita, Shigeru; Tanaka, Takashi; Horiuchi, Ritoku
Magnetic reconnection is considered to play an important role in space phenomena such as substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. Recently, Tanaka and Fujita reproduced substorm evoution process by numerical simulation with the global MHD code. In the MHD framework, the dissipation model is used for modeling of the kinetic effects. They found that the normalized reconnection viscosity, one of the dessipation model employed there, gave a large effect for the substorm development though that viscosity was assumed to be a constant parameter. It is well known that magnetric reconnection is controlled by microscopic kinetic mechanism. Horiuchi et al. investigated the roles of microscopic plasma instabilities on the violation of the frozen-in condition by examining the force balance equation based on explicit electromagnetic particle simulation for an ion-scale current sheet, and concluded that the growth of drift kink instability can create anomalous resistivity leading to the excitation of collisionless reconnection. They estimated the effective resistivity based on the particle simulation data. In this paper, we perform substorm simulation by using the global MHD code with this anomalous resistivity obtained in their microscopic approach istead of the emprical resistivity model, and investigate the relationship between the substorm development and the anomalous resistivity model.
Wagner, Daniel M.
2013-01-01
In the early morning hours of June 11, 2010, substantial flooding occurred at Albert Pike Recreation Area in the Ouachita National Forest of west-central Arkansas, killing 20 campers. The U.S. Forest Service needed information concerning the extent and depth of flood inundation, the water velocity, and flow paths throughout Albert Pike Recreation Area for the flood and for streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The two-dimensional flow model Fst2DH, part of the Federal Highway Administration’s Finite Element Surface-water Modeling System, and the graphical user interface Surface-water Modeling System (SMS) were used to perform a steady-state simulation of the flood in a 1.5-mile reach of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreation Area. Peak streamflows of the Little Missouri River and tributary Brier Creek served as inputs to the simulation, which was calibrated to the surveyed elevations of high-water marks left by the flood and then used to predict flooding that would result from streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The simulated extent of the June 11, 2010, flood matched the observed extent of flooding at Albert Pike Recreation Area. The mean depth of inundation in the camp areas was 8.5 feet in Area D, 7.4 feet in Area C, 3.8 feet in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 12.5 feet in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. The mean water velocity was 7.2 feet per second in Area D, 7.6 feet per second in Area C, 7.2 feet per second in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 7.6 feet per second in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. A sensitivity analysis indicated that varying the streamflow of the Little Missouri River had the greatest effect on simulated water-surface elevation, while varying the streamflow of tributary Brier Creek had the least effect. Simulated water-surface elevations were lower than those modeled by the U.S. Forest Service using the standard-step method, but the comparison between the two was favorable with a mean absolute difference of 0.58 feet in Area C and 0.32 feet in Area D. Results of a HEC-RAS model of the Little Missouri River watershed upstream from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near Langley showed no difference in mean depth in the areas in common between the models, and a difference in mean velocity of only 0.5 foot per second. Predictions of flooding that would result from streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent indicated that the extent of inundation of the June 11, 2010, flood exceeded that of the 1 percent flood, and that for both the 1 and 2 percent floods, all of Areas C and D, and parts of Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area were inundated. Predicted water-surface elevations for the 1 and 2 percent floods were approximately 1 foot lower than those predicted by the U.S. Forest Service using a standard-step model.
Direct Numerical Simulations of Nonlinear Evolution of MHD Instability in LHD
Miura, H.; Nakajima, N.; Hayashi, T.; Okamoto, M.
2006-11-30
Nonlinear evolutions of MHD instabilities in the large helical device are studied by means of direct numerical simulations under the vacuum configuration with the magnetic axis position R = 3.6m, including effects of its full three-dimensional geometry, flows parallel to the magnetic field lines and the fluid compressibility. The linear growth of the pressure-driven modes and their nonlinear saturations are observed. The linear growth brings about the flows parallel to the magnetic field lines as strong as the perpendicular flows. The fluid compressibility reduces the linear growth rate significantly. In the nonlinear saturation process, a qualitative difference is found in the behaviors of the parallel and perpendicular flows. The plasma appears to approach to a near-equilibrium state, keeping finite amplitudes of the parallel flow. Our numerical results highlight important roles of the parallel flow and compressibility in nonlinear MHD simulations in the large helical device.
3D Simulations of Fluctuation Spectra in the Hall-MHD Plasma
Shaikh, Dastgeer; Shukla, P. K.
2009-01-30
Turbulent spectral cascades are investigated by means of fully three-dimensional (3D) simulations of a compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (H-MHD) plasma in order to understand the observed spectral break in the solar wind turbulence spectra in the regime where the characteristic length scales associated with electromagnetic fluctuations are smaller than the ion gyroradius. In this regime, the results of our 3D simulations exhibit that turbulent spectral cascades in the presence of a mean magnetic field follow an omnidirectional anisotropic inertial-range spectrum close to k{sup -7/3}. The latter is associated with the Hall current arising from nonequal electron and ion fluid velocities in our 3D H-MHD plasma model.
Diamagnetic Effects on Double Tearing Modes in Hall-MHD and PIC Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, Stephen; Germaschewski, Kai; Bhattacharjee, Amitava
2011-10-01
Reversed magnetic shear configurations hold promise to stabilize pressure-driven modes in tokamaks and allow for higher pressures and improved confinement, however they give rise to tearing instabilities. We extend recent work on the properties of the double tearing mode (DTM) in collisional as well as collisionless regimes in the presence pressure gradients that drive diamagnetic flows using both Hall MHD and PIC simulations. Diamagnetic drifts act to shift the growing islands relative to each other, competing against the locking mechanism that usually drives fast DTM dynamics. We address the following questions: In the weak coupling limit, does diamagnetic stabilization remain similar to what we have observed previously for the m=1 mode? In the strong coupling limit, can diamagnetic effects suppress the strong DTM dynamics? Our preliminary results indicate significant differences from recent resistive MHD simulations of this problem in the literature.
Substorm effects in MHD and test particle simulations of magnetotail dynamics
Birn, J.; Hesse, M.
1998-12-31
Recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations demonstrate that a global tail instability, initiated by localized breakdown of MHD, can cause plasmoid formation and ejection as well as dipolarization and the current diversion of the substorm current wedge. The connection between the reconnection process and the current wedge signatures is provided by earthward flow from the reconnection site. Its braking and diversion in the inner magnetosphere causes dipolarization and the magnetic field distortions of the current wedge. The authors demonstrate the characteristic properties of this process and the current systems involved. The strong localized electric field associated with the flow burst and the dipolarization is also the cause of particle acceleration and energetic particle injections. Test particle simulations of orbits in the MHD fields yield results that are quite consistent with observed injection signatures.
3D simulations of fluctuation spectra in the hall-MHD plasma.
Shaikh, Dastgeer; Shukla, P K
2009-01-30
Turbulent spectral cascades are investigated by means of fully three-dimensional (3D) simulations of a compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (H-MHD) plasma in order to understand the observed spectral break in the solar wind turbulence spectra in the regime where the characteristic length scales associated with electromagnetic fluctuations are smaller than the ion gyroradius. In this regime, the results of our 3D simulations exhibit that turbulent spectral cascades in the presence of a mean magnetic field follow an omnidirectional anisotropic inertial-range spectrum close to k(-7/3). The latter is associated with the Hall current arising from nonequal electron and ion fluid velocities in our 3D H-MHD plasma model. PMID:19257431
Constrained-transport Hall-MHD simulations using CWENO reconstruction with libMRC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Liwei; Germaschewski, Kai; Abbott, Stephen; Maynard, Kris; Raeder, Jimmy
2013-10-01
We present a new CWENO (Centrally-Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory) reconstruction based extended MHD (XMHD) solver that has been built for libMRC. libMRC is a library for creating efficient parallel PDE solvers on structured grids, which is used in the MRC (Magnetic Reconnection Code), OpenGGCM (Open Global Geospace Circulation Model) and PSC (Plasma Simulation Code) codes. The use of libMRC gives us access to its core functionality of providing an automated code generation framework which takes a user provided PDE right hand side in symbolic form to generate an efficient, computer-architecture specific, parallel code. libMRC also supports block-structured adaptive mesh refinement, and implicit-time stepping through integration with the PETSc library. We demonstrate validation of the new CWENO MHD solver against existing solvers both in standard test problems as well as in 3D global magnetosphere simulations.
Direct simulation of multi-phase MHD flows on an unstructured Cartesian adaptive system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jie; Ni, Ming-Jiu
2014-08-01
An approach for direct simulation of the multi-phase magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flows has been developed in the present study on an unstructured Cartesian adaptive system. The approach is based on the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method for capturing the interface with the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique used to well resolve the interface and the boundary layer. The Lorentz force is calculated using the consistent and conservative scheme, which is specially designed on a Cartesian adaptive mesh to conserve the physical conservation laws. The continuous-surface-tension (CSF) formulation is adopted for surface tension calculation. Moreover, the interfacial flows driven by thermal Marangoni effects at multifluid interfaces are also studied with a special numerical treatment presented. The method is able to simulate bubble motion in liquid metal under magnetic field irrespective of high density ratio and electric conductivity ratio. The proposed scheme for multi-phase MHD flows is validated by experimental results as well as analytical solutions.
Gas Core Reactor Numerical Simulation Using a Coupled MHD-MCNP Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kazeminezhad, F.; Anghaie, S.
2008-01-01
Analysis is provided in this report of using two head-on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks to achieve supercritical nuclear fission in an axially elongated cylinder filled with UF4 gas as an energy source for deep space missions. The motivation for each aspect of the design is explained and supported by theory and numerical simulations. A subsequent report will provide detail on relevant experimental work to validate the concept. Here the focus is on the theory of and simulations for the proposed gas core reactor conceptual design from the onset of shock generations to the supercritical state achieved when the shocks collide. The MHD model is coupled to a standard nuclear code (MCNP) to observe the neutron flux and fission power attributed to the supercritical state brought about by the shock collisions. Throughout the modeling, realistic parameters are used for the initial ambient gaseous state and currents to ensure a resulting supercritical state upon shock collisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kress, B. T.; Hudson, M. K.; Looper, M. D.; Lyon, J. G.; Goodrich, C. C.
2008-11-01
Test-particle trajectories are computed in fields from a global MHD magnetospheric model simulation of the 29 October 2003 Storm Commencement to investigate trapping and transport of solar energetic electrons (SEEs) in the magnetosphere during severe storms. SEEs are found to provide a source population for a newly formed belt of electrons in the Earth's inner zone radiation belts, which was observed following the 29 October 2003 storm. Energy and pitch angle distributions of the new belt are compared with results previously obtained [Kress, B.T., Hudson, M.K., Looper, M.D., Albert, J., Lyon, J.G., Goodrich, C.C., 2007. Global MHD test particle simulations of >10 MeV radiation belt electrons during storm sudden commencement. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, A09215, doi:10.1029/2006JA012218], where outer belt electrons were used as a source for the new belt.
Extended MHD simulations for application to ITER disruption mitigation techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James; Schetterer, Sam; ITER Disruption Mitigation Collaboration
2013-10-01
Various disruption scenarios are modeled computationally by use of the CORSICA and NIMROD codes, following the work of Kruger and Strauss with the aim of providing starting-points for investigation of tokamak disruption mitigation techniques. It is found that pressure-driven instabilities previously observed in simulations of DIII-D are verified, and that halo currents from vertical displacements are observed in simulations with implementation of resistive walls for ITER. We discuss implications and plans for simulations of disruption mitigation techniques. We outline validation activities for existing facilities. Work performed for USITER under DE-AC05-00OR22725 subcontract # 4000118643.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burow, K. R.; Gamble, J. M.; Fujii, R.; Constantz, J.
2001-12-01
Water flowing through the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta supplies drinking water to more than 20 million people in California. Delta water contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from drainage through the delta peat soils, forming trihalomethanes when the water is chlorinated for drinking. Land subsidence caused by oxidation of the peat soils has led to increased pumping of drainage water from delta islands to maintain arable land. An agricultural field on Twitchell Island was flooded in 1997 to evaluate continuous flooding as a technique to mitigate subsidence. The effects of shallow flooding on DOC loads to the drain water must be determined to evaluate the feasibility of this technique. In this study, heat is used as a nonconservative tracer to determine shallow ground-water flux and calculate DOC loads to an adjacent drainage ditch. Temperature profiles and water levels were measured in 12 wells installed beneath the pond, in the pond, and in an adjacent drainage ditch from May 2000 to June 2001. The range in seasonal temperatures decreased with depth, but seasonal temperature variation was evident in wells screened as deep as 10 to 12 feet below land surface. A constant temperature of 17 degrees C was measured in wells 25 feet beneath the pond. Ground-water flux beneath the pond was quantified in a two-dimensional simulation of water and heat exchange using the SUTRA flow and transport model. The effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the peat soils underlying the pond was estimated through model calibration. Calibrated hydraulic conductivity is higher (1E-5 m/sec) than estimates from slug tests (2E-6 m/sec). Modeled pond seepage is similar to that estimated from a water budget, although the total seepage determined from the water budget is within the range of error of the instrumentation. Overall, model results indicate that recharge from the pond flows along shallow flow paths and that travel times through the peat to the drainage ditch may be on the order of decades.
