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Sample records for two-dimensional spatial solitons

  1. Incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Ming-Feng; Segev, Mordechai

    1996-10-01

    We report the observation of incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright photorefractive screening solitons. The solitons remain intact and do not exchange energy whenever the collision angle exceeds the critical angle for guidance in the waveguide that each soliton induces, which is, in turn, fully controlled by the soliton parameters. When the collision angle is much smaller than the critical angle the solitons fuse to form a single beam.

  2. Solitons and vortices in two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrdinger systems with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A. R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.

    2015-04-07

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual extended unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, with the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). As a result, typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations.

  3. Symmetry breaking of solitons in two-dimensional complex potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianke

    2015-02-01

    Symmetry breaking is reported for continuous families of solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a two-dimensional complex potential. This symmetry breaking is forbidden in generic complex potentials. However, for a special class of partially parity-time-symmetric potentials, it is allowed. At the bifurcation point, two branches of asymmetric solitons bifurcate out from the base branch of symmetry-unbroken solitons. Stability of these solitons near the bifurcation point are also studied, and two novel properties for the bifurcated asymmetric solitons are revealed. One is that at the bifurcation point, zero and simple imaginary linear-stability eigenvalues of asymmetric solitons can move directly into the complex plane and create oscillatory instability. The other is that the two bifurcated asymmetric solitons, even though having identical powers and being related to each other by spatial mirror reflection, can possess different types of unstable eigenvalues and thus exhibit nonreciprocal nonlinear evolutions under random-noise perturbations.

  4. Solitons and vortices in two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrödinger systems with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A. R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.

    2015-04-07

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual “extended” unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, withmore » the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). As a result, typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations.« less

  5. Solitons and vortices in two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrödinger systems with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A. R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.

    2015-04-07

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual “extended” unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, with the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). As a result, typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations.

  6. Observation of two-dimensional nonlocal gap solitons.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Bennet, Francis H; Neshev, Dragomir N; Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Rosberg, Christian R; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, the existence of nonlocal gap solitons in two-dimensional periodic photonic structures with defocusing thermal nonlinearity. We employ liquid-infiltrated photonic crystal fibers and show how the system geometry can modify the effective response of a nonlocal medium and the properties of two-dimensional gap solitons. PMID:19183636

  7. Quantum fluctuations of one- and two-dimensional spatial dissipative solitons in a nonlinear interferometer: I. One-dimensional dark solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterov, L. A.; Veretenov, N. A.; Rosanov, N. N.

    2015-05-01

    Quantum fluctuations of one-dimensional dark dissipative solitons sustained by an external radiation in an interferometer with a Kerr nonlinearity are analyzed theoretically. The stability region of classical solitons in this interferometer is studied. The boundaries of this region are determined, and types of excited solitons are classified. Quantum fluctuations of solitons are analyzed in an approximation linear in fluctuations. This problem was solved by linearizing the quantum Langevin equation in a neighborhood of a classical solution for the main type of a soliton from the obtained stability region. The main attention has been paid to studying quantum fluctuations of collective variables of dissipative solitons, namely, the coordinate of the center and momentum of the soliton. Based on the expansion of solutions of the linearized equation in eigenfunctions of the discrete spectrum of this equation, a solution describing quantum fluctuations of these variables is constructed. Using this expansion scheme made it possible to give a rigorous definition of the dissipative soliton position fluctuation operator. The study performed based on this scheme has made it also possible to construct a solution for a one-dimensional dark relaxing dissipative soliton. This soliton generalizes the stationary soliton with allowance for the shift of its center and deformation of its profile followed by the recovery of its initial shape. Average squares of quantum fluctuations of collective variables are calculated. A domain of parameters in which there exist quantum states of solitons with an initially high degree of squeezing with respect to the momentum is found. It is shown that such states are in correspondence with significantly higher velocities of soliton center drift. An experiment that could detect the relative squeezing with respect to the momentum due to the soliton center drift is discussed.

  8. Exciton-polariton gap solitons in two-dimensional lattices.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Mndez, E A; Sarkar, D; Krizhanovskii, D N; Gavrilov, S S; Biermann, K; Skolnick, M S; Santos, P V

    2013-10-01

    We report on the two-dimensional gap-soliton nature of exciton-polariton macroscopic coherent phases (PMCP) in a square lattice with a tunable amplitude. The resonantly excited PMCP forms close to the negative mass M point of the lattice band structure with energy within the lattice band gap and its wave function localized within a few lattice periods. The PMCPs are well described as gap solitons resulting from the interplay between repulsive polariton-polariton interactions and effective attractive forces due to the negative mass. The solitonic nature accounts for the reduction of the PMCP coherence length and optical excitation threshold with increasing lattice amplitude. PMID:24138259

  9. Finite energy solitons in highly anisotropic two dimensional ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Merkulov, A. Yu.; Stephanovich, V. A.; Zaspel, C. E.

    2006-12-01

    We study the solitons, both topological and nontopological, stabilized by spin precession in a classical two-dimensional lattice model of Heisenberg ferromagnets (FM) with easy-axial anisotropy. These solitons can be regarded as bound states of large number N of magnons, their properties are treated both analytically using a continuous model and numerically for a discrete set of the spins on a square lattice. Both exchange anisotropy with constant κ and single-ion anisotropy with constant K are taken into account. In continuum approximation, both terms give additive contributions to the effective anisotropy constant Keff=K+2κ . Beyond this approximation, the properties of solitons depend on the microscopic origin of anisotropy. Solitons can be conveniently classified in the (Keff,N) plane. We have shown that the stable solitons exist for N higher than some critical value Ncr . At N>Ncr and for Keff<0.3J , J is exchange constant, the solitons in FM with any type of anisotropy could be described fairly well by continuum model. The continuum description fails at Keff⩾(0.3˜0.4)J for exchange anisotropy, but still valid for FM’s with a single-ion anisotropy up to Keff˜0.6J . For higher values of anisotropy, the continuous approach is no more valid and the above discrete model should be used. For Keff>0.6J , in the entire range of N values, we found some fundamentally new soliton features absent in continuum models. Namely, the soliton energy E(N) becomes non-monotonic with the minima at some “magic numbers” of N . In this case, the soliton frequency ω(N)=dE(N)/dN have quite irregular behavior, with step-like jumps and negative values of ω for some N regions. In these regions, the static soliton textures, stabilized by the lattice effects, are present.

  10. Dissipative vortex solitons in two-dimensional lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Mejia-Cortes, C.; Soto-Crespo, J. M.; Molina, Mario I.; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.

    2010-12-15

    We report the existence of stable symmetric vortex-type solutions for two-dimensional nonlinear discrete dissipative systems governed by a cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. We construct a whole family of vortex solitons with a topological charge S=1. Surprisingly, the dynamical evolution of unstable solutions of this family does not significantly alter their profile, but instead their phase distribution completely changes; they transform into two-charge swirl-vortex solitons. We dynamically excite this structure showing its experimental feasibility.

  11. Soliton nanoantennas in two-dimensional arrays of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Gligorić, G; Maluckov, A; Hadžievski, Lj; Slepyan, G Ya; Malomed, B A

    2015-06-10

    We consider two-dimensional (2D) arrays of self-organized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) strongly interacting with electromagnetic field in the regime of Rabi oscillations. The QD array built of two-level states is modelled by two coupled systems of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Localized modes in the form of single-peaked fundamental and vortical stationary Rabi solitons and self-trapped breathers have been found. The results for the stability, mobility and radiative properties of the Rabi modes suggest a concept of a self-assembled 2D soliton-based nano-antenna, which is stable against imperfections In particular, we discuss the implementation of such a nano-antenna in the form of surface plasmon solitons in graphene, and illustrate possibilities to control their operation by means of optical tools. PMID:25985396

  12. Soliton nanoantennas in two-dimensional arrays of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligorić, G.; Maluckov, A.; Hadžievski, Lj; Slepyan, G. Ya; Malomed, B. A.

    2015-06-01

    We consider two-dimensional (2D) arrays of self-organized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) strongly interacting with electromagnetic field in the regime of Rabi oscillations. The QD array built of two-level states is modelled by two coupled systems of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Localized modes in the form of single-peaked fundamental and vortical stationary Rabi solitons and self-trapped breathers have been found. The results for the stability, mobility and radiative properties of the Rabi modes suggest a concept of a self-assembled 2D soliton-based nano-antenna, which is stable against imperfections In particular, we discuss the implementation of such a nano-antenna in the form of surface plasmon solitons in graphene, and illustrate possibilities to control their operation by means of optical tools.

  13. Two-dimensional solitons in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates with spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xunda; Fan, Zhiwei; Chen, Zhaopin; Pang, Wei; Li, Yongyao; Malomed, Boris A.

    2016-02-01

    We report families of two-dimensional (2D) composite solitons in spinor dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, with two localized components linearly mixed by the spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and the intrinsic nonlinearity represented by the dipole-dipole interaction (DDI) between atomic magnetic moments polarized in plane by an external magnetic field. Recently, stable solitons were predicted in the form of semivortices (composites built of coupled fundamental and vortical components) in the 2D system combining the SOC and contact attractive interactions. Replacing the latter by the anisotropic long-range DDI, we demonstrate that, for a fixed norm of the soliton, the system supports a continuous family of stable spatially asymmetric vortex solitons (AVSs), parameterized by an offset of the pivot of the vortical component relative to its fundamental counterpart. The offset is limited by a certain maximum value, while the energy of the AVS practically does not depend on the offset. At small values of the norm, the vortex solitons are subject to a weak oscillatory instability. In the present system, with the Galilean invariance broken by the SOC, the composite solitons are set in motion by a kick the strength of which exceeds a certain depinning value. The kicked solitons feature a negative effective mass, drifting along a spiral trajectory opposite to the direction of the kick. A critical angular velocity, up to which the semivortices may follow rotation of the polarizing magnetic field, is found too.

  14. Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Luz, H. L. F. da; Gammal, A.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro

    2010-10-15

    The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.

  15. Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Luz, H. L. F.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Gammal, A.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro

    2010-10-01

    The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.

  16. Two-dimensional loosely and tightly bound solitons in optical lattices and inverted traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, H.; Malomed, B. A.

    2004-06-01

    We study the dynamics of nonlinear localized excitations ('solitons') in two-dimensional (2D) Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with repulsive interactions, loaded into an optical lattice (OL), which is combined with an external parabolic potential. First, we demonstrate analytically that a broad ('loosely bound', LB) soliton state, based on a 2D Bloch function near the edge of the Brillouin zone (BZ), has a negative effective mass (while the mass of a localized state is positive near the BZ centre). The negative-mass soliton cannot be held by the usual trap, but it is safely confined by an inverted parabolic potential (anti-trap). Direct simulations demonstrate that the LB solitons (including those with intrinsic vorticity) are stable and can freely move on top of the OL. The frequency of the elliptic motion of the LB-soliton's centre in the anti-trapping potential is very close to the analytical prediction which treats the solition as a quasi-particle. In addition, the LB soliton of the vortex type features real rotation around its centre. We also find an abrupt transition, which occurs with the increase of the number of atoms, from the negative-mass LB states to tightly bound (TB) solitons. An estimate demonstrates that for the zero-vorticity states, the transition occurs when the number of atoms attains a critical number Ncr ~ 103, while for the vortex the transition takes place at Ncr ~ 5 × 103 atoms. The positive-mass LB states constructed near the BZ centre (including vortices) can also move freely. The effects predicted for BECs also apply to optical spatial solitons in bulk photonic crystals.

  17. OPTICAL SOLITONS: Excitation of two-dimensional soliton matrices by fundamental Gaussian beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovkova, O. V.; Chuprakov, D. A.; Sukhorukov, Anatolii P.

    2005-01-01

    The excitation of two-dimensional periodic structures of fields of the first and second radiation harmonics due to the modulation instability of fundamental Gaussian beams is studied in a medium with a quadratic nonlinearity. The distances are found at which soliton matrix structures with a specified period are formed and destroyed. Optical gratings formed due to nonlinear aberration of broad Gaussian beams are considered.

  18. Quasi two-dimensional astigmatic solitons in soft chiral metastructures.

    PubMed

    Laudyn, Urszula A; Jung, Paweł S; Karpierz, Mirosław A; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a non-homogeneous layered structure encompassing dual spatial dispersion: continuous diffraction in one transverse dimension and discrete diffraction in the orthogonal one. Such dual diffraction can be balanced out by one and the same nonlinear response, giving rise to light self-confinement into astigmatic spatial solitons: self-focusing can compensate for the spreading of a bell-shaped beam, leading to quasi-2D solitary wavepackets which result from 1D transverse self-localization combined with a discrete soliton. We demonstrate such intensity-dependent beam trapping in chiral soft matter, exhibiting one-dimensional discrete diffraction along the helical axis and one-dimensional continuous diffraction in the orthogonal plane. In nematic liquid crystals with suitable birefringence and chiral arrangement, the reorientational nonlinearity is shown to support bell-shaped solitary waves with simple astigmatism dependent on the medium birefringence as well as on the dual diffraction of the input wavepacket. The observations are in agreement with a nonlinear nonlocal model for the all-optical response. PMID:26975651

  19. Quasi two-dimensional astigmatic solitons in soft chiral metastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudyn, Urszula A.; Jung, Paweł S.; Karpierz, Mirosław A.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-03-01

    We investigate a non-homogeneous layered structure encompassing dual spatial dispersion: continuous diffraction in one transverse dimension and discrete diffraction in the orthogonal one. Such dual diffraction can be balanced out by one and the same nonlinear response, giving rise to light self-confinement into astigmatic spatial solitons: self-focusing can compensate for the spreading of a bell-shaped beam, leading to quasi-2D solitary wavepackets which result from 1D transverse self-localization combined with a discrete soliton. We demonstrate such intensity-dependent beam trapping in chiral soft matter, exhibiting one-dimensional discrete diffraction along the helical axis and one-dimensional continuous diffraction in the orthogonal plane. In nematic liquid crystals with suitable birefringence and chiral arrangement, the reorientational nonlinearity is shown to support bell-shaped solitary waves with simple astigmatism dependent on the medium birefringence as well as on the dual diffraction of the input wavepacket. The observations are in agreement with a nonlinear nonlocal model for the all-optical response.

  20. Quasi two-dimensional astigmatic solitons in soft chiral metastructures

    PubMed Central

    Laudyn, Urszula A.; Jung, Paweł S.; Karpierz, Mirosław A.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a non-homogeneous layered structure encompassing dual spatial dispersion: continuous diffraction in one transverse dimension and discrete diffraction in the orthogonal one. Such dual diffraction can be balanced out by one and the same nonlinear response, giving rise to light self-confinement into astigmatic spatial solitons: self-focusing can compensate for the spreading of a bell-shaped beam, leading to quasi-2D solitary wavepackets which result from 1D transverse self-localization combined with a discrete soliton. We demonstrate such intensity-dependent beam trapping in chiral soft matter, exhibiting one-dimensional discrete diffraction along the helical axis and one-dimensional continuous diffraction in the orthogonal plane. In nematic liquid crystals with suitable birefringence and chiral arrangement, the reorientational nonlinearity is shown to support bell-shaped solitary waves with simple astigmatism dependent on the medium birefringence as well as on the dual diffraction of the input wavepacket. The observations are in agreement with a nonlinear nonlocal model for the all-optical response. PMID:26975651

  1. Two-dimensional multipole solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media.

    PubMed

    Rotschild, Carmel; Segev, Mordechai; Xu, Zhiyong; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis; Cohen, Oren

    2006-11-15

    We present the experimental observation of scalar multipole solitons in highly nonlocal nonlinear media, including dipole, tripole, quadrupole, and necklace-type solitons, organized as arrays of out-of-phase bright spots. These complex solitons are metastable, but with a large parameters range where the instability is weak, permitting their experimental observation. PMID:17072407

  2. Manakov spatial solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J. U.; Stegeman, G. I.; Aitchison, J. S.; Akhmediev, N.

    1996-12-01

    The Manakov soliton is a two-component soliton that was first considered by Manakov in the early 1970s.1 Based on the work of Zakharov and Shabat,2 Manakov found that the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger (CNSE) equations with special choice of the coefficients in front of nonlinear terms can be solved exactly. This system is integrable and solitons have therefore a number of special properties which might be useful in practice. In particular, for same total power, the soliton of a single nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Manakov soliton behave similarly. There are certain conditions for the integrability of the CNSE. Namely, for the coupled set of equations with cubic nonlinearity, the ratio between the self-phase modulation (SPM) to the cross-phase modulation coefficients has to be equal to unity, and the SPM coefficients need to be equal for the two polarizations. Moreover, the energy exchange terms or four-wave mixing (FWM) terms must be zero. Physically, the Manakov soliton is a mutually trapped state of two orthogonally polarized beams where each component of the soliton experiences exactly the same index potential which is proportional to the total intensity of the beam. There are no crystal symmetries that a priori lead to a SPM/XPM ratio of unity. Thus, the Manakov soliton has not been observed experimentally prior to the work we reported.3 Based on our previous work, we found that in AlGaAs, for photon energies just below half the band gap, the conditions for integrability can be satisfied. This led to the first experimental observation of spatial Manakov solitons.

  3. Two-dimensional skyrmions and other solitonic structures in confinement-frustrated chiral nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, Paul J.; Trivedi, Rahul P.; Senyuk, Bohdan; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2014-07-01

    We explore spatially localized solitonic configurations of a director field, generated using optical realignment and laser-induced heating, in frustrated chiral nematic liquid crystals confined between substrates with perpendicular surface anchoring. We demonstrate that, in addition to recently studied torons and Hopf-fibration solitonic structures (hopfions), one can generate a host of other axially symmetric stable and metastable director field configurations where local twist is matched to the surface boundary conditions through introduction of point defects and loops of singular and nonsingular disclinations. The experimentally demonstrated structures include the so-called "baby-skyrmions" in the form of double twist cylinders oriented perpendicular to the confining substrates where their double twist field configuration is matched to the perpendicular boundary conditions by loops of twist disclinations. We also generate complex textures with arbitrarily large skyrmion numbers. A simple back-of-the-envelope theoretical analysis based on free energy considerations and the nonpolar nature of chiral nematics provides insights into the long-term stability and diversity of these inter-related solitonic field configurations, including different types of torons, cholestric-finger loops, two-dimensional skyrmions, and more complex structures comprised of torons, hopfions, and various disclination loops that are experimentally observed in a confinement-frustrated chiral nematic system.

  4. The asymmetric solitons in two-dimensional parity-time-symmetric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibo; Hu, Sumei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties in two-dimensional (2D) special parity-time (PT) symmetric complex potentials. The linear case of this special 2D PT-symmetric complex potential and self-focusing nonlinear cases are discussed. For linear case, the eigenvalues and eigenfunction for different loss or gain level of the PT-symmetric complex potentials are obtained numerically. For nonlinear cases, the existence of asymmetric solitons and PT-symmetric solitons is studied in this PT symmetric system. The eigenvalue for linear case is equal to the critical propagation constant bc of existing PT-symmetric solitons. When the PT-symmetric soliton's propagation constant reaches a certain threshold bc1, a branch of asymmetric solitons can bifurcate out from the branch of PT-symmetric solitons.

  5. Photorefractive polymeric optical spatial solitons.

    PubMed

    Shih, M F; Sheu, F W

    1999-12-15

    We predict the formation of optical spatial solitons in photorefractive polymers. The orientational enhancement from the doped chromophores and the dependency of the quantum efficiency of generating mobile holes on the electric field make the polymeric solitons behave differently from other photorefractive solitons. PMID:18079953

  6. Collapse suppression and stabilization of dipole solitons in two-dimensional media with anisotropic semilocal nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Fangwei; He Yingji; Malomed, Boris A.; Hu Bambi

    2010-04-15

    We consider the impact of anisotropic nonlocality on the arrest of the collapse and stabilization of dipole-mode (DM) solitons in two-dimensional (2D) models of optical media with the diffusive nonlinearity. The nonlocal nonlinearity is made anisotropic through elliptic diffusivity. The medium becomes semilocal in the limit case of 1D diffusivity. Families of fundamental and DM solitons are found by means of the variational approximation and in a numerical form. We demonstrate that the collapse of 2D beams is arrested even in the semilocal system. The anisotropic nonlocality readily stabilizes the DM solitons, which are completely unstable in the isotropic medium.

  7. Multihump solitons in two-dimensional parity-time-symmetric optical lattices with focusing saturable nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xing; Li, Huagang

    2016-01-01

    We study the existence and stability of multihump solitons in two-dimensional (2D) parity-time (PT)-symmetric periodic potentials with focusing saturable nonlinearity. All the humps of these solitons are in consecutive lattice sites and the adjacent two humps are out-of-phase. These multihump solitons exist in finite regions in the semi-infinite gap and cannot bifurcate from the edge of the first Bloch band. They can be stable in the moderate power region. It is found that the saturation parameter will affect the existence and stability of these multihump gap solitons significantly. The transverse power flow vector in these 2D multihump solitons in focusing saturable media is also investigated.

  8. Spatial Solitons in Algaas Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin Ung

    In this work, by measuring the two-, three-photon absorption, and the nonlinear refractive index coefficients, a useful bandwidth for an all-optical switching applications in the AlGaAs below half the band gap is identified. Operating in this material system, several types of spatial solitons such as fundamental bright solitons, Vector solitons, and Manakov solitons are experimentally demonstrated. The propagation and the interaction behaviors of these solitons are studied experimentally and numerically. The distinct properties of each soliton are discussed along with some possible applications. Some applications, such as all -optical switching based on spatial soliton dragging and the efficient guiding of orthogonally polarized femtosecond pulses by a bright spatial soliton, are experimentally demonstrated. The signal gain due to an ultrafast polarization coupling, better known as Four Wave Mixing (FWM) is demonstrated in a channel waveguide. The effects of FWM are studied experimentally and numerically. This effect is also used to demonstrate polarization switching. The linear and nonlinear properties of AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well waveguides are measured. Anisotropic two photon absorption and nonlinear refractive indices near half the band gap are measured along with the linear birefringence for several different quantum well structures. The usefulness of multiple quantum well structures for an all -optical switching because of anisotropic nature of this material system is discussed.

  9. Phase controlling of collisions between solitons in the two-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation without viscosity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; He, Xing-Dao; Li, Shu-Jing

    2011-11-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the outcome of soliton collisions upon variation of the relative phase φ of the solitons, in the two-dimensional cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in the absence of viscosity. Three generic outcomes are identified: merger of the solitons into a single one, creation of an extra soliton, and quasielastic interaction. The velocities of the merger soliton and the extra soliton can be effectively controlled by φ. In addition, the range of the outcome of creating an extra soliton decreases to zero with the reduction of gain or the increasing of loss. The above features have potential applications in optical switching and logic gates based on interaction of optical solitons. PMID:22181536

  10. Characteristic analysis for integrable soliton models on two-dimensional target spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulart, E.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the evolutionary aspects of some integrable soliton models whose Lagrangians are derived from the pullback of a volume-form to a two-dimensional target space. These models are known to have infinitely many conserved quantities and support various types of exact analytic solutions with nontrivial topology. In particular, we show that, in spite of the fact that they admit nice smooth solutions, wave propagation about these solutions will always be ill-posed. This is related to the fact that the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are not of hyperbolic type.

  11. Two-dimensional linear modes and solitons in parity-time symmetry bessel complex-valued potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibo; Hu, Sumei

    2015-11-01

    We study the optical properties of two-dimensional linear modes and solitons in parity-time (PT) symmetry Bessel complex-valued potential. The PT-breaking points, the eigenvalues and eigenfunction for different modulated depths of two-dimensional PT symmetry Bessel complex potential are obtained numerically. The PT-breaking points increase linearly with increasing the real part of the modulated depths of PT potential. The existence of fundamental and dipole solitons are studied in self-focusing and self-defocusing media. The eigenvalue for linear case is equal to the critical propagation constant bc of the existing soliton. The fundamental solitons are stable in both the self-focusing and self-defocusing media, and the dipole solitons are stable in the self-defocusing media but unstable in the self-focusing media.

  12. Dipolar matter-wave solitons in two-dimensional anisotropic discrete lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaiyu; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Shi, Yuhan; Pang, Wei; Li, Yongyao

    2016-05-01

    We numerically demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave solitons in the disk-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in strongly anisotropic optical lattices (OLs) in a disk's plane. The considered OLs are square lattices which can be formed by interfering two pairs of plane waves with different intensities. The hopping rates of the condensates between two adjacent lattices in the orthogonal directions are different, which gives rise to a linearly anisotropic system. We find that when the polarized orientation of the dipoles is parallel to disk's plane with the same direction, the combined effects of the linearly anisotropy and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy strongly influence the formations, as well as the dynamics of the lattice solitons. Particularly, the isotropy-pattern solitons (IPSs) are found when these combined effects reach a balance. Motion, collision, and rotation of the IPSs are also studied in detail by means of systematic simulations. We further find that these IPSs can move freely in the 2D anisotropic discrete system, hence giving rise to an anisotropic effective mass. Four types of collisions between the IPSs are identified. By rotating an external magnetic field up to a critical angular velocity, the IPSs can still remain localized and play as a breather. Finally, the influences from the combined effects between the linear and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy with consideration of the contact and/or local nonlinearity are discussed too.

  13. Stable spatial and spatiotemporal optical soliton in the core of an optical vortex.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, S K

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate a robust, stable, mobile, two-dimensional (2D) spatial and three-dimensional (3D) spatiotemporal optical soliton in the core of an optical vortex, while all nonlinearities are of the cubic (Kerr) type. The 3D soliton can propagate with a constant velocity along the vortex core without any deformation. Stability of the soliton under a small perturbation is established numerically. Two such solitons moving along the vortex core can undergo a quasielastic collision at medium velocities. Possibilities of forming such a 2D spatial soliton in the core of a vortical beam are discussed. PMID:26565323

  14. Stable spatial and spatiotemporal optical soliton in the core of an optical vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S. K.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate a robust, stable, mobile, two-dimensional (2D) spatial and three-dimensional (3D) spatiotemporal optical soliton in the core of an optical vortex, while all nonlinearities are of the cubic (Kerr) type. The 3D soliton can propagate with a constant velocity along the vortex core without any deformation. Stability of the soliton under a small perturbation is established numerically. Two such solitons moving along the vortex core can undergo a quasielastic collision at medium velocities. Possibilities of forming such a 2D spatial soliton in the core of a vortical beam are discussed.

  15. Stable and mobile two-dimensional dipolar ring-dark-in-bright Bose-Einstein condensate soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate robust, stable, mobile two-dimensional (2D) dipolar ring-dark-in-bright (RDB) Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons for repulsive contact interaction, subject to a harmonic trap along the y direction perpendicular to the polarisation direction z. Such a RDB soliton has a ring-shaped notch (zero in density) imprinted on a 2D bright soliton free to move in the x  -  z plane. At medium velocity the head-on collision of two such solitons is found to be quasi-elastic with practically no deformation. The possibility of creating the RDB soliton by phase imprinting is demonstrated. The findings are illustrated using numerical simulation employing realistic interaction parameters in a dipolar 164Dy BEC.

  16. Spatial solitons in periodic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbach, A. V.; Skryabin, D. V.

    2009-05-15

    We present the first-principles theory of the existence and stability of TE and TM spatial solitons in a subwavelength periodic semiconductor-dielectric structure. We have found that for the wavelength of 1550 nm and the interface separation close to and less than 100 nm the band structure of the linear TE and TM waves becomes similar to the band structure of a homogeneous medium. The properties of TE solitons change accordingly. However, the transverse profiles of the TM solitons continue to reflect the subwavelength geometry of the structure and develop dominant intensity peaks inside the low-index dielectric slots. Our stability analysis based on the linearized Maxwell equations indicates that the nonlinear TM waves can be approximated as the evanescently coupled modes of the slot waveguides with the low-index dielectric core and the high-index semiconductor cladding. Transition to the regime where the slot waveguides start to determine properties of TM waves is associated with the so-called Brewster condition.

  17. Luminescence-induced photorefractive spatial solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, E.; Alonzo, M.; Devaux, F.; Toncelli, A.; Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Sada, C.; Chauvet, M.

    2010-03-01

    We report the observation of spatial confinement of a pump beam into a photorefractive solitonic channel induced by luminescence [luminescence induced spatial soliton (LISS)]. Trapped beams have been obtained in erbium doped lithium niobate crystals at concentrations as high as 0.7 mol % of erbium. By pumping at 980 nm, erbium ions emit photons at 550 nm by two-step absorption, wavelength which can be absorbed by lithium niobate and originates the photorefractive effect. The luminescence at 550 nm generates at the same time the solitonic channel and the background illumination reaching a steady-state soliton regime.

  18. Two-dimensional solitons in conservative and parity-time-symmetric triple-core waveguides with cubic-quintic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Feijoo, David; Zezyulin, Dmitry A; Konotop, Vladimir V

    2015-12-01

    We analyze a system of three two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equations coupled by linear terms and with the cubic-quintic (focusing-defocusing) nonlinearity. We consider two versions of the model: conservative and parity-time (PT) symmetric. These models describe triple-core nonlinear optical waveguides, with balanced gain and losses in the PT-symmetric case. We obtain families of soliton solutions and discuss their stability. The latter study is performed using a linear stability analysis and checked with direct numerical simulations of the evolutional system of equations. Stable solitons are found in the conservative and PT-symmetric cases. Interactions and collisions between the conservative and PT-symmetric solitons are briefly investigated, as well. PMID:26764776

  19. Two-dimensional solitons in conservative and parity-time-symmetric triple-core waveguides with cubic-quintic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feijoo, David; Zezyulin, Dmitry A.; Konotop, Vladimir V.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze a system of three two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equations coupled by linear terms and with the cubic-quintic (focusing-defocusing) nonlinearity. We consider two versions of the model: conservative and parity-time (PT ) symmetric. These models describe triple-core nonlinear optical waveguides, with balanced gain and losses in the PT -symmetric case. We obtain families of soliton solutions and discuss their stability. The latter study is performed using a linear stability analysis and checked with direct numerical simulations of the evolutional system of equations. Stable solitons are found in the conservative and PT -symmetric cases. Interactions and collisions between the conservative and PT -symmetric solitons are briefly investigated, as well.

  20. Quasilongitudinal soliton in a two-dimensional strongly coupled complex dusty plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Samiran

    2014-09-01

    The propagation of a nonlinear low-frequency mode in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer hexagonal dusty plasma crystal in presence of external magnetic field and dust-neutral collision is investigated. The standard perturbative approach leads to a 2D Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton for the well-known dust-lattice mode. However, the Coriolis force due to crystal rotation and Lorentz force due to magnetic field on dust particles introduce a linear forcing term, whereas dust-neutral drag introduce the usual damping term in the 2D KdV equation. This new nonlinear equation is solved both analytically and numerically to show the competition between the linear forcing and damping in the formation of quasilongitudinal soliton in a 2D strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma. Numerical simulation on the basis of the typical experimental plasma parameters and the analytical solution reveal that the neutral drag force is responsible for the usual exponential decay of the soliton, whereas Coriolis and/or Lorentz force is responsible for the algebraic decay as well as the oscillating tail formation of the soliton. The results are discussed in the context of the plasma crystal experiment. PMID:25314548

  1. Direct time integration of Maxwell's equations in two-dimensional dielectric waveguides for propagation and scattering of femtosecond electromagnetic solitons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Rose M.; Goorjian, Peter M.; Taflove, Allen

    1993-01-01

    We present what are to our knowledge first-time calculations from vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations of femtosecond soliton propagation and scattering, including carrier waves, in two-dimensional dielectric waveguides. The time integration efficiently implements linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization, and the nonlinear convolution accounts for two quantum effects, the Kerr and Raman interactions. By retaining the optical carrier, the new method solves for fundamental quantities - optical electric and magnetic fields in space and time - rather than a nonphysical envelope function. It has the potential to provide an unprecedented two- and three-dimensional modeling capability for millimeter-scale integrated-optical circuits with submicrometer engineered inhomogeneities.

  2. Spatial Kerr soliton collisions at arbitrary angles.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Posada, P; McDonald, G S

    2006-09-01

    The theory of spatial Kerr solitons is extended to colliding beams that are neither almost-exactly copropagating nor almost-exactly counterpropagating. Our new Helmholtz formalism yields results that are consistent with the inherent symmetry of the collision process and that are not predicted by existing paraxial descriptions. Full numerical and approximate analytical results are presented. These show excellent agreement. In particular, Kerr solitons are found to be remarkably robust under nonparaxial collisions. PMID:17025766

  3. Stability of two-dimensional gap solitons in periodic potentials: Beyond the fundamental modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, Nir; Malomed, Boris A.

    2013-06-01

    Gross-Pitaevskii or nonlinear-Schrödinger equations with a sinusoidal potential is commonly used to describe nonlinear periodic media, such as photonic lattices in optics and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) loaded into optical lattices (OLs). Previous studies have shown that the 2D version of this equation, with the self-focusing (SF) nonlinearity, supports stable solitons in the semi-infinite gap. It is known, too, that under both the self-defocusing (SDF) and SF nonlinearities, several families of gap solitons (GSs) exist in finite bandgaps. Here, we investigate the stability of 2D dipole-mode GS families, via the computation of their linear-stability eigenvalues and direct simulations of the perturbed evolution. We demonstrate that, under the SF nonlinearity, one species of dipole GSs is stable in a part of the first finite bandgap, provided that the OL depth exceeds a threshold value, while other dipole and multipole modes are unstable in that case. Bidipole bound states (vertical, horizontal, and diagonal), as well as square- and rhombic-shaped vortices and quadrupoles, built of stable fundamental dipoles, are stable too. Under the SDF nonlinearity, the family of dipole solitons is shown to be stable in a part of the second finite bandgap. Transformations of unstable dipole GSs are studied by means of direct simulations. Direct simulations are also performed to investigate the stability of other GS families, in the first and second bandgaps, under both types of the nonlinearity. In particular, “tripole” solitons, sustained in the second bandgap under the action of the SF nonlinearity, demonstrate stable behavior in the course of long propagation, in a certain region within the bandgap.

  4. Stability of two-dimensional gap solitons in periodic potentials: beyond the fundamental modes.

    PubMed

    Dror, Nir; Malomed, Boris A

    2013-06-01

    Gross-Pitaevskii or nonlinear-Schrödinger equations with a sinusoidal potential is commonly used to describe nonlinear periodic media, such as photonic lattices in optics and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) loaded into optical lattices (OLs). Previous studies have shown that the 2D version of this equation, with the self-focusing (SF) nonlinearity, supports stable solitons in the semi-infinite gap. It is known, too, that under both the self-defocusing (SDF) and SF nonlinearities, several families of gap solitons (GSs) exist in finite bandgaps. Here, we investigate the stability of 2D dipole-mode GS families, via the computation of their linear-stability eigenvalues and direct simulations of the perturbed evolution. We demonstrate that, under the SF nonlinearity, one species of dipole GSs is stable in a part of the first finite bandgap, provided that the OL depth exceeds a threshold value, while other dipole and multipole modes are unstable in that case. Bidipole bound states (vertical, horizontal, and diagonal), as well as square- and rhombic-shaped vortices and quadrupoles, built of stable fundamental dipoles, are stable too. Under the SDF nonlinearity, the family of dipole solitons is shown to be stable in a part of the second finite bandgap. Transformations of unstable dipole GSs are studied by means of direct simulations. Direct simulations are also performed to investigate the stability of other GS families, in the first and second bandgaps, under both types of the nonlinearity. In particular, "tripole" solitons, sustained in the second bandgap under the action of the SF nonlinearity, demonstrate stable behavior in the course of long propagation, in a certain region within the bandgap. PMID:23848798

  5. Resonant indirect exchange via spatially separated two-dimensional channel

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhansky, I. V.; Krainov, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Aronzon, B. A.; Davydov, A. B.; Kugel, K. I.; Tripathi, V.; Lähderanta, E.

    2015-06-22

    We apply the resonant indirect exchange interaction theory to explain the ferromagnetic properties of the hybrid heterostructure consisting of a InGaAs-based quantum well (QW) sandwiched between GaAs barriers with spatially separated Mn δ-layer. The experimentally obtained dependence of the Curie temperature on the QW depth exhibits a peak related to the region of resonant indirect exchange. We suggest the theoretical explanation and a fit to this dependence as a result of the two contributions to ferromagnetism—the intralayer contribution and the resonant exchange contribution provided by the QW.

  6. Two-dimensional s-polarized solitary waves in plasmas. II. Stability, collisions, electromagnetic bursts, and post-soliton evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Arriaga, G.; Lefebvre, E.

    2011-09-15

    The dynamics of two-dimensional s-polarized solitary waves is investigated with the aid of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Instead of the usual excitation of the waves with a laser pulse, the PIC code was directly initialized with the numerical solutions from the fluid plasma model. This technique allows the analysis of different scenarios including the theoretical problems of the solitary wave stability and their collision as well as features already measured during laser-plasma experiments such as the emission of electromagnetic bursts when the waves reach the plasma-vacuum interface, or their expansion on the ion time scale, usually named post-soliton evolution. Waves with a single density depression are stable whereas multihump solutions decay to several waves. Contrary to solitons, two waves always interact through a force that depends on their relative phases, their amplitudes, and the distance between them. On the other hand, the radiation pattern at the plasma-vacuum interface was characterized, and the evolution of the diameter of different waves was computed and compared with the ''snow plow'' model.

  7. Solitons and nonlinear waves along quantum vortex filaments under the low-temperature two-dimensional local induction approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    Very recent experimental work has demonstrated the existence of Kelvin waves along quantized vortex filaments in superfluid helium. The possible configurations and motions of such filaments is of great physical interest, and Svistunov previously obtained a Hamiltonian formulation for the dynamics of quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature limit under the assumption that the vortex filament is essentially aligned along one axis, resulting in a two-dimensional (2D) problem. It is standard to approximate the dynamics of thin filaments by employing the local induction approximation (LIA), and we show that by putting the two-dimensional LIA into correspondence with the first equation in the integrable Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa-Schimizu (WKIS) hierarchy, we immediately obtain solutions to the two-dimensional LIA, such as helix, planar, and self-similar solutions. These solutions are obtained in a rather direct manner from the WKIS equation and then mapped into the 2D-LIA framework. Furthermore, the approach can be coupled to existing inverse scattering transform results from the literature in order to obtain solitary wave solutions including the analog of the Hasimoto one-soliton for the 2D-LIA. One large benefit of the approach is that the correspondence between the 2D-LIA and the WKIS allows us to systematically obtain vortex filament solutions directly in the Cartesian coordinate frame without the need to solve back from curvature and torsion. Implications of the results for the physics of experimentally studied solitary waves, Kelvin waves, and postvortex reconnection events are mentioned.

  8. Optical spatial solitons: historical overview and recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Segev, Mordechai; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2012-08-01

    Solitons, nonlinear self-trapped wavepackets, have been extensively studied in many and diverse branches of physics such as optics, plasmas, condensed matter physics, fluid mechanics, particle physics and even astrophysics. Interestingly, over the past two decades, the field of solitons and related nonlinear phenomena has been substantially advanced and enriched by research and discoveries in nonlinear optics. While optical solitons have been vigorously investigated in both spatial and temporal domains, it is now fair to say that much soliton research has been mainly driven by the work on optical spatial solitons. This is partly due to the fact that although temporal solitons as realized in fiber optic systems are fundamentally one-dimensional entities, the high dimensionality associated with their spatial counterparts has opened up altogether new scientific possibilities in soliton research. Another reason is related to the response time of the nonlinearity. Unlike temporal optical solitons, spatial solitons have been realized by employing a variety of noninstantaneous nonlinearities, ranging from the nonlinearities in photorefractive materials and liquid crystals to the nonlinearities mediated by the thermal effect, thermophoresis and the gradient force in colloidal suspensions. Such a diversity of nonlinear effects has given rise to numerous soliton phenomena that could otherwise not be envisioned, because for decades scientists were of the mindset that solitons must strictly be the exact solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation as established for ideal Kerr nonlinear media. As such, the discoveries of optical spatial solitons in different systems and associated new phenomena have stimulated broad interest in soliton research. In particular, the study of incoherent solitons and discrete spatial solitons in optical periodic media not only led to advances in our understanding of fundamental processes in nonlinear optics and photonics, but also had a very important impact on a variety of other disciplines in nonlinear science. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of optical spatial solitons. This review will cover a variety of issues pertaining to self-trapped waves supported by different types of nonlinearities, as well as various families of spatial solitons such as optical lattice solitons and surface solitons. Recent developments in the area of optical spatial solitons, such as 3D light bullets, subwavelength solitons, self-trapping in soft condensed matter and spatial solitons in systems with parity-time symmetry will also be discussed briefly.

  9. Quasi-periodic transformations of nonlocal spatial solitons.

    PubMed

    Buccoliero, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton S

    2009-06-01

    We study quasi-periodic transformations between nonlocal spatial solitons of different symmetries triggered by modulational instability and resembling a self-induced mode converter. Transformation dynamics of solitons with zero angular momentum, e.g. the quadrupole-type soliton, reveal the equidistant spectrum of spatial field oscillations typical for the breather-type solutions. In contrast, the transformations of nonlocal solitons carrying orbital angular momentum, such as 2x3 soliton matrix, are accompanied by their spiralling and corresponding spectra of field oscillations show mixing of three characteristic spatial frequencies. PMID:19506609

  10. Stability limits for two-dimensional matter-wave solitons in a time-modulated quasi-one-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai; Malomed, Boris A.; Krairiksh, Monai

    2007-11-15

    In a basic physical model where two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave solitons may be stable, namely, the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with the self-attractive nonlinearity and quasi-one-dimensional (1D) optical-lattice (OL) potential, we test robustness of the solitons against periodic time modulation of the OL strength. Stability diagrams for the 2D solitons are presented in the plane of the modulation depth and frequency. Basic features of the diagrams are explained with the help of the variational approximation for the stationary counterpart of the model. In the Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 7}Li atoms, the stable 2D solitons may contain the number of atoms in the range of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5}, relevant values of the OL strength and modulation frequency being, respectively < or approx. 5 recoil energies and < or approx. 10 kHZ. Head-on collisions between stable 2D solitons moving in the unconfined direction are studied in detail too, for velocities up to {approx}5 cm/s. A border between quasi-elastic collisions and merger of the solitons into a single localized state is identified. In some cases, the soliton produced by the merger is stable against collapse, which was not observed before in the static OL potential either.

  11. Crustal geomagnetic field - Two-dimensional intermediate-wavelength spatial power spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier spatial power spectra of equivalent magnetization values are presented for a region that includes a large portion of the western United States. The magnetization values were determined by inversion of POGO satellite data, assuming a magnetic crust 40 km thick, and were located on an 11 x 10 array with 300 km grid spacing. The spectra appear to be in good agreement with values of the crustal geomagnetic field spatial power spectra given by McLeod and Coleman (1980) and with the crustal field model given by Serson and Hannaford (1957). The spectra show evidence of noise at low frequencies in the direction along the satellite orbital track (N-S). indicating that for this particular data set additional filtering would probably be desirable. These findings illustrate the value of two-dimensional spatial power spectra both for describing the geomagnetic field statistically and as a guide for diagnosing possible noise sources.

  12. Real time two-dimensional spatial distribution measurement method of electron temperature and plasma density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Cheol; Jang, Sung Ho; Kim, Gun Ho; Chung, Chin Wook

    2009-10-01

    Real time two-dimensional spatial distribution measurement method of electron temperature and plasma density was developed. It is based on a floating probe method [1] because the floating probe has high time resolution. Two-dimensional array of sensors on a 300 mm diameter wafer-shaped printed circuit board (PCB) and a high speed multiplexer circuit were used for real time distribution measurement. The method was tested at various powers and pressures, spatial distributions of the electron temperature and the plasma density could be obtained. And in the measurement results, asymmetric plasma density distributions caused by pumping port effect could be observed. This method can measure spatial distribution of plasma parameters on the wafer in real time without plasma perturbation, therefore it will be expected to improve the uniformity of processing plasmas such as etching and deposition. [4pt] [1] M. H. Lee, S. H. Jang, C. W. Chung, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033305 (2007).

  13. Spatial solitons in two-photon photorefractive media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Chunfeng; Pei, Yanbo; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Sun, Xiudong

    2005-05-01

    We provide a theory for spatial solitons due to the two-photon photorefractive effect based on the Castro-Camus model [Opt. Lett. 28, 1129 (2003)]. We present the evolution equation of one-dimensional spatial solitons in two-photon photorefractive media. In steady state and under appropriate external bias conditions, we obtain the dark and bright soliton solutions of the optical wave evolution equation, and also discuss the self-deflection of the bright solitons theoretically by taking into account the diffusion effect.

  14. SOLITONS: Dark photovoltaic spatial solitons in a planar waveguide obtained by proton implantation in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglov, V. G.; Shandarov, V. M.; Tan, Ya; Chen, F.; Kip, D.

    2008-11-01

    A photovoltaic dark spatial soliton is generated in a planar waveguide produced by the implantation of protons into a copper-doped lithium niobate crystal. Stationary soliton regimes are achieved at powers 90 and 30 μW at wavelengths 633 and 532 nm, respectively.

  15. An algebraic grid generation technique for time-varying two-dimensional spatial domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.-L.; Shih, T. I.-P.

    1986-05-01

    Extending the two-boundary technique of Smith (1980) so that the grid points can move in the spatial domains in addition to nonuniform distribution, an efficient and versatile algebraic technique for generating grid points in irregularly shaped and time-varying spatial domains is presented. The present six-step method is demonstrated by generating grid points inside one of the combustion chambers of a motored two-dimensional rotary engine, and obtaining numerical solutions for the flow field inside one the the combustion chambers.

  16. Spatial Carrier Fringe Pattern Demodulation by Use of a Two-Dimensional Continuous Paul Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gdeisat, Munther; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Lalor, Michael; Moore, Chris

    2010-04-01

    This paper proposes the use of the two-dimensional continuous Paul wavelet transform to extract the phase of spatial carrier fringe patterns. The proposed algorithm has been tested using computer-generated and real fringe patterns, and these tests have demonstrated the suitability of the proposed technique for the phase demodulation of fringe patterns. Additionally, this algorithm is compared to three two-dimensional continuous wavelet algorithms that have figured prominently in the literature, specifically the Morlet, advanced Morlet and fan mother wavelets. This comparison has revealed that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three mother wavelets in terms of its suitability for extracting the phase of fringe patterns that exhibit large phase variations.

  17. Design and evaluation of microfluidic devices for two-dimensional spatial separations.

    PubMed

    Davydova, Ekaterina; Wouters, Sam; Deridder, Sander; Desmet, Gert; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2016-02-19

    Various designs of chips for comprehensive two-dimensional spatial liquid chromatography were investigated. The performance of these chips was initially evaluated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A bifurcating distributor with an angle of 140° between branches was implemented in order to achieve a homogeneous velocity field. The cross-sectional area of the channels of the flow distributor was fixed at 0.5×0.5mm, which allows a robust micromilling technique to be used for chip manufacturing. Experiments were performed with chips featuring purposely introduced imperfections in the structure of the bifurcating flow distributor to study its capacity of overcoming potential local clogging. Split peaks were observed when 75% of one of the flow channels was obstructed, in line with the CFD predictions. The main bottlenecks for the performance of the spatial two-dimensional chips were identified, viz. sample injected in the first dimension diverging into the flow distributor and channel discretization (i.e., remixing of first-dimension separation peaks because of finite number of second-dimension channels). Solutions to the former problem were studied by applying a flow resistance in the vertical segments that formed the outlets of the flow distributor and by simulating the presence of constrictions. It was found that a flow resistance of 1.0×10(11)m(-2) reduced the amount of sample diverging into the flow distributor by a factor of 10. The presence of a constriction of 90% of the segment area and 50% of the segment length decreased the diverging flow by a factor of 5. The influence of the linear velocity was significant. Solutions to the channel discretization problem were sought by investigating different designs of spatial two-dimensional chips. PMID:26810803

  18. Quantifying Two-Dimensional Filamentous and Invasive Growth Spatial Patterns in Yeast Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Benjamin J.; Sundstrom, Joanna F.; Gardner, Jennifer M.; Jiranek, Vladimir; Oliver, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    The top-view, two-dimensional spatial patterning of non-uniform growth in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast colony is considered. Experimental images are processed to obtain data sets that provide spatial information on the cell-area that is occupied by the colony. A method is developed that allows for the analysis of the spatial distribution with three metrics. The growth of the colony is quantified in both the radial direction from the centre of the colony and in the angular direction in a prescribed outer region of the colony. It is shown that during the period of 100–200 hours from the start of the growth of the colony there is an increasing amount of non-uniform growth. The statistical framework outlined in this work provides a platform for comparative quantitative assays of strain-specific mechanisms, with potential implementation in inferencing algorithms used for parameter-rate estimation. PMID:25719406

  19. Development of a Two-Dimensional Micro-SQUID Array for Investigation of Magnetization Spatial Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Daisuke; Shinozaki, Tomoya; Nago, Yusuke; Ishiguro, Ryosuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Nomura, Shintaro; Kono, Kimitoshi; Takayanagi, Hideaki

    2016-03-01

    We developed a two-dimensional array of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) for investigation of fine spatial distribution of magnetization in superconducting Sr2 RuO4 . Micrometer-sized SQUIDs based on homogeneously formed Al/AlOx /Al tunnel-type Josephson junctions were fabricated using shadow evaporation technique. Unnecessary electrodes formed by the shadow evaporation were removed by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, in order to realize a dense array of SQUIDs. We measured the magnetic modulation of the maximum Josephson current of each SQUID in the array and evaluated the interaction among the SQUIDs.

  20. Development of a Two-Dimensional Micro-SQUID Array for Investigation of Magnetization Spatial Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Daisuke; Shinozaki, Tomoya; Nago, Yusuke; Ishiguro, Ryosuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Nomura, Shintaro; Kono, Kimitoshi; Takayanagi, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    We developed a two-dimensional array of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) for investigation of fine spatial distribution of magnetization in superconducting Sr2RuO4. Micrometer-sized SQUIDs based on homogeneously formed Al/AlOx/Al tunnel-type Josephson junctions were fabricated using shadow evaporation technique. Unnecessary electrodes formed by the shadow evaporation were removed by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, in order to realize a dense array of SQUIDs. We measured the magnetic modulation of the maximum Josephson current of each SQUID in the array and evaluated the interaction among the SQUIDs.

