NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shih, Ming-Feng; Segev, Mordechai
1996-10-01
We report the observation of incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright photorefractive screening solitons. The solitons remain intact and do not exchange energy whenever the collision angle exceeds the critical angle for guidance in the waveguide that each soliton induces, which is, in turn, fully controlled by the soliton parameters. When the collision angle is much smaller than the critical angle the solitons fuse to form a single beam.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesterov, L. A.; Veretenov, N. A.; Rosanov, N. N.
2015-05-01
Quantum fluctuations of two-dimensional dark dissipative solitons in an interferometer filled with a Kerr nonlinear medium are analyzed theoretically. The boundaries of the stability region of classical solitons excited in the considered interferometer by an external radiation are refined. The solution of the quantum problem is studied in the linear approximation. For this purpose, the formalism of expansion of the sought solution in discrete spectral functions is extended to the two-dimensional case. Using this expansion made it possible to construct a solution that describes fluctuations of collective variables of a two-dimensional soliton, namely, the coordinate of the center and momentum. Mean squares of quantum fluctuations of these quantities are calculated. Parameter domains in which there exist squeezed states of solitons with respect to each of the collective variables are determined. Comparative analysis of squeezing with respect to these variables for light and dark solitons is performed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Bin; Zhong, Wei-Ping; Beli?, Milivoj R.
2010-05-01
We study analytically and numerically the propagation of spatial solitons in a two-dimensional strongly nonlocal nonlinear medium. Exact analytical solutions in the form of self-similar spatial solitons are obtained involving higher-order Hermite-Gaussian functions. Our theoretical predictions provide new insights into the low-energy spatial soliton transmission with high fidelity.
Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, Boris A; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A R; Frantzeskakis, D J
2015-04-01
We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Gligori? et al., Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual "extended" unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, with the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). Typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations. PMID:25974604
Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A. R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.
2015-04-07
We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual “extended” unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, withmore »the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). As a result, typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations.« less
Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A. R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.
2015-04-07
We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual “extended” unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, with the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). As a result, typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesterov, L. A.; Veretenov, N. A.; Rosanov, N. N.
2015-05-01
Quantum fluctuations of one-dimensional dark dissipative solitons sustained by an external radiation in an interferometer with a Kerr nonlinearity are analyzed theoretically. The stability region of classical solitons in this interferometer is studied. The boundaries of this region are determined, and types of excited solitons are classified. Quantum fluctuations of solitons are analyzed in an approximation linear in fluctuations. This problem was solved by linearizing the quantum Langevin equation in a neighborhood of a classical solution for the main type of a soliton from the obtained stability region. The main attention has been paid to studying quantum fluctuations of collective variables of dissipative solitons, namely, the coordinate of the center and momentum of the soliton. Based on the expansion of solutions of the linearized equation in eigenfunctions of the discrete spectrum of this equation, a solution describing quantum fluctuations of these variables is constructed. Using this expansion scheme made it possible to give a rigorous definition of the dissipative soliton position fluctuation operator. The study performed based on this scheme has made it also possible to construct a solution for a one-dimensional dark relaxing dissipative soliton. This soliton generalizes the stationary soliton with allowance for the shift of its center and deformation of its profile followed by the recovery of its initial shape. Average squares of quantum fluctuations of collective variables are calculated. A domain of parameters in which there exist quantum states of solitons with an initially high degree of squeezing with respect to the momentum is found. It is shown that such states are in correspondence with significantly higher velocities of soliton center drift. An experiment that could detect the relative squeezing with respect to the momentum due to the soliton center drift is discussed.
Bright solitons in a two-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yong; Zhang, Yongping; Zhang, Chuanwei
2015-07-01
We study a two-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive contact interactions by both the variational method and the imaginary-time evolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The dipoles are completely polarized along one direction in the two-dimensional plane to provide an effective attractive dipole-dipole interaction. We find two types of solitons as the ground states arising from such attractive dipole-dipole interactions: a plane-wave soliton with a spatially varying phase and a stripe soliton with a spatially oscillating density for each component. Both types of solitons possess smaller size and higher anisotropy than the soliton without spin-orbit coupling. Finally, we discuss the properties of moving solitons, which are nontrivial because of the violation of Galilean invariance.
Two-dimensional dynamics of relativistic solitons in cold plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehmann, G.; Laedke, E. W.; Spatschek, K. H.
2008-07-01
The two-dimensional dynamics of solitons appearing during relativistic laser-plasma interaction is investigated. The analysis starts from known soliton models in one space-dimension (1D). Some of the soliton solutions are already unstable in 1D, and all suffer from transverse instability in two dimensions (2D). The most unstable modes are calculated. They give a hint to the 2D structures which appear because of transversal effects. The linear stability considerations are supplemented by full 2D nonlinear simulations.
Dragging two-dimensional discrete solitons by moving linear defects
Brazhnyi, Valeriy A.; Malomed, Boris A.
2011-07-15
We study the mobility of small-amplitude solitons attached to moving defects which drag the solitons across a two-dimensional (2D) discrete nonlinear Schroedinger lattice. Findings are compared to the situation when a free small-amplitude 2D discrete soliton is kicked in a uniform lattice. In agreement with previously known results, after a period of transient motion the free soliton transforms into a localized mode pinned by the Peierls-Nabarro potential, irrespective of the initial velocity. However, the soliton attached to the moving defect can be dragged over an indefinitely long distance (including routes with abrupt turns and circular trajectories) virtually without losses, provided that the dragging velocity is smaller than a certain critical value. Collisions between solitons dragged by two defects in opposite directions are studied too. If the velocity is small enough, the collision leads to a spontaneous symmetry breaking, featuring fusion of two solitons into a single one, which remains attached to either of the two defects.
Dissipative vortex solitons in two-dimensional lattices
Mejia-Cortes, C.; Soto-Crespo, J. M.; Molina, Mario I.; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.
2010-12-15
We report the existence of stable symmetric vortex-type solutions for two-dimensional nonlinear discrete dissipative systems governed by a cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. We construct a whole family of vortex solitons with a topological charge S=1. Surprisingly, the dynamical evolution of unstable solutions of this family does not significantly alter their profile, but instead their phase distribution completely changes; they transform into two-charge swirl-vortex solitons. We dynamically excite this structure showing its experimental feasibility.
Soliton nanoantennas in two-dimensional arrays of quantum dots.
Gligori?, G; Maluckov, A; Hadžievski, Lj; Slepyan, G Ya; Malomed, B A
2015-06-10
We consider two-dimensional (2D) arrays of self-organized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) strongly interacting with electromagnetic field in the regime of Rabi oscillations. The QD array built of two-level states is modelled by two coupled systems of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Localized modes in the form of single-peaked fundamental and vortical stationary Rabi solitons and self-trapped breathers have been found. The results for the stability, mobility and radiative properties of the Rabi modes suggest a concept of a self-assembled 2D soliton-based nano-antenna, which is stable against imperfections In particular, we discuss the implementation of such a nano-antenna in the form of surface plasmon solitons in graphene, and illustrate possibilities to control their operation by means of optical tools. PMID:25985396
Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices
Luz, H. L. F. da; Gammal, A.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro
2010-10-15
The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.
Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Luz, H. L. F.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Gammal, A.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro
2010-10-01
The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.
OPTICAL SOLITONS: Excitation of two-dimensional soliton matrices by fundamental Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borovkova, O. V.; Chuprakov, D. A.; Sukhorukov, Anatolii P.
2005-01-01
The excitation of two-dimensional periodic structures of fields of the first and second radiation harmonics due to the modulation instability of fundamental Gaussian beams is studied in a medium with a quadratic nonlinearity. The distances are found at which soliton matrix structures with a specified period are formed and destroyed. Optical gratings formed due to nonlinear aberration of broad Gaussian beams are considered.
Sharp waveguide bends induced by spatial solitons
Jaeger, Robert; Gorza, Simon-Pierre; Cambournac, Cyril; Haelterman, Marc; Chauvet, Mathieu
2006-02-06
We experimentally demonstrate the ability of a self-guided laser beam to induce waveguides with sharp bends. The beam is a two-dimensional photorefractive screening-photovoltaic bright spatial soliton generated inside a biased lithium-niobate crystal shaped as a prism. The soliton robustness against total internal reflections is shown to leave place to a low-loss unimodal waveguide undergoing multiple zero-radius 90 deg. turns.
Solitons supported by two-dimensional mixed linear-nonlinear complex optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Xiaoping; Wang, Hong; Li, Zhen; Wang, Hongcheng
2015-12-01
The evolution of solitons in the two-dimensional mixed linear-nonlinear complex optical lattices is investigated. It is found that the nonlinearity-modulation depth plays a significant role on the existence of solitons. Both the nonlinearity-modulation depth and amplitude of the imaginary part of nonlinear lattice have a great effect on the stability of solitons. Moreover, the period of nonlinear lattice can influence the properties of solitons dramatically. In addition, we also study the mobility of solitons and find that the soliton can maintain its original shape while the mass center of solitons will oscillate periodically in a certain tilt angle range. However, if the tilt angle is large enough, the soliton will be distorted and its mass center oscillates irregularly.
Two-dimensional skyrmions and other solitonic structures in confinement-frustrated chiral nematics.
Ackerman, Paul J; Trivedi, Rahul P; Senyuk, Bohdan; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Smalyukh, Ivan I
2014-07-01
We explore spatially localized solitonic configurations of a director field, generated using optical realignment and laser-induced heating, in frustrated chiral nematic liquid crystals confined between substrates with perpendicular surface anchoring. We demonstrate that, in addition to recently studied torons and Hopf-fibration solitonic structures (hopfions), one can generate a host of other axially symmetric stable and metastable director field configurations where local twist is matched to the surface boundary conditions through introduction of point defects and loops of singular and nonsingular disclinations. The experimentally demonstrated structures include the so-called "baby-skyrmions" in the form of double twist cylinders oriented perpendicular to the confining substrates where their double twist field configuration is matched to the perpendicular boundary conditions by loops of twist disclinations. We also generate complex textures with arbitrarily large skyrmion numbers. A simple back-of-the-envelope theoretical analysis based on free energy considerations and the nonpolar nature of chiral nematics provides insights into the long-term stability and diversity of these inter-related solitonic field configurations, including different types of torons, cholestric-finger loops, two-dimensional skyrmions, and more complex structures comprised of torons, hopfions, and various disclination loops that are experimentally observed in a confinement-frustrated chiral nematic system. PMID:25122322
Two-dimensional skyrmions and other solitonic structures in confinement-frustrated chiral nematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ackerman, Paul J.; Trivedi, Rahul P.; Senyuk, Bohdan; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Smalyukh, Ivan I.
2014-07-01
We explore spatially localized solitonic configurations of a director field, generated using optical realignment and laser-induced heating, in frustrated chiral nematic liquid crystals confined between substrates with perpendicular surface anchoring. We demonstrate that, in addition to recently studied torons and Hopf-fibration solitonic structures (hopfions), one can generate a host of other axially symmetric stable and metastable director field configurations where local twist is matched to the surface boundary conditions through introduction of point defects and loops of singular and nonsingular disclinations. The experimentally demonstrated structures include the so-called "baby-skyrmions" in the form of double twist cylinders oriented perpendicular to the confining substrates where their double twist field configuration is matched to the perpendicular boundary conditions by loops of twist disclinations. We also generate complex textures with arbitrarily large skyrmion numbers. A simple back-of-the-envelope theoretical analysis based on free energy considerations and the nonpolar nature of chiral nematics provides insights into the long-term stability and diversity of these inter-related solitonic field configurations, including different types of torons, cholestric-finger loops, two-dimensional skyrmions, and more complex structures comprised of torons, hopfions, and various disclination loops that are experimentally observed in a confinement-frustrated chiral nematic system.
Generation of spatial solitons using non-linear guided modes
method and inverse scattering transform are used. 1. Introduction Optical waveguides provide an ecientGeneration of spatial solitons using non-linear guided modes R . W . M I C A L L E F , Y U . S . K, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA We investigate how two-dimensional spatial optical solitons can be generated
Two-dimensional spatial compounding with warping.
Groves, Adrian R; Rohling, Robert N
2004-07-01
Spatial compounding aims to improve image quality through signal averaging, but speed-of-sound (SoS) and refraction errors can misalign the component frames and blur the compound image. A 2-D compounding system is demonstrated that uses a nonrigid registration (warping) to realign the frames before compounding. Block-based estimates of local misalignments are interpolated smoothly to compute the warp vectors. Simulations and a specialized phantom, both with a 9% SoS distortion, were created, and compound images with and without warping were compared to the conventional image. Image sharpness was compared by measuring the diameter of point targets and directional edge sharpness. The average registration accuracy was 0.06 to 0.07 mm (approximately one pixel). The diameter of point targets increased only 2% with warping vs. 32% without warping and directional edge sharpness dropped 3.7% vs. 20.0%. Furthermore, most of the speckle reduction due to compounding is retained when warping is used. The tests on simulated and phantom data demonstrate that the method is capable of making a small, but significant, improvement to image quality. The examinations in vitro and in vivo show the correct operation of the method with real tissue features. Further clinical studies should be performed to compare spatial compounding with and without warping to see which applications would benefit from the small improvement. PMID:15313325
The asymmetric solitons in two-dimensional parity-time-symmetric potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Haibo; Hu, Sumei
2016-01-01
We investigate the properties in two-dimensional (2D) special parity-time (PT) symmetric complex potentials. The linear case of this special 2D PT-symmetric complex potential and self-focusing nonlinear cases are discussed. For linear case, the eigenvalues and eigenfunction for different loss or gain level of the PT-symmetric complex potentials are obtained numerically. For nonlinear cases, the existence of asymmetric solitons and PT-symmetric solitons is studied in this PT symmetric system. The eigenvalue for linear case is equal to the critical propagation constant bc of existing PT-symmetric solitons. When the PT-symmetric soliton's propagation constant reaches a certain threshold bc1, a branch of asymmetric solitons can bifurcate out from the branch of PT-symmetric solitons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, J. U.; Stegeman, G. I.; Aitchison, J. S.; Akhmediev, N.
1996-12-01
The Manakov soliton is a two-component soliton that was first considered by Manakov in the early 1970s.1 Based on the work of Zakharov and Shabat,2 Manakov found that the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger (CNSE) equations with special choice of the coefficients in front of nonlinear terms can be solved exactly. This system is integrable and solitons have therefore a number of special properties which might be useful in practice. In particular, for same total power, the soliton of a single nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Manakov soliton behave similarly. There are certain conditions for the integrability of the CNSE. Namely, for the coupled set of equations with cubic nonlinearity, the ratio between the self-phase modulation (SPM) to the cross-phase modulation coefficients has to be equal to unity, and the SPM coefficients need to be equal for the two polarizations. Moreover, the energy exchange terms or four-wave mixing (FWM) terms must be zero. Physically, the Manakov soliton is a mutually trapped state of two orthogonally polarized beams where each component of the soliton experiences exactly the same index potential which is proportional to the total intensity of the beam. There are no crystal symmetries that a priori lead to a SPM/XPM ratio of unity. Thus, the Manakov soliton has not been observed experimentally prior to the work we reported.3 Based on our previous work, we found that in AlGaAs, for photon energies just below half the band gap, the conditions for integrability can be satisfied. This led to the first experimental observation of spatial Manakov solitons.
Complexes of in-phase two-dimensional laser solitons
Rosanov, N N; Fedorov, S V; Shatsev, A N
2008-01-31
The structure and motion of complexes of in-phase weakly coupled fundamental solitons in a wide-aperture class A laser with saturable absorption are analysed. The symmetry of the field distribution and its relation to the motion of the complex are studied. Due to the absence of wavefront dislocations in such complexes, the transverse radiation intensity and phase distributions are the symmetry objects, which simplifies analysis compared to the case when wavefront dislocations are present. Four types of the motion of soliton complexes are demonstrated: a motionless complex in the presence of two mirror symmetry axes; linear motion of the complex when only one mirror symmetry axis exists; rotation around a motionless centre of inertia in the absence of the mirror symmetry axis and in the presence of symmetry with respect to rotation through the angle 2{pi}/M (M is an integer); and curvilinear (circular) motion of the centre of inertia and simultaneous rotation of the complex around the instantaneous position of the centre of inertia in the absence of symmetry elements. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Symmetric and antisymmetric soliton states in two-dimensional photonic lattices
Chen, Zhigang
to that used for creation of spatial soliton pixels.16 A partially spatially incoherent beam 488 nm is gen December 1, 2005 (Doc. ID 64943) We study the dynamics of off-site excitation in an optically induced related research with optically induced photonic lattices16 has shown that an even-mode soliton or an in
Chen, Zhigang
nonlinear systems. Meanwhile, photonic lattices optically induced by pixellike spatial solitons have been created with partially spatially incoherent light [16] as well as with phase- engineered coherent light and formation of discrete-soliton trains in an optically induced photonic lattice. Such discrete behavior
Asymmetric spatial soliton dragging.