Thermodynamic MHD Simulation of the 2000 July 14 "Bastille Day" Eruption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torok, Tibor; Downs, Cooper; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Mikic, Zoran; Riley, Pete
2015-04-01
The "Bastille Day" event that occurred on 2000 July 14 is one of the most extensively studied solar eruptions. It originated in a complex active region close to disk center and produced an X5.7 flare, a fast halo CME, and an intense geomagnetic storm. Accurate numerical simulations of such events, in particular the matching of parameters relevant for space weather such as the CME velocity and magnetic orientation, require a realistic model of the large-scale magnetic field and plasma environment into which the eruption propagates and interacts, as well as a modeling of the pre-eruptive configuration and eruption initiation that are as realistic as possible. Here we present an MHD simulation of the Bastille Day event that complies with these requirements. We first produce a steady-state MHD solution of the background corona that incorporates realistic energy transport ("thermodynamic MHD"), photospheric magnetic field measurements, and the solar wind. In order to model the pre-eruptive magnetic field, we then insert a stable, elongated flux rope that resides above the highly curved polarity inversion line of the active region. Finally, we produce the eruption by imposing photospheric flows that slowly converge towards the polarity inversion line. In this presentation we describe our method, compare the simulation results with the observations, and discuss the challenges and limitations involved in modeling such complex and powerful eruptions.
Wagner, Chad R.
2007-01-01
The use of one-dimensional hydraulic models currently is the standard method for estimating velocity fields through a bridge opening for scour computations and habitat assessment. Flood-flow contraction through bridge openings, however, is hydrodynamically two dimensional and often three dimensional. Although there is awareness of the utility of two-dimensional models to predict the complex hydraulic conditions at bridge structures, little guidance is available to indicate whether a one- or two-dimensional model will accurately estimate the hydraulic conditions at a bridge site. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Carolina Department of Transportation, initiated a study in 2004 to compare one- and two-dimensional model results with field measurements at complex riverine and tidal bridges in North Carolina to evaluate the ability of each model to represent field conditions. The field data consisted of discharge and depth-averaged velocity profiles measured with an acoustic Doppler current profiler and surveyed water-surface profiles for two high-flow conditions. For the initial study site (U.S. Highway 13 over the Tar River at Greenville, North Carolina), the water-surface elevations and velocity distributions simulated by the one- and two-dimensional models showed appreciable disparity in the highly sinuous reach upstream from the U.S. Highway 13 bridge. Based on the available data from U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations and acoustic Doppler current profiler velocity data, the two-dimensional model more accurately simulated the water-surface elevations and the velocity distributions in the study reach, and contracted-flow magnitudes and direction through the bridge opening. To further compare the results of the one- and two-dimensional models, estimated hydraulic parameters (flow depths, velocities, attack angles, blocked flow width) for measured high-flow conditions were used to predict scour depths at the U.S. Highway 13 bridge by using established methods. Comparisons of pier-scour estimates from both models indicated that the scour estimates from the two-dimensional model were as much as twice the depth of the estimates from the one-dimensional model. These results can be attributed to higher approach velocities and the appreciable flow angles at the piers simulated by the two-dimensional model and verified in the field. Computed flood-frequency estimates of the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year return-period floods on the Tar River at Greenville were also simulated with both the one- and two-dimensional models. The simulated water-surface profiles and velocity fields of the various return-period floods were used to compare the modeling approaches and provide information on what return-period discharges would result in road over-topping and(or) pressure flow. This information is essential in the design of new and replacement structures. The ability to accurately simulate water-surface elevations and velocity magnitudes and distributions at bridge crossings is essential in assuring that bridge plans balance public safety with the most cost-effective design. By compiling pertinent bridge-site characteristics and relating them to the results of several model-comparison studies, the framework for developing guidelines for selecting the most appropriate model for a given bridge site can be accomplished.
Broadband Electron Precipitation in Global MHD Simulation and its Effect on the Ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, B.; Lotko, W.; Brambles, O. J.; Wiltberger, M. J.
2010-12-01
A broadband electron (BBE) precipitation model is implemented and analyzed in the MI coupling module of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry MHD simulation. Both number flux and energy flux of precipitating BBEs are regulated by MHD variables calculated near the low-altitude boundary of the LFM simulation. An empirical relation deduced from results of Keiling et al. (2003) is used to relate the AC Poynting flux to the energy flux precipitating BBEs in the simulation. We are investigating two different ways of regulating the number flux of BBE precipitation, one using an empirical relation between AC Poynting flux and number flux (Strangeway, unpublished) and another by constraining the intensity and cut-off energy of a fixed-pitch angle distribution of BBEs in terms of MHD simulation variables. The contributions to ionospheric conductance from BBE precipitation are evaluated using empirical relations derived by Robinson et al. (1987). The BBE-induced-conductance is added to the “standard” auroral contribution to conductance derived from monoenergetic and diffuse electron precipitation in the existing LFM precipitation model. The simulation is driven by ideal SW/IMF conditions with Vsw=400 km/s, Nsw=5/cc and Bz=-5 nT. The simulated time-average AC Poynting flux pattern resembles statistical patterns from Polar data (Keiling et al. 2003), and the simulated statistical pattern of BBE number flux resembles the statistical maps derived from DMSP data (Newell et al. 2009) on the nightside with a similar dawn-dusk asymmetry. The ionospheric Pedersen and Hall conductances are enhanced about 20% by the BBE precipitation. The number flux produced by BBEs is the same order of magnitude as that of monoenergetic and diffuse electrons. We thus expect BBE precipitation to have a moderate effect on the E-region ionosphere and a more significant influence on the density distribution of the F-region ionosphere.
Comparison of solar photospheric bright points between Sunrise observations and MHD simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Schüssler, M.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Feller, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Hirzberger, J.
2014-08-01
Bright points (BPs) in the solar photosphere are thought to be the radiative signatures (small-scale brightness enhancements) of magnetic elements described by slender flux tubes or sheets located in the darker intergranular lanes in the solar photosphere. They contribute to the ultraviolet (UV) flux variations over the solar cycle and hence may play a role in influencing the Earth's climate. Here we aim to obtain a better insight into their properties by combining high-resolution UV and spectro-polarimetric observations of BPs by the Sunrise Observatory with 3D compressible radiation magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations. To this end, full spectral line syntheses are performed with the MHD data and a careful degradation is applied to take into account all relevant instrumental effects of the observations. In a first step it is demonstrated that the selected MHD simulations reproduce the measured distributions of intensity at multiple wavelengths, line-of-sight velocity, spectral line width, and polarization degree rather well. The simulated line width also displays the correct mean, but a scatter that is too small. In the second step, the properties of observed BPs are compared with synthetic ones. Again, these are found to match relatively well, except that the observations display a tail of large BPs with strong polarization signals (most likely network elements) not found in the simulations, possibly due to the small size of the simulation box. The higher spatial resolution of the simulations has a significant effect, leading to smaller and more numerous BPs. The observation that most BPs are weakly polarized is explained mainly by the spatial degradation, the stray light contamination, and the temperature sensitivity of the Fe i line at 5250.2 Å. Finally, given that the MHD simulations are highly consistent with the observations, we used the simulations to explore the properties of BPs further. The Stokes V asymmetries increase with the distance to the center of the mean BP in both observations and simulations, consistent with the classical picture of a production of the asymmetry in the canopy. This is the first time that this has been found also in the internetwork. More or less vertical kilogauss magnetic fields are found for 98% of the synthetic BPs underlining that basically every BP is associated with kilogauss fields. At the continuum formation height, the simulated BPs are on average 190 K hotter than the mean quiet Sun, the mean BP field strength is found to be 1750 G, and the mean inclination is 17°, supporting the physical flux-tube paradigm to describe BPs. On average, the synthetic BPs harbor downflows increasing with depth. The origin of these downflows is not yet understood very well and needs further investigation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winglee, R. M.; Steinolfson, R. S.
1993-01-01
2D electromagnetic particle simulations are used to investigate the dynamics of the tail during development of substorms under the influence of the pressure in the magnetospheric boundary layer and the dawn-to-dusk electric field. It is shown that pressure pulses result in thinning of the tail current sheet as the magnetic field becomes pinched near the region where the pressure pulse is applied. The pinching leads to the tailward flow of the current sheet plasma and the eventual formation and injection of a plasmoid. Surges in the dawn-to-dusk electric field cause plasma on the flanks to convect into the center of the current sheet, thereby thinning the current sheet. The pressure in the magnetospheric boundary laser is coupled to the dawn-to-dusk electric field through the conductivity of the tail. Changes in the predicted evolution of the magnetosphere during substorms due to changes in the resistivity are investigated under the assumption that MHD theory provides a suitable representation of the global or large-scale evolution of the magnetotail to changes in the solar wind and to reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. It is shown that the overall evolution of the magnetosphere is about the same for three different resistivity distributions with plasmoid formation and ejection in each case.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1997-11-18
QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, S. T.; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, S.; Thompson, B. J.; Plunkett, S. P.; Zhao, X. P.; Dryer, M.
2001-11-01
We investigate the global large amplitude waves propagating across the solar disk as observed by the SOHO/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT). These waves appear to be similar to those observed in Hα in the chromosphere and which are known as ``Moreton waves,'' associated with large solar flares [Moreton, 1960, 1964]. Uchida [1968] interpreted these Moreton waves as the propagation of a hydromagnetics disturbance in the corona with its wavefront intersecting the chromosphere to produce the Moreton wave as observed in movie sequences of Hα images. To search for an understanding of the physical characteristics of these newly observed EIT waves, we constructed a three-dimensional, time-dependent, numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. Measured global magnetic fields, obtained from the Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) at Stanford University, are used as the initial magnetic field to investigate hydromagnetics wave propagation in a three-dimensional spherical geometry. Using magnetohydrodynamic wave theory together with simulation, we are able to identify these observed EIT waves as fast mode MHD waves dominated by the acoustic mode, called magnetosonic waves. The results to be presented include the following: (1) comparison of observed and simulated morphology projected on the disk and the distance-time curves on the solar disk; (2) three-dimensional evolution of the disturbed magnetic field lines at various viewing angles; (3) evolution of the plasma density profile at a specific location as a function of latitude; and (4) computed Friedrich's diagrams to identify the MHD wave characteristics.
PROPERTIES OF UMBRAL DOTS AS MEASURED FROM THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE DATA AND MHD SIMULATIONS
Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.; Rempel, M.; Kitai, R.; Watanabe, H.
2012-02-01
We studied bright umbral dots (UDs) detected in a moderate size sunspot and compared their statistical properties to recent MHD models. The study is based on high-resolution data recorded by the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory and three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of sunspots. Observed UDs, living longer than 150 s, were detected and tracked in a 46 minute long data set, using an automatic detection code. A total of 1553 (620) UDs were detected in the photospheric (low chromospheric) data. Our main findings are (1) none of the analyzed UDs is precisely circular, (2) the diameter-intensity relationship only holds in bright umbral areas, and (3) UD velocities are inversely related to their lifetime. While nearly all photospheric UDs can be identified in the low chromospheric images, some small closely spaced UDs appear in the low chromosphere as a single cluster. Slow-moving and long-living UDs seem to exist in both the low chromosphere and photosphere, while fast-moving and short-living UDs are mainly detected in the photospheric images. Comparison to the 3D MHD simulations showed that both types of UDs display, on average, very similar statistical characteristics. However, (1) the average number of observed UDs per unit area is smaller than that of the model UDs, and (2) on average, the diameter of model UDs is slightly larger than that of observed ones.