  1. Solitary solutions including spatially localized chaos and their interactions in two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiruta, Yoshiki; Toh, Sadayoshi

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow in wide periodic boxes is numerically investigated. It is shown that the total flow rate in the direction perpendicular to the force controls the characteristics of the flow, especially the existence of spatially localized solitary solutions such as traveling waves, periodic solutions, and chaotic solutions, which can behave as elementary components of the flow. We propose a procedure to construct approximate solutions consisting of solitary solutions. It is confirmed by direct numerical simulations that these solutions are stable and represent interactions between elementary components such as collisions, coexistence, and collapse of chaos.

  2. Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Manish Joseph, Joby

    2014-08-04

    We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90° bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable, and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.

  3. Spin flux and magnetic solitons in an interacting two-dimensional electron gas: Topology of two-valued wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    John, S.; Golubentsev, A. )

    1995-01-01

    For a topological antiferromagnet on a square lattice, with the standard Hartree-Fock, spin-density-wave decoupling of the on-site Hubbard interaction, there is an exact mapping of the low-energy one-electron excitation spectrum to a relativistic Dirac continuum field theory. In this field theory, the Dirac mass gap is precisely the Mott-Hubbard charge gap and the continuum field variable is an eight-component Dirac spinor describing the components of physical electron-spin amplitude on each of the four sites of the elementary plaquette in the original Hubbard model. Within this continuum model we derive explicitly the existence of hedgehog Skyrmion textures as local minima of the classical magnetic energy. These magnetic solitons carry a topological winding number [mu] associated with the vortex rotation of the background magnetic moment field by a phase angle 2[pi][mu] along a path encircling the soliton. Such solitons also carry a spin flux of [mu][pi] through the plaquette on which they are centered. The [mu]=1 hedgehog Skyrmion describes a local transition from the topological (antiperiodic) sector of the one-electron Hilbert space to the nontopological sector. We derive from first principles the existence of deep level localized electronic states within the Mott-Hubbard charge gap for the [mu]=1 and 2 solitons. The spectrum of localized states is symmetric about [ital E]=0 and each subgap electronic level can be occupied by a pair of electrons in which one electron resides primarily on one sublattice and the second electron on the other sublattice. It is suggested that flux-carrying solitons and the subgap electronic structure which they induce are important in understanding the physical behavior of doped Mott insulators.

  4. Interactions of spatial solitons with fused couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, Alon; Malomed, Boris A.

    2014-04-01

    We study dynamical and stationary states of solitons in dual-core waveguides which are locally coupled (fused) at one or several short segments. The model applies to planar optical waveguides, and to Bose-Einstein condensate in dual traps. Collisions of an incident soliton with single and double locally fused couplers are investigated by means of systematic simulations and several analytical methods (quasilinear, fast-soliton, and adiabatic approximations). Excitation dynamics of a soliton trapped by a local coupler is studied by means of the variational approximation, and verified by simulations. Shuttle motion of a soliton trapped in a cavity between two local couplers, and in a finite array of couplers, is studied too.

  5. Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Matthew; Duree, Galen; Salamo, Gregory; Segev, Mordechai

    1995-10-01

    We show that a quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial soliton forms a waveguide structure in the bulk of a photorefractive material. Although the optically induced waveguide is formed by a very low-power (microwatts) soliton beam, it can guide a powerful (watt) beam of a longer wavelength at which the medium is nonphotosensitive. Furthermore, the waveguide survives, either in the dark or when guiding the longer-wavelength beam, for a long time after the soliton beam is turned off. We take advantage of the solitons' property of evolution from a relatively broad input beam into a narrow channel and show that the soliton induces a tapered waveguide (an optical funnel) that improves the coupling efficiency of light into the waveguiding structure.

  6. Two-dimensional-spatial distribution measurement of electron temperature and plasma density in low temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Cheol; Jang, Sung-Ho; Oh, Se-Jin; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-05-15

    A real-time measurement method for two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution of the electron temperature and plasma density was developed. The method is based on the floating harmonic method and the real time measurement is achieved with little plasma perturbation. 2D arrays of the sensors on a 300 mm diameter wafer-shaped printed circuit board with a high speed multiplexer circuit were used. Experiments were performed in an inductive discharge under various external conditions, such as powers, gas pressures, and different gas mixing ratios. The results are consistent with theoretical prediction. Our method can measure the 2D spatial distribution of plasma parameters on a wafer-level in real-time. This method can be applied to plasma diagnostics to improve the plasma uniformity of plasma reactors for plasma processing.

  7. Two-dimensional-spatial distribution measurement of electron temperature and plasma density in low temperature plasmas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Cheol; Jang, Sung-Ho; Oh, Se-Jin; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-05-01

    A real-time measurement method for two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution of the electron temperature and plasma density was developed. The method is based on the floating harmonic method and the real time measurement is achieved with little plasma perturbation. 2D arrays of the sensors on a 300 mm diameter wafer-shaped printed circuit board with a high speed multiplexer circuit were used. Experiments were performed in an inductive discharge under various external conditions, such as powers, gas pressures, and different gas mixing ratios. The results are consistent with theoretical prediction. Our method can measure the 2D spatial distribution of plasma parameters on a wafer-level in real-time. This method can be applied to plasma diagnostics to improve the plasma uniformity of plasma reactors for plasma processing. PMID:23742549

  8. Fast Transient And Spatially Non-Homogenous Accident Analysis Of Two-Dimensional Cylindrical Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Khotimah, S. N.; Shafii, M. Ali

    2010-12-23

    The research about fast transient and spatially non-homogenous nuclear reactor accident analysis of two-dimensional nuclear reactor has been done. This research is about prediction of reactor behavior is during accident. In the present study, space-time diffusion equation is solved by using direct methods which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference discretization method is solved by using iterative methods ADI (Alternating Direct Implicit). The indication of accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity. The power reactor has a peak value before reactor has new balance condition. Changing of temperature reactor produce a negative Doppler feedback reactivity. The reactivity will reduce excess positive reactivity. Temperature reactor during accident is still in below fuel melting point which is in secure condition.

  9. Fast Transient And Spatially Non-Homogenous Accident Analysis Of Two-Dimensional Cylindrical Nuclear Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Khotimah, S. N.; Shafii, M. Ali

    2010-12-01

    The research about fast transient and spatially non-homogenous nuclear reactor accident analysis of two-dimensional nuclear reactor has been done. This research is about prediction of reactor behavior is during accident. In the present study, space-time diffusion equation is solved by using direct methods which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference discretization method is solved by using iterative methods ADI (Alternating Direct Implicit). The indication of accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity. The power reactor has a peak value before reactor has new balance condition. Changing of temperature reactor produce a negative Doppler feedback reactivity. The reactivity will reduce excess positive reactivity. Temperature reactor during accident is still in below fuel melting point which is in secure condition.

  10. Impaired spatial selectivity and intact phase precession in two-dimensional virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Aghajan, Zahra M; Acharya, Lavanya; Moore, Jason J; Cushman, Jesse D; Vuong, Cliff; Mehta, Mayank R

    2015-01-01

    During real-world (RW) exploration, rodent hippocampal activity shows robust spatial selectivity, which is hypothesized to be governed largely by distal visual cues, although other sensory-motor cues also contribute. Indeed, hippocampal spatial selectivity is weak in primate and human studies that use only visual cues. To determine the contribution of distal visual cues only, we measured hippocampal activity from body-fixed rodents exploring a two-dimensional virtual reality (VR). Compared to that in RW, spatial selectivity was markedly reduced during random foraging and goal-directed tasks in VR. Instead we found small but significant selectivity to distance traveled. Despite impaired spatial selectivity in VR, most spikes occurred within ∼2-s-long hippocampal motifs in both RW and VR that had similar structure, including phase precession within motif fields. Selectivity to space and distance traveled were greatly enhanced in VR tasks with stereotypical trajectories. Thus, distal visual cues alone are insufficient to generate a robust hippocampal rate code for space but are sufficient for a temporal code. PMID:25420065

  11. Two-Dimensional Planar Lightwave Circuit Integrated Spatial Filter Array and Method of Use Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ai, Jun (Inventor); Dimov, Fedor (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A large coherent two-dimensional (2D) spatial filter array (SFA), 30 by 30 or larger, is produced by coupling a 2D planar lightwave circuit (PLC) array with a pair of lenslet arrays at the input and output side. The 2D PLC array is produced by stacking a plurality of chips, each chip with a plural number of straight PLC waveguides. A pupil array is coated onto the focal plane of the lenslet array. The PLC waveguides are produced by deposition of a plural number of silica layers on the silicon wafer, followed by photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE) processes. A plural number of mode filters are included in the silica-on-silicon waveguide such that the PLC waveguide is transparent to the fundamental mode but higher order modes are attenuated by 40 dB or more.

  12. Multifrequency spatial filtering: A general property of two-dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebryannikov, A. E.; Colak, E.; Petrov, A.; Usik, P. V.; Ozbay, E.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial filtering, an analog of frequency-domain filtering that can be obtained in the incidence angle domain at a fixed frequency is studied in the transmission mode for slabs of two-dimensional rod-type photonic crystals. In the present paper, the emphasis is put on the demonstration of the possibility to obtain various regimes of spatial filtering, i.e., band-stop, band-pass, and low-pass filtering in different frequency ranges in one simple configuration. The operation is based on the use of several Floquet-Bloch modes with appropriate dispersion properties, so that such one or two co-existing mode(s) contribute to the forming of a proper filter characteristic within each specific frequency range. It is shown that high-efficiency transmission and steep switching between pass and stop bands can be obtained in the angle domain for wide ranges of variation of the problem parameters. In particular, by varying the rod-diameter-to-lattice-constant ratio, one attains lots of freedom in the engineering of spatial filters with desired transmission characteristics.

  13. Offline comparison of spatial filters for two-dimensional movement control with noninvasive field potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foldes, S. T.; Taylor, D. M.

    2011-08-01

    Paralyzed individuals can control the movement of an assistive device using changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) power resulting from attempted movements. Simultaneous, proportional control of two-dimensional (2D) device movements can be achieved with the concurrent modulation of brain activity that is associated with the attempted movement and rest of two independent body parts. Movement control may be improved by spatial filtering methods that recombine raw EEGs to form new signals with more focused information about the underlying brain activity. This study compared spatial filters offline for improving simultaneous proportional 2D movement commands from EEGs. Filtering options evaluated were common average referencing, Laplacian, independent component analysis, principle component analysis, and two novel ways of applying common spatial pattern (CSP) analysis. CSP analysis is a supervised algorithm that optimally recombines EEGs collected under two known conditions. Both CSP options resulted in more accurate movement prediction than the other filtering options. CSP was particularly advantageous when separating EEGs associated with neighboring or overlapping areas on the motor homunculus. Finally, CSP performed well using smaller subsets of filtered signals, thus making CSP practical and efficient for simultaneous 2D control. A 2D online cursor control example using CSP filtering is included to show CSP's utility.

  14. Raman spectroscopic detection using a two-dimensional spatial heterodyne spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guangxiao; Xiong, Wei; Shi, Hailiang; Li, Zhiwei; Shen, Jing; Fang, Xuejing

    2015-11-01

    Spatial heterodyne Raman spectroscopy (SHRS) is a type of method for the detection of Raman spectra and can achieve a very high spectral resolution. SHRS has no moving parts and can be built with rugged, compact packages, making it extremely suitable for planetary exploration. However, if a high spectral resolution is needed, a traditional one-dimensional spatial heterodyne spectrometer cannot achieve a broad bandpass because it is limited by the number of pixels of the detector. In order to solve this, two-dimensional (2-D) SHRS can be used to broaden the bandpass. A breadboard of 2-D SHRS has been designed and built, and some artificial and natural targets have been tested to learn about the detection ability of 2-D SHRS. The results show that 2-D SHRS can be used to detect Raman signals scattered from liquid and solid targets. When the Raman scattered signal is strong, it can even detect targets in containers. The detection of anti-Stokes Raman shift for sulfur and carbon tetrachloride has also been tried, and the results show that 2-D SHRS has the ability to detect anti-Stokes Raman shift below 500 cm-1. The research may have a general implication in chemical analysis and planetary exploration.

  15. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional spatially-developing mixing layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. V.; Demuren, A. O.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional, incompressible, spatially developing mixing layer simulations are performed at Re = 10(exp 2) and 10(exp 4) with two classes of perturbations applied at the inlet boundary; combinations of discrete modes from linear stability theory, and a broad spectrum of modes derived from experimentally measured velocity spectra. The effect of the type and strength of inlet perturbations on vortex dynamics and time-averaged properties are explored. Two-point spatial velocity and autocorrelations are used to estimate the size and lifetime of the resulting coherent structures and to explore possible feedback effects. The computed time-averaged properties such as mean velocity profiles, turbulent statistics, and spread rates show good agreement with experimentally measured values. It is shown that by forcing with a broad spectrum of modes derived from an experimental energy spectrum many experimentally observed phenomena can be reproduced by a 2-D simulation. The strength of the forcing merely affected the length required for the dominant coherent structures to become fully-developed. Thus intensities comparable to those of the background turbulence in many wind tunnel experiments produced the same results, given sufficient simulation length.

  16. Two-dimensional spatially periodic electron flow in various emission regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhlenko, A.; Lebowitz, J. L.

    2010-05-01

    We study the effects of cathode surface curvature on the space charge limited current emitted by a two-dimensional periodic array of field emitters. Each of these emitters has a shape described by a simple analytic function. Linear, quadratic, and Fowler-Nordheim current-field dependences of the cathode emissivity as well as the infinite emissivity Child-Langmuir model are considered. We develop a mathematical anzatz to capture the main features of the potential field structure of this system and supplement it with a set of correction functions with free parameters. A special least square procedure is used for an approximate solution of this nonlinear problem. We find that even a smooth curved cathode can yield significant spatial variations in the current density but for the cases considered it does not change substantially the total current (properly adjusted). When the cathode emissivity and/or the applied voltage are high enough the current density from the top of the cathode bump (where the curvature is maximal) exceeds the current density produced by a flat cathode with infinite emissivity placed at the same distance from the anode. An explanation of this effect is given. The spatial pattern of emission is determined almost solely by the cathode curvature no matter how strong the current is.

  17. Exact two-dimensional zonal wavefront reconstruction with high spatial resolution in lateral shearing interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Fengzhao; Li, Jie; Wang, Xiangzhao; Bu, Yang

    2016-05-01

    A novel zonal method is proposed for exact discrete reconstruction of a two-dimensional wavefront with high spatial resolution for lateral shearing interferometry. Four difference wavefronts measured in the x and y shear directions are required. Each of the two shear directions is measured twice with different shear amounts. The shear amounts of the second measurements of the x and y directions are Sx+1 pixels and Sy+1 pixels, where Sx pixels and Sy pixels are the shear amounts of the first measurements in the x and y directions, respectively. The shear amount in each direction can be chosen freely, provided that it is below a maximum value determined by the pupil shape and the number of samples N in that direction; thus, the choices are not limited by the more stringent condition required by previous methods, namely, that the shear amounts must be divisors of N. This method can exactly reconstruct any wavefront at evaluation points up to an arbitrary constant if the data is noiseless, and high spatial resolution can be achieved even with large shear amounts. The method is applicable not only to square pupils, but also to general pupil shapes if a sufficient number of Gerchberg iterations are employed. In this study, the validity and capability of the method were confirmed by numerical experiments. In addition, the experiments demonstrated that the method is stable with respect to noise in the difference wavefronts.

  18. Beamforming of sound from two-dimensional arrays using spatial matched filters

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Jesse T.

    2013-01-01

    Fully-sampled two-dimensional (2D) arrays can have two-way focusing of the ultrasound beam in both lateral directions leading to high quality, real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging. However, fully-sampled 2D arrays with very large element counts (>16 000) are difficult to manufacture due to interconnect density and large element electrical impedance. As an alternative, row-column or crossed electrode arrays have been proposed to simplify transducer fabrication and system integration. These types of arrays consist of two one-dimensional arrays oriented perpendicular to each other. Using conventional delay-and-sum beamforming, each array performs one-way focusing in perpendicular lateral directions which yield higher sidelobe and acoustic clutter levels compared to fully-sampled 2D arrays with two-way focusing. In this paper, the use of spatial matched filters to improve focusing of row-column arrays is investigated. On receive, data from each element are first spatial match filtered in the elevation direction. After summation, the data are filtered again in the azimuth direction. Beam widths comparable to one-way focusing are seen in azimuth and beam widths comparable to two-way focusing are achieved in elevation. 3D beam patterns from computer simulation results using a 7.5 MHz 128 × 128 row-column array are shown with comparison to a fully sampled 2D array. PMID:24180780

  19. SOLITONS: Dark spatial optical solitons in planar gradient waveguides in the Z-cut of the 3m symmetry crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, M. N.; Borodin, M. V.; Shandarov, S. M.; Shandarov, V. M.; Larionov, Yu M.

    2003-11-01

    The propagation of light beams is studied in a planar photorefractive waveguide fabricated by high-temperature diffusion of metal ions in the Z-cut substrate of the 3m symmetry crystal. The wave equations are obtained for single-mode light beams with TE and TM polarisations in planar diffusion waveguides, which take into account the two-dimensional distribution of the optical field. Expressions are found for a nonlinear change in the refractive index when the photovoltaic mechanism makes a dominant contribution to the photorefractive effect. The propagation of single-mode light beams is analysed numerically for a Ti:Fe:LiNbO3 waveguide fabricated by the successive diffusion of titanium and iron into lithium niobate. It is shown that single-mode light beams with a smooth amplitude envelope can propagate without significant changes in the region of a dip in the intensity modelling a dark soliton. The relations between the amplitude and width of a dark spatial soliton are obtained for the TM modes of a photorefractive planar waveguide.

  20. Two-dimensional spatial coherence of excitons in semicrystalline polymeric semiconductors: Effect of molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquin, Francis; Yamagata, Hajime; Hestand, Nicholas J.; Sakowicz, Maciej; Bérubé, Nicolas; Côté, Michel; Reynolds, Luke X.; Haque, Saif A.; Stingelin, Natalie; Spano, Frank C.; Silva, Carlos

    2013-10-01

    The electronic properties of macromolecular semiconductor thin films depend profoundly on their solid-state microstructure, which in turn is governed, among other things, by the processing conditions selected and the polymer's chemical nature and molecular weight. Specifically, low-molecular-weight materials form crystalline domains of cofacially π-stacked molecules, while the usually entangled nature of higher-molecular-weight polymers leads to microstructures comprised of molecularly ordered crystallites interconnected by amorphous regions. Here, we examine the interplay between extended exciton states delocalized along the polymer backbones and across polymer chains within the π stack, depending on the structural development with molecular weight. Such two-dimensional excitations can be considered as Frenkel excitons in the limit of weak intersite coupling. We combine optical spectroscopies, thermal probes, and theoretical modeling, focusing on neat poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)—one of the most extensively studied polymeric semiconductors—of weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of 3-450 kg/mol. In thin-film structures of high-molecular-weight materials (Mw > 50 kg/mol), a balance of intramolecular and intermolecular excitonic coupling results in high exciton coherence lengths along chains (˜4.5 thiophene units), with interchain coherence limited to ˜2 chains. In contrast, for structures of low-Mw P3HT (<50 kg/mol), the interchain exciton coherence is dominant (˜30% higher than in architectures formed by high-molecular-weight materials). In addition, the spatial coherence within the chain is significantly reduced (by nearly 25%). These observations give valuable structural information; they suggest that the macromolecules in aggregated regions of high-molecular-weight P3HT adopt a more planar conformation compared to low-molecular-weight materials. This results in the observed increase in intrachain exciton coherence. In contrast, shorter chains seem to lead to torsionally more disordered architectures. A rigorous, fundamental description of primary photoexcitations in π-conjugated polymers is hence developed: two-dimensional excitons are defined by the chain-length dependent molecular arrangement and interconnectivity of the conjugated macromolecules, leading to interplay between intramolecular and intermolecular spatial coherence.

  1. The Effect of Two-Dimensional and Stereoscopic Presentation on Middle School Students' Performance of Spatial Cognition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether and how student performance on three types of spatial cognition tasks differs when worked with two-dimensional or stereoscopic representations. We recruited nineteen middle school students visiting a planetarium in a large Midwestern American city and analyzed their performance on a series of spatial cognition tasks in…

  2. Quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates with spatially modulated cubic-quintic nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Chao-Qing; Wang, Deng-Shan; Wang, Liang-Liang; Zhang, Jie-Fang; Liu, W. M.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate exact nonlinear matter wave functions with odd and even parities in the framework of quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with spatially modulated cubic-quintic nonlinearities and harmonic potential. The existence condition for these exact solutions requires that the minimum energy eigenvalue of the corresponding linear Schrödinger equation with harmonic potential is the cutoff value of the chemical potential λ. The competition between two-body and three-body interactions influences the energy of the localized state. For attractive two-body and three-body interactions, the larger the matter wave order number n, the larger the energy of the corresponding localized state. A linear stability analysis and direct simulations with initial white noise demonstrate that, for the same state (fixed n), increasing the number of atoms can add stability. A quasi-stable ground-state matter wave is also found for repulsive two-body and three-body interactions. We also discuss the experimental realization of these results in future experiments. These results are of particular significance to matter wave management in higher-dimensional BECs.

  3. Two-dimensional radiative transfer in cloudy atmospheres: The spherical harmonic spatial grid method

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K.F. )

    1993-09-15

    A new two-dimensional monochromatic method that computes the transfer of solar or thermal radiation through atmospheres with arbitrary optical properties is described. The model discretizes the radiative transfer equation by expanding the angular part of the radiance field in a spherical harmonic series and representing the spatial part with a discrete grid. The resulting sparse coupled system of equations is solved iteratively with the conjugate gradient method. A Monte Carlo model is used for extensive verification of outgoing flux and radiance values from both smooth and highly variable (multifractal) media. The spherical harmonic expansion naturally allows for different levels of approximation, but tests show that the 2D equivalent of the two-stream approximation is poor at approximating variations in the outgoing flux. The model developed here is shown to be highly efficient so that media with tens of thousands of grid points can be computed in minutes. The large improvement in efficiency will permit quick, accurate radiative transfer calculations of realistic cloud fields and improve our understanding of the effect of inhomogeneity on radiative transfer in cloudy atmospheres. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Two-dimensional radiative transfer in cloudy atmospheres - The spherical harmonic spatial grid method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K. F.

    1993-01-01

    A new two-dimensional monochromatic method that computes the transfer of solar or thermal radiation through atmospheres with arbitrary optical properties is described. The model discretizes the radiative transfer equation by expanding the angular part of the radiance field in a spherical harmonic series and representing the spatial part with a discrete grid. The resulting sparse coupled system of equations is solved iteratively with the conjugate gradient method. A Monte Carlo model is used for extensive verification of outgoing flux and radiance values from both smooth and highly variable (multifractal) media. The spherical harmonic expansion naturally allows for different levels of approximation, but tests show that the 2D equivalent of the two-stream approximation is poor at approximating variations in the outgoing flux. The model developed here is shown to be highly efficient so that media with tens of thousands of grid points can be computed in minutes. The large improvement in efficiency will permit quick, accurate radiative transfer calculations of realistic cloud fields and improve our understanding of the effect of inhomogeneity on radiative transfer in cloudy atmospheres.

  5. Vortex stabilization by means of spatial solitons in nonlocal media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izdebskaya, Yana; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Smyth, Noel F.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-05-01

    We investigate how optical vortices, which tend to be azimuthally unstable in local nonlinear materials, can be stabilized by a copropagating coaxial spatial solitary wave in nonlocal, nonlinear media. We focus on the formation of nonlinear vortex-soliton vector beams in reorientational soft matter, namely nematic liquid crystals, and report on experimental results, as well as numerical simulations.

  6. Linear Spatial Evolution Formulation of Two-Dimensional Waves on Liquid Films Under Evaporating/Isothermal/Condensing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Xuemin Ye; Chunxi Li; Weiping Yan

    2002-07-01

    The linear spatial evolution formulation of the two-dimensional waves of the evaporating or isothermal or condensing liquid films falling down an inclined wall is established for the film thickness with the collocation method based on the boundary layer theory and complete boundary conditions. The evolution equation indicates that there are two different modes of waves in spatial evolution. And the flow stability is highly dependent on the evaporation or condensation, thermo-capillarity, surface tension, inclination angle and Reynolds number. (authors)

  7. QKD Via a Quantum Wavelength Router Using Spatial Soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouhnavard, M.; Amiri, I. S.; Afroozeh, A.; Jalil, M. A.; Ali, J.; Yupapin, P. P.

    2011-05-01

    A system for continuous variable quantum key distribution via a wavelength router is proposed. The Kerr type of light in the nonlinear microring resonator (NMRR) induces the chaotic behavior. In this proposed system chaotic signals are generated by an optical soliton or Gaussian pulse within a NMRR system. The parameters, such as input power, MRRs radii and coupling coefficients can change and plays important role in determining the results in which the continuous signals are generated spreading over the spectrum. Large bandwidth signals of optical soliton are generated by the input pulse propagating within the MRRs, which is allowed to form the continuous wavelength or frequency with large tunable channel capacity. The continuous variable QKD is formed by using the localized spatial soliton pulses via a quantum router and networks. The selected optical spatial pulse can be used to perform the secure communication network. Here the entangled photon generated by chaotic signals has been analyzed. The continuous entangled photon is generated by using the polarization control unit incorporating into the MRRs, required to provide the continuous variable QKD. Results obtained have shown that the application of such a system for the simultaneous continuous variable quantum cryptography can be used in the mobile telephone hand set and networks. In this study frequency band of 500 MHz and 2.0 GHz and wavelengths of 775 nm, 2,325 nm and 1.55 μm can be obtained for QKD use with input optical soliton and Gaussian beam respectively.

  8. A new two dimensional spectral/spatial multi-diagonal code for noncoherent optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadhim, Rasim Azeez; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Aljunid, S. A.; Razalli, Mohamad Shahrazel

    2014-10-01

    A new two dimensional codes family, namely two dimensional multi-diagonal (2D-MD) codes, is proposed for spectral/spatial non-coherent OCDMA systems based on the one dimensional MD code. Since the MD code has the property of zero cross correlation, the proposed 2D-MD code also has this property. So that, the multi-access interference (MAI) is fully eliminated and the phase induced intensity noise (PIIN) is suppressed with the proposed code. Code performance is analyzed in terms of bit error rate (BER) while considering the effect of shot noise, PIIN, and thermal noise. The performance of the proposed code is compared with the related MD, modified quadratic congruence (MQC), two dimensional perfect difference (2D-PD) and two dimensional diluted perfect difference (2D-DPD) codes. The analytical and the simulation results reveal that the proposed 2D-MD code outperforms the other codes. Moreover, a large number of simultaneous users can be accommodated at low BER and high data rate.

  9. Molecular Framework of a Regulatory Circuit Initiating Two-Dimensional Spatial Patterning of Stomatal Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Rychel, Amanda L.; Garrick, Jacqueline M.; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Peterson, Kylee M.; Torii, Keiko U.

    2015-01-01

    Stomata, valves on the plant epidermis, are critical for plant growth and survival, and the presence of stomata impacts the global water and carbon cycle. Although transcription factors and cell-cell signaling components regulating stomatal development have been identified, it remains unclear as to how their regulatory interactions are translated into two-dimensional patterns of stomatal initial cells. Using molecular genetics, imaging, and mathematical simulation, we report a regulatory circuit that initiates the stomatal cell-lineage. The circuit includes a positive feedback loop constituting self-activation of SCREAMs that requires SPEECHLESS. This transcription factor module directly binds to the promoters and activates a secreted signal, EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR2, and the receptor modifier TOO MANY MOUTHS, while the receptor ERECTA lies outside of this module. This in turn inhibits SPCH, and hence SCRMs, thus constituting a negative feedback loop. Our mathematical model accurately predicts all known stomatal phenotypes with the inclusion of two additional components to the circuit: an EPF2-independent negative-feedback loop and a signal that lies outside of the SPCH•SCRM module. Our work reveals the intricate molecular framework governing self-organizing two-dimensional patterning in the plant epidermis. PMID:26203655

  10. Effect of four-wave mixing on copropagating spatial solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Nadeem A.; Sammut, Rowland A.; Tran, Hai-Tan

    1996-07-01

    It is known that in the absence of four-wave mixing, spatial solitons of two frequencies can copropagate stably in a Kerr-law nonlinear medium. We investigate the effect of including four-wave mixing. We show that when phase-matching conditions are satisfied, Stokes and anti-Stokes waves can be generated to produce a new steady-state solution consisting of four copropagating beams. On the other hand, if weak signal beams are injected along with the pump beams, then four-wave mixing can be used to amplify those side beams. When phase-matching conditions are not satisfied, the Stokes and anti-Stokes waves simply propagate as linear modes in the effective waveguides induced by the pump solitons.

  11. Spatially correlated two-dimensional arrays of semiconductor and metal quantum dots in GaAs-based heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Nevedomskiy, V. N. Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Preobrazhernskiy, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R.

    2015-12-15

    A single molecular-beam epitaxy process is used to produce GaAs-based heterostructures containing two-dimensional arrays of InAs semiconductor quantum dots and AsSb metal quantum dots. The twodimensional array of AsSb metal quantum dots is formed by low-temperature epitaxy which provides a large excess of arsenic in the epitaxial GaAs layer. During the growth of subsequent layers at a higher temperature, excess arsenic forms nanoinclusions, i.e., metal quantum dots in the GaAs matrix. The two-dimensional array of such metal quantum dots is created by the δ doping of a low-temperature GaAs layer with antimony which serves as a precursor for the heterogeneous nucleation of metal quantum dots and accumulates in them with the formation of AsSb metal alloy. The two-dimensional array of InAs semiconductor quantum dots is formed via the Stranski–Krastanov mechanism at the GaAs surface. Between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots, a 3-nm-thick AlAs barrier layer is grown. The total spacing between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots is 10 nm. Electron microscopy of the structure shows that the arrangement of metal quantum dots and semiconductor quantum dots in the two-dimensional arrays is spatially correlated. The spatial correlation is apparently caused by elastic strain and stress fields produced by both AsSb metal and InAs semiconductor quantum dots in the GaAs matrix.

  12. Spatially inhomogeneous phase in the two-dimensional repulsive Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chia-Chen; Zhang, Shiwei

    2009-03-01

    Using recent advances in the constrained-path auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method, we study the ground state of the two-dimensional, single-band Hubbard model at intermediate interactions (2<=U/t <=8). In the first part of this study [1], we have determined the equation of state and also calculated the spin-spin correlation functions in square lattices up to size 16x16. Shell effects are eliminated and finite-size effects are greatly reduced by boundary condition integration. It was shown that, upon doping, the system separates into a region with antiferromagnetic (AF) order and a hole-containing region without AF order. In the second part, we study rectangular supercells up to 8x64 to examine the nature of this inhomogeneous phase, in particular to probe phase separation versus stripes and spin-density waves of long wave lengths. [1] Chia-Chen Chang and Shiwei Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 78, 165101 (2008)

  13. The spatial component of ionospheric electron flow derived from two-dimensional drift measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.-S.; Nielsen, E.

    1987-01-01

    The electron drift velocities in the ionosphere can be measured as a function of both latitude and longitude using coherent radar systems like STARE and SABRE. The temporal resolution of the observations is high compared to the time it takes for the field of view to corotate with the earth over a longitude interval equal to its longitudinal width. An analysis technique is developed that makes it possible to determine whether an observed time variation is caused by spatial effects or by real time changes. Three events, during which the flow was dominated by spatial variations, have been analyzed and are found to show good agreement with model predictions.

  14. Estimates of the statistical two-dimensional spatial structure in rain over a small network of disdrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, A. R.; Larsen, M. L.

    2016-02-01

    Microphysical understanding of the variability in rain requires a statistical characterization of different drop sizes both in time and in all dimensions of space. Temporally, there have been several statistical characterizations of raindrop counts. However, temporal and spatial structures are neither equivalent nor readily translatable. While there are recent reports of the one-dimensional spatial correlation functions in rain, they can only be assumed to represent the two-dimensional (2D) correlation function under the assumption of spatial isotropy. To date, however, there are no actual observations of the (2D) spatial correlation function in rain over areas. Two reasons for this deficiency are the fiscal and the physical impossibilities of assembling a dense network of instruments over even hundreds of meters much less over kilometers. Consequently, all measurements over areas will necessarily be sparsely sampled. A dense network of data must then be estimated using interpolations from the available observations. In this work, a network of 19 optical disdrometers over a 100 m by 71 m area yield observations of drop spectra every minute. These are then interpolated to a 1 m resolution grid. Fourier techniques then yield estimates of the 2D spatial correlation functions. Preliminary examples using this technique found that steadier, light rain decorrelates spatially faster than does the convective rain, but in both cases the 2D spatial correlation functions are anisotropic, reflecting an asymmetry in the physical processes influencing the rain reaching the ground not accounted for in numerical microphysical models.

  15. Radiative transfer in spatially heterogeneous, two-dimensional anisotropically scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, G. L.

    1986-07-01

    A method is presented for solving the radiative transfer equation for a general anisotropically scattering and emitting medium exposed to arbitrary boundary radiation conditions. The method allows, in principle, for quite arbitrary spatial variability in the scattering and extinction and general solution procedures, based on the principles of invariant imbedding, which are applied in the form of doubling algorithms to obtain solutions for optically thick media. Some selected results are shown to demonstrate the versatility of the approach.

  16. Spatial Patterns of Dissipative Polariton Solitons in Semiconductor Microcavities.

    PubMed

    Chana, J K; Sich, M; Fras, F; Gorbach, A V; Skryabin, D V; Cancellieri, E; Cerda-Méndez, E A; Biermann, K; Hey, R; Santos, P V; Skolnick, M S; Krizhanovskii, D N

    2015-12-18

    We report propagating bound microcavity polariton soliton arrays consisting of multipeak structures either along (x) or perpendicular (y) to the direction of propagation. Soliton arrays of up to five solitons are observed, with the number of solitons controlled by the size and power of the triggering laser pulse. The breakup along the x direction occurs when the effective area of the trigger pulse exceeds the characteristic soliton size determined by polariton-polariton interactions. Narrowing of soliton emission in energy-momentum space indicates phase locking between adjacent solitons, consistent with numerical modeling which predicts stable multihump soliton solutions. In the y direction, the breakup originates from inhomogeneity across the wave front in the transverse direction which develops into a stable array only in the solitonic regime via phase-dependent interactions of propagating fronts. PMID:26722931

  17. Spatial Patterns of Dissipative Polariton Solitons in Semiconductor Microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chana, J. K.; Sich, M.; Fras, F.; Gorbach, A. V.; Skryabin, D. V.; Cancellieri, E.; Cerda-Méndez, E. A.; Biermann, K.; Hey, R.; Santos, P. V.; Skolnick, M. S.; Krizhanovskii, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    We report propagating bound microcavity polariton soliton arrays consisting of multipeak structures either along (x ) or perpendicular (y ) to the direction of propagation. Soliton arrays of up to five solitons are observed, with the number of solitons controlled by the size and power of the triggering laser pulse. The breakup along the x direction occurs when the effective area of the trigger pulse exceeds the characteristic soliton size determined by polariton-polariton interactions. Narrowing of soliton emission in energy-momentum space indicates phase locking between adjacent solitons, consistent with numerical modeling which predicts stable multihump soliton solutions. In the y direction, the breakup originates from inhomogeneity across the wave front in the transverse direction which develops into a stable array only in the solitonic regime via phase-dependent interactions of propagating fronts.

  18. Material figures of merit for spatial soliton interactions in the presence of absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Steve; Wagner, Kelvin H.; McLeod, Robert

    1996-10-01

    The effects of linear and two-photon absorption on bright spatial soliton propagation are studied. A spatial soliton switch that achieves gain through the novel mechanism of colliding, dragging, or trapping of two fundamental solitons of different widths is proposed. Figures of merit for use in evaluating the suitability of absorbing nonlinear media for soliton switching applications are presented. The main effect of linear absorption is to limit the propagation distance, which places an upper bound on the width of the soliton in order to fit sufficient characteristic soliton propagation lengths within the device. The optical limiting nature of two-photon absorption places an upper bound on the gain that an interaction can achieve. The combined effects of linear and two-photon absorption are to reduce the gain upper bound imposed by two-photon absorption alone with the addition of the soliton width constraint. A maximized gain upper bound is determined solely by material parameters and is compared among three promising nonlinear materials. It is shown numerically that the spatial soliton dragging interaction requires shorter propagation distances and achieves greater gain than the collision interaction and that both are tolerant to the presence of absorption and can provide, with high contrast, gains of three or greater using measured material parameters. These results warrant pursuing the implementation of spatial soliton-based logic gates. .

  19. Metamaterials for Remote Generation of Spatially Controllable Two Dimensional Array of Microplasma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pramod K.; Hopwood, Jeffrey; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Since the initial demonstration of negative refraction and cloaking using metamaterials, there has been enormous interest and progress in making practical devices based on metamaterials such as electrically small antennas, absorbers, modulators, detectors etc that span over a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum covering microwave, terahertz, infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. We present metamaterial as an active substrate where each unit cell serves as an element for generation of plasma, the fourth state of matter. Sub-wavelength localization of incident electromagnetic wave energy, one of the most interesting properties of metamaterials is employed here for generating high electric field to ignite and sustain microscale plasmas. Frequency selective nature of the metamaterial unit cells make it possible to generate spatially localized microplasma in a large array using multiple resonators. A dual resonator topology is shown for the demonstration. Since microwave energy couples to the metamaterial through free space, the proposed approach is naturally wireless. Such spatially controllable microplasma arrays provide a fundamentally new material system for future investigations in novel applications, e.g. nonlinear metamaterials. PMID:25098976

  20. High spatial resolution two-dimensional position sensitive detector for the performance of coincidence experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ceolin, D.; Chaplier, G.; Lemonnier, M.; Garcia, G.A.; Miron, C.; Nahon, L.; Simon, M.; Leclercq, N.; Morin, P.

    2005-04-01

    A position sensitive detector (PSD) adapted to the technical and mechanical specifications of our angle and energy resolved electron-ion(s) coincidence experiments is described in this article. The device, whose principle is very similar to the one detailed by J. H. D. Eland [Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 1501 (1994)], is composed by a set of microchannel plates and a delay line anode. The originality comes from the addition in front of the encoding surface of a ceramic disk covered by a resistive surface. The capacitive coupling between the anode and the resistive plane has the double advantage of eliminating the spatial modulations due to the lattice of the anode and also of sensitizing a greater number of electrodes, increasing thus considerably the accuracy of the position measurements. The tests carried out with a time to digital conversion module of 250 ps resolution showed that a spatial resolution better than 50 {mu}m and a dead time of 160 ns can be achieved. Typical images obtained with the help of the EPICEA and DELICIOUS coincidence setups are also shown.

  1. Spatially-Resolved Modeling of Spin and Valley Hall Effects in Two-Dimensional Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenferink, E. J.; Jia, Y.; Stern, N. P.

    2015-03-01

    In monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (1L-TMDs), a valley degree of freedom emerges for charge carriers due to the absence of spatial inversion symmetry. Strong spin-orbit interaction couples spin and valley, resulting in correlated spin, valley, and charge transport such as transverse Hall effects. Spatially-resolved measurements of these Hall effects have recently been achieved in monolayer MoS2, necessitating a detailed picture for understanding transport and relaxation mechanisms in 1L-TMDs that considers carrier, valley, and spin motion and generation processes. Here, we study spin and valley Hall effects in 1L-TMD devices by simulating the transport of spin- and valley-polarized carriers with a generalized drift diffusion model incorporating circularly polarized optical excitation. Spin and valley accumulation and the transverse voltage are analyzed in different device geometries. We compare the electron and hole contributions to the transverse voltage and discuss the potential for a measurement of the valley relaxation times of free carriers in 1L-TMDs. This work was supported by the Institute for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-SC0012130). N.P.S. acknowledges support as an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow.

  2. Surface lattice solitons in diffusive nonlinear media with spatially modulated nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Kaiyun; Jiao, Zhiyong; Li, Xi; Jia, Yulei; Zhang, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Two families of gap and twisted surface lattice solitons in diffusive nonlinear periodic media with spatially modulated nonlinearity are reported. It is shown that the existence and stability of such solitons are extremely spatially modulated nonlinearity sensitive. For self-focusing nonlinearity, gap surface solitons belonging to the semi-infinite gap are stable in whole existence domain, twisted surface solitons are also linearly stable in low modulated strength region and a very narrow unstable region near the upper cutoff appears in high modulated strength region. In the self-defocusing case, surface gap solitons belonging to the first gap can propagate stably in whole existence domain except for an extremely narrow region close to the Bloch band, twisted solitons belonging to this gap are unstable in the entire existence domain. PMID:26368497

  3. Weak-beam trapping by bright spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J. U.; Stegeman, G. I.; Aitchison, J. S.

    1995-10-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the trapping and spatial wave breaking of weak signal beams by orthogonally polarized bright spatial solitons. Experiments were performed in an AlGaAs planar waveguide excited at a wavelength of 1.55 mu m .

  4. A two-dimensional numerical study of spatial pattern formation in interacting Turing systems.

    PubMed

    Barrio, R A; Varea, C; Aragón, J L; Maini, P K

    1999-05-01

    For many years Turing systems have been proposed to account for spatial and spatiotemporal pattern formation in chemistry and biology. We extend the study of Turing systems to investigate the rô1e of boundary conditions, domain shape, non-linearities, and coupling of such systems. We show that such modifications lead to a wide variety of patterns that bear a striking resemblance to pigmentation patterns in fish, particularly those involving stripes, spots and transitions between them. Using the Turing system as a metaphor for activator-inhibitor models we conclude that such a mechanism, with the aforementioned modifications, may play a rô1e in fish patterning. PMID:17883228

  5. Two-dimensional spatial manipulation of microparticles in continuous flows in acoustofluidic systems

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lu; Wyatt Shields, C.; Johnson, Leah M.; Graves, Steven W.; Yellen, Benjamin B.; López, Gabriel P.

    2015-01-01

    We report a modeling and experimental study of techniques to acoustically focus particles flowing through a microfluidic channel. Our theoretical model differs from prior works in that we solve an approximate 2-D wave transmission model that accounts for wave propagation in both the solid and fluid phases. Our simulations indicate that particles can be effectively focused at driving frequencies as high as 10% off of the resonant condition. This conclusion is supported by experiments on the acoustic focusing of particles in nearly square microchannels, which are studied for different flow rates, driving frequencies and placements of the lead zirconate titanate transducer, either underneath the microchannel or underneath a parallel trough. The relative acoustic potential energy and the resultant velocity fields for particles with positive acoustic contrast coefficients are estimated in the 2-D limit. Confocal microscopy was used to observe the spatial distribution of the flowing microparticles in three dimensions. Through these studies, we show that a single driving frequency from a single piezoelectric actuator can induce the 2-D concentration of particles in a microchannel with a nearly square cross section, and we correlate these behaviors with theoretical predictions. We also show that it is possible to control the extent of focusing of the microparticles, and that it is possible to decouple the focusing of microparticles in the vertical direction from the lateral direction in rectangular channels with anisotropic cross sections. This study provides guidelines to design and operate microchip-based acoustofluidic devices for precise control over the spatial arrangement of microparticles for applications such as flow cytometry and cellular sorting. PMID:25713687

  6. Percolation in spatial evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game on two-dimensional lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woosik; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2015-11-01

    We study the spatial evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game with updates of imitation max on triangular, hexagonal, and square lattices. We use the weak prisoner's dilemma game with a single parameter b . Due to the competition between the temptation value b and the coordination number z of the base lattice, a greater variety of percolation properties is expected to occur on the lattice with the larger z . From the numerical analysis, we find six different regimes on the triangular lattice (z =6 ). Regardless of the initial densities of cooperators and defectors, cooperators always percolate in the steady state in two regimes for small b . In these two regimes, defectors do not percolate. In two regimes for the intermediate value of b , both cooperators and defectors undergo percolation transitions. The defector always percolates in two regimes for large b . On the hexagonal lattice (z =3 ), there exist two distinctive regimes. For small b , both the cooperators and the defectors undergo percolation transitions while only defectors always percolate for large b . On the square lattice (z =4 ), there exist three regimes. Combining with the finite-size scaling analyses, we show that all the observed percolation transitions belong to the universality class of the random percolation. We also show how the detailed growth mechanism of cooperator and defector clusters decides each regime.

  7. Two-dimensional high spatial-resolution dosimeter using europium doped potassium chloride: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. Harold; Driewer, Joseph P.; Han, Zhaohui; Low, Daniel A.; Yang, Deshan; Xiao, Zhiyan

    2014-04-01

    Recent research has shown that KCl:Eu2+ has great potential for use in megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry because this material exhibits excellent storage performance and is reusable due to strong radiation hardness. This work reports the authors’ attempts to fabricate 2D KCl:Eu2+ storage phosphor films (SPFs) using both a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method and a tape casting method. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that a 10 µm thick PVD sample was composed of highly crystalline KCl. No additional phases were observed, suggesting that the europium activator had been completely incorporated into the KCl matrix. Photostimulated luminescence and photoluminescence spectra suggested that F (Cl-) centers were the electron storage centers post x-ray irradiation and that Eu2+ cations acted as luminescence centers in the photostimulation process. The 150 µm thick casted KCl:Eu2+ SPF showed sub-millimeter spatial-resolution. Monte Carlo simulations further demonstrated that the admixture of 20% KCl:Eu2+ and 80% low Z polymer binder exhibited almost no energy-dependence in a 6 MV beam. KCl:Eu2+ pellet samples showed a large dynamic range from 0.01 cGy to 60 Gy dose-to-water, and saturated at approximately 500 Gy as a result of KCl's intrinsic high radiation hardness. Taken together, this work provides strong evidence that KCl:Eu2+-based SPF with associated readout apparatus could result in a novel electronic film system that has all the desirable features associated with classic radiographic film and, importantly, water equivalence and the capability of permanent identification of each detector.

  8. Two-dimensional high spatial-resolution dosimeter using europium doped potassium chloride: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Li, H. Harold; Driewer, Joseph P.; Han, Zhaohui; Low, Daniel A.; Yang, Deshan; Xiao, Zhiyan

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that KCl:Eu2+ has great potential for use in megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry because this material exhibits excellent storage performance and is reusable due to strong radiation hardness. This work reports the authors’ attempts to fabricate 2D KCl:Eu2+ storage phosphor films (SPFs) using both a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method and a tape casting method. X ray diffraction analysis showed that a 10 µm thick PVD sample was composed of highly crystalline KCl. No additional phases were observed, suggesting that the europium activator had completed been incorporated into the KCl matrix. Photostimulated luminescence and photoluminescence spectra suggested that F (Cl-) centers were the electron storage centers post×ray irradiation and that Eu2+ cations acted as luminescence centers in the photostimulation process. The 150-µm thick casted KCl:Eu2+ SPF showed sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Monte Carlo simulations further demonstrated that the admixture of 20% KCl:Eu2+ and 80% low Z polymer binder exhibited almost no energy dependence in a 6 MV beam. KCl:Eu2+ pellet samples showed a large dynamic range from 0.01 cGy to 60 Gy dose-to-water, and saturated at approximately 500 Gy as a result of KCl’s intrinsic high radiation hardness. Taken together, this work provides strong evidence that KCl:Eu2+ based SPF with associated readout apparatus could result in a novel electronic film system that has all the desirable features associated with classic radiographic film and, importantly, water equivalence and the capability of permanent identification of each detector. PMID:24651448

  9. Combining two-dimensional spatially selective RF excitation, parallel imaging, and UNFOLD for accelerated MR thermometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Mei, Chang-Sheng; Panych, Lawrence P; Yuan, Jing; McDannold, Nathan J; Treat, Lisa H; Jing, Yun; Madore, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    MR thermometry can be a very challenging application, as good resolution may be needed along spatial, temporal, and temperature axes. Given that the heated foci produced during thermal therapies are typically much smaller than the anatomy being imaged, much of the imaged field-of-view is not actually being heated and may not require temperature monitoring. In this work, many-fold improvements were obtained in terms of temporal resolution and/or 3D spatial coverage by sacrificing some of the in-plane spatial coverage. To do so, three fast-imaging approaches were jointly implemented with a spoiled gradient echo sequence: (1) two-dimensional spatially selective RF excitation, (2) unaliasing by Fourier encoding the overlaps using the temporal dimension (UNFOLD), and (3) parallel imaging. The sequence was tested during experiments with focused ultrasound heating in ex vivo tissue and a tissue-mimicking phantom. Temperature maps were estimated from phase-difference images based on the water proton resonance frequency shift. Results were compared to those obtained from a spoiled gradient echo sequence sequence, using a t-test. Temporal resolution was increased by 24-fold, with temperature uncertainty less than 1°C, while maintaining accurate temperature measurements (mean difference between measurements, as observed in gel = 0.1°C ± 0.6; R = 0.98; P > 0.05). PMID:21337421

  10. Nonlocal gray solitons in parity-time-symmetric potentials with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xing; Shi, Zhiwei; Li, Huagang

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the nonlocal gray solitons in parity-time (PT)-symmetric potentials with spatially modulated nonlinearity. If the nonlinear modulated function (nonlinear potential) is real, the coefficient of the function can control the grayness and the existence domain of these gray solitons. Especially, if the coefficient of the nonlinear modulated function is below a threshold, the gray solitons will be changed into anti-dark solitons. The effects of the degree of the nonlocality and the imaginary part of the PT-symmetric potentials on the grayness and the existence of the gray solitons are also discussed. If the nonlinear modulated function is also PT symmetric, the imaginary part of the function will obviously affect the existence and stability of the nonlocal gray solitons.

  11. SOLITONS. BREATHERS: Role of the local response of a photorefractive medium in the formation of a spatial screened soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assel'born, S. A.; Kundikova, N. D.; Novikov, I. V.

    2008-09-01

    The propagation of intensity-modulated laser radiation in a barium—sodium niobate crystal is studied in an external electric field. The possibility of controlling a nonlinear local response of the crystal is demonstrated. It is shown experimentally that the conditions of formation of a one-dimensional spatial soliton can be changed by varying the nonlinear response of the crystal.

  12. Two-component vector solitons in defocusing Kerr-type media with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj

    2014-12-15

    We present a class of exact solutions to the coupled (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatially modulated nonlinearity and a special external potential, which describe the evolution of two-component vector solitons in defocusing Kerr-type media. We find a robust soliton solution, constructed with the help of Whittaker functions. For specific choices of the topological charge, the radial mode number and the modulation depth, the solitons may exist in various forms, such as the half-moon, necklace-ring, and sawtooth vortex-ring patterns. Our results show that the profile of such solitons can be effectively controlled by the topological charge, the radial mode number, and the modulation depth. - Highlights: • Two-component vector soliton clusters in defocusing Kerr-type media are reported. • These soliton clusters are constructed with the help of Whittaker functions. • The half-moon, necklace-ring and vortex-ring patterns are found. • The profile of these solitons can be effectively controlled by three soliton parameters.