Blair, S; Wagner, K; McLeod, R
1994-12-01
A new low-latency, cascadable optical logic gate with gain, high contrast, and three-terminal input-output isolation is introduced. The interaction between two orthogonally polarized spatial solitons brought into coincidence at the boundary of a saturating nonlinear medium and propagating in different directions results in the phase-insensitive spatial dragging of a strong pump soliton by a weaker signal. As a result, the strong pump is transmitted through an aperture when the weak signal is not present, and it is dragged to the side by more than a beam width and blocked in the presence of the weak signal, thus implementing an inverter with gain. A multi-input, logically complete NOR gate also can be implemented in a cascaded system. PMID:19855703
Spatiotemporal solitons in the Ginzburg-Landau model with a two-dimensional transverse grating
Mihalache, D.; Mazilu, D.; Lederer, F.; Leblond, H.; Malomed, B. A.
2010-02-15
We explore families of spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in a model of three-dimensional (3D) laser cavities including a combination of gain, saturable absorption, and transverse grating. The model is based on the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with the cubic-quintic nonlinearity and a two-dimensional (2D) periodic potential representing the grating. Fundamental and vortical solitons are found in a numerical form as attractors in this model and their stability against strong random perturbations is tested by direct simulations. The fundamental solitons are completely stable while the vortices, built as rhombus-shaped complexes of four fundamental solitons, may be split by perturbations into their constituents separating in the temporal direction. Nevertheless, a sufficiently strong grating makes the vortices practically stable objects.
Carmon, Tal
August 1, 2000 / Vol. 25, No. 15 / OPTICS LETTERS 1113 Observation of two-dimensional multimode experimental observation of 2 1 1 -dimensional multimode (composite) solitons. A single-hump component and observed in photorefractives.8 Such solitons are called composite or multimode solitons
Dynamics of vector solitons and vortices in two-dimensional photonic lattices
novel types of stable, incoherently coupled dipoles and vortexsoliton complexes that can be excited of incoherently coupled discrete vortices. © 2006 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 190.3270, 190 solitons.2 These nonlinear waves were introduced as spatially localized nonlinear modes of weakly coupled
Solitons as baryons and qualitons as constituent quarks in two-dimensional QCD
H. Blas; H. L. Carrion
2008-03-04
We study the soliton type solutions arising in two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics (QCD$_{2}$). The so-called generalized sine-Gordon model (GSG) arises as the low-energy effective action of bosonized QCD$_{2}$ for unequal quark mass parameters, and it has been shown that the relevant solitons describe the normal and exotic baryonic spectrum of QCD$_{2}$ [JHEP(03)(2007)(055)]. In the first part of this chapter we classify the soliton and kink type solutions of the sl(3) GSG model. Related to the GSG model we consider the sl(3) affine Toda model coupled to matter fields (Dirac spinors) (ATM). It has been shown the confinement of the spinors inside the solitons and kinks of the GSG model providing an extended hadron model for "quark" confinement [JHEP(01)(2007)(027)]. In the second part of this chapter we discuss the appearance of the constituent quarks in the context of bosonized QCD$_{2}$ and the relevance of the $sl(2)$ ATM model in order to describe the confinement of the color degrees of freedom. We have shown that QCD$_{2}$ has quark soliton solutions if the quark mass is sufficiently large.
Zakharov, Vladimir
, putting a = 1 and choosing for the inverse scattering problem [2, 3] . for Fthe form It was already, familiar from the scattering of one-dimensional solitons, are 2 + (1 -- ~nm) ~ ~`m (7) exactly zero. ThusVolume 63A, number 3 PHYSICS LETTERS 14 November 1977 TWO-DIMENSIONAL SOLITONS OF THE KADOMTSEV
Dynamical generation of two-dimensional matter-wave discrete solitons
Artem M. Dudarev; Roberto B. Diener; Qian Niu
2004-02-21
We suggest a method to experimentally obtain two-dimensional matter-wave discrete solitons with a {\\it self-repulsive} BEC in optical lattices. At the edge of the Brillouin zone, a wave packet effective mass is negative which could be treated as inversion of the nonlinearity sign. Above critical nonlinearity this makes the wave packets collapse partially into localized modes with a chemical potential located in the gap between the first and the second bands. This critical nonlinearity is also associated with the smallest nonlinearity for which the discrete solitons are possible in the gap. Extensive numerical simulations for square and asymmetric honeycomb lattices in continuous model illustrate every stage of the process.
Extracting joint weak values from two-dimensional spatial displacements
Hirokazu Kobayashi; Graciana Puentes; Yutaka Shikano
2012-11-06
The joint weak value is a counterfactual quantity related to quantum correlations and quantum dynamics, which can be retrieved via weak measurements, as initiated by Aharonov and colleagues. In this Rapid Communication, we provide a full analytical extension of the method described by Puentes et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 040401 (2012)], to extract the joint weak values of single-particle operators from two-dimensional spatial displacements of Laguerre-Gauss probe states, for the case of azimuthal index |l|>1. This method has a statistical advantage over previous ones since information about the conjugate observable, i.e., the momentum displacement of the probe, is not required. Moreover, we demonstrate that under certain conditions, the joint weak value can be extracted directly from spatial displacements without any additional data processing.
Spatial Solitons in Algaas Waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Jin Ung
In this work, by measuring the two-, three-photon absorption, and the nonlinear refractive index coefficients, a useful bandwidth for an all-optical switching applications in the AlGaAs below half the band gap is identified. Operating in this material system, several types of spatial solitons such as fundamental bright solitons, Vector solitons, and Manakov solitons are experimentally demonstrated. The propagation and the interaction behaviors of these solitons are studied experimentally and numerically. The distinct properties of each soliton are discussed along with some possible applications. Some applications, such as all -optical switching based on spatial soliton dragging and the efficient guiding of orthogonally polarized femtosecond pulses by a bright spatial soliton, are experimentally demonstrated. The signal gain due to an ultrafast polarization coupling, better known as Four Wave Mixing (FWM) is demonstrated in a channel waveguide. The effects of FWM are studied experimentally and numerically. This effect is also used to demonstrate polarization switching. The linear and nonlinear properties of AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well waveguides are measured. Anisotropic two photon absorption and nonlinear refractive indices near half the band gap are measured along with the linear birefringence for several different quantum well structures. The usefulness of multiple quantum well structures for an all -optical switching because of anisotropic nature of this material system is discussed.
Two-dimensional linear modes and solitons in parity-time symmetry bessel complex-valued potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Haibo; Hu, Sumei
2015-11-01
We study the optical properties of two-dimensional linear modes and solitons in parity-time (PT) symmetry Bessel complex-valued potential. The PT-breaking points, the eigenvalues and eigenfunction for different modulated depths of two-dimensional PT symmetry Bessel complex potential are obtained numerically. The PT-breaking points increase linearly with increasing the real part of the modulated depths of PT potential. The existence of fundamental and dipole solitons are studied in self-focusing and self-defocusing media. The eigenvalue for linear case is equal to the critical propagation constant bc of the existing soliton. The fundamental solitons are stable in both the self-focusing and self-defocusing media, and the dipole solitons are stable in the self-defocusing media but unstable in the self-focusing media.
Theory of two-dimensional spatially indirect equilibrium exciton condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Feng-Cheng; Xue, Fei; MacDonald, A. H.
2015-10-01
We present a theory of bilayer two-dimensional electron systems that host a spatially indirect exciton condensate when in thermal equilibrium. Equilibrium bilayer exciton condensates (BXCs) are expected to form when two nearby semiconductor layers are electrically isolated, and when the conduction band of one layer is brought close to degeneracy with the valence band of a nearby layer by varying bias or gate voltages. BXCs are characterized by spontaneous interlayer phase coherence and counterflow superfluidity. The bilayer system we consider is composed of two transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers separated and surrounded by hexagonal boron nitride. We use mean-field theory and a bosonic weakly interacting exciton model to explore the BXC phase diagram, and time-dependent mean-field theory to address condensate collective mode spectra and quantum fluctuations. We find that a phase transition occurs between states containing one and two condensate components as the layer separation and the exciton density are varied, and derive simple approximate expressions for the exciton-exciton interaction strength which we show can be measured capacitively.
Grinevich, P.G.
1987-05-01
Explicit examples are constructed of two-dimensional rational potentials that decrease at infinity and are reflectionless for given energy. It is shown that these potentials correspond to soliton solutions of the (2 + 1)- dimensional nonlinear equations found by Veselov and Novikov.
Stable spatial and spatiotemporal optical soliton in the core of an optical vortex.
Adhikari, S K
2015-10-01
We demonstrate a robust, stable, mobile, two-dimensional (2D) spatial and three-dimensional (3D) spatiotemporal optical soliton in the core of an optical vortex, while all nonlinearities are of the cubic (Kerr) type. The 3D soliton can propagate with a constant velocity along the vortex core without any deformation. Stability of the soliton under a small perturbation is established numerically. Two such solitons moving along the vortex core can undergo a quasielastic collision at medium velocities. Possibilities of forming such a 2D spatial soliton in the core of a vortical beam are discussed. PMID:26565323
Stable spatial and spatiotemporal optical soliton in the core of an optical vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, S. K.
2015-10-01
We demonstrate a robust, stable, mobile, two-dimensional (2D) spatial and three-dimensional (3D) spatiotemporal optical soliton in the core of an optical vortex, while all nonlinearities are of the cubic (Kerr) type. The 3D soliton can propagate with a constant velocity along the vortex core without any deformation. Stability of the soliton under a small perturbation is established numerically. Two such solitons moving along the vortex core can undergo a quasielastic collision at medium velocities. Possibilities of forming such a 2D spatial soliton in the core of a vortical beam are discussed.
Scattering of two-dimensional dark solitons by a single quantum vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, Lev A.; Smirnov, Alexander I.
2015-07-01
We study the process of scattering of two-dimensional dark solitons, and their vortex-antivortex pairs as a specific case, by a single quantum vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive interaction between atoms. An asymptotic theory describing the dynamics of such solitonlike structures in a smoothly inhomogeneous flow of ultracold Bose gas is developed. An analytical expression for the angle of scattering of two-dimensional dark solitons (including vortex pairs) by a single-phase singularity is obtained in the limit of large impact parameters. All theoretical concepts are confirmed by numerical calculations performed directly within the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. It is shown that for small impact parameters, the considered solitonlike structures interact inelastically with the core of a single quantum vortex, scattering over large angles and radiating sound waves.
Spatial angle dependent lasing from a dye-doped two-dimensional hexagonal photonic crystal
Demir, Hilmi Volkan
Spatial angle dependent lasing from a dye-doped two-dimensional hexagonal photonic crystal made of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals D. Luo,1 H. T. Dai,2 H. V. Demir,1,3,4 X. W. Sun,1,2* H. Z. Yang angle dependent lasing from a dye- doped two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PC) holographic polymer
Multipole composite spatial solitons: theory and experiment
Multipole composite spatial solitons: theory and experiment Anton S. Desyatnikov, Dragomir Neshev manuscript received September 28, 2001 We discuss the properties of composite (or vector) spatial optical solitons created by the incoherent interaction of two optical beams and associated with higher-order modes
INVITED PAPER Bright and dark spatial solitons
of the inverse scattering (IST) technique [4]. Generally speaking, the integrability means that any localizedINVITED PAPER Bright and dark spatial solitons in non-Kerr media Y U . S . K I V S H A R Australian of self-guided optical beams, spatial optical solitons supported by non-Kerr non-linearities, is presented
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joseph, Rose M.; Goorjian, Peter M.; Taflove, Allen
1993-01-01
We present what are to our knowledge first-time calculations from vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations of femtosecond soliton propagation and scattering, including carrier waves, in two-dimensional dielectric waveguides. The time integration efficiently implements linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization, and the nonlinear convolution accounts for two quantum effects, the Kerr and Raman interactions. By retaining the optical carrier, the new method solves for fundamental quantities - optical electric and magnetic fields in space and time - rather than a nonphysical envelope function. It has the potential to provide an unprecedented two- and three-dimensional modeling capability for millimeter-scale integrated-optical circuits with submicrometer engineered inhomogeneities.
Three-dimensional vortex solitons in quasi-two-dimensional lattices
Leblond, Herve; Malomed, Boris A.; Mihalache, Dumitru
2007-08-15
We consider the three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii or nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a quasi-2D square-lattice potential (which corresponds to the optical lattice trapping a self-attractive Bose-Einstein condensate, or, in some approximation, to a photonic-crystal fiber, in terms of nonlinear optics). Stable 3D solitons, with embedded vorticity S=1 and 2, are found by means of the variational approximation and in a numerical form. They are built, basically, as sets of four fundamental solitons forming a rhombus, with phase shifts {pi}S/2 between adjacent sites, and an empty site in the middle. The results demonstrate two species of stable 3D solitons, which were not studied before, viz., localized vortices ('spinning light bullets,' in terms of optics) with S>1, and vortex solitons (with any S{ne}0) supported by a lattice in the 3D space. Typical scenarios of instability development (collapse or decay) of unstable localized vortices are identified too.
Spatial solitons rays in periodic optical lattices
Ramaz Khomeriki; Jerome Leon
2009-09-17
The light ray of a spatial soliton in an optical film whose refractive index is smoothly modulated (wavelength much larger than the typical soliton width) in both spatial directions is shown to possess chaotic regimes for which the propagation is erratic. This is interpreted as a parametric driven pendulum, obtained by a new perturbative approach of the Maxwell equation. These findings are then demonstrated to compare well to the eikonal law of light ray propagation (nonlinearity compensates diffraction).
Discrete solitons and vortices on two-dimensional lattices of PT-symmetric couplers.
Chen, Zhaopin; Liu, Jingfeng; Fu, Shenhe; Li, Yongyao; Malomed, Boris A
2014-12-01
We introduce a 2D network built of PT-symmetric dimers with on-site cubic nonlinearity, the gain and loss elements of the dimers being linked by parallel square-shaped lattices. The system may be realized as a set of PT-symmetric dual-core waveguides embedded into a photonic crystal. The system supports PT-symmetric and antisymmetric fundamental solitons (FSs) and on-site-centered solitary vortices (OnVs). Stability of these discrete solitons is the central topic of the consideration. Their stability regions in the underlying parameter space are identified through the computation of stability eigenvalues, and verified by direct simulations. Symmetric FSs represent the system's ground state, being stable at lowest values of the power, while anti-symmetric FSs and OnVs are stable at higher powers. Symmetric OnVs, which are also stable at lower powers, are remarkably robust modes: on the contrary to other PT-symmetric states, unstable OnVs do not blow up, but spontaneously rebuild themselves into stable FSs. PMID:25606899
Sanchez-Arriaga, G.; Lefebvre, E.
2011-09-15
The dynamics of two-dimensional s-polarized solitary waves is investigated with the aid of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Instead of the usual excitation of the waves with a laser pulse, the PIC code was directly initialized with the numerical solutions from the fluid plasma model. This technique allows the analysis of different scenarios including the theoretical problems of the solitary wave stability and their collision as well as features already measured during laser-plasma experiments such as the emission of electromagnetic bursts when the waves reach the plasma-vacuum interface, or their expansion on the ion time scale, usually named post-soliton evolution. Waves with a single density depression are stable whereas multihump solutions decay to several waves. Contrary to solitons, two waves always interact through a force that depends on their relative phases, their amplitudes, and the distance between them. On the other hand, the radiation pattern at the plasma-vacuum interface was characterized, and the evolution of the diameter of different waves was computed and compared with the ''snow plow'' model.
Spatially localized modes in two-dimensional chirped photonic lattices Mario I. Molina,1,2,3
Physics Center, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University solitons, we demonstrate that the mode threshold power in two-dimensional lattices is lowered by the action, compensating the repulsive action of the surface by the nonlinear trapping due to dis- creteness 4 . A similar
Design of a microfluidic device for comprehensive spatial two-dimensional liquid chromatography.