MHD simulations of substorms: Energy flow through the magnetotail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brogl, Sandra
2008-10-01
Substorms have been a continued matter of discussion over several decades. Magnetometers and other instruments on ground and on satellites have made it possible to quantify the changes that Earth's magnetic field goes through over the course of such an event. Realistic simulations add large scale results to micro scale observations. This dissertation will therefore use both measurements and simulations to analyze six substorms. The substorms will be analyzed in detail using ground based magnetometer stations and satellite data. The simulations were made using the Lyon-Fedder- Mobarry magneto-hydrodynamic code. By comparing measurements to simulated data I will show that this code simulates basic features of substorms. This dissertation will analyze six substorms, which is three times of what has been done before. Every simulated event clearly portraits the three phases of a substorm. One can see the thinning of the plasma sheet during the growth phase of the event and an increase in the relative amount of thermal energy due to the plasma sheet compression during this time. Generally, the total lobe energy and polar cap flux simultaneously increase during the growth phase and only start decreasing at substorm onset, as measured by the CL index. Starting at time of onset and continuing throughout the expansion phase a transfer of magnetic energy from the lobes into the plasma sheet occurs, with the increase in the plasma sheet energy being on average one third of the energy that is released from the lobes. It appears that the lobe energy is equipartitioned, with part going earthward, part tailward, part into the endothermic process of plasma sheet dipolarization, and part into the creation of a plasmoid. The decrease of the magnetic field in the lobes will be shown as well as that its decrease does not coincide with substorm onset. It will be shown from the data that the start of the onset after southward turning of the solar wind magnetic field depends on the strength of the Z component of the IMF, and that the length of the expansion phase is directly linearly dependent on the duration of the southward IMF after onset.
FTE Dependence on IMF Orientation and Presence of Hall Physics in Global MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maynard, K. M.; Germaschewski, K.; Lin, L.; Raeder, J.
2013-12-01
Flux Transfer Events (FTEs) are poleward traveling flux ropes that form in the dayside magnetopause and represent significant coupling of the solar wind to the magnetosphere during times of southward IMF. In the 35 years since their discovery, FTEs have been extensively observed and modeled; however, there is still no consensus on their generation mechanism. Previous modeling efforts have shown that FTE occurrence and size depend on the resistivity model that is used in simulations and the structure of X-lines in the magnetopause. We use Hall OpenGGCM, a global Hall-MHD code, to study the formation and propagation of FTEs in the dayside magnetopause using synthetic solar wind conditions. We examine large scale FTE structure and nearby magnetic separators for a range of IMF clock angles and dipole tilts. In addition, we investigate how FTE formation and recurrence rate depends on the presence of the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law compared with resistive MHD.
Neoclassical viscous stress tensor for non-linear MHD simulations with XTOR-2F
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mellet, N.; Maget, P.; Lütjens, H.; Meshcheriakov, D.; the Tore Supra Team
2013-04-01
The neoclassical viscous stress tensor is implemented in the non-linear MHD code XTOR-2F (Lütjens and Luciani 2010 J. Comput. Phys. 229 8130-43), allowing consistent bi-fluid simulations of MHD modes, including the metastable branch of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) (Carrera et al 1986 Phys. Fluids 29 899-902). Equilibrium flows and bootstrap current from the neoclassical theory are formally recovered in this Chew-Goldberger-Low formulation. The non-linear behaviour of the new model is verified on a test case coming from a Tore Supra non-inductive discharge. A NTM threshold that is larger than with the previous model is obtained. This is due to the fact that the velocity is now part of the bootstrap current and that it differs from the theoretical neoclassical value.
Global magnetosphere simulations using constrained-transport Hall-MHD with CWENO reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, L.; Germaschewski, K.; Maynard, K. M.; Abbott, S.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Raeder, J.
2013-12-01
We present a new CWENO (Centrally-Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory) reconstruction based MHD solver for the OpenGGCM global magnetosphere code. The solver was built using libMRC, a library for creating efficient parallel PDE solvers on structured grids. The use of libMRC gives us access to its core functionality of providing an automated code generation framework which takes a user provided PDE right hand side in symbolic form to generate an efficient, computer architecture specific, parallel code. libMRC also supports block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and implicit-time stepping through integration with the PETSc library. We validate the new CWENO Hall-MHD solver against existing solvers both in standard test problems as well as in global magnetosphere simulations.
THE SUBMILLIMETER BUMP IN Sgr A* FROM RELATIVISTIC MHD SIMULATIONS
Dexter, Jason; Agol, Eric; Fragile, P. Chris; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2010-07-10
Recent high resolution observations of the Galactic center black hole allow for direct comparison with accretion disk simulations. We compare two-temperature synchrotron emission models from three-dimensional, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations to millimeter observations of Sgr A*. Fits to very long baseline interferometry and spectral index measurements disfavor the monochromatic face-on black hole shadow models from our previous work. Inclination angles {<=}20{sup 0} are ruled out to 3{sigma}. We estimate the inclination and position angles of the black hole, as well as the electron temperature of the accretion flow and the accretion rate, to be i=50{sup o+35o}{sub -15}{sup o}, {xi}=-23{sup o+97o}{sub -22}{sup o}, T{sub e} = (5.4 {+-} 3.0) x 10{sup 10} K, and M-dot =5{sup +15}{sub -2}x10{sup -9} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, respectively, with 90% confidence. The black hole shadow is unobscured in all best-fit models, and may be detected by observations on baselines between Chile and California, Arizona, or Mexico at 1.3 mm or .87 mm either through direct sampling of the visibility amplitude or using closure phase information. Millimeter flaring behavior consistent with the observations is present in all viable models and is caused by magnetic turbulence in the inner radii of the accretion flow. The variability at optically thin frequencies is strongly correlated with that in the accretion rate. The simulations provide a universal picture of the 1.3 mm emission region as a small region near the midplane in the inner radii of the accretion flow, which is roughly isothermal and has {nu}/{nu} {sub c} {approx} 1-20, where {nu} {sub c} is the critical frequency for thermal synchrotron emission.
MHD simulations of homologous and cannibalistic coronal mass ejections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Yuhong; Chatterjee, Piyali
2014-06-01
We present magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the development of a homologous sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and demonstrate their so-called cannibalistic behavior. These CMEs originate from the repeated formations and partial eruptions of kink unstable flux ropes as a result of the continued emergence of a twisted flux rope across the lower boundary into a pre-existing coronal potential arcade field. The simulations show that a CME erupting into the open magnetic field created by a preceding CME has a higher speed, and therefore tends to be cannibalistic, catching up and merging with the preceding one into a single fast CME. All the CMEs attained speeds of about 1000 km/s as they exit the domain. The reformation of a twisted flux rope after each CME eruption during the sustained flux emergence can naturally explain the X-ray observations of repeated reformations of sigmoids and “sigmoid-under-cusp” configurations at a low-coronal source of homologous CMEs.
Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed
2007-01-01
Beaver Lake is considered a primary watershed of concern in the State of Arkansas. As such, information is needed to assess water quality, especially nutrient enrichment, nutrient-algal relations, turbidity, and sediment issues within the system. A previously calibrated two-dimensional, laterally averaged model of hydrodynamics and water quality was used for the evaluation of changes in input nutrient and sediment concentrations on the water quality of the reservoir for the period of April 2001 to April 2003. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were increased and decreased and tested independently and simultaneously to examine the nutrient concentrations and algal response in the reservoir. Suspended-solids concentrations were increased and decreased to identify how solids are distributed in the reservoir, which can contribute to decreased water clarity. The Beaver Lake model also was evaluated using a conservative tracer. A conservative tracer was applied at various locations in the reservoir model to observe the fate and transport and how the reservoir might react to the introduction of a conservative substance, or a worst-case spill scenario. In particular, tracer concentrations were evaluated at the locations of the four public water-supply intakes in Beaver Lake. Nutrient concentrations in Beaver Lake increased proportionally with increases in loads from the three main tributaries. An increase of 10 times the calibrated daily input nitrogen and phosphorus in the three main tributaries resulted in daily mean total nitrogen concentrations in the epilimnion that were nearly 4 times greater than the calibration concentrations at site L2 and more than 2 times greater than the calibrated concentrations at site L5. Increases in daily input nitrogen in the three main tributaries independently did not correspond in substantial increases in concentrations of nitrogen in Beaver Lake. The greatest proportional increase in phosphorus occurred in the epilimnion at sites L3 and L4 and the least increase occurred at sites L2 and L5 when calibrated daily input phosphorus concentrations were increased. When orthophosphorus was increased in all three tributaries simultaneously by a factor of 10, daily mean orthophosphorus concentrations in the epilimnion of the reservoir were almost 11 times greater than the calibrated concentrations at sites L2 and L5, and 15 times greater in the epilimnion of the reservoir at sites L3 and L4. Phosphorus concentrations in Beaver Lake increased less when nitrogen and phosphorus were increased simultaneously than when phosphorus was increased independently. The greatest simulated increase in algal biomass (represented as chlorophyll a) occurred when nitrogen and phosphorus were increased simultaneously in the three main tributaries. On average, the chlorophyll a values only increased less than 1 microgram per liter when concentrations of nitrogen or phosphorous were increased independently by a factor of 10 at all three tributaries. In comparison, when nitrogen and phosphorus were increased simultaneously by a factor of 10 for all three tributaries, the chlorophyll a concentration increased by about 10 micrograms per liter on average, with a maximum increase of about 57 micrograms per liter in the epilimnion at site L3 in Beaver Lake. Changes in algal biomass with changes in input nitrogen and phosphorus were variable through time in the Beaver Lake model from April 2001 to April 2003. When calibrated daily input nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were increased simultaneously for the three main tributaries, the increase in chlorophyll a concentration was the greatest in late spring and summer of 2002. Changes in calibrated daily input inorganic suspended solids concentrations were examined because of the effect they may have on water clarity in Beaver Lake. The increase in total suspended solids was greatest in the hypolimnion at the upstream end of Beaver Lake, and negligible changes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, X.; Sitnov, M. I.; Sharma, A. S.; Papadopoulos, K.; Goodrich, C. C.; Guzdar, P. N.; Milikh, G. M.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Lyon, J. G.
2002-05-01
Studies of the magnetosphere during substorms based on the observational data of the solar wind and the geomagnetic indices have shown clear features of phase transition-like behavior [Sitnov et al., 2000]. The global MHD simulations of the events in the Bargatze et al. [1985] database are used to study the non-equilibrium phase transition-like features of substorms. We simulated 7 intervals of total duration of 280 hours from the same data set used in Sitnov et al. [2000]. From the simulations the AL index is computed from the maximum of the westward Hall current and is referred to as the pseudo-AL index. We analyzed the input-output (vBs-pseudo-AL index) system obtained from the global MHD model and compare the results to those in Sitnov et al. [2000, 2001]. The analysis of the coupled vBs-pseudo-AL index system shows the first-order phase transition characterizing global beahavior, similar to the case of vBs-observed-AL index [Sitnov et al., 2000]. Although, the comparison between observations and global MHD simulations for individual events may vary, the overall global transition pattern during the substorm cycle revealed by singular spectrum snalysis is statistically consistent between simulations and observations. The coupled vBs-pseudo-AL index system shows multi-scale behavior (scale-invariant power-law dependence) in singular power spectrum. We find critical exponents of the non-equilibrium transitions in the magnetosphere, which reflect the multi-scale aspect of the substorm activity, different from power-law frequency of autonomous systems. The exponents relate input and output parameters of the magnetosphere.
Global MHD modeling of resonant ULF waves: Simulations with and without a plasmasphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claudepierre, S. G.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Wiltberger, M.
2016-01-01
We investigate the plasmaspheric influence on the resonant mode coupling of magnetospheric ultralow frequency (ULF) waves using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We present results from two different versions of the model, both driven by the same solar wind conditions: one version that contains a plasmasphere (the LFM coupled to the Rice Convection Model, where the Gallagher plasmasphere model is also included) and another that does not (the stand-alone LFM). We find that the inclusion of a cold, dense plasmasphere has a significant impact on the nature of the simulated ULF waves. For example, the inclusion of a plasmasphere leads to a deeper (more earthward) penetration of the compressional (azimuthal) electric field fluctuations, due to a shift in the location of the wave turning points. Consequently, the locations where the compressional electric field oscillations resonantly couple their energy into local toroidal mode field line resonances also shift earthward. We also find, in both simulations, that higher-frequency compressional (azimuthal) electric field oscillations penetrate deeper than lower frequency oscillations. In addition, the compressional wave mode structure in the simulations is consistent with a radial standing wave oscillation pattern, characteristic of a resonant waveguide. The incorporation of a plasmasphere into the LFM global MHD model represents an advance in the state of the art in regard to ULF wave modeling with such simulations. We offer a brief discussion of the implications for radiation belt modeling techniques that use the electric and magnetic field outputs from global MHD simulations to drive particle dynamics.
Numerical simulation of MHD shock waves in the solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinolfson, R. S.; Dryer, M.