  13. Electric-field-controlled effects of spatial recurrence and multiplication of electron waves in two-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, V. A. Nikitin, A. V.

    2006-08-15

    Effects of recurrence and multiplication in the spatial distribution of the probability-flux density j{sub x}(x, z) (or the quantum-mechanical current density ej{sub x}(x, z), where e is the elementary charge), which arise from electron-wave interference in two-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures, are analyzed, and the possibility of controlling these effects by the application of a dc transverse electric field is examined. A type of nanostructure represented by two rectangular quantum wells (a wide one and a narrow one) whose widths are measured in the direction of the z axis (the quantum-confinement axis) with the wells arranged sequentially in the direction of propagation of the electron wave (the x axis) is considered. It is shown that, for an electron wave entering the wide well from the narrow well, the initial transverse distribution peak j{sub x}(0, z) is reproduced with some accuracy at distances X{sub p} = pX{sub 1} (recurrence) and, in nanostructures symmetric along the z axis, splits at distances X{sub 1}/q into q identical peaks of magnitude reduced by a factor of q (multiplication) (here, p and q are integers). It is demonstrated that these effects can be controlled by a dc electric field applied in the transverse direction (along the z axis) in the region of the wide quantum well. A reduction in the effective well width and appearance of asymmetry in the transverse potential profile upon application of the electric field cause a radical change in the j{sub x}(x, z) distribution in this quantum well and make possible inverse population of the quantum-confinement subbands.

  14. Dark spatial solitons in bulk azo-dye-doped polymer using photoinduced molecular reorientation

    SciTech Connect

    Bian Shaoping; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2004-08-16

    We report the generation of dark spatial solitons in bulk Disperse Red 1 doped poly(methyl methacrylate) using photoinduced reorientation of azo-dye molecules. Planar solitions are formed when illuminated with a continuous-wave laser at intensities of the order of hundreds of miliwatts per square centimeter. The width of the soliton saturates to a minimum value at high intensity; and when the width of the initial dark notch is reduced, the equilibrium minimum width is unchanged.

  15. Spatial distribution patterns of anorectal atresia/stenosis in China: Use of two-dimensional graph-theoretical clustering

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ping; Qiao, Liang; Dai, Li; Wang, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Guang-Xuan; Han, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Xun; Cao, Yi; Liang, Juan; Zhu, Jun

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the spatial distribution patterns of anorectal atresia/stenosis in China. METHODS: Data were collected from the Chinese Birth Defects Monitoring Network (CBDMN), a hospital-based congenital malformations registry system. All fetuses more than 28 wk of gestation and neonates up to 7 d of age in hospitals within the monitoring sites of the CBDMN were monitored from 2001 to 2005. Two-dimensional graph-theoretical clustering was used to divide monitoring sites of the CBDMN into different clusters according to the average incidences of anorectal atresia/stenosis in the different monitoring sites. RESULTS: The overall average incidence of anorectal atresia/stenosis in China was 3.17 per 10 000 from 2001 to 2005. The areas with the highest average incidences of anorectal atresia/stenosis were almost always focused in Eastern China. The monitoring sites were grouped into 6 clusters of areas. Cluster 1 comprised the monitoring sites in Heilongjiang Province, Jilin Province, and Liaoning Province; Cluster 2 was composed of those in Fujian Province, Guangdong Province, Hainan Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, south Hunan Province, and south Jiangxi Province; Cluster 3 consisted of those in Beijing Municipal City, Tianjin Municipal City, Hebei Province, Shandong Province, north Jiangsu Province, and north Anhui Province; Cluster 4 was made up of those in Zhejiang Province, Shanghai Municipal City, south Anhui Province, south Jiangsu Province, north Hunan Province, north Jiangxi Province, Hubei Province, Henan Province, Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region; Cluster 5 consisted of those in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Gansu Province and Qinghai Province; and Cluster 6 included those in Shaanxi Province, Sichuan Province, Chongqing Municipal City, Yunnan Province, Guizhou Province, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Province and Tibet Autonomous Region. CONCLUSION: The findings in this research allow the display of the spatial distribution patterns of anorectal atresia/stenosis in China. These will have important guiding significance for further analysis of relevant environmental factors regarding anorectal atresia/stenosis and for achieving regional monitoring for anorectal atresia/stenosis. PMID:19522031

  16. Routing of anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Peccianti, Marco; Conti, Claudio; Assanto, Gaetano; De Luca, Antonio; Umeton, Cesare

    2004-12-01

    In certain materials, the spontaneous spreading of a laser beam (owing to diffraction) can be compensated for by the interplay of optical intensity and material nonlinearity. The resulting non-diffracting beams are called 'spatial solitons' (refs 1-3), and they have been observed in various bulk media. In nematic liquid crystals, solitons can be produced at milliwatt power levels and have been investigated for both practical applications and as a means of exploring fundamental aspects of light interactions with soft matter. Spatial solitons effectively operate as waveguides, and so can be considered as a means of channelling optical information along the self-sustaining filament. But actual steering of these solitons within the medium has proved more problematic, being limited to tilts of just a fraction of a degree. Here we report the results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of voltage-controlled 'walk-off' and steering of self-localized light in nematic liquid crystals. We find not only that the propagation direction of individual spatial solitons can be tuned by several degrees, but also that an array of direction-tunable solitons can be generated by modulation instability. Such control capabilities might find application in reconfigurable optical interconnects, optical tweezers and optical surgical techniques. PMID:15592407

  17. Two-Dimensional Tracking of Heart Wall for Detailed Analysis of Heart Function at High Temporal and Spatial Resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunori Honjo,; Hideyuki Hasegawa,; Hiroshi Kanai,

    2010-07-01

    For noninvasive and quantitative measurements of global two-dimensional (2D) heart wall motion, speckle tracking methods have been developed and applied. These methods overcome the limitation of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), which is susceptible to aliasing, by directly tracking backscattered echoes by pattern matching techniques, i.e., the cross-correlation or the sum of absolute differences, in real time. In these conventional methods, the frame rate (FR) is limited to about 200 Hz, corresponding to the sampling period of 5 ms. However, myocardial function during the isovolumic contraction period obtained by these conventional speckle tracking methods remains unclear owing to low temporal and spatial resolutions of these methods. Moreover, the accuracy of the speckle tracking method depends on an important parameter, i.e., the size of the correlation kernel. To track backscattered echoes accurately, it is necessary to determine the optimal kernel size. However, the optimal kernel size has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, correlation kernel size, which determines the tracking accurately, was optimized by evaluating root mean squared (RMS) errors in the lateral and axial displacements of a phantom estimated by speckle tracking methods at high spatial and temporal resolutions. For this purpose, the RF data from the longitudinal-axis cross-sectional view for the interventricular septum (IVS) were acquired on the basis of parallel beam forming (PBF) to improve temporal and spatial resolutions. A wide transmit beam scanned in 7 different directions sparsely and 16 receiving beams were generated for each transmission. The RF data of the phantom and the heart wall were obtained at high spatial (angle intervals of scan lines: 0.375 degrees) and temporal [frame rate (FR): 1020 Hz] resolutions. The determined optimal size of the correlation kernel was 7.9{\\degree} × 4.8 mm. Estimated displacements of the phantom were in good agreement with the actual displacement at an RMS error of 0.34 mm. Furthermore, the IVS motion during the isovolumic contraction (IC) was analyzed in detail. The speckle tracking method using the optimal kernel size 7.9{\\degree} × 4.8 mm was applied to multiple points in IVS to estimate 2D displacements during the IC period. In this period, a rapid displacement of IVS at a small amplitude of 1.5 mm, which suggests the expansion of the left ventricle and has not been measured by conventional tracking methods at a low temporal resolution, was detected by 2D tracking. Furthermore, the displacement on the apical side was found to be delayed by 10 ms compared with that on the basal side. These results indicate the potential of this method in the high-accuracy estimation of 2D displacements and detailed analyses of physiological function of the myocardium.

  18. Two-Dimensional Tracking of Heart Wall for Detailed Analysis of Heart Function at High Temporal and Spatial Resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honjo, Yasunori; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    For noninvasive and quantitative measurements of global two-dimensional (2D) heart wall motion, speckle tracking methods have been developed and applied. These methods overcome the limitation of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), which is susceptible to aliasing, by directly tracking backscattered echoes by pattern matching techniques, i.e., the cross-correlation or the sum of absolute differences, in real time. In these conventional methods, the frame rate (FR) is limited to about 200 Hz, corresponding to the sampling period of 5 ms. However, myocardial function during the isovolumic contraction period obtained by these conventional speckle tracking methods remains unclear owing to low temporal and spatial resolutions of these methods. Moreover, the accuracy of the speckle tracking method depends on an important parameter, i.e., the size of the correlation kernel. To track backscattered echoes accurately, it is necessary to determine the optimal kernel size. However, the optimal kernel size has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, correlation kernel size, which determines the tracking accurately, was optimized by evaluating root mean squared (RMS) errors in the lateral and axial displacements of a phantom estimated by speckle tracking methods at high spatial and temporal resolutions. For this purpose, the RF data from the longitudinal-axis cross-sectional view for the interventricular septum (IVS) were acquired on the basis of parallel beam forming (PBF) to improve temporal and spatial resolutions. A wide transmit beam scanned in 7 different directions sparsely and 16 receiving beams were generated for each transmission. The RF data of the phantom and the heart wall were obtained at high spatial (angle intervals of scan lines: 0.375 degrees) and temporal [frame rate (FR): 1020 Hz] resolutions. The determined optimal size of the correlation kernel was 7.9° ×4.8 mm. Estimated displacements of the phantom were in good agreement with the actual displacement at an RMS error of 0.34 mm. Furthermore, the IVS motion during the isovolumic contraction (IC) was analyzed in detail. The speckle tracking method using the optimal kernel size 7.9° ×4.8 mm was applied to multiple points in IVS to estimate 2D displacements during the IC period. In this period, a rapid displacement of IVS at a small amplitude of 1.5 mm, which suggests the expansion of the left ventricle and has not been measured by conventional tracking methods at a low temporal resolution, was detected by 2D tracking. Furthermore, the displacement on the apical side was found to be delayed by 10 ms compared with that on the basal side. These results indicate the potential of this method in the high-accuracy estimation of 2D displacements and detailed analyses of physiological function of the myocardium.

  19. Dynamics and all-optical control of solitons at the interface of optical superlattices with spatially modulated nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Chang; He, Ying-Ji; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Wang, He-Zhou

    2011-04-25

    We find the existence of two kinds of solitons at the interface of optical superlattices with both spatially modulated nonlinearity and linear refraction index. The first kind of solitons can either drift across the lattice, or deflect to the uniform nonlinear medium. The dynamics of such solitons mainly depends on their powers. The other kind of solitons can stably propagate along the surface, and can be controlled by additional Gaussian beams. In addition, we demonstrate the input-angle-dependent reflection, trapping, and refraction with nearly no losses by launching sech-shaped solitons. PMID:21643131

  20. Two-dimensional solitary kinetic Alfven waves and dipole vortex structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.J.; Wang, D.Y.; Huang, G.L.

    1997-03-01

    A new type of density soliton, which we call {open_quotes}dipole density soliton,{close_quotes} is discovered in data from the Freja satellite. Like the dip or hump density solitons that were recently discovered in the Freja data [D.-J. Wu, G.-L. Huang, and D.-Y. Wang, Phys. Plasmas {bold 3}, 2879 (1996)], the dipole density solitons are also associated with strong electric spikes ({approximately} a few 100 mV/m) and have a spatial scale length of a few 100 m. This indicates that the three types of density solitons (dip, hump, and dipole) probably have the same physical nature. In this paper, a two-dimensional solitary kinetic Alfven wave (SKAW) model with a dipole vortex structure is proposed to account for the three kinds of density solitons (dip, hump, and dipole), in which the differences in their appearances can naturally be attributed to differences in the positions and directions at which the satellite crosses dipole vortex structures. Some features of this two-dimensional SKAW model are discussed, and the results are compared to the one-dimensional cases. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Matter-wave solitons supported by field-induced dipole-dipole repulsion with spatially modulated strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongyao; Liu, Jingfeng; Pang, Wei; Malomed, Boris A.

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate the existence of one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D, respectively) bright solitons in the Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive dipole-dipole interactions induced by a combination of dc and ac polarizing fields, oriented perpendicular to the plane in which the BEC is trapped, assuming that the strength of the fields grows in the radial (r) direction faster than r3. Stable tightly confined 1D and 2D fundamental solitons, twisted solitons in 1D, and solitary vortices in 2D are found in a numerical form. The fundamental solitons remain robust under the action of an expulsive potential, which is induced by the interaction of the dipoles with the polarizing field. The confinement and scaling properties of the soliton families are explained analytically. The Thomas-Fermi approximation is elaborated for fundamental solitons. The mobility of the fundamental solitons is limited to the central area. Stable 1D even and odd solitons are also found in the setting with a double-well modulation function, along with a regime of Josephson oscillations.

  2. Switching spatial dissipative solitons in a VCSEL with frequency selective feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwell, N.; McIntyre, C.; Scroggie, A. J.; Oppo, G. L.; Firth, W. J.; Ackemann, T.

    2010-07-01

    The process of switching on bistable spatial dissipative solitons in a VCSEL with frequency selective feedback is analyzed experimentally and theoretically. Two regimes of successful writing of spatial solitons with an external pulse are identified: for short durations of the writing beam pulse, the input amplitude has to increase, while for longer durations, the input amplitude can remain constant. Switch on spectrograms of the frequency spectrum show a transient dynamics over many modes of the external cavity with a drift of the central frequency from higher to lower frequency. Such a multi-mode regime is almost independent of the frequency of the writing beam. It is interpreted to be due to the existence of multiple unstable solitons with different frequencies which channel the transient dynamics. Good agreement between experimental results and numerical simulations in both the time and frequency domains is found.

  3. Spatial evolution of a quasi-two-dimensional Kármán vortex street subjected to a strong uniform magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Ahmad H. A.; Hussam, Wisam K.; Pothérat, Alban; Sheard, Gregory J.

    2015-05-01

    A vortex decay model for predicting spatial evolution of peak vorticity in a wake behind a cylinder is presented. For wake vortices in the stable region behind the formation region, results have shown that the presented model has a good capability of predicting spatial evolution of peak vorticity within an advecting vortex across 0.1 ≤ β ≤ 0.4, 500 ≤ H ≤ 5000, and 1500 ≤ ReL ≤ 8250. The model is also generalized to predict the decay behaviour of wake vortices in a class of quasi-two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic duct flows. Comparison with published data demonstrates remarkable consistency.

  4. Lie Symmetries and Solitons in Nonlinear Systems with Spatially Inhomogeneous Nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Vekslerchik, Vadym; Torres, Pedro J.

    2007-02-09

    Using Lie group theory and canonical transformations, we construct explicit solutions of nonlinear Schroedinger equations with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearities. We present the general theory, use it to show that localized nonlinearities can support bound states with an arbitrary number solitons, and discuss other applications of interest to the field of nonlinear matter waves.

  5. Lie symmetries and solitons in nonlinear systems with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Prez-Garca, Vctor M; Vekslerchik, Vadym; Torres, Pedro J

    2007-02-01

    Using Lie group theory and canonical transformations, we construct explicit solutions of nonlinear Schrdinger equations with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearities. We present the general theory, use it to show that localized nonlinearities can support bound states with an arbitrary number solitons, and discuss other applications of interest to the field of nonlinear matter waves. PMID:17358944

  6. Competition between drift and spatial defects leads to oscillatory and excitable dynamics of dissipative solitons.

    PubMed

    Parra-Rivas, P; Gomila, D; Matías, M A; Colet, P; Gelens, L

    2016-01-01

    We have reported in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 064103 (2013)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.110.064103 that in systems which otherwise do not show oscillatory dynamics, the interplay between pinning to a defect and pulling by drift allows the system to exhibit excitability and oscillations. Here we build on this work and present a detailed bifurcation analysis of the various dynamical instabilities that result from the competition between a pulling force generated by the drift and a pinning of the solitons to spatial defects. We show that oscillatory and excitable dynamics of dissipative solitons find their origin in multiple codimension-2 bifurcation points. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mechanisms leading to these dynamical regimes are generic for any system admitting dissipative solitons. PMID:26871077

  7. Competition between drift and spatial defects leads to oscillatory and excitable dynamics of dissipative solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Rivas, P.; Gomila, D.; Matas, M. A.; Colet, P.; Gelens, L.

    2016-01-01

    We have reported in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 064103 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.064103 that in systems which otherwise do not show oscillatory dynamics, the interplay between pinning to a defect and pulling by drift allows the system to exhibit excitability and oscillations. Here we build on this work and present a detailed bifurcation analysis of the various dynamical instabilities that result from the competition between a pulling force generated by the drift and a pinning of the solitons to spatial defects. We show that oscillatory and excitable dynamics of dissipative solitons find their origin in multiple codimension-2 bifurcation points. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mechanisms leading to these dynamical regimes are generic for any system admitting dissipative solitons.

  8. Spontaneous reorientations of meta-atoms and electromagnetic spatial solitons in a liquid metacrystal.

    PubMed

    Zharov, Alexander A; Zharov, Alexander A; Zharova, Nina A

    2014-08-01

    We show that transverse electromagnetic waves propagating along an external static electric field in liquid metacrystal (LMC) can provoke spontaneous rearrangement of elongated meta-atoms that changes the direction of the anisotropy axis of the LMC. This kind of instability may reorient the meta-atoms from the equilibrium state parallel to a static field to the state along a high-frequency field and back at the different threshold intensities of electromagnetic waves in such a way that bistability in the system takes place. Reorientation of meta-atoms causes a change in the effective refraction index of LMC that creates, in turn, the conditions for the formation of bright spatial solitons. Such spatial solitons are the self-consistent domains of redirected meta-atoms with trapped photons. We find that the instability thresholds as well as energy flux captured by the spatial soliton can be easily managed by variation of the static electric field applied to the LMC. We study the effects of soliton excitation and collisions via numerical simulations. PMID:25215843

  9. Scattering due to Schottky barrier height spatial fluctuation on two dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huijie; Liu, Guipeng Wei, Hongyuan; Jiao, Chunmei; Wang, Jianxia; Zhang, Heng; Dong Jin, Dong; Feng, Yuxia; Yang, Shaoyan Wang, Lianshan; Zhu, Qinsheng; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2013-12-02

    A scattering mechanism related to the Schottky barrier height (SBH) spatial fluctuation of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is presented. We find that the low field mobility is on the order of 10{sup 4}–10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/Vs. The 2DEG transport properties are found to be influenced by both the mobility and 2DEG density variations caused by the SBH fluctuation. Our results indicate that a uniform Schottky contact is highly desired to minimize the influence of SBH inhomogeneity on the device performance.

  10. Quantifying flow-dependent changes in subyearling fall chinook salmon rearing habitat using two-dimensional spatially explicit modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Garland, R.D.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    We used an analysis based on a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the amount of rearing habitat and stranding area for subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River at steady-state flows ranging from 1,416 to 11,328 m3/s. High-resolution river channel bathymetry was used in conjunction with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to estimate water velocities, depths, and lateral slopes throughout our 33-km study area. To relate the probability of fish presence in nearshore habitats to measures of physical habitat, we developed a logistic regression model from point electrofishing data. We only considered variables that were compatible with a GIS and therefore excluded other variables known to be important to juvenile salmonids. Water velocity and lateral slope were the only two variables included in our final model. The amount of available rearing habitat generally decreased as flow increased, with the greatest decreases occurring between 1,416 and 4,814 m3/s. When river discharges were between 3,682 and 7,080 m3/s, flow fluctuations of 566 m3/s produced the smallest change in available rearing area (from -6.3% to +6.8% of the total). Stranding pool area was greatly reduced at steady-state flows exceeding 4,531 m3/s, but the highest net gain in stranding area was produced by 850 m3/s decreases in flow when river discharges were between 5,381 and 5,664 m3/s. Current measures to protect rearing fall chinook salmon include limiting flow fluctuations at Priest Rapids Dam to 850 m3/s when the dam is spilling water and when the weekly flows average less than 4,814 m3/s. We believe that limiting flow fluctuations at all discharges would further protect subyearling fall chinook salmon.

  11. Impacts of elevation data spatial resolution on two-dimensional dam break flood simulation and consequence assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Judi, David R; Mcpherson, Timothy N; Burian, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    A grid resolution sensitivity analysis using a two-dimensional flood inundation model has been presented in this paper. Simulations for 6 dam breaches located randomly in the United States were run at 10,30,60,90, and 120 meter resolutions. The dams represent a range of topographic conditions, ranging from 0% slope to 1.5% downstream of the dam. Using 10 meter digital elevation model (DEM) simulation results as the baseline, the coarser simulation results were compared in terms of flood inundation area, peak depths, flood wave travel time, daytime and nighttime population in flooded area, and economic impacts. The results of the study were consistent with previous grid resolution studies in terms of inundated area, depths, and velocity impacts. The results showed that as grid resolution is decreased, the relative fit of inundated area between the baseline and coarser resolution decreased slightly. This is further characterized by increasing over prediction as well as increasing under prediction with decreasing resolution. Comparison of average peak depths showed that depths generally decreased as resolution decreased, as well as the velocity. It is, however, noted that the trends in depth and velocity showed less consistency than the inundation area metrics. This may indicate that for studies in which velocity and depths must be resolved more accurately (urban environments when flow around buildings is important in the calculation of drag effects), higher resolution DEM data should be used. Perhaps the most significant finding from this study is the perceived insensitivity of socio-economic impacts to grid resolution. The difference in population at risk (PAR) and economic cost generally remained within 10% of the estimated impacts using the high resolution DEM. This insensitivity has been attributed to over estimated flood area and associated socio-economic impacts compensating for under estimated flooded area and associated socio-economic impacts. The United States has many dams that are classified as high-hazard potential that need an emergency action plan (EAP). It has been found that the development of EAPs for all high-hazard dams is handicapped due to funding limitations. The majority of the cost associated with developing an EAP is determining the flooded area. The results of this study have shown that coarse resolution dam breach studies can be used to provide an acceptable estimate of the inundated area and economic impacts, with very little computational cost. Therefore, the solution to limited funding may be to perform coarse resolution dam breach studies on high-hazard potential dams and use the results to help prioritize the order in which detailed EAPs should be developed.

  12. Towards a microchannel-based X-ray detector with two-dimensional spatial and time resolution and high dynamic range

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bernhard W.; Mane, Anil; Elam, Jeffrey; Obaid, Razib; Wetstein, Matthew J.

    2015-09-01

    X-ray detectors that combine two-dimensional spatial resolution with a high time resolution are needed in numerous applications of synchrotron radiation. Most detectors with this combination of capabilities are based on semiconductor technology and are therefore limited in size. Furthermore, the time resolution is often realised through rapid time-gating of the acquisition, followed by a slower readout. Here, a detector technology is realised based on relatively inexpensive microchannel plates that uses GHz waveform sampling for a millimeter-scale spatial resolution and better than 100 ps time resolution. The technology is capable of continuous streaming of time- and location-tagged events at rates greater than 10(7) events per cm(2). Time-gating can be used for improved dynamic range.

  13. Matter-wave solitons and finite-amplitude Bloch waves in optical lattices with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jiefang; Meng Jianping; Wu Lei; Li Yishen; Malomed, Boris A.

    2010-09-15

    We investigate solitons and nonlinear Bloch waves in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices (OLs). By introducing specially designed localized profiles of the spatial modulation of the attractive nonlinearity, we construct an infinite set of exact soliton solutions in terms of Mathieu and elliptic functions, with the chemical potential belonging to the semi-infinite gap of the OL-induced spectrum. Starting from the particular exact solutions, we employ the relaxation method to construct generic families of soliton solutions in a numerical form. The stability of the solitons is investigated through the computation of the eigenvalues for small perturbations, and also by direct simulations. Finally, we demonstrate a virtually exact (in the numerical sense) composition relation between nonlinear Bloch waves and solitons.

  14. Simultaneous high-resolution two-dimensional spatial and one-dimensional picosecond streaked x-ray pinhole imaging.

    PubMed

    Steel, A B; Nagel, S R; Dunn, J; Baldis, H A

    2012-10-01

    A Kentech x-ray streak camera was run at the LLNL compact multipulse terawatt (COMET) laser to record simultaneous space- and time-resolved measurements of picosecond laser-produced plasmas. Four different x-ray energy channels were monitored using broadband filters to record the time history of Cu targets heated at irradiances of 10(16)-10(19) W?cm(2). Through the Cu filter channel, a time-resolution below 3 ps was obtained. Additionally, an array of 10 ?m diameter pinholes was placed in front of the camera to produce multiple time-resolved x-ray images on the photocathode and time-integrated images on the phosphor with 10 and 15 times magnification, respectively, with spatial resolution of < 13 ?m. PMID:23127011

  15. Simultaneous high-resolution two-dimensional spatial and one-dimensional picosecond streaked x-ray pinhole imaginga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, A. B.; Nagel, S. R.; Dunn, J.; Baldis, H. A.

    2012-10-01

    A Kentech x-ray streak camera was run at the LLNL compact multipulse terawatt (COMET) laser to record simultaneous space- and time-resolved measurements of picosecond laser-produced plasmas. Four different x-ray energy channels were monitored using broadband filters to record the time history of Cu targets heated at irradiances of 1016-1019 W/cm2. Through the Cu filter channel, a time-resolution below 3 ps was obtained. Additionally, an array of 10 μm diameter pinholes was placed in front of the camera to produce multiple time-resolved x-ray images on the photocathode and time-integrated images on the phosphor with 10 and 15 times magnification, respectively, with spatial resolution of < 13 μm.

  16. Nonadiabatic quantum spin pump: Interplay between spatial interference and photon-assisted tunneling in two-dimensional Rashba systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changsheng; Yu, Yunjin; Wei, Yadong; Wang, Jian

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the nonadiabatic transport property of parametric quantum spin pumps in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit (SO) interaction. It is well known that in the adiabatic regime, the pumped charge and spin currents are zero when all the pumping parameters are in phase. But the pumped charge and spin currents can be nonzero with nonadiabatic contribution and spatial interference. In such a case, we have analytically proved the following: (i) If the potential including the pumping potential has the symmetry V(x,y,t)=V(-x,y,t) or V(x,y,t)=V(-x,-y,t) , where x is along the direction of pumped current, then the pumped charge current is zero but the pumped spin current may not be zero; (ii) if the potential including the pumping potential has the symmetry V(x,y,t)=V(x,-y,t) , then the pumped spin currents with spin along the x and z directions are zero. Since the phases of pumping potential are very easy to control, this provides a robust way of generating pure spin current. Numerically, we have verified the analytic results and calculated the pumped charge and spin current in the nonadiabatic regime at finite pumping frequency and finite pumping amplitude as well as external bias. In general, both charge current and spin current are pumped out of the system in the presence of SO interaction. Since both pumped charge current and spin current depend sensitively on the system parameters, the pure spin current without accompanying charge current can be produced by controlling system parameters such as external bias, phase difference between two pumping amplitudes, and the pumping frequency. An interesting interplay between spatial interference and photon-assisted tunneling processes is observed.

  17. TH-C-19A-12: Two-Dimensional High Spatial-Resolution Dosimeter Using Europium Doped Potassium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H; Yang, D; Xiao, Z; Driewer, J; Han, Z; Low, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recent research has shown that KCl:Eu2+ has great potential for use in megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry because this material exhibits excellent storage performance and is reusable due to strong radiation hardness. This work reports our attempts to fabricate 2D KCl:Eu2+ storage phosphor films (SPFs) using both a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method and a tape casting method. Methods: A thin layer of KCl:Eu2+ was deposited on a substrate of borosilicate glass (e.g., laboratory slides) with a PVD system. For tape casting, a homogenous suspension containing storage phosphor particles, liquid vehicle and polymer binder was formed and subsequently cast by doctor-blade onto a polyethylene terephthalate substrate to form a 150 μm thick SPF. Results: X ray diffraction analysis showed that a 10 μm thick PVD sample was composed of highly crystalline KCl. No additional phases were observed, suggesting that the europium activator had completed been incorporated into the KCl matrix. Photostimulated luminescence and photoluminescence spectra suggested that F (Cl−) centers were the electron storage centers post x ray irradiation and that Eu2+ cations acted as luminescence centers in the photostimulation process. The 150 μm thick casted KCl:Eu2+ SPF showed sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Monte Carlo simulations further demonstrated that the admixture of 20% KCl:Eu2+ and 80% low Z polymer binder exhibited almost no energy dependence in a 6 MV beam. KCl:Eu2+ pellet samples showed a large dynamic range from 0.01 cGy to 60 Gy dose-to-water, and saturated at approximately 500 Gy as a Result of its intrinsic high radiation hardness. Conclusions: This discovery research provides strong evidence that KCl:Eu2+ based SPF with associated readout apparatus could Result in a novel electronic film system that has all the desirable features associated with classic radiographic film and, importantly, water equivalence and the capability of permanent identification of each detector. This work was supported in part by NIH Grant No. R01CA148853. The authors would like to thank Paul Leblans (AGFA Healthcare, Belgium) for many helpful discussions on this topic.

  18. Dynamics of nonlinear waves in two-dimensional cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatially modulated nonlinearities and potentials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Si-Liu; Cheng, Jia-Xi; Belić, Milivoj R; Hu, Zheng-Long; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    We derive analytical solutions to the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with potentials and nonlinearities depending on both propagation distance and transverse space. Among other, circle solitons and multi-peaked vortex solitons are found. These solitary waves propagate self-similarly and are characterized by three parameters, the modal numbers m and n, and the modulation depth of intensity. We find that the stable fundamental solitons with m = 0 and the low-order solitons with m = 1, n ≤ 2 can be supported with the energy eigenvalues E = 0 and E ≠ 0. However, higher-order solitons display unstable propagation over prolonged distances. The stability of solutions is examined by numerical simulations. PMID:27137617

  19. Two-dimensional superresolution multiple-input multiple-output and inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging based on spatial frequency ambiguity resolving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianchao; Su, Weimin; Gu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Combining multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) techniques can reduce the number of antennas used and shorten the radar integrated time compared with the single-channel ISAR for the same cross-range resolution. In existing MIMO-ISAR processing, the echoes of different sensors are rearranged into an equivalent single-channel ISAR signal. A new method without echo rearrangement is proposed for two-dimensional (2-D) MIMO-ISAR imaging. A 2-D frequency estimation algorithm based on Unitary ESPRIT and projection transformation is used to obtain the spatial and Doppler frequencies of scatterers, and a high cross-range resolution can be achieved. The relationship between the two frequencies is exploited to resolve the ambiguity of spatial frequency. The analysis and simulation results show that, compared with the existing method, the proposed method can decrease the relative rotation angle (or integrated time) required for imaging. Thus, this method is more suitable for imaging targets with limited rotation or high maneuvering.

  20. The Two-dimensional Spatial Distributions of the Globular Clusters and Low-mass X-Ray Binaries of NGC 4649

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G.; Mineo, S.; Strader, J.; Fragos, T.; Kim, D.-W.; Luo, B.; Zezas, A.

    2014-03-01

    We report significant anisotropies in the projected two-dimensional (2D) spatial distributions of globular clusters (GCs) of the giant Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M60). Similar features are found in the 2D distribution of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), both associated with GCs and in the stellar field. Deviations from azimuthal symmetry suggest an arc-like excess of GCs extending north at 4-15 kpc galactocentric radii in the eastern side of major axis of NGC 4649. This feature is more prominent for red GCs, but still persists in the 2D distribution of blue GCs. High- and low-luminosity GCs also show some segregation along this arc, with high-luminosity GCs preferentially located in the southern end and low-luminosity GCs in the northern section of the arc. GC-LMXBs follow the anisotropy of red GCs, where most of them reside; however, a significant overdensity of (high-luminosity) field LMXBs is present to the south of the GC arc. These results suggest that NGC 4649 has experienced mergers and/or multiple accretions of less massive satellite galaxies during its evolution, of which the GCs in the arc may be the fossil remnant. We speculate that the observed anisotropy in the field LMXB spatial distribution indicates that these X-ray binaries may be the remnants of a star formation event connected with the merger, or maybe be ejected from the parent red GCs, if the bulk motion of these clusters is significantly affected by dynamical friction. We also detect a luminosity enhancement in the X-ray source population of the companion spiral galaxy NGC 4647. We suggest that these may be younger high mass X-ray binaries formed as a result of the tidal interaction of this galaxy with NGC 4649.

  1. The two-dimensional spatial distributions of the globular clusters and low-mass X-ray binaries of NGC 4649

    SciTech Connect

    D'Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G.; Mineo, S.; Fragos, T.; Kim, D.-W.; Zezas, A.; Strader, J.; Luo, B.

    2014-03-01

    We report significant anisotropies in the projected two-dimensional (2D) spatial distributions of globular clusters (GCs) of the giant Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M60). Similar features are found in the 2D distribution of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), both associated with GCs and in the stellar field. Deviations from azimuthal symmetry suggest an arc-like excess of GCs extending north at 4-15 kpc galactocentric radii in the eastern side of major axis of NGC 4649. This feature is more prominent for red GCs, but still persists in the 2D distribution of blue GCs. High- and low-luminosity GCs also show some segregation along this arc, with high-luminosity GCs preferentially located in the southern end and low-luminosity GCs in the northern section of the arc. GC-LMXBs follow the anisotropy of red GCs, where most of them reside; however, a significant overdensity of (high-luminosity) field LMXBs is present to the south of the GC arc. These results suggest that NGC 4649 has experienced mergers and/or multiple accretions of less massive satellite galaxies during its evolution, of which the GCs in the arc may be the fossil remnant. We speculate that the observed anisotropy in the field LMXB spatial distribution indicates that these X-ray binaries may be the remnants of a star formation event connected with the merger, or maybe be ejected from the parent red GCs, if the bulk motion of these clusters is significantly affected by dynamical friction. We also detect a luminosity enhancement in the X-ray source population of the companion spiral galaxy NGC 4647. We suggest that these may be younger high mass X-ray binaries formed as a result of the tidal interaction of this galaxy with NGC 4649.

  2. Transverse instability of transverse-magnetic solitons and nonlinear surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Yao; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2009-10-01

    We analyze stability of the TM polarized optical solitons and nonlinear guided waves localized at a metal-dielectric interface. We demonstrate, both analytically and numerically, that the spatial solitons can experience vectorial transverse modulational instability that leads to the generation of arrays of two-dimensional TM polarized self-trapped localized beams. In a sharp contrast, we reveal that the transverse instability is completely eliminated for nonlinear surface plasmons. PMID:19794789

  3. Topological Solitons in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsa, Zohreh

    1979-01-01

    A broad definition of solitons and a discussion of their role in physics is given. Vortices and magnetic monopoles which are examples of topological solitons in two and three spatial dimensions are described in some detail. (BB)

  4. Compression-induced crystallization of amorphous indomethacin in tablets: characterization of spatial heterogeneity by two-dimensional X-ray diffractometry.

    PubMed

    Thakral, Naveen K; Mohapatra, Sarat; Stephenson, Gregory A; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Tablets of amorphous indomethacin were compressed at 10, 25, 50, or 100 MPa using either an unlubricated or a lubricated die and stored individually at 35 °C in sealed Mylar pouches. At selected time points, tablets were analyzed by two-dimensional X-ray diffractometry (2D-XRD), which enabled us to profile the extent of drug crystallization in tablets, in both the radial and axial directions. To evaluate the role of lubricant, magnesium stearate was used as "internal" and/or "external" lubricant. Indomethacin crystallization propensity increased as a function of compression pressure, with 100 MPa pressure causing crystallization immediately after compression (detected using synchrotron radiation). However, the drug crystallization was not uniform throughout the tablets. In unlubricated systems, pronounced crystallization at the radial surface could be attributed to die wall friction. The tablet core remained substantially amorphous, irrespective of the compression pressure. Lubrication of the die wall with magnesium stearate, as external lubricant, dramatically decreased drug crystallization at the radial surface. The spatial heterogeneity in drug crystallization, as a function of formulation composition and compression pressure, was systematically investigated. When formulating amorphous systems as tablets, the potential for compression induced crystallization warrants careful consideration. Very low levels of crystallization on the tablet surface, while profoundly affecting product performance (decrease in dissolution rate), may not be readily detected by conventional analytical techniques. Early detection of crystallization could be pivotal in the successful design of a dosage form where, in order to obtain the desired bioavailability, the drug may be in a high energy state. Specialized X-ray diffractometric techniques (2D; use of high intensity synchrotron radiation) enabled detection of very low levels of drug crystallization and revealed the heterogeneity in crystallization within the tablet. PMID:25438193

  5. A concomitant and complete set of nonvolatile all-optical logic gates based on hybrid spatial solitons.

    PubMed

    Columbo, L L; Rizza, C; Brambilla, M; Prati, F; Tissoni, G

    2014-03-24

    We theoretically demonstrate the realization of a complete canonical set of all-optical logic gates (AND, OR, NOT), with a persistent (stored) output, by combining propagative spatial solitons in a photorefractive crystal and dissipative cavity solitons in a downstream broad-area vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). The system uses same-color, optical-axis aligned input and output channels with fixed readout locations, while switching from one gate to another is achieved by simply varying the potential applied to the photorefractive crystal. The inputs are Gaussian beams launched in the photorefractive crystal and the output is a bistable, persistent soliton in the VCSEL with a 'robust' eye diagram and large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Fast switching and intrinsic parallelism suggest that high bit flow rates can be obtained. PMID:24664042

  6. Two-dimensional equations of the surface harmonics method for solving problems of spatial neutron kinetics in square-lattice reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarinov, V. F. Kondrushin, A. E. Fomichenko, P. A.

    2014-12-15

    Two-dimensional time-dependent finite-difference equations of the surface harmonics method (SHM) for the description of the neutron transport are derived for square-lattice reactors. These equations are implemented in the SUHAM-TD code. Verification of the derived equations and the developed code are performed by the example of known test problems, and the potential and efficiency of the SHM as applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron transport equation in the diffusion approximation in two-dimensional geometry are demonstrated. These results show the substantial advantage of SHM over direct finite-difference modeling in computational costs.

  7. Spatially Localized Two-Dimensional J-Resolved NMR Spectroscopy via Intermolecular Double-Quantum Coherences for Biological Samples at 7 T

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chunhua; Cai, Shuhui; Huang, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) constitutes a mainstream technique for characterizing biological samples. Benefiting from the separation of chemical shifts and J couplings, spatially localized two-dimensional (2D) J-resolved spectroscopy (JPRESS) shows better identification of complex metabolite resonances than one-dimensional MRS does and facilitates the extraction of J coupling information. However, due to variations of macroscopic magnetic susceptibility in biological samples, conventional JPRESS spectra generally suffer from the influence of field inhomogeneity. In this paper, we investigated the implementation of the localized 2D J-resolved spectroscopy based on intermolecular double-quantum coherences (iDQCs) on a 7 T MRI scanner. Materials and Methods A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) aqueous solution, an intact pig brain tissue, and a whole fish (Harpadon nehereus) were explored by using the localized iDQC J-resolved spectroscopy (iDQCJRES) method, and the results were compared to those obtained by using the conventional 2D JPRESS method. Results Inhomogeneous line broadening, caused by the variations of macroscopic magnetic susceptibility in the detected biological samples (the intact pig brain tissue and the whole fish), degrades the quality of 2D JPRESS spectra, particularly when a large voxel is selected and some strongly structured components are included (such as the fish spinal cord). By contrast, high-resolution 2D J-resolved information satisfactory for metabolite analyses can be obtained from localized 2D iDQCJRES spectra without voxel size limitation and field shimming. From the contrastive experiments, it is obvious that the spectral information observed in the localized iDQCJRES spectra acquired from large voxels without field shimming procedure (i.e. in inhomogeneous fields) is similar to that provided by the JPRESS spectra acquired from small voxels after field shimming procedure (i.e. in relatively homogeneous fields). Conclusion The localized iDQCJRES method holds advantage for recovering high-resolution 2D J-resolved information from inhomogeneous fields caused by external non-ideal field condition or internal macroscopic magnetic susceptibility variations in biological samples, and it is free of voxel size limitation and time-consuming field shimming procedure. This method presents a complementary way to the conventional JPRESS method for MRS measurements on MRI systems equipped with broad inner bores, and may provide a promising tool for in vivo MRS applications. PMID:26207739

  8. Two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiaxing; Goldberger, Joshua E.

    2015-04-01

    It has been 10 years since Geim and Novoselov isolated single-layer graphene and uncovered the unique Fermi-Dirac physics in this two-dimensional (2D) material. This seminal work has encouraged a re-exploration of 2D materials, and the discovery of novel properties both when exfoliated into single-layers, and in the bulk. Furthermore, these systems has led to numerous exciting applications for layered materials ranging from electrochemical capacitors, to transparent conductors, to thermal management devices, to Terahertz electronics.

  9. Matched infrared soliton pairs in graphene under Landau quantization via four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chunling; Yu, Rong; Li, Jiahua; Hao, Xiangying; Wu, Ying

    2014-10-01

    We investigate a type of matched infrared soliton pairs based on four-wave mixng (FWM) in Landau-quantized graphene by using density-matrix method and perturbation theory. The linear and nonlinear dynamical properties of the graphene system are first discussed, and, in particular, we focus on the signatures of nonlinear optical response. Then we present analytical solutions for the fundamental bright and dark solitons, as well as bright two-soliton, which are in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations. Moreover, due to the unusual dispersion relation and chiral character of electron states, we find that the matched spatial soliton pairs can propagate through a two-dimensional crystal of graphene and their carrier frequencies are adjustable within the infrared frequency regimes. Our proposed scheme may provide a route to explore the applications of matched infrared soliton pairs in telecommunication and optical information processing.

  10. Dark Solitons for the Defocusing Cubic Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with the Spatially Periodic Potential and Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhen-Ya; Yan, Fang-Chi

    2015-09-01

    We study the existence of dark solitons of the defocusing cubic nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) eqaution with the spatially-periodic potential and nonlinearity. Firstly, we propose six families of upper and lower solutions of the dynamical systems arising from the stationary defocusing NLS equation. Secondly, by regarding a dark soliton as a heteroclinic orbit of the Poincaré map, we present some constraint conditions for the periodic potential and nonlinearity to show the existence of stationary dark solitons of the defocusing NLS equation for six different cases in terms of the theory of strict lower and upper solutions and the dynamics of planar homeomorphisms. Finally, we give the explicit dark solitons of the defocusing NLS equation with the chosen periodic potential and nonlinearity. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61178091, the National Key Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2011CB302400, and the Open Project Program of State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China under Grant No. Y4KF211CJ1

  11. Bistable Bright Optical Spatial Solitons due to Charge Drift and Diffusion of Various Orders in Photovoltaic Photorefractive Media Under Closed-Circuit Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwetanshumala, S.

    2016-02-01

    Evolution of bright optical spatial solitons in biased photovoltaic photorefractive (PVPR) medium is investigated in the present work. The space-charge field developed in the medium is comprised of local and nonlocal parts. Lowest order charge drift results in the buildup of the local space-charge field, whereas higher order drift and charge diffusion are responsible for nonlocal field development. The dynamical equation for solitons in the closed circuit PVPR medium is obtained under Akhmanov's paraxial ray approximation. Conditions for stationary propagation are obtained, and the path of soliton in the medium is examined. The asymmetry in the nonlinear refractive index introduced by nonlocal contribution to the space-charge field causes a soliton to deflect from its straight line path in the medium. The roles of charge diffusion and higher order drift on soliton trajectory are examined.

  12. Application of a two-dimensional model to describe the CO2 exchange between a spatially non-uniform forest stand and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhartova, Yulia; Olchev, Alexander; Shapkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Within the framework of the study a two dimensional hydrodynamic high-resolution model of the energy, H2O, CO2 turbulent exchange was developed and applied to describe effect of the horizontal and vertical heterogeneity of a forest canopy on CO2exchange between soil surface, forest stand and the atmosphere under different weather conditions. Most attention in the study was paid to analyze the influence of forest clearing, windthrow of different sizes, forest edges, etc. on turbulent exchange rate and CO2 flux partitioning between forest overstorey, understorey and soil surface. The modeling experiments were provided under different wind conditions, thermal stratification of the atmospheric boundary layer, incoming solar radiation, etc. To quantify effect of spatial heterogeneity on total ecosystem fluxes the modeling results were compared with CO2 fluxes modeled for a spatially uniform forest canopy under similar ambient conditions. The averaged system of hydrodynamic equations is used for calculating the components of the mean velocity →V = {V1, V2}: ( ( ) ) δVi+ V δVi= - 1-δδP- - -δ- δ E - K δVi-+ δVj- + F, δVi = 0, δt jδxj ρ0 δxi δxj ij δxj δxi i δxi where E is the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), K is the turbulent diffusivity, δP is the deviation of pressure from the hydrostatic distribution and ρ0→F is the averaged force of air flow interaction with vegetation. F→ was parameterized as →F = -cd ·LAD ·| | ||V→||·→V, where cd is the drag coefficient and LAD is the leaf area density. The turbulent diffusivity K can be expressed by means of TKE and the velocity of TKE dissipation ɛ as follows: K = CμE2ɛ-1, where Cμ is the proportionality coefficient. One of the ways to obtain E and ɛ is to solve the additional system of two differential equations of diffusion-transport type: ( ) ( ) δE- -δE- -δ- -K-δE- δ-ϕ δϕ- -δ- K-δϕ -ϕ ( 1 2 ) δt +Vjδxj = δxi σE δxi +PE - ɛ, δt +Vj δxj = δxi σϕδxi +E C ϕPE - Cϕɛ - Δ ϕ, where σE and σϕ are the Prandtl numbers, PE is the TKE production by shear, Cϕ1 and Cϕ2 are the model constants. The term Δϕ = ϕ- E(C ϕ1 - Cϕ2) · 12Cμ1/2c dLAD||→ || |V |E describes the increase of TKE dissipation due to the interaction with vegetation elements. The function ϕ can be any of the following variables: ɛ, ɛ/ E, or El, where l is the mixing length. Detailed analysis of these equations performed by Sogachev (Sogachev, Panferov, 2006) showed that for ϕ = ɛ/ E the model is less sensible to the errors of the input data. Transfer equation for CO2 within and above a plant canopy can be written as: ( ) δC- -δC- -δ- -K-δC- δt + Vjδxj = δxi σC δxi + FC, where C is CO2 concentration, σC is the Prandtl number, and the term FC describes the sources/sinks of CO2 in the vegetation and soil. For parameterization of the photosynthesis rate in the forest canopy the Monsi and Saeki approach (Monsi M., Saeki T., 1953) was applied. Stem respiration was ignored in the study. The CO2 emission from the soil surface into the atmosphere was assumed to be constant for entire forest area. This study was supported by grants of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR 14-04-01568-a).

  13. Visual analysis of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Barleon, L.; Müller, U.

    2001-08-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) offers a unique opportunity to study the behavior of two-dimensional turbulent flows. A strong external magnetic field B perpendicular to the flow direction of an electrically conducting fluid will suppress velocity gradients in the direction of B. The resulting approximation is known as quasi-two-dimensional MHD. An experimental configuration is presented which meets this requirement, along with a spatially extended probe used to visualize the two-dimensional flow kinematics inside the opaque liquid metal flow. As a prototypical example, the wake behind a circular cylinder is investigated for Reynolds numbers up to R=10 000. New and unexpected vortex patterns are observed that deviate significantly from usual hydrodynamic flows. Also, stability limits for the transition from stationary to nonstationary flow patterns are experimentally determined for the cylinder wake and another type of shear flow profile. These results confirm existing theoretical predictions and thus validate the quasi-two-dimensional approach.

  14. Solitons on Tori and Soliton Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speight, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    Necessary conditions for a soliton on a torus to be a soliton crystal, that is, a spatially periodic array of topological solitons in stable equilibrium, are derived. The stress tensor of the soliton must be L 2 orthogonal to , the space of parallel symmetric bilinear forms on TM, and, further, a certain symmetric bilinear form on , called the hessian, must be positive. It is shown that, for baby Skyrme models, the first condition actually implies the second. It is also shown that, for any choice of period lattice Λ, there is a baby Skyrme model which supports a soliton crystal of periodicity Λ. For the three-dimensional Skyrme model, it is shown that any soliton solution on a cubic lattice which satisfies a virial constraint and is equivariant with respect to (a subgroup of) the lattice symmetries automatically satisfies both tests. This verifies, in particular, that the celebrated Skyrme crystal of Castillejo et al., and Kugler and Shtrikman, passes both tests.

  15. High-Spatial-Resolution Contrast-enhanced MR Angiography of the Intracranial Venous System with Fourfold Accelerated Two-dimensional Sensitivity Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Houchun H.; Campeau, Norbert G.; Huston, John; Kruger, David G.; Haider, Clifton R.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Informed consent was obtained; the study was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved. Fourfold accelerated (FFA) two-dimensional (2D) sensitivity encoding (SENSE) (65 seconds) was prospectively compared with its nonaccelerated counterpart (4 minutes 20 seconds) for diagnostic image quality and sharpness of visualization of blood vessels at 1.5 T with three-dimensional (3D) intracranial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography in 18 consecutive volunteers (10 men, eight women; mean age, 48.4 years) and two patients (55-year-old man, 30-year-old woman). Two readers compared FFA 2D SENSE results with results from its nonaccelerated counterpart; they rated visualization of large and medium sinuses as equivalent (P > .1) and that of small deep cerebral veins (P < .01) and superficial cerebral veins (P < .001) as superior. Overall diagnostic image quality ratings were excellent for 62% and 80% of nonaccelerated and FFA 2D SENSE results, respectively (P < .05). FFA 2D SENSE may become the method of choice for fast visualization of intracranial venous vasculature in clinical practice. PMID:17446523

  16. Analysis of spatial correlations in a model two-dimensional liquid through eigenvalues and eigenvectors of atomic-level stress matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levashov, V. A.; Stepanov, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Considerations of local atomic-level stresses associated with each atom represent a particular approach to address structures of disordered materials at the atomic level. We studied structural correlations in a two-dimensional model liquid using molecular dynamics simulations in the following way. We diagonalized the atomic-level stress tensor of every atom and investigated correlations between the eigenvalues and orientations of the eigenvectors of different atoms as a function of distance between them. It is demonstrated that the suggested approach can be used to characterize structural correlations in disordered materials. In particular, we found that changes in the stress correlation functions on decrease of temperature are the most pronounced for the pairs of atoms with separation distance that corresponds to the first minimum in the pair density function. We also show that the angular dependencies of the stress correlation functions previously reported by Wu et al. [Phys. Rev. E 91, 032301 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.032301] do not represent the anisotropic Eshelby's stress fields, as it is suggested, but originate in the rotational properties of the stress tensors.