Wouters, Bert; De Vos, Jelle; Desmet, Gert; Terryn, Herman; Schoenmakers, Peter J; Eeltink, Sebastiaan
2015-04-01
This study discusses the design aspects for the construction of a microfluidic device for comprehensive spatial two-dimensional liquid chromatography. In spatial two-dimensional liquid chromatography each peak is characterized by its coordinates in the plane. After completing the first-dimension separation all fractions are analyzed in parallel second-dimension separations. Hence, spatial two-dimensional liquid chromatography potentially provides much higher peak-production rates than a coupled column multi-dimensional liquid chromatography approach in which the second-dimension analyses are performed sequentially. A chip for spatial two-dimensional liquid chromatography has been manufactured from cyclic olefin copolymer and features a first-dimension separation channel and 21 parallel second-dimension separation channels oriented perpendicularly to the former. Compartmentalization of first- and second-dimension developments by physical barriers allowed for a preferential flow path with a minimal dispersion into the second-dimension separation channels. To generate a homogenous flow across all the parallel second-dimension channels, a radially interconnected flow distributor containing two zones of diamond-shaped pillars was integrated on-chip. A methacrylate ester based monolithic stationary phase with optimized macroporous structure was created in situ in the confines of the microfluidic chip. In addition, the use of a photomask was explored to localize monolith formation in the parallel second-dimension channels. Finally, to connect the spatial chip to the liquid chromatography instrument, connector ports were integrated allowing the use of Viper fittings. As an alternative, a chip holder with adjustable clasp locks was designed that allows the clamping force to be adjusted. PMID:25598051
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cartes, C.; Descalzi, O.; Brand, H. R.
2014-10-01
We review the work on exploding dissipative solitons in one and two spatial dimensions. Features covered include: the transition from modulated to exploding dissipative solitons, the analogue of the Ruelle-Takens scenario for dissipative solitons, inducing exploding dissipative solitons by noise, two classes of exploding dissipative solitons in two spatial dimensions, diffusing asymmetric exploding dissipative solitons as a model for a two-dimensional extended chaotic system. As a perspective we outline the interaction of exploding dissipative solitons with quasi one-dimensional dissipative solitons, breathing quasi one-dimensional solutions and their possible connection with experimental results on convection, and the occurence of exploding dissipative solitons in reaction-diffusion systems. It is a great pleasure to dedicate this work to our long-time friend Hans (Prof. Dr. Hans Jürgen Herrmann) on the occasion of his 60th birthday.
Kumar, Manish Joseph, Joby
2014-08-04
We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90° bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable, and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.
Quantifying Two-Dimensional Filamentous and Invasive Growth Spatial Patterns in Yeast Colonies
Binder, Benjamin J.; Sundstrom, Joanna F.; Gardner, Jennifer M.; Jiranek, Vladimir; Oliver, Stephen G.
2015-01-01
The top-view, two-dimensional spatial patterning of non-uniform growth in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast colony is considered. Experimental images are processed to obtain data sets that provide spatial information on the cell-area that is occupied by the colony. A method is developed that allows for the analysis of the spatial distribution with three metrics. The growth of the colony is quantified in both the radial direction from the centre of the colony and in the angular direction in a prescribed outer region of the colony. It is shown that during the period of 100–200 hours from the start of the growth of the colony there is an increasing amount of non-uniform growth. The statistical framework outlined in this work provides a platform for comparative quantitative assays of strain-specific mechanisms, with potential implementation in inferencing algorithms used for parameter-rate estimation. PMID:25719406
Optical spatial solitons: historical overview and recent advances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhigang; Segev, Mordechai; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.
2012-08-01
Solitons, nonlinear self-trapped wavepackets, have been extensively studied in many and diverse branches of physics such as optics, plasmas, condensed matter physics, fluid mechanics, particle physics and even astrophysics. Interestingly, over the past two decades, the field of solitons and related nonlinear phenomena has been substantially advanced and enriched by research and discoveries in nonlinear optics. While optical solitons have been vigorously investigated in both spatial and temporal domains, it is now fair to say that much soliton research has been mainly driven by the work on optical spatial solitons. This is partly due to the fact that although temporal solitons as realized in fiber optic systems are fundamentally one-dimensional entities, the high dimensionality associated with their spatial counterparts has opened up altogether new scientific possibilities in soliton research. Another reason is related to the response time of the nonlinearity. Unlike temporal optical solitons, spatial solitons have been realized by employing a variety of noninstantaneous nonlinearities, ranging from the nonlinearities in photorefractive materials and liquid crystals to the nonlinearities mediated by the thermal effect, thermophoresis and the gradient force in colloidal suspensions. Such a diversity of nonlinear effects has given rise to numerous soliton phenomena that could otherwise not be envisioned, because for decades scientists were of the mindset that solitons must strictly be the exact solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation as established for ideal Kerr nonlinear media. As such, the discoveries of optical spatial solitons in different systems and associated new phenomena have stimulated broad interest in soliton research. In particular, the study of incoherent solitons and discrete spatial solitons in optical periodic media not only led to advances in our understanding of fundamental processes in nonlinear optics and photonics, but also had a very important impact on a variety of other disciplines in nonlinear science. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of optical spatial solitons. This review will cover a variety of issues pertaining to self-trapped waves supported by different types of nonlinearities, as well as various families of spatial solitons such as optical lattice solitons and surface solitons. Recent developments in the area of optical spatial solitons, such as 3D light bullets, subwavelength solitons, self-trapping in soft condensed matter and spatial solitons in systems with parity-time symmetry will also be discussed briefly.
Kim, Young-Cheol; Jang, Sung-Ho; Oh, Se-Jin; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook
2013-05-15
A real-time measurement method for two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution of the electron temperature and plasma density was developed. The method is based on the floating harmonic method and the real time measurement is achieved with little plasma perturbation. 2D arrays of the sensors on a 300 mm diameter wafer-shaped printed circuit board with a high speed multiplexer circuit were used. Experiments were performed in an inductive discharge under various external conditions, such as powers, gas pressures, and different gas mixing ratios. The results are consistent with theoretical prediction. Our method can measure the 2D spatial distribution of plasma parameters on a wafer-level in real-time. This method can be applied to plasma diagnostics to improve the plasma uniformity of plasma reactors for plasma processing.
Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Khotimah, S. N.; Shafii, M. Ali
2010-12-23
The research about fast transient and spatially non-homogenous nuclear reactor accident analysis of two-dimensional nuclear reactor has been done. This research is about prediction of reactor behavior is during accident. In the present study, space-time diffusion equation is solved by using direct methods which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference discretization method is solved by using iterative methods ADI (Alternating Direct Implicit). The indication of accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity. The power reactor has a peak value before reactor has new balance condition. Changing of temperature reactor produce a negative Doppler feedback reactivity. The reactivity will reduce excess positive reactivity. Temperature reactor during accident is still in below fuel melting point which is in secure condition.
Cascadable spatial-soliton logic gates.
Blair, S; Wagner, K
2000-11-10
The three-terminal spatial-soliton angular-deflection geometry provides the characteristics of an inverting logic gate with gain, and phase-insensitive implementations can be realized by a number of specific nonlinear interactions between orthogonally polarized waves. In particular, numerical simulations of spatial-soliton dragging and collision are used to calculate the transfer functions of inverter and multiple configurations of two-input nor gates and to address their cascadability. These transfer functions converge in cascaded operation and suggest that fan-out greater than 2 with a large noise margin is attainable in a system with standardized signal levels. These results are obtained with the material properties of fused silica and are representative of low-loss Kerr media. PMID:18354606
Impaired spatial selectivity and intact phase precession in two-dimensional virtual reality.
Aghajan, Zahra M; Acharya, Lavanya; Moore, Jason J; Cushman, Jesse D; Vuong, Cliff; Mehta, Mayank R
2015-01-01
During real-world (RW) exploration, rodent hippocampal activity shows robust spatial selectivity, which is hypothesized to be governed largely by distal visual cues, although other sensory-motor cues also contribute. Indeed, hippocampal spatial selectivity is weak in primate and human studies that use only visual cues. To determine the contribution of distal visual cues only, we measured hippocampal activity from body-fixed rodents exploring a two-dimensional virtual reality (VR). Compared to that in RW, spatial selectivity was markedly reduced during random foraging and goal-directed tasks in VR. Instead we found small but significant selectivity to distance traveled. Despite impaired spatial selectivity in VR, most spikes occurred within ?2-s-long hippocampal motifs in both RW and VR that had similar structure, including phase precession within motif fields. Selectivity to space and distance traveled were greatly enhanced in VR tasks with stereotypical trajectories. Thus, distal visual cues alone are insufficient to generate a robust hippocampal rate code for space but are sufficient for a temporal code. PMID:25420065
Phase-dependent collisions of (2 1)-dimensional spatial solitons
Saffman, Mark
Phase-dependent collisions of (2 1)-dimensional spatial solitons A. V. Mamaev Institute Coherent collisions of (2 1)-dimensional spatial solitons in photorefractive media are studied. Phase- dependent switching of the spatial location of the output beams is demonstrated. The experimental results
Spatially probed electron-electron scattering in a two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jura, M. P.; Grobis, M.; Topinka, M. A.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.
2010-10-01
Using scanning gate microscopy (SGM), we probe the scattering between a beam of electrons and a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) as a function of the beam’s injection energy, and distance from the injection point. At low injection energies, we find electrons in the beam scatter by small angles, as has been previously observed. At high injection energies, we find a surprising result: placing the SGM tip where it backscatters electrons increases the differential conductance through the system. This effect is explained by a nonequilibrium distribution of electrons in a localized region of 2DEG near the injection point. Our data indicate that the spatial extent of this highly nonequilibrium distribution is within ˜1?m of the injection point. We approximate the nonequilibrium region as having an effective temperature that depends linearly upon injection energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheka, Denis D.
2007-03-01
Very recently, Fonseca and Pires [Phys. Rev. B 73, 012403 (2006)] have studied the soliton-magnon scattering for the isotropic antiferromagnet and calculated “exact” phase shifts, which were compared with the ones obtained by the Born approximation. In this Comment we correct both the soliton and magnon solutions and point out the way how to study correctly the scattering problem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Price, Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun
2010-01-01
We investigated whether and how student performance on three types of spatial cognition tasks differs when worked with two-dimensional or stereoscopic representations. We recruited nineteen middle school students visiting a planetarium in a large Midwestern American city and analyzed their performance on a series of spatial cognition tasks in…
Two-Dimensional Planar Lightwave Circuit Integrated Spatial Filter Array and Method of Use Thereof
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ai, Jun (Inventor); Dimov, Fedor (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A large coherent two-dimensional (2D) spatial filter array (SFA), 30 by 30 or larger, is produced by coupling a 2D planar lightwave circuit (PLC) array with a pair of lenslet arrays at the input and output side. The 2D PLC array is produced by stacking a plurality of chips, each chip with a plural number of straight PLC waveguides. A pupil array is coated onto the focal plane of the lenslet array. The PLC waveguides are produced by deposition of a plural number of silica layers on the silicon wafer, followed by photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE) processes. A plural number of mode filters are included in the silica-on-silicon waveguide such that the PLC waveguide is transparent to the fundamental mode but higher order modes are attenuated by 40 dB or more. XXXX SEA), 30 by 30 or larger, is produced by coupling a 2D planar lightwave circuit (PLC) array with a pair of lenslet arrays at the input and output side. The 2D PLC array is produced by stacking a plurality of chips, each chip with a plural number of straight PLC waveguides. A pupil array is coated onto the focal plane of the lenslet array. The PLC waveguides are produced by deposition of a plural number of silica layers on the silicon wafer, followed by photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE) processes. A plural number of mode filters are included in the silica-on-silicon waveguide such that the PLC waveguide is transparent to the fundamental mode but higher order modes are attenuated by 40 dB or more. The present invention, ideal for controlling optical wavefronts, comprises a two-dimensional (2-D) array of planar optical waveguides (forming a planar lightwave circuit, or PLC) flanked by two microlens arrays. The PLC array portion of the present invention is assembled to have hexagonal grid geometry so as to optimize the fill factor and optical throughput. All waveguides are precisely positioned by photolithography to precision align to the two microlens arrays. One embodiment of the invention comprises an optical spatial filter array as a two dimensional planar lightwave circuit array, and first and second microlens arrays; the planar light waves circuit array is coupled to the first and second microlens arrays at an inlet and outlet respectively. The planar lightwave circuit array has a plurality of vertically stacked silicon wafer chips with each of the chips having a plurality of straight planar lightwave circuit waveguides. The planar lightwave circuit array may have a hexagonal grid geometry and maintains a spatial and temporal coherency of the transported light. The invention further involves a method of assembling an optical spatial filters array that includes the steps of preparing a plurality of chips from a silicon wafer, forming a plurality of straight planar lightwave circuit waveguides on each said chip to form a waveguide array of about a 30 by 30 array stacking a plurality of said chips and coupling a lenslet array at each of the inlet and the outlet of said waveguide array. The present invention, as disclosed in detail herein, is
Numerical simulation of two-dimensional spatially-developing mixing layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, R. V.; Demuren, A. O.
1994-01-01
Two-dimensional, incompressible, spatially developing mixing layer simulations are performed at Re = 10(exp 2) and 10(exp 4) with two classes of perturbations applied at the inlet boundary; combinations of discrete modes from linear stability theory, and a broad spectrum of modes derived from experimentally measured velocity spectra. The effect of the type and strength of inlet perturbations on vortex dynamics and time-averaged properties are explored. Two-point spatial velocity and autocorrelations are used to estimate the size and lifetime of the resulting coherent structures and to explore possible feedback effects. The computed time-averaged properties such as mean velocity profiles, turbulent statistics, and spread rates show good agreement with experimentally measured values. It is shown that by forcing with a broad spectrum of modes derived from an experimental energy spectrum many experimentally observed phenomena can be reproduced by a 2-D simulation. The strength of the forcing merely affected the length required for the dominant coherent structures to become fully-developed. Thus intensities comparable to those of the background turbulence in many wind tunnel experiments produced the same results, given sufficient simulation length.
Beamforming of sound from two-dimensional arrays using spatial matched filters
Yen, Jesse T.
2013-01-01
Fully-sampled two-dimensional (2D) arrays can have two-way focusing of the ultrasound beam in both lateral directions leading to high quality, real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging. However, fully-sampled 2D arrays with very large element counts (>16?000) are difficult to manufacture due to interconnect density and large element electrical impedance. As an alternative, row-column or crossed electrode arrays have been proposed to simplify transducer fabrication and system integration. These types of arrays consist of two one-dimensional arrays oriented perpendicular to each other. Using conventional delay-and-sum beamforming, each array performs one-way focusing in perpendicular lateral directions which yield higher sidelobe and acoustic clutter levels compared to fully-sampled 2D arrays with two-way focusing. In this paper, the use of spatial matched filters to improve focusing of row-column arrays is investigated. On receive, data from each element are first spatial match filtered in the elevation direction. After summation, the data are filtered again in the azimuth direction. Beam widths comparable to one-way focusing are seen in azimuth and beam widths comparable to two-way focusing are achieved in elevation. 3D beam patterns from computer simulation results using a 7.5?MHz 128?×?128 row-column array are shown with comparison to a fully sampled 2D array. PMID:24180780
Quasi-periodic transformations of nonlocal spatial solitons
9608 #12;16. C. Rotschild, T. Schwartz, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, "Incoherent spatial solitonsQuasi-periodic transformations of nonlocal spatial solitons Daniel Buccoliero1,2 and Anton S. Desyatnikov1 1Nonlinear Physics Center and 2Laser Physics Center, Research School of Physics and Engineering
Combined Akhmediev breather and Kuznetsov-Ma solitons in a two-dimensional graded-index waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Hai-Ping; Pan, Zhen-Huan
2014-04-01
We study the (2 + 1)-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients in a graded-index waveguide, and present a combined Akhmediev breather and Kuznetsov-Ma soliton solution with nonautonomous characteristics for certain functional relations. From this solution, by modulating the relation between the maximum effective propagation distance Zmax and the periodic locations Zm based on the maximum amplitude of soliton solution, different types of controllable excitation behaviors such as limitation excitation, maintenance and postponement are demonstrated.
Oh, Se-Jin; Kim, Young-Chul; Chung, Chin-Wook
2011-02-15
An interpolation algorithm for the evaluation of the spatial profile of plasma densities in a cylindrical reactor was developed for low gas pressures. The algorithm is based on a collisionless two-dimensional fluid model. Contrary to the collisional case, i.e., diffusion fluid model, the fitting algorithm depends on the aspect ratio of the cylindrical reactor. The spatial density profile of the collisionless fitting algorithm is presented in two-dimensional images and compared with the results of the diffusion fluid model.