1978-01-01
The effects of the interplanetary magnetic field on the propagation speed of shock waves through an ambient solar wind are examined by numerical solutions of the time-dependent nonlinear equations of motion. The magnetic field always increases the velocity of strong shocks. Although the field may temporarily slow down weak shocks inside 1 AU, it eventually also causes weak shocks to travel faster than they would without the magnetic field at larger distances. Consistent with the increase in the shock velocity, the gas pressure ratio across a shock is reduced considerably in the presence of the magnetic field. The numerical method is used to simulate (starting at 0.3 AU) the large deceleration of a shock observed in the lower corona by ground-based radio instrumentation and the more gradual deceleration of the shock in the solar wind observed by the Pioneer 9 and Pioneer 10 spacecraft.
Three-dimensional MHD simulation of the Caltech plasma jet experiment: first results
Zhai, Xiang; Bellan, Paul M.; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai E-mail: pbellan@caltech.edu E-mail: sli@lanl.gov
2014-08-10
Magnetic fields are believed to play an essential role in astrophysical jets with observations suggesting the presence of helical magnetic fields. Here, we present three-dimensional (3D) ideal MHD simulations of the Caltech plasma jet experiment using a magnetic tower scenario as the baseline model. Magnetic fields consist of an initially localized dipole-like poloidal component and a toroidal component that is continuously being injected into the domain. This flux injection mimics the poloidal currents driven by the anode-cathode voltage drop in the experiment. The injected toroidal field stretches the poloidal fields to large distances, while forming a collimated jet along with several other key features. Detailed comparisons between 3D MHD simulations and experimental measurements provide a comprehensive description of the interplay among magnetic force, pressure, and flow effects. In particular, we delineate both the jet structure and the transition process that converts the injected magnetic energy to other forms. With suitably chosen parameters that are derived from experiments, the jet in the simulation agrees quantitatively with the experimental jet in terms of magnetic/kinetic/inertial energy, total poloidal current, voltage, jet radius, and jet propagation velocity. Specifically, the jet velocity in the simulation is proportional to the poloidal current divided by the square root of the jet density, in agreement with both the experiment and analytical theory. This work provides a new and quantitative method for relating experiments, numerical simulations, and astrophysical observation, and demonstrates the possibility of using terrestrial laboratory experiments to study astrophysical jets.
Energy storage and dissipation in the magnetotail during substorms. 2. MHD simulations
Steinolfson, R.S. ); Winglee, R.M. )
1993-05-01
The authors present a global MHD simulation of the magnetotail in an effort to study magnetic storm development. They address the question of energy storage in the current sheet in the early phases of storm growth, which previous simulations have not shown. They address this problem by dealing with the variation of the resistivity throughout the magnetosphere. They argue that MHD theory should provide a suitable representation to this problem on a global scale, even if it does not handle all details adequately. For their simulation they use three different forms for the resistivity. First is a uniform and constant resistivity. Second is a resistivity proportional to the current density, which is related to argument that resistivity is driven by wave-particle interactions which should be strongest in regions where the current is the greatest. Thirdly is a model where the resistivity varies with the magnetic field strength, which was suggested by previous results from particle simulations of the same problem. The simulation then gives approximately the same response of the magnetosphere for all three of the models. Each results in the formation and ejection of plasmoids, but the energy stored in the magnetotail, the timing of substorm onset in relation to the appearance of a southward interplanetary magnetic field, and the speed of ejection of the plasmoids formed differ with the resistivity models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yung, Yuk L.; Shia, R. L.; Allen, M.; Zurek, R. W.; Crisp, D.; Wen, J. S.
1988-01-01
The bulk of O sub 3 destruction in the Antarctic stratosphere takes place in the lower stratosphere between 15 and 25 km. Both O sub 3 and the halogen reservoir species have their origins in the higher altitude region (20 to 30 km) in the equatorial and mid-latitude stratosphere. Using the Caltech-JPL two-dimensional residual circulation model, researchers investigate the growth of stratospheric halogen due to the increase of CFCl sub 3 and CF sub 2 Cl sub 2.
Simulation of 3-D Nonequilibrium Seeded Air Flow in the NASA-Ames MHD Channel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, Sumeet; Tannehill, John C.; Mehta, Unmeel B.
2004-01-01
The 3-D nonequilibrium seeded air flow in the NASA-Ames experimental MHD channel has been numerically simulated. The channel contains a nozzle section, a center section, and an accelerator section where magnetic and electric fields can be imposed on the flow. In recent tests, velocity increases of up to 40% have been achieved in the accelerator section. The flow in the channel is numerically computed us ing a 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm that has been developed to efficiently compute MHD flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime: The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equations which can then be solved in a very efficient manner. The algorithm has been extended in the present study to account for nonequilibrium seeded air flows. The electrical conductivity of the flow is determined using the program of Park. The new algorithm has been used to compute two test cases that match the experimental conditions. In both cases, magnetic and electric fields are applied to the seeded flow. The computed results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Analysis and statistics of discontinuities as obtained from 3D simulation of MHD turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lei; He, Jian-Sen; Tu, Chuan-Yi; Yang, Li-Ping; Wang, Xin; Marsch, Eckart; Wang, Ling-Hua
2016-03-01
The turbulent solar wind abounds with MHD discontinuities, and such discontinuities are often found in close connection with turbulence intermittency, constituting a possible main contributor to the turbulence dissipation and solar wind heating. Among the discontinuities, tangential (TD) and rotational (RD) ones are two most important types. Recently, the connection between turbulence intermittency and proton thermodynamics has been being intensively investigated. Such connections are founded to be involved with MHD instablilities, but the difference of TDs an RDs in this process has not yet been covered. Herewith we define new methods for identifying TDs and RDs obtained from a three-dimensional MHD simulation with pressure anisotropy. Especially, we define the Total Variance of Increments (TVI) as a new measure of magnetic field changes. Based on the identified cases, we compare their occurrence rates and heating effects. More specifically, we find that the thermal states embedding TDs, compared with their RD counterparts, tend to be more associated with extreme plasma parameters or instabilites. Some other possible applications of TVI-like norms are also herewith discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klimas, A. J.; Uritsky, V.; Vassiliadis, D.; Baker, D. N.
2005-01-01
Loading and consequent unloading of magnetic flux is an essential element of the substorm cycle in Earth's magnetotail. We are unaware of an available global MHD magnetospheric simulation model that includes a loading- unloading cycle in its behavior. Given the central role that MHD models presently play in the development of our understanding of magnetospheric dynamics, and given the present plans for the central role that these models will play in ongoing space weather prediction programs, it is clear that this failure must be corrected. A 2-dimensional numerical driven current-sheet model has been developed that incorporates an idealized current- driven instability with a resistive MHD system. Under steady loading, the model exhibits a global loading- unloading cycle. The specific mechanism for producing the loading-unloading cycle will be discussed. It will be shown that scale-free avalanching of electromagnetic energy through the model, from loading to unloading, is carried by repetitive bursts of localized reconnection. Each burst leads, somewhat later, to a field configuration that is capable of exciting a reconnection burst again. This process repeats itself in an intermittent manner while the total field energy in the system falls. At the end of an unloading interval, the total field energy is reduced to well below that necessary to initiate the next unloading event and, thus, a loading-unloading cycle results. It will be shown that, in this model, it is the topology of bursty localized reconnection that is responsible for the appearance of the loading-unloading cycle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Z.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Forbes, T.
2005-12-01
During the last ten years, an eruptive flare model based on a loss of equilibrium in a coronal flux rope has been developed (Forbes and Priest 1995, Lin and Forbes 2000) and has been tested by observations from SOHO and RHESSI. We present fully self-consistent resistive and Hall MHD simulations of the model beginning from an equilibrium solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation in which a flux rope is nested in an arcade. The system is then driven by photospheric converging flows. It is found that the system evolves into a configuration with a thin current sheet which grows progressively thinner and longer, driving the flux rope upward. Magnetic reconnection in the thin current sheet eventually leads to the accelerated expulsion of the flux rope, as anticipated qualitatively by earlier theoretical calculations. In the resistive MHD model, the reconnection rate as well as the acceleration is controlled by the resistivity. In the Hall MHD model, the current sheet becomes thinner and more dynamic, the acceleration is faster and much more weakly dependent on the resistivity (at high values of the Lundquist number). Comparisons will be made with an eruptive event on 2003 November 18.
Global MHD simulations of cosmic ray driven galactic winds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Yang, Hsiang-Yi Karen; Gould Zweibel, Ellen
2016-04-01
Galactic outflows play an important role in galactic evolution. Despite their importance, a detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for the driving of these winds is lacking. In an effort to gain more insight into the nature of these flows, we perform global three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of an isolated starbursting galaxy. We focus on the dynamical role of cosmic rays injected by supernovae, and specifically on the impact of the streaming and anisotropic diffusion of cosmic rays along the magnetic fields. We find that these microphysical effects can have a significant effect on the wind launching and mass loading factors depending on the details of the plasma physics. Cosmic rays stream away from the densest regions near the galactic disk along partially ordered magnetic fields and, in the process, accelerate more tenuous gas away from the galaxy. For cosmic ray acceleration efficiencies broadly consistent with the observational constraints, cosmic rays are likely to have a notable impact on the wind launching.
High-Resolution Simulations of Nonhelical MHD Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haugen, N. E. L.; Brandenburg, A.; Dobler, W.
2004-08-01
According to the kinematic theory of nonhelical dynamo action, the magnetic energy spectrum increases with wavenumber and peaks at the resistive cutoff wavenumber. It has previously been argued that even in the dynamical case, the magnetic energy peaks at the resistive scale. Using high resolution simulations (up to 10243 meshpoints) with no large-scale imposed field, we show that the magnetic energy peaks at a wavenumber that is independent of the magnetic Reynolds number and about five times larger than the forcing wavenumber. Throughout the inertial range, the spectral magnetic energy exceeds the kinetic energy by a factor of two to three. Both spectra are approximately parallel. The total energy spectrum seems to be close to k -3/2, but there is a strong bottleneck effect and we suggest that the asymptotic spectrum is instead k -5/3. This is supported by the value of the second-order structure function exponent that is found to be ζ2=0.70, suggesting a k -1.70 spectrum. The third-order structure function scaling exponent is very close to unity,—in agreement with Goldreich Sridhar theory.
Coronal extension of the MURaM radiative MHD code: From quiet sun to flare simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rempel, Matthias D.; Cheung, Mark
2016-05-01
We present a new version of the MURaM radiative MHD code, which includes a treatment of the solar corona in terms of MHD, optically thin radiative loss and field-aligned heat conduction. In order to relax the severe time-step constraints imposed by large Alfven velocities and heat conduction we use a combination of semi-relativistic MHD with reduced speed of light ("Boris correction") and a hyperbolic formulation of heat conduction. We apply the numerical setup to 4 different setups including a mixed polarity quiet sun, an open flux region, an arcade solution and an active region setup and find all cases an amount of coronal heating sufficient to maintain a corona with temperatures from 1 MK (quiet sun) to 2 MK (active region, arcade). In all our setups the Poynting flux is self-consistently created by photospheric and sub-photospheric magneto-convection in the lower part of our simulation domain. Varying the maximum allowed Alfven velocity ("reduced speed of light") leads to only minor changes in the coronal structure as long as the limited Alfven velocity remains larger than the speed of sound and about 1.5-3 times larger than the peak advection velocity. We also found that varying details of the numerical diffusivities that govern the resistive and viscous energy dissipation do not strongly affect the overall coronal heating, but the ratio of resistive and viscous energy dependence is strongly dependent on the effective numerical magnetic Prandtl number. We use our active region setup in order to simulate a flare triggered by the emergence of a twisted flux rope into a pre-existing bipolar active region. Our simulation yields a series of flares, with the strongest one reaching GOES M1 class. The simulation reproduces many observed properties of eruptions such as flare ribbons, post flare loops and a sunquake.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borrero, J. M.; Lites, B. W.; Lagg, A.; Rezaei, R.; Rempel, M.
2014-12-01
Milne-Eddington (M-E) inversion codes for the radiative transfer equation are the most widely used tools to infer the magnetic field from observations of the polarization signals in photospheric and chromospheric spectral lines. Unfortunately, a comprehensive comparison between the different M-E codes available to the solar physics community is still missing, and so is a physical interpretation of their inferences. In this contribution we offer a comparison between three of those codes (VFISV, ASP/HAO, and HeLIx+). These codes are used to invert synthetic Stokes profiles that were previously obtained from realistic non-grey three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (3D MHD) simulations. The results of the inversion are compared with each other and with those from the MHD simulations. In the first case, the M-E codes retrieve values for the magnetic field strength, inclination and line-of-sight velocity that agree with each other within σB ≤ 35 (Gauss), σγ ≤ 1.2°, and σv ≤ 10 m s-1, respectively. Additionally, M-E inversion codes agree with the numerical simulations, when compared at a fixed optical depth, within σB ≤ 130 (Gauss), σγ ≤ 5°, and σv ≤ 320 m s-1. Finally, we show that employing generalized response functions to determine the height at which M-E codes measure physical parameters is more meaningful than comparing at a fixed geometrical height or optical depth. In this case the differences between M-E inferences and the 3D MHD simulations decrease to σB ≤ 90 (Gauss), σγ ≤ 3°, and σv ≤ 90 m s-1.