  17. Two-Dimensional IHCP Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-11-18

    QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.

  18. Evolution of relativistic solitons in underdense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yue; Klimo, Ondrej; Gu, Yanjun; Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Sushil; Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Weber, Stefan; Korn, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Relativistic solitons arising from the interaction of an intense laser pulse with underdense plasmas are investigated. We show the formation and evolution of the relativistic solitons in a collisionless cold plasma with two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Such a kind of solitons will evolve into postsolitons if the time scale is longer than the ion response time. Generally, a substantial part of the pulse energy is transformed into solitons during the soliton formation. This fairly high efficiency of electromagnetic energy transformation can play an important role in the interaction between the laser pulse and the plasma. The energy exchange between the electromagnetic field and the kinetic energy of the soliton is discussed. In homogeneous plasmas, the solitons tend to stay close to the region where they are generated and dissipate due to the interaction with surrounding particles eventually. While the laser pulse propagates through inhomogeneous plasmas, the solitons are accelerated along the plasma density gradient towards lower density.

  19. Interaction of spatial solitons with a gapless stripe embedded into a Bragg-grating area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai; Malomed, Boris A.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a model in which the grating is absent in a finite-width stripe in the waveguide, thus creating a gapless channel in the gapped medium. Two semi-infinite grating separated by the plain stripe may have a relative phase shift. This system modifies the Bragg bandgap, creating intra-gap defect modes (DFs) which are pinned to the gapless channel. A DF solution in the linear system is found analytically. Further, numerical analysis of the full nonlinear system demonstrates that the shape and stability of Bragg solitons are also strongly affected by the presence of the gapless channel, and by the possible phase shift between the two semi-infinite gratings. In particular, asymmetric and flat-top solitons appear.

  20. Optical Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    1. Optical solitons in fibres: theoretical review A. Hasegawa; 2. Solitons in optical fibres: an experimental account L. F. Mollenauer; 3. All-optical long-distance soliton-based transmission systems K. Smith and L. F. Mollenauer; 4. Nonlinear propagation effects in optical fibres: numerical studies K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran; 5. Soliton-soliton interactions C. Desem and P. L. Chu; 6. Soliton amplification in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers and its application to soliton communication M. Nakazawa; 7. Nonlinear transformation of laser radiation and generation of Raman solitons in optical fibres E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, A. M. Prokhorov and V. N. Serkin; 8. Generation and compression of femtosecond solitons in optical fibers P. V. Mamyshev; 9. Optical fibre solitons in the presence of higher order dispersion and birefringence C. R. Menyuk and Ping-Kong A. Wai; 10. Dark optical solitons A. M. Weiner; 11. Soliton Raman effects J. R. Taylor; Bibliography; Index.

  1. Optical Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.

    1992-04-01

    1. Optical solitons in fibres: theoretical review A. Hasegawa; 2. Solitons in optical fibres: an experimental account L. F. Mollenauer; 3. All-optical long-distance soliton-based transmission systems K. Smith and L. F. Mollenauer; 4. Nonlinear propagation effects in optical fibres: numerical studies K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran; 5. Soliton-soliton interactions C. Desem and P. L. Chu; 6. Soliton amplification in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers and its application to soliton communication M. Nakazawa; 7. Nonlinear transformation of laser radiation and generation of Raman solitons in optical fibres E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, A. M. Prokhorov and V. N. Serkin; 8. Generation and compression of femtosecond solitons in optical fibers P. V. Mamyshev; 9. Optical fibre solitons in the presence of higher order dispersion and birefringence C. R. Menyuk and Ping-Kong A. Wai; 10. Dark optical solitons A. M. Weiner; 11. Soliton Raman effects J. R. Taylor; Bibliography; Index.

  2. Bright vector solitons in cross-defocusing nonlinear media

    SciTech Connect

    Yakimenko, A. I.; Prikhodko, O. O.; Vilchynskyi, S. I.

    2010-07-15

    We study two-dimensional soliton-soliton vector pairs in media with self-focusing nonlinearities and defocusing cross interactions. The general properties of the stationary states and their stability are investigated. The different scenarios of instability are observed using numerical simulations. The quasistable propagation regime of the high-power vector solitons is revealed.

  3. Two-dimensional material nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Han; Xiao, Di; Dubey, Madan; Ramasubramaniam, Ashwin

    2014-12-01

    Two-dimensional materials exhibit diverse electronic properties, ranging from insulating hexagonal boron nitride and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulphide, to semimetallic graphene. In this Review, we first discuss the optical properties and applications of various two-dimensional materials, and then cover two different approaches for enhancing their interactions with light: through their integration with external photonic structures, and through intrinsic polaritonic resonances. Finally, we present a narrow-bandgap layered material -- black phosphorus -- that serendipitously bridges the energy gap between the zero-bandgap graphene and the relatively large-bandgap transition metal dichalcogenides. The plethora of two-dimensional materials and their heterostructures, together with the array of available approaches for enhancing the light-matter interaction, offers the promise of scientific discoveries and nanophotonics technologies across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  4. Cloaking two-dimensional fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, De-Hone

    2011-09-15

    A cloaking theory for a two-dimensional spin-(1/2) fermion is proposed. It is shown that the spinor of the two-dimensional fermion can be cloaked perfectly through controlling the fermion's energy and mass in a specific manner moving in an effective vector potential inside a cloaking shell. Different from the cloaking of three-dimensional fermions, the scaling function that determines the invisible region is uniquely determined by a nonlinear equation. It is also shown that the efficiency of the cloaking shell is unaltered under the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  5. Fast two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Douglass, Anne R.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Guthrie, Paul D.; Thompson, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    A two dimensional (altitude and latitude) model of the atmosphere is used to investigate problems relating to the variability of the dynamics and temperature of the atmosphere on the ozone distribution, solar cycle variations of atmospheric constituents, the sensitivity of model results to tropospheric trace gas sources, and assessment computations of changes in ozone related to manmade influences. In a comparison between two dimensional model results in which the odd nitrogen family was transported together and model results in which the odd nitrogen species was transported separately, it was found that the family approximations are adequate for perturbation scenario calculations.

  6. Spiraling bright spatial solitons formed by the breakup of an optical vortex in a saturable self-focusing medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonenko, Vladimir; Christou, Jason; Luther-Daves, Barry

    1995-11-01

    We report the generation of three-dimensional bright spatial solitary waves by the breakup of an optical vortex in a saturable self-focusing nonlinear medium. An elliptical Gaussian beam from a Ti:sapphire laser containing a singly charged on-axis vortex was passed through a nonlinear medium consisting of rubidium vapor at low concentrations. The modulational instability resulted in the formation of a pair of out-of-phase solitonlike beams, which spiraled away from each other during propagation as a result of the repulsive nature of their interaction. The rate of rotation and separation of the two soliton beams could be controlled by the parameters of the medium and the laser intensity. Numerical analysis of the propagation based on a model nonlinearity corresponding to a strongly saturated two-level system showed good quantitative agreement with the experimental data. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

  7. Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized.

  8. Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, T.C.

    1987-06-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t/sub 0/; an evolution period, t/sub 1/; and a detection period, t/sub 2/.

  9. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  10. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  11. Class of compound dissipative solitons as a result of collisions in one and two spatial dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descalzi, Orazio; Brand, Helmut R.

    2014-08-01

    We study the interaction of quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) dissipative solitons (DSs). Starting with quasi-1D solutions of the cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation in their temporally asymptotic state as the initial condition, we find, as a function of the approach velocity and the real part of the cubic interaction of the two counterpropagating envelopes: interpenetration, one compound state made of both envelopes or two compound states. For the latter class both envelopes show DSs superposed at two different locations. The stability of this class of compound states is traced back to the quasilinear growth rate associated with the coupled system. We show that this mechanism also works for 1D coupled cubic-quintic CGL equations. For quasi-1D states that are not in their asymptotic state before the collision, a breakup along the crest can be observed, leading to nonunique results after the collision of quasi-1D states.

  12. Formation and interaction of spatial solitons in a photorefractive medium with drift and diffusion components of the nonlinear response

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkevich, Viktor A; Kartashev, Ya V; Vysloukh, Victor A

    1999-07-31

    Exact self-bending soliton solutions for the equation of a beam in a photorefractive medium with diffusion and drift components of the nonlinear response are obtained and their stability is analysed. It is shown that the interaction of solitons in a medium with nonlocal nonlinearity is accompanied by energy exchange, which causes, as a rule, the annihilation of one of the solitons. (this issue is dedicated to the memory of s a akhmanov)

  13. Solitons and ionospheric modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Hansen, P. J.; Weatherall, J. C.; Goldman, M. V.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of Langmuir soliton formation and collapse during ionospheric modification is investigated. Parameters characterizing former facilities, existing facilities, and planned facilities are considered, using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. At a spatial location corresponding to the exact classical reflection point of the modifier wave, the Langmuir wave evolution is found to be dominated by modulational instability followed by soliton formation and three-dimensional collapse. The earth's magnetic field is found to affect the shape of the collapsing soliton. These results provide an alternative explanation for some recent observations.

  14. Soliton-induced Majorana fermions in a one-dimensional atomic topological superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xia-Ji

    2015-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the behavior of dark solitons in a one-dimensional spin-orbit coupled atomic Fermi gas in harmonic traps by solving self-consistently the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. The dark soliton—to be created by phase imprinting in future experiments—is characterized by a real order parameter, which changes sign at a point node and hosts localized Andreev bound states near the node. By considering both cases of a single soliton and multiple solitons, we find that the energy of these bound states decreases to zero when the system is tuned to enter the topological superfluid phase by increasing an external Zeeman field. As a result, two Majorana fermions emerge in the vicinity of each soliton, in addition to the well-known Majorana fermions at the trap edges associated with the nontrivial topology of the superfluid. We propose that the soliton-induced Majorana fermions can be directly observed by using spatially resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy or indirectly probed by measuring the density profile at the point node. For the latter, the deep minimum in the density profile will disappear due to the occupation of the soliton-induced zero-energy Majorana fermion modes. Our prediction could be tested in a resonantly interacting spin-orbit coupled 40K Fermi gas confined in a two-dimensional optical lattice.

  15. Two-Dimensional Colloidal Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Adam D.; Buzza, D. Martin A.; Horozov, Tommy S.

    2011-03-01

    We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3μm diameter) and small (1μm diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ξ. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations.

  16. Two-dimensional colloidal alloys.

    PubMed

    Law, Adam D; Buzza, D Martin A; Horozov, Tommy S

    2011-03-25

    We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3 μm diameter) and small (1 μm diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ξ. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations. PMID:21517357

  17. Two-Dimensional Synthetic-Aperture Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer, now undergoing development, serves as a test bed for demonstrating the potential of aperture synthesis for remote sensing of the Earth, particularly for measuring spatial distributions of soil moisture and ocean-surface salinity. The goal is to use the technology for remote sensing aboard a spacecraft in orbit, but the basic principles of design and operation are applicable to remote sensing from aboard an aircraft, and the prototype of the system under development is designed for operation aboard an aircraft. In aperture synthesis, one utilizes several small antennas in combination with a signal processing in order to obtain resolution that otherwise would require the use of an antenna with a larger aperture (and, hence, potentially more difficult to deploy in space). The principle upon which this system is based is similar to that of Earth-rotation aperture synthesis employed in radio astronomy. In this technology the coherent products (correlations) of signals from pairs of antennas are obtained at different antenna-pair spacings (baselines). The correlation for each baseline yields a sample point in a Fourier transform of the brightness-temperature map of the scene. An image of the scene itself is then reconstructed by inverting the sampled transform. The predecessor of the present two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer is a one-dimensional one, named the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR). Operating in the L band, the ESTAR employs aperture synthesis in the cross-track dimension only, while using a conventional antenna for resolution in the along-track dimension. The two-dimensional instrument also operates in the L band to be precise, at a frequency of 1.413 GHz in the frequency band restricted for passive use (no transmission) only. The L band was chosen because (1) the L band represents the long-wavelength end of the remote- sensing spectrum, where the problem of achieving adequate spatial resolution is most critical and (2) imaging airborne instruments that operate in this wavelength range and have adequate spatial resolution are difficult to build and will be needed in future experiments to validate approaches for remote sensing of soil moisture and ocean salinity. The two-dimensional instrument includes a rectangular array of patch antennas arranged in the form of a cross. The ESTAR uses analog correlation for one dimension, whereas the two-dimensional instrument uses digital correlation. In two dimensions, many more correlation pairs are needed and low-power digital correlators suitable for application in spaceborne remote sensing will help enable this technology. The two-dimensional instrument is dual-polarized and, with modification, capable of operating in a polarimetric mode. A flight test of the instrument took place in June 2003 and it participated in soil moisture experiments during the summers of 2003 and 2004.

  18. Spiraling multivortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media.

    PubMed

    Buccoliero, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-01-15

    We demonstrate the existence of a broad class of higher-order rotating spatial solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media. We employ the generalized Hermite-Laguerre-Gaussian ansatz for constructing multivortex soliton solutions and study numerically their dynamics and stability. We discuss in detail the tripole soliton carrying two spiraling phase dislocations, or self-trapped optical vortices. PMID:18197238

  19. KP solitons, total positivity, and cluster algebras

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yuji; Williams, Lauren K.

    2011-01-01

    Soliton solutions of the KP equation have been studied since 1970, when Kadomtsev and Petviashvili [Kadomtsev BB, Petviashvili VI (1970) Sov Phys Dokl 15:539–541] proposed a two-dimensional nonlinear dispersive wave equation now known as the KP equation. It is well-known that the Wronskian approach to the KP equation provides a method to construct soliton solutions. The regular soliton solutions that one obtains in this way come from points of the totally nonnegative part of the Grassmannian. In this paper we explain how the theory of total positivity and cluster algebras provides a framework for understanding these soliton solutions to the KP equation. We then use this framework to give an explicit construction of certain soliton contour graphs and solve the inverse problem for soliton solutions coming from the totally positive part of the Grassmannian. PMID:21562211

  20. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Croasmun, W.R.; Carlson, R.M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Written for chemists and biochemists who are not NMR spectroscopists, but who wish to use the new techniques of two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, this book brings together for the first time much of the practical and experimental data needed. It also serves as information source for industrial, academic, and graduate student researchers who already use NMR spectroscopy, but not yet in two dimensions. The authors describe the use of 2-D NMR in a wide variety of chemical and biochemical fields, among them peptides, steroids, oligo- and poly-saccharides, nucleic acids, natural products (including terpenoids, alkaloids, and coal-derived heterocyclics), and organic synthetic intermediates. They consider throughout the book both the advantages and limitations of using 2-D NMR.

  1. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.

  2. Two-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation via the {partial_derivative}-dressing method: New exactly solvable potentials, wave functions, and their physical interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovsky, V. G.; Topovsky, A. V.; Basalaev, M. Yu.

    2010-09-15

    The classes of exactly solvable multiline soliton potentials and corresponding wave functions of two-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation via {partial_derivative}-dressing method are constructed and their physical interpretation is discussed.

  3. Observation of stable-vector vortex solitons.

    PubMed

    Izdebskaya, Yana; Assanto, Gaetano; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2015-09-01

    We report on the first experimental observation of stable-vector vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media with a reorientational response, such as nematic liquid crystals. These solitons consist of two co-polarized, mutually trapped beams of different colors, a bright fundamental spatial soliton, and a nonlinear optical vortex. The nonlinear vortex component, which is normally unstable in nonlinear media, is stabilized and confined here by the highly nonlocal refractive potential induced by the soliton. PMID:26368742

  4. Baryons as Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, Sarada Gangadharan

    In this dissertation we study the soliton models of baryons originally proposed by Skyrme. Baryons are interpreted in the naive quark model as bound states of three quarks. Here, we interpret them as solitonic bound states of mesons. This is natural in Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. The low energy properties of chromodynamics are well accounted for by the chiral model. The Wess-Zumino anomaly plays a crucial role in this model. A derivation within the canonical formulation of the Wess-Zumino is given. It is shown that the anomaly leads to a modification of the current algebra. An operator that creates solitonic states out of the vacuum is constructed. It is shown that this operator is fermionic if the number of colors is odd. The Wess -Zumino anomaly is shown to be responsible for this fact. The anomaly is studied in detail in the simpler context of a two dimensional theory. The operator creating solitons is constructed and its equations of motion are found. This model has an infinite number of conserved charges satisfying a Kac-Moody algebra. A derivation of the Wess-Zumino anomaly starting from Quantum Chromodynamics is given. Further the Skyrme constant is calculated, within certain approximations. This enables us to calculate the mass of the soliton and it agrees with the baryon mass to 20%. The constants D and F that couple the baryons to mesons are also computed. They also agree to about 20%. Thus the identification of baryons as solitons of the chiral model is established.

  5. Spin-imbalanced quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gases.

    PubMed

    Ong, W; Cheng, Chingyun; Arakelyan, I; Thomas, J E

    2015-03-20

    We measure the density profiles for a Fermi gas of (6)Li containing N(1) spin-up atoms and N(2) spin-down atoms, confined in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry. The spatial profiles are measured as a function of spin imbalance N(2)/N(1) and interaction strength, which is controlled by means of a collisional (Feshbach) resonance. The measured cloud radii and central densities are in disagreement with mean-field Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory for a true two-dimensional system. We find that the data for normal-fluid mixtures are reasonably well fit by a simple two-dimensional polaron model of the free energy. Not predicted by the model is a phase transition to a spin-balanced central core, which is observed above a critical value of N(2)/N(1). Our observations provide important benchmarks for predictions of the phase structure of quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gases. PMID:25839246

  6. Applications of two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Le Sueur, Amanda L; Horness, Rachel E; Thielges, Megan C

    2015-07-01

    Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy has recently emerged as a powerful tool with applications in many areas of scientific research. The inherent high time resolution coupled with bond-specific spatial resolution of IR spectroscopy enable direct characterization of rapidly interconverting species and fast processes, even in complex systems found in chemistry and biology. In this minireview, we briefly outline the fundamental principles and experimental procedures of 2D IR spectroscopy. Using illustrative example studies, we explain the important features of 2D IR spectra and their capability to elucidate molecular structure and dynamics. Primarily, this minireview aims to convey the scope and potential of 2D IR spectroscopy by highlighting select examples of recent applications including the use of innate or introduced vibrational probes for the study of nucleic acids, peptides/proteins, and materials. PMID:26007625

  7. Predicting two-dimensional turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerbus, R. T.; Goldburg, W. I.

    2015-04-01

    Prediction is a fundamental objective of science. It is more difficult for chaotic and complex systems like turbulence. Here we use information theory to quantify spatial prediction using experimental data from a turbulent soap film. At high Reynolds number, Re, where a cascade exists, turbulence becomes easier to predict as the inertial range broadens. The development of a cascade at low Re is also detected.

  8. Dynamic two-dimensional beam-pattern steering technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Shaomin; Yeh, Pochi; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1993-01-01

    A dynamic two-dimensional laser-beam-pattern steering technique using photorefractive holograms in conjunction with electrically addressed spatial light modulators is proposed and investigated. The experimental results demonstrate the dynamic steering of random combinations of basis beam patterns. The proposed method has the advantages of random beam-pattern combination, good beam intensity uniformity, and higher diffraction efficiency compared with conventional methods.

  9. A multiprocessor architecture for two-dimensional digital filters

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.H.; Alexander, W.E.

    1987-07-01

    In this paper, a generic computational primitive is developed for the implementation of any arbitrary order one-dimensional or two-dimensional FIR or IIR digital filter. This computational primitive can form the basis for a single chip processor for one-dimensional and two-dimensional digital signal processing. A multiprocessor architecture for real-time implementation of spatial domain filters is developed with each processing unit in the network implementing the computational primitive. This multiprocessor system has a simple control scheme, a simple interconnection network, a very high efficiency, and low data transfers and storage requirements. Thus, it avoids the bottlenecks associated with traditional parallel computers and multiprocessor systems.

  10. Measuring Monotony in Two-Dimensional Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    This note introduces a monotony coefficient as a new measure of the monotone dependence in a two-dimensional sample. Some properties of this measure are derived. In particular, it is shown that the absolute value of the monotony coefficient for a two-dimensional sample is between /"r"/ and 1, where "r" is the Pearson's correlation coefficient for…

  11. Helmholtz solitons at nonlinear interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Curto, J; Chamorro-Posada, P; McDonald, G S

    2007-05-01

    Reflection and refraction of spatial solitons at dielectric interfaces, accommodating arbitrarily angles of incidence, is studied. Analysis is based on Helmholtz soliton theory, which eliminates the angular restriction associated with the paraxial approximation. A novel generalization of Snell's law is discovered that is valid for collimated light beams and the entire angular domain. Our new theoretical predictions are shown to be in excellent agreement with full numerical simulations. New qualitative features of soliton refraction and limitations of previous paraxial analyses are highlighted. PMID:17410257

  12. Helmholtz solitons in diffusive Kerr-type media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Curto, Julio; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Soliton evolution at diffusive Kerr-type media is analyzed within the framework of the Helmholtz theory. The angular limitations of previous paraxial studies are overcome when both soliton propagation and diffusion of carriers are allowed to occur along any arbitrary direction. A model including two-dimensional carrier diffusion is proposed and its exact soliton solutions within the weakly nonlocal regime are presented. The restriction of carrier diffusion to a single transverse coordinate leads to the breakdown of the rotational symmetry of the Helmholtz framework and soliton behavior becomes angular dependent. We study the impact of this limitation in an intrinsic angular scenario, such as a nonlinear interface.

  13. Two-soliton interaction as an elementary act of soliton turbulence in integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelinovsky, E. N.; Shurgalina, E. G.; Sergeeva, A. V.; Talipova, T. G.; El, G. A.; Grimshaw, R. H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Two-soliton interactions play a definitive role in the formation of the structure of soliton turbulence in integrable systems. To quantify the contribution of these interactions to the dynamical and statistical characteristics of the nonlinear wave field of soliton turbulence we study properties of the spatial moments of the two-soliton solution of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. While the first two moments are integrals of the KdV evolution, the 3rd and 4th moments undergo significant variations in the dominant interaction region, which could have strong effect on the values of the skewness and kurtosis in soliton turbulence.

  14. Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, Adrien; Kang, Jiahao; Banerjee, Kaustav; Kis, Andras

    2015-12-01

    The performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional layered crystals, including graphene, semiconductors of the transition metal dichalcogenide family such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2), as well as other emerging two-dimensional semiconductors such as atomically thin black phosphorus, is significantly affected by the electrical contacts that connect these materials with external circuitry. Here, we present a comprehensive treatment of the physics of such interfaces at the contact region and discuss recent progress towards realizing optimal contacts for two-dimensional materials. We also discuss the requirements that must be fulfilled to realize efficient spin injection in transition metal dichalcogenides.

  15. Two Dimensional Mechanism for Insect Hovering

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Wang, Z.

    2000-09-04

    Resolved computation of two dimensional insect hovering shows for the first time that a two dimensional hovering motion can generate enough lift to support a typical insect weight. The computation reveals a two dimensional mechanism of creating a downward dipole jet of counterrotating vortices, which are formed from leading and trailing edge vortices. The vortex dynamics further elucidates the role of the phase relation between the wing translation and rotation in lift generation and explains why the instantaneous forces can reach a periodic state after only a few strokes. The model predicts the lower limits in Reynolds number and amplitude above which the averaged forces are sufficient. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  16. Two dimensional mechanism for insect hovering.

    PubMed

    Jane Wang, Z

    2000-09-01

    Resolved computation of two dimensional insect hovering shows for the first time that a two dimensional hovering motion can generate enough lift to support a typical insect weight. The computation reveals a two dimensional mechanism of creating a downward dipole jet of counterrotating vortices, which are formed from leading and trailing edge vortices. The vortex dynamics further elucidates the role of the phase relation between the wing translation and rotation in lift generation and explains why the instantaneous forces can reach a periodic state after only a few strokes. The model predicts the lower limits in Reynolds number and amplitude above which the averaged forces are sufficient. PMID:10970501

  17. Controlling the transverse instability of dark solitons and nucleation of vortices by a potential barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Manjun; Carretero-Gonzalez, R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Malomed, B. A.

    2010-08-15

    We study possibilities to suppress the transverse modulational instability (MI) of dark-soliton stripes in two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC's) and self-defocusing bulk optical waveguides by means of quasi-one-dimensional structures. Adding an external repulsive barrier potential (which can be induced in BEC by a laser sheet, or by an embedded plate in optics), we demonstrate that it is possible to reduce the MI wave number band, and even render the dark-soliton stripe completely stable. Using this method, we demonstrate the control of the number of vortex pairs nucleated by each spatial period of the modulational perturbation. By means of the perturbation theory, we predict the number of the nucleated vortices per unit length. The analytical results are corroborated by the numerical computation of eigenmodes of small perturbations, as well as by direct simulations of the underlying Gross-Pitaevskii/nonlinear Schroedinger equation.

  18. Two-dimensional order and disorder thermofields

    SciTech Connect

    Belvedere, L. V.

    2006-11-15

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain the two-dimensional order and disorder thermal operators using the Thermofield Bosonization formalism. We show that the general property of the two-dimensional world according with the bosonized Fermi field at zero temperature can be constructed as a product of an order and a disorder variables which satisfy a dual field algebra holds at finite temperature. The general correlation functions of the order and disorder thermofields are obtained.

  19. Spontaneous formation and nonequilibrium dynamics of a soliton-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate in a trap.

    PubMed

    Berman, Oleg L; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya; Kolmakov, German V; Pomirchi, Leonid M

    2015-06-01

    The Bose-stimulated self-organization of a quasi-two-dimensional nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate in an in-plane potential is proposed. We obtained the solution of the nonlinear, driven-dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in an external asymmetric parabolic potential within the method of the spectral expansion. We found that, in sharp contrast to previous observations, the condensate can spontaneously acquire a solitonlike shape for spatially homogeneous pumping. This condensate soliton performs oscillatory motion in a parabolic trap and, also, can spontaneously rotate. Stability of the condensate soliton in the spatially asymmetric trap is analyzed. In addition to the nonlinear dynamics of nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms, our findings can be applied to the condensates of quantum well excitons and cavity polaritons in semiconductor heterostructure, and to the condensates of photons. PMID:26172766

  20. Spontaneous formation and nonequilibrium dynamics of a soliton-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate in a trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Kolmakov, German V.; Pomirchi, Leonid M.

    2015-06-01

    The Bose-stimulated self-organization of a quasi-two-dimensional nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate in an in-plane potential is proposed. We obtained the solution of the nonlinear, driven-dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in an external asymmetric parabolic potential within the method of the spectral expansion. We found that, in sharp contrast to previous observations, the condensate can spontaneously acquire a solitonlike shape for spatially homogeneous pumping. This condensate soliton performs oscillatory motion in a parabolic trap and, also, can spontaneously rotate. Stability of the condensate soliton in the spatially asymmetric trap is analyzed. In addition to the nonlinear dynamics of nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms, our findings can be applied to the condensates of quantum well excitons and cavity polaritons in semiconductor heterostructure, and to the condensates of photons.

  1. Spectral tunneling of lattice nonlocal solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Torner, Lluis; Vysloukh, Victor A.

    2010-07-15

    We address spectral tunneling of walking spatial solitons in photorefractive media with nonlocal diffusion component of the nonlinear response and an imprinted shallow optical lattice. In contrast to materials with local nonlinearities, where solitons traveling across the lattice close to the Bragg angle suffer large radiative losses, in photorefractive media with diffusion nonlinearity resulting in self-bending, solitons survive when their propagation angle approaches and even exceeds the Bragg angle. In the spatial frequency domain this effect can be considered as tunneling through the band of spatial frequencies centered around the Bragg frequency where the spatial group velocity dispersion is positive.

  2. Two-Dimensional Rotating-Frame NQR Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, H.; Pusiol, D.

    1997-07-01

    A new technique for two-dimensional rotating-frame nuclear-quadrupole-resonance imaging in powder or polycrystalline samples is reported. The bidimensional encoding procedure is based on the irradiation of the object by a sequence of pulsed orthogonal radiofrequency linear gradients. The spatial-density function, together with the spectroscopic information, is directly recorded in Cartesian coordinates. Several variants of the encoding procedure are discussed, and experimental results demonstrating the viability of the technique are given.

  3. Coherent transfer by adiabatic passage in two-dimensional lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    Coherent tunneling by adiabatic passage (CTAP) is a well-established technique for robust spatial transport of quantum particles in linear chains. Here we introduce two exactly-solvable models where the CTAP protocol can be extended to two-dimensional lattice geometries. Such bi-dimensional lattice models are synthesized from time-dependent second-quantization Hamiltonians, in which the bosonic field operators evolve adiabatically like in an ordinary three-level CTAP scheme thus ensuring adiabatic passage in Fock space.

  4. Traveling dark solitons in superfluid Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim

    2011-04-15

    Families of dark solitons exist in superfluid Fermi gases. The energy-velocity dispersion and number of depleted particles completely determine the dynamics of dark solitons on a slowly varying background density. For the unitary Fermi gas, we determine these relations from general scaling arguments and conservation of local particle number. We find solitons to oscillate sinusoidally at the trap frequency reduced by a factor of 1/{radical}(3). Numerical integration of the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation determines spatial profiles and soliton-dispersion relations across the BEC-BCS crossover, and proves consistent with the scaling relations at unitarity.

  5. Polarization scattering by soliton-soliton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenauer, L. F.; Gordon, J. P.; Heismann, F.

    1995-10-01

    We have discovered experimentally that soliton-soliton collisions in wavelength division multiplexing significantly alter the polarization states of the colliding solitons. Analysis shows that the change in polarization is according to the cross product of the Stokes vectors of the colliding solitons. Birefringence of the fiber spans can turn this polarization scattering into a significant source of timing jitter.

  6. Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Allain, Adrien; Kang, Jiahao; Banerjee, Kaustav; Kis, Andras

    2015-12-01

    The performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional layered crystals, including graphene, semiconductors of the transition metal dichalcogenide family such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2), as well as other emerging two-dimensional semiconductors such as atomically thin black phosphorus, is significantly affected by the electrical contacts that connect these materials with external circuitry. Here, we present a comprehensive treatment of the physics of such interfaces at the contact region and discuss recent progress towards realizing optimal contacts for two-dimensional materials. We also discuss the requirements that must be fulfilled to realize efficient spin injection in transition metal dichalcogenides. PMID:26585088

  7. Superconductivity at the Two-dimensional Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chih-Kang

    2010-03-01

    Superconductivity in the extreme two-dimensional limit is studied on ultra-thin lead (Pb) films down to two atomic layers, where only a single channel of quantum well states exist. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy reveals that local superconducting order remains robust until two atomic layers, where the transition temperature abruptly plunges to lower values depending sensitively on the exact atomic structure of the film. Our result shows that Cooper pairs can still form in the last two dimensional channel of electron states, although their binding are strongly affected by the substrate [1]. In this presentation, I will also discuss this new result in comparison with several recent experimental results on ultra-thin metallic films performed using local STS probes and macroscopic transport measurements.[4pt] [1] ``Superconductivity at the Two-dimensional Limit,'' Shengyong Qin, Jungdae Kim, Qian Niu and Chih-Kang Shih, Science 324, 1314 (2009).

  8. Superconductivity at the two-dimensional limit.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shengyong; Kim, Jungdae; Niu, Qian; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2009-06-01

    Superconductivity in the extreme two-dimensional limit is studied on ultrathin lead films down to two atomic layers, where only a single channel of quantum well states exists. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy reveals that local superconducting order remains robust until two atomic layers, where the transition temperature abruptly plunges to a lower value, depending sensitively on the exact atomic structure of the film. Our result shows that Cooper pairs can still form in the last two-dimensional channel of electron states, although their binding is strongly affected by the substrate. PMID:19407146

  9. Analysis techniques for two-dimensional infrared data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, E. M.; Smith, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate infrared detection and remote sensing systems, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the observational environment. For both scanning and staring sensors, the spatial characteristics of the background may be more of a limitation to the performance of a remote sensor than system noise. This limitation is the so-called spatial clutter limit and may be important for systems design of many earth application and surveillance sensors. The data used in this study is two dimensional radiometric data obtained as part of the continuing NASA remote sensing programs. Typical data sources are the Landsat multi-spectral scanner (1.1 micrometers), the airborne heat capacity mapping radiometer (10.5 - 12.5 micrometers) and various infrared data sets acquired by low altitude aircraft. Techniques used for the statistical analysis of one dimensional infrared data, such as power spectral density (PSD), exceedance statistics, etc. are investigated for two dimensional applicability. Also treated are two dimensional extensions of these techniques (2D PSD, etc.), and special techniques developed for the analysis of 2D data.

  10. Two-Dimensional Attosecond Electron Wave-Packet Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xinhua

    2015-05-01

    We propose a two-dimensional interferometry based on the electron wave-packet interference by using a cycle-shaped orthogonally polarized two-color laser field. With such a method, the subcycle and intercycle interferences can be disentangled into different directions in the measured photoelectron momentum spectra. The Coulomb influence can be minimized and the overlapping of interference fringes with the complicated low-energy structures can be avoided as well. The contributions of the excitation effect and the long-range Coulomb potential can be traced in the Fourier domain of the photoelectron distribution. Because of these advantages, precise information on valence electron dynamics of atoms or molecules with attosecond temporal resolution and additional spatial information with angstrom resolution can be obtained with the two-dimensional electron wave-packet interferometry.

  11. Two-dimensional attosecond electron wave-packet interferometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xinhua

    2015-05-01

    We propose a two-dimensional interferometry based on the electron wave-packet interference by using a cycle-shaped orthogonally polarized two-color laser field. With such a method, the subcycle and intercycle interferences can be disentangled into different directions in the measured photoelectron momentum spectra. The Coulomb influence can be minimized and the overlapping of interference fringes with the complicated low-energy structures can be avoided as well. The contributions of the excitation effect and the long-range Coulomb potential can be traced in the Fourier domain of the photoelectron distribution. Because of these advantages, precise information on valence electron dynamics of atoms or molecules with attosecond temporal resolution and additional spatial information with angstrom resolution can be obtained with the two-dimensional electron wave-packet interferometry. PMID:25978229

  12. Adaptive rezoner in a two-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code

    SciTech Connect

    Pyun, J.J.; Saltzman, J.S.; Scannapieco, A.J.; Carroll, D.

    1985-01-01

    In an effort to increase spatial resolution without adding additional meshes, an adaptive mesh was incorporated into a two-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamics code along with two-dimensional flux corrected (FCT) remapper. The adaptive mesh automatically generates a mesh based on smoothness and orthogonality, and at the same time also tracks physical conditions of interest by focusing mesh points in regions that exhibit those conditions; this is done by defining a weighting function associated with the physical conditions to be tracked. The FCT remapper calculates the net transportive fluxes based on a weighted average of two fluxes computed by a low-order scheme and a high-order scheme. This averaging procedure produces solutions which are conservative and nondiffusive, and maintains positivity. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Entanglement Entropy in Two-Dimensional String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Mazenc, Edward A.

    2015-09-01

    To understand an emergent spacetime is to understand the emergence of locality. Entanglement entropy is a powerful diagnostic of locality, because locality leads to a large amount of short distance entanglement. Two-dimensional string theory is among the very simplest instances of an emergent spatial dimension. We compute the entanglement entropy in the large-N matrix quantum mechanics dual to two-dimensional string theory in the semiclassical limit of weak string coupling. We isolate a logarithmically large, but finite, contribution that corresponds to the short distance entanglement of the tachyon field in the emergent spacetime. From the spacetime point of view, the entanglement is regulated by a nonperturbative "graininess" of space.

  14. Entanglement Entropy in Two-Dimensional String Theory.

    PubMed

    Hartnoll, Sean A; Mazenc, Edward A

    2015-09-18

    To understand an emergent spacetime is to understand the emergence of locality. Entanglement entropy is a powerful diagnostic of locality, because locality leads to a large amount of short distance entanglement. Two-dimensional string theory is among the very simplest instances of an emergent spatial dimension. We compute the entanglement entropy in the large-N matrix quantum mechanics dual to two-dimensional string theory in the semiclassical limit of weak string coupling. We isolate a logarithmically large, but finite, contribution that corresponds to the short distance entanglement of the tachyon field in the emergent spacetime. From the spacetime point of view, the entanglement is regulated by a nonperturbative "graininess" of space. PMID:26430982

  15. VLSI Unit for Two-Dimensional Convolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Universal logic structure allows same VLSI chip to be used for variety of computational functions required for two dimensional convolutions. Fast polynomial transform technique is extended into tree computational structure composed of two units: fast polynomial transform (FPT) unit and Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) computational unit.

  16. Two-Dimensional Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendl, A.

    2008-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma the transport of energy and particles perpendicular to the magnetic field is in general mainly caused by quasi two-dimensional turbulent fluid mixing. The physics of turbulence and structure formation is of ubiquitous importance to every magnetically confined laboratory plasma for experimental or industrial

  17. Two-Dimensional Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendl, A.

    2008-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma the transport of energy and particles perpendicular to the magnetic field is in general mainly caused by quasi two-dimensional turbulent fluid mixing. The physics of turbulence and structure formation is of ubiquitous importance to every magnetically confined laboratory plasma for experimental or industrial…

  18. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the

  19. High-resolution two dimensional advective transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Larock, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a two-dimensional high-resolution scheme for advective transport that is based on a Eulerian-Lagrangian method with a flux limiter. The scheme is applied to the problem of pure-advection of a rotated Gaussian hill and shown to preserve the monotonicity property of the governing conservation law.

  20. Nitrogenated holey two-dimensional structures

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Javeed; Lee, Eun Kwang; Jung, Minbok; Shin, Dongbin; Jeon, In-Yup; Jung, Sun-Min; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Bae, Seo-Yoon; Sohn, So-Dam; Park, Noejung; Oh, Joon Hak; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Recent graphene research has triggered enormous interest in new two-dimensional ordered crystals constructed by the inclusion of elements other than carbon for bandgap opening. The design of new multifunctional two-dimensional materials with proper bandgap has become an important challenge. Here we report a layered two-dimensional network structure that possesses evenly distributed holes and nitrogen atoms and a C2N stoichiometry in its basal plane. The two-dimensional structure can be efficiently synthesized via a simple wet-chemical reaction and confirmed with various characterization techniques, including scanning tunnelling microscopy. Furthermore, a field-effect transistor device fabricated using the material exhibits an on/off ratio of 107, with calculated and experimental bandgaps of approximately 1.70 and 1.96 eV, respectively. In view of the simplicity of the production method and the advantages of the solution processability, the C2N-h2D crystal has potential for use in practical applications. PMID:25744355

  1. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  2. Soliton turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tchen, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.

  3. Soliton form factors from lattice simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rajantie, Arttu; Weir, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The form factor provides a convenient way to describe properties of topological solitons in the full quantum theory, when semiclassical concepts are not applicable. It is demonstrated that the form factor can be calculated numerically using lattice Monte Carlo simulations. The approach is very general and can be applied to essentially any type of soliton. The technique is illustrated by calculating the kink form factor near the critical point in 1+1-dimensional scalar field theory. As expected from universality arguments, the result agrees with the exactly calculable scaling form factor of the two-dimensional Ising model.

  4. Magnetization study of two dimensional helium three

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei

    This dissertation discusses a magnetization study of a two dimensional Fermi system. Our group developed a SQUID NMR system to study the magnetization of two dimensional 3He on both GTA grafoil and ZYX Graphite substrates. Benefiting from SQUID technology, our NMR experiments were performed at very low applied magnetic field thus avoid the masking of ordering by strong external field. Monolayer 3He films adsorbed on crystalline graphite are considered a nearly ideal example of a two dimensional system of highly correlated fermions. By controlling the 3He areal density, adsorbed films exhibit a wide range of structures with different temperature- dependent magnetic properties and heat capacities. Our recent experiments on two dimensional 3He adsorbed on ZYX graphite focused on the anti-ferromagnetic 4/7 phase and the ferromagnetic incommensurate solid state of a second 3He monolayer. Ferromagnetic order was observed in two dimensional 3He films on both Grafoil and highly oriented ZYX grade exfoliated graphite. The dipolar field plays an important role in magnetic ordering in two dimensional spin systems. The dipole-dipole interaction leads to a frequency shift of the NMR absorption line. The resulting 3He NMR lineshape on Grafoil was a broad peak shifted towards lower frequency with a background from the randomly oriented regions extending to positive frequencies. Compared to Grafoil, ZYX graphite has a much greater structural coherence and is more highly oriented. When studying magnetism of 3He films on ZYX substrate we found that the features we observed in our original Grafoil experiment were much more pronounced on ZYX graphite. In addition, we observed some multi-peak structure on the 3He NMR lineshape, which suggest a series of spin wave resonances. We also studied the magnetic properties of the second layer of 3He films on ZYX substrate at density around 4/7 phase. To eliminate the paramagnetic signal of the first layer solid, we pre-plated a 4He layer on the ZYX that serves as a substrate for the 3He layer. In this region of density, the 3He film acts as a quantum antiferromagnet with disordered ground state (Quantum Spin Liquid). Our experimental results are reported and similar work is reviewed.

  5. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  6. Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2016-01-01

    NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions. PMID:27109776

  7. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2012-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.

  8. Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis.

    PubMed

    Waudby, Christopher A; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D; Christodoulou, John

    2016-01-01

    NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions. PMID:27109776

  9. Kirigami for Two-Dimensional Electronic Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zenan; Bahamon, Dario; Campbell, David; Park, Harold

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional materials have recently drawn tremendous attention because of their unique properties. In this work, we introduce the notion of two-dimensional kirigami, where concepts that have been used almost exclusively for macroscale structures are applied to dramatically enhance their stretchability. Specifically, we show using classical molecular dynamics simulations that the yield and fracture strains of graphene and MoS2 can be enhanced by about a factor of three using kirigami as compared to standard monolayers. Finally, using graphene as an example, we demonstrate that the kirigami structure may open up interesting opportunities in coupling to the electronic behavior of 2D materials. Authors acknowledge Mechanical Engineering and Physics departments at Boston University, and Mackgrafe at Mackenzie Presbyterian University.

  10. Performance prediction of straight two dimensional diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greywall, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    A method, based on full viscous calculations, is presented to predict performance of straight two dimensional diffusers. The method predicts adequately the experimental pressure recovery data, up to the point of maximum pressure recovery, for small and large inlet boundary layer thicknesses. It is shown that at the point of maximum pressure recovery the streamwise velocity in the very near wall region varies as Z to the 0.22 power, where Z is the distance from the diffuser wall.

  11. Two dimensional wedge/translating shroud nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, D. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A jet propulsion exhaust nozzle is reported for multi-engine installations which produces high internal/external, thrust-minus-drag, performance for transonic cruise or transonic acceleration as well as improved performance at subsonic and supersonic speeds. A two dimensional wedge/translating shroud provides the variable nozzle exit geometry needed to achieve high engine performance over a wide range of throttle power settings.

  12. Deeply subrecoil two-dimensional Raman cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, V.; Phillips, W.D.; Lising, L.J.; Rolston, S.L.

    2004-10-01

    We report the implementation of a two-dimensional Raman cooling scheme using sequential excitations along the orthogonal axes. Using square pulses, we have cooled a cloud of ultracold cesium atoms down to an rms velocity spread of 0.39(5) recoil velocities, corresponding to an effective transverse temperature of 30 nK (0.15T{sub rec}). This technique can be useful to improve cold-atom atomic clocks and is particularly relevant for clocks in microgravity.

  13. A Two-dimensional Magnetoseismic Network in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, P. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Chun, F. K.; Engebretson, M. J.; Hairston, M. R.; Jorgensen, A. M.; McHarg, M. G.; Mynatt, D.; Petit, N.; Russell, C. T.; Scherrer, D. K.; Takahashi, K.; Wing, S.; Winkler, L. I.; Cruz-Abeyro, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Supported through several projects a series of ground magnetometers deployed in the past few years have formed a two-dimensional magnetoseismic network in the United States. This network includes the nine-station Mid-continent MAgnetoseismic Chain (McMAC) along the 330th magnetic meridian and the Falcon chain spanning from Maryland to Alaska. Sampling at 2 Hz the high-resolution fluxgate magnetometers located at these ground stations detect magnetospheric perturbations in the ULF frequencies and transmit the data through the Internet for analysis. In this presentation we focus on the ULF wave activities, including the resonances of magnetospheric field lines and the impulsive signals, observed by this two-dimensional magnetoseismic network in conjunction with other magnetometer arrays in North America. In sounding the plasmaspheric density, the gradient method can make use of the two-dimensional array to identify field line resonance (FLR) signatures from station pairs that are not strictly aligned in the same meridian but are separated by up to 20 degrees in longitude. Using the observations from the two-dimensional magnetoseismic network we found the spatial variations of plasmaspheric density in local time that would otherwise be unidentifiable by only the data from a single meridian chain. In timing the substorm onsets in the magnetotail, the magnetometer network can measure the different arrival times of magnetic impulses induced by substorm onsets and infer the start time and location of the associated reconnection in the magnetotail. A future plan on enhancing the capability of this magnetoseismic network in space weather monitoring and the coordination with space missions will be discussed.

  14. Double Dirac cones in two-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Mei, Jun

    2015-05-01

    By exploiting the accidental degeneracy of the doubly-degenerate dipolar and quadrupolar modes, we show that a two-dimensional dielectric photonic crystal (PC) can exhibit the double Dirac cone dispersion relation at the Γ point. Using a perturbation method and group theory, we demonstrate that the double cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones with predictable linear slopes, and the linearity of the dispersion is guaranteed by the spatial symmetry of the Bloch eigenstates. Numerical simulations including wave-front shaping, unidirectional transmission and perfect tunneling show that the corresponding PC structure can be characterized by a zero effective refractive index. PMID:25969297

  15. Two-Dimensional Heterojunctions from Nonlocal Manipulations of the Interactions.

    PubMed

    Rösner, M; Steinke, C; Lorke, M; Gies, C; Jahnke, F; Wehling, T O

    2016-04-13

    We propose to create lateral heterojunctions in two-dimensional materials based on nonlocal manipulations of the Coulomb interaction using structured dielectric environments. By means of ab initio calculations for MoS2 as well as generic semiconductor models, we show that the Coulomb interaction-induced self-energy corrections in real space are sufficiently nonlocal to be manipulated externally, but still local enough to induce spatially sharp interfaces within a single homogeneous monolayer to form heterojunctions. We find a type-II heterojunction band scheme promoted by a laterally structured dielectric environment, which exhibits a sharp band gap crossover within less than 5 unit cells. PMID:26918626

  16. Resonance vector soliton of the Rayleigh wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamashvili, G. T.

    2016-02-01

    A theory of acoustic vector solitons of self-induced transparency of the Rayleigh wave is constructed. A thin resonance transition layer on an elastic surface is considered using a model of a two-dimensional gas of impurity paramagnetic atoms or quantum dots. Explicit analytical expressions for the profile and parameters of the Rayleigh vector soliton with two different oscillation frequencies is obtained, as well as simulations of this nonlinear surface acoustic wave with realistic parameters, which can be used in acoustic experiments. It is shown that the properties of a surface vector soliton of the Rayleigh wave depend on the parameters of the resonance layer, the elastic medium, and the transverse structure of the surface acoustic wave.

  17. Spatial solitons and stability in self-focusing and defocusing Kerr nonlinear media with generalized parity-time-symmetric Scarff-II potentials.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhenya; Wen, Zichao; Hang, Chao

    2015-08-01

    We present a unified theoretical study of the bright solitons governed by self-focusing and defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations with generalized parity-time- (PT) symmetric Scarff-II potentials. Particularly, a PT-symmetric k-wave-number Scarff-II potential and a multiwell Scarff-II potential are considered, respectively. For the k-wave-number Scarff-II potential, the parameter space can be divided into different regions, corresponding to unbroken and broken PT symmetry and the bright solitons for self-focusing and defocusing Kerr nonlinearities. For the multiwell Scarff-II potential the bright solitons can be obtained by using a periodically space-modulated Kerr nonlinearity. The linear stability of bright solitons with PT-symmetric k-wave-number and multiwell Scarff-II potentials is analyzed in detail using numerical simulations. Stable and unstable bright solitons are found in both regions of unbroken and broken PT symmetry due to the existence of the nonlinearity. Furthermore, the bright solitons in three-dimensional self-focusing and defocusing NLS equations with a generalized PT-symmetric Scarff-II potential are explored. This may have potential applications in the field of optical information transmission and processing based on optical solitons in nonlinear dissipative but PT-symmetric systems. PMID:26382482

  18. Superconductivity in two-dimensional boron allotropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinchang; Zeng, Shuming; Ni, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We use ab initio evolutionary algorithm and first-principles calculations to investigate structural, electronic, vibrational, and superconducting properties of two-dimensional (2 D ) boron allotropes. Remarkably, we show that conventional BCS superconductivity in the stable 2 D boron structures is ubiquitous with the critical temperature Tc above the liquid hydrogen temperature for certain configurations. Due to the electronic states of the Fermi surface originating from both ? and ? electrons, the superconductivity of the 2 D structures arises from multiple phonon modes. Our results support that 2 D boron structure may be a pure single-element material with the highest Tc on conditions without high pressure and external strain.

  19. Transport in two-dimensional paper networks

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Elain; Ramsey, Stephen A.; Kauffman, Peter; Lutz, Barry; Yager, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional paper networks (2DPNs) hold great potential for transcending the capabilities and performance of today's paper-based analytical devices. Specifically, 2DPNs enable sophisticated multi-step chemical processing sequences for sample pretreatment and analysis at a cost and ease-of-use that make them appropriate for use in settings with low resources. A quantitative understanding of flow in paper networks is essential to realizing the potential of these networks. In this report, we provide a framework for understanding flow in simple 2DPNs using experiments, analytical expressions, and computational simulations. PMID:22140373

  20. Anisotropic Two-Dimensional Friedel Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, P.; Plummer, E.W.; Briner, B.G.; Doering, M.; Rust, H.; Bradshaw, A.M.

    1997-07-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy at 4K shows highly anisotropic screening charge density oscillations on Be(10{ovr 1}0) in the vicinity of surface defects and steps. The forms of these oscillations, which derive from the Friedel oscillations, can be directly related to the two-dimensional band structure of the surface (two electron pockets at the boundary of the surface Brillouin zone). Simple calculations show that the Friedel oscillations in such a case will contain major contributions from wavelengths which do not correspond to any Fermi wave vector. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Two-Dimensional Ground Water Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Steidl, Shirley

    1992-03-05

    FRACFLO computes the two-dimensional, space, time dependent, convective dispersive transport of a single radionuclide in an unbounded single or multiple parallel fracture system with constant aperture. It calculates the one-dimensional diffusive transport into the rock matrix as well as the mass flux and cumulative mass flux at any point in the fracture. Steady-state isothermal ground water flow and parallel streamlines are assumed in the fracture, and the rock matrix is considered to be fully saturated with immobile water. The model can treat a single or multiple finite patch source or a Gaussian distributed source subject to a step or band release mode.