Spatial solitons in two-photon photorefractive media
Hou Chunfeng; Pei Yanbo; Zhou Zhongxiang; Sun Xiudong
2005-05-15
We provide a theory for spatial solitons due to the two-photon photorefractive effect based on the Castro-Camus model [Opt. Lett. 28, 1129 (2003)]. We present the evolution equation of one-dimensional spatial solitons in two-photon photorefractive media. In steady state and under appropriate external bias conditions, we obtain the dark and bright soliton solutions of the optical wave evolution equation, and also discuss the self-deflection of the bright solitons theoretically by taking into account the diffusion effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruglov, V. G.; Shandarov, V. M.; Tan, Ya; Chen, F.; Kip, D.
2008-11-01
A photovoltaic dark spatial soliton is generated in a planar waveguide produced by the implantation of protons into a copper-doped lithium niobate crystal. Stationary soliton regimes are achieved at powers 90 and 30 ?W at wavelengths 633 and 532 nm, respectively.
Xuemin Ye; Chunxi Li; Weiping Yan
2002-07-01
The linear spatial evolution formulation of the two-dimensional waves of the evaporating or isothermal or condensing liquid films falling down an inclined wall is established for the film thickness with the collocation method based on the boundary layer theory and complete boundary conditions. The evolution equation indicates that there are two different modes of waves in spatial evolution. And the flow stability is highly dependent on the evaporation or condensation, thermo-capillarity, surface tension, inclination angle and Reynolds number. (authors)
John, S.; Golubentsev, A. )
1995-01-01
For a topological antiferromagnet on a square lattice, with the standard Hartree-Fock, spin-density-wave decoupling of the on-site Hubbard interaction, there is an exact mapping of the low-energy one-electron excitation spectrum to a relativistic Dirac continuum field theory. In this field theory, the Dirac mass gap is precisely the Mott-Hubbard charge gap and the continuum field variable is an eight-component Dirac spinor describing the components of physical electron-spin amplitude on each of the four sites of the elementary plaquette in the original Hubbard model. Within this continuum model we derive explicitly the existence of hedgehog Skyrmion textures as local minima of the classical magnetic energy. These magnetic solitons carry a topological winding number [mu] associated with the vortex rotation of the background magnetic moment field by a phase angle 2[pi][mu] along a path encircling the soliton. Such solitons also carry a spin flux of [mu][pi] through the plaquette on which they are centered. The [mu]=1 hedgehog Skyrmion describes a local transition from the topological (antiperiodic) sector of the one-electron Hilbert space to the nontopological sector. We derive from first principles the existence of deep level localized electronic states within the Mott-Hubbard charge gap for the [mu]=1 and 2 solitons. The spectrum of localized states is symmetric about [ital E]=0 and each subgap electronic level can be occupied by a pair of electrons in which one electron resides primarily on one sublattice and the second electron on the other sublattice. It is suggested that flux-carrying solitons and the subgap electronic structure which they induce are important in understanding the physical behavior of doped Mott insulators.
Ogawa, Makoto; Saito, Kanji; Sohmiya, Minoru
2014-07-21
The immobilization of functional units in the interlayer spaces of layered silicates and titanates is summarized from the viewpoint of how the spatial distribution of functional units in the interlayer affects the performance of the intercalation compounds. The ways of incorporating controlled amounts of functional units with controlled spatial distribution are also discussed. As a result of controlled spatial distribution of functional units in two-dimensional nanospace, one can achieve improved efficiency of photo-induced events (photoluminescence and photoinduced electron/energy transfer), molecular sieving and substrate/product selective catalytic reactions. PMID:24789673
Interactions of spatial solitons with fused couplers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harel, Alon; Malomed, Boris A.
2014-04-01
We study dynamical and stationary states of solitons in dual-core waveguides which are locally coupled (fused) at one or several short segments. The model applies to planar optical waveguides, and to Bose-Einstein condensate in dual traps. Collisions of an incident soliton with single and double locally fused couplers are investigated by means of systematic simulations and several analytical methods (quasilinear, fast-soliton, and adiabatic approximations). Excitation dynamics of a soliton trapped by a local coupler is studied by means of the variational approximation, and verified by simulations. Shuttle motion of a soliton trapped in a cavity between two local couplers, and in a finite array of couplers, is studied too.
Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morin, Matthew; Duree, Galen; Salamo, Gregory; Segev, Mordechai
1995-10-01
We show that a quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial soliton forms a waveguide structure in the bulk of a photorefractive material. Although the optically induced waveguide is formed by a very low-power (microwatts) soliton beam, it can guide a powerful (watt) beam of a longer wavelength at which the medium is nonphotosensitive. Furthermore, the waveguide survives, either in the dark or when guiding the longer-wavelength beam, for a long time after the soliton beam is turned off. We take advantage of the solitons' property of evolution from a relatively broad input beam into a narrow channel and show that the soliton induces a tapered waveguide (an optical funnel) that improves the coupling efficiency of light into the waveguiding structure.
Chen, Zhigang
the first observation of pixellike spatial solitons from partially spatially incoherent light. We created an array of as many as 32 3 32 soliton pixels by launching a spatially modulated incoherent light beam multicomponent composite solitons to incoherent solitons,2 4 the study of spatial solitons in various nonlinear
Rychel, Amanda L.; Garrick, Jacqueline M.; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Peterson, Kylee M.; Torii, Keiko U.
2015-01-01
Stomata, valves on the plant epidermis, are critical for plant growth and survival, and the presence of stomata impacts the global water and carbon cycle. Although transcription factors and cell-cell signaling components regulating stomatal development have been identified, it remains unclear as to how their regulatory interactions are translated into two-dimensional patterns of stomatal initial cells. Using molecular genetics, imaging, and mathematical simulation, we report a regulatory circuit that initiates the stomatal cell-lineage. The circuit includes a positive feedback loop constituting self-activation of SCREAMs that requires SPEECHLESS. This transcription factor module directly binds to the promoters and activates a secreted signal, EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR2, and the receptor modifier TOO MANY MOUTHS, while the receptor ERECTA lies outside of this module. This in turn inhibits SPCH, and hence SCRMs, thus constituting a negative feedback loop. Our mathematical model accurately predicts all known stomatal phenotypes with the inclusion of two additional components to the circuit: an EPF2-independent negative-feedback loop and a signal that lies outside of the SPCH•SCRM module. Our work reveals the intricate molecular framework governing self-organizing two-dimensional patterning in the plant epidermis. PMID:26203655
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolova, M. N.; Borodin, M. V.; Shandarov, S. M.; Shandarov, V. M.; Larionov, Yu M.
2003-11-01
The propagation of light beams is studied in a planar photorefractive waveguide fabricated by high-temperature diffusion of metal ions in the Z-cut substrate of the 3m symmetry crystal. The wave equations are obtained for single-mode light beams with TE and TM polarisations in planar diffusion waveguides, which take into account the two-dimensional distribution of the optical field. Expressions are found for a nonlinear change in the refractive index when the photovoltaic mechanism makes a dominant contribution to the photorefractive effect. The propagation of single-mode light beams is analysed numerically for a Ti:Fe:LiNbO3 waveguide fabricated by the successive diffusion of titanium and iron into lithium niobate. It is shown that single-mode light beams with a smooth amplitude envelope can propagate without significant changes in the region of a dip in the intensity modelling a dark soliton. The relations between the amplitude and width of a dark spatial soliton are obtained for the TM modes of a photorefractive planar waveguide.
Chen, Zhigang
by a laser beam (l 488 nm) passing through a rotating diffuser and an amplitude mask as shown in Fig. 1. The am- plitude mask provides spatial modulation after the dif- fuser on the otherwise uniform beam and nearly invariant waveguide lattice in the crystal. A Gaussian beam split from the same laser output
What types of spatial soliton can be formed based on two-photon-isomerisation?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, J. C.; Cai, Z. B.; Sun, Y. Z.; Yi, L.; Wang, H. C.
2009-12-01
In this paper we answer the question: “what types of spatial soliton can be formed based on two-photon-isomerisation (TPI)”. The conclusion that anti-dark solitons are not supported by monotonic nonlinearity should cast light on the notion of fundamental spatial solitons. The idea to obtain a bright TPI soliton with the joining of a background light or with the coupling of a dark soliton offers new schemes of light-controlling-light.
Spatial coherence analysis applied to aberration correction using a two-dimensional array system.
Lacefield, James C; Waag, Robert C
2002-12-01
Complex degree of coherence functions are computed using synthetic and measured ultrasound data to demonstrate noteworthy aspects of coherence analysis in the context of aberration correction. Coherence functions calculated from synthetic data illustrate the importance of proper normalization of the constituent cross-correlation integrals when weak elements and receiver directivity are significant factors. The synthetic data also show that a spike can occur at the zero-lag position of the coherence function when the signal-to-noise ratio is reduced by element directivity near the edges of a large aperture. The latter observation is confirmed by experimental data acquired through tissue-mimicking distributed aberration phantoms using a low f-number two-dimensional array system. The coherence of data acquired at neighboring elements is not changed by time-shift compensation of transmit and receive focusing, but time-shift compensation does improve the coherence of echoes measured over larger separations. The resulting increase in coherence widths evaluated at levels between 0.2 and 0.5 is correlated with narrower -10 dB and -20 dB effective widths in focuses visualized using single-transmit images. Iterative focus compensation methods may benefit from aberration estimation algorithms that take advantage of these longer-range correlations in random-scattering waveforms. PMID:12508977
Positive circuits and two-dimensional spatial differentiation: Application to the formation of sense
Provence Aix-Marseille I, Université de
of sense organs in Drosophila Anne Crumi`ere CNRS - Institut de Math´ematiques de Luminy Campus de Luminy of sense organs in Drosophila. Key words: spatial differentiation, intercellular genetic interactions
Stabilization of counterpropagating solitons by photonic lattices
Incoherent Spatial Solitons," Ferroelectrics 274, 135142 (2002). 8. P. Jander, J. Schr¨oder, C. Denz, M spatial solitons by the use of one- and two-dimensional photonic lattices. We numerically investigate of America OCIS codes: 190.4420: Transverse effects in nonlinear optics; 190.5330: Photorefractive non
634 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 27, No. 8 / April 15, 2002 Multicomponent dipole-mode spatial solitons
634 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 27, No. 8 / April 15, 2002 Multicomponent dipole-mode spatial solitons spatial vector solitons with a nontrivial topological structure of their constituents and demonstrate of spatial optical solitons and their interaction, as well as the extensive experi- mental demonstrations
Generation and dynamics of quadratic birefringent spatial gap solitons
Anghel-Vasilescu, P.; Dorignac, J.; Geniet, F.; Leon, J.; Taki, A.
2011-04-15
A method is proposed to generate and study the dynamics of spatial light solitons in a birefringent medium with quadratic nonlinearity. Although no analytical expression for propagating solitons has been obtained, our numerical simulations show the existence of stable localized spatial solitons in the frequency forbidden band gap of the medium. The dynamics of these objects is quite rich and manifests for instance elastic reflections, or inelastic collisions where two solitons merge and propagate as a single solitary wave. We derive the dynamics of the slowly varying envelopes of the three fields (second harmonic pump and two-component signal) and study this new system theoretically. We show that it does present a threshold for nonlinear supratransmission that can be calculated from a series expansion approach with a very high accuracy. Specific physical implications of our theoretical predictions are illustrated on LiGaTe{sub 2} (LGT) crystals. Once irradiated by a cw laser beam of 10 {mu}m wavelength, at an incidence beyond the extinction angle, such crystals will transmit light, in the form of spatial solitons generated in the nonlinear regime above the nonlinear supratransmission threshold.
Some aspects of optical spatial solitons in photorefractive media and their important applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konar, S.; Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.
2015-11-01
Some selected important properties of photorefractive spatial solitons and their applications have been reviewed in the present paper. Using band transport model, the governing principle of photorefractive nonlinearity has been addressed and nonlinear dynamical equations of spatial solitons owing to this nonlinearity have been discussed. Mechanisms of formation of screening and photovoltaic solitons of three different configurations i.e., bright, dark and grey varieties have been examined. Incoherently coupled vector solitons due to single and two-photon photorefractive phenomena have been highlighted. Modulation instability, which is precursor to soliton formation has been also discused briefly. Finally possible applications of photorefractive spatial solitons have been highlighted.
Mighty morphing spatial solitons and bullets.
Snyder, A W; Mitchell, J D
1997-01-01
We give what we believe to be the first closed-form exact expression for the dynamic evolution of nonstationary beams of arbitrary intensity and width propagating in a uniform nonlinear medium and in both two and three dimensions. This shows that periodic and quasi-periodic (nonradiating) beams can exist in a non-Kerr nonlinear medium. The Schrödinger equation is solved for Gaussian beams in a saturable medium. For one critical (initial) beam width, the Gaussian is a stable stationary soliton or bullet, independent of its intensity; otherwise, it breathes. New quasi-periodic beams (mighty morphing solitons) and bullets (mighty morphs) of elliptical cross section also exist whose ellipticity changes with propagation. PMID:18183088
Self-focusing and spatial plasmon-polariton solitons
Self-focusing and spatial plasmon-polariton solitons Arthur R. Davoyan, Ilya V. Shadrivov, and Yuri of surface plasmon polaritons along an interface between metal and nonlinear Kerr dielectric. We demon. Agranovich, V. S. Babichenko, and V. Ya. Chernyak, "Nonlinear surface polaritons," Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 32
Metamaterials for Remote Generation of Spatially Controllable Two Dimensional Array of Microplasma
Singh, Pramod K.; Hopwood, Jeffrey; Sonkusale, Sameer
2014-01-01
Since the initial demonstration of negative refraction and cloaking using metamaterials, there has been enormous interest and progress in making practical devices based on metamaterials such as electrically small antennas, absorbers, modulators, detectors etc that span over a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum covering microwave, terahertz, infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. We present metamaterial as an active substrate where each unit cell serves as an element for generation of plasma, the fourth state of matter. Sub-wavelength localization of incident electromagnetic wave energy, one of the most interesting properties of metamaterials is employed here for generating high electric field to ignite and sustain microscale plasmas. Frequency selective nature of the metamaterial unit cells make it possible to generate spatially localized microplasma in a large array using multiple resonators. A dual resonator topology is shown for the demonstration. Since microwave energy couples to the metamaterial through free space, the proposed approach is naturally wireless. Such spatially controllable microplasma arrays provide a fundamentally new material system for future investigations in novel applications, e.g. nonlinear metamaterials. PMID:25098976
Spatially-Resolved Modeling of Spin and Valley Hall Effects in Two-Dimensional Semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenferink, E. J.; Jia, Y.; Stern, N. P.
2015-03-01
In monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (1L-TMDs), a valley degree of freedom emerges for charge carriers due to the absence of spatial inversion symmetry. Strong spin-orbit interaction couples spin and valley, resulting in correlated spin, valley, and charge transport such as transverse Hall effects. Spatially-resolved measurements of these Hall effects have recently been achieved in monolayer MoS2, necessitating a detailed picture for understanding transport and relaxation mechanisms in 1L-TMDs that considers carrier, valley, and spin motion and generation processes. Here, we study spin and valley Hall effects in 1L-TMD devices by simulating the transport of spin- and valley-polarized carriers with a generalized drift diffusion model incorporating circularly polarized optical excitation. Spin and valley accumulation and the transverse voltage are analyzed in different device geometries. We compare the electron and hole contributions to the transverse voltage and discuss the potential for a measurement of the valley relaxation times of free carriers in 1L-TMDs. This work was supported by the Institute for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-SC0012130). N.P.S. acknowledges support as an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow.
Paquin, Francis; Hestand, Nicholas J; Sakowicz, Maciej; Bérubé, Nicolas; Côté, Michel; Reynolds, Luke X; Haque, Saif A; Stingelin, Natalie; Spano, Frank C; Silva, Carlos
2013-01-01
The electronic properties of macromolecular semiconductor thin films depend profoundly on their solid-state microstructure, which in turn is governed, among other things, by the processing conditions selected and the polymer chemical nature and molecular weight. Specifically, low-molecular-weight materials form crystalline domains of cofacially $\\pi$-stacked molecules, while the usually entangled nature of higher molecular-weight polymers leads to microstructures comprised of molecularly ordered crystallites interconnected by amorphous regions. Here, we examine the interplay between extended exciton states delocalized along the polymer backbones and across polymer chains within the $\\pi$-stack, depending on the structural development with molecular weight. We combine optical spectroscopies, thermal probes, and theoretical modeling, focusing on neat poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), one of the most extensively studied polymer semiconductors, of weight-average molecular weight of 3-450\\,kg/mol. The spatial coheren...