2.5D Particle and MHD simulations of mini-magnetospheres at the Moon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harnett, Erika M.; Winglee, Robert M.
2002-12-01
2.5D Particle simulations of the solar wind interaction with the magnetized regions on the surface of the Moon confirm the earlier 2D MHD result that mini-magnetospheres can form around the magnetic anomalies. A dipole buried 100 km below the surface with a field strength equal to 50 nT at the surface and 10 nT at 100 km above the surface held the solar wind off of the surface and caused a bow shock and a magnetopause to form. However, the boundary separating the bow shock and magnetopause becomes ambiguous as the two structures merge due to the small-scale size of the mini-magnetospheres. Acceleration of solar wind particles occurs at the shock. Inside the magnetopause, the Lunar electrons remained highly magnetized and exhibited fluid-like behavior. The Lunar ions, on the other hand, become demagnetized. Outside of the magnetopause, the solar wind ions and electrons exhibited fluid-like behavior. Small-scale and nonideal MHD effects can be included into fluid simulations by adding Hall and pressure gradient terms in Ohm's Law, creating a magnetoplasma dynamics (MPD) model. The small-scale effects allow for field-aligned currents and electric fields that look qualitatively similar to those in the particle simulations, but they do not appear to change the overall shape of the mini-magnetosphere. The extra components of the electric field indicate the presence of charge separation at the shock surface, due to the momentum difference between ions and electrons, and the near the Lunar surface, due to nonideal MHD behavior inside the mini-magnetosphere. The 2.5D MPD model can replicate the ion demagnetization seen in the 2.5D particle simulations.
The Substorm Current Wedge: Further Insights from MHD Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birn, J.; Hesse, M.
2015-01-01
Using a recent magnetohydrodynamic simulation of magnetotail dynamics, we further investigate the buildup and evolution of the substorm current wedge (SCW), resulting from flow bursts generated by near-tail reconnection. Each flow burst generates an individual current wedge, which includes the reduction of cross-tail current and the diversion to region 1 (R1)-type field-aligned currents (earthward on the dawn and tailward on the duskside), connecting the tail with the ionosphere. Multiple flow bursts generate initially multiple SCW patterns, which at later times combine to a wider single SCW pattern. The standard SCWmodel is modified by the addition of several current loops, related to particular magnetic field changes: the increase of Bz in a local equatorial region (dipolarization), the decrease of |Bx| away from the equator (current disruption), and increases in |By| resulting from azimuthally deflected flows. The associated loop currents are found to be of similar magnitude, 0.1-0.3 MA. The combined effect requires the addition of region 2 (R2)-type currents closing in the near tail through dawnward currents but also connecting radially with the R1 currents. The current closure at the inner boundary, taken as a crude proxy of an idealized ionosphere, demonstrates westward currents as postulated in the original SCW picture as well as North-South currents connecting R1- and R2-type currents, which were larger than the westward currents by a factor of almost 2. However, this result should be applied with caution to the ionosphere because of our neglect of finite resistance and Hall effects.
Two-dimensional material nanophotonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Han; Xiao, Di; Dubey, Madan; Ramasubramaniam, Ashwin
2014-12-01
Two-dimensional materials exhibit diverse electronic properties, ranging from insulating hexagonal boron nitride and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulphide, to semimetallic graphene. In this Review, we first discuss the optical properties and applications of various two-dimensional materials, and then cover two different approaches for enhancing their interactions with light: through their integration with external photonic structures, and through intrinsic polaritonic resonances. Finally, we present a narrow-bandgap layered material -- black phosphorus -- that serendipitously bridges the energy gap between the zero-bandgap graphene and the relatively large-bandgap transition metal dichalcogenides. The plethora of two-dimensional materials and their heterostructures, together with the array of available approaches for enhancing the light-matter interaction, offers the promise of scientific discoveries and nanophotonics technologies across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum.
2.5d Mhd Simulations Of Winds From Red Giants Stars: Broadband Alfvn Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Airapetian, Vladimir; Carpenter, K.; Ofman, L.
2010-01-01
We present the numerical simulations of winds from evolved giant stars using a fully non-linear, time dependent, 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. This study extends our previous fully non-linear MHD wind simulations to the parameter space that describes winds from red giant stars. In the current version of this Alfvn wave driven model, a wind is driven by randomly generated low-frequency non-linear Alfvn waves in a broadband frequency range at the base of the wind. We simulate freely propagated and partially reflected Alfvn waves in the gravitationally stratified atmosphere of a late-type giant star, in a self-consistent manner, until a steady-state wind is formed. Our simulations demonstrate that, unlike linear Alfven wave-driven wind models, a stellar wind model based on plasma acceleration due to low frequency broad-band non-linear Alfvn waves, can consistently reproduce the observed radial velocity profiles of the winds, their terminal velocities, the turbulent broadening of UV lines emitted from those winds and the observed mass loss rates. We find that conversion of non-linear transverse Alfvn waves into longitudinal magnetosonic waves plays the major role in depositing momentum and energy into the stellar wind. The fitting of mass-loss rates from ? Tau with the predicted rate suggests a highly anisotropic stellar wind in this evolved giant. The model also predicts a variation of the wind mass-loss rates on time scales of 1 month.
Broken Ergodicity in Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional (2-D) homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence has many of the same qualitative features as three-dimensional (3-D) homogeneous MHD turbulence.The se features include several ideal invariants, along with the phenomenon of broken ergodicity. Broken ergodicity appears when certain modes act like random variables with mean values that are large compared to their standard deviations, indicating a coherent structure or dynamo.Recently, the origin of broken ergodicity in 3-D MHD turbulence that is manifest in the lowest wavenumbers was explained. Here, a detailed description of the origins of broken ergodicity in 2-D MHD turbulence is presented. It will be seen that broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D MHD turbulence can be manifest in the lowest wavenumbers of a finite numerical model for certain initial conditions or in the highest wavenumbers for another set of initial conditions.T he origins of broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D homogeneous MHD turbulence are found through an eigen analysis of the covariance matrices of the modal probability density functions.It will also be shown that when the lowest wavenumber magnetic field becomes quasi-stationary, the higher wavenumber modes can propagate as Alfven waves on these almost static large-scale magnetic structures
Cloaking two-dimensional fermions
Lin, De-Hone
2011-09-15
A cloaking theory for a two-dimensional spin-(1/2) fermion is proposed. It is shown that the spinor of the two-dimensional fermion can be cloaked perfectly through controlling the fermion's energy and mass in a specific manner moving in an effective vector potential inside a cloaking shell. Different from the cloaking of three-dimensional fermions, the scaling function that determines the invisible region is uniquely determined by a nonlinear equation. It is also shown that the efficiency of the cloaking shell is unaltered under the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackman, Charles H.; Douglass, Anne R.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Guthrie, Paul D.; Thompson, A. M.
1990-01-01
A two dimensional (altitude and latitude) model of the atmosphere is used to investigate problems relating to the variability of the dynamics and temperature of the atmosphere on the ozone distribution, solar cycle variations of atmospheric constituents, the sensitivity of model results to tropospheric trace gas sources, and assessment computations of changes in ozone related to manmade influences. In a comparison between two dimensional model results in which the odd nitrogen family was transported together and model results in which the odd nitrogen species was transported separately, it was found that the family approximations are adequate for perturbation scenario calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Den, M.; Horiuchi, R.; Fujita, S.; Tanaka, T.
2011-12-01
Magnetic reconnection is considered to play an important role in space phenomena such as substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. Tanaka and Fujita reproduced substorm evolution process by numerical simulation with the global MHD code [1]. In the MHD framework, the dissipation model is introduced for modeling of the kinetic effects. They found that the normalized reconnection viscosity, one of the dissipation model employed there, gave a large effect for the dipolarization, central phenomenon in the substorm development process, though that viscosity was assumed to be a constant parameter. It is well known that magnetic reconnection is controlled by microscopic kinetic mechanism. Frozen-in condition is broken due to particle kinetic effects and collisionless reconnection is triggered when current sheet is compressed as thin as ion kinetic scales under the influence of external driving flow [2, 3]. Horiuchi and his collaborators showed that reconnection electric field generated by microscopic physics evolves inside ion meandering scale so as to balance the flux inflow rate at the inflow boundary, which is controlled by macroscopic physics [2]. That is, effective resistivity generated through this process can be expressed by balance equation between micro and macro physics. In this paper, we perform substorm simulation by using the global MHD code developed by Tanaka [3] with this effective resistivity instead of the empirical resistivity model. We obtain the AE indices from simulation data, in which substorm onset can be seen clearly, and investigate the relationship between the substorm development and the effective resistivity model. [1] T. Tanaka, A, Nakamizo, A. Yoshikawa, S. Fujita, H. Shinagawa, H. Shimazu, T. Kikuchi, and K. K. Hashimoto, J. Geophys. Res. 115 (2010) A05220,doi:10.1029/2009JA014676. [2] W. Pei, R. Horiuchi, and T. Sato, Physics of Plasmas,Vol. 8 (2001), pp. 3251-3257. [3] A. Ishizawa, and R. Horiuchi, Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 95, 045003 (2005). [4] T. Tanaka, J. Comp. Phys. 111 (1994) 381.
Propagation of Pi2 pulsations through the braking region in global MHD simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ream, J. B.; Walker, R. J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; El-Alaoui, M.; Wiltberger, M.; Kivelson, M. G.; Goldstein, M. L.
2015-12-01
We investigate the propagation of Pi2 period pulsations from their origin in the plasma sheet through the braking region, the region where the fast flows are slowed as they approach the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Our approach is to use both the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) computer codes to simulate the Earth's magnetosphere during a substorm that occurred on 14 September 2004 when Pi2 pulsations were observed. We use two different MHD models in order to test the robustness of our conclusions about Pi2. The simulations are then compared with ground-based and satellite data. We find that the propagation of the pulsations in the simulations, especially through the braking region, depends strongly on the ionospheric models used at the inner boundary of the MHD models. With respect to typical observed values, the modeled conductances are high in the UCLA model and low in the LFM model. The different conductances affect the flows, producing stronger line tying that slows the flow in the braking region more in the UCLA model than in the LFM model. Therefore, perturbations are able to propagate much more freely into the inner magnetosphere in the LFM results. However, in both models Pi2 period perturbations travel with the dipolarization front (DF) that forms at the earthward edge of the flow channel, but as the DF slows in the braking region, -8≤x≤-6 RE, the Pi2 period perturbations begin to travel ahead of it into the inner magnetosphere. This indicates that the flow channels generate compressional waves with periods that fall within the Pi2 range and that, as the flows themselves are stopped in the braking region, the compressional wave continues to propagate into the inner magnetosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fei, Yue; Chan, Anthony A.; Elkington, Scot R.; Wiltberger, Michael J.
2006-12-01
In an MHD particle simulation of the September 1998 magnetic storm the evolution of the radiation belt electron radial flux profile appears to be diffusive, and diffusion caused by ULF waves has been invoked as the probable mechanism. In order to separate adiabatic and nonadiabatic effects and to investigate the radial diffusion mechanism during this storm, in this work we solve a radial diffusion equation with ULF wave diffusion coefficients and a time-dependent outer boundary condition, and the results are compared with the phase space density of the MHD particle simulation. The diffusion coefficients include contributions from both symmetric resonance modes (ω ≈ mωd, where ω is the wave frequency, m is the azimuthal wave number, and ωd is the bounce-averaged drift frequency) and asymmetric resonance modes (ω ≈ (m ± 1)ωd). ULF wave power spectral densities are obtained from a Fourier analysis of the electric and magnetic fields of the MHD simulation and are used in calculating the radial diffusion coefficients. The asymmetric diffusion coefficients are proportional to the magnetic field asymmetry, which is also calculated from the MHD field. The resulting diffusion coefficients vary with the radial coordinate L (the Roederer L-value) and with time during different phases of the storm. The last closed drift shell defines the location of the outer boundary. Both the location of the outer boundary and the value of the phase space density at the outer boundary are time-varying. The diffusion calculation simulates a 42-hour period during the 24-26 September 1998 magnetic storm, starting just before the storm sudden commencement and ending in the late recovery phase. The differential flux calculated in the MHD particle simulation is converted to phase space density. Phase space densities in both simulations (diffusion and MHD particle) are functions of Roederer L-value for fixed first and second adiabatic invariants. The Roederer L-value is calculated using drift shell tracing in the MHD magnetic field, and particles have zero second invariant. The radial diffusion calculation reproduces the main features of the MHD particle simulation quite well. The symmetric resonance modes dominate the radial diffusion, especially in the inner and middle L region, while the asymmetric resonances are more important in the outer region. Using both symmetric and asymmetric terms gives a better result than using only one or the other and is better than using a simple power law diffusion coefficient. We find that it is important to specify the value of the phase space density on the outer boundary dynamically in order to get better agreement between the radial diffusion simulation and the MHD particle simulation.