  2. Two dimensional mixtures at water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, Madhumita; Datta, Alokmay

    2013-02-01

    Thiol capped gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) form a simple two dimensional (2D) liquid on water surface but this thin film is unstable under compression. Amphiphilic stearic acid (StA) molecules on water surface, on the other hand, form a complex and more stable 2D liquid. We have initiated a study on a mixture of StA and Au NPs in a monolayer through Surface Pressure (π) - Specific Molecular Area (A) isotherms and Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM). A mixture of Stearic Acid and Au nanoparticles (10% by weight) produces a monolayer on water surface that acts as a 2D liquid with phases that are completely reversible with negligible hysteresis.

  3. Quasicondensation in Two-Dimensional Fermi Gases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Te; Anderson, Brandon M; Boyack, Rufus; Levin, K

    2015-12-11

    In this paper we follow the analysis and protocols of recent experiments, combined with simple theory, to arrive at a physical understanding of quasi-condensation in two dimensional Fermi gases. A key signature of quasi-condensation, which contains aspects of Berezinskiĭ-Kosterlitz-Thouless behavior, is a strong zero momentum peak in the pair momentum distribution. Importantly, this peak emerges at a reasonably well defined onset temperature. The resulting phase diagram, pair momentum distribution, and algebraic power law decay are compatible with recent experiments throughout the continuum from BEC to BCS. PMID:26705613

  4. Two-dimensional leaf orientation distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strebel, D. E.; Goel, N. S.; Ranson, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    Combined inclination/azimuth leaf angle distributions are important for accurate models of vegetation canopy reflectance. It is shown that appropriate mathematical representations can be constructed from beta distributions under most circumstances. This is illustrated by analyzing observational data on soybean leaves and balsam fir needles. There are some problems when the data is imprecise and when correlations between inclination and azimuth angle are induced by heliotropism. Otherwise, the two-dimensional beta-type distribution appears to be a versatile tool for describing complete inclination/azimuth leaf angle distributions.

  5. Two-dimensional signatures for molecular identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazi, Muhammad; Vogt, Thomas; Koley, Goutam

    2008-03-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the conductance and surface work function (SWF) changes on nanostructured graphite layers have been performed to detect several gaseous analyte molecules. It has been observed that the gradient of the SWF versus conductance response plotted for specific analyte molecules is constant irrespective of their concentration or fractional occupancy of surface adsorption sites. The SWF and conductance changes have been found to be uncorrelated for different analyte molecules, resulting in unique gradients that can be used as two-dimensional signatures for molecular identification.

  6. Two dimensional thick center vortex model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The potential between static color source is calculated in the SU (3) gauge group by introducing a two dimensional vortex flux. To generalize the model, the length of the Wilson loop is equal to R oriented along the x axis, and the vortex flux is considered as a function of x and y. The comparison between the generalized model and the original one shows that the intermediate linear regime is increased significantly and better agreement with Casimir scaling is achieved. Furthermore, the model is applied to calculate the potential between baryons.

  7. Can Two-Dimensional Boron Superconduct?

    PubMed

    Penev, Evgeni S; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2016-04-13

    Two-dimensional boron is expected to exhibit various structural polymorphs, all being metallic. Additionally, its small atomic mass suggests strong electron-phonon coupling, which in turn can enable superconducting behavior. Here we perform first-principles analysis of electronic structure, phonon spectra, and electron-phonon coupling of selected 2D boron polymorphs and show that the most stable structures predicted to feasibly form on a metal substrate should also exhibit intrinsic phonon-mediated superconductivity, with estimated critical temperature in the range of Tc ≈ 10-20 K. PMID:27003635

  8. Program For Two-Dimensional Thermoplastic Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, George E.

    1993-01-01

    SOLAS contains number of utility programs for use with finite-element simulations. Designed to handle two-dimensional problems of quasi-static thermoplastic deformation. Includes optional postprocessing software, independent of solution codes, generating unified element-by-element list of quantitative results of computation, plus file containing signed equivalent stresses, equivalent strains, and multiaxiality factor parameter. Signs of equivalent quantities expressed either with respect to maximum principal quantities or with respect to directions defined by user. Written in UNIX shell script and FORTRAN 77.

  9. Quasicondensation in Two-Dimensional Fermi Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chien-Te; Anderson, Brandon M.; Boyack, Rufus; Levin, K.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we follow the analysis and protocols of recent experiments, combined with simple theory, to arrive at a physical understanding of quasi-condensation in two dimensional Fermi gases. A key signature of quasi-condensation, which contains aspects of Berezinskiĭ-Kosterlitz-Thouless behavior, is a strong zero momentum peak in the pair momentum distribution. Importantly, this peak emerges at a reasonably well defined onset temperature. The resulting phase diagram, pair momentum distribution, and algebraic power law decay are compatible with recent experiments throughout the continuum from BEC to BCS.

  10. Two-dimensional gauge theoretic supergravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cangemi, D.; Leblanc, M.

    1994-05-01

    We investigate two-dimensional supergravity theories, which can be built from a topological and gauge invariant action defined on an ordinary surface. One is the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model presented by Chamseddine in a superspace formalism. We complement the proof of Montano, Aoaki and Sonnenschein that this extension is topological and gauge invariant, based on the graded de Sitter algebra. Not only do the equations of motion correspond to the supergravity ones and do gauge transformations encompass local supersymmetries, but we also identify the ∫< η, F>-theory with the superfield formalism action written by Chamseddine. Next, we show that the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of string-inspired two-dimensional dilaton gravity put forward by Park and Strominger cannot be written as a ∫< η, F>-theory. As an alternative, we propose two topological and gauge theories that are based on a graded extension of the extended Poincaré algebra and satisfy a vanishing-curvature condition. Both models are supersymmetric extensions of the string-inspired dilaton gravity.

  11. Two-dimensional phonon transport in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nika, Denis L.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2012-06-01

    Properties of phonons—quanta of the crystal lattice vibrations—in graphene have recently attracted significant attention from the physics and engineering communities. Acoustic phonons are the main heat carriers in graphene near room temperature, while optical phonons are used for counting the number of atomic planes in Raman experiments with few-layer graphene. It was shown both theoretically and experimentally that transport properties of phonons, i.e. energy dispersion and scattering rates, are substantially different in a quasi-two-dimensional system such as graphene compared to the basal planes in graphite or three-dimensional bulk crystals. The unique nature of two-dimensional phonon transport translates into unusual heat conduction in graphene and related materials. In this review, we outline different theoretical approaches developed for phonon transport in graphene, discuss contributions of the in-plane and cross-plane phonon modes, and provide comparison with available experimental thermal conductivity data. Particular attention is given to analysis of recent results for the phonon thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene and few-layer graphene, and the effects of the strain, defects, and isotopes on phonon transport in these systems.

  12. Two-dimensional phonon transport in graphene.

    PubMed

    Nika, Denis L; Balandin, Alexander A

    2012-06-13

    Properties of phonons-quanta of the crystal lattice vibrations-in graphene have recently attracted significant attention from the physics and engineering communities. Acoustic phonons are the main heat carriers in graphene near room temperature, while optical phonons are used for counting the number of atomic planes in Raman experiments with few-layer graphene. It was shown both theoretically and experimentally that transport properties of phonons, i.e. energy dispersion and scattering rates, are substantially different in a quasi-two-dimensional system such as graphene compared to the basal planes in graphite or three-dimensional bulk crystals. The unique nature of two-dimensional phonon transport translates into unusual heat conduction in graphene and related materials. In this review, we outline different theoretical approaches developed for phonon transport in graphene, discuss contributions of the in-plane and cross-plane phonon modes, and provide comparison with available experimental thermal conductivity data. Particular attention is given to analysis of recent results for the phonon thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene and few-layer graphene, and the effects of the strain, defects, and isotopes on phonon transport in these systems. PMID:22562955

  13. Spatial coherence of a polariton condensate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hui; Solomon, Glenn S; Hey, Rudolf; Ploog, Klaus H; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2007-09-21

    We perform Young's double-slit experiment to study the spatial coherence properties of a two-dimensional dynamic condensate of semiconductor microcavity polaritons. The coherence length of the system is measured as a function of the pump rate, which confirms a spontaneous buildup of macroscopic coherence in the condensed phase. An independent measurement reveals that the position and momentum uncertainty product of the condensate is close to the Heisenberg limit. An experimental realization of such a minimum uncertainty wave packet of the polariton condensate opens a door to coherent matter-wave phenomena such as Josephson oscillation, superfluidity, and solitons in solid state condensate systems. PMID:17930529

  14. A Two-dimensional TSVD Resolution Enhancement for EO Ocean Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenti, F.; Migliaccio, M.; Nunziata, F.; Rodriguez, G.

    2012-03-01

    A two-dimensional truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) technique is first proposed to enhance spatial resolution of earth observation (EO) products related to ocean-atmosphere interaction. The technique is based on the assumption that the gain function is a two-dimensional tensor product. To set the value of the truncation parameter the Generalized Cross Validation is adopted. Experiments undertaken on a data set of simulated two-dimensional radiometer measurements show the robustness of the technique against the additive noise level and its effectiveness in both reconstruction accurancy and processing time.

  15. A Two-dimensional TSVD Resolution Enhancement for EO Ocean Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenti, F.; Migliaccio, M.; Nunziata, F.; Rodriguez, G.

    2012-03-01

    A two-dimensional truncated singular value decomposi-tion (TSVD) technique is first proposed to enhance spa-tial resolution of earth observation (EO) products re- lated to ocean-atmosphere interaction. The technique is based on the assumption that the gain function is a two-dimensional tensor product. To set the value of the truncation parameter the Generalized Cross Validation is adopted. Experiments undertaken on a data set of simulated two- dimensional radiometer measurements show the robust- ness of the technique against the additive noise level and its effectivenes

  16. Nonlinear localized modes in two-dimensional electrical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, L. Q.; Palmero, F.; Stormes, J. F.; Cuevas, J.; Carretero-González, R.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2013-08-01

    We report the observation of spontaneous localization of energy in two spatial dimensions in the context of nonlinear electrical lattices. Both stationary and moving self-localized modes were generated experimentally and theoretically in a family of two-dimensional square as well as honeycomb lattices composed of 6 × 6 elements. Specifically, we find regions in driver voltage and frequency where stationary discrete breathers, also known as intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), exist and are stable due to the interplay of damping and spatially homogeneous driving. By introducing additional capacitors into the unit cell, these lattices can controllably induce mobile discrete breathers. When more than one such ILMs are experimentally generated in the lattice, the interplay of nonlinearity, discreteness, and wave interactions generates a complex dynamics wherein the ILMs attempt to maintain a minimum distance between one another. Numerical simulations show good agreement with experimental results and confirm that these phenomena qualitatively carry over to larger lattice sizes.

  17. Kinetic theory of a two-dimensional magnetized plasma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vahala, G.; Montgomery, D.

    1971-01-01

    Several features of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a two-dimensional plasma in a uniform dc magnetic field are investigated. The charges are assumed to interact only through electrostatic potentials. The problem is considered both with and without the guiding-center approximation. With the guiding-center approximation, an appropriate Liouville equation and BBGKY hierarchy predict no approach to thermal equilibrium for the spatially uniform case. For the spatially nonuniform situation, a guiding-center Vlasov equation is discussed and solved in special cases. For the nonequilibrium, nonguiding-center case, a Boltzmann equation, and a Fokker-Planck equation are derived in the appropriate limits. The latter is more tractable than the former, and can be shown to obey conservation laws and an H-theorem, but contains a divergent integral which must be cut off on physical grounds. Several unsolved problems are posed.

  18. Solitons in curved space of constant curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Batz, Sascha; Peschel, Ulf

    2010-05-15

    We consider spatial solitons as, for example, self-confined optical beams in spaces of constant curvature, which are a natural generalization of flat space. Due to the symmetries of these spaces we are able to define respective dynamical parameters, for example, velocity and position. For positively curved space we find stable multiple-hump solitons as a continuation from the linear modes. In the case of negatively curved space we show that no localized solution exists and a bright soliton will always decay through a nonlinear tunneling process.

  19. Two-dimensional informative array testing.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Christopher S; Tebbs, Joshua M; Bilder, Christopher R

    2012-09-01

    Array-based group-testing algorithms for case identification are widely used in infectious disease testing, drug discovery, and genetics. In this article, we generalize previous statistical work in array testing to account for heterogeneity among individuals being tested. We first derive closed-form expressions for the expected number of tests (efficiency) and misclassification probabilities (sensitivity, specificity, predictive values) for two-dimensional array testing in a heterogeneous population. We then propose two "informative" array construction techniques which exploit population heterogeneity in ways that can substantially improve testing efficiency when compared to classical approaches that regard the population as homogeneous. Furthermore, a useful byproduct of our methodology is that misclassification probabilities can be estimated on a per-individual basis. We illustrate our new procedures using chlamydia and gonorrhea testing data collected in Nebraska as part of the Infertility Prevention Project. PMID:22212007

  20. Epitaxial growth of two-dimensional stanene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng-Feng; Chen, Wei-Jiong; Xu, Yong; Gao, Chun-Lei; Guan, Dan-Dan; Liu, Can-Hua; Qian, Dong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2015-10-01

    Following the first experimental realization of graphene, other ultrathin materials with unprecedented electronic properties have been explored, with particular attention given to the heavy group-IV elements Si, Ge and Sn. Two-dimensional buckled Si-based silicene has been recently realized by molecular beam epitaxy growth, whereas Ge-based germanene was obtained by molecular beam epitaxy and mechanical exfoliation. However, the synthesis of Sn-based stanene has proved challenging so far. Here, we report the successful fabrication of 2D stanene by molecular beam epitaxy, confirmed by atomic and electronic characterization using scanning tunnelling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, in combination with first-principles calculations. The synthesis of stanene and its derivatives will stimulate further experimental investigation of their theoretically predicted properties, such as a 2D topological insulating behaviour with a very large bandgap, and the capability to support enhanced thermoelectric performance, topological superconductivity and the near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect.

  1. c =1 Two dimensional quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Norisuke

    The continuum (Liouville) approach to the two-dimensional (2-D) quantum gravity is reviewed with particular attention to the c=1 conformal matter coupling, and new results on a related problem of dilaton gravity are reported. After finding the physical states, we examine the procedure to compute correlation functions. The physical states in the relative cohomology show up as intermediate state poles of the correlation functions. The states in the absolute cohomology but not in the relative cohomology arise as auxiliary fields in string field theory. The Liouville approach is applied also to the quantum treatment of the dilaton gravity. The physical states are obtained from the BRST cohomology and correlation functions are computed in the dilaton gravity.

  2. Structural Modelling of Two Dimensional Amorphous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avishek

    The continuous random network (CRN) model of network glasses is widely accepted as a model for materials such as vitreous silica and amorphous silicon. Although it has been more than eighty years since the proposal of the CRN, there has not been conclusive experimental evidence of the structure of glasses and amorphous materials. This has now changed with the advent of two-dimensional amorphous materials. Now, not only the distribution of rings but the actual atomic ring structure can be imaged in real space, allowing for greater charicterization of these types of networks. This dissertation reports the first work done on the modelling of amorphous graphene and vitreous silica bilayers. Models of amorphous graphene have been created using a Monte Carlo bond-switching method and MD method. Vitreous silica bilayers have been constructed using models of amorphous graphene and the ring statistics of silica bilayers has been studied.

  3. Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, E.; Zetzsche, C.; Rentschler, I.

    1998-01-01

    We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features.

  4. Two-Dimensional Ground Water Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-05

    FRACFLO computes the two-dimensional, space, time dependent, convective dispersive transport of a single radionuclide in an unbounded single or multiple parallel fracture system with constant aperture. It calculates the one-dimensional diffusive transport into the rock matrix as well as the mass flux and cumulative mass flux at any point in the fracture. Steady-state isothermal ground water flow and parallel streamlines are assumed in the fracture, and the rock matrix is considered to be fully saturatedmore » with immobile water. The model can treat a single or multiple finite patch source or a Gaussian distributed source subject to a step or band release mode.« less

  5. Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons.

    PubMed

    Barth, E; Zetzsche, C; Rentschler, I

    1998-07-01

    We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features. PMID:9656473

  6. Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.

  7. Two-dimensional swimming behavior of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Zhai, He; Sanchez, Sandra; Kearns, Daniel; Wu, Yilin

    Many bacteria swim by flagella motility which is essential for bacterial dispersal, chemotaxis, and pathogenesis. Here we combined single-cell tracking, theoretical analysis, and computational modeling to investigate two-dimensional swimming behavior of a well-characterized flagellated bacterium Bacillus subtilis at the single-cell level. We quantified the 2D motion pattern of B. subtilis in confined space and studied how cells interact with each other. Our findings shed light on bacterial colonization in confined environments, and will serve as the ground for building more accurate models to understand bacterial collective motion. Mailing address: Room 306 Science Centre North Block, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. Hong Kong SAR. Phone: +852-3943-6354. Fax: +852-2603-5204. E-mail: ylwu@phy.cuhk.edu.hk.

  8. Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials.

    PubMed

    Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane. PMID:25744932

  9. Two-dimensional Inductive Position Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional inductive position sensing system uses four drive inductors arranged at the vertices of a parallelogram and a sensing inductor positioned within the parallelogram. The sensing inductor is movable within the parallelogram and relative to the drive inductors. A first oscillating current at a first frequency is supplied to a first pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a first diagonal of the parallelogram. A second oscillating current at a second frequency is supplied to a second pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a second diagonal of the parallelogram. As a result, the sensing inductor generates a first output voltage at the first frequency and a second output voltage at the second frequency. A processor determines a position of the sensing inductor relative to the drive inductors using the first output voltage and the second output voltage.

  10. Localization of two-dimensional quantum walks

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, Norio; Konishi, Yoshinao; Konno, Norio

    2004-05-01

    The Grover walk, which is related to Grover's search algorithm on a quantum computer, is one of the typical discrete time quantum walks. However, a localization of the two-dimensional Grover walk starting from a fixed point is strikingly different from other types of quantum walks. The present paper explains the reason why the walker who moves according to the degree-four Grover operator can remain at the starting point with a high probability. It is shown that the key factor for the localization is due to the degeneration of eigenvalues of the time evolution operator. In fact, the global time evolution of the quantum walk on a large lattice is mainly determined by the degree of degeneration. The dependence of the localization on the initial state is also considered by calculating the wave function analytically.

  11. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  12. Chirality waves in two-dimensional magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solenov, Dmitry; Mozyrsky, Dmitry; Martin, Ivar

    2011-03-01

    Electron, as a particle with spin 1/2, moving though a magnetic material with non-coplanar magnetization pattern accumulates quantum mechanical (Berry) phase, characterized by the degree of non-coplanarity of the magnetic texture, or chirality. Until now metallic chiral magnets were thought to be quite rare and require either a fine tuning of the electron spectrum (nesting) or spin-orbit interactions. We show that two-dimensional magnets within a simple model of magnetism -- a Kondo lattice model -- favor a non-coplanar order (a distorted skyrmionic lattice) with unidirectional modulated chirality. Unlike recently observed chiral triangular skyrmion lattices supported by spin-orbit interaction and finite magnetic field (e.g. in MnSi), the chirality-wave order emerge at small-to-intermediate Kondo coupling strength in the absence of magnetic field or spin-orbit coupling

  13. Atomic Defects in Two Dimensional Materials.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Haider I; Ophus, Colin; Zettl, Alex

    2015-10-14

    Atomic defects in crystalline structures have pronounced affects on their bulk properties. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy has proved to be a powerful characterization tool for understanding the bonding structure of defects in materials. In this article, recent results on the characterization of defect structures in two dimensional materials are discussed. The dynamic behavior of defects in graphene shows the stability of zigzag edges of the material and gives insights into the dislocation motion. Polycrystalline graphene is characterized using advanced electron microscopy techniques, revealing the global crystal structure of the material, as well as atomic-resolution observation of the carbon atom positions between neighboring crystal grains. Studies of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) are also visited, highlighting the interlayer bonding, which occurs upon defect formation, and characterization of grain boundary structures. Lastly, defect structures in monolayer polycrystalline transition metal dichalcogenides grown by CVD are discussed. PMID:25946075

  14. From two-dimensional materials to heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Tianchao; Li, Ang

    2015-02-01

    Graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide, and layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) represent a class of two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals with unique properties due to reduced dimensionality. Stacking these materials on top of each other in a controlled fashion can create heterostructures with tailored properties that offers another promising approach to design and fabricate novel electronic devices. In this report, we attempt to review this rapidly developing field of hybrid materials. We summarize the fabrication methods for different 2D materials, the layer-by-layer growth of various vertical heterostructures and their electronic properties. Particular interests are given to in-situ stack aforementioned 2D materials in controlled sequences, and the TMDCs heterostructures.

  15. Two-dimensional virtual impactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Forney, L.J.; Ravenhall, D.G.

    1980-12-01

    Theoretical predictions using both potential flow analyses and solutions to Navier-Stokes equations are made for the operating characteristics of a two-dimensional virtual impactor. Experiments were performed with 2.5 ..mu..m, uranine tagged, di-octylphthalate (DOP) oil droplets for a wide range of prototype geometries to measure the magnitude of internal losses and to fully characterize the instrument response. The influence of geometry including the throat angle (38/sup 0/ less than or equal to ..beta../sub 0/ less than or equal to 58.2/sup 0/) and normalized void width (0.7 less than or equal to h/w less than or equal to 1.5) on the particle cutoff diameter, efficiency curve steepness and properties of the internal particle loss factor are presented for fixed instrument Reynolds numbers Re = 1540 and bleed flow f = 0.1. The theory, supported by trends in the empirical data, predicts that internal particle losses reduce to zero as the normalized void width increases to h/w = 1.4 +- .1 while the data show a minimum at h/w = 1.6 +- .1. Increasing the void width, however, is shown to substantially reduce the steepness of the particle efficiency curves. Visual observations of the onset of fluid separation for two-dimensional jets impinging upon a void were conducted with a scaled-up water model and correlated with theory. It was found that the limiting void width h/sub lim//w marking the onset of fluid instabilities peaked for an intermediate value of the fluid deflecting plate angle ..beta.. approx. = 80/sup 0/ with larger values of h/sub lim//w corresponding to smaller throat angles ..beta../sub 0/. The limiting void width h/sub lim//w also increased with larger bleed flows into the void. These instabilities may make it difficult to correlate experimental virtual impactor data with theory.

  16. Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis (2DE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłodzińska, Ewa; Buszewski, Bogusław

    The chemical compounds, which are present in the environment, increasingly cause bad effects on health. The most serious effects are tumors and various mutations at the cellular level. Such compounds, from the analytical point of view, can serve the function of biomarkers, constituting measurable changes in the organism's cells and biochemical processes occurring therein. The challenge of the twenty-first century is therefore searching for effective and reliable methods of identification of biomarkers as well as understanding bodily functions, which occur in living organisms at the molecular level. The irreplaceable tool for these examinations is proteomics, which includes both quality and quantity analysis of proteins composition, and also makes it possible to learn their functions and expressions. The success of proteomics examinations lies in the usage of innovative analytical techniques, such as electromigration technique, two-dimensional electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (2D PAGE), liquid chromatography, together with high resolution mass spectrometry and bio-informatical data analysis. Proteomics joins together a number of techniques used for analysis of hundreds or thousands of proteins. Its main task is not the examination of proteins inside the particular tissue but searching for the differences in the proteins' profile between bad and healthy tissues. These differences can tell us a lot regarding the cause of the sickness as well as its consequences. For instance, using the proteomics analysis it is possible to find relatively fast new biomarkers of tumor diseases, which in the future will be used for both screening and foreseeing the course of illness. In this chapter we focus on two-dimensional electrophoresis because as it seems, it may be of enormous importance when searching for biomarkers of cancer diseases.

  17. Continuous Solitons in a Lattice Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierangeli, D.; Flammini, M.; Di Mei, F.; Parravicini, J.; de Oliveira, C. E. M.; Agranat, A. J.; DelRe, E.

    2015-05-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally the propagation of optical solitons in a lattice nonlinearity, a periodic pattern that both affects and is strongly affected by the wave. Observations are carried out using spatial photorefractive solitons in a volume microstructured crystal with a built-in oscillating low-frequency dielectric constant. The pattern causes an oscillating electro-optic response that induces a periodic optical nonlinearity. On-axis results in potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate indicate the appearance of effective continuous saturated-Kerr solitons, where all spatial traces of the lattice vanish, independently of the ratio between beam width and lattice constant. Decoupling the lattice nonlinearity allows the detection of discrete delocalized and localized light distributions, demonstrating that the continuous solitons form out of the combined compensation of diffraction and of the underlying periodic volume pattern.

  18. Optimal two-dimensional models for wake flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, S.; Najjar, F. M.

    2001-01-01

    In the case of nominally two-dimensional (2D) cylinders of arbitrary cross section in cross flow, the three-dimensionality of the wake manifests in the form of quasi-streamwise vortices. These three-dimensional (3D) features profoundly influence lift and drag forces. However, a two-dimensional projection of such a flow, where the effects of three-dimensionality are modeled, will be computationally very attractive. One can consider the two-dimensional projection as the limiting case of large eddy simulation, where the spanwise direction has been completely averaged out. The transport equation for the span-averaged spanwise component of vorticity, ω¯z, is considered; the 3D effects to be modeled appear as a subgrid scale flux of torque. It is shown that simple minded eddy viscosity type models that assume the flux vector to be proportional to the spatial gradient of ω¯z are inadequate. Here we extend the optimal modeling formalism [Moser, Balachandar, and Adrian, Turbulence and Internal Flow/Unsteady Aerodynamics and Hypersonics Conference, Annapolis, MD, pp. 269-274 (1998); Langford and Moser, J. Fluid Mech. 398, 321 (1999)] to address issues pertaining to complex flows with multiple directions of inhomogeneity. We present optimal closures for subgrid flux modeled in terms of ω¯z distribution, based on linear and quadratic stochastic approximations. These ideas are tested using the database of flow over a flat plate held normal to a cross flow. It is observed that even the optimal model has about 70% normalized error, indicating that the subgrid flux is only about 30% deterministic. Furthermore, it is observed that local models are inadequate, but there exists a region of nonlocality for model dependence, expanding beyond which does not improve the estimate. Higher order nonlinearities however do not seem to improve the model's predictability.

  19. Coherent atomic soliton molecules for matter-wave switching

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Chenyun; Berloff, Natalia G.; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Novoa, David; Carpentier, Alicia V.; Michinel, Humberto

    2011-05-15

    We discuss the dynamics of interacting dark-bright two-dimensional vector solitons in multicomponent immiscible bulk Bose-Einstein condensates. We describe matter-wave molecules without a scalar counterpart that can be seen as bound states of vector objects. We also analyze the possibility of using these structures as building blocks for the design of matter-wave switchers.

  20. Solitons with Periodic Behavior in an SBN:75 Photorefractive Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qing-Lin; Deng, Gui-Ying; Liang, Bao-Lai; Li, Pan-Lai; Li, Yan; Li, Xu

    2010-08-01

    We study the formation of spatial solitons in an SBN:75 photorefractive crystal by a 532 nm continuous-wave laser beam. The output beam from the crystal cannot be compressed proportionally to the voltage of the applied electric field. Quasi-steady-state spatial solitons are formed instantaneously at a voltage of 900 V. Interestingly, the quasi-steady-state solitons exhibit a periodic behavior consisting of formation/broken/reformation cycles. If we increase the input intensity of the soliton beam but keep the same signal-to-background intensity ratio, the solitons stay for a longer time in the quasi-steady state and a longer period of soliton formation/broken/reformation cycle is also observed.

  1. Lightlike solitons with spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernitskii, Alexander A.

    2016-02-01

    New exact solution class of Born - Infeld type nonlinear scalar field model is obtained. These solutions are three-dimensional solitons propagating with speed of light. The appropriate twisted solitons are considered. Energy and absolute value of momentum for such soliton are proportional to absolute value of its angular momentum or spin in some approximation. The model of ideal gas for the twisted lightlike solitons with lowest twist parameter is considered. Explicit conditions provide that the spin of each soliton equals Planck constant. It is shown that these solitons look like photons.

  2. New two-dimensional response matrix iterative sweeping techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gelbard, E.M.; Olvey, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Four closely related two-dimensional iterative sweeping techniques for solving response matrix equations have been developed and specifically applied to the within-group inner iteration strategy of the nodal transport option of the Argonne National Laboratory DIF3D production code. This option is used for multidimensional neutron transport calculations with a standard fission source outer/inner iteration strategy and fission source extrapolation (FSE) as a possible outer iteration acceleration technique. The inner iterations using a red/black (R/B) checkerborad strategy solve for the nodal surface quantities defined by response matrix equations. To counteract anomalous behavior in the fine-mesh limit, DP{sub 1} weights and positive ordinates are used to approximate the exponential integral functions. The new sweeping methods (specialized here for x-y geometry) employ a strategy similar to that used in the Bettis S{sub N} code TPT. For the new two-dimensional iterative techniques, this encompasses an upsweep/downsweep through the spatial mesh calculating the nodal surface quantities.

  3. Low-temperature properties of two-dimensional ideal ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Christoph P.

    2012-08-01

    The manifestation of the spin-wave interaction in the low-temperature series of the partition function has been investigated extensively over more than seven decades in the case of the three-dimensional ferromagnet. Surprisingly, the same problem regarding ferromagnets in two spatial dimensions, to the best of our knowledge, has not been addressed in a systematic way so far. In the present paper the low-temperature properties of two-dimensional ideal ferromagnets are analyzed within the model-independent method of effective Lagrangians. The low-temperature expansion of the partition function is evaluated up to two-loop order and the general structure of this series is discussed, including the effect of a weak external magnetic field. Our results apply to two-dimensional ideal ferromagnets which exhibit a spontaneously broken spin rotation symmetry O(3)→O(2) and are defined on a square, honeycomb, triangular, or kagome lattice. Remarkably, the spin-wave interaction only sets in at three-loop order. In particular, there is no interaction term of order T3 in the low-temperature series for the free energy density. This is the analog of the statement that, in the case of three-dimensional ferromagnets, there is no interaction term of order T4 in the free energy density. We also provide a careful discussion of the implications of the Mermin-Wagner theorem in the present context and thereby put our low-temperature expansions on safe grounds.

  4. Scaling and self-similarity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Ali; Kavvas, M Levent

    2015-07-01

    The conditions under which depth-averaged two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic equations system as an initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) becomes self-similar are investigated by utilizing one-parameter Lie group of point scaling transformations. Self-similarity conditions due to the 2D k-ε turbulence model are also investigated. The self-similarity conditions for the depth-averaged 2D hydrodynamics are found for the flow variables including the time, the longitudinal length, the transverse length, the water depth, the flow velocities in x- and y-directions, the bed shear stresses in x- and y-directions, the bed shear velocity, the Manning's roughness coefficient, the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, the eddy viscosity, the turbulent kinetic energy, the turbulent dissipation, and the production and the source terms in the k-ε model. By the numerical simulations, it is shown that the IBVP of depth-averaged 2D hydrodynamic flow process in a prototype domain can be self-similar with that of a scaled domain. In fact, by changing the scaling parameter and the scaling exponents of the length dimensions, one can obtain several different scaled domains. The proposed scaling relations obtained by the Lie group scaling approach may provide additional spatial, temporal, and economical flexibility in setting up physical hydraulic models in which two-dimensional flow components are important. PMID:26232977

  5. Spectral measurements of two-dimensional color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauta-Kasari, Markku; Miyazawa, Kanae; Toyooka, Satoru; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-05-01

    In this work we propose a prototype of the spectral vision system, which can be used to measure a color spectrum and two- dimensional spectral images. We first designed a low- dimensional broad band color filter set with a constraint of positive spectral values by the unsupervised neural network. Then we constructed a compact size optical setup for the spectral synthesizer, which can be used to synthesize the light corresponding to the spectral characteristics of the color filter. In the optical setup we implemented the color filters by the use of the liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM). In our experiments we illuminated a sample of a real world scene by the synthesized lights and detected the intensity images of the filtering process by the CCD- camera. The intensity images correspond to the optically calculated inner products between the color filters and a sample. The data obtained from the filtering process is only a few monochrome images and therefore convenient for storing and transmitting spectral images. From the detected inner products we reconstructed the sample's color spectra by the use of inverse matrix. We present experimental results of measuring a single color spectrum and two-dimensional spectral images.

  6. Implementations of two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Guiochon, Georges A; Marchetti, Nicola; Mriziq, Khaled S; Shalliker, R. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Today scientists must deal with complex samples that either cannot be adequately separated using one-dimensional chromatography or that require an inordinate amount of time for separation. For these cases we need two-dimensional chromatography because it takes far less time to generate a peak capacity n{sub c} twice in a row than to generate a peak capacity n{sub c}{sup 2} once. Liquid chromatography has been carried out successfully on thin layers of adsorbents and along tubes filled with various adsorbents. The first type of separation sorts out the sample components in a physical separation space that is the layer of packing material. The analysis time is the same for all the components of the sample while their migration distance increases with decreasing retention. The resolution between two components having a certain separation factor (a) increases with increasing migration distance, i.e., from the strongly to the weakly retained compounds. In the second type of separation, the sample components are eluted from the column and separated in the time space, their migration distances are all the same while their retention times increase from the unretained to the strongly retained compounds. Separation efficiency varies little with retention, as long as the components are eluted from the column. We call these two types of separation the chromatographic separations in space (LC{sup x}) and the chromatographic separations in time (LC{sup t}), respectively. In principle, there are four ways to combine these two modes and do two-dimensional chromatographic separations, LC{sup t} x LC{sup t}, LC{sup x} x LC{sup t}, LC{sup t} x LC{sup x}, and LC{sup x} x LC{sup x}. We review, discuss and compare the potential performance of these combinations, their advantages, drawbacks, problems, perspectives and results. Currently, column-based combinations (LC{sup t} x LC{sup t}) are the most actively pursued. We suggest that the combination LC{sup x} x LC{sup t} shows exceptional promise because it permits the simultaneous second-dimension separations of all the fractions separated in the first-dimension, thus providing remarkable time saving.

  7. Multiplet-separated heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitt, Malcolm H.; Sørensen, O. W.; Ernst, R. R.

    1983-02-01

    Techniques are described for the identification and separation of peaks of different multiplicity in heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The methods are applied to the two-dimensional 13C- 1H shift correlation spectrum of menthol.

  8. Two-dimensional detector of thermal neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, V.; Ganzha, G.; Ilyin, D.; Ivanov, E.; Kovalenko, S.; Krivshich, A.; Nadtochy, A.; Runov, V.

    2007-10-01

    A two-dimensional detector of thermal neutrons has been designed and constructed for neutron diffraction experiments at the St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. It is based on a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) with cathode strip delay line readout and has a sensitive area of 170×300 mm 2 and anode wire spacing is 4 mm. It operates with a gas mixture of 1.5 bar 3He+2 bar CF 4. To improve the gas purity by a few orders of magnitude, a new technology for fabrication of the detector's electrodes has been developed. An intrinsic resolution of 0.6 mm (FWHM) and a differential nonlinearity of ±5% are achieved. It was shown that the detector, whose efficiency is about 60% for 9 Å neutrons, has a resolution of 2.5 mm along the fine axis and about 4 mm for the perpendicular discrete axis. The dependence of the measured pulse height spectra from the applied high voltage and the electric field in the drift regions has been investigated. It turns out that for thermal neutrons the measured spectra are very similar to those obtained with proportional neutron counters filled with 10 bar 3He.

  9. Redox options in two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wait, R; Begum, S; Brambilla, D; Carabelli, A M; Conserva, F; Rocco Guerini, A; Eberini, I; Ballerio, R; Gemeiner, M; Miller, I; Gianazza, E

    2005-05-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis is usually run on fully reduced samples. Under these conditions even covalently bound oligomers are dissociated and individual polypeptide chains may be fully unfolded by both, urea and SDS, which maximizes the number of resolved components and allows their pI and M(r) to be most accurately evaluated. However, various electrophoretic protocols for protein structure investigation require a combination of steps under varying redox conditions. We review here some of the applications of these procedures. We also present some original data about a few related samples -- serum from four species: Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bos taurus -- which we run under fully unreduced and fully reduced conditions as well as with reduction between first and second dimension. We demonstrate that in many cases the unreduced proteins migrate with a better resolution than reduced proteins, mostly in the crowded 'alpha-globulin' area of pI 4.5-6 and M(r) 50-70 kDa. PMID:15744479

  10. Dynamics of two-dimensional dipole systems

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Hartmann, Peter; Donko, Zoltan

    2010-09-15

    Using a combined analytical/molecular dynamics approach, we study the current fluctuation spectra and longitudinal and transverse collective mode dispersions of the classical two-dimensional (point) dipole system (2DDS) characterized by the {phi}{sub D}(r)={mu}{sup 2}/r{sup 3} repulsive interaction potential; {mu} is the electric dipole strength. The interest in the 2DDS is twofold. First, the quasi-long-range 1/r{sup 3} interaction makes the system a unique classical many-body system, with a remarkable collective mode behavior. Second, the system may be a good model for a closely spaced semiconductor electron-hole bilayer, a system that is in the forefront of current experimental interest. The longitudinal collective excitations, which are of primary interest for the liquid phase, are acoustic at long wavelengths. At higher wave numbers and for sufficiently high coupling strength, we observe the formation of a deep minimum in the dispersion curve preceded by a sharp maximum; this is identical to what has been observed in the dispersion of the zero-temperature bosonic dipole system, which in turn emulates so-called roton-maxon excitation spectrum of the superfluid {sup 4}He. The analysis we present gives an insight into the emergence of this apparently universal structure, governed by strong correlations. We study both the liquid and the crystalline solid state. We also observe the excitation of combination frequencies, resembling the roton-roton, roton-maxon, etc. structures in {sup 4}He.

  11. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  12. Two-dimensional Dirac signature of germanene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Bampoulis, P.; Houselt, A. van; Zandvliet, H. J. W.

    2015-09-14

    The structural and electronic properties of germanene coated Ge{sub 2}Pt clusters have been determined by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy at room temperature. The interior of the germanene sheet exhibits a buckled honeycomb structure with a lattice constant of 4.3 Å and a buckling of 0.2 Å. The zigzag edges of germanene are reconstructed and display a 4× periodicity. The differential conductivity of the interior of the germanene sheet has a V-shape, which is reminiscent of the density of states of a two-dimensional Dirac system. The minimum of the differential conductivity is located close to the Fermi level and has a non-zero value, which we ascribe to the metallic character of the underlying Ge{sub 2}Pt substrate. Near the reconstructed germanene zigzag edges the shape of the differential conductivity changes from a V-shape to a more parabolic-like shape, revealing that the reconstructed germanene zigzag edges do not exhibit a pronounced metallic edge state.

  13. Two-dimensional cyanates: stabilization through hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Tsetseris, Leonidas

    2016-06-01

    According to first-principles calculations, it should be possible to grow two-dimensional (2D) forms of copper thio-cyanate (CuSCN) and copper seleno-cyanate (CuSeCN) since their energies are only marginally higher than those of their most stable three-dimensional (3D) wurtzite structures. Here we show using the same theoretical approach that chemisorption reactions of hydrogen molecules with the above-mentioned 2D CuSCN and CuSeCN systems enhance their stability as they decrease the energy difference with respect to the corresponding hydrogenated forms of the wurtzite crystals. Hydrogenation causes a sizeable decrease in the energy band gap by 0.56 eV and 0.65 eV for hydrogenated 2D-CuSCN (CuSCNH2) and 2D-CuSeCN (CuSeCNH2), respectively. Finally, we describe the stability of hydrogen vacancies in CuSCNH2 and CuSeCNH2 and show that the presence of isolated single H vacancies or di-vacancies does not affect significantly the electronic properties of the host systems close to the valence and conduction band edges. PMID:27183226

  14. Braid Entropy of Two-Dimensional Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, Nicolas; Xia, Hua; Punzmann, Horst; Faber, Benjamin; Shats, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The evolving shape of material fluid lines in a flow underlies the quantitative prediction of the dissipation and material transport in many industrial and natural processes. However, collecting quantitative data on this dynamics remains an experimental challenge in particular in turbulent flows. Indeed the deformation of a fluid line, induced by its successive stretching and folding, can be difficult to determine because such description ultimately relies on often inaccessible multi-particle information. Here we report laboratory measurements in two-dimensional turbulence that offer an alternative topological viewpoint on this issue. This approach characterizes the dynamics of a braid of Lagrangian trajectories through a global measure of their entanglement. The topological length of material fluid lines can be derived from these braids. This length is found to grow exponentially with time, giving access to the braid topological entropy . The entropy increases as the square root of the turbulent kinetic energy and is directly related to the single-particle dispersion coefficient. At long times, the probability distribution of is positively skewed and shows strong exponential tails. Our results suggest that may serve as a measure of the irreversibility of turbulence based on minimal principles and sparse Lagrangian data.

  15. Braid Entropy of Two-Dimensional Turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Francois, Nicolas; Xia, Hua; Punzmann, Horst; Faber, Benjamin; Shats, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The evolving shape of material fluid lines in a flow underlies the quantitative prediction of the dissipation and material transport in many industrial and natural processes. However, collecting quantitative data on this dynamics remains an experimental challenge in particular in turbulent flows. Indeed the deformation of a fluid line, induced by its successive stretching and folding, can be difficult to determine because such description ultimately relies on often inaccessible multi-particle information. Here we report laboratory measurements in two-dimensional turbulence that offer an alternative topological viewpoint on this issue. This approach characterizes the dynamics of a braid of Lagrangian trajectories through a global measure of their entanglement. The topological length of material fluid lines can be derived from these braids. This length is found to grow exponentially with time, giving access to the braid topological entropy . The entropy increases as the square root of the turbulent kinetic energy and is directly related to the single-particle dispersion coefficient. At long times, the probability distribution of is positively skewed and shows strong exponential tails. Our results suggest that may serve as a measure of the irreversibility of turbulence based on minimal principles and sparse Lagrangian data. PMID:26689261

  16. Epitaxial growth of two-dimensional stanene.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng-feng; Chen, Wei-jiong; Xu, Yong; Gao, Chun-lei; Guan, Dan-dan; Liu, Can-hua; Qian, Dong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Jia, Jin-feng

    2015-10-01

    Following the first experimental realization of graphene, other ultrathin materials with unprecedented electronic properties have been explored, with particular attention given to the heavy group-IV elements Si, Ge and Sn. Two-dimensional buckled Si-based silicene has been recently realized by molecular beam epitaxy growth, whereas Ge-based germanene was obtained by molecular beam epitaxy and mechanical exfoliation. However, the synthesis of Sn-based stanene has proved challenging so far. Here, we report the successful fabrication of 2D stanene by molecular beam epitaxy, confirmed by atomic and electronic characterization using scanning tunnelling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, in combination with first-principles calculations. The synthesis of stanene and its derivatives will stimulate further experimental investigation of their theoretically predicted properties, such as a 2D topological insulating behaviour with a very large bandgap, and the capability to support enhanced thermoelectric performance, topological superconductivity and the near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect. PMID:26237127

  17. Two-dimensional laser interferometry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehr, Leo; Concepcion, Ricky; Duggan, Robert; Moore, Hannah; Novick, Asher; Ransohoff, Lauren; Gourdain, Pierre-Alexandre; Hammer, David; Kusse, Bruce

    2013-10-01

    The objective of our research was to create a two-dimensional interferometer which we will use to measure plasma densities at the Cornell Research Beam Accelerator (COBRA). We built two shearing interferometers and mounted them on an optics table. They intercept the probe laser beam which travels directly through the plasma and is captured by a 16-bit CCD camera. In comparing the interferometer images before the shot and during the plasma shot, we observed both lateral and vertical shifts in the interference pattern caused by the change of the refractive index due to the plasma electrons. We developed a computer program using Matlab to map a vector field depicting the shift between the two images. This shift is proportional to the line integral of electron density through the plasma chamber. We show this method provides a reliable way to determine the plasma electron density profile. Additionally, we hope this method can improve upon the diagnostic capabilities and efficiency of data collection used with standard one-dimensional interferometry. Undergraduate.

  18. Braid Entropy of Two-Dimensional Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Francois, Nicolas; Xia, Hua; Punzmann, Horst; Faber, Benjamin; Shats, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The evolving shape of material fluid lines in a flow underlies the quantitative prediction of the dissipation and material transport in many industrial and natural processes. However, collecting quantitative data on this dynamics remains an experimental challenge in particular in turbulent flows. Indeed the deformation of a fluid line, induced by its successive stretching and folding, can be difficult to determine because such description ultimately relies on often inaccessible multi-particle information. Here we report laboratory measurements in two-dimensional turbulence that offer an alternative topological viewpoint on this issue. This approach characterizes the dynamics of a braid of Lagrangian trajectories through a global measure of their entanglement. The topological length of material fluid lines can be derived from these braids. This length is found to grow exponentially with time, giving access to the braid topological entropy . The entropy increases as the square root of the turbulent kinetic energy and is directly related to the single-particle dispersion coefficient. At long times, the probability distribution of is positively skewed and shows strong exponential tails. Our results suggest that may serve as a measure of the irreversibility of turbulence based on minimal principles and sparse Lagrangian data. PMID:26689261

  19. Two-dimensional optical fibre cantilever accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Sun, J. N.; Miliar, M. M.; Dong, F. Z.; Maier, R. R. J.; Hand, D. P.; MacPherson, W. N.

    2015-09-01

    Focused Ion Beam (FIB) machining has been demonstrated to be capable of fabricating nano and micro scale elements onto optical fibres. In this paper we exploit FIB to fabricate core aligned 45 mirrors at the end of multi-core fibres (MCF). The resulting fibre is used as a component in a two dimensional optical fibre accelerometer. The mirror is produced using a two step process: first a scanning process is used to make a rough cut to define the overall mirror structure. This is followed by a polishing process to create an optical surface finish. The machined 45 mirror can be accurately aligned with optical fibre core, which avoids issues associated with the alignment of external turning mirror components. Proof-of-concept tests demonstrate the use of such a fibre as a two axis acceleration sensor that is interrogated interferometrically. The sensor operated between 0.5g and 4.5g with a cross talk of -24.3dB between axes.

  20. Order Parameters for Two-Dimensional Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, Forrest; Bultheel, Adhemar; Egami, Takeshi

    2007-10-01

    We derive methods that explain how to quantify the amount of order in ``ordered'' and ``highly ordered'' porous arrays. Ordered arrays from bee honeycomb and several from the general field of nanoscience are compared. Accurate measures of the order in porous arrays are made using the discrete pair distribution function (PDF) and the Debye-Waller Factor (DWF) from 2-D discrete Fourier transforms calculated from the real-space data using MATLAB routines. An order parameter, OP3, is defined from the PDF to evaluate the total order in a given array such that an ideal network has the value of 1. When we compare PDFs of man-made arrays with that of our honeycomb we find OP3=0.399 for the honeycomb and OP3=0.572 for man's best hexagonal array. The DWF also scales with this order parameter with the least disorder from a computer-generated hexagonal array and the most disorder from a random array. An ideal hexagonal array normalizes a two-dimensional Fourier transform from which a Debye-Waller parameter is derived which describes the disorder in the arrays. An order parameter S, defined by the DWF, takes values from [0, 1] and for the analyzed man-made array is 0.90, while for the honeycomb it is 0.65. This presentation describes methods to quantify the order found in these arrays.

  1. An atlas of two-dimensional materials.

    PubMed

    Miró, Pere; Audiffred, Martha; Heine, Thomas

    2014-09-21

    The discovery of graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials together with recent advances in exfoliation techniques have set the foundations for the manufacturing of single layered sheets from any layered 3D material. The family of 2D materials encompasses a wide selection of compositions including almost all the elements of the periodic table. This derives into a rich variety of electronic properties including metals, semimetals, insulators and semiconductors with direct and indirect band gaps ranging from ultraviolet to infrared throughout the visible range. Thus, they have the potential to play a fundamental role in the future of nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and the assembly of novel ultrathin and flexible devices. We categorize the 2D materials according to their structure, composition and electronic properties. In this review we distinguish atomically thin materials (graphene, silicene, germanene, and their saturated forms; hexagonal boron nitride; silicon carbide), rare earth, semimetals, transition metal chalcogenides and halides, and finally synthetic organic 2D materials, exemplified by 2D covalent organic frameworks. Our exhaustive data collection presented in this Atlas demonstrates the large diversity of electronic properties, including band gaps and electron mobilities. The key points of modern computational approaches applied to 2D materials are presented with special emphasis to cover their range of application, peculiarities and pitfalls. PMID:24825454

  2. Two-dimensional Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, David

    2012-02-01

    Sensitive interference detection of the electric field of femtosecond four-wave mixing signals (stimulated photon echoes) at their point of origin in the sample can be used to record two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform electronic spectra. In direct analogy to 2D nuclear magnetic resonance, 2D Fourier transform spectra have nearly homogeneous linewidths in each frequency dimension and sort the signal spectrum according to the initial excitation frequency. The initial excitation frequency information is stored in a robust population grating, so 2D spectra can be used to study both coherent and incoherent processes, and have revealed coherent aspects of energy transfer processes. Femtosecond 2D spectra also have the advantage of ``freezing out'' vibrational motions as inhomogeneities, raising interesting questions about what kinds of broadening can be rephased in 2D spectra recorded with stimulated photon echo pulse sequences. This talk will focus on coherent aspects of non-adiabatic electronic curve crossing and their manifestation in 2D electronic spectra.

  3. Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Stanene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jinfeng

    Ultrathin semiconductors present various novel electronic properties. The first experimental realized two-dimensional (2D) material is graphene. Searching 2D materials with heavy elements bring the attention to Si, Ge and Sn. 2D buckled Si-based silicene was realized by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. Ge-based germanene was realized by mechanical exfoliation. Sn-based stanene has its unique properties. Stanene and its derivatives can be 2D topological insulators (TI) with a very large band gap as proposed by first-principles calculations, or can support enhanced thermoelectric performance, topological superconductivity and the near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. For the first time, in this work, we report a successful fabrication of 2D stanene by MBE. The atomic and electronic structures were determined by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) in combination with first-principles calculations. This work will stimulate the experimental study and exploring the future application of stanene. In cooperation with Fengfeng Zhu, Wei-jiong Chen, Yong Xu, Chun-lei Gao, Dan-dan Guan, Canhua Liu, Dong Qian, Shou-Cheng Zhang.