Instabilities in two-dimensional spatially periodic flows. Part I: Kolmogorov flow
Thess, A. )
1992-07-01
The linear stability of the parallel flow {psi}{sub 0}=sin({ital y}) (Kolmogorov flow) is considered, taking into account viscosity, linear friction, and confinement (lateral walls). The computations provide neutral stability curves in the parameter space, wave numbers, and wave speeds, as well as the spatial structure of first unstable modes. Evidence is presented that stability parameters depend nonuniformly on the confinement. It is shown that already weak transverse confinement significantly decreases the longitudinal wavelength of perturbations at instability onset. Strong confinement changes the character of the instability into an oscillatory one instead of a purely exponential growing mode, which is obtained for weakly confined systems. Theoretical predictions of critical parameters are in reasonable agreement with experimental results in electromagnetically driven flows of conducting fluids.
Soliton gyroscopes in media with spatially growing repulsive nonlinearity
Driben, Rodislav; Malomed, Boris A; Meier, Torsten; Torner, Lluis
2013-01-01
We find that the recently introduced model of self-trapping supported by a spatially growing strength of a repulsive nonlinearity gives rise to robust vortex-soliton tori, i.e., three-dimensional vortex solitons, with topological charges S. The family with S=1 is completely stable, while the one with S=2 has alternating regions of stability and instability. The families are nearly exactly reproduced in an analytical form by the Thomas-Fermi approximation (TFA). Unstable states with S=2 and 3 split into persistently rotating pairs or triangles of unitary vortices. Application of a moderate torque to the vortex torus initiates a persistent precession mode, with the torus' axle moving along a conical surface. A strong torque heavily deforms the vortex solitons, but, nonetheless, they restore themselves with the axle oriented according to the vectorial addition of angular momenta.
Percolation in spatial evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game on two-dimensional lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Woosik; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup
2015-11-01
We study the spatial evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game with updates of imitation max on triangular, hexagonal, and square lattices. We use the weak prisoner's dilemma game with a single parameter b . Due to the competition between the temptation value b and the coordination number z of the base lattice, a greater variety of percolation properties is expected to occur on the lattice with the larger z . From the numerical analysis, we find six different regimes on the triangular lattice (z =6 ). Regardless of the initial densities of cooperators and defectors, cooperators always percolate in the steady state in two regimes for small b . In these two regimes, defectors do not percolate. In two regimes for the intermediate value of b , both cooperators and defectors undergo percolation transitions. The defector always percolates in two regimes for large b . On the hexagonal lattice (z =3 ), there exist two distinctive regimes. For small b , both the cooperators and the defectors undergo percolation transitions while only defectors always percolate for large b . On the square lattice (z =4 ), there exist three regimes. Combining with the finite-size scaling analyses, we show that all the observed percolation transitions belong to the universality class of the random percolation. We also show how the detailed growth mechanism of cooperator and defector clusters decides each regime.
Multiwavelength and multicolor temporal and spatial optical solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kivshar, Yuri S.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Ostrovskaya, Elena A.; Bang, Ole; Clausen, Carl B.
2000-04-01
We present an overview of several novel types of multi- component envelope solitary waves that appear in fiber and waveguide nonlinear optics. In particular, we describe multi-channel solitary waves in bit-parallel-wavelength fiber transmission systems for high performance computer networks, multi-color parametric spatial solitary waves due to cascaded nonlinearities of quadratic materials, and quasiperiodic envelope solitons in Fibonacci optical superlattices.
D'Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G.; Zezas, A.; Mineo, S.; Fragos, T.; Kim, D.-W.; Strader, J.; Bonfini, P.; Luo, B.; King, A.
2013-08-20
We present a new method for the determination of the two-dimensional (2D) projected spatial distribution of globular clusters (GCs) in external galaxies. This method is based on the K-Nearest Neighbor density estimator of Dressler, complemented by Monte-Carlo simulations to establish the statistical significance of the results. We apply this method to NGC 4261, a ''test galaxy'' where significant 2D anisotropy in the GC distribution has been reported. We confirm that the 2D distribution of GC is not azimuthally isotropic. Moreover, we demonstrate that the 2D distribution departures from the average GC radial distribution results in highly significant spiral-like or broken shell features. Overall, the same perturbations are found in ''red'' and ''blue'' GCs, but with some differences. In particular, we observe a central feature, roughly aligned with the minor axis of NGC 4261, composed of red and most luminous GCs. Blue and fainter GCs are more frequent at large radial distances and follow the spiral-like features of the overall density structure. These results suggest a complex merging history for NGC 4261.
Quantum fluctuations and correlations of spatial scalar or multimode vector solitons in Kerr media
Lantz, E; Maillote, H; Treps, N; Lantz, Eric; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Maillote, Herve; Treps, Nicolas; Proxy, Claude Fabre; ccsd-00000829, ccsd
2003-01-01
We apply the Green's function method to determine the global degree of squeezing and the transverse spatial distribution of quantum fluctuations of solitons in Kerr media. We show that both scalar bright solitons and multimode vector solitons experience strong squeezing on the optimal quadrature. For vector solitons, this squeezing is shown to result from an almost perfect anti-correlation between the fluctuations on the two incoherently-coupled circular polarisations.
Quantum fluctuations and correlations of spatial scalar or multimode vector solitons in Kerr media
Eric Lantz; Thibaut Sylvestre; Herve Maillote; Nicolas Treps; Claude Fabre
2003-11-13
We apply the Green's function method to determine the global degree of squeezing and the transverse spatial distribution of quantum fluctuations of solitons in Kerr media. We show that both scalar bright solitons and multimode vector solitons experience strong squeezing on the optimal quadrature. For vector solitons, this squeezing is shown to result from an almost perfect anti-correlation between the fluctuations on the two incoherently-coupled circular polarisations.
Latini, M; Schilling, O; Don, W
2006-03-16
Finite-difference weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) simulations of the reshocked two-dimensional single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability using third-, fifth- and ninth-order spatial flux reconstruction and uniform spatial grid resolutions corresponding to 128, 256 and 512 points per initial perturbation wavelength are presented. The dependence of the density, vorticity, simulated density Schlieren and baroclinic production fields, mixing layer width, circulation deposition, mixing profiles, chemical products and mixing fractions, energy spectra, statistics, probability distribution functions, effective turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy production/dissipation rates, numerical Reynolds numbers, and effective numerical viscosity on the order and resolution is comprehensively investigated to long evolution times. The results are interpreted using the computed implicit numerical diffusion arising from the truncation errors in the characteristic projection-based WENO method. It is quantitatively shown that simulations with higher order and higher resolution have lower numerical dissipation. The sensitivity of the quantities considered to the order and resolution is further amplified following reshock, when the energy deposition on the evolving interface by the second shock-interface interaction induces the formation of small-scale structures. Simulations using lower orders of reconstruction and on coarser grids preserve large-scale structures and flow symmetry to late times, while simulations using higher orders of reconstruction and on finer grids exhibit fragmentation of the structures, symmetry breaking and increased mixing. The investigation demonstrates that similar flow features are qualitatively and quantitatively captured by either approximately doubling the order or the resolution. Additionally, the computational scaling shows that increasing the order is more advantageous than doubling the resolution for the complex shock-driven hydrodynamic flow and WENO method considered here. The present investigation suggests that the ninth-order WENO method is well-suited for the simulation and analysis of complex multi-scale flows and mixing generated by shock-induced hydrodynamic instabilities.
Effect of four-wave mixing on copropagating spatial solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, Nadeem A.; Sammut, Rowland A.; Tran, Hai-Tan
1996-07-01
It is known that in the absence of four-wave mixing, spatial solitons of two frequencies can copropagate stably in a Kerr-law nonlinear medium. We investigate the effect of including four-wave mixing. We show that when phase-matching conditions are satisfied, Stokes and anti-Stokes waves can be generated to produce a new steady-state solution consisting of four copropagating beams. On the other hand, if weak signal beams are injected along with the pump beams, then four-wave mixing can be used to amplify those side beams. When phase-matching conditions are not satisfied, the Stokes and anti-Stokes waves simply propagate as linear modes in the effective waveguides induced by the pump solitons.
Latini, M; Schilling, O; Don, W S
2006-06-12
Weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) simulations of the reshocked two-dimensional single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability using third-, fifth- and ninth-order spatial flux reconstruction and uniform grid resolutions corresponding to 128, 256 and 512 points per initial perturbation wavelength are presented. The dependence of the density, vorticity, simulated density Schlieren and baroclinic production fields, mixing layer width, circulation deposition, mixing profiles, production and mixing fractions, energy spectra, statistics, probability distribution functions, numerical turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy production/dissipation rates, numerical Reynolds numbers, and numerical viscosity on the order and resolution is investigated to long evolution times. The results are interpreted using the implicit numerical dissipation in the characteristic projection-based, finite-difference WENO method. It is shown that higher order higher resolution simulations have lower numerical dissipation. The sensitivity of the quantities considered to the order and resolution is further amplified following reshock, when the energy deposition by the second shock-interface interaction induces the formation of small-scale structures. Lower-order lower-resolution simulations preserve large-scale structures and flow symmetry to late times, while higher-order higher-resolution simulations exhibit fragmentation of the structures, symmetry breaking and increased mixing. Similar flow features are qualitatively and quantitatively captured by either approximately doubling the order or the resolution. Additionally, the computational scaling shows that increasing the order is more advantageous than increasing the resolution for the flow considered here. The present investigation suggests that the ninth-order WENO method is well-suited for the simulation and analysis of complex multi-scale flows and mixing generated by shock-induced hydrodynamic instabilities.
Beating the spatial standard quantum limits via adiabatic soliton expansion
Mankei Tsang
2006-05-09
Spatial quantum enhancement effects are studied under a unified framework. It is shown that the multiphoton absorption rate of photons with a quantum-enhanced lithographic resolution is reduced, not enhanced, contrary to popular belief. The use of adiabatic soliton expansion is proposed to beat the standard quantum limit on the optical beam displacement accuracy, as well as to engineer an arbitrary multiphoton interference pattern for quantum lithography. The proposed scheme provides a conceptually simple method that works for an arbitrary number of photons.
Gray spatial solitons in biased photorefractive media Alexandra G. Grandpierre and Demetrios N received September 11, 2000 We provide a detailed analysis of gray spatial optical solitons in biased of ``grayness.'' By employing the stability criterion based on the renormalized field momentum, we investigate
Weak-beam trapping by bright spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, J. U.; Stegeman, G. I.; Aitchison, J. S.
1995-10-01
We demonstrate experimentally the trapping and spatial wave breaking of weak signal beams by orthogonally polarized bright spatial solitons. Experiments were performed in an AlGaAs planar waveguide excited at a wavelength of 1.55 mu m .
Spatial weak-light solitons in an electro-magnetically induced nonlinear waveguide
Tao Hong
2004-05-22
We show that a weak probe light beam can form spatial solitons in an electro-magnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium composed of four-level atoms and a coupling light field. We find that the coupling light beam can induce a highly controllable nonlinear waveguide and exert very strong effects on the dynamical behavior of the solitons. Hence, in the EIT medium, it is not only possible to produce spatial solitons at very low light intensities but also simultaneously control these solitons by using the coupling-light-induced nonlinear waveguide.
Material figures of merit for spatial soliton interactions in the presence of absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blair, Steve; Wagner, Kelvin H.; McLeod, Robert
1996-10-01
The effects of linear and two-photon absorption on bright spatial soliton propagation are studied. A spatial soliton switch that achieves gain through the novel mechanism of colliding, dragging, or trapping of two fundamental solitons of different widths is proposed. Figures of merit for use in evaluating the suitability of absorbing nonlinear media for soliton switching applications are presented. The main effect of linear absorption is to limit the propagation distance, which places an upper bound on the width of the soliton in order to fit sufficient characteristic soliton propagation lengths within the device. The optical limiting nature of two-photon absorption places an upper bound on the gain that an interaction can achieve. The combined effects of linear and two-photon absorption are to reduce the gain upper bound imposed by two-photon absorption alone with the addition of the soliton width constraint. A maximized gain upper bound is determined solely by material parameters and is compared among three promising nonlinear materials. It is shown numerically that the spatial soliton dragging interaction requires shorter propagation distances and achieves greater gain than the collision interaction and that both are tolerant to the presence of absorption and can provide, with high contrast, gains of three or greater using measured material parameters. These results warrant pursuing the implementation of spatial soliton-based logic gates. .
Spatial Patterns of Dissipative Polariton Solitons in Semiconductor Microcavities.
Chana, J K; Sich, M; Fras, F; Gorbach, A V; Skryabin, D V; Cancellieri, E; Cerda-Méndez, E A; Biermann, K; Hey, R; Santos, P V; Skolnick, M S; Krizhanovskii, D N
2015-12-18
We report propagating bound microcavity polariton soliton arrays consisting of multipeak structures either along (x) or perpendicular (y) to the direction of propagation. Soliton arrays of up to five solitons are observed, with the number of solitons controlled by the size and power of the triggering laser pulse. The breakup along the x direction occurs when the effective area of the trigger pulse exceeds the characteristic soliton size determined by polariton-polariton interactions. Narrowing of soliton emission in energy-momentum space indicates phase locking between adjacent solitons, consistent with numerical modeling which predicts stable multihump soliton solutions. In the y direction, the breakup originates from inhomogeneity across the wave front in the transverse direction which develops into a stable array only in the solitonic regime via phase-dependent interactions of propagating fronts. PMID:26722931
Surface lattice solitons in diffusive nonlinear media with spatially modulated nonlinearity.
Zhan, Kaiyun; Jiao, Zhiyong; Li, Xi; Jia, Yulei; Zhang, Hui
2015-09-01
Two families of gap and twisted surface lattice solitons in diffusive nonlinear periodic media with spatially modulated nonlinearity are reported. It is shown that the existence and stability of such solitons are extremely spatially modulated nonlinearity sensitive. For self-focusing nonlinearity, gap surface solitons belonging to the semi-infinite gap are stable in whole existence domain, twisted surface solitons are also linearly stable in low modulated strength region and a very narrow unstable region near the upper cutoff appears in high modulated strength region. In the self-defocusing case, surface gap solitons belonging to the first gap can propagate stably in whole existence domain except for an extremely narrow region close to the Bloch band, twisted solitons belonging to this gap are unstable in the entire existence domain. PMID:26368497
Spatiotemporal electromagnetic soliton and spatial ring formation in nonlinear metamaterials
Zhang Jinggui; Wen Shuangchun; Xiang Yuanjiang; Wang Youwen; Luo Hailu
2010-02-15
We present a systematic investigation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation in metamaterials (MMs) with simultaneous cubic electric and magnetic nonlinearity. We predict that spatiotemporal electromagnetic solitons may exist in the positive-index region of a MM with focusing nonlinearity and anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD), as well as in the negative-index region of the MM with defocusing nonlinearity and normal GVD. The experimental circumstances for generating and manipulating spatiotemporal electromagnetic solitons can be created by elaborating appropriate MMs. In addition, we find that, in the negative-index region of a MM, a spatial ring may be formed as the electromagnetic pulse propagates for focusing nonlinearity and anomalous GVD; while the phenomenon of temporal splitting of the electromagnetic pulse may appear for the same case except for the defocusing nonlinearity. Finally, we demonstrate that the nonlinear magnetization makes the sign of effective electric nonlinear effect switchable due to the combined action of electric and magnetic nonlinearity, exerting a significant influence on the propagation of electromagnetic pulses.
Nonlocal gray solitons in parity-time-symmetric potentials with spatially modulated nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xing; Shi, Zhiwei; Li, Huagang
2015-11-01
We investigate the nonlocal gray solitons in parity-time (PT)-symmetric potentials with spatially modulated nonlinearity. If the nonlinear modulated function (nonlinear potential) is real, the coefficient of the function can control the grayness and the existence domain of these gray solitons. Especially, if the coefficient of the nonlinear modulated function is below a threshold, the gray solitons will be changed into anti-dark solitons. The effects of the degree of the nonlocality and the imaginary part of the PT-symmetric potentials on the grayness and the existence of the gray solitons are also discussed. If the nonlinear modulated function is also PT symmetric, the imaginary part of the function will obviously affect the existence and stability of the nonlocal gray solitons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assel'born, S. A.; Kundikova, N. D.; Novikov, I. V.