Relativistic modeling capabilities in PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for HED plasmas
Hamlin, Nathaniel D.; Seyler, Charles E.
2014-12-15
We discuss the incorporation of relativistic modeling capabilities into the PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas, and present the latest hybrid X-pinch simulation results. The use of fully relativistic equations enables the model to remain self-consistent in simulations of such relativistic phenomena as X-pinches and laser-plasma interactions. By suitable formulation of the relativistic generalized Ohm’s law as an evolution equation, we have reduced the recovery of primitive variables, a major technical challenge in relativistic codes, to a straightforward algebraic computation. Our code recovers expected results in the non-relativistic limit, and reveals new physics in the modeling of electron beam acceleration following an X-pinch. Through the use of a relaxation scheme, relativistic PERSEUS is able to handle nine orders of magnitude in density variation, making it the first fluid code, to our knowledge, that can simulate relativistic HED plasmas.
Relativistic modeling capabilities in PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for HED plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamlin, Nathaniel D.; Seyler, Charles E.
2014-12-01
We discuss the incorporation of relativistic modeling capabilities into the PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas, and present the latest hybrid X-pinch simulation results. The use of fully relativistic equations enables the model to remain self-consistent in simulations of such relativistic phenomena as X-pinches and laser-plasma interactions. By suitable formulation of the relativistic generalized Ohm's law as an evolution equation, we have reduced the recovery of primitive variables, a major technical challenge in relativistic codes, to a straightforward algebraic computation. Our code recovers expected results in the non-relativistic limit, and reveals new physics in the modeling of electron beam acceleration following an X-pinch. Through the use of a relaxation scheme, relativistic PERSEUS is able to handle nine orders of magnitude in density variation, making it the first fluid code, to our knowledge, that can simulate relativistic HED plasmas.
MHD simulation of a propagation of loop-like and bubble-like magnetic clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vandas, M.; Fischer, S.; Pelant, P.; Dryer, M.; Smith, Z.; Detman, T.
1995-01-01
Propagation and evolution of magnetic clouds in the ambient solar wind flow is studied self-consistently using ideal MHD equations in three dimensions. Magnetic clouds as ideal force-free objects (cylinders or spheres) are ejected near the Sun and followed beyond the Earth's orbit. We investigate the influence of various initial parameters like the injection velocity, magnetic field strength, magnetic helicity, orientation of the clouds' axis, etc., on their propagation and evolution. We demonstrate that the injection velocity and magnetic field strength have a major influence on propagation. Simulation results are compared with analytical solutions of magnetic cloud evolution.
Particle escape in the interplanetary medium: Link between CME observations and MHD simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masson, Sophie; Antiochos, Spiro; DeVore, C. Richard
Among the more hazardous forms of space weather at Earth and in the heliosphere are the intense solar energetic particle (SEP) bursts associated with fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and eruptive flares. A fundamental question to understand the origin and the evolution of solar energetic particles is: How do solar energetic particles escape the Sun? Answering this question is critical for understanding how the corona couples dynamically to the heliosphere during explosive events, and is fundamental to developing any future forecasting capability for SEP events. The release onto open field lines of energetic particles originating in the low corona is the bridge connecting the acceleration site to the interplanetary propagation and is, therefore, the key to reconciling remote and in-situ observations of energetic particles. Recent multi-instrument studies showed that CMEs are important factors that determine whether the energetic particles escape into the heliosphere and partly define the spatial distribution of particle flux. In order to understand how and why CMEs play a crucial role in the particle escape, we must understand the dynamics of the corona disturbed by a CME ejection. The details of the dynamics can be studied through MHD simulations. To advance understanding, it is pertinent to combine observations and simulations to develop models that respect the observational constraints. Thus, first we will describe the observational results, then discuss how MHD simulations help demonstrate why CMEs are important for particle release.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ding, D. Q.; Denton, . E.; Hudson, M. K.; Lysak, R. L.
1995-01-01
The poloidal mode field line resonance in the Earth's dipole magnetic field is investigated using cold plasma ideal MHD simulations in dipole geometry. In order to excite the poloidal mode resonance, we use either an initial or a continuous velocity perturbation to drive the system. The perturbation is localized at magnetic shell L = 7 with plasma flow in the radial direction (electric field component in the azimuthal direction). It is found that with the initial perturbation alone, no polodial mode resonance can be obtained and the initially localized perturbation spreads out across all magnetic L shells. With the continuous perturbation, oscillating near the poloidal resonance frequency, a global-scale poloidal cavity mode can be obtained. For the first time, a localized guided poloidal mode resonance is obtained when a radial component of electric field is added to the initial perturbation such that the curl of the electric field is everywhere perpendicular to the background dipole magnetic field. During the localized poloidal resonance, plasma vortices parallel/antiparallel to the background dipole magnetic field B(sub 0). This circular flow, elongated radially, results in twisting of magnetic field flux tubes, which, in turn, leads to the slowdown of the circular plasma flow and reversal of the plasma vortices. The energy associated with the localized poloidal resonance is conserved as it shifts back and forth between the oscillating plasma vortices and the alternately twisted magnetic flux tubes. In the simulations the eigenfunctions associated with the localized poloidal resonance are grid-scale singular functions. This result indicates that ideal MHD is inadequate to describe the underlying problem and nonideal MHD effects are needed for mode broadening.
Standard 1D solar atmosphere as initial condition for MHD simulations and switch-on effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourdin, P.-A.
Many applications in Solar physics need a 1D atmospheric model as initial condition or as reference for inversions of observational data. The VAL atmospheric models are based on observations and are widely used since decades. Complementary to that, the FAL models implement radiative hydrodynamics and showed the shortcomings of the VAL models since almost equally long time. In this work, we present a new 1D layered atmosphere that spans not only from the photosphere to the transition region, but from the solar interior up to far in the corona. We also discuss typical mistakes that are done when switching on simulations based on such an initial condition and show how the initial condition can be equilibrated so that a simulation can start smoothly. The 1D atmosphere we present here served well as initial condition for HD and MHD simulations and should also be considered as reference data for solving inverse problems.
Intermittency, dissipation, and scaling in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Merrifield, J. A.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.
2007-01-15
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) provide a means to test phenomenological models for the scaling properties of intermittent MHD turbulence. The well-known model of She and Leveque, when generalized to MHD, is in good agreement with the DNS in three dimensions, however, it does not coincide with DNS in two dimensions (2D). This is resolved here using the results of recent DNS of driven MHD turbulence in 2D which directly determine the scaling of the rate of dissipation. Specifically, a simple modification to generalized refined similarity is proposed that captures the results of the 2D MHD simulations. This leads to a new generalization of She and Leveque in MHD that is coincident with the DNS results in 2D. A key feature of this model is that the most intensely dissipating structures, which are responsible for the intermittency, are thread-like in 2D, independent of whether the underlying phenomenology of the cascade is Kolmogorov or Iroshnikov Kraichnan.
FLASH MHD simulations of experiments that study shock-generated magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tzeferacos, P.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Gregori, G.; Lamb, D. Q.; Lee, D.; Meinecke, J.; Scopatz, A.; Weide, K.
2015-12-01
We summarize recent additions and improvements to the high energy density physics capabilities in FLASH, highlighting new non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) capabilities. We then describe 3D Cartesian and 2D cylindrical FLASH MHD simulations that have helped to design and analyze experiments conducted at the Vulcan laser facility. In these experiments, a laser illuminates a carbon rod target placed in a gas-filled chamber. A magnetic field diagnostic (called a Bdot) employing three very small induction coils is used to measure all three components of the magnetic field at a chosen point in space. The simulations have revealed that many fascinating physical processes occur in the experiments. These include megagauss magnetic fields generated by the interaction of the laser with the target via the Biermann battery mechanism, which are advected outward by the vaporized target material but decrease in strength due to expansion and resistivity; magnetic fields generated by an outward expanding shock via the Biermann battery mechanism; and a breakout shock that overtakes the first wave, the contact discontinuity between the target material and the gas, and then the initial expanding shock. Finally, we discuss the validation and predictive science we have done for this experiment with FLASH.
Juckem, Paul F.; Hunt, Randall J.
2008-01-01
A two-dimensional, steady-state ground-water-flow model of the shallow ground-water-flow system near the community of New Post, Sawyer County, Wis., was refined from an existing model of the area. Hydraulic-conductivity and recharge values were not changed from the existing model for the scenario simulations described in this report. Rather, the model was refined by adding detail along the Chippewa Flowage and then was used to simulate contributing areas for three potential replacement wells pumping 30,000 gallons per day. The model also was used to simulate potential surface-water leakage out of the Chippewa Flowage captured by replacement-well pumping. A range in resistance to vertical ground-water flow was simulated along the Chippewa Flowage for each potential replacement-well location to bound the potential effects of representing three-dimensional flow with a two-dimensional model. Results indicate that pumping from a replacement well sited about 130 feet from the Chippewa Flowage could capture as much as 39 percent of the total pumping from the flowage. Pumping from either of two potential replacement wells sited at least 400 feet from the Chippewa Flowage did not induce surface-water leakage out of the flowage regardless of the resistance applied along the flowage for simulations described in this report.
Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization
Amaral, R.L.P.G.
2005-12-15
The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized.
Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry
Farrar, T.C.
1987-06-01
This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t/sub 0/; an evolution period, t/sub 1/; and a detection period, t/sub 2/.
Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.
Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)
2006-12-01
This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juday, Richard D.
1992-01-01
Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.
Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis
Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John
2016-01-01
NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions. PMID:27109776
Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis.
Waudby, Christopher A; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D; Christodoulou, John
2016-01-01
NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions. PMID:27109776
Kirigami for Two-Dimensional Electronic Membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Zenan; Bahamon, Dario; Campbell, David; Park, Harold
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional materials have recently drawn tremendous attention because of their unique properties. In this work, we introduce the notion of two-dimensional kirigami, where concepts that have been used almost exclusively for macroscale structures are applied to dramatically enhance their stretchability. Specifically, we show using classical molecular dynamics simulations that the yield and fracture strains of graphene and MoS2 can be enhanced by about a factor of three using kirigami as compared to standard monolayers. Finally, using graphene as an example, we demonstrate that the kirigami structure may open up interesting opportunities in coupling to the electronic behavior of 2D materials. Authors acknowledge Mechanical Engineering and Physics departments at Boston University, and Mackgrafe at Mackenzie Presbyterian University.
Global MHD Magnetospheric Simulation of January 10, 1997 Encounter with Magnetic Cloud
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elsen, R.; Winglee, R. M.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Parks, G. K.; Spann, J. F., Jr.; Germany, G. A.