  4. Two-dimensional magnetic colloids under shear.

    PubMed

    Mohorič, Tomaž; Dobnikar, Jure; Horbach, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Complex rheological properties of soft disordered solids, such as colloidal gels or glasses, inspire a range of novel applications. However, the microscopic mechanisms of their response to mechanical loading are not well understood. Here, we elucidate some aspects of these mechanisms by studying a versatile model system, i.e. two-dimensional superparamagnetic colloids in a precessing magnetic field, whose structure can be tuned from a hexagonal crystal to a disordered gel network by varying the external field opening angle θ. We perform Langevin dynamics simulations subjecting these structures to a constant shear rate and observe three qualitatively different types of material response. In hexagonal crystals (θ = 0°), at a sufficiently low shear rate, plastic flow occurs via successive stress drops at which the stress releases due to the formation of dislocation defects. The gel network at θ = 48°, on the contrary, via bond rearrangement and transient shear banding evolves into a homogeneously stretched network at large strains. The latter structure remains metastable after switching off of the shear. At θ = 50°, the external shear makes the system unstable against phase separation and causes a failure of the network structure leading to the formation of hexagonal close packed clusters interconnected by particle chains. At a microcopic level, our simulations provide insight into some of the mechanisms by which strain localization as well as material failure occur in a simple gel-like network. Furthermore, we demonstrate that new stretched network structures can be generated by the application of shear. PMID:26877059

  5. Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers based on static and dynamic Bragg structures

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshev, V R; Ginzburg, N S

    2011-09-30

    In order to increase the output power of DFB lasers, we consider the possibility of using two-dimensional distributed feedback. Within the framework of this scheme, the feedback circuit includes four partial wave fluxes propagating in mutually orthogonal directions, which makes it possible to provide coherent radiation from a spatially extended planar active medium characterised by large values of the Fresnel parameter. By analogy with the onedimensional distributed feedback, the wave coupling can be ensured by using both the structures with a periodically varying effective refractive index (static two-dimensional Bragg structures) and the gain modulation (photo-induced two-dimensional Bragg structures). Within the semiclassical approximation, the initial conditions and nonlinear dynamics of lasers with the above-described two-dimensional Bragg structures are analysed. Self-similarity conditions are found, allowing one to scale the laser parameters with increasing active region size, which is accompanied by an increase in the integrated output power.

  6. SCAPS, a two-dimensional ion detector for mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2014-05-01

    Faraday Cup (FC) and electron multiplier (EM) are of the most popular ion detector for mass spectrometer. FC is used for high-count-rate ion measurements and EM can detect from single ion. However, FC is difficult to detect lower intensities less than kilo-cps, and EM loses ion counts higher than Mega-cps. Thus, FC and EM are used complementary each other, but they both belong to zero-dimensional detector. On the other hand, micro channel plate (MCP) is a popular ion signal amplifier with two-dimensional capability, but additional detection system must be attached to detect the amplified signals. Two-dimensional readout for the MCP signals, however, have not achieve the level of FC and EM systems. A stacked CMOS active pixel sensor (SCAPS) has been developed to detect two-dimensional ion variations for a spatial area using semiconductor technology [1-8]. The SCAPS is an integrated type multi-detector, which is different from EM and FC, and is composed of more than 500×500 pixels (micro-detectors) for imaging of cm-area with a pixel of less than 20 µm in square. The SCAPS can be detected from single ion to 100 kilo-count ions per one pixel. Thus, SCAPS can be accumulated up to several giga-count ions for total pixels, i.e. for total imaging area. The SCAPS has been applied to stigmatic ion optics of secondary ion mass spectrometer, as a detector of isotope microscope [9]. The isotope microscope has capabilities of quantitative isotope images of hundred-micrometer area on a sample with sub-micrometer resolution and permil precision, and of two-dimensional mass spectrum on cm-scale of mass dispersion plane of a sector magnet with ten-micrometer resolution. The performance has been applied to two-dimensional isotope spatial distribution for mainly hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen of natural (extra-terrestrial and terrestrial) samples and samples simulated natural processes [e.g. 10-17]. References: [1] Matsumoto, K., et al. (1993) IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40, 82-85. [2] Takayanagi et al. (1999) Proc. 1999 IEEE workshop on Charge-Coupled Devices and Advanced Image Sensors, 159-162. [3] Kunihiro et al. (2001) Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A 470, 512-519. [4] Nagashima et al. (2001) Surface Interface Anal. 31, 131-137. [5] Takayanagi et al. (2003) IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 50, 70- 76. [6] Sakamoto and Yurimoto (2006) Surface Interface Anal. 38, 1760-1762. [7] Yamamoto et al. (2010) Surface Interface Anal. 42, 1603-1605. [8] Sakamoto et al. (2012) Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 076701. [9] Yurimoto et al. (2003) Appl. Surf. Sci. 203-204, 793-797. [10] Nagashima et al. (2004) Nature 428, 921-924. [11] Kunihiro et al. (2005) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69, 763-773. [12] Nakamura et al. (2005) Geology 33, 829-832. [13] Sakamoto et al. (2007) Science 317, 231-233. [14] Greenwood et al. (2008) Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L05203. [15] Greenwood et al. (2011) Nature Geoscience 4, 79-82. [16] Park et al. (2012) Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 47, 2070-2083. [17] Hashiguchi et al. (2013) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 122, 306-323.

  7. Microwave near-field imaging of two-dimensional semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Berweger, Samuel; Weber, Joel C; John, Jimmy; Velazquez, Jesus M; Pieterick, Adam; Sanford, Norman A; Davydov, Albert V; Brunschwig, Bruce; Lewis, Nathan S; Wallis, Thomas M; Kabos, Pavel

    2015-02-11

    Optimizing new generations of two-dimensional devices based on van der Waals materials will require techniques capable of measuring variations in electronic properties in situ and with nanometer spatial resolution. We perform scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) imaging of single layers of MoS2 and n- and p-doped WSe2. By controlling the sample charge carrier concentration through the applied tip bias, we are able to reversibly control and optimize the SMM contrast to image variations in electronic structure and the localized effects of surface contaminants. By further performing tip bias-dependent point spectroscopy together with finite element simulations, we distinguish the effects of the quantum capacitance and determine the local dominant charge carrier species and dopant concentration. These results underscore the capability of SMM for the study of 2D materials to image, identify, and study electronic defects. PMID:25625509

  8. Dynamics of semiconductor lasers with two-dimensional distributed feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Baryshev, V. R.; Sergeev, A. S.; Malkin, A. M.

    2015-05-01

    We develop a nonlinear model of a laser exploiting two-dimensional (2D) distributed feedback (2D DFL). This feedback mechanism can be realized in a 2D Bragg resonator formed by a dielectric structure with the thickness having double-periodical sinusoidal or chessboard modulation. A 2D Bragg resonator is shown to possess high selectivity over both the longitudinal and the transverse coordinates and to have fundamental modes in the center of the forbidden band gap. Within the semiclassical approach, we study the nonlinear dynamics of 2D DFL and demonstrate spatial synchronization of radiation from an extended active medium. Specific features of 2D DFL operation with active medium amplifying modes of TM and TE (quantum-well lasers) polarization are also discussed.

  9. Two-dimensional angular transmission characterization of CPV modules.

    PubMed

    Herrero, R; Domínguez, C; Askins, S; Antón, I; Sala, G

    2010-11-01

    This paper proposes a fast method to characterize the two-dimensional angular transmission function of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system. The so-called inverse method, which has been used in the past for the characterization of small optical components, has been adapted to large-area CPV modules. In the inverse method, the receiver cell is forward biased to produce a Lambertian light emission, which reveals the reverse optical path of the optics. Using a large-area collimator mirror, the light beam exiting the optics is projected on a Lambertian screen to create a spatially resolved image of the angular transmission function. An image is then obtained using a CCD camera. To validate this method, the angular transmission functions of a real CPV module have been measured by both direct illumination (flash CPV simulator and sunlight) and the inverse method, and the comparison shows good agreement. PMID:21165081

  10. Statistical properties of freely decaying two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, A. N.; Kuznetsov, E. A.; Sereshchenko, E. V.

    2013-02-01

    Statistical characteristics of freely decaying two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence at high Reynolds numbers are numerically studied. In particular, numerical experiments (with resolution up to 8192 × 8192) provide a Kraichnan-type turbulence spectrum E k ˜ k -3. By means of spatial filtration, it is found that the main contribution to the spectrum comes from sharp vorticity gradients in the form of quasi-shocks. Such quasi-singularities are responsible for a strong angular dependence of the spectrum owing to well-localized (in terms of the angle) jets with minor and/or large overlapping. In each jet, the spectrum decreases as k -3. The behavior of the third-order structure function accurately agrees with the Kraichnan direct cascade concept corresponding to a constant enstrophy flux. It is shown that the power law exponents ξ n for higher structure functions grow with n more slowly than the linear dependence, thus indicating turbulence intermittency.

  11. Two-dimensional spectral analysis of mesospheric airglow image data.

    PubMed

    Garcia, F J; Taylor, M J; Kelley, M C

    1997-10-10

    A technique to analyze short-period (<1 hour) gravity wave structure in all-sky images of the airglow emissions is described. The technique involves spatial calibration, star removal, geographic projection, regridding, and flat fielding of the data prior to the determination of the horizontal wave parameters (wavelength, velocity, and period), by use of standard two-dimensional Fourier analysis techniques. The method was developed to exploit the information that is now available with wide-field solid state imaging systems. This technique permits interactive and quantitative investigations of large, complex data sets. Such studies are important for investigating gravity wave characteristics, their interaction with the airglow emissions, and their geographic and seasonal variability. We study one event of this type here and present possible evidence of a nonlinear wave-wave interaction in the upper atmosphere. PMID:18264245

  12. Ponderable soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The theory of Lee and Pang (1987), who obtained solutions for soliton stars composed of zero-temperature fermions and bosons, is applied here to quark soliton stars. Model soliton stars based on a simple physical model of the proton are computed, and the properties of the solitons are discussed, including the important problem of the existence of a limiting mass and thus the possible formation of black holes of primordial origin. It is shown that there is a definite mass limit for ponderable soliton stars, so that during cooling a soliton star might reach a stage beyond which no equilibrium configuration exists and the soliton star probably will collapse to become a black hole. The radiation of ponderable soliton stars may alter the short-wavelength character of the cosmic background radiation, and may be observed as highly redshifted objects at z of about 100,000.

  13. Stabilization of ring dark solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenlong; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Carretero-González, R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Kaper, Tasso J.; Ma, Manjun

    2015-09-14

    Earlier work has shown that ring dark solitons in two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates are generically unstable. In this work, we propose a way of stabilizing the ring dark soliton via a radial Gaussian external potential. We investigate the existence and stability of the ring dark soliton upon variations of the chemical potential and also of the strength of the radial potential. Numerical results show that the ring dark soliton can be stabilized in a suitable interval of external potential strengths and chemical potentials. Furthermore, we also explore different proposed particle pictures considering the ring as a moving particle and find, where appropriate, results in very good qualitative and also reasonable quantitative agreement with the numerical findings.

  14. Stabilization of ring dark solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Wenlong; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Carretero-González, R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Kaper, Tasso J.; Ma, Manjun

    2015-09-14

    Earlier work has shown that ring dark solitons in two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates are generically unstable. In this work, we propose a way of stabilizing the ring dark soliton via a radial Gaussian external potential. We investigate the existence and stability of the ring dark soliton upon variations of the chemical potential and also of the strength of the radial potential. Numerical results show that the ring dark soliton can be stabilized in a suitable interval of external potential strengths and chemical potentials. Furthermore, we also explore different proposed particle pictures considering the ring as a moving particle and find, wheremore » appropriate, results in very good qualitative and also reasonable quantitative agreement with the numerical findings.« less

  15. SOLITONS: Optimal control of optical soliton parameters: Part 2. Concept of nonlinear Bloch waves in the problem of soliton management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkin, Vladimir N.; Belyaeva, T. L.

    2001-11-01

    It is shown that optical solitons in nonlinear fibre-optic communication systems and soliton lasers can be represented as nonlinear Bloch waves in periodic structures. The Bloch theorem is proved for solitons of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation in systems with the dispersion, the nonlinearity, and the gain (absorption coefficient) periodically changing over the length. The dynamics of formation and interaction, as well as stability of the coupled states of nonlinear Bloch waves are investigated. It is shown that soliton Bloch waves exist only under certain self-matching conditions for the basic parameters of the system and reveal a structural instability with respect to the mismatch between the periods of spatial modulation of the dispersion, nonlinearity or gain.

  16. Dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piedra, Saúl; Ramos, Eduardo; Herrera, J. Ramón

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles ascending under the influence of buoyant forces is numerically studied with a one-fluid model coupled with the front-tracking technique. The bubble dynamics are described by recording the position, shape, and orientation of the bubbles as functions of time. The qualitative properties of the bubbles and their terminal velocities are described in terms of the Eötvos (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension) and Archimedes numbers (ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces). The terminal Reynolds number result from the balance of buoyancy and drag forces and, consequently, is not an externally fixed parameter. In the cases that yield small Reynolds numbers, the bubbles follow straight paths and the wake is steady. A more interesting behavior is found at high Reynolds numbers where the bubbles follow an approximately periodic zigzag trajectory and an unstable wake with properties similar to the Von Karman vortex street is formed. The dynamical features of the motion of single bubbles are compared to experimental observations of air bubbles ascending in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. Although the comparison is not strictly valid in the sense that the effect of the lateral walls is not incorporated in the model, most of the dynamical properties observed are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical calculations. Hele-Shaw cells with different gaps have been used to determine the degree of approximation of the numerical calculation. It is found that for the relation between the terminal Reynolds number and the Archimedes number, the numerical calculations are closer to the observations of bubble dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells of larger gaps.

  17. Dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles.

    PubMed

    Piedra, Saúl; Ramos, Eduardo; Herrera, J Ramón

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles ascending under the influence of buoyant forces is numerically studied with a one-fluid model coupled with the front-tracking technique. The bubble dynamics are described by recording the position, shape, and orientation of the bubbles as functions of time. The qualitative properties of the bubbles and their terminal velocities are described in terms of the Eötvos (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension) and Archimedes numbers (ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces). The terminal Reynolds number result from the balance of buoyancy and drag forces and, consequently, is not an externally fixed parameter. In the cases that yield small Reynolds numbers, the bubbles follow straight paths and the wake is steady. A more interesting behavior is found at high Reynolds numbers where the bubbles follow an approximately periodic zigzag trajectory and an unstable wake with properties similar to the Von Karman vortex street is formed. The dynamical features of the motion of single bubbles are compared to experimental observations of air bubbles ascending in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. Although the comparison is not strictly valid in the sense that the effect of the lateral walls is not incorporated in the model, most of the dynamical properties observed are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical calculations. Hele-Shaw cells with different gaps have been used to determine the degree of approximation of the numerical calculation. It is found that for the relation between the terminal Reynolds number and the Archimedes number, the numerical calculations are closer to the observations of bubble dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells of larger gaps. PMID:26172798

  18. Two-dimensional dense gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Brady Polk

    Certain polyatomic fluids with large molecular weights referred to as dense gases exhibit unusual thermodynamic and flow properties in the region of the thermodynamic critical point. A computer program developed to solve two-dimensional flow fields is used to analyze non- classical dense gas phenomena in the single-phase gas region. A two-step, flux-limited, total variation diminishing scheme solves the time-dependent Euler equations for supersonic steady flow fields and mixed subsonic and supersonic transient flow fields. Two non- ideal gas models are incorporated into the numerical scheme in order to simulate dense gas effects. The van der Waals model, which is the simplest gas model that will show dense gas behavior, is employed to economically demonstrate qualitative trends in dense gas flows. The more complex Martin-Hou model is incorporated for cases where quantitative accuracy becomes more important. Simulated flows over simple geometries such as wedges, arcs, ramps, and steps using both the van der Waals gas model and the perfect gas model demonstrate significant differences in wave field configurations between dense gases and ideal gases. Results are also computed using the Martin-Hou equation of state which is more conservative in predicting dense gas effects than the van der Waals model. In addition to exploring the basic nature of dense gas flows for simple geometries, the utilization of dense gas properties to improve the efficiency of organic Rankine- cycle engines is investigated. Simulations of supersonic dense gas flows through impulse turbine cascades demonstrate improvements in flow quality through the cascades by reducing losses due to shock waves.

  19. Two-dimensional microfabricated sources for nanoelectrospray.

    PubMed

    Le Gac, Sverine; Arscott, Steve; Cren-Oliv, Ccile; Rolando, Christian

    2003-12-01

    The idea of a novel two-dimensional (2D) nanoelectrospray ionization emitter tip with the shape of a nib is explored here. This novel planar design is studied as an alternative to the needle-like standard emitter tips that suffer from a lack of reproducibility and robustness and from an inherent incompatibility with high-throughput analysis. The composition of the micro-nib sources is analogous to the working of a simple fountain pen, with a liquid reservoir linked to a micro-nib tip from which the sample is electrosprayed via a capillary slot. The micro-nib prototypes described here were fabricated using microtechnology techniques and using the epoxy-based negative photoresist SU-8. The resulting free-standing micro-nib structure was supported by a silicon wafer. We present here two series of such micro-nib sources, the latter series exhibiting improved characteristics such as a 8 micro m source width of the nib tip. They were tested in mass spectrometry experiments on an ion trap mass spectrometer (LCQ Deca XP+, Thermo Finnigan) using standard peptide samples having concentrations down to 1 micro M and with a high voltage (HV) supply around 1 kV for the second series of micro-nib sources. In addition to the stability of the spray, the obtained mass spectra showed the reliability of these sources for peptide analysis; the signal of the spectra was as intense and the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) as high as that obtained with the use of standard emitter tips. PMID:14696205

  20. Two-dimensional dynamic fluid bowtie attenuators.

    PubMed

    Hermus, James R; Szczykutowicz, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Fluence field modulated (FFM) CT allows for improvements in image quality and dose reduction. To date, only one-dimensional modulators have been proposed, as the extension to two-dimensional (2-D) modulation is difficult with solid-metal attenuation-based fluence field modulated designs. This work proposes to use liquid and gas to attenuate the x-ray beam, as unlike solids, these materials can be arranged allowing for 2-D fluence modulation. The thickness of liquid and the pressure for a given path length of gas were determined that provided the same attenuation as 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Liquid iodine, zinc chloride, cerium chloride, erbium oxide, iron oxide, and gadolinium chloride were studied. Gaseous xenon, uranium hexafluoride, tungsten hexafluoride, and nickel tetracarbonyl were also studied. Additionally, we performed a proof-of-concept experiment using a 96 cell array in which the liquid thickness in each cell was adjusted manually. Liquid thickness varied as a function of kV and chemical composition, with erbium oxide allowing for the smallest thickness. For the gases, tungsten hexaflouride required the smallest pressure to compensate for 30 cm of soft tissue. The 96 cell iodine attenuator allowed for a reduction in both dynamic range to the detector and scatter-to-primary ratio. For both liquids and gases, when k-edges were located within the diagnostic energy range used for imaging, the mean beam energy exhibited the smallest change with compensation amount. The thickness of liquids and the gas pressure seem logistically implementable within the space constraints of C-arm-based cone beam CT (CBCT) and diagnostic CT systems. The gas pressures also seem logistically implementable within the space and tube loading constraints of CBCT and diagnostic CT systems. PMID:26835499

  1. Helical rays in two-dimensional resonant wave conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, Allan N.; Tracy, Eugene R.; Brizard, Alain J.

    2004-12-08

    The process of resonant wave conversion (often called linear mode conversion) has traditionally been analyzed with a spatially one-dimensional slab model, for which the rays propagate in a two-dimensional phase space. However, it has recently been shown [E.R. Tracy and A.N. Kaufman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 130402 (2003)] that multidimensional rays have a helical structure for conversion in two or more spatial dimensions (if their dispersion matrix is generic). In that case, a one-dimensional model is inadequate; a correct analysis requires two spatial dimensions and, thus, four-dimensional phase space. In this paper we show that a cold plasma model will exhibit ray helicity in conversion regions where the density and magnetic field gradients are significantly non-parallel. For illustration, we examine a model of the poloidal plane of a deuterium-tritium tokamak plasma, and identify such a region. In this region, characterized by a six-sector topology, rays in the sector for incident and reflected magnetosonic waves exhibit significant helicity. We introduce a ''symmetric-wedge'' model, to develop a detailed analytic and numerical study of helical rays in this sector.

  2. Helical rays in two-dimensional resonant wave conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, Allan N.; Tracy, Eugene R.; Brizard, Alain J.

    2004-09-14

    The process of resonant wave conversion (often called linear mode conversion) has traditionally been analyzed with a spatially one-dimensional slab model, for which the rays propagate in a two-dimensional phase space. However, it has recently been shown [E.R. Tracy and A.N. Kaufman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 130402 (2003)] that multidimensional rays have a helical structure for conversion in two or more spatial dimensions (if their dispersion matrix is generic). In that case, a one-dimensional model is inadequate; a correct analysis requires two spatial dimensions and, thus, four-dimensional phase space. In this paper we show that a cold plasma model will exhibit ray helicity in conversion regions where the density and magnetic field gradients are significantly non-parallel. For illustration, we examine a model of the poloidal plane of a deuterium-tritium tokamak plasma, and identify such a region. In this region, characterized by a six-sector topology, rays in the sector for incident and reflected magnetosonic waves exhibit significant helicity. We introduce a ''symmetric-wedge'' model, to develop a detailed analytic and numerical study of helical rays in this sector.

  3. Motion, relaxation dynamics, and diffusion processes in two-dimensional colloidal crystals confined between walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilms, Dorothea; Virnau, Peter; Snook, Ian K.; Binder, Kurt

    2012-11-01

    The dynamical behavior of single-component two-dimensional colloidal crystals confined in a slit geometry is studied by Langevin dynamics simulation of a simple model. The colloids are modeled as pointlike particles, interacting with the repulsive part of the Lennard-Jones potential, and the fluid molecules in the colloidal suspension are not explicitly considered. Considering a crystalline strip of triangular lattice structure with n=30 rows, the (one-dimensional) walls confining the strip are chosen as two rigidly fixed crystalline rows at each side, commensurate with the lattice structure and, thus, stabilizing long-range order. The case when the spacing between the walls is incommensurate with the ideal triangular lattice is also studied, where (due to a transition in the number of rows, n→n-1) the confined crystal is incommensurate with the confining boundaries, and a soliton staircase forms along the walls. It is shown that mean-square displacements (MSDs) of particles as a function of time show an overshoot and then saturate at a horizontal plateau in the commensurate case, the value of the plateau being largest in the center of the strip. Conversely, when solitons are present, MSDs are largest in the rows containing the solitons, and all MSDs do not settle down at well-defined plateaus in the direction parallel to the boundaries, due to the lack of positional long-range order in ideal two-dimensional crystals. The MSDs of the solitons (which can be treated like quasiparticles at very low temperature) have also been studied and their dynamics are found to be about an order of magnitude slower than that of the colloidal particles themselves. Finally, transport of individual colloidal particles by diffusion processes is studied: both standard vacancy-interstitial pair formation and cooperative ring rotation processes are identified. These processes require thermal activation, with activation energies of the order of 10Tm (Tm being the melting temperature of the crystal), while the motions due to long-wavelength phonons decrease only linearly in temperature.

  4. Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwierz, F.; Pezoldt, J.; Granzner, R.

    2015-04-01

    During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided.

  5. Cavity-soliton laser with frequency-selective feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Scroggie, A. J.; Firth, W. J.; Oppo, G.-L.

    2009-07-15

    We present a coupled-cavity model of a laser with frequency-selective feedback, and use it to analyze and explain the existence of stationary and dynamic spatial solitons in the device. Particular features of soliton addressing in this system are discussed. We demonstrate the advantages of our model with respect to the common Lang-Kobayashi approximation.

  6. Solitons shedding from Airy beams and bound states of breathing Airy solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ming; Gao, Jinsong; Ge, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spatially optical solitons shedding from Airy beams and anomalous interactions of Airy beams in nonlocal nonlinear media by means of direct numerical simulations. Numerical results show that nonlocality has profound effects on the propagation dynamics of the solitons shedding from the Airy beam. It is also shown that the strong nonlocality can support periodic intensity distribution of Airy beams with opposite bending directions. Nonlocality also provides a long-range attractive force between Airy beams, leading to the formation of stable bound states of both in-phase and out-of-phase breathing Airy solitons which always repel in local media. PMID:25900878

  7. Vortices of Two Dimensional Guiding Center Plasmas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Antonio Chofai

    A system of two dimensional guiding center plasma in a square conducting boundary is used as a model to study the anomalous transport is magnetically confined plasma. An external gravitational force is introduced to simulate the curvature and gradient of the magnetic field. For finite boundaries, it is a Hamiltonian system with finite phase space and negative temperature states are allowed. The statistical equilibrium states of this system are described by the solutions of a Poisson's equation with self-consistently determined charge density. In the limit of zero gravity, it can be reduced to the sinh-Poisson equation (DEL)('2)u + (lamda)('2)sinh u = 0. Previous numerical efforts have found solutions with vortex structures. A novel method of generating general exact solutions to this nonlinear boundary value problem is presented. These solutions are given by. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). where E(,i)'s are constants and the dependence of (gamma)(,j)'s on x and y are given by a set of coupled first order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These equations can be linearized to give u(x,y) in terms of Riemann theta functions u(x,y) = 2ln (THETA)(l + 1/2)(THETA)(l) . The phases l evolve linearly in x and y while nonlinear superposition is displayed in the solution u(x,y). The self-consistent Poisson's equation with gravity is studied numerically. Different branches of solutions are obtained and their relations to the zero gravity solutions are discussed. The thermodynamically most favored structure of the system carries the feature of a heavy ion vortex on top of the light electron vortex. Branches of solutions are found to merge into each other as parameters in the equations were smoothly varied. A critical value of gravitational force exists such that below which there is a possibility of hysteresis between different equilibrium states. With the help of the nonzero gravity solutions, we also have a clearer picture of the transition from negative to positive temperature states. Nonuniform positive temperature states with a heavy ion vortex at the bottom of the square boundary are also found when gravity is present.

  8. Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayer, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (F49620-01-1-0018), the Department of Energy (DE-FG03-84ER13251), and the National Science Foundation (DMR 0652232).

  9. Thermopower in Two-Dimensional Electron Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chickering, William Elbridge

    The subject of this thesis is the measurement and interpretation of thermopower in high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs). These 2DESs are realized within state-of-the-art GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures that are cooled to temperatures as low as T = 20 mK. Much of this work takes place within strong magnetic fields where the single-particle density of states quantizes into discrete Landau levels (LLs), a regime best known for the quantum Hall effect (QHE). In addition, we review a novel hot-electron technique for measuring thermopower of 2DESs that dramatically reduces the influence of phonon drag. Early chapters concentrate on experimental materials and methods. A brief overview of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures and device fabrication is followed by details of our cryogenic setup. Next, we provide a primer on thermopower that focuses on 2DESs at low temperatures. We then review our experimental devices, temperature calibration methods, as well as measurement circuits and protocols. Latter chapters focus on the physics and thermopower results in the QHE regime. After reviewing the basic phenomena associated with the QHE, we discuss thermopower in this regime. Emphasis is given to the relationship between diffusion thermopower and entropy. Experimental results demonstrate this relationship persists well into the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regime. Several experimental results are reviewed. Unprecedented observations of the diffusion thermopower of a high-mobility 2DES at temperatures as high as T = 2 K are achieved using our hot-electron technique. The composite fermion (CF) effective mass is extracted from measurements of thermopower at LL filling factor nu = 3/2. The thermopower versus magnetic field in the FQH regime is shown to be qualitatively consistent with a simple entropic model of CFs. The thermopower at nu = 5/2 is shown to be quantitatively consistent with the presence of non-Abelian anyons. An abrupt collapse of thermopower is observed at the onset of the reentrant integer quantum Hall effect (RIQHE). And the thermopower at temperatures just above the RIQHE transition suggests the existence of an unconventional conducting phase.

  10. Two-dimensional material confined water.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Besenbacher, Flemming; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: The interface between water and other materials under ambient conditions is of fundamental importance due to its relevance in daily life and a broad range of scientific research. The structural and dynamic properties of water at an interface have been proven to be significantly difference than those of bulk water. However, the exact nature of these interfacial water adlayers at ambient conditions is still under debate. Recent scanning probe microscopy (SPM) experiments, where two-dimensional (2D) materials as ultrathin coatings are utilized to assist the visualization of interfacial water adlayers, have made remarkable progress on interfacial water and started to clarify some of these fundamental scientific questions. In this Account, we review the recently conducted research exploring the properties of confined water between 2D materials and various surfaces under ambient conditions. Initially, we review the earlier studies of water adsorbed on hydrophilic substrates under ambient conditions in the absence of 2D coating materials, which shows the direct microscopic results. Subsequently, we focus on the studies of water adlayer growth at both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates in the presence of 2D coating materials. Ice-like water adlayers confined between hydrophobic graphene and hydrophilic substrates can be directly observed in detail by SPM. It was found that the packing structure of the water adlayer was determined by the hydrophilic substrates, while the orientation of intercalation water domains was directed by the graphene coating. In contrast to hydrophilic substrates, liquid-like nanodroplets confined between hydrophobic graphene and hydrophobic substrates appear close to step edges and atomic-scale surface defects, indicating that atomic-scale surface defects play significant roles in determining the adsorption of water on hydrophobic substrates. In addition, we also review the phenomena of confined water between 2D hydrophilic MoS2 and the hydrophilic substrate. Finally, we further discuss researchers taking advantage of 2D graphene coatings to stabilize confined water nanodroplets to manipulate nanofluidics through applying an external force by using novel SPM techniques. Moreover, for future technology application purposes, the doping effect of confined water is also discussed. The use of 2D materials as ultrathin coatings to investigate the properties of confined water under ambient conditions is developing and recognized as a profound approach to gain fundamental knowledge of water. This ideal model system will provide new opportunities in various research fields. PMID:25539031

  11. Solitons in nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Maimistov, Andrei I

    2010-11-13

    The classic examples of optical phenomena resulting in the appearance of solitons are self-focusing, self-induced transparency, and parametric three-wave interaction. To date, the list of the fields of nonlinear optics and models where solitons play an important role has significantly expanded. Now long-lived or stable solitary waves are called solitons, including, for example, dissipative, gap, parametric, and topological solitons. This review considers nonlinear optics models giving rise to the appearance of solitons in a narrow sense: solitary waves corresponding to the solutions of completely integrable systems of equations basic for the models being discussed. (review)

  12. Coherent two-dimensional infrared microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiz, Carlos; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2015-03-01

    We developed ultrafast 2D IR spectral microscopy, a new technique to measure spatially-resolved 2D infrared spectra and vibrational dynamics with diffraction-limited spatial resolution and femtosecond time resolution. The key enabling development consists of a new geometry where all three IR pulses propagate fully collinearly through an all-reflective IR microscope. A combination of polarization, chopping, and phase-cycling isolate the 2D IR signal by removing all unwanted signal and interference contributions. The single-beam collinear geometry enables us to implement 2D IR in three configurations: transmission, reflectance, and ATR. In terms of sensitivity, the 6 micron focus size produces an 8-fold enhancement of the signal compared to focusing with standard parabolic mirrors. These methods open up new possibilities for imaging proteins in cells, lipid membranes, or vesicles, as well as performing surface-sensitive studies on biological systems.

  13. The Thirring interaction in the two-dimensional axial-current-pseudoscalar derivative coupling model

    SciTech Connect

    Belvedere, L.V. . E-mail: armflavio@if.uff.br

    2006-12-15

    We reexamine the two-dimensional model of massive fermions interacting with a massless pseudoscalar field via axial-current derivative coupling. The hidden Thirring interaction in the axial-derivative coupling model is exhibited compactly by performing a canonical field transformation on the Bose field algebra and the model is mapped into the Thirring model with an additional vector-current-scalar derivative interaction (Schroer-Thirring model). The Fermi field operator is rewritten in terms of the Mandelstam soliton operator coupled to a free massless scalar field. The charge sectors of the axial-derivative model are mapped into the charge sectors of the massive Thirring model. The complete bosonized version of the model is presented. The bosonized composite operators of the quantum Hamiltonian are obtained as the leading operators in the Wilson short distance expansions.

  14. On the non-relativistic two-dimensional purely magnetic supersymmetric Pauli operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinevich, P. G.; Mironov, A. E.; Novikov, S. P.

    2015-04-01

    The complete manifold of ground-state eigenfunctions for the purely magnetic two-dimensional Pauli operator is considered as a byproduct of a new reduction (found by the authors several years ago) for the algebro-geometric inverse spectral data (that is, Riemann surfaces and divisors). This reduction is associated with a ({2+1})-soliton hierarchy containing a 2D analogue of the famous `Burgers system'. This paper also surveys previous papers since 1980, including the first topological ideas in the space of quasi-momenta, and presents new results on self-adjoint boundary-value problems for the Pauli operator. The `non-spectral' Bloch-Floquet functions of zero 2D level give discrete points of additional spectrum analogous to the `boundary states' of finite-gap 1D potentials in the gaps. Bibliography: 35 titles.

  15. Lateral and Vertical Two-Dimensional Layered Topological Insulator Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbin; Zhang, Jinsong; Zheng, Guangyuan; Sun, Yongming; Hong, Seung Sae; Xiong, Feng; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Cui, Yi

    2015-11-24

    The heterostructured configuration between two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials has enabled the engineering of the band gap and the design of novel devices. So far, the synthesis of single-component topological insulator (TI) 2D materials such as Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 has been achieved through vapor phase growth and molecular beam epitaxy; however, the spatial controlled fabrication of 2D lateral heterostructures in these systems has not been demonstrated yet. Here, we report an in situ two-step synthesis process to form TI lateral heterostructures. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray mapping results show the successful spatial control of chemical composition in these as-prepared heterostructures. The edge-induced growth mechanism is revealed by the ex situ atomic force microscope measurements. Electrical transport studies demonstrate the existence of p-n junctions in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 heterostructures. PMID:26468661

  16. Quantum Criticality in Quasi-Two-Dimensional Itinerant Antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, C. M.

    2015-10-01

    Quasi-two-dimensional itinerant fermions in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) quantum-critical region of their phase diagram, such as in the Fe-based superconductors or in some of the heavy-fermion compounds, exhibit a resistivity varying linearly with temperature and a contribution to specific heat or thermopower proportional to T ln T . It is shown, here, that a generic model of itinerant anti-ferromagnet can be canonically transformed so that its critical fluctuations around the AFM-vector Q can be obtained from the fluctuations in the long wavelength limit of a dissipative quantum X Y model. The fluctuations of the dissipative quantum X Y model in 2D have been evaluated recently, and in a large regime of parameters, they are determined, not by renormalized spin fluctuations, but by topological excitations. In this regime, the fluctuations are separable in their spatial and temporal dependence and have a spatial correlation length which is proportional to the logarithm of the temporal correlation length, i.e., for some purposes, the effective dynamic exponent z =∞ . The time dependence gives ω /T scaling at criticality. The observed resistivity and entropy then follow. Several predictions to test the theory are also given.

  17. Demonstration of two-dimensional time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brennan, J.; Brubaker, E.; Gerling, M.; Marleau, P.; McMillan, K.; Nowack, A.; Galloudec, N. Renard-Le; Sweany, M.

    2015-09-09

    Here, we present a neutron detector system based on time-encoded imaging, and demonstrate its applicability toward the spatial mapping of special nuclear material. We also demonstrate that two-dimensional fast-neutron imaging with 2 resolution at 2 m stand-off is feasible with only two instrumented detectors.

  18. Demonstration of two-dimensional time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.; Brubaker, E.; Gerling, M.; Marleau, P.; McMillan, K.; Nowack, A.; Galloudec, N. Renard-Le; Sweany, M.

    2015-09-09

    Here, we present a neutron detector system based on time-encoded imaging, and demonstrate its applicability toward the spatial mapping of special nuclear material. We also demonstrate that two-dimensional fast-neutron imaging with 2° resolution at 2 m stand-off is feasible with only two instrumented detectors.

  19. Soliton dynamics in the multiphoton plasma regime

    PubMed Central

    Husko, Chad A.; Combrié, Sylvain; Colman, Pierre; Zheng, Jiangjun; De Rossi, Alfredo; Wong, Chee Wei

    2013-01-01

    Solitary waves have consistently captured the imagination of scientists, ranging from fundamental breakthroughs in spectroscopy and metrology enabled by supercontinuum light, to gap solitons for dispersionless slow-light, and discrete spatial solitons in lattices, amongst others. Recent progress in strong-field atomic physics include impressive demonstrations of attosecond pulses and high-harmonic generation via photoionization of free-electrons in gases at extreme intensities of 1014 W/cm2. Here we report the first phase-resolved observations of femtosecond optical solitons in a semiconductor microchip, with multiphoton ionization at picojoule energies and 1010 W/cm2 intensities. The dramatic nonlinearity leads to picojoule observations of free-electron-induced blue-shift at 1016 cm−3 carrier densities and self-chirped femtosecond soliton acceleration. Furthermore, we evidence the time-gated dynamics of soliton splitting on-chip, and the suppression of soliton recurrence due to fast free-electron dynamics. These observations in the highly dispersive slow-light media reveal a rich set of physics governing ultralow-power nonlinear photon-plasma dynamics.

  20. Lie algebra contractions on two-dimensional hyperboloid

    SciTech Connect

    Pogosyan, G. S. Yakhno, A.

    2010-03-15

    The Inoenue-Wigner contraction from the SO(2, 1) group to the Euclidean E(2) and E(1, 1) group is used to relate the separation of variables in Laplace-Beltrami (Helmholtz) equations for the four corresponding two-dimensional homogeneous spaces: two-dimensional hyperboloids and two-dimensional Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We show how the nine systems of coordinates on the two-dimensional hyperboloids contracted to the four systems of coordinates on E{sub 2} and eight on E{sub 1,1}. The text was submitted by the authors in English.

  1. Dissipative quadratic solitons supported by a localized gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, Valery E.; Borovkova, Olga V.; Malomed, Boris A.

    2014-11-01

    We propose two models for the creation of stable dissipative solitons in optical media with the χ(2 ) (quadratic) nonlinearity. To compensate spatially uniform loss in both the fundamental-frequency (FF) and second-harmonic (SH) components of the system, a strongly localized "hot spot" carrying the linear gain is added, acting either on the FF or on the SH component. In both systems, we use numerical methods to find families of dissipative χ(2 ) solitons pinned to the "hot spot". The shape of the existence and stability domains may be rather complex. An existence boundary for the solitons, which corresponds to the guided mode in the linearized version of the systems, is obtained in an analytical form. The solitons demonstrate noteworthy features, such as spontaneous symmetry breaking (of spatially symmetric solitons) and bistability.

  2. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Zhang, Yiqi

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons.

  3. Split and overlapped binary solitons in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekh, Golam Ali; Pepe, Francesco V.; Facchi, Paolo; Pascazio, Saverio; Salerno, Mario

    2015-07-01

    We analyze the energetic and dynamical properties of bright-bright (BB) soliton pairs in a binary mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates subjected to the action of a combined optical lattice, acting as an external potential for the first species while modulating the intraspecies coupling constant of the second. In particular, we use a variational approach and direct numerical integrations to investigate the existence and stability of bright-bright (BB) solitons in which the two species are either spatially separated (split soliton) or located at the same optical lattice site (overlapped soliton). The dependence of these solitons on the interspecies interaction parameter is explicitly investigated. For repulsive interspecies interaction we show the existence of a series of critical values at which transitions from an initially overlapped soliton to split solitons occur. For attractive interspecies interaction only single direct transitions from split to overlapped BB solitons are found. The possibility to use split solitons for indirect measurements of scattering lengths is also suggested.

  4. Twisted chimera states and multicore spiral chimera states on a two-dimensional torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jianbo; Knobloch, Edgar; Kao, Hsien-Ching

    2015-10-01

    Chimera states consisting of domains of coherently and incoherently oscillating oscillators in a two-dimensional periodic array of nonlocally coupled phase oscillators are studied. In addition to the one-dimensional chimera states familiar from one spatial dimension, two-dimensional structures termed twisted chimera states and spiral wave chimera states are identified in simulations. The properties of many of these states, including stability, are determined using an evolution equation for a complex order parameter and are found to be in agreement with the simulations.

  5. Theory and application of the RAZOR two-dimensional continuous energy lattice physics code

    SciTech Connect

    Zerkle, M.L.; Abu-Shumays, I.K.; Ott, M.W.; Winwood, J.P.

    1997-04-01

    The theory and application of the RAZOR two-dimensional, continuous energy lattice physics code are discussed. RAZOR solves the continuous energy neutron transport equation in one- and two-dimensional geometries, and calculates equivalent few-group diffusion theory constants that rigorously account for spatial and spectral self-shielding effects. A dual energy resolution slowing down algorithm is used to reduce computer memory and disk storage requirements for the slowing down calculation. Results are presented for a 2D BWR pin cell depletion benchmark problem.

  6. Twisted chimera states and multicore spiral chimera states on a two-dimensional torus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jianbo; Knobloch, Edgar; Kao, Hsien-Ching

    2015-10-01

    Chimera states consisting of domains of coherently and incoherently oscillating oscillators in a two-dimensional periodic array of nonlocally coupled phase oscillators are studied. In addition to the one-dimensional chimera states familiar from one spatial dimension, two-dimensional structures termed twisted chimera states and spiral wave chimera states are identified in simulations. The properties of many of these states, including stability, are determined using an evolution equation for a complex order parameter and are found to be in agreement with the simulations. PMID:26565318

  7. Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.

    2014-10-07

    The dephasing of excitons in a modulation doped single quantum well was carefully measured using time integrated four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. These are the first 2DFT measurements performed on a modulation doped single quantum well. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous excitonic line widths were obtained from the diagonal and cross-diagonal profiles of the 2DFT spectra. The laser excitation density and temperature were varied and 2DFT spectra were collected. A very rapid increase of the dephasing decay, and as a result, an increase in the cross-diagonal 2DFT linewidths with temperature was observed. Furthermore, the lineshapes of the 2DFT spectra suggest the presence of excitation induced dephasing and excitation induced shift.

  8. Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.

    2014-10-07

    The dephasing of excitons in a modulation doped single quantum well was carefully measured using time integrated four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. These are the first 2DFT measurements performed on a modulation doped single quantum well. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous excitonic line widths were obtained from the diagonal and cross-diagonal profiles of the 2DFT spectra. The laser excitation density and temperature were varied and 2DFT spectra were collected. A very rapid increase of the dephasing decay, and as a result, an increase in the cross-diagonal 2DFT linewidths with temperature was observed. Furthermore, the lineshapes of themore » 2DFT spectra suggest the presence of excitation induced dephasing and excitation induced shift.« less

  9. Pure-quartic solitons.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; Martijn, de Sterke C; Sipe, J E; Krauss, Thomas F; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Husko, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate a class of bright soliton arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. We derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and discover that is surprisingly Gaussian, exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by precise dispersion engineering, could find applications in communications, frequency combs and ultrafast lasers. PMID:26822758

  10. Pure-quartic solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; Martijn, De Sterke C.; Sipe, J. E.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Husko, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate a class of bright soliton arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. We derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and discover that is surprisingly Gaussian, exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by precise dispersion engineering, could find applications in communications, frequency combs and ultrafast lasers.

  11. Adiabatic Soliton Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednyakova, Anastasia; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2015-03-01

    The key to generating stable optical pulses is mastery of nonlinear light dynamics in laser resonators. Modern techniques to control the buildup of laser pulses are based on nonlinear science and include classical solitons, dissipative solitons, parabolic pulses (similaritons) and various modifications and blending of these methods. Fiber lasers offer remarkable opportunities to apply one-dimensional nonlinear science models for the design and optimization of very practical laser systems. Here, we propose a new concept of a laser based on the adiabatic amplification of a soliton pulse in the cavity—the adiabatic soliton laser. The adiabatic change of the soliton parameters during evolution in the resonator relaxes the restriction on the pulse energy inherent in traditional soliton lasers. Theoretical analysis is confirmed by extensive numerical modeling.

  12. Pure-quartic solitons

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; Martijn, de Sterke C.; Sipe, J.E.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Husko, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate a class of bright soliton arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. We derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and discover that is surprisingly Gaussian, exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by precise dispersion engineering, could find applications in communications, frequency combs and ultrafast lasers. PMID:26822758

  13. Two dimensional model for coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chengkun; Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects in a bunch compressor requires an accurate model accounting for the realistic beam shape and parameters. We extend the well-known 1D CSR analytic model into two dimensions and develop a simple numerical model based on the Liénard-Wiechert formula for the CSR field of a coasting beam. This CSR numerical model includes the 2D spatial dependence of the field in the bending plane and is accurate for arbitrary beam energy. It also removes the singularity in the space charge field calculation present in a 1D model. Good agreement is obtained with 1D CSR analytic result for free electron laser (FEL) related beam parameters but it can also give a more accurate result for low-energy/large spot size beams and off-axis/transient fields. This 2D CSR model can be used for understanding the limitation of various 1D models and for benchmarking fully electromagnetic multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations for self-consistent CSR modeling.

  14. Subwavelength binary plasmonic solitons.

    PubMed

    Kou, Yao; Förstner, Jens

    2015-03-15

    We study the formation of subwavelength solitons in binary metal-dielectric lattices. We show that the transverse modulation of the lattice constant breaks the fundamental plasmonic band and suppresses the discrete diffraction of surface plasmon waves. New types of plasmonic solitons are found, and their characteristics are analyzed. We also demonstrate the existence of photonic-plasmonic vector solitons and elucidate their propagation properties. PMID:25768129

  15. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  16. New two-dimensional quantum models with shape invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Cannata, F.; Ioffe, M. V.; Nishnianidze, D. N.

    2011-02-15

    Two-dimensional quantum models which obey the property of shape invariance are built in the framework of polynomial two-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics. They are obtained using the expressions for known one-dimensional shape invariant potentials. The constructed Hamiltonians are integrable with symmetry operators of fourth order in momenta, and they are not amenable to the conventional separation of variables.

  17. Terahertz rectification by periodic two-dimensional electron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V. V.; Saratov State University, Saratov 410012

    2013-06-24

    The physics of terahertz rectification by periodic two-dimensional electron plasma is discussed. Two different effects yielding terahertz rectification are studied: the plasmonic drag and plasmonic ratchet. Ultrahigh responsivity of terahertz rectification by periodic two-dimensional electron plasma in semiconductor heterostructures and graphene is predicted.

  18. Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers with excitation of TE waves in the active medium

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshev, V R; Ginzburg, N S; Malkin, A M; Sergeev, A S

    2009-12-31

    Two-dimensional Bragg resonators with the coupling of TE- and TM-polarised waves are proposed. The selective properties of such resonators are analysed. Within the semiclassical approach, the nonlinear dynamics of laser radiation with a two-dimensional (in the xy plane) distributed feedback is studied, at which TE-polarised waves, propagating in the {+-}z directions, are amplified in the active medium (in particular, based on quantum wells). The latter, on a two-dimensional Bragg structure, are scattered into TM-polarised waves propagating in the {+-}x directions. These partial wave flows do not interact with the active medium but provide the spatial radiation synchronisation. The conditions of the solution self-similarity are obtained with increasing the dimensions of the active medium and the corresponding increase in the integral output power. It is shown that when an additional end mirror is mounted, almost unidirectional radiation coupling can be realised. (resonators)

  19. Two-Dimensional Finite Element Ablative Thermal Response Analysis of an Arcjet Stagnation Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Laub, Bernard; Braun, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    The finite element ablation and thermal response (FEAtR, hence forth called FEAR) design and analysis program simulates the one, two, or three-dimensional ablation, internal heat conduction, thermal decomposition, and pyrolysis gas flow of thermal protection system materials. As part of a code validation study, two-dimensional axisymmetric results from FEAR are compared to thermal response data obtained from an arc-jet stagnation test in this paper. The results from FEAR are also compared to the two-dimensional axisymmetric computations from the two-dimensional implicit thermal response and ablation program under the same arcjet conditions. The ablating material being used in this arcjet test is phenolic impregnated carbon ablator with an LI-2200 insulator as backup material. The test is performed at the NASA, Ames Research Center Interaction Heating Facility. Spatially distributed computational fluid dynamics solutions for the flow field around the test article are used for the surface boundary conditions.

  20. On integrability of a noncommutative q-difference two-dimensional Toda lattice equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. X.; Nimmo, J. J. C.; Shen, Shoufeng

    2015-12-01

    In our previous work (C.X. Li and J.J.C. Nimmo, 2009 [18]), we presented a generalized type of Darboux transformations in terms of a twisted derivation in a unified form. The twisted derivation includes ordinary derivatives, forward difference operators, super derivatives and q-difference operators as its special cases. This result not only enables one to recover the known Darboux transformations and quasideterminant solutions to the noncommutative KP equation, the non-Abelian two-dimensional Toda lattice equation, the non-Abelian Hirota-Miwa equation and the super KdV equation, but also inspires us to investigate quasideterminant solutions to q-difference soliton equations. In this paper, we first construct the bilinear Bäcklund transformations for the known bilinear q-difference two-dimensional Toda lattice equation (q-2DTL) and then derive a Lax pair whose compatibility gives a formally different nonlinear q-2DTL equation and finally obtain its quasideterminant solutions by iterating its Darboux transformations.

  1. Nonlinear waves and solitons in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Fatuzzo, Marco

    1993-01-01

    We begin a study of nonlinear wave phenomena in molecular clouds. These clouds exhibit highly nonlinear structure that is often described in terms of 'clumps' and 'filaments' which are bouncing around, twisting, and colliding within the cloud. These clouds are important because they ultimately produce the initial conditions for the star formation process. Our motivation is to explore the possibility that solitons (i.e., spatially localized, single-hump wave entities which often exhibit remarkable stability) can live in these molecular clouds and produce their observed structure. In this paper we focus on the case of one spatial dimension, and we show that a rich variety of nonlinear waves can exist in molecular cloud fluid systems (where self-gravity is included). We show that in the absence of magnetic fields no true soliton solutions are allowed, although highly nonlinear waves (whose crests become widely spaced and thus soliton-like) do exist. For clouds with embedded magnetic fields, we derive a model equation which describes the behavior of wave phenomena; this model equation allows solutions which correspond to nonlinear waves, solitons, and topological solitons. We briefly consider the stability of these wave entities and discuss the possible role they play in molecular cloud dynamics.