2008-09-01
The propagation of intensity-modulated laser radiation in a barium—sodium niobate crystal is studied in an external electric field. The possibility of controlling a nonlinear local response of the crystal is demonstrated. It is shown experimentally that the conditions of formation of a one-dimensional spatial soliton can be changed by varying the nonlinear response of the crystal.
Li, Huijie; Liu, Guipeng Wei, Hongyuan; Jiao, Chunmei; Wang, Jianxia; Zhang, Heng; Dong Jin, Dong; Feng, Yuxia; Yang, Shaoyan Wang, Lianshan; Zhu, Qinsheng; Wang, Zhan-Guo
2013-12-02
A scattering mechanism related to the Schottky barrier height (SBH) spatial fluctuation of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is presented. We find that the low field mobility is on the order of 10{sup 4}–10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/Vs. The 2DEG transport properties are found to be influenced by both the mobility and 2DEG density variations caused by the SBH fluctuation. Our results indicate that a uniform Schottky contact is highly desired to minimize the influence of SBH inhomogeneity on the device performance.
Two-dimensional solitary kinetic Alfven waves and dipole vortex structures
Wu, D.J.; Wang, D.Y.; Huang, G.L.
1997-03-01
A new type of density soliton, which we call {open_quotes}dipole density soliton,{close_quotes} is discovered in data from the Freja satellite. Like the dip or hump density solitons that were recently discovered in the Freja data [D.-J. Wu, G.-L. Huang, and D.-Y. Wang, Phys. Plasmas {bold 3}, 2879 (1996)], the dipole density solitons are also associated with strong electric spikes ({approximately} a few 100 mV/m) and have a spatial scale length of a few 100 m. This indicates that the three types of density solitons (dip, hump, and dipole) probably have the same physical nature. In this paper, a two-dimensional solitary kinetic Alfven wave (SKAW) model with a dipole vortex structure is proposed to account for the three kinds of density solitons (dip, hump, and dipole), in which the differences in their appearances can naturally be attributed to differences in the positions and directions at which the satellite crosses dipole vortex structures. Some features of this two-dimensional SKAW model are discussed, and the results are compared to the one-dimensional cases. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Tiffan, K.F.; Garland, R.D.; Rondorf, D.W.
2002-01-01
We used an analysis based on a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the amount of rearing habitat and stranding area for subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River at steady-state flows ranging from 1,416 to 11,328 m3/s. High-resolution river channel bathymetry was used in conjunction with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to estimate water velocities, depths, and lateral slopes throughout our 33-km study area. To relate the probability of fish presence in nearshore habitats to measures of physical habitat, we developed a logistic regression model from point electrofishing data. We only considered variables that were compatible with a GIS and therefore excluded other variables known to be important to juvenile salmonids. Water velocity and lateral slope were the only two variables included in our final model. The amount of available rearing habitat generally decreased as flow increased, with the greatest decreases occurring between 1,416 and 4,814 m3/s. When river discharges were between 3,682 and 7,080 m3/s, flow fluctuations of 566 m3/s produced the smallest change in available rearing area (from -6.3% to +6.8% of the total). Stranding pool area was greatly reduced at steady-state flows exceeding 4,531 m3/s, but the highest net gain in stranding area was produced by 850 m3/s decreases in flow when river discharges were between 5,381 and 5,664 m3/s. Current measures to protect rearing fall chinook salmon include limiting flow fluctuations at Priest Rapids Dam to 850 m3/s when the dam is spilling water and when the weekly flows average less than 4,814 m3/s. We believe that limiting flow fluctuations at all discharges would further protect subyearling fall chinook salmon.
Adams, Bernhard W; Mane, Anil U; Elam, Jeffrey W; Obaid, Razib; Wetstein, Matthew; Chollet, Matthieu
2015-09-01
X-ray detectors that combine two-dimensional spatial resolution with a high time resolution are needed in numerous applications of synchrotron radiation. Most detectors with this combination of capabilities are based on semiconductor technology and are therefore limited in size. Furthermore, the time resolution is often realised through rapid time-gating of the acquisition, followed by a slower readout. Here, a detector technology is realised based on relatively inexpensive microchannel plates that uses GHz waveform sampling for a millimeter-scale spatial resolution and better than 100?ps time resolution. The technology is capable of continuous streaming of time- and location-tagged events at rates greater than 10(7) events per cm(2). Time-gating can be used for improved dynamic range. PMID:26289271
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, Kin P.; Killinger, Dennis K.
1992-01-01
Phase-sensitive coherent summation of individual heterodyne detector array signals was demonstrated for the enhanced detection of spatially distorted laser Doppler returns. With the use of a 2 x 2 heterodyne detector array, the phase and amplitude of a time-varying speckle pattern was detected, and the signal-to-noise ratio of the Doppler shift estimate was shown to be improved by a factor of 2, depending on the extent of spatial coherence loss. These results are shown to agree with a first-order analysis and indicate the advantage of coherent summation for both short-range laser Doppler velocimetry and long-range atmospheric coherent lidar.
Two-component vector solitons in defocusing Kerr-type media with spatially modulated nonlinearity
Zhong, Wei-Ping; Beli?, Milivoj
2014-12-15
We present a class of exact solutions to the coupled (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatially modulated nonlinearity and a special external potential, which describe the evolution of two-component vector solitons in defocusing Kerr-type media. We find a robust soliton solution, constructed with the help of Whittaker functions. For specific choices of the topological charge, the radial mode number and the modulation depth, the solitons may exist in various forms, such as the half-moon, necklace-ring, and sawtooth vortex-ring patterns. Our results show that the profile of such solitons can be effectively controlled by the topological charge, the radial mode number, and the modulation depth. - Highlights: • Two-component vector soliton clusters in defocusing Kerr-type media are reported. • These soliton clusters are constructed with the help of Whittaker functions. • The half-moon, necklace-ring and vortex-ring patterns are found. • The profile of these solitons can be effectively controlled by three soliton parameters.
spatial solitons Tristram J. Alexander Optical Sciences Centre, Research School of Physical Sciences modulational instability of plane waves, leading to the existence of stable two-wave dark and vortex spatial solitons. © 1998 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 190.7070, 190.5530, 190.3270. Dark spatial optical
Judi, David R; Mcpherson, Timothy N; Burian, Steven J
2009-01-01
A grid resolution sensitivity analysis using a two-dimensional flood inundation model has been presented in this paper. Simulations for 6 dam breaches located randomly in the United States were run at 10,30,60,90, and 120 meter resolutions. The dams represent a range of topographic conditions, ranging from 0% slope to 1.5% downstream of the dam. Using 10 meter digital elevation model (DEM) simulation results as the baseline, the coarser simulation results were compared in terms of flood inundation area, peak depths, flood wave travel time, daytime and nighttime population in flooded area, and economic impacts. The results of the study were consistent with previous grid resolution studies in terms of inundated area, depths, and velocity impacts. The results showed that as grid resolution is decreased, the relative fit of inundated area between the baseline and coarser resolution decreased slightly. This is further characterized by increasing over prediction as well as increasing under prediction with decreasing resolution. Comparison of average peak depths showed that depths generally decreased as resolution decreased, as well as the velocity. It is, however, noted that the trends in depth and velocity showed less consistency than the inundation area metrics. This may indicate that for studies in which velocity and depths must be resolved more accurately (urban environments when flow around buildings is important in the calculation of drag effects), higher resolution DEM data should be used. Perhaps the most significant finding from this study is the perceived insensitivity of socio-economic impacts to grid resolution. The difference in population at risk (PAR) and economic cost generally remained within 10% of the estimated impacts using the high resolution DEM. This insensitivity has been attributed to over estimated flood area and associated socio-economic impacts compensating for under estimated flooded area and associated socio-economic impacts. The United States has many dams that are classified as high-hazard potential that need an emergency action plan (EAP). It has been found that the development of EAPs for all high-hazard dams is handicapped due to funding limitations. The majority of the cost associated with developing an EAP is determining the flooded area. The results of this study have shown that coarse resolution dam breach studies can be used to provide an acceptable estimate of the inundated area and economic impacts, with very little computational cost. Therefore, the solution to limited funding may be to perform coarse resolution dam breach studies on high-hazard potential dams and use the results to help prioritize the order in which detailed EAPs should be developed.
Metz, Philipp; Adam, Jost; Gerken, Martina; Jalali, Bahram
2014-01-20
Minimally invasive surgery procedures benefit from a reduced size of endoscopic devices. A prospective path to implement miniaturized endoscopy is single optical-fiber-based spectrally encoded imaging. While simultaneous spectrally encoded inertial-scan-free imaging and laser microsurgery have been successfully demonstrated in a large table setup, a highly miniaturized optical design would promote the development of multipurpose endoscope heads. This paper presents a highly scalable, entirely transmissive axial design for a spectral 2D spatial disperser. The proposed design employs a grating prism and a virtual imaged phased array (VIPA). Based on semi-analytical device modeling, we performed a systematic parameter analysis to assess the spectral disperser's manufacturability and to obtain an optimum application-specific design. We found that, in particular, a low grating period combined with a high optical input bandwidth and low VIPA tilt showed favorable results in terms of a high spatial resolution, a small device diameter, and a large field of view. Our calculations reveal that a reasonable imaging performance can be achieved with system diameters of below 5 mm, which renders the proposed 2D spatial disperser design highly suitable for use in future endoscope heads that combine mechanical-scan-free imaging and laser microsurgery. PMID:24514122
Fateev, D. V. Popov, V. V.; Shur, M. S.
2010-11-15
We present the theory of plasmon excitation in a grating-gate transistor structure with spatially modulated 2D electron channel. The plasmon spectrum varies depending on the electron density modulation in the transistor channel. We report on the frequency ranges of plasmon mode excitation in the gated and ungated regions of the channel and on the interaction of these different types of plasmon modes. We show that a constructive influence of the ungated regions of the electron channel considerably increases the intensity of the gated plasmon resonances and reduces the plasmon-resonance linewidth in the grating-gated transistor structure.
Tsai, Hsin-Yi; Vats, Kanika; Yates, Matthew Z; Benoit, Danielle S W
2013-10-01
Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgels were patterned on polystyrene substrates via dip coating, creating cytocompatible substrates that provided spatial control over cell adhesion. This simple dip-coating method, which exploits variable substrate withdrawal speeds forming particle suspension stripes of densely packed PNIPAM microgels, while spacings between the stripes contained sparsely distributed PNIPAM microgels. The assembly of three different PNIPAM microgel patterns, namely, patterns composed of 50 ?m stripe/50 ?m spacing, 50 ?m stripe/100 ?m spacing, and 100 ?m stripe/100 ?m spacing, was verified using high-resolution optical micrographs and ImageJ analysis. PNIPAM microgels existed as monolayers within stripes and spacings, as revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Upon cell seeding on PNIPAM micropatterned substrates, NIH3T3 fibroblast cells preferentially adhered within spacings to form cell patterns. Three days after cell seeding, cells proliferated to form confluent cell layers. The thermoresponsiveness of the underlying PNIPAM microgels was then utilized to recover fibroblast cell sheets from substrates simply by lowering the temperature without disrupting the underlying PNIPAM microgel patterns. Harvested cell sheets similar to these have been used for multiple tissue engineering applications. Also, this simple, low-cost, template-free dip-coating technique can be utilized to micropattern multifunctional PNIPAM microgels, generating complex stimuli-responsive substrates to study cell-material interactions and allow drug delivery to cells in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. PMID:23968193
Li, H; Yang, D; Xiao, Z; Driewer, J; Han, Z; Low, D
2014-06-15
Purpose: Recent research has shown that KCl:Eu2+ has great potential for use in megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry because this material exhibits excellent storage performance and is reusable due to strong radiation hardness. This work reports our attempts to fabricate 2D KCl:Eu2+ storage phosphor films (SPFs) using both a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method and a tape casting method. Methods: A thin layer of KCl:Eu2+ was deposited on a substrate of borosilicate glass (e.g., laboratory slides) with a PVD system. For tape casting, a homogenous suspension containing storage phosphor particles, liquid vehicle and polymer binder was formed and subsequently cast by doctor-blade onto a polyethylene terephthalate substrate to form a 150 ?m thick SPF. Results: X ray diffraction analysis showed that a 10 ?m thick PVD sample was composed of highly crystalline KCl. No additional phases were observed, suggesting that the europium activator had completed been incorporated into the KCl matrix. Photostimulated luminescence and photoluminescence spectra suggested that F (Cl?) centers were the electron storage centers post x ray irradiation and that Eu2+ cations acted as luminescence centers in the photostimulation process. The 150 ?m thick casted KCl:Eu2+ SPF showed sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Monte Carlo simulations further demonstrated that the admixture of 20% KCl:Eu2+ and 80% low Z polymer binder exhibited almost no energy dependence in a 6 MV beam. KCl:Eu2+ pellet samples showed a large dynamic range from 0.01 cGy to 60 Gy dose-to-water, and saturated at approximately 500 Gy as a Result of its intrinsic high radiation hardness. Conclusions: This discovery research provides strong evidence that KCl:Eu2+ based SPF with associated readout apparatus could Result in a novel electronic film system that has all the desirable features associated with classic radiographic film and, importantly, water equivalence and the capability of permanent identification of each detector. This work was supported in part by NIH Grant No. R01CA148853. The authors would like to thank Paul Leblans (AGFA Healthcare, Belgium) for many helpful discussions on this topic.
Carmon, Tal
November 15, 2002 / Vol. 27, No. 22 / OPTICS LETTERS 2013 Spatial vector solitons consisting, New Jersey 08544 Received May 16, 2002 We present the experimental observation of a spatial vector observation of a vector soliton in which the induced waveguide (potential) is periodic in the propagation
Saffman, Mark
1998-01-01
-called screening spatial solitons at very moderate laser powers. This is in contrast to experimental realizations propagate as a spatial soliton [16]. The ease of their formation and manipulation using very low laser of spatial photorefractive solitons Wieslaw Kr´olikowski, Cornelia Denz, Andreas Stepken, Mark Saffman
Gligori?, Goran; Maluckov, Aleksandra; Hadžievski, Ljup?o; Malomed, Boris A
2014-06-01
Spatially periodic modulation of the intersite coupling in two-dimensional (2D) nonlinear lattices modifies the eigenvalue spectrum by opening mini-gaps in it. This work aims to build stable localized modes in the new bandgaps. Numerical analysis shows that single-peak and composite two- and four-peak discrete static solitons and breathers emerge as such modes in certain parameter areas inside the mini-gaps of the 2D superlattice induced by the periodic modulation of the intersite coupling along both directions. The single-peak solitons and four-peak discrete solitons are stable in a part of their existence domain, while unstable stationary states (in particular, two-soliton complexes) may readily transform into robust localized breathers. PMID:24985438
Wu Lei; Zhang Jiefang; Li Lu; Mihalache, Dumitru; Malomed, Boris A.; Liu, W. M.
2010-06-15
We construct exact solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for solitary vortices, and approximate ones for fundamental solitons, in two-dimensional models of Bose-Einstein condensates with a spatially modulated nonlinearity of either sign and a harmonic trapping potential. The number of vortex-soliton (VS) modes is determined by the discrete energy spectrum of a related linear Schroedinger equation. The VS families in the system with the attractive and repulsive nonlinearity are mutually complementary. Stable VSs with vorticity S{>=}2 and those corresponding to higher-order radial states are reported, in the case of the attraction and repulsion, respectively.
Assel'born, S A; Kundikova, N D; Novikov, I V
2008-09-30
The propagation of intensity-modulated laser radiation in a barium-sodium niobate crystal is studied in an external electric field. The possibility of controlling a nonlinear local response of the crystal is demonstrated. It is shown experimentally that the conditions of formation of a one-dimensional spatial soliton can be changed by varying the nonlinear response of the crystal. (solitons. breathers)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aseeva, N. V.; Gromov, E. M.; Tyutin, V. V.
2013-03-01
Solitons dynamics in the frame of the extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation taking into account space stimulated Raman scattering (SSRS), synchronic spatial variation of inhomogeneous second-order dispersion (SOD), and self-phase modulation (SPM) is considered both analytically and numerically. Compensation of soliton Raman self-wave number down shift by synchronically increasing SOD and SPM is shown. Analytical soliton solution as a result of the equilibrium of SSRS and increasing both SOD and SPM is found. Regime of the dynamical equilibrium of SSRS and inhomogeneous media with periodical variation of soliton's parameters is found. Analytical and numerical results are in a good agreement.