1997-01-01
We present a global MHD magnetospheric simulation of the encounter of the magnetic cloud with the terrestrial magnetosphere on January 10-11, 1997. The MHD simulation is driven by IMF and solar wind plasma measurements provided by Wind situated about 100 $R_E$ upstream from Earth. Field-aligned currents produced in the model are mapped down to the ionosphere and are directly compared to auroral images from the Polar UVI. Particular attention will be paid to the interval following the the initial shock wave arrival (around 0100 UT on the 1Oth) but preceding the passage of the magnetic cloud proper (commencing at about 0430 UT) for which there was continuous viewing of the entire auroral oval from apogee by Polar. This turbulent period is characterized by numerous dynamic pressure rises and dips and several northward and southward turnings of the IMF, all of which generate dynamic activity in the simulation that is reflected in the mapped field-aligned current patterns. As discussed by Brittnacher et al. in this session, the auroral morphology imaged by UVI during this period includes: shock wave-induced brightening of the oval followed by a pseudo-onset near midnight, several sun-aligned and curled arcs within the polar cap, an expanding polar cap cleared of arcs, and finally substorm onset at 0337 UT. These features will be directly compared to region 1 and 2 current systems as well as cusp currents in the simulation. Spacecraft magnetopause crossings are also predicted by the global simulation and will be compared to observed crossings, including numerous dayside crossings by Geotail on the 1Oth, and geosynchronous crossings early on January 11.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ju, Wenhua; Stone, James M.; Zhu, Zhaohuan
2016-06-01
We present results from the first global 3D MHD simulations of accretion disks in cataclysmic variable (CV) systems in order to investigate the relative importance of angular momentum transport via turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) compared with that driven by spiral shock waves. Remarkably, we find that even with vigorous MRI turbulence, spiral shocks are an important component of the overall angular momentum budget, at least when temperatures in the disk are high (so that Mach numbers are low). In order to understand the excitation, propagation, and damping of spiral density waves in our simulations more carefully, we perform a series of 2D global hydrodynamical simulations with various equation of states, both with and without mass inflow via the Lagrangian point (L1). Compared with previous similar studies, we find the following new results. (1) The linear wave dispersion relation fits the pitch angles of spiral density waves very well. (2) We demonstrate explicitly that mass accretion is driven by the deposition of negative angular momentum carried by the waves when they dissipate in shocks. (3) Using Reynolds stress scaled by gas pressure to represent the effective angular momentum transport rate {α }{eff} is not accurate when mass accretion is driven by non-axisymmetric shocks. (4) Using the mass accretion rate measured in our simulations to directly measure α defined in standard thin-disk theory, we find 0.02≲ {α }{eff}≲ 0.05 for CV disks, consistent with observed values in quiescent states of dwarf novae. In this regime, the disk may be too cool and neutral for the MRI to operate and spiral shocks are a possible accretion mechanism. However, we caution that our simulations use unrealistically low Mach numbers in this regime and, therefore, future models with more realistic thermodynamics and non-ideal MHD are warranted.
Nonlinear MHD simulations of Quiescent H-mode plasmas in DIII-D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, F.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Loarte, A.; Garofalo, A. M.; Solomon, W. M.; Snyder, P. B.; Hoelzl, M.; Zeng, L.
2015-09-01
In the Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) regime, the edge harmonic oscillation (EHO), thought to be a saturated kink-peeling mode (KPM) driven unstable by current and rotation, is found in experiment to provide sufficient stationary edge particle transport to avoid the periodic expulsion of particles and energy by edge localized modes (ELMs). In this paper, both linear and nonlinear MHD modelling of QH-mode plasmas from the DIII-D tokamak have been investigated to understand the mechanism leading to the appearance of the EHO in QH-mode plasmas. For the first time nonlinear MHD simulations with low-n modes both with ideal wall and resistive wall boundary conditions have been carried out with the 3D non-linear MHD code JOREK. The results show, in agreement with the original conjectures, that in the non-linear phase, kink peeling modes are the main unstable modes in QH-mode plasmas of DIII-D and that the kink-peeling modes saturate non-linearly leading to a 3D stationary state. The characteristics of the kink-peeling modes, in terms of mode structure and associated decrease of the edge plasma density associated with them, are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the EHO in DIII-D. The effect of plasma resistivity, the role of plasma parallel rotation as well as the effect of the conductivity of the vacuum vessel wall on the destabilization and saturation of kink-peeling modes have been evaluated for experimental QH-mode plasma conditions in DIII-D.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benyo, Theresa L.
2011-01-01
Flow matching has been successfully achieved for an MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment helped perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet employing a MHD energy bypass system (consisting of an MHD generator and MHD accelerator) on a supersonic turbojet engine. Working with various operating conditions (such as the applied magnetic field, MHD generator length and flow conductivity), interfacing studies were conducted between the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis. This paper further describes the analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with an MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to a range of 0 to 7.0 Mach with specific net thrust range of 740 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 3.25) to 70 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 7). These results were achieved with an applied magnetic field of 2.5 Tesla and conductivity levels in a range from 2 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 7) to 5.5 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 3.5) for an MHD generator length of 3 m.
Interpreting Irradiance Distributions Using High-Resolution 3D MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peck, Courtney; Rast, Mark; Criscuoli, Serena; Uitenbroek, Han; Rempel, Matthias D.
2016-05-01
We present initial results of studies aimed at understanding the impact of the unresolved magnetic field distribution on solar spectral irradiance. Using high-resolution 3D MHD simulations (from MURaM code) and spectral synthesis (with the RH code), we examine the emergent spectra of two atmospheres with similar mean field strengths but differing imposed-field conditions at wavelengths spanning from visible to infrared. Comparing the contrast against the magnetic field strength for the two magnetic simulations, we find differences in the distributions of contrasts versus field strength. We repeat the analysis after convolving the images with the PSF of a typical solar telescope (1-meter) and discuss the potential implications for irradiance modeling and future steps.
Large Eddy - Lattice Boltzmann (LES-LB) Simulations of Fluid and MHD Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keating, Brian; Soe, Min; Vahala, George; Vahala, Linda; Yepez, Jeffrey; Carter, Jonathan
2007-11-01
For high Reynolds number turbulence, the resource requirements for a full space-time DNS simulation scales as Re^3 -- which is far beyond any foreseeable computational resources. For problems that require instantaneous fields, one is forced into an LES in which one filters out the unresolvable small scales in the simulation but must then deal with the effects of the subgrid scales on the resolvable scales. In the Lattice Boltzmann (LB) mesoscopic approach one sidesteps the stiff nonlinear convective derivatives in the nonlinear continuum equations by simple linear advection in kinetic space together with local collisional relaxation at each spatial node. The relaxation distribution functions have simple algebraic continuum nonlinearities. In LES, the Smagorinsky eddy viscosity is related to the mean rate of strain tensor. However this tensor can be computed from purely locally moments in LB. In a Smagorinsky LES-MHD, the subgrid magnetic Reynold stress can be determined from local kinetic moments.
The PLX- α project: Radiation-MHD Simulations of Imploding Plasma Liners Using USim
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beckwith, Kristian; Stoltz, Peter; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Hsu, Scott; PLX-α Team
2015-11-01
USim is a tool for modeling high energy density plasmas using multi-fluid models coupled to electromagnetics using fully-implicit iterative solvers, combined with finite volume discretizations on unstructured meshes. Prior work has demonstrated application of USim models and algorithms to simulation of supersonic plasma jets relevant to the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) and compared synthetic interferometry to that gathered from the experiment. Here, we give an overview of the models and algorithms included in USim; review results from prior modeling campaigns for the PLX; and describe plans for radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation efforts focusing on integrated plasma-liner implosion and target compression in a fusion-relevant regime using USim for the PLX- α project. Supported by ARPA-E's ALPHA program. Original PLX construction supported by OFES. USim development supported in part by Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
3D Dynamics of Magnetopause Reconnection Using Hall-MHD Global Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maynard, K.; Germaschewski, K.; Raeder, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2011-12-01
Magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause and in the magnetotail is of crucial importance for the dynamics of the global magnetosphere and space weather. Even though the plasma conditions in the magnetosphere are largely in the collisionless regime, most of the existing research using global computational models employ single-fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with artificial resistivity. Studies of reconnection in simplified, two-dimensional geometries have established that two-fluid and kinetic effects can dramatically alter dynamics and reconnection rates when compared with single-fluid models. These enhanced models also introduce particular signatures, for example a quadrupolar out-of-plane magnetic field component that has already been observed in space by satellite measurements. However, results from simplified geometries cannot be translated directly to the dynamics of three-dimensional magnetospheric reconnection. For instance, magnetic flux originating from the solar wind and arriving at the magnetopause can either reconnect or be advected around the magnetosphere. In this study, we use a new version of the OpenGGCM code that incorporates the Hall term in a Generalized Ohm's Law to study magnetopause reconnection under synthetic solar wind conditions and investigate how reconnection rates and dynamics of flux transfer events depend on the strength of the Hall term. The OpenGGCM, a global model of Earth's magnetosphere, has recently been ported to exploit modern computing architectures like the Cell processor and SIMD capabilities of conventional processors using an automatic code generator. These enhancements provide us with the performance needed to include the computationally expensive Hall physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanki, Takashi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Kagei, Yasuhiro
2011-10-01
The dynamics of structures of magnetic field, current density, and plasma flow generated during multi-pulsed coaxial helicity injection in spherical torus is investigated by 3-D nonlinear MHD simulations. During the driven phase, the flux and current amplifications occur due to the merging and magnetic reconnection between the preexisting plasma in the confinement region and the ejected plasma from the gun region involving the n = 1 helical kink distortion of the central open flux column (COFC). Interestingly, the diamagnetic poloidal flow which tends toward the gun region is then observed due to the steep pressure gradients of the COFC generated by ohmic heating through an injection current winding around the inboard field lines, resulting in the formation of the strong poloidal flow shear at the interface between the COFC and the core region. This result is consistent with the flow shear observed in the HIST. During the decay phase, the configuration approaches the axisymmetric MHD equilibrium state without flow because of the dissipation of magnetic fluctuation energy to increase the closed flux surfaces, suggesting the generation of ordered magnetic field structure. The parallel current density λ concentrated in the COFC then diffuses to the core region so as to reduce the gradient in λ, relaxing in the direction of the Taylor state.
Sub-Alfvenic Non-Ideal MHD Turbulence Simulations with Ambipolar Diffusion: I. Turbulence Statistics
Klein, R I; Li, P S; McKee, C F; Fisher, R
2008-04-10
Most numerical investigations on the role of magnetic fields in turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) are based on ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD). However, MCs are weakly ionized, so that the time scale required for the magnetic field to diffuse through the neutral component of the plasma by ambipolar diffusion (AD) can be comparable to the dynamical time scale. We have performed a series of 256{sup 3} and 512{sup 3} simulations on supersonic but sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems with AD using the Heavy-Ion Approximation developed in Li et al. (2006). Our calculations are based on the assumption that the number of ions is conserved, but we show that these results approximately apply to the case of time-dependent ionization in molecular clouds as well. Convergence studies allow us to determine the optimal value of the ionization mass fraction when using the heavy-ion approximation for low Mach number, sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems. We find that ambipolar diffusion steepens the velocity and magnetic power spectra compared to the ideal MHD case. Changes in the density PDF, total magnetic energy, and ionization fraction are determined as a function of the AD Reynolds number. The power spectra for the neutral gas properties of a strongly magnetized medium with a low AD Reynolds number are similar to those for a weakly magnetized medium; in particular, the power spectrum of the neutral velocity is close to that for Burgers turbulence.
Application of a 3D, Adaptive, Parallel, MHD Code to Supernova Remnant Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kominsky, P.; Drake, R. P.; Powell, K. G.
2001-05-01
We at Michigan have a computational model, BATS-R-US, which incorporates several modern features that make it suitable for calculations of supernova remnant evolution. In particular, it is a three-dimensional MHD model, using a method called the Multiscale Adaptive Upwind Scheme for MagnetoHydroDynamics (MAUS-MHD). It incorporates a data structure that allows for adaptive refinement of the mesh, even in massively parallel calculations. Its advanced Godunov method, a solution-adaptive, upwind, high-resolution scheme, incorporates a new, flux-based approach to the Riemann solver with improved numerical properties. This code has been successfully applied to several problems, including the simulation of comets and of planetary magnetospheres, in the 3D context of the Heliosphere. The code was developed under a NASA computational grand challenge grant to run very rapidly on parallel platforms. It is also now being used to study time-dependent systems such as the transport of particles and energy from solar coronal mass ejections to the Earth. We are in the process of modifying this code so that it can accommodate the very strong shocks present in supernova remnants. Our test case simulates the explosion of a star of 1.4 solar masses with an energy of 1 foe, in a uniform background medium. We have performed runs of 250,000 to 1 million cells on 8 nodes of an Origin 2000. These relatively coarse grids do not allow fine details of instabilities to become visible. Nevertheless, the macroscopic evolution of the shock is simulated well, with the forward and reverse shocks visible in velocity profiles. We will show our work to date. This work was supported by NASA through its GSRP program.
Dayside Proton Aurora: Comparisons between Global MHD Simulations and Image Observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berchem, J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Petrinec, S.; Frey, H. U.; Burch, J. L.