  2. Solitons in Granular Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Manciu, M.; Sen, S.; Hurd, A.J.

    1999-04-12

    The authors consider a chain of elastic (Hertzian) grains that repel upon contact according to the potential V = a{delta}{sup u}, u > 2, where {delta} is the overlap between the grains. They present numerical and analytical results to show that an impulse initiated at an end of a chain of Hertzian grains in contact eventually propagates as a soliton for all n > 2 and that no solitons are possible for n {le} 2. Unlike continuous, they find that colliding solitons in discrete media initiative multiple weak solitons at the point of crossing.

  3. Subcycle solitonic breathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    Optical breathing solitons are known to display well-resolved cycles where the phase of pulse compression is followed by pulse stretching. Here we show that, in the extreme regimes where the soliton pulse width approaches the field cycle, the field waveform dynamics can drastically differ from this textbook scenario. We demonstrate that such extremely short soliton transients can develop optical shock waves, which seed parametric amplification, facilitating, along with ionization nonlinearity, soliton compression to subcycle pulse widths. This pulse compression scenario is shown to enable the generation of sub-quarter-cycle multigigawatt optical field waveforms in the mid infrared.

  4. Massive soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.

  5. Current distribution in a two-dimensional topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Xiaoqian; Burton, John; Tsymbal, Evgeny

    2015-03-01

    Topological insulator (TI) is a bulk insulator with spin-dependent surface (edge) states that are protected by time-reversal symmetry. This property makes TIs very interesting for potential application in electronic devices. Here we report on theoretical investigations of transport properties of a model two-dimensional (2D) TI where the conductance is controlled by the topologically protected edge states. We utilize the tight-binding form of the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model and employ the Landauer-Büttiker formalism to explore the transport properties in the presence of impurities. Using the Green's function technique we calculate the current distribution for states within the bulk band gap of the 2D TI. Interestingly, in absence of impurities we find that the current density decays into the bulk in an oscillatory fashion reflecting an oscillatory decay pattern of the local density of states as predicted from the complex band structure. Non-magnetic impurities disturb this picture and lead to a complex spatial distribution of current; however, the net transmission along the edge is conserved and remains a spin conductance quantum as expected from general considerations.

  6. Initial- value problem for the two-dimensional growing wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarsoglio, S.; Tordella, D.; Criminale, W. O.

    2006-11-01

    A general three-dimensional initial-value perturbation problem is investigated as to effects in a two-dimensional but growing wake. The linearized perturbation analysis considers both the early transient as well as the asymptotic behavior of the disturbance (Blossey, Criminale & Fisher, JFM 2006 submitted). The representation of the mean flow is physically accurate, since it has been obtained by considering the lateral entrainment process and associated streamwise evolution of mass flow (increase) and kinetic energy (decrease) (Tordella & Belan, PoF 2003). This base model is combined with a change of coordinate (moving coordinate trasform) (Criminale & Drazin, Stud. Appl. Math, 1990). The evolution analysis considers inviscid disturbances that are expanded in terms of small values of the wavenumber. The long time behavior is represented by means of a multiple spatial and temporal scale description of the velocity and vorticity perturbations. The limit for small wavenumbers has been studied. It is seen that an increase of the entrainment in the base flow yields instability and grows algebraically in time. This result is also obtained when considering a more general problem where larger wavenumbers, wavelengths of the order of the thickness of the variable shear region, are allowed. Comparison with a recent spatio-temporal multiscale Orr-Sommerfeld analysis of the 2D wake instability (Tordella, Scarsoglio & Belan, PoF 2006). is presented. The perturbation dynamics is examined for different base flow configurations.

  7. Anisotropic stress correlations in two-dimensional liquids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the presence of anisotropic stress correlations in the simulated two-dimensional liquids. Whereas the temporal correlation of macroscopic shear stress is known to contribute to viscosity via the Green-Kubo formula, the general question regarding angular dependence of the spatial correlation among atomic-level stresses in liquids without external shear has not been explored. We observed the apparent anisotropicity with well-defined symmetry which can be explained in terms of the elastic continuum theory by Eshelby. In addition, we found that the shear stress correlation is screened compared to the prediction by the elastic continuum theory, and the screening length depends on temperature and follows the power law, suggesting divergence around the glass transition temperature. The success of the Eshelby theory to explain the anisotropy of the stress correlations justifies the idea that the mismatch between the atom and its nearest neighbor cage produces the atomic-level stress as well as the long-range stress fields. PMID:25871104

  8. Magnetic coupling of vortices in a two dimensional lattice.

    PubMed

    Nissen, D; Mitin, D; Klein, O; Arekapudi, S S P K; Thomas, S; Im, M-Y; Fischer, P; Albrecht, M

    2015-11-20

    We investigated the magnetization reversal of magnetic vortex structures in a two-dimensional lattice. The structures were formed by permalloy (Py) film deposition onto large arrays of self assembled spherical SiO(2)-particles with a diameter of 330 nm. We present the dependence of the nucleation and annihilation field of the vortex structures as a function of the Py layer thickness(aspect ratio) and temperature. By increasing the Py thickness up to 90 nm or alternatively by lowering the temperature the vortex structure becomes more stable as expected. However, the increase of the Py thickness results in the onset of strong exchange coupling between neighboring Py caps due to the emergence of Py bridges connecting them. In particular, we studied the influence of magnetic coupling locally by in-field scanning magne to-resistive microscopy and full-field magnetic soft x-ray microscopy, revealing a domain-like nucleation process of vortex states, which arises via domain wall propagation due to exchange coupling of the closely packed structures. By analyzing the rotation sense of the reversed areas, large connected domains are present with the same circulation sense. Furthermore, the lateral core displacements when an in-plane field is applied were investigated, revealing spatially enlarged vortex cores and a broader distribution with increasing Py layer thickness. In addition, the presence of some mixed states, vortices and c-states, is indicated for the array with the thickest Py layer. PMID:26511585

  9. Lagrangian statistics in weakly forced two-dimensional turbulence.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Michael K; Ecke, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of Lagrangian single-point and multiple-point statistics in a quasi-two-dimensional stratified layer system are reported. The system consists of a layer of salt water over an immiscible layer of Fluorinert and is forced electromagnetically so that mean-squared vorticity is injected at a well-defined spatial scale ri. Simultaneous cascades develop in which enstrophy flows predominately to small scales whereas energy cascades, on average, to larger scales. Lagrangian correlations and one- and two-point displacements are measured for random initial conditions and for initial positions within topological centers and saddles. Some of the behavior of these quantities can be understood in terms of the trapping characteristics of long-lived centers, the slow motion near strong saddles, and the rapid fluctuations outside of either centers or saddles. We also present statistics of Lagrangian velocity fluctuations using energy spectra in frequency space and structure functions in real space. We compare with complementary Eulerian velocity statistics. We find that simultaneous inverse energy and enstrophy ranges present in spectra are not directly echoed in real-space moments of velocity difference. Nevertheless, the spectral ranges line up well with features of moment ratios, indicating that although the moments are not exhibiting unambiguous scaling, the behavior of the probability distribution functions is changing over short ranges of length scales. Implications for understanding weakly forced 2D turbulence with simultaneous inverse and direct cascades are discussed. PMID:26826855

  10. A Two-Dimensional Linear Bicharacteristic FDTD Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.

    2002-01-01

    The linear bicharacteristic scheme (LBS) was originally developed to improve unsteady solutions in computational acoustics and aeroacoustics. The LBS has previously been extended to treat lossy materials for one-dimensional problems. It is a classical leapfrog algorithm, but is combined with upwind bias in the spatial derivatives. This approach preserves the time-reversibility of the leapfrog algorithm, which results in no dissipation, and it permits more flexibility by the ability to adopt a characteristic based method. The use of characteristic variables allows the LBS to include the Perfectly Matched Layer boundary condition with no added storage or complexity. The LBS offers a central storage approach with lower dispersion than the Yee algorithm, plus it generalizes much easier to nonuniform grids. It has previously been applied to two and three-dimensional free-space electromagnetic propagation and scattering problems. This paper extends the LBS to the two-dimensional case. Results are presented for point source radiation problems, and the FDTD algorithm is chosen as a convenient reference for comparison.

  11. Freely decaying turbulence in two-dimensional electrostatic gyrokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Tatsuno, T.; Plunk, G. G.; Barnes, M.; Dorland, W.; Howes, G. G.; Numata, R.

    2012-12-15

    In magnetized plasmas, a turbulent cascade occurs in phase space at scales smaller than the thermal Larmor radius ('sub-Larmor scales') [Tatsuno et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 015003 (2009)]. When the turbulence is restricted to two spatial dimensions perpendicular to the background magnetic field, two independent cascades may take place simultaneously because of the presence of two collisionless invariants. In the present work, freely decaying turbulence of two-dimensional electrostatic gyrokinetics is investigated by means of phenomenological theory and direct numerical simulations. A dual cascade (forward and inverse cascades) is observed in velocity space as well as in position space, which we diagnose by means of nonlinear transfer functions for the collisionless invariants. We find that the turbulence tends to a time-asymptotic state, dominated by a single scale that grows in time. A theory of this asymptotic state is derived in the form of decay laws. Each case that we study falls into one of three regimes (weakly collisional, marginal, and strongly collisional), determined by a dimensionless number D{sub *}, a quantity analogous to the Reynolds number. The marginal state is marked by a critical number D{sub *}=D{sub 0} that is preserved in time. Turbulence initialized above this value become increasingly inertial in time, evolving toward larger and larger D{sub *}; turbulence initialized below D{sub 0} become more and more collisional, decaying to progressively smaller D{sub *}.

  12. Soap film flows: Statistics of two-dimensional turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobieff, P.; Rivera, M.; Ecke, R.E.

    1999-08-01

    Soap film flows provide a very convenient laboratory model for studies of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamics including turbulence. For a gravity-driven soap film channel with a grid of equally spaced cylinders inserted in the flow, we have measured the simultaneous velocity and thickness fields in the irregular flow downstream from the cylinders. The velocity field is determined by a modified digital particle image velocimetry method and the thickness from the light scattered by the particles in the film. From these measurements, we compute the decay of mean energy, enstrophy, and thickness fluctuations with downstream distance, and the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, thickness fluctuation, and vorticity flux. From these quantities we determine the microscale Reynolds number of the flow R{sub {lambda}}{approx}100 and the integral and dissipation scales of 2D turbulence. We also obtain quantitative measures of the degree to which our flow can be considered incompressible and isotropic as a function of downstream distance. We find coarsening of characteristic spatial scales, qualitative correspondence of the decay of energy and enstrophy with the Batchelor model, scaling of energy in {ital k} space consistent with the k{sup {minus}3} spectrum of the Kraichnan{endash}Batchelor enstrophy-scaling picture, and power-law scalings of the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, vorticity flux, and thickness. These results are compared with models of 2-D turbulence and with numerical simulations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Magnetic coupling of vortices in a two-dimensional lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, D.; Mitin, D.; Klein, O.; Arekapudi, S. S. P. K.; Thomas, S.; Im, M.-Y.; Fischer, P.; Albrecht, M.

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the magnetization reversal of magnetic vortex structures in a two-dimensional lattice. The structures were formed by permalloy (Py) film deposition onto large arrays of self-assembled spherical SiO2-particles with a diameter of 330 nm. We present the dependence of the nucleation and annihilation field of the vortex structures as a function of the Py layer thickness (aspect ratio) and temperature. By increasing the Py thickness up to 90 nm or alternatively by lowering the temperature the vortex structure becomes more stable as expected. However, the increase of the Py thickness results in the onset of strong exchange coupling between neighboring Py caps due to the emergence of Py bridges connecting them. In particular, we studied the influence of magnetic coupling locally by in-field scanning magneto-resistive microscopy and full-field magnetic soft x-ray microscopy, revealing a domain-like nucleation process of vortex states, which arises via domain wall propagation due to exchange coupling of the closely packed structures. By analyzing the rotation sense of the reversed areas, large connected domains are present with the same circulation sense. Furthermore, the lateral core displacements when an in-plane field is applied were investigated, revealing spatially enlarged vortex cores and a broader distribution with increasing Py layer thickness. In addition, the presence of some mixed states, vortices and c-states, is indicated for the array with the thickest Py layer.

  14. The Talbot Effect for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions.

    PubMed

    Walls, Jamie D; Hadad, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A monochromatic beam of wavelength λ transmitted through a periodic one-dimensional diffraction grating with lattice constant d will be spatially refocused at distances from the grating that are integer multiples of . This self-refocusing phenomena, commonly referred to as the Talbot effect, has been experimentally demonstrated in a variety of systems ranging from optical to matter waves. Theoretical predictions suggest that the Talbot effect should exist in the case of relativistic Dirac fermions with nonzero mass. However, the Talbot effect for massless Dirac fermions (mDfs), such as those found in monolayer graphene or in topological insulator surfaces, has not been previously investigated. In this work, the theory of the Talbot effect for two-dimensional mDfs is presented. It is shown that the Talbot effect for mDfs exists and that the probability density of the transmitted mDfs waves through a periodic one-dimensional array of localized scatterers is also refocused at integer multiples of zT. However, due to the spinor nature of the mDfs, there are additional phase-shifts and amplitude modulations in the probability density that are most pronounced for waves at non-normal incidence to the scattering array. PMID:27221604

  15. Two-dimensional, finite Larmor radius magnetohydrodynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Huba, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    A two-dimensional, finite Larmor radius magnetohydrodynamics (2D FLR MHD) code has been developed. The code solves the 2D FLR equations in the isothermal limit. These equations are presented in Braginskii (1965) and include an anisotropic ion stress tensor in the momentum equation.the FLR MHD equations are solved in conservative form. A non-linear switch between an 8th order spatial scheme and a low-order scheme is used based upon the partial donor cell method (Hain, 1987). The novel feature of the code is the computation of the fluxes across cell interfaces. The code uses a variation of the beam scheme and computes fluxes based upon maxwellian-like distribution functions that contain the magnetic forces. As a test of the code, theoretical and computational results for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the FLR MHD regime will be presented. The authors also discuss the transition to the unmagnetized regime where the Hall term becomes important, and applications to plasma boundary layer dynamics.

  16. Lagrangian statistics in weakly forced two-dimensional turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Michael K.; Ecke, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of Lagrangian single-point and multiple-point statistics in a quasi-two-dimensional stratified layer system are reported. The system consists of a layer of salt water over an immiscible layer of Fluorinert and is forced electromagnetically so that mean-squared vorticity is injected at a well-defined spatial scale ri. Simultaneous cascades develop in which enstrophy flows predominately to small scales whereas energy cascades, on average, to larger scales. Lagrangian correlations and one- and two-point displacements are measured for random initial conditions and for initial positions within topological centers and saddles. Some of the behavior of these quantities can be understood in terms of the trapping characteristics of long-lived centers, the slow motion near strong saddles, and the rapid fluctuations outside of either centers or saddles. We also present statistics of Lagrangian velocity fluctuations using energy spectra in frequency space and structure functions in real space. We compare with complementary Eulerian velocity statistics. We find that simultaneous inverse energy and enstrophy ranges present in spectra are not directly echoed in real-space moments of velocity difference. Nevertheless, the spectral ranges line up well with features of moment ratios, indicating that although the moments are not exhibiting unambiguous scaling, the behavior of the probability distribution functions is changing over short ranges of length scales. Implications for understanding weakly forced 2D turbulence with simultaneous inverse and direct cascades are discussed.

  17. Optoelectronics in two-dimensional semiconductor alloys (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léonard, François

    2015-08-01

    Two -dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDs) have attracted attention for applications in electronics and photonics, as well as for the wealth of new scientific phenomena that arise at low dimensionality. Recently, the ability to grow 2D-TMDs by chemical vapor deposition has opened the path to large area devices, but also to the synthesis of semiconductor alloys with tunable bandgaps. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent experimental work in exploring the optoelectronic properties of 2D MoS_2(1-x)Se_2x alloys spanning the compositional range. In particular, we report the observation of a new regime of operation where the photocurrent depends superlinearly on light intensity. We use spatially-resolved photocurrent measurements on devices consisting of CVD-grown monolayers to show the photoconductive nature of the photoresponse, with the photocurrent dominated by recombination and field-induced carrier separation in the channel. Time-dependent photoconductivity measurements show the presence of persistent photoconductivity for the S-rich alloys, while photocurrent measurements at fixed wavelength for devices of different alloy compositions show a systematic decrease of the responsivity with increasing Se content associated with increased linearity of the current-voltage characteristics. A model based on the presence of different types of recombination centers is presented to explain the origin of the superlinear dependence on light intensity, which emerges when the non-equilibrium occupancy of initially empty fast recombination centers becomes comparable to that of slow recombination centers.

  18. Strong Raman-induced noninstantaneous soliton interactions in gas-filled photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Armaroli, Andrea; Marini, Andrea; Biancalana, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    We have developed an analytical model based on the perturbation theory to study the optical propagation of two successive solitons in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled with Raman-active gases. Based on the time delay between the two solitons, we have found that the trailing soliton dynamics can experience unusual nonlinear phenomena, such as spectral and temporal soliton oscillations and transport toward the leading soliton. The overall dynamics can lead to a spatiotemporal modulation of the refractive index with a uniform temporal period and a uniform or chirped spatial period. PMID:26368711

  19. Vector cavity solitons in broad area Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers.

    PubMed

    Averlant, Etienne; Tlidi, Mustapha; Thienpont, Hugo; Ackemann, Thorsten; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2016-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of two-dimensional vector cavity solitons in a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) under linearly polarized optical injection when varying optical injection linear polarization direction. The polarization of the cavity soliton is not the one of the optical injection as it acquires a distinct ellipticity. These experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by the spin-flip VCSEL model. Our findings open the road to polarization multiplexing when using cavity solitons in broad-area lasers as pixels in information technology. PMID:26847004

  20. Multi-Soliton Solutions of the Generalized Sawada-Kotera Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Da-Wei; Mo, Hui-Xia; Zhou, Hui-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-type equations can describe the nonlinear phenomena in shallow water waves, stratified internal waves, and ion-acoustic waves in plasmas. In this article, the two-dimensional generalization of the Sawada-Kotera equation, one of the KdV-type equations, is discussed by virtue of the Bell polynomials and Hirota method. The results show that there exist multi-soliton solutions for such an equation. Relations between the direction of the soliton propagation and coordinate axes are shown. Elastic interaction with the multi-soliton solutions are analysed.

  1. Fundamental solitons in parity-time symmetric lattice with a vacancy defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bağcı, Mahmut; Bakırtaş, İlkay; Antar, Nalan

    2015-12-01

    We put forward a mechanism for delaying the collapse of the fundamental solitons in nonlinear media whose dynamics is governed by two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with parity-time symmetric (PT-symmetric) periodic potentials with/without a vacancy defect. We observed that strengthened gain-loss component (imaginary part of the potential) in the periodic lattice impoverish the stability properties of the solitons, on the other hand adding a vacancy defect to the periodic PT-symmetric lattice acts as a delaying mechanism for collapsing solitons.

  2. Vector cavity solitons in broad area Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Averlant, Etienne; Tlidi, Mustapha; Thienpont, Hugo; Ackemann, Thorsten; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2016-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of two-dimensional vector cavity solitons in a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) under linearly polarized optical injection when varying optical injection linear polarization direction. The polarization of the cavity soliton is not the one of the optical injection as it acquires a distinct ellipticity. These experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by the spin-flip VCSEL model. Our findings open the road to polarization multiplexing when using cavity solitons in broad-area lasers as pixels in information technology. PMID:26847004

  3. Vector cavity solitons in broad area Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averlant, Etienne; Tlidi, Mustapha; Thienpont, Hugo; Ackemann, Thorsten; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2016-02-01

    We report the experimental observation of two-dimensional vector cavity solitons in a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) under linearly polarized optical injection when varying optical injection linear polarization direction. The polarization of the cavity soliton is not the one of the optical injection as it acquires a distinct ellipticity. These experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by the spin-flip VCSEL model. Our findings open the road to polarization multiplexing when using cavity solitons in broad-area lasers as pixels in information technology.

  4. Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-05-26

    The advent of bottom-up atomic manipulation heralded a new horizon for attainable information density, as it allowed a bit of information to be represented by a single atom. The discrete spacing between atoms in condensed matter has thus set a rigid limit on the maximum possible information density. While modern technologies are still far from this scale, all theoretical downscaling of devices terminates at this spatial limit. Here, however, we break this barrier with electronic quantum encoding scaled to subatomic densities. We use atomic manipulation to first construct open nanostructures - 'molecular holograms' - which in turn concentrate information into a medium free of lattice constraints: the quantum states of a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas of electrons. The information embedded in the holograms is transcoded at even smaller length scales into an atomically uniform area of a copper surface, where it is densely projected into both two spatial degrees of freedom and a third holographic dimension mapped to energy. In analogy to optical volume holography, this requires precise amplitude and phase engineering of electron wavefunctions to assemble pages of information volumetrically. This data is read out by mapping the energy-resolved electron density of states with a scanning tunnelling microscope. As the projection and readout are both extremely near-field, and because we use native quantum states rather than an external beam, we are not limited by lensing or collimation and can create electronically projected objects with features as small as {approx}0.3 nm. These techniques reach unprecedented densities exceeding 20 bits/nm{sup 2} and place tens of bits into a single fermionic state.

  5. Incoherently coupled dark-bright photorefractive solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Segev, Mordechai; Coskun, Tamer H.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Afanasjev, Vsevolod V.

    1996-11-01

    We report the observation of incoherently coupled dark-bright spatial soliton pairs in a biased bulk photorefractive crystal. When such a pair is decoupled, the dark component evolves into a triplet structure, whereas the bright one decays into a self-defocusing beam.

  6. Solitons versus parametric instabilities during ionospheric heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Downie, R. M.; Sheerin, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Various effects associated with ionospheric heating are investigated by numerically solving the modified Zakharov (1972) equations. It is shown that, for typical ionospheric parameters, the modulational instability is more important than the parametric decay instability in the spatial region of strongest heater electric field. It is concluded that the modulational instability leads to the formation of solitons, as originally predicted by Petviashvili (1976).

  7. Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Karaiskaj, D.; Tokumoto, T.; Hilton, D. J.; Reno, J. L.

    2014-10-07

    The dephasing of the Fermi edge singularity excitations in two modulation doped single quantum wells of 12 nm and 18 nm thickness and in-well carrier concentration of ∼4 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} was carefully measured using spectrally resolved four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. Although the absorption at the Fermi edge is broad at this doping level, the spectrally resolved FWM shows narrow resonances. Two peaks are observed separated by the heavy hole/light hole energy splitting. Temperature dependent “rephasing” (S{sub 1}) 2DFT spectra show a rapid linear increase of the homogeneous linewidth with temperature. The dephasing rate increases faster with temperature in the narrower 12 nm quantum well, likely due to an increased carrier-phonon scattering rate. The S{sub 1} 2DFT spectra were measured using co-linear, cross-linear, and co-circular polarizations. Distinct 2DFT lineshapes were observed for co-linear and cross-linear polarizations, suggesting the existence of polarization dependent contributions. The “two-quantum coherence” (S{sub 3}) 2DFT spectra for the 12 nm quantum well show a single peak for both co-linear and co-circular polarizations.

  8. Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Supracrystals: A Model System for Two-Dimensional Melting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Kwon, S Joon; Chang, Jae-Byum; Ross, Caroline A; Hatton, T Alan; Stellacci, Francesco

    2016-02-10

    In a Langmuir trough, successive compression cycles can drive a two-dimensional (2D) nanoparticle supracrystal (NPSC) closer to its equilibrium structure. Here, we show a series of equilibrated 2D NPSCs consisting of gold NPs of uniform size, varying solely in the length of their alkanethiol ligands. The ordering of the NPSC is governed by the ligand length, thus providing a model system to investigate the nature of 2D melting in a system of NPs. As the ligand length increases the supracrystal transitions from a crystalline to a liquid-like phase with evidence of a hexatic phase at an intermediate ligand length. The phase change is interpreted as an entropy-driven phenomenon associated with steric constraints between ligand shells. The density of topological defects scales with ligand length, suggesting an equivalence between ligand length and temperature in terms of melting behavior. On the basis of this equivalence, the experimental evidence indicates a two-stage 2D melting of NPSCs. PMID:26756789

  9. Two-dimensional instantons with bosonization and physics of adjoint two-dimensional QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilga, A. V.

    1996-12-01

    We evaluate partition functions ZI in topologically nontrivial (instanton) gauge sectors in the bosonized version of the Schwinger model and in a gauged WZNW model corresponding to two-dimensional QCD (QCD2) with adjoint fermions. We show that the bosonized model is equivalent to the fermion model only if a particular form of the WZNW action with a gauge-invariant integrand is chosen. For the exact correspondence, it is necessary to integrate over the ways the gauge group SU(N)/ZN is embedded into the full O(N2-1) group for the bosonized matter field. For even N, one should also take into account the contributions of both disconnected components in O(N2-1). In that case, ZI~mn0 for small fermion masses where 2n0 coincides with the number of fermion zero modes in a particular instanton background. The Taylor expansion of ZI/mn0 in mass involves only even powers of m, as it should. The physics of adjoint QCD2 is discussed. We argue that, for odd N, the discrete chiral symmetry Z2⊗Z2 present in the action is broken spontaneously down to Z2 and the fermion condensate <λ¯λ>0 is formed. The system undergoes a first order phase transition at Tc=0 so that the condensate is zero at an arbitrary small temperature. It is not yet quite clear what happens for even N>=4.

  10. Two-dimensional Minkowski causal automorphisms and conformal maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, Juan Manuel

    2013-02-01

    Treating the two-dimensional Minkowski space as a Wick rotated version of the complex plane, we characterize the causal automorphisms in the two-dimensional Minkowski space as the Märzke-Wheeler maps of a certain class of observers. We also characterize the differentiable causal automorphisms of this space as the Minkowski conformal maps whose restriction to the time axis belongs to the class of observers mentioned above. We answer a recently raised question about whether causal automorphisms are characterized by their wave equation. As another application of the theory, we give a proper time formula for accelerated observers which solves the twin paradox in two-dimensional Minkowski spacetime.

  11. Third sound in one and two dimensional modulated structures

    SciTech Connect

    Komuro, T.; Kawashima, H., Shirahama, K.; Kono, K.

    1996-02-01

    An experimental technique is developed to study acoustic transmission in one and two dimensional modulated structures by employing third sound of a superfluid helium film. In particular, the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional quasiperiodic structure, is studied. In two dimensions, the scattering of third sound is weaker than in one dimension. Nevertheless, the authors find that the transmission spectrum in the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional prototype of the quasicrystal, is observable if the helium film thickness is chosen around 5 atomic layers. The transmission spectra in the Penrose lattice are explained in terms of dynamical theory of diffraction.

  12. Prediction of two-dimensional van der Waals ferroelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wenjun; Zhu, Jianbao; Gao, Yanfei; Xiao, Di; Gu, Yi; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhu, Wenguang

    Based on density functional theory calculations, we discover a class of two-dimensional van der Waals ferroelectric materials with spontaneous out-of-plane electric polarization, and the orientation of the electric polarization can be reversed by a seemly lateral shift of a single atomic layer. We further find that the electronic structures of a bilayer of such two-dimensional ferroelectric materials can be switched to be either semiconducting or metallic, depending on their relative orientations of the electric polarization. This finding expand the family of the two-dimensional materials with ferroelectricity and offers new opportunities to tune the properties of van der Waals heterstructures for practical device applications.

  13. Wave structure detection through two-dimensional filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabile, C.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains an analysis of the potential of using a noncoherent two dimensional filter technique to extract a ridge-like signal from a two dimensional surface. The two dimensional surface consists of the signal plus white Gaussian noise. It is demonstrated that the technique shows promise both in visual ridge detection and in automatic energy ratio detection. It is suggested that a more elegant form of the filter used here (complex coefficient) be used to further enhance the ridge-like signal structure.

  14. Symmetry-breaking instability of quadratic soliton bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Delque, Michaeel; Fanjoux, Gil; Maillotte, Herve; Kockaert, Pascal; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Haelterman, Marc

    2011-01-15

    We study both numerically and experimentally two-dimensional soliton bound states in quadratic media and demonstrate their symmetry-breaking instability. The experiment is performed in a potassium titanyl phosphate crystal in a type-II configuration. The bound state is generated by the copropagation of the antisymmetric fundamental beam locked in phase with the symmetrical second harmonic one. Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear wave equations.

  15. Two-Photon Cavity Solitons in Active Optical Media

    SciTech Connect

    Vilaseca, R.; Torrent, M. C.; Garcia-Ojalvo, J.; Brambilla, M.; San Miguel, M.

    2001-08-20

    We show that broad-area cascade lasers with no absorbing intracavity elements support the spontaneous formation of two-dimensional bright localized structures in a dark background. These cavity solitons consist of islands of two-photon emission embedded in a background of single-photon emission. We discuss the mechanisms through which these structures are formed and interact, along with their properties and stability.

  16. Semirelativity and Kink Solitons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Mariusz Karol

    2014-01-01

    It is hard to observe relativistic effects in everyday life. However, table experiments using a mechanical transmission line for solitons may be an efficient and simple way to show effects such as Lorentz contraction in a classroom. A kink soliton is a deformation of a lattice of several dozen or more pendulums placed on a wire and connected by a

  17. Semirelativity and Kink Solitons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Mariusz Karol

    2014-01-01

    It is hard to observe relativistic effects in everyday life. However, table experiments using a mechanical transmission line for solitons may be an efficient and simple way to show effects such as Lorentz contraction in a classroom. A kink soliton is a deformation of a lattice of several dozen or more pendulums placed on a wire and connected by a…

  18. Periodic exploding dissipative solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2016-03-01

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These nonchaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modeling fiber soliton lasers. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos (chaotic explosions).

  19. Soliton absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kalashnikov, V. L.; Sorokin, E.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze optical soliton propagation in the presence of weak absorption lines with much narrower linewidths as compared to the soliton spectrum width using the novel perturbation analysis technique based on an integral representation in the spectral domain. The stable soliton acquires spectral modulation that follows the associated index of refraction of the absorber. The model can be applied to ordinary soliton propagation and to an absorber inside a passively modelocked laser. In the latter case, a comparison with water vapor absorption in a femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser yields a very good agreement with experiment. Compared to the conventional absorption measurement in a cell of the same length, the signal is increased by an order of magnitude. The obtained analytical expressions allow further improving of the sensitivity and spectroscopic accuracy making the soliton absorption spectroscopy a promising novel measurement technique. PMID:21151755

  20. Soliton absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalashnikov, V. L.; Sorokin, E.

    2010-03-15

    We analyze optical soliton propagation in the presence of weak absorption lines with much narrower linewidths as compared to the soliton spectrum width by using a perturbation analysis technique based on an integral representation in the spectral domain. The stable soliton acquires a spectral modulation that follows the associated index of refraction of the absorber. The model can be applied to ordinary soliton propagation and to an absorber inside a passively mode-locked laser. In the latter case, a comparison with water vapor absorption in a femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser yields a very good agreement with experiment. Compared to the conventional absorption measurements in a cell of the same length, the signal is increased by an order of magnitude. The obtained analytical expressions allow further improvement in the sensitivity and spectroscopic accuracy, which makes soliton absorption spectroscopy a promising measurement technique.

  1. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of plasma cavitation and bursty Brillouin backscattering for nonrelativistic laser intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Riconda, C.; Weber, S.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Adam, J.-C.; Heron, A.

    2006-08-15

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of laser-plasma interaction using a plane-wave geometry show strong bursty stimulated Brillouin backscattering, rapid filamentation, and subsequent plasma cavitation. It is shown that the cavitation is not induced by self-focusing. The electromagnetic fields below the plasma frequency that are excited are related to transient soliton-like structures. At the origin of these solitons is a three-wave decay process exciting new modes in the plasma. The cavitation is responsible for a strong local reduction of the reflectivity and goes along with an efficient but transient heating of the electrons. Once heating ceases, transmission starts to increase. Local as well as global average reflectivities attain a very low value due to strong plasma density variations brought about by the cavitation process. On the one hand, the simulations confirm the existence of a new mechanism of cavity and soliton formation in nonrelativistic laser-plasma interaction in two dimensions, which was shown to exist in one-dimensional simulations [S. Weber, C. Riconda, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 055005 (2005)]. On the other hand, new aspects are introduced inherently related to the additional degree of freedom.

  2. Near-Surface Geophysics: Two-Dimensional Resistivity

    USGS hydrologist conducts a two-dimensional (2D) resistivity survey to investigate and characterize the shallow subsurface. The survey was conducted as part of an applied research effort by the USGS Office of Groundwater Branch of Geophysics in 2006....

  3. Two-dimensional signal processing with application to image restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assefi, T.

    1974-01-01

    A recursive technique for modeling and estimating a two-dimensional signal contaminated by noise is presented. A two-dimensional signal is assumed to be an undistorted picture, where the noise introduces the distortion. Both the signal and the noise are assumed to be wide-sense stationary processes with known statistics. Thus, to estimate the two-dimensional signal is to enhance the picture. The picture representing the two-dimensional signal is converted to one dimension by scanning the image horizontally one line at a time. The scanner output becomes a nonstationary random process due to the periodic nature of the scanner operation. Procedures to obtain a dynamical model corresponding to the autocorrelation function of the scanner output are derived. Utilizing the model, a discrete Kalman estimator is designed to enhance the image.

  4. Model of a Negatively Curved Two-Dimensional Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckroth, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the construction of models of two-dimensional surfaces with negative curvature that are used to illustrate differences in the triangle sum rule for the various Big Bang Theories of the universe. (JRH)

  5. Time harmonic scar statistics in two dimensional cavities.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES, Westwood, CA)

    2007-01-01

    This paper examined the high frequency time harmonic localization of modal fields in two dimensional cavities along unstable periodic orbits. The elliptic formalism, combined with the random phase approach, allowed the treatment of both convex and concave boundary geometries.

  6. Difficulties that Students Face with Two-Dimensional Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihas, P.; Gemousakakis, T.

    2007-01-01

    Some difficulties that students face with two-dimensional motion are addressed. The difficulties addressed are the vectorial representation of velocity, acceleration and force, the force-energy theorem and the understanding of the radius of curvature.

  7. Two-dimensional materials: Not just a phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Philip W.

    2016-03-01

    In some two-dimensional materials, there's a puzzling intermediate metallic phase between superconducting and insulating states. Experiments on ultraclean crystalline samples suggest this metallic phase could be bosonic.

  8. Defect configurations in a two-dimensional classical Wigner crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R.; Platzman, P. M.

    1991-08-01

    We have calculated using a Monte Carlo algorithm, the configuration and energy of vacancies in a classical two-dimensional Wigner crystal. We find, for our 224-electron system, that asymmetric vacancies have the lowest energies.

  9. A spin dynamics approach to solitonics.

    PubMed

    Koumpouras, Konstantinos; Bergman, Anders; Eriksson, Olle; Yudin, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    In magnetic materials a variety of non-collinear ground state configurations may emerge as a result of competition among exchange, anisotropy, and dipole-dipole interaction, yielding magnetic states far more complex than those of homogenous ferromagnets. Of particular interest in this study are particle-like configurations. These particle-like states, e.g., magnetic solitons, skyrmions, or domain walls, form a spatially localised clot of magnetic energy. In this paper we address topologically protected magnetic solitons and explore concepts that potentially might be relevant for logical operations and/or information storage in the rapidly advancing filed of solitonics (and skyrmionics). An ability to easily create, address, and manipulate such structures is among the prerequisite forming a basis of "-onics technology", and is investigated in detail here using numerical and analytical tools. PMID:27156906

  10. A spin dynamics approach to solitonics

    PubMed Central

    Koumpouras, Konstantinos; Bergman, Anders; Eriksson, Olle; Yudin, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    In magnetic materials a variety of non-collinear ground state configurations may emerge as a result of competition among exchange, anisotropy, and dipole-dipole interaction, yielding magnetic states far more complex than those of homogenous ferromagnets. Of particular interest in this study are particle-like configurations. These particle-like states, e.g., magnetic solitons, skyrmions, or domain walls, form a spatially localised clot of magnetic energy. In this paper we address topologically protected magnetic solitons and explore concepts that potentially might be relevant for logical operations and/or information storage in the rapidly advancing filed of solitonics (and skyrmionics). An ability to easily create, address, and manipulate such structures is among the prerequisite forming a basis of “-onics technology”, and is investigated in detail here using numerical and analytical tools. PMID:27156906

  11. Nicked-sleeve interface for two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Ryan J.; Huge, Bonnie J.; Bruce, Spencer M.; Dada, Oluwatosin O.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2013-01-01

    We report an improved interface for two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis. This interface is based on capillary tubing and a Plexiglas chip, both of which were milled using a micro-dicing saw. The interface was evaluated and compared to a traditional interface design for both pseudo one-dimensional and two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis. We observe less than 70% transfer efficiency for the traditional design and greater than 90% transfer efficiency with this new interface. PMID:23702824

  12. Solitons in cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Pradip; Schwarz, W. H.

    1995-04-01

    Using a two-dimensional smectic liquid crystal model, we have shown the plausibility of electrical solitary wave propagation along a bimolecular leaflet such as the cell membrane of a nerve axon which consists of chiral, lipid building blocks. Our model is a head-to-tail correlated ferroelectric, chiral Sm-C* liquid crystal, which is a unique class of substances that combines the electric polarization and anisotropy of ferroelectric crystals with the hydrodynamic properties of liquids. Polar Sm-A models can also be used with the same results. In addition to the usual transverse ferroelectricity, characteristic of the Sm-C* liquid crystal, the head-to-tail correlation ensures a longitudinal ferroelectricity component. The electric polarization due to the latter can couple to the transmembrane electric field resulting from the ionic imbalance between the two sides of the membrane-a mechanism detailed in the so-called Hodgkin-Huxley set of partial differential equations for the propagation of the action potential. We obtain a Landau-de Gennes-like free energy, which is the sum of elastic, fluctuation, and polarization terms, together with a ferroelectric term showing a direct coupling between the electric field and the mechanical deformation variable. Minimizing and equating to a viscous damping term leads to an equation similar to one equation of the Fitzhugh-Nagumo coupled set of partial differential equations, which is a simplified version of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations. The other equation of the set resembles an equation derived from the Nernst-Planck equation, which describes transmembrane ion transport and hence provides a mechanism for transmembrane potential variation. A more complete calculation of the velocity of the asymptotic wave form shows a lower wave speed than the estimate of Nagumo et al. The piezoelectric properties of the phase compete with its curvature elasticity to produce the soliton lattice of the cell membrane, which consists of juxtaposed regions of opposite tilt orientations. The propagation of the solitary wave requires a switching electric field, which is the form for the action potential and which moves the polarized domains by ferroelectric switching.

  13. Effects of spin-dependent interactions on polarization of bright polariton solitons.

    PubMed

    Sich, M; Fras, F; Chana, J K; Skolnick, M S; Krizhanovskii, D N; Gorbach, A V; Hartley, R; Skryabin, D V; Gavrilov, S S; Cerda-Mndez, E A; Biermann, K; Hey, R; Santos, P V

    2014-01-31

    We report on the spin properties of bright polariton solitons supported by an external pump to compensate losses. We observe robust circularly polarized solitons when a circularly polarized pump is applied, a result attributed to phase synchronization between nondegenerate TE and TM polarized polariton modes at high momenta. For the case of a linearly polarized pump, either ?+ or ?- circularly polarized bright solitons can be switched on in a controlled way by a ?+ or ?- writing beam, respectively. This feature arises directly from the widely differing interaction strengths between co- and cross-circularly polarized polaritons. In the case of orthogonally linearly polarized pump and writing beams, the soliton emission on average is found to be unpolarized, suggesting strong spatial evolution of the soliton polarization. The observed results are in agreement with theory, which predicts stable circularly polarized solitons and unstable linearly polarized solitons. PMID:24580473

  14. Effects of Spin-Dependent Interactions on Polarization of Bright Polariton Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sich, M.; Fras, F.; Chana, J. K.; Skolnick, M. S.; Krizhanovskii, D. N.; Gorbach, A. V.; Hartley, R.; Skryabin, D. V.; Gavrilov, S. S.; Cerda-Méndez, E. A.; Biermann, K.; Hey, R.; Santos, P. V.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the spin properties of bright polariton solitons supported by an external pump to compensate losses. We observe robust circularly polarized solitons when a circularly polarized pump is applied, a result attributed to phase synchronization between nondegenerate TE and TM polarized polariton modes at high momenta. For the case of a linearly polarized pump, either σ+ or σ- circularly polarized bright solitons can be switched on in a controlled way by a σ+ or σ- writing beam, respectively. This feature arises directly from the widely differing interaction strengths between co- and cross-circularly polarized polaritons. In the case of orthogonally linearly polarized pump and writing beams, the soliton emission on average is found to be unpolarized, suggesting strong spatial evolution of the soliton polarization. The observed results are in agreement with theory, which predicts stable circularly polarized solitons and unstable linearly polarized solitons.

  15. Modeling Meandering Channel by Two-Dimensional Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.; Duan, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    This research is to simulate the process of channel meandering using a two-dimensional depth-averaged hydrodynamic model. The multiple interactions between unsteady flow, turbulence, secondary flow, nonequilibrium sediment transport and bank erosion are considered by the model. The governing equations are the 2D depth-averaged Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (2D-RANS) equations and the Exner equation for bed elevation evolution. The Reynolds stresses are calculated by the k-ɛ turbulence model. The secondary flow, is modeled by the dispersion terms in momentum equations. The spatial lag between the instantaneous flow properties and the rate of sediment transport is simulated by the nonequilibrium sediment transport model. During the process of adaptation, the sediment transport rate gradually develops into the transport capacity of a given flow condition. The evolution of channel bed and bank is modeled by the general Exner equation that accounts for both vertical deformation of bed elevation as well as lateral migration of bank. The system of governing equations is solved by a semi-implicit finite volume method over the Cartesian mesh. The advective fluxes across each cell interface are simultaneously calculated by the extended HLL Riemann solver. At each time step, the diffusion terms in the governing equations are solved by the implicit Euler scheme. The source terms are discretized in a well-balanced way to retain the C-property of the proposed model. Application of the model to different test cases indicates that the model can correctly simulate different phases of meandering channel evolution which include streamwise migration, transverse migration and rotation of channel bends.

  16. Two-dimensional aperture coding for magnetic sector mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Russell, Zachary E; Chen, Evan X; Amsden, Jason J; Wolter, Scott D; Danell, Ryan M; Parker, Charles B; Stoner, Brian R; Gehm, Michael E; Brady, David J; Glass, Jeffrey T

    2015-02-01

    In mass spectrometer design, there has been a historic belief that there exists a fundamental trade-off between instrument size, throughput, and resolution. When miniaturizing a traditional system, performance loss in either resolution or throughput would be expected. However, in optical spectroscopy, both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) aperture coding have been used for many years to break a similar trade-off. To provide a viable path to miniaturization for harsh environment field applications, we are investigating similar concepts in sector mass spectrometry. Recently, we demonstrated the viability of 1D aperture coding and here we provide a first investigation of 2D coding. In coded optical spectroscopy, 2D coding is preferred because of increased measurement diversity for improved conditioning and robustness of the result. To investigate its viability in mass spectrometry, analytes of argon, acetone, and ethanol were detected using a custom 90-degree magnetic sector mass spectrometer incorporating 2D coded apertures. We developed a mathematical forward model and reconstruction algorithm to successfully reconstruct the mass spectra from the 2D spatially coded ion positions. This 2D coding enabled a 3.5 throughput increase with minimal decrease in resolution. Several challenges were overcome in the mass spectrometer design to enable this coding, including the need for large uniform ion flux, a wide gap magnetic sector that maintains field uniformity, and a high resolution 2D detection system for ion imaging. Furthermore, micro-fabricated 2D coded apertures incorporating support structures were developed to provide a viable design that allowed ion transmission through the open elements of the code. PMID:25510933

  17. Two-Dimensional Aperture Coding for Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Zachary E.; Chen, Evan X.; Amsden, Jason J.; Wolter, Scott D.; Danell, Ryan M.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Gehm, Michael E.; Brady, David J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2015-02-01

    In mass spectrometer design, there has been a historic belief that there exists a fundamental trade-off between instrument size, throughput, and resolution. When miniaturizing a traditional system, performance loss in either resolution or throughput would be expected. However, in optical spectroscopy, both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) aperture coding have been used for many years to break a similar trade-off. To provide a viable path to miniaturization for harsh environment field applications, we are investigating similar concepts in sector mass spectrometry. Recently, we demonstrated the viability of 1D aperture coding and here we provide a first investigation of 2D coding. In coded optical spectroscopy, 2D coding is preferred because of increased measurement diversity for improved conditioning and robustness of the result. To investigate its viability in mass spectrometry, analytes of argon, acetone, and ethanol were detected using a custom 90-degree magnetic sector mass spectrometer incorporating 2D coded apertures. We developed a mathematical forward model and reconstruction algorithm to successfully reconstruct the mass spectra from the 2D spatially coded ion positions. This 2D coding enabled a 3.5× throughput increase with minimal decrease in resolution. Several challenges were overcome in the mass spectrometer design to enable this coding, including the need for large uniform ion flux, a wide gap magnetic sector that maintains field uniformity, and a high resolution 2D detection system for ion imaging. Furthermore, micro-fabricated 2D coded apertures incorporating support structures were developed to provide a viable design that allowed ion transmission through the open elements of the code.

  18. Ship Wakes and Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchsbaum, Steven Bruce

    1990-01-01

    Observations of ship wakes have exhibited a compact steep ray within the diverging portion of the traditional Kelvin wake. This ray typically consists of four to eight wave crest contained within an oblique packet profile. This profile does not appear to disperse as rapidly as would be anticipated for linear gravity waves. Quantitative observations of these rays in the wake of the coast guard cutter Point Brower, and model ships during a tank towing experiment, have shown these features to be oblique packet solitons. I use the term soliton to describe a wave packet for which nonlinearities act to balance linear dispersion, rather than the strict mathematical definition. The measured angular position within the wake of these solitons is observed to be a function of speed. It is shown that a ship modeled by a pressure source at the bow, and a pressure sink at the stern can account for the observed speed dependence. Numerical integration of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation has demonstrated that the small deviations of our observations from exact soliton profiles are consistent with soliton like behavior. Indeed these near soliton solutions are shown to be a better match to our observations than exact soliton solutions. Thus I would conclude that a solitary wake feature is a possible explanation for the bright lines observed in sun glitter photos of ship wakes taken from the space shuttle. Solitary wake features may also contribute to the explanation of some of the long bright lines observed in ship wake SAR images observed from SEASAT.

  19. Stability analysis of two-dimensional models of three-dimensional convection

    SciTech Connect

    Greenside, H.S.; Cross, M.C.

    1984-12-01

    Analytical and numerical methods are used to study the linear stability of spatially periodic solutions for various two-dimensional equations which model thermal convection in fluids. This analysis suggests new model equations that will be useful for investigating questions such as wave number selection, pattern formation, and the onset of turbulence in large aspect ratio Rayleigh-Benard systems. In particular, we construct a nonrelaxational model that has stability boundaries similar to those calculated for intermediate Prandtl number fluids.

  20. Stability analysis of two-dimensional models of three-dimensional convection

    SciTech Connect

    Greenside, H.S.; Cross, M.C.

    1985-04-01

    Analytical and numerical methods are used to study the linear stability of spatially periodic solutions for various two-dimensional equations which model thermal convection in fluids. This analysis suggests new model equations that will be useful for investigating questions such as wave-number selection, pattern formation, and the onset of turbulence in large-aspect-ratio Rayleigh-Benard systems. In particular, we construct a nonrelaxational model that has stability boundaries similar to those calculated for intermediate Prandtl-number fluids.

  1. Two-dimensional gate-controlled photodiode array for optical computing

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C.C. )

    1989-08-01

    A new semiconductor device, the gate-controlled photodiode (GCPD), has been experimentally demonstrated. A two-dimensional (2-D) GCPD array may fulfill the combined function of a 2-D spatial light modulator (SLM) and a photodetector array in some applications. Its high parallelism, simplicity, and compatibility are attractive for optical signal processing and computing, optical interconnection for VLSI circuits, and artificial neural networks. Some typical applications for optical computing are discussed.

  2. Scaling and correlation functions in a model of a two-dimensional earthquake fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, T.; Marinosson, S. F.

    1998-09-01

    We study numerically a two-dimensional version of the Burrige-Knopoff model. We calculate spatial and temporal correlation functions and compare their behavior with the results found for the one-dimensional model. The Gutenberg-Richter law is only obtained for special choices of parameters in the relaxation function. We find that the distribution of the fractal dimension of the slip zone exhibits two well-defined peaks coeersponding to intermediate size and large events.

  3. Nontopological chiral soliton bag

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, R.; Ohta, S.

    1984-02-20

    A chiral nontopological soliton bag for baryons is numerically examined for the hedgehog model in the mean field approximation. The chiral invariance in the Lagrangian is preserved by means of the nonlinear sigma model. The radius and energy of the soliton bag slowly decreases in proportion to f/sup -2//sub ..pi../ as f/sup -1//sub ..pi../ decreases from zero to the physical value. The nontopological soliton bag is thus quite similar to the cloudy bag. The perturbative (linear) approximation for the pion field is found to be reasonable.

  4. Coherent soliton communication lines

    SciTech Connect

    Yushko, O. V. Redyuk, A. A.; Fedoruk, M. P.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2014-11-15

    The data transmission in coherent fiber-optical communication lines using solitons with a variable phase is studied. It is shown that nonlinear coherent structures (solitons) can be applied for effective signal transmission over a long distance using amplitude and optical-phase keying of information. The optimum ratio of the pulse width to the bit slot at which the spectral efficiency (transmitted bits per second and hertz) is maximal is determined. It is shown that soliton fiber-optical communication lines can ensure data transmission at a higher spectral efficiency as compared to traditional communication lines and at a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  5. Cubic-quintic solitons in the checkerboard potential

    SciTech Connect

    Driben, Rodislav; Zyss, Joseph; Malomed, Boris A.; Gubeskys, Arthur

    2007-12-15

    We introduce a two-dimensional (2D) model which combines a checkerboard potential, alias the Kronig-Penney (KP) lattice, with the self-focusing cubic and self-defocusing quintic nonlinear terms. The beam-splitting mechanism and soliton multistability are explored in this setting, following the recently considered 1D version of the model. Families of single- and multi-peak solitons (in particular, five- and nine-peak species naturally emerge in the 2D setting) are found in the semi-infinite gap, with both branches of bistable families being robust against perturbations. For single-peak solitons, the variational approximation (VA) is developed, providing for a qualitatively correct description of the transition from monostability to the bistability. 2D solitons found in finite band gaps are unstable. Also constructed are two different species of stable vortex solitons, arranged as four-peak patterns ('oblique' and 'straight' ones). Unlike them, compact 'crater-shaped' vortices are unstable, transforming themselves into randomly walking fundamental beams.