De Luca, Antonio; Coschignano, Gianluca; Umeton, Cesare; Morabito, Marco
2006-06-12
We report on the design, fabrication process and characterization of liquid crystal cells for investigation of optical spatial solitons. Controlling of the director orientation at the input interface, as well as in the bulk, allows to obtain configurations that can produce distinct optical phenomena in a light beam propagating in the cell. For a particular director configuration, it is possible to produce two waves inside the nematic liquid crystal cell: the extraordinary and the ordinary one. With a different director configuration, the extraordinary wave only is obtained, which propagates inside the cell at an angle of more than 7 degrees with respect to the impinging wave vector direction. Under this peculiar configuration and by applying an external voltage, it is possible to have a good control of the propagation direction of the optical spatial soliton. PMID:19516723
Boyarinov, V. F. Kondrushin, A. E. Fomichenko, P. A.
2014-12-15
Two-dimensional time-dependent finite-difference equations of the surface harmonics method (SHM) for the description of the neutron transport are derived for square-lattice reactors. These equations are implemented in the SUHAM-TD code. Verification of the derived equations and the developed code are performed by the example of known test problems, and the potential and efficiency of the SHM as applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron transport equation in the diffusion approximation in two-dimensional geometry are demonstrated. These results show the substantial advantage of SHM over direct finite-difference modeling in computational costs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zhen-Ya; Yan, Fang-Chi
2015-09-01
We study the existence of dark solitons of the defocusing cubic nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) eqaution with the spatially-periodic potential and nonlinearity. Firstly, we propose six families of upper and lower solutions of the dynamical systems arising from the stationary defocusing NLS equation. Secondly, by regarding a dark soliton as a heteroclinic orbit of the Poincaré map, we present some constraint conditions for the periodic potential and nonlinearity to show the existence of stationary dark solitons of the defocusing NLS equation for six different cases in terms of the theory of strict lower and upper solutions and the dynamics of planar homeomorphisms. Finally, we give the explicit dark solitons of the defocusing NLS equation with the chosen periodic potential and nonlinearity. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61178091, the National Key Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2011CB302400, and the Open Project Program of State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China under Grant No. Y4KF211CJ1
Tan, Chunhua; Cai, Shuhui; Huang, Yuqing
2015-01-01
Background and Purpose Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) constitutes a mainstream technique for characterizing biological samples. Benefiting from the separation of chemical shifts and J couplings, spatially localized two-dimensional (2D) J-resolved spectroscopy (JPRESS) shows better identification of complex metabolite resonances than one-dimensional MRS does and facilitates the extraction of J coupling information. However, due to variations of macroscopic magnetic susceptibility in biological samples, conventional JPRESS spectra generally suffer from the influence of field inhomogeneity. In this paper, we investigated the implementation of the localized 2D J-resolved spectroscopy based on intermolecular double-quantum coherences (iDQCs) on a 7 T MRI scanner. Materials and Methods A ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) aqueous solution, an intact pig brain tissue, and a whole fish (Harpadon nehereus) were explored by using the localized iDQC J-resolved spectroscopy (iDQCJRES) method, and the results were compared to those obtained by using the conventional 2D JPRESS method. Results Inhomogeneous line broadening, caused by the variations of macroscopic magnetic susceptibility in the detected biological samples (the intact pig brain tissue and the whole fish), degrades the quality of 2D JPRESS spectra, particularly when a large voxel is selected and some strongly structured components are included (such as the fish spinal cord). By contrast, high-resolution 2D J-resolved information satisfactory for metabolite analyses can be obtained from localized 2D iDQCJRES spectra without voxel size limitation and field shimming. From the contrastive experiments, it is obvious that the spectral information observed in the localized iDQCJRES spectra acquired from large voxels without field shimming procedure (i.e. in inhomogeneous fields) is similar to that provided by the JPRESS spectra acquired from small voxels after field shimming procedure (i.e. in relatively homogeneous fields). Conclusion The localized iDQCJRES method holds advantage for recovering high-resolution 2D J-resolved information from inhomogeneous fields caused by external non-ideal field condition or internal macroscopic magnetic susceptibility variations in biological samples, and it is free of voxel size limitation and time-consuming field shimming procedure. This method presents a complementary way to the conventional JPRESS method for MRS measurements on MRI systems equipped with broad inner bores, and may provide a promising tool for in vivo MRS applications. PMID:26207739
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhartova, Yulia; Olchev, Alexander; Shapkina, Natalia
2014-05-01
Within the framework of the study a two dimensional hydrodynamic high-resolution model of the energy, H2O, CO2 turbulent exchange was developed and applied to describe effect of the horizontal and vertical heterogeneity of a forest canopy on CO2exchange between soil surface, forest stand and the atmosphere under different weather conditions. Most attention in the study was paid to analyze the influence of forest clearing, windthrow of different sizes, forest edges, etc. on turbulent exchange rate and CO2 flux partitioning between forest overstorey, understorey and soil surface. The modeling experiments were provided under different wind conditions, thermal stratification of the atmospheric boundary layer, incoming solar radiation, etc. To quantify effect of spatial heterogeneity on total ecosystem fluxes the modeling results were compared with CO2 fluxes modeled for a spatially uniform forest canopy under similar ambient conditions. The averaged system of hydrodynamic equations is used for calculating the components of the mean velocity ?V = {V1, V2}: ( ( ) ) ?Vi+ V ?Vi= - 1-??P- - -?- ? E - K ?Vi-+ ?Vj- + F, ?Vi = 0, ?t j?xj ?0 ?xi ?xj ij ?xj ?xi i ?xi where E is the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), K is the turbulent diffusivity, ?P is the deviation of pressure from the hydrostatic distribution and ?0?F is the averaged force of air flow interaction with vegetation. F? was parameterized as ?F = -cd ·LAD ·| | ||V?||·?V, where cd is the drag coefficient and LAD is the leaf area density. The turbulent diffusivity K can be expressed by means of TKE and the velocity of TKE dissipation ? as follows: K = C?E2?-1, where C? is the proportionality coefficient. One of the ways to obtain E and ? is to solve the additional system of two differential equations of diffusion-transport type: ( ) ( ) ?E- -?E- -?- -K-?E- ?-? ??- -?- K-?? -? ( 1 2 ) ?t +Vj?xj = ?xi ?E ?xi +PE - ?, ?t +Vj ?xj = ?xi ???xi +E C ?PE - C?? - ? ?, where ?E and ?? are the Prandtl numbers, PE is the TKE production by shear, C?1 and C?2 are the model constants. The term ?? = ?- E(C ?1 - C?2) · 12C?1/2c dLAD||? || |V |E describes the increase of TKE dissipation due to the interaction with vegetation elements. The function ? can be any of the following variables: ?, ?/ E, or El, where l is the mixing length. Detailed analysis of these equations performed by Sogachev (Sogachev, Panferov, 2006) showed that for ? = ?/ E the model is less sensible to the errors of the input data. Transfer equation for CO2 within and above a plant canopy can be written as: ( ) ?C- -?C- -?- -K-?C- ?t + Vj?xj = ?xi ?C ?xi + FC, where C is CO2 concentration, ?C is the Prandtl number, and the term FC describes the sources/sinks of CO2 in the vegetation and soil. For parameterization of the photosynthesis rate in the forest canopy the Monsi and Saeki approach (Monsi M., Saeki T., 1953) was applied. Stem respiration was ignored in the study. The CO2 emission from the soil surface into the atmosphere was assumed to be constant for entire forest area. This study was supported by grants of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR 14-04-01568-a).
Imaging Magnetic Focusing in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
Imaging Magnetic Focusing in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas A dissertation presented by Katherine E Author Robert M. Westervelt Katherine E. Aidala Imaging Magnetic Focusing in a Two-Dimensional Electron heterostructures is to spatially image their motion. The two-dimensional electron gas has proved its interest
Thermal lensing-induced bifocusing of spatial solitons in Kerr-type optical media
Dikande, Alain M
2011-01-01
Thermo-optical effects cause a bifocusing of incoming beams in optical media, due to the birefringence created by a thermal lens that can resolve the incoming beams into two-component signals of different polarizations. We propose a non-perturbative theoretical description of the process of formation of double-pulse solitons in Kerr optical media with a thermally-induced birefringence, based on solving simultaneously the heat equation and the propagation equation for a beam in a one-dimensional medium with uniform heat flux load. By means of a non-isospectral Inverse Scattering Transform assuming an initial solution with a pulse shape, a one-soliton solution to the wave equation is obtained that represents a double-pulse beam which characteristic properties depend strongly on the profile of heat spatial distribution.
Thermal lensing-induced bifocusing of spatial solitons in Kerr-type optical media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dikandé, A. M.
2011-05-01
Thermo-optical effects cause a bifocusing of incoming beams in optical media, due to the birefringence created by a thermal lens that can resolve the incoming beams into two-component signals of different polarizations. We propose a nonperturbative theoretical description of the process of formation of double-pulse solitons in Kerr optical media with a thermally induced birefringence, based on solving simultaneously the heat equation and the propagation equation for a beam in a one-dimensional medium with uniform heat flux load. By means of a nonisospectral Inverse Scattering Transform assuming an initial solution with a pulse shape, a one-soliton solution to the wave equation is obtained that represents a double-pulse beam whose characteristic properties depend strongly on the profile of heat spatial distribution.
Waveguides formed by incoherent dark solitons.
Chen, Z; Segev, M; Christodoulides, D N; Feigelson, R S
1999-08-15
We demonstrate experimentally optical guidance of coherent light beams, using incoherent light. Such guidance is made possible by generation of partially spatially incoherent self-trapped dark beams (dark incoherent solitons) in a noninstantaneous nonlinear medium. In the one-dimensional case, the incoherent solitons induce single and Y-junction planar waveguides, whereas in the two-dimensional case, they form circular waveguides. These experiments introduce the possibility of controlling high-power laser beams with low-power incoherent light sources such as LED's or lightbulbs. PMID:18073972
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juday, Richard D. (inventor)
1992-01-01
A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Yan-Li; Jiang, Qi-Chang; Ji, Xuan-Mang
2010-05-01
The incoherently coupled grey-grey screening-photovoltaic spatial soliton pairs are predicted in biased two-photon photovoltaic photorefractive crystals under steady-state conditions. These grey-grey screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs can be established provided that the incident beams have the same polarization, wavelength, and are mutually incoherent. The grey-grey screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs can be considered as the united form of grey-grey screening soliton pairs and open or closed-circuit grey-grey photovoltaic soliton pairs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Qi-Chang; Su, Yan-Li; Ji, Xuan-Mang
2010-12-01
The temporal property of grey screening spatial solitons due to two-photon photorefractive effect in low-amplitude regime is analyzed. The results indicate that a broad solitons is generated at the beginning, and as time evolves, the intensity width of grey solitons decreases monotonically to a minimum value toward steady state. In the same propagation time, the FWHM of solitons decreases with ? increasing or m decreasing. Moreover, the formation time of solitons is independent of ? and m. The time is close to a constant determined by the dielectric relaxation time.
Accessible solitons in complex Ginzburg-Landau media.
He, Yingji; Malomed, Boris A
2013-10-01
We construct dissipative spatial solitons in one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equations with spatially uniform linear gain; fully nonlocal complex nonlinearity, which is proportional to the integral power of the field times the harmonic-oscillator (HO) potential, similar to the model of "accessible solitons;" and a diffusion term. This CGL equation is a truly nonlinear one, unlike its actually linear counterpart for the accessible solitons. It supports dissipative spatial solitons, which are found in a semiexplicit analytical form, and their stability is studied semianalytically, too, by means of the Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The stability requires the presence of both the nonlocal nonlinear loss and diffusion. The results are verified by direct simulations of the nonlocal CGL equation. Unstable solitons spontaneously spread out into fuzzy modes, which remain loosely localized in the effective complex HO potential. In a narrow zone close to the instability boundary, both 1D and 2D solitons may split into robust fragmented structures, which correspond to excited modes of the 1D and 2D HOs in the complex potentials. The 1D solitons, if shifted off the center or kicked, feature persistent swinging motion. PMID:24229254
Gray and dark spatial solitons supported by two-photon isomerization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongcheng; Zhang, Bingzhi; Yan, Lifen; Li, Yanggang; Zheng, Guoliang; She, Weilong
2007-07-01
A theory is presented to show that gray and dark solitons can exist in bulk polymers with two-photon isomerization (TPI) nonlinearity. The soliton FWHM, intensity and phase profiles are discussed in detail. In addition, the stability properties of these TPI solitons are also investigated by employing the stability criterion based on the renormalized momentum.
Ultra-narrow Bright Spatial Solitons Interacting with Left-handed Surfaces
Allan D. Boardman; Larry Velasco; Neil King; Yuriy Rapoport
2006-03-13
A vectorial FDTD method is used to present a numerical study of very narrow spatial solitons interacting with the surface of what has become known as a left-handed medium. After a comprehensive discussion of the background and the family of surface modes to be expected on a left-handed material, bounded by dispersion-free right-handed material, it is demonstrated that robust outcomes of the FDTD approach yield dramatic confirmation of these waves. The FDTD results show how the linear and nonlinear surface modes are created and can be tracked in time as they develop. It is shown how they can move backwards, or forwards, depending either upon a critical value of the local nonlinear conditions at the interface, or the ambient linear conditions. Several examples are given to demonstrate the power and versatility of the method, and the sensitivity to the launching conditions.
Columbo, L L; Rizza, C; Brambilla, M; Prati, F; Tissoni, G
2014-03-24
We theoretically demonstrate the realization of a complete canonical set of all-optical logic gates (AND, OR, NOT), with a persistent (stored) output, by combining propagative spatial solitons in a photorefractive crystal and dissipative cavity solitons in a downstream broad-area vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). The system uses same-color, optical-axis aligned input and output channels with fixed readout locations, while switching from one gate to another is achieved by simply varying the potential applied to the photorefractive crystal. The inputs are Gaussian beams launched in the photorefractive crystal and the output is a bistable, persistent soliton in the VCSEL with a 'robust' eye diagram and large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Fast switching and intrinsic parallelism suggest that high bit flow rates can be obtained. PMID:24664042
Topological Solitons in Physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parsa, Zohreh
1979-01-01
A broad definition of solitons and a discussion of their role in physics is given. Vortices and magnetic monopoles which are examples of topological solitons in two and three spatial dimensions are described in some detail. (BB)
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1997-11-18
QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.
Two-dimensional optimal sensor placement
Zhang, H.
1995-05-01
A method for determining the optimal two-dimensional spatial placement of multiple sensors participating in a robot perception task is introduced in this paper. This work is motivated by the fact that sensor data fusion is an effective means of reducing uncertainties in sensor observations, and that the combined uncertainty varies with the relative placement of the sensors with respect to each other. The problem of optimal sensor placement is formulated and a solution is presented in the two dimensional space. The algebraic structure of the combined sensor uncertainty with respect to the placement of sensor is studied. A necessary condition for optimal placement is derived and this necessary condition is used to obtain an efficient closed-form solution for the global optimal placement. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the solution. 11 refs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackman, Charles H.; Douglass, Anne R.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Guthrie, Paul D.; Thompson, A. M.
1990-01-01
A two dimensional (altitude and latitude) model of the atmosphere is used to investigate problems relating to the variability of the dynamics and temperature of the atmosphere on the ozone distribution, solar cycle variations of atmospheric constituents, the sensitivity of model results to tropospheric trace gas sources, and assessment computations of changes in ozone related to manmade influences. In a comparison between two dimensional model results in which the odd nitrogen family was transported together and model results in which the odd nitrogen species was transported separately, it was found that the family approximations are adequate for perturbation scenario calculations.
Anomalous interactions of spatial gap solitons in optically induced photonic lattices
Chen, Zhigang
of energy transfer direction and a transition between at- tractive and repulsive interaction forces can interaction forces can be obtained solely by changing the initial soliton separation relative to the lattice
Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization
Amaral, R.L.P.G.
2005-12-15
The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized.
Observability for two dimensional systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, L. R.; Su, R.
1981-01-01
Sufficient conditions that a two-dimensional system with output is locally observable are presented. Known results depend on time derivatives of the output and the inverse function theorem. In some cases, no informaton is provided by these theories, and one must study observability by other methods. The observability problem is dualized to the controllability problem, and the deep results of Hermes on local controllability are applied to prove a theorem concerning local observability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juday, Richard D.