2003-01-01
The IMAGE mission provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of current global models of the solar wind interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. In particular, images of proton auroras from the Far Ultraviolet Instrument (FUV) onboard the IMAGE spacecraft are well suited to support investigations of the response of the Earth's magnetosphere to interplanetary disturbances. Accordingly, we have modeled two events that occurred on June 8 and July 28, 2000, using plasma and magnetic field parameters measured upstream of the bow shock as input to three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. This paper begins with a discussion of images of proton auroras from the FUV SI-12 instrument in comparison with the simulation results. The comparison showed a very good agreement between intensifications in the auroral emissions measured by FUV SI-12 and the enhancement of plasma flows into the dayside ionosphere predicted by the global simulations. Subsequently, the IMAGE observations are analyzed in the context of the dayside magnetosphere's topological changes in magnetic field and plasma flows inferred from the simulation results. Finding include that the global dynamics of the auroral proton precipitation patterns observed by IMAGE are consistent with magnetic field reconnection occurring as a continuous process while the iMF changes in direction and the solar wind dynamic pressure varies. The global simulations also indicate that some of the transient patterns observed by IMAGE are consistent with sporadic reconnection processes. Global merging patterns found in the simulations agree with the antiparallel merging model. though locally component merging might broaden the merging region, especially in the region where shocked solar wind discontinuities first reach the magnetopause. Finally, the simulations predict the accretion of plasma near the bow shock in the regions threaded by newly open field lines on which plasma flows into the dayside ionosphere are enhanced. Overall the results of these initial comparisons between global MHD simulation results and IMAGE observations emphasize the interplay between reconnection and dynamic pressure processes at the dayside magnetopause. as well as the intricate connection between the bow shock and the auroral region.
A Real-time 3D Visualization of Global MHD Simulation for Space Weather Forecasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murata, K.; Matsuoka, D.; Kubo, T.; Shimazu, H.; Tanaka, T.; Fujita, S.; Watari, S.; Miyachi, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Kimura, E.; Ishikura, S.
2006-12-01
Recently, many satellites for communication networks and scientific observation are launched in the vicinity of the Earth (geo-space). The electromagnetic (EM) environments around the spacecraft are always influenced by the solar wind blowing from the Sun and induced electromagnetic fields. They occasionally cause various troubles or damages, such as electrification and interference, to the spacecraft. It is important to forecast the geo-space EM environment as well as the ground weather forecasting. Owing to the recent remarkable progresses of super-computer technologies, numerical simulations have become powerful research methods in the solar-terrestrial physics. For the necessity of space weather forecasting, NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has developed a real-time global MHD simulation system of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere couplings, which has been performed on a super-computer SX-6. The real-time solar wind parameters from the ACE spacecraft at every one minute are adopted as boundary conditions for the simulation. Simulation results (2-D plots) are updated every 1 minute on a NICT website. However, 3D visualization of simulation results is indispensable to forecast space weather more accurately. In the present study, we develop a real-time 3D webcite for the global MHD simulations. The 3-D visualization results of simulation results are updated every 20 minutes in the following three formats: (1)Streamlines of magnetic field lines, (2)Isosurface of temperature in the magnetosphere and (3)Isoline of conductivity and orthogonal plane of potential in the ionosphere. For the present study, we developed a 3-D viewer application working on Internet Explorer browser (ActiveX) is implemented, which was developed on the AVS/Express. Numerical data are saved in the HDF5 format data files every 1 minute. Users can easily search, retrieve and plot past simulation results (3D visualization data and numerical data) by using the STARS (Solar-terrestrial data Analysis and Reference System). The STARS is a data analysis system for satellite and ground-based observation data for solar-terrestrial physics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuznetsova, M. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hesse, M.; Wang, Y.; Rastaetter, L.; Toth, G.; Ridley, A.
2009-01-01
We use the global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code BATS-R-US to model multipoint observations of Flux Transfer Event (FTE) signatures. Simulations with high spatial and temporal resolution predict that cavities of weak magnetic field strength protruding into the magnetosphere trail FTEs. These predictions are consistent with recently reported multi-point Cluster observations of traveling magnetopause erosion regions (TMERs).
FTE Structures and Dynamics from Global MHD Simulations and Cluster Multi-Spacecraft Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Birn, J.; Elphic, R. C.; Raeder, J.; Lavraud, B.; Zhang, X.
2005-12-01
Flux transfer events (FTEs) are patchy, transient reconnection process on the magnetopause, which play an important role for the transfer of mass, momentum, and energy from the solar wind into the Earth's magnetosphere. The structures and dynamics of FTEs carry important information about the effectiveness and influence of such coupling. However, conventional observations with single satellites and simulations with restricted spatial ranges and resolutions have significant limitations for understanding these important properties of FTEs. Recent progress in both FTE observations with multi-spacecraft and FTE simulations with significantly improved global MHD models provides great help to overcome these difficulties and advance our understanding of FTEs. In this study, we use Open-GGCM global FTE simulation results to investigate the patterns of the observed FTE signatures and compare them with the results of earlier simplified FTE models. We found that the simulated FTE observational features are controlled by many factors and they are different from the results from simplified models. Further, we study the typical patterns of Cluster FTEs and compare them with simulation results, from which we find many consistencies. Many of the features of FTE signatures do not fit conventional FTE definitions with Bn bi-polar signature and magnetic field magnitude enhancement. The results of this study provide important information to understand FTE structures and dynamics, and help understand how to make better FTE identifications based on spacecraft near-magnetopause signatures.
Kabashima, S.
1998-07-01
The recent developments of power generation experiments and numerical simulations for closed cycle MHD power generation performed at Tokyo Institute of Technology are explained and discussed. The FUJI-1 experiments realize 18.4% of enthalpy extraction, and the 38.1 and 30.1% of enthalpy extraction are obtained by shock tunnel facility for He/Cs and Ar/Cs working gases, respectively. The author can succeed with the 3-dimensional calculations of two temperature model equation for nonequilibrium plasma in a disk generator. The experimental and numerical results promise a high efficiency MHD power generation system, and a typical system which realizes the total efficiency of 60% is proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonnerup, Bengt U. .; Denton, Richard E.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Swisdak, M.
2013-05-01
We re-examine the basic premises of a single-spacecraft data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2005), for determining the axis orientation and proper frame velocity of quasi two-dimensional, quasi-steady structures of magnetic field and plasma. The method, which is based on Faraday's law, makes use of magnetic and electric field data measured by a single spacecraft traversing the structure, although in many circumstances the convection electric field, - v B, can serve as a proxy for E. It has been used with success for flux ropes observed at the magnetopause but has usually failed to provide acceptable results when applied to real space data from reconnection events as well as to virtual data from numerical MHD simulations of such events. In the present paper, the reasons for these shortcomings are identified, analyzed, and discussed in detail. Certain basic properties of the method are presented in the form of five theorems, the last of which makes use of singular value decomposition to treat the special case where the magnetic variance matrix is non-invertible. These theorems are illustrated using data from analytical models of flux ropes and also from MHD simulations as well as a 2-D kinetic simulation of reconnection. The results make clear that the method requires the presence of a significant, non-removable electric field distribution in the plane transverse to the invariant direction and that it is sensitive to deviations from strict two-dimensionality and strict time stationarity.
The magnetic topology of the plasmoid flux rope in a MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection
Birn, J.; Hesse, M.
1989-01-01
On the basis of a three-dimensional MHD simulation we discuss the magnetic topology of a plasmoid that forms by a localized reconnection process in a magnetotail configuration including a net dawn-dusk magnetic field component B/sub yN/. As a consequence of b/sub yN/ /ne/ 0 the plasmid gets a helical flux rope structure rather than an isolated island or bubble structure. Initially all field lines of the plasmid flux rope remain connected with the Earth, while at later times a gradually increasing amount of flux tubes becomes separated, connecting to either the distant boundary or to the flank boundaries. In this stage topologically different flux tubes become tangled and wrapped around each other, consistent with predictions on the basis of ad-hoc plasmid models. 10 refs., 8 figs.
Modeling CME-shock-driven storms in 2012-2013: MHD test particle simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hudson, M. K.; Paral, J.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M.; Baker, D. N.; Foster, J. C.; Turner, D. L.; Wygant, J. R.
2015-02-01
The Van Allen Probes spacecraft have provided detailed observations of the energetic particles and fields environment for coronal mass ejection (CME)-shock-driven storms in 2012 to 2013 which have now been modeled with MHD test particle simulations. The Van Allen Probes orbital plane longitude moved from the dawn sector in 2012 to near midnight and prenoon for equinoctial storms of 2013, providing particularly good measurements of the inductive electric field response to magnetopause compression for the 8 October 2013 CME-shock-driven storm. An abrupt decrease in the outer boundary of outer zone electrons coincided with inward motion of the magnetopause for both 17 March and 8 October 2013 storms, as was the case for storms shortly after launch. Modeling magnetopause dropout events in 2013 with electric field diagnostics that were not available for storms immediately following launch have improved our understanding of the complex role that ULF waves play in radial transport during such events.
Multi-fluid MHD simulation of the solar wind interaction with Venus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagy, A. F.; Najib, D.; Ma, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Toth, G.
2011-12-01
This paper reports on a new advanced multi-fluid MHD model that has recently been developed for Venus. The model is similar to the numerical model that was successfully applied to Mars (Najib et al., 2011). Mass densities, velocities and pressures of the protons and major ionosphere ion species (O+, O2+ and CO2+) are self-consistently calculated by solving the individual coupled continuity, momentum and energy equations. The various chemical reactions and ion-neutral collision processes are considered in the model. The simulation domain covers the region from 100 km altitude above the surface up to 16 RV in the tail. An adaptive spherical grid structure is constructed with radial resolution of about 10 km in the lower ionosphere. The model is applied to both solar-maximum and solar-minimum conditions and model results are compared in detail with multi-species single fluid model results.
The magnetic topology of the plasmoid flux rope in a MHD-simulation of magnetotail reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birn, J.; Hesse, M.
On the basis of a 3D MHD simulation, the magnetic topology of a plasmoid that forms by a localized reconnection process in a magnetotail configuration (including a net dawn-dusk magnetic field component B sub y N is discussed. As a consequence of B sub y N not equalling 0, the plasmoid assumes a helical flux rope structure rather than an isolated island or bubble structure. Initially all field lines of the plasmoid flux rope remain connected with the earth, while at later times a gradually increasing amount of flux tubes becomes separated, connecting to either the distant boundary or to the flank boundaries. In this stage, topologically different flux tubes become tangled and wrapped around each other, consistent with predictions on the basis of an ad hoc plasmoid model.
The magnetic topology of the plasmoid flux rope in a MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birn, J.; Hesse, M.
On the basis of a three-dimensional MHD simulation we discuss the magnetic topology of a plasmoid that forms by a localized reconnection process in a magnetotail configuration including a net dawn-dusk magnetic field component B sub yN. As a consequence of B sub yN ne 0 the plasmoid gets a helical flux rope structure rather than an isolated island or bubble structure. Initially all field lines of the plasmoid flux rope remain connected with the Earth, while at later times a gradually increasing number of flux tubes becomes separated, connecting to either the distant boundary or to the flank boundaries. In this stage topologically different flux tubes become tangled and wrapped around each other, consistent with predictions on the basis of ad hoc plasmoid models.
The magnetic topology of the plasmoid flux rope in a MHD-simulation of magnetotail reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birn, J.; Hesse, M.
On the basis of a three-dimensional MHD simulation we discuss the magnetic topology of a plasmoid that forms by a localized reconnection process in a magnetotail configuration including a net dawn-dusk magnetic field component ByN. As a consequence of ByN ≠ 0 the plasmoid assumes a helical flux rope structure rather than an isolated island or bubble structure. Initially all field lines of the plasmoid flux rope remain connected with the Earth, while at later times a gradually increasing amount of flux tubes becomes separated, connecting to either the distant boundary or to the flank boundaries. In this stage topologically different flux tubes become tangled and wrapped around each other, consistent with predictions on the basis of an ad-hoc plasmoid model.
MHD Simulations of the Interaction of Small Polarities in Coronal Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lionello, R.; Linker, J. A.; Mikic, Z.; Titov, V. S.
2009-12-01
Coronal holes are extended regions of open magnetic field with densities significantly lower than the typical background corona. Coronal holes rotate quasi-rigidly in contrast to the underlying photosphere whose rotation rate has a strong latitudinal dependence. All proposed explanations of this phenomenon (i.e., that of Wang and Sheeley and that of Fisk and coworkers) require magnetic reconnection to explain coronal hole evolution. However, until recently, observational surveys seeking evidence of such reconnection have been inconclusive. Newer observations made by the Hinode satellite reveal events (jets) throughout coronal holes that are strongly suggestive of reconnection. We have used our MHD model to investigate magnetic reconnection in coronal holes when for small magnetic field polarities of the same sign as they are pushed closer by surface flows. We will discuss the topological aspects of our simulations and the implications for the physics of coronal holes.
Hybrid MHD-Gyrokinetic Simulations of Shear Alfvén Modes in Tokamak Plasmas.