  6. Solitons in superfluid (He-3)-A - Bound states on domain walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, T. L.; Fulco, J. R.; Schrieffer, J. R.; Wilczek, F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of solitons on the spectrum of fermion excitations in superfluid (He-3)-A are investigated. It is found that there is a two-dimensional manifold of bound states with energies within the gap of the bulk superfluid. The bound-state spectrum lacks inversion symmetry parallel to the wall.

  7. Oblique half-solitons and their generation in exciton-polariton condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Flayac, H.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

    2011-05-15

    We describe oblique half-solitons, a new type of topological defects in a two-dimensional spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. A realistic protocol based on the optical spin Hall effect is proposed toward their generation within an exciton-polariton system.

  8. The distinctions between the electrical conductivities under non-contact and contact current excitation in spin-split two-dimensional conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeliovich, A. I.; Pyshkin, P. V.; Kalinenko, A. N.; Yanovsky, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that the normal electron-electron scattering is a source of electrical resistance on non-contact current excitation in two-dimensional spin-split electron systems. In contrast to the contact current injection, non-contact current excitation causes spatially inhomogeneous polarization in a two-dimensional conductor leading to new resistivity mechanisms.

  9. Subcritical patterns and dissipative solitons due to intracavity photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gomila, Damia; Oppo, Gian-Luca

    2007-10-15

    Manipulation of the bifurcation structure of nonlinear optical systems via intracavity photonic crystals is demonstrated. In particular, subcritical regions between spatially periodic states are stabilized by modulations of the material's refractive index. An family of dissipative solitons within this bistability range due to the intracavity photonic crystal is identified and characterized in both one and two transverse dimensions. Nontrivial snaking of the modulated-cavity soliton solutions is also presented.

  10. Temporal dark polariton solitons.

    PubMed

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Skryabin, Dmitry V

    2016-04-15

    We predict that strong coupling between waveguide photons and excitons of quantum well embedded into waveguide results in the formation of hybrid-dark and antidark light-matter solitons. Such temporal solitons exist due to interplay between repulsive excitonic nonlinearity and giant group-velocity dispersion arising in the vicinity of excitonic resonance. Such fully conservative states do not require external pumping to counteract losses and form continuous families parameterized by the power-dependent phase shift and velocity of their motion. Dark solitons are stable in the considerable part of their existence domain, while antidark solitons are always unstable. Both families exist outside the forbidden frequency gap of the linear system. PMID:27082338

  11. Temporal dark polariton solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Skryabin, Dmitry V.

    2016-04-01

    We predict that strong coupling between waveguide photons and excitons of quantum well embedded into waveguide results in the formation of hybrid dark and anti-dark light-matter solitons. Such temporal solitons exist due to interplay between repulsive excitonic nonlinearity and giant group velocity dispersion arising in the vicinity of excitonic resonance. Such fully conservative states do not require external pumping to counteract losses and form continuous families parameterized by the power-dependent phase shift and velocity of their motion. Dark solitons are stable in the considerable part of their existence domain, while anti-dark solitons are always unstable. Both families exist outside forbidden frequency gap of the linear system.

  12. Solitons in lossy fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, M.; Mitschke, F.

    2007-12-15

    We consider the evolution of fiber-optic solitons in the presence of dissipation. Even very low loss ultimately leads to their decay. We derive an explicit expression for the limit of adiabaticity, and discuss the evolution beyond this limit. In determining the soliton content of the optical pulse, we contrast earlier approaches using inverse scattering with a soliton-radiation beat method. It turns out that the evolution beyond adiabaticity is governed by uncertainty, which earlier published studies had missed. Somewhat in analogy to the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics, we derive a soliton uncertainty relation. We also give simple relations for the evolution of the pulse width which reproduce numerical studies very well.

  13. Dynamical class of a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Érica de Mello

    2015-10-01

    A current goal in plasmonic science and technology is to figure out how to manage the relaxational dynamics of surface plasmons in graphene since its damping constitutes a hinder for the realization of graphene-based plasmonic devices. In this sense we believe it might be of interest to enlarge the knowledge on the dynamical class of two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac systems. According to the recurrence relations method, different systems are said to be dynamically equivalent if they have identical relaxation functions at all times, and such commonality may lead to deep connections between seemingly unrelated physical systems. We employ the recurrence relations approach to obtain relaxation and memory functions of density fluctuations and show that a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system at long wavelength and zero temperature belongs to the same dynamical class of standard two-dimensional electron gas and classical harmonic oscillator chain with an impurity mass.

  14. Dynamical class of a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system.

    PubMed

    Silva, Érica de Mello

    2015-10-01

    A current goal in plasmonic science and technology is to figure out how to manage the relaxational dynamics of surface plasmons in graphene since its damping constitutes a hinder for the realization of graphene-based plasmonic devices. In this sense we believe it might be of interest to enlarge the knowledge on the dynamical class of two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac systems. According to the recurrence relations method, different systems are said to be dynamically equivalent if they have identical relaxation functions at all times, and such commonality may lead to deep connections between seemingly unrelated physical systems. We employ the recurrence relations approach to obtain relaxation and memory functions of density fluctuations and show that a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system at long wavelength and zero temperature belongs to the same dynamical class of standard two-dimensional electron gas and classical harmonic oscillator chain with an impurity mass. PMID:26565207

  15. Two-dimensional convolute integers for analytical instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, T. R.

    1982-01-01

    As new analytical instruments and techniques emerge with increased dimensionality, a corresponding need is seen for data processing logic which can appropriately address the data. Two-dimensional measurements reveal enhanced unknown mixture analysis capability as a result of the greater spectral information content over two one-dimensional methods taken separately. It is noted that two-dimensional convolute integers are merely an extension of the work by Savitzky and Golay (1964). It is shown that these low-pass, high-pass and band-pass digital filters are truly two-dimensional and that they can be applied in a manner identical with their one-dimensional counterpart, that is, a weighted nearest-neighbor, moving average with zero phase shifting, convoluted integer (universal number) weighting coefficients.

  16. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Maxim V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo–Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo–Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented. PMID:25484603

  17. Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.

  18. Two-dimensional magic Ag nanopucks on Pb quantum islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Y. P.; Huang, L. W.; Wei, C. M.; Chang, C. S.; Tsong, Tien T.

    2006-03-01

    Periodic patterns of electronic origin found on Pb quantum islands can be employed as the templates to grow self-organized nanopucks of various materials. Owing to a strong interaction existing between Ag and the template, nearly perfect two-dimensional arrays of Ag nanopucks can be grown from 70 K to 150K. Not only is the notable site-selected feature of Ag nanopucks observed on Pb islands but their size distribution also registers a remarkable abundance variation. Those nanopucks with significantly enhanced intensity are denoted as two dimensional magic Ag nanoclusters. Detailed calculations based on ab initio density functional theory have been made to illuminate how the size and shape effects related to electronic confinement influence the formation of two-dimensional metal nanostructures. Furthermore, when the Ag nanopuck grows to a certain size, the geometrical effect takes hold from the electronic effect as the major attribute, which drive the Ag nanopucks towards well defined hexagonal crystalline structures.

  19. Phase control of two-dimensional probe gain-absorption spectra in semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haifeng

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the two-dimensional gain and absorption of a weak probe field via two orthogonal standing-wave lasers in a four-level inverted-Y asymmetric quantum well system. We find that, due to the spatial-dependent quantum interference effect, the spatial distribution of the 2D gain and absorption spectra can be easily controlled by adjusting the system parameters. More importantly, the probe gain-absorption spectrum can be controlled at a particular position and the 2D localization effect is indeed achieved efficiently. Thus, our scheme shows the underlying probability for the formation of the 2D localization effect by using a QW structure.

  20. Finite Differences and Collocation Methods for the Solution of the Two Dimensional Heat Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouatchou, Jules

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we combine finite difference approximations (for spatial derivatives) and collocation techniques (for the time component) to numerically solve the two dimensional heat equation. We employ respectively a second-order and a fourth-order schemes for the spatial derivatives and the discretization method gives rise to a linear system of equations. We show that the matrix of the system is non-singular. Numerical experiments carried out on serial computers, show the unconditional stability of the proposed method and the high accuracy achieved by the fourth-order scheme.

  1. Instabilities of optical solitons and Hamiltonian singular solutions in a medium of finite extension

    SciTech Connect

    Assemat, E.; Picozzi, A.; Jauslin, H. R.; Sugny, D.

    2011-07-15

    We analyze the role of soliton solutions and Hamiltonian singularities in the dynamics of counterpropagating waves in a medium of finite spatial extension. The soliton solution can become unstable due to the finite extension of the system. We show that the spatiotemporal dynamics then relaxes toward a Hamiltonian singular state of a nature different than that of the soliton state. This phenomenon can be explained through a geometrical analysis of the singularities of the stationary Hamiltonian system.

  2. Langley's two-dimensional research facilities: Capabilities and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The current capabilities and the forthcoming plans for Langley's two-dimensional research facilities are described. The characteristics of the Langley facilities are discussed in terms of Reynolds number, Mach number, and angle-of-attack capabilities. Comments are made with regard to the approaches which have been investigated to alleviate typical problem areas such as wall boundary effects. Because of the need for increased Reynolds number capability at high subsonic speeds, a considerable portion of the paper deals with a description of the 20 by 60 cm two-dimensional test section of the Langley 0.3 meter transonic cryogenic tunnel which is currently in the calibration and shakedown phase.

  3. Two-dimensional photoelastic stress analysis of traumatized incisor.

    PubMed

    Topbasi, B; Gunday, M; Bas, M; Turkmen, C

    2001-01-01

    In this study, stress of traumatized incisor and the effect of stress on tooth and alveolar bone was studied with two-dimensional photoelasticity. Two homogeneous two-dimensional maxillary central incisor models were prepared. Loads were applied to the labial side of incisal edge and middle third of the crown at angles of 45 degrees and 90 degrees. It was observed that stress was increased on teeth and alveolar bone when load was applied 90 degrees on labial side of incisal edge. PMID:11445918

  4. Spectral analysis of two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, David; Hoffmann, Darius; Wimberger, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    One-dimensional Bose-Hubbard models are well known to obey a transition from regular to quantum-chaotic spectral statistics. We are extending this concept to relatively simple two-dimensional many-body models. Also in two dimensions a transition from regular to chaotic spectral statistics is found and discussed. In particular, we analyze the dependence of the spectral properties on the bond number of the two-dimensional lattices and the applied boundary conditions. For maximal connectivity, the systems behave most regularly in agreement with the applicability of mean-field approaches in the limit of many nearest-neighbor couplings at each site.

  5. Digital averaging to facilitate two-dimensional echocardiographic measurements.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, O; Feigenbaum, H; Armstrong, W F; Ryan, T; West, S R; Green-Hess, D; Stewart, J; Friedmeyer, J L; Fineberg, N S

    1986-06-01

    A problem in quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography is myocardial dropout of still frame images. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of digital averaging to overcome myocardial dropout without distorting quantitative measurements. Forty-one percent of 80 digitally averaged images were thought to be improved by five independent observers, whereas 7% showed some deterioration. Measurements obtained from processed images were statistically identical (r greater than or equal to 0.9) to those from three arithmetically averaged, unprocessed images in 60 patients. Digital averaging can improve image quality without measurement distortion and should facilitate two-dimensional echocardiographic quantitation. PMID:3088052

  6. Pick's Theorem in Two-Dimensional Subspace of ℝ3

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the Euclidean space ℝ3, denote the set of all points with integer coordinate by ℤ3. For any two-dimensional simple lattice polygon P, we establish the following analogy version of Pick's Theorem, k(I(P) + (1/2)B(P) − 1), where B(P) is the number of lattice points on the boundary of P in ℤ3, I(P) is the number of lattice points in the interior of P in ℤ3, and k is a constant only related to the two-dimensional subspace including P. PMID:25802889

  7. Brewster Angle Microscope Investigations of Two Dimensional Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuman, Adam William

    The liquid-liquid interface is investigated by microscopic and thermodynamic means to image and measure interfacial properties when the system undergoes a two-dimensional (2D) phase transition of a Gibbs monolayer by varying the sample temperature. An in-house Brewster angle microscope (BAM) is constructed to visualize the interface during this transition while a quasi-elastic light scattering technique is used to determine the interfacial tension. These results complement x-ray investigations of the same systems. Evidence of interfacial micro-separated structure, microphases, comes from observations across a hexane-water interface with the inclusion of a long-chain fluorinated alcohol surfactant into the bulk hexane. Microphases take the form of spatially modulated structure to the density of the surfactant as it spans laterally across the interface. The surfactant monolayer exhibits microphase morphology over a range of a couple degrees as the temperature of the system is scanned through the 2D gas-solid phase transition. Microphase structure was observed for heating and cooling the hexane-water system and structural comparisons are given when the temperature step and quench depth of the cooling process is varied. A complete sequence of morphological structure was observed from 2D gas to cluster to labyrinthine stripe to a 2D solid mosaic pattern. Two characteristic length scales emerge giving rise to speculation of an elastic contribution to the standard repulsive and attractive competitive forces stabilizing the microphase. The benefit of BAM to laterally image very thin films across the surface of an interface on the micrometer length scale nicely complements x-ray reflectivity methods that average structural data transverse to the liquid interface on a molecular scale. To properly analyze x-ray reflectivity data, the interface is required to be laterally homogeneous. BAM can sufficiently characterize the interface for this purpose as is done for a Langmuir monolayer of a lipid-protein mixture that was later investigated by x-ray reflectivity. The same service is provided to an extractant in dodecane/water system. For this system, BAM additionally clarified the type of transition the extractant monolayer undergoes as a function of temperature.

  8. Modeling two-dimensional water flow and bromide transport in a heterogeneous lignitic mine soil

    SciTech Connect

    Buczko, U.; Gerke, H.H.

    2006-02-15

    Water and solute fluxes in lignitic mine soils and in many other soils are often highly heterogeneous. Here, heterogeneity reflects dumping-induced inclined structures and embedded heterogeneous distributions of sediment mixtures and of lignitic fragments. Such two-scale heterogeneity effects may be analyzed through the application of two-dimensional models for calculating water and solute fluxes. The objective of this study was to gain more insight to what extent spatial heterogeneity of soil hydraulic parameters contributes to preferential flow at a lignitic mine soil. The simulations pertained to the 'Barenbrucker Hohe' site in Germany where previously water fluxes and applied tracers had been monitored with a cell lysimeter, and from where a soil block had been excavated for detailed two-dimensional characterization of the hydraulic parameters using pedotransfer functions. Based on those previous studies, scenarios with different distributions of hydraulic parameters were simulated. The results show that spatial variability of hydraulic parameters alone can hardly explain the observed flow patterns. The observed preferential flow at the site was probably caused by additional factors such as hydrophobicity, the presence of root channels, anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivity, and heterogeneous root distributions. To study the relative importance of these other factors by applying two-dimensional flow models to such sites, the experimental database must be improved. Single-continuum model approaches may be insufficient for such sites.

  9. Bright and black paired soliton states in birefringent optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yijiang

    1996-08-01

    It is shown that a bright stationary light pulse evolving along the slow axis of a birefringent fiber in the anomalous dispersion regime can be locked to move in the same group velocity together with a black-soliton pulse trapped along the fast axis in the normal dispersion regime despite each individual pulse's, in the absence of the other, propagating at different group velocities. Such a stationary copropagation of the bright and the black soliton pulses with the same group velocity in coherent trapping can sustain up to a finite distance owing to polarization modulation instability of the black-pulse background that breaks the stationary evolution into radiation. In incoherent trapping the bright-black paired soliton state also disintegrates with propagation distance, and the disintegration is accompanied by emission of bright and gray solitons that has potential for ultrafast optical switching. On the other hand, it is found that the two black-soliton pulses polarized along the principal axes of the birefringent fiber in the normal dispersion regime can evolve stably, in contrast to the paired spatial black solitons of different frequencies and parametric black solitons that break up with propagation distance owing to modulational instability of the cw backgrounds.

  10. Optical solitons in graded-index multimode fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renninger, W. H.; Wise, F. W.

    2013-04-01

    Solitons are non-dispersing localized waves that occur in diverse physical settings, including liquids, optical fibres, plasmas and condensed matter. They attract interest owing to their particle-like nature and are useful for applications such as in telecommunications. A variety of optical solitons have been observed, but versions that involve both spatial and temporal degrees of freedom are rare. Optical fibres designed to support multiple transverse modes offer opportunities to study wave propagation in a setting that is intermediate between single-mode fibre and free-space propagation. Here we report the observation of optical solitons and soliton self-frequency shifting in graded-index multimode fibre. These wave packets can be modelled as multicomponent solitons, or as solitons of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Solitons in graded-index fibres should enable increased data rates in low-cost telecommunications systems, are pertinent to space-division multiplexing, and can offer a new route to mode-area scaling for high-power lasers and transmission.

  11. Two-Dimensional Hybrid Model for High-Current Electron Beam Transport in a Dense Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lihua; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Zhanjun; Wu, Junfeng; Li, Baiwen

    2014-11-01

    A two-dimensional hybrid code is developed to model the transport of a high-current electron beam in a dense plasma target. The beam electrons are treated as particles and described by particle-in-cell simulation including collisions with the target plasma particles. The background target plasma is assumed to be a stationary fluid with temperature variations. The return current and the self-generated electric and magnetic fields are obtained by combining Ampère's law without the displacement current, the resistive Ohm's law and Faraday's law. The equations are solved in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry with rotational symmetry on a regular grid, with centered spatial differencing and first-order implicit time differencing. The algorithms implemented in the code are described, and a numerical experiment is performed for an electron beam with Maxwellian distribution ejected into a uniform deuterium-tritium plasma target.

  12. Alternating direction implicit method for solving two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiqiang; Zhang, Luming

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, four alternating direction implicit (ADI) schemes are presented for solving two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Firstly, we give a Crank-Nicolson ADI scheme and a linearized ADI scheme both with accuracy O(Δt+h), with the same method, use fourth-order Padé compact difference approximation for the spatial discretization; two HOC-ADI schemes with accuracy O(Δt+h) are given. The two linearized ADI schemes apply extrapolation technique to the real coefficient of the nonlinear term to avoid iterating to solve. Unconditionally stable character is verified by linear Fourier analysis. The solution procedure consists of a number of tridiagonal matrix equations which make the computation cost effective. Numerical experiments are conducted to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy, and linearized ADI schemes show less computational cost. All schemes given in this paper also can be used for two-dimensional linear Schrödinger equations.

  13. De Haas-van Alphen effect of a two-dimensional ultracold atomic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, B.; Furtado, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show how the ultracold atom analogue of the two-dimensional de Haas-van Alphen effect in electronic condensed matter systems can be induced by optical fields in a neutral atomic system. The interaction between the suitable spatially varying laser fields and tripod-type trapped atoms generates a synthetic magnetic field which leads the particles to organize themselves in Landau levels. Initially, with the atomic gas in a regime of lowest Landau level, we display the oscillatory behaviour of the atomic energy and its derivative with respect to the effective magnetic field (B) as a function of 1/B. Furthermore, we estimate the area of the Fermi circle of the two-dimensional atomic gas.

  14. PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES: Relativistic Magnetosonic Soliton in a Negative-Ion-Rich Magnetized Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Liang; Zhou, Zhong-Xiang; Lu, Yan-Zhen; Ni, Xiao-Dong; Shen, Jiang; Zhang, Yu

    2008-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) relativistic magnetosonic solitons in the negative-ion-rich plasma consisting of positive ions Ar+, negative ions SF6- and electrons are investigated in the presence of an applied magnetic field B0 and can be described by a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation in the weakly relativistic limit. The ratio of positive ion density to negative ion density has a marked influence on the amplitudeΦm and width W of the steady-state KP soliton. The interaction law of the nontrivial solitons with rich web structure is studied by the Wronskian determinant method.

  15. Two-dimensional vortex motion and 'negative temperatures.'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1972-01-01

    Explanation of the novel phenomenon, tentatively identified as the 'ergodic boundary' in a space of initial conditions for turbulent flow, suggested by the recent numerical integration of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations at high Reynolds numbers reported by Deem and Zabusky (1971). The proposed explanation is presented in terms of negative temperatures for a point vortex model.

  16. Two-dimensional acceptance angles of a proustite upconverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyanagi, K.; Mishima, T.; Sakuraba, I.; Hirayama, H.

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional acceptance angles of a proustite upconverter pumped by a Nd:YAG laser have been measured and compared with theoretical results for several phase-match conditions. A seven degree acceptance angle of infrared upconversion is obtained for a 9.4 mm long proustite crystal under a tangential phase-match condition. The experimental and theoretical results agree reasonably well.

  17. Lattice Boltzmann simulation for forced two-dimensional turbulence.

    PubMed

    Xia, YuXian; Qian, YueHong

    2014-08-01

    The direct numerical simulations of forced two-dimensional turbulent flow are presented by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The development of an energy-enstrophy double cascade is investigated in the two cases of external force of two-dimensional turbulence, Gaussian force and Kolmogorov force. It is found that the friction force is a necessary condition of the occurrence of a double cascade. The energy spectrum k(-3) in the enstrophy inertial range is in accord with the classical Kraichnan theory for both external forces. The energy spectrum of the Gaussian force case in an inverse cascade is k(-2); however, the Kolmogorov force drives the k(-5/3) energy in a backscatter cascade. The result agrees with Scott's standpoint, which describes nonrobustness of the two-dimensional turbulent inverse cascade. Also, intermittency is found for the enstrophy cascade in two cases of the external force form. Intermittency refers to the nonuniform distribution of saddle points in the two-dimensional turbulent flow. PMID:25215817

  18. Lattice Boltzmann simulation for forced two-dimensional turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, YuXian; Qian, YueHong

    2014-08-01

    The direct numerical simulations of forced two-dimensional turbulent flow are presented by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The development of an energy-enstrophy double cascade is investigated in the two cases of external force of two-dimensional turbulence, Gaussian force and Kolmogorov force. It is found that the friction force is a necessary condition of the occurrence of a double cascade. The energy spectrum k-3 in the enstrophy inertial range is in accord with the classical Kraichnan theory for both external forces. The energy spectrum of the Gaussian force case in an inverse cascade is k-2; however, the Kolmogorov force drives the k-5/3 energy in a backscatter cascade. The result agrees with Scott's standpoint, which describes nonrobustness of the two-dimensional turbulent inverse cascade. Also, intermittency is found for the enstrophy cascade in two cases of the external force form. Intermittency refers to the nonuniform distribution of saddle points in the two-dimensional turbulent flow.

  19. Two-Dimensional Grids About Airfoils and Other Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, R.

    1982-01-01

    GRAPE computer program generates two-dimensional finite-difference grids about airfoils and other shapes by use of Poisson differential equation. GRAPE can be used with any boundary shape, even one specified by tabulated points and including limited number of sharp corners. Numerically stable and computationally fast, GRAPE provides aerodynamic analyst with efficient and consistant means of grid generation.

  20. Adiabatic single scan two-dimensional NMR spectrocopy.

    PubMed

    Pelupessy, Philippe

    2003-10-01

    New excitation schemes, based on the use adiabatic pulses, for single scan two-dimensional NMR experiments (Frydman et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 2002, 99, 15 858-15 862) are introduced. The advantages are discussed. Applications in homo- and heteronuclear experiments are presented. PMID:14519020

  1. Two-Dimensional Chirality in Three-Dimensional Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wintner, Claude E.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of two-dimensional chirality is used to enhance students' understanding of three-dimensional stereochemistry. This chirality is used as a key to teaching/understanding such concepts as enaniotropism, diastereotopism, pseudoasymmetry, retention/inversion of configuration, and stereochemical results of addition to double bonds. (JN)

  2. Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Analysis of Helicopter Flyover Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SantaMaria, Odilyn L.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    A method to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise from a helicopter in flight is explored. Being the sum of two periodic signals of disproportionate, or incommensurate frequencies, helicopter noise is neither periodic nor stationary. The single Fourier transform divides signal energy into frequency bins of equal size. Incommensurate frequencies are therefore not adequately represented by any one chosen data block size. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis method is used to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise. The two-dimensional spectral analysis method is first applied to simulated signals. This initial analysis gives an idea of the characteristics of the two-dimensional autocorrelations and spectra. Data from a helicopter flight test is analyzed in two dimensions. The test aircraft are a Boeing MD902 Explorer (no tail rotor) and a Sikorsky S-76 (4-bladed tail rotor). The results show that the main rotor and tail rotor signals can indeed be separated in the two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum. The separation occurs along the diagonals associated with the frequencies of interest. These diagonals are individual spectra containing only information related to one particular frequency.

  3. Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Applied to Helicopter Flyover Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santa Maria, Odilyn L.

    1999-01-01

    A method to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise from a helicopter in flight is explored. Being the sum of two periodic signals of disproportionate, or incommensurate frequencies, helicopter noise is neither periodic nor stationary, but possibly harmonizable. The single Fourier transform divides signal energy into frequency bins of equal size. Incommensurate frequencies are therefore not adequately represented by any one chosen data block size. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis method is used to show helicopter noise as harmonizable. The two-dimensional spectral analysis method is first applied to simulated signals. This initial analysis gives an idea of the characteristics of the two-dimensional autocorrelations and spectra. Data from a helicopter flight test is analyzed in two dimensions. The test aircraft are a Boeing MD902 Explorer (no tail rotor) and a Sikorsky S-76 (4-bladed tail rotor). The results show that the main rotor and tail rotor signals can indeed be separated in the two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum. The separation occurs along the diagonals associated with the frequencies of interest. These diagonals are individual spectra containing only information related to one particular frequency.

  4. Exact two-dimensional superconformal R symmetry and c extremization.

    PubMed

    Benini, Francesco; Bobev, Nikolay

    2013-02-01

    We uncover a general principle dubbed c extremization, which determines the exact R symmetry of a two-dimensional unitary superconformal field theory with N=(0,2) supersymmetry. To illustrate its utility, we study superconformal theories obtained by twisted compactifications of four-dimensional N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory on Riemann surfaces and construct their gravity duals. PMID:23432232

  5. Two-dimensional Manifold with Point-like Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gani, V. A.; Dmitriev, A. E.; Rubin, S. G.

    We study a class of two-dimensional compact extra spaces isomorphic to the sphere S 2 in the framework of multidimensional gravitation. We show that there exists a family of stationary metrics that depend on the initial (boundary) conditions. All these geometries have a singular point. We also discuss the possibility for these deformed extra spaces to be considered as dark matter candidates.

  6. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  7. New two dimensional position sensitive proportional detectors using charge division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, G. G.; Cowan, P. L.; Henins, A.; Brennan, S.

    1986-05-01

    Several two dimensional position sensitive proportional counters have been built. The cathodes can encode the position of the event in one or two dimensions using capacitative charge division techniques; a backgammon configuration encodes in one dimension with anode encoding of the second dimension, or a new cathode pattern can be used to encode in two dimensions. Details of the construction and performance are given.

  8. Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs

    DOEpatents

    Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.

    1982-05-04

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  9. Two-dimensional optimization of free electron laser designs

    DOEpatents

    Prosnitz, Donald; Haas, Roger A.

    1985-01-01

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a "synchronous electron" at an optimal transverse radius r>0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  10. Dynamics of ultra-intense circularly polarized solitons under inhomogeneous plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Dong; Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Zheng, C. Y.; He, X. T.; Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871; Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088

    2013-06-15

    The dynamics of the ultra-intense circularly polarized solitons under inhomogeneous plasmas are examined. The interaction is modeled by the Maxwell and relativistic hydrodynamic equations and is solved with fully implicit energy-conserving numerical scheme. The soliton is self-consistently generated by the interaction between laser and plasma on the vacuum-plasma interface, and the generation mechanism is well confirmed by two dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that a propagating weak soliton can be decreased and reflected by increasing plasma background, which is consistent with the existing studies based on hypothesis of weak density response. However, it is found that ultra-intense soliton is well trapped and kept still when encountering increasing background. Probably, this founding can be applied for trapping and amplifying high-intensity laser-fields.

  11. Multicomponent long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction system: Bright solitons, energy-sharing collisions, and resonant solitons.

    PubMed

    Sakkaravarthi, K; Kanna, T; Vijayajayanthi, M; Lakshmanan, M

    2014-11-01

    We consider a general multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction (LSRI) system with arbitrary nonlinearity coefficients, which describes the nonlinear resonance interaction of multiple short waves with a long wave in two spatial dimensions. The general multicomponent LSRI system is shown to be integrable by performing the Painlevé analysis. Then we construct the exact bright multisoliton solutions by applying the Hirota's bilinearization method and study the propagation and collision dynamics of bright solitons in detail. Particularly, we investigate the head-on and overtaking collisions of bright solitons and explore two types of energy-sharing collisions as well as standard elastic collision. We have also corroborated the obtained analytical one-soliton solution by direct numerical simulation. Also, we discuss the formation and dynamics of resonant solitons. Interestingly, we demonstrate the formation of resonant solitons admitting breather-like (localized periodic pulse train) structure and also large amplitude localized structures akin to rogue waves coexisting with solitons. For completeness, we have also obtained dark one- and two-soliton solutions and studied their dynamics briefly. PMID:25493863

  12. Experimental study of nonlinear solitary waves in two-dimensional dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, T. E.; Nosenko, V.; Goree, J.

    2008-07-01

    The excitation and propagation of solitary waves is studied experimentally in a two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty (complex) plasma. A single layer with ≈5000 microspheres (8μmdiam) was suspended in an argon plasma with a neutral gas pressure of 3.0mTorr. The measured Debye shielding parameter was κ ≈1.6, where κ =a/λ is the ratio of the lattice constant a to the Debye length λ. Nonlinear, planar longitudinal waves were launched by pushing all the particles in a rectangular region at the center of the crystal in the same direction using an 18W green laser. Compressive solitary waves with density perturbations δn /n0≲0.8 and widths ≲5a were found to propagate in the forward direction at speeds exceeding the dust acoustic speed. For small amplitude solitary waves, the relations between amplitude, width, and velocity are consistent with those predicted for Korteweg-deVries solitons. Rarefactive perturbations were not observed to evolve into solitary waves. However, oscillatory shocks were seen to move in the backward direction after the laser force was removed.

  13. Toward the Accurate Simulation of Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giussani, Angelo; Nenov, Artur; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K.; Rivalta, Ivan; Dumont, Elise; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Two-dimensional pump-probe electronic spectroscopy is a powerful technique able to provide both high spectral and temporal resolution, allowing the analysis of ultrafast complex reactions occurring via complementary pathways by the identification of decay-specific fingerprints. [1-2] The understanding of the origin of the experimentally recorded signals in a two-dimensional electronic spectrum requires the characterization of the electronic states involved in the electronic transitions photoinduced by the pump/probe pulses in the experiment. Such a goal constitutes a considerable computational challenge, since up to 100 states need to be described, for which state-of-the-art methods as RASSCF and RASPT2 have to be wisely employed. [3] With the present contribution, the main features and potentialities of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy are presented, together with the machinery in continuous development in our groups in order to compute two-dimensional electronic spectra. The results obtained using different level of theory and simulations are shown, bringing as examples the computed two-dimensional electronic spectra for some specific cases studied. [2-4] [1] Rivalta I, Nenov A, Cerullo G, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Int. J. Quantum Chem., 2014, 114, 85 [2] Nenov A, Segarra-Martí J, Giussani A, Conti I, Rivalta I, Dumont E, Jaiswal V K, Altavilla S, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Faraday Discuss. 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00175C [3] Nenov A, Giussani A, Segarra-Martí J, Jaiswal V K, Rivalta I, Cerullo G, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, J. Chem. Phys. submitted [4] Nenov A, Giussani A, Fingerhut B P, Rivalta I, Dumont E, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Submitted [5] Krebs N, Pugliesi I, Hauer J, Riedle E, New J. Phys., 2013,15, 08501

  14. Super-resolution in digital holography by a two-dimensional dynamic phase grating.

    PubMed

    Paturzo, M; Merola, F; Grilli, S; De Nicola, S; Finizio, A; Ferraro, P

    2008-10-13

    An approach that uses an electro-optically tunable two dimensional phase grating to enhance the resolution in digital holographic microscopy is proposed. We show that, by means of a flexible hexagonal phase grating, it is possible to increase the numerical aperture of the imaging system, thus improving the spatial resolution of the images in two dimensions. The augment of the numerical aperture of the optical system is obtained by recording spatially multiplexed digital holograms. The grating tuneability allows one to adjust the intensity among the spatially multiplexed holograms maximizing the grating diffraction efficiency. Furthermore we demonstrate that the flexibility of the numerical reconstruction allows one to use selectively the diffraction orders carrying useful information for increasing the spatial resolution. The proposed approach can improve the capabilities of digital holography in three-dimensional imaging and microscopy. PMID:18852822

  15. Noncommuting Momenta of Topological Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Haruki; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    We show that momentum operators of a topological soliton may not commute among themselves when the soliton is associated with the second cohomology H2 of the target space. The commutation relation is proportional to the winding number, taking a constant value within each topological sector. The noncommutativity makes it impossible to specify the momentum of a topological soliton, and induces a Magnus force.

  16. The volume of a soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Haberichter, M.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2016-03-01

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  17. Dissipative soliton protocols in semiconductor microcavities at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, D. V.; Savenko, I. G.; Flayac, H.; Rosanov, N. N.

    2015-08-01

    We consider exciton polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity with a saturable absorber in the growth direction of the heterostructure. This feature promotes additional nonlinear losses of the system with the emergence of bistability of the condensate particles number on the nonresonant (electrical or optical) excitation intensity. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new type of bright spatial dissipative exciton-polariton soliton which emerges in the equilibrium between the regions with different particle density. We develop protocols of soliton creation and destruction. The switch to a solitonlike behavior occurs if the cavity is exposed by a short strong laser pulse with certain energy and duration. We estimate the characteristic times of soliton switch on and off and the time of return to the initial cycle. In particular, we demonstrate surprising narrowing of the spatial profile of the soliton and its vanishing at certain temperature due to interaction of the system with the thermal bath of acoustic phonons. We also address the role of polariton-polariton interaction (Kerr-like nonlinearity) on formation of dissipative solitons and show that the soliton may exist both in its presence and its absence.

  18. Bistable dark solitons of a cubic-quintic Helmholtz equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, J. M.; McDonald, G. S.; Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2010-05-01

    We provide a report on exact analytical bistable dark spatial solitons of a nonlinear Helmholtz equation with a cubic-quintic refractive-index model. Our analysis begins with an investigation of the modulational instability characteristics of Helmholtz plane waves. We then derive a dark soliton by mapping the desired asymptotic form onto a uniform background field and obtain a more general solution by deploying rotational invariance laws in the laboratory frame. The geometry of the new soliton is explored in detail, and a range of new physical predictions is uncovered. Particular attention is paid to the unified phenomena of arbitrary-angle off-axis propagation and nondegenerate bistability. Crucially, the corresponding solution of paraxial theory emerges in a simultaneous multiple limit. We conclude with a set of computer simulations that examine the role of Helmholtz dark solitons as robust attractors.

  19. COMPARING TECHNIQUES FOR COMPARATIVE PROTEOMICS: TWO-DIMENSIONAL GEL ELECTROPHORESIS AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY SEPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accepted method for comparing bacterial proteomes has traditionally been two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. However, in recent years, new procedures for protein separation have been introduced. One of these new procedures utilizes column-based liquid chromatography separation. The tech...

  20. Transport and diffusion properties of interacting colloidal particles in two-dimensional microchannels with a periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siems, Ullrich; Nielaba, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We report a Brownian dynamics simulation study of a two-dimensional system of repulsive colloidal particles in a channel geometry with a sinusoidal substrate potential under influence of a constant driving. The effect of this driving on the structure, mobility, and diffusion is discussed as well as the appearance of kink and antikink solitons. The competing order principles of the hexagonal crystal structure, the period of the substrate, and the layering due to the confining walls can be either commensurable or incommensurable. The combination of those three leads to new effects. The simultaneous occurrence of kinks and antikinks can be observed, due to the energy difference between boundary- and midlanes, and similarities to the electron-hole conductivity in a semiconductor can be found.

  1. Statics, dynamics, and manipulations of bright matter-wave solitons in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Kevrekidis, P.G.; Herring, G.; Frantzeskakis, D.J.; Carretero-Gonzalez, R.; Malomed, B.A.; Bishop, A.R.

    2005-02-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental achievements in the work with Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), we consider bright matter-wave solitons, in the presence of a parabolic magnetic trap and a spatially periodic optical lattice (OL), in the attractive BEC. We examine pinned states of the soliton and their stability by means of perturbation theory. The analytical predictions are found to be in good agreement with numerical simulations. We then explore possibilities to use a time-modulated OL as a means of stopping and trapping a moving soliton, and of transferring an initially stationary soliton to a prescribed position by a moving OL. We also study the emission of radiation from the soliton moving across the combined magnetic trap and OL. We find that the soliton moves freely (without radiation) across a weak lattice, but suffers strong loss in deeper OLs.

  2. Timing jitter of Raman solitons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gengji; Xin, Ming; Kaertner, Franz X; Chang, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    We study the relative intensity noise (RIN) and timing jitter of a Raman soliton. We demonstrate that the RIN of an excitation pulse causes center-wavelength fluctuations of the resulting Raman soliton which translates by fiber dispersion into relative timing jitter (RTJ) between the Raman soliton and the excitation pulse. The Raman soliton's absolute timing jitter is dominated by the excitation pulse's timing jitter at low frequency and by the RTJ at high frequency. The experimental study reveals that RTJ can be significantly reduced by reducing the accumulated fiber dispersion (e.g., using less dispersive fibers with shorter length) experienced by the Raman soliton. PMID:26512530

  3. Dark solitons at nonlinear interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Curto, Julio; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; McDonald, Graham S

    2010-05-01

    The refraction of dark solitons at a planar boundary separating two defocusing Kerr media is simulated and analyzed, for the first time (to our knowledge). Analysis is based on the nonlinear Helmholtz equation and is thus valid for any angle of incidence. A new law, governing refraction of black solitons, is combined with one describing bright soliton refraction to yield a generalized Snell's law whose validity is verified numerically. The complexity of gray soliton refraction is also analyzed, and illustrated by a change from external to internal refraction on varying the soliton contrast parameter. PMID:20436564

  4. The line tension of two-dimensional ionic fluids.

    PubMed

    Eustaquio-Armenta, María Del Rosario; Méndez-Maldonado, Gloria Arlette; González-Melchor, Minerva

    2016-04-01

    Pressure tensor components are very useful in the calculation of the tension associated with a liquid-vapor interface. In this work, we present expressions for the pressure tensor components of two-dimensional ionic fluids, modeled at the level of the primitive model. As an application, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations of liquid-vapor interfaces to calculate the line tension of the 1:1 two-dimensional ionic fluid, whose liquid-vapor coexistence curve had already been obtained in a previous work. The pressure tensor components were validated by simulating states of one phase and reproducing the scalar pressure, previously obtained from bulk simulations and reported in the literature. The effects on the line tension and the coexisting densities, originated by the choice of the Ewald parameters, the cutoff radius, and the interfacial length were also evaluated. PMID:27059583

  5. Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; Saito, Nobuyoshi; Ino, Yusuke; Kauranen, Martti; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Vallius, Tuomas; Turunen, Jari; Svirko, Yuri

    2005-11-25

    We examine the spectral dependence in the visible frequency range of the polarization rotation of two-dimensional gratings consisting of chiral gold nanostructures with subwavelength features. The gratings, which do not diffract, are shown to exhibit giant specific rotation (approximately 10(4) degrees/mm) of polarization in direct transmission at normal incidence. The rotation is the same for light incident on the front and back sides of the sample. Such reciprocity indicates three dimensionality of the structure arising from the asymmetry of light-plasmon coupling at the air-metal and substrate-metal interfaces. The structures thus enable polarization control with quasi-two-dimensional planar objects. However, in contradiction with recently suggested interpretation of experiments on larger scale but otherwise similar structures, the observed polarization phenomena violate neither reciprocity nor time-reversal symmetry. PMID:16384264

  6. Preliminary results on two-dimensional interferometry of HL Tau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollestrup, Eric V.; Harvey, Paul M.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary two-dimensional speckle interferometry results of HL Tau were found to be qualitatively similar to those found with one-dimensional slit scanning techniques; results consist of a resolved component (approximately 0.7 arcsec in size) and an unresolved component. Researchers are currently reducing the rest of the data (taken on three different telescopes and at three different wavelengths) and are also exploring other high resolution methods like the shift and add technique and selecting only the very best images for processing. The availability of even better two-dimensional arrays within the next couple of years promises to make speckle interferometry and other high resolution techniques very powerful and exiting tools for probing a variety of objects in the subarcsec regime.

  7. Vortex annihilation and inverse cascades in two dimensional superfluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Andrew; Chesler, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics of a dilute mixture of vortices and antivortices in a turbulent two-dimensional superfluid at finite temperature is well described by first order Hall-Vinen-Iordanskii equations, or dissipative point vortex dynamics. These equations are governed by a single dimensionless parameter: the ratio of the strength of drag forces to Magnus forces on vortices. When this parameter is small, we demonstrate using numerical simulations that the resulting superfluid enjoys an inverse energy cascade where small scale stirring leads to large scale vortex clustering. We argue analytically and numerically that the vortex annihilation rate in a laminar flow may be parametrically smaller than the rate in a turbulent flow with an inverse cascade. This suggests a new way to detect inverse cascades in experiments on two-dimensional superfluid turbulence using cold atomic gases, where traditional probes of turbulence such as the energy spectrum are not currently accessible.

  8. Improved Absolute Approximation Ratios for Two-Dimensional Packing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harren, Rolf; van Stee, Rob

    We consider the two-dimensional bin packing and strip packing problem, where a list of rectangles has to be packed into a minimal number of rectangular bins or a strip of minimal height, respectively. All packings have to be non-overlapping and orthogonal, i.e., axis-parallel. Our algorithm for strip packing has an absolute approximation ratio of 1.9396 and is the first algorithm to break the approximation ratio of 2 which was established more than a decade ago. Moreover, we present a polynomial time approximation scheme (mathcal{PTAS}) for strip packing where rotations by 90 degrees are permitted and an algorithm for two-dimensional bin packing with an absolute worst-case ratio of 2, which is optimal provided mathcal{P} not= mathcal{NP}.

  9. Dipolar Fermions in Quasi-Two-Dimensional Square Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chen-Yen; Tsai, Shan-Wen

    2013-03-01

    Motivated by recent experimental realization of quantum degenerate dipolar Fermi gas, we study a system of ultralcold single- and two-species polar fermions in a double layer two-dimensional square lattice. The long-range anisotropic nature of dipole-dipole interaction has shown a rich phase diagram on a two dimensional square lattice*. We investigate how the interlayer coupling affects the monolayer system. Our study focuses on the regime where the fermions are closed to half-filling, which is when lattice effects play an important role. We find several correlated phases by using a functional renormalization group technique, which also provides estimates for the critical temperature of each phase. [*] S. G. Bhongale et. al. arXiv:1209.2671 and Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 145301 (2012).

  10. Two dimensional disorder in black phosphorus and layered monochalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraza-Lopez, Salvador; Mehboudi, Mehrshad; Kumar, Pradeep; Harriss, Edmund O.; Churchill, Hugh O. H.; Dorio, Alex M.; Zhu, Wenjuan; van der Zande, Arend; Pacheco Sanjuan, Alejandro A.

    The degeneracies of the structural ground state of materials with a layered orthorhombic structure such as black phosphorus and layered monochalcogenides GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe, lead to an order/disorder transition in two dimensions at finite temperature. This transition has consequences on applications based on these materials requiring a crystalline two-dimensional structure. Details including a Potts model that explains the two-dimensional transition, among other results, will be given in this talk. References: M. Mehboudi, A.M. Dorio, W. Zhu, A. van der Zande, H.O.H. Churchill, A.A. Pacheco Sanjuan, E.O.H. Harris, P. Kumar, and S. Barraza-Lopez. arXiv:1510.09153.

  11. Robust L1-norm two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Na; Shao, Yuan-Hai; Deng, Nai-Yang

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an L1-norm two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis (L1-2DLDA) with robust performance. Different from the conventional two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis with L2-norm (L2-2DLDA), where the optimization problem is transferred to a generalized eigenvalue problem, the optimization problem in our L1-2DLDA is solved by a simple justifiable iterative technique, and its convergence is guaranteed. Compared with L2-2DLDA, our L1-2DLDA is more robust to outliers and noises since the L1-norm is used. This is supported by our preliminary experiments on toy example and face datasets, which show the improvement of our L1-2DLDA over L2-2DLDA. PMID:25721558

  12. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng

    2014-11-14

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  13. No-hair conjecture in two-dimensional dilaton supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gamboa, J. ); Georgelin, Y. )

    1993-11-15

    We study two-dimensional (2D) dilaton gravity and supergravity following Hamiltonian methods. First, we consider the structure of constraints of 2D dilaton gravity, and then the 2D dilaton supergravity theory is obtained taking the square root of the bosonic constraints. We integrate exactly the equations of motion in both cases, and we show that the solutions of the equation of motion of 2D dilaton supergravity differ from the solutions of 2D dilaton gravity only by boundary conditions on the fermionic variables; i.e., the black holes of 2D dilaton supergravity theory are exactly the same black holes of 2D bosonic dilaton gravity modulo supersymmetry transformations. This result is the two-dimensional analogue of the no-hair theorem for supergravity.

  14. On two-dimensional flows of compressible fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Stefan

    1945-01-01

    This report is devoted to the study of two-dimensional steady motion of a compressible fluid. It is shown that the complete flow pattern around a closed obstacle cannot be obtained by the method of Chaplygin. In order to overcome this difficulty, a formula for the stream-function of a two-dimensional subsonic flow is derived. The formula involves an arbitrary function of a complex variable and yields all possible subsonic flow patterns of certain types. Conditions are given so that the flow pattern in the physical plane will represent a flow around a closed curve. The formula obtained can be employed for the approximate determination of a subsonic flow around an obstacle. The method can be extended to partially supersonic flows.

  15. Two-dimensional Simulations of Correlation Reflectometry in Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    E.J. Valeo; G.J. Kramer; R. Nazikian

    2001-07-05

    A two-dimensional wave propagation code, developed specifically to simulate correlation reflectometry in large-scale fusion plasmas is described. The code makes use of separate computational methods in the vacuum, underdense and reflection regions of the plasma in order to obtain the high computational efficiency necessary for correlation analysis. Simulations of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasma with internal transport barriers are presented and compared with one-dimensional full-wave simulations. It is shown that the two-dimensional simulations are remarkably similar to the results of the one-dimensional full-wave analysis for a wide range of turbulent correlation lengths. Implications for the interpretation of correlation reflectometer measurements in fusion plasma are discussed.

  16. Coordination Programming of Two-Dimensional Metal Complex Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Ryota; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2016-03-22

    Since the discovery of graphene, two-dimensional materials with atomic thickness have attracted much attention because of their characteristic physical and chemical properties. Recently, coordination nanosheets (CONASHs) came into the world as new series of two-dimensional frameworks, which can show various functions based on metal complexes formed by numerous combinations of metal ions and ligands. This Feature Article provides an overview of recent progress in synthesizing CONASHs and in elucidating their intriguing electrical, sensing, and catalytic properties. We also review recent theoretical studies on the prediction of the unique electronic structures, magnetism, and catalytic ability of materials based on CONASHs. Future prospects for applying CONASHs to novel applications are also discussed. PMID:26915925

  17. The line tension of two-dimensional ionic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eustaquio-Armenta, María del Rosario; Méndez-Maldonado, Gloria Arlette; González-Melchor, Minerva

    2016-04-01

    Pressure tensor components are very useful in the calculation of the tension associated with a liquid-vapor interface. In this work, we present expressions for the pressure tensor components of two-dimensional ionic fluids, modeled at the level of the primitive model. As an application, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations of liquid-vapor interfaces to calculate the line tension of the 1:1 two-dimensional ionic fluid, whose liquid-vapor coexistence curve had already been obtained in a previous work. The pressure tensor components were validated by simulating states of one phase and reproducing the scalar pressure, previously obtained from bulk simulations and reported in the literature. The effects on the line tension and the coexisting densities, originated by the choice of the Ewald parameters, the cutoff radius, and the interfacial length were also evaluated.

  18. Note: Percolation in two-dimensional flexible chains systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowska, Monika; Żerko, Szymon; Sikorski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The structure of a two-dimensional film formed by adsorbed polymer chains was studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The polymer chains were represented by linear sequences of lattice beads and positions of these beads were restricted to vertices of a two-dimensional square lattice. Two different Monte Carlo methods were employed to determine the properties of the model system. The first was the random sequential adsorption (RSA) and the second one was based on Monte Carlo simulations with a Verdier-Stockmayer sampling algorithm. The methodology concerning the determination of the percolation thresholds for an infinite chain system was discussed. The influence of the chain length on both thresholds was presented and discussed. It was shown that the RSA method gave considerably lower thresholds for longer chains. This behavior can be explained by a different pool of chain conformations used in the calculations in both methods under consideration.

  19. Two dimensional time dependent Riemann solvers for neutron transport.

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Thomas A.; Holloway, James Paul

    2004-12-01

    A two-dimensional Riemann solver is developed for the spherical harmonics approximation to the time dependent neutron transport equation. The eigenstructure of the resulting equations is explored, giving insight into both the spherical harmonics approximation and the Riemann solver. The classic Roe-type Riemann solver used here was developed for one-dimensional problems, but can be used in multidimensional problems by treating each face of a two-dimensional computation cell in a locally one-dimensional way. Several test problems are used to explore the capabilities of both the Riemann solver and the spherical harmonics approximation. The numerical solution for a simple line source problem is compared to the analytic solution to both the P1 equation and the full transport solution. A lattice problem is used to test the method on a more challenging problem.

  20. Two-dimensional time dependent Riemann solvers for neutron transport

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Thomas A. . E-mail: tabrunn@sandia.gov; Holloway, James Paul

    2005-11-20

    A two-dimensional Riemann solver is developed for the spherical harmonics approximation to the time dependent neutron transport equation. The eigenstructure of the resulting equations is explored, giving insight into both the spherical harmonics approximation and the Riemann solver. The classic Roe-type Riemann solver used here was developed for one-dimensional problems, but can be used in multidimensional problems by treating each face of a two-dimensional computation cell in a locally one-dimensional way. Several test problems are used to explore the capabilities of both the Riemann solver and the spherical harmonics approximation. The numerical solution for a simple line source problem is compared to the analytic solution to both the P{sub 1} equation and the full transport solution. A lattice problem is used to test the method on a more challenging problem.