1992-01-01
Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.
Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.
Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)
2006-12-01
This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.
Two-Dimensional Synthetic-Aperture Radiometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
LeVine, David M.
2010-01-01
A two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer, now undergoing development, serves as a test bed for demonstrating the potential of aperture synthesis for remote sensing of the Earth, particularly for measuring spatial distributions of soil moisture and ocean-surface salinity. The goal is to use the technology for remote sensing aboard a spacecraft in orbit, but the basic principles of design and operation are applicable to remote sensing from aboard an aircraft, and the prototype of the system under development is designed for operation aboard an aircraft. In aperture synthesis, one utilizes several small antennas in combination with a signal processing in order to obtain resolution that otherwise would require the use of an antenna with a larger aperture (and, hence, potentially more difficult to deploy in space). The principle upon which this system is based is similar to that of Earth-rotation aperture synthesis employed in radio astronomy. In this technology the coherent products (correlations) of signals from pairs of antennas are obtained at different antenna-pair spacings (baselines). The correlation for each baseline yields a sample point in a Fourier transform of the brightness-temperature map of the scene. An image of the scene itself is then reconstructed by inverting the sampled transform. The predecessor of the present two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer is a one-dimensional one, named the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR). Operating in the L band, the ESTAR employs aperture synthesis in the cross-track dimension only, while using a conventional antenna for resolution in the along-track dimension. The two-dimensional instrument also operates in the L band to be precise, at a frequency of 1.413 GHz in the frequency band restricted for passive use (no transmission) only. The L band was chosen because (1) the L band represents the long-wavelength end of the remote- sensing spectrum, where the problem of achieving adequate spatial resolution is most critical and (2) imaging airborne instruments that operate in this wavelength range and have adequate spatial resolution are difficult to build and will be needed in future experiments to validate approaches for remote sensing of soil moisture and ocean salinity. The two-dimensional instrument includes a rectangular array of patch antennas arranged in the form of a cross. The ESTAR uses analog correlation for one dimension, whereas the two-dimensional instrument uses digital correlation. In two dimensions, many more correlation pairs are needed and low-power digital correlators suitable for application in spaceborne remote sensing will help enable this technology. The two-dimensional instrument is dual-polarized and, with modification, capable of operating in a polarimetric mode. A flight test of the instrument took place in June 2003 and it participated in soil moisture experiments during the summers of 2003 and 2004.
Jisha, C P; Kuriakose, V C; Porsezian, K
2005-05-01
Propagation of an optical high-power cylindrically symmetric beam in a material characterized by cubic-quintic nonlinearity is studied both analytically and numerically. In this case we have to consider the self-defocusing effect caused by the presence of free electrons produced due to plasma formation. The variational method is used to study the system analytically. The finite-difference beam propagation method is used for the numerical analysis. Stable (2+1) D spatial solitons are observed. The analytical results are found to be in very good agreement with the numerical results. PMID:16089676
Collisional-inhomogeneity-induced generation of matter-wave dark solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, C.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Horikis, T. P.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.
2010-08-01
We propose an experimentally relevant protocol for the controlled generation of matter-wave dark solitons in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). In particular, using direct numerical simulations, we show that by switching-on a spatially inhomogeneous (step-like) change of the s-wave scattering length, it is possible to generate a controllable number of dark solitons in a quasi-one-dimensional BEC. A similar phenomenology is also found in the two-dimensional setting of “disk-shaped” BECs but, as the solitons are subject to the snaking instability, they decay into vortex structures. A detailed investigation of how the parameters involved affect the emergence and evolution of solitons and vortices is provided.
Two-Dimensional Colloidal Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Law, Adam D.; Buzza, D. Martin A.; Horozov, Tommy S.
2011-03-01
We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3?m diameter) and small (1?m diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ?. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations.
Two-dimensional colloidal alloys.
Law, Adam D; Buzza, D Martin A; Horozov, Tommy S
2011-03-25
We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3 ?m diameter) and small (1 ?m diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ?. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations. PMID:21517357
Saffman, Mark
November 1997) We investigate the interaction of mutually incoherent spatial solitons in photorefractive of Spatial Solitons in Photorefractive Media Wieslaw Królikowski,1 M. Saffman,2 Barry Luther-Davies,1 and Cornelia Denz3 1 Australian Photonics Cooperative Research Centre, Laser Physics Centre, Research School
Spin-imbalanced quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gases.
Ong, W; Cheng, Chingyun; Arakelyan, I; Thomas, J E
2015-03-20
We measure the density profiles for a Fermi gas of (6)Li containing N(1) spin-up atoms and N(2) spin-down atoms, confined in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry. The spatial profiles are measured as a function of spin imbalance N(2)/N(1) and interaction strength, which is controlled by means of a collisional (Feshbach) resonance. The measured cloud radii and central densities are in disagreement with mean-field Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory for a true two-dimensional system. We find that the data for normal-fluid mixtures are reasonably well fit by a simple two-dimensional polaron model of the free energy. Not predicted by the model is a phase transition to a spin-balanced central core, which is observed above a critical value of N(2)/N(1). Our observations provide important benchmarks for predictions of the phase structure of quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gases. PMID:25839246
Solitons on Tori and Soliton Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speight, J. M.
2014-11-01
Necessary conditions for a soliton on a torus to be a soliton crystal, that is, a spatially periodic array of topological solitons in stable equilibrium, are derived. The stress tensor of the soliton must be L 2 orthogonal to , the space of parallel symmetric bilinear forms on TM, and, further, a certain symmetric bilinear form on , called the hessian, must be positive. It is shown that, for baby Skyrme models, the first condition actually implies the second. It is also shown that, for any choice of period lattice ?, there is a baby Skyrme model which supports a soliton crystal of periodicity ?. For the three-dimensional Skyrme model, it is shown that any soliton solution on a cubic lattice which satisfies a virial constraint and is equivariant with respect to (a subgroup of) the lattice symmetries automatically satisfies both tests. This verifies, in particular, that the celebrated Skyrme crystal of Castillejo et al., and Kugler and Shtrikman, passes both tests.
Spatial Raman solitons D. D. Yavuz, D. R. Walker, and M. Y. Shverdin
Yavuz, Deniz
in many different systems including three-frequency solitons in media with second-order nonlinearity 11 prepared molecules can generate a collinearly propagating comb of Raman sidebands with many octaves-mode laser fields whose frequency difference is slightly detuned from the Raman resonance. When
Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy
Croasmun, W.R.; Carlson, R.M.K.
1987-01-01
Written for chemists and biochemists who are not NMR spectroscopists, but who wish to use the new techniques of two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, this book brings together for the first time much of the practical and experimental data needed. It also serves as information source for industrial, academic, and graduate student researchers who already use NMR spectroscopy, but not yet in two dimensions. The authors describe the use of 2-D NMR in a wide variety of chemical and biochemical fields, among them peptides, steroids, oligo- and poly-saccharides, nucleic acids, natural products (including terpenoids, alkaloids, and coal-derived heterocyclics), and organic synthetic intermediates. They consider throughout the book both the advantages and limitations of using 2-D NMR.
Two-dimensional capillary origami
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.
2016-01-01
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.
Two-dimensional QCD and strings
D. J. Gross; W. Taylor
1993-11-12
A review is given of recent research on two-dimensional gauge theories, with particular emphasis on the equivalence between these theories and certain string theories with a two-dimensional target space. Some related open problems are discussed.
Two Dimensional QCD is a String Theory
David J. Gross; Washington Taylor
1993-01-18
The partition function of two dimensional QCD on a Riemann surface of area $A$ is expanded as a power series in $1/N$ and $A$. It is shown that the coefficients of this expansion are precisely determined by a sum over maps from a two dimensional surface onto the two dimensional target space. Thus two dimensional QCD has a simple interpretation as a closed string theory.
Shaping solitons by lattice defects
Dong Liangwei; Ye Fangwei
2010-11-15
We demonstrate the existence of shape-preserving self-localized nonlinear modes in a two-dimensional photonic lattice with a flat-topped defect that covers several lattice sites. The balance of diffraction, defocusing nonlinearity, and optical potential induced by lattices with various forms of defects results in novel families of solitons featuring salient properties. We show that the soliton shape can be controlled by varying the shape of lattice defects. The existence domains of fundamental and vortex solitons in the semi-infinite gap expand with the defect amplitude. Vortex solitons in the semi-infinite gap with rectangular intensity distributions will break into dipole solitons when the propagation constant exceeds a critical value. In the semi-infinite and first-finite gaps, we find that lattices with rectangular defects can support stable vortex solitons which exhibit noncanonical phase structure.
Assel'born, Sergei A; Kundikova, Nataliya D; Novikov, Igor' V
2010-02-28
A change in the refractive index of a photorefractive barium-sodium niobate crystal in an alternating electric field during the propagation of intensity-modulated coherent radiation in it is studied. It is shown experimentally that a change in the refractive index in the soliton regime in a photorefractive crystal with a small nonlocal response is independent of the external-field amplitude and intensity-modulation depth. (nonlinear-optics phenomena)
Dubrovsky, V. G.; Topovsky, A. V.; Basalaev, M. Yu.
2010-09-15
The classes of exactly solvable multiline soliton potentials and corresponding wave functions of two-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation via {partial_derivative}-dressing method are constructed and their physical interpretation is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tikhonenko, Vladimir; Christou, Jason; Luther-Daves, Barry
1995-11-01
We report the generation of three-dimensional bright spatial solitary waves by the breakup of an optical vortex in a saturable self-focusing nonlinear medium. An elliptical Gaussian beam from a Ti:sapphire laser containing a singly charged on-axis vortex was passed through a nonlinear medium consisting of rubidium vapor at low concentrations. The modulational instability resulted in the formation of a pair of out-of-phase solitonlike beams, which spiraled away from each other during propagation as a result of the repulsive nature of their interaction. The rate of rotation and separation of the two soliton beams could be controlled by the parameters of the medium and the laser intensity. Numerical analysis of the propagation based on a model nonlinearity corresponding to a strongly saturated two-level system showed good quantitative agreement with the experimental data. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America
Evolution of relativistic solitons in underdense plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yue; Klimo, Ondrej; Gu, Yanjun; Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Sushil; Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Weber, Stefan; Korn, Georg
2015-05-01
Relativistic solitons arising from the interaction of an intense laser pulse with underdense plasmas are investigated. We show the formation and evolution of the relativistic solitons in a collisionless cold plasma with two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Such a kind of solitons will evolve into postsolitons if the time scale is longer than the ion response time. Generally, a substantial part of the pulse energy is transformed into solitons during the soliton formation. This fairly high efficiency of electromagnetic energy transformation can play an important role in the interaction between the laser pulse and the plasma. The energy exchange between the electromagnetic field and the kinetic energy of the soliton is discussed. In homogeneous plasmas, the solitons tend to stay close to the region where they are generated and dissipate due to the interaction with surrounding particles eventually. While the laser pulse propagates through inhomogeneous plasmas, the solitons are accelerated along the plasma density gradient towards lower density.
Two-dimensional supersonic nonlinear Schroedinger flow past an extended obstacle
El, G. A.; Khodorovskii, V. V.; Kamchatnov, A. M.; Annibale, E. S.; Gammal, A.
2009-10-15
Supersonic flow of a superfluid past a slender impenetrable macroscopic obstacle is studied in the framework of the two-dimensional (2D) defocusing nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation. This problem is of fundamental importance as a dispersive analog of the corresponding classical gas-dynamics problem. Assuming the oncoming flow speed is sufficiently high, we asymptotically reduce the original boundary-value problem for a steady flow past a slender body to the one-dimensional dispersive piston problem described by the nonstationary NLS equation, in which the role of time is played by the stretched x coordinate and the piston motion curve is defined by the spatial body profile. Two steady oblique spatial dispersive shock waves (DSWs) spreading from the pointed ends of the body are generated in both half planes. These are described analytically by constructing appropriate exact solutions of the Whitham modulation equations for the front DSW and by using a generalized Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule for the oblique dark soliton fan in the rear DSW. We propose an extension of the traditional modulation description of DSWs to include the linear ''ship-wave'' pattern forming outside the nonlinear modulation region of the front DSW. Our analytic results are supported by direct 2D unsteady numerical simulations and are relevant to recent experiments on Bose-Einstein condensates freely expanding past obstacles.
Two-dimensional supersonic nonlinear Schrödinger flow past an extended obstacle.
El, G A; Kamchatnov, A M; Khodorovskii, V V; Annibale, E S; Gammal, A
2009-10-01
Supersonic flow of a superfluid past a slender impenetrable macroscopic obstacle is studied in the framework of the two-dimensional (2D) defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. This problem is of fundamental importance as a dispersive analog of the corresponding classical gas-dynamics problem. Assuming the oncoming flow speed is sufficiently high, we asymptotically reduce the original boundary-value problem for a steady flow past a slender body to the one-dimensional dispersive piston problem described by the nonstationary NLS equation, in which the role of time is played by the stretched x coordinate and the piston motion curve is defined by the spatial body profile. Two steady oblique spatial dispersive shock waves (DSWs) spreading from the pointed ends of the body are generated in both half planes. These are described analytically by constructing appropriate exact solutions of the Whitham modulation equations for the front DSW and by using a generalized Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule for the oblique dark soliton fan in the rear DSW. We propose an extension of the traditional modulation description of DSWs to include the linear "ship-wave" pattern forming outside the nonlinear modulation region of the front DSW. Our analytic results are supported by direct 2D unsteady numerical simulations and are relevant to recent experiments on Bose-Einstein condensates freely expanding past obstacles. PMID:19905446
Two Dimensional QCD as a String Theory
David J. Gross
1992-12-24
I explore the possibility of finding an equivalent string representation of two dimensional QCD. I develop the large N expansion of the ${\\rm QCD_2}$ partition function on an arbitrary two dimensional Euclidean manifold. If this is related to a two-dimensional string theory then many of the coefficients of the ${1\\over N}$ expansion must vanish. This is shown to be true to all orders, giving strong evidence for the existence of a string representation.
Near soliton evolution for equivariant Schroedinger Maps in two spatial dimensions
Bejenaru, Ioan
2010-01-01
We consider the Schr\\"odinger Map equation in $2+1$ dimensions, with values into $\\S^2$. This admits a lowest energy steady state $Q$, namely the stereographic projection, which extends to a two dimensional family of steady states by scaling and rotation. We prove that $Q$ is unstable in the energy space $\\dot H^1$. However, in the process of proving this we also show that within the equivariant class $Q$ is stable in a stronger topology $X \\subset \\dot H^1$.
Measuring Monotony in Two-Dimensional Samples
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias
2010-01-01
This note introduces a monotony coefficient as a new measure of the monotone dependence in a two-dimensional sample. Some properties of this measure are derived. In particular, it is shown that the absolute value of the monotony coefficient for a two-dimensional sample is between /"r"/ and 1, where "r" is the Pearson's correlation coefficient for…
Approach for two-dimensional velocity mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abado, Shaddy; Gordeyev, Stanislav; Jumper, Eric
2013-07-01
A method for extracting the convection speed and direction of aberrations present in wavefronts due to aero-optical turbulence over the pupil of a turret on the side of an airborne platform is addressed. The method is applied to data from the Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory (AAOL). Such convection information is useful in designing feed-forward adaptive-optic approaches. The method makes use of a four-beam Malley probe technique derived by constructing a two-dimensional (2-D) local convective velocity-distribution over the beam's aperture. This technique is based on extending the analysis of the Notre-Dame-developed Malley probe. Two wavefront datasets (Azimuth 157 deg and Elevation 40 deg Azimuth 42 deg and Elevation 43 deg) from the AAOL are analyzed using the derived method, the first where the laser propagates through fully-separated flow and the second where the laser propagates through an attached-flow region. Finally, the 2-D proper orthogonal decomposition is applied to one in-flight measured dataset to determine the spatial requirements of deformable mirrors in an adaptive-optics system. The paper concludes with a discussion that points out the usefulness of the 2-D velocity-distributions in characterizing the various flow structures which convect over the aperture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drummond, Peter D.; Haelterman, Marc; Vilaseca, R.
2004-05-01
In recent years there has been an increased interest in the study of localized structures of light, which defy dispersion or diffraction and represent the `particle-like' counterpart of the more common extended light structures. It has been shown that different types of nonlinearities of optical materials (absorptive, dispersive, second-order, third-order, two-photon, etc) can be used to prevent longitudinal and/or transverse spreading of light pulses, leading to optical solitons which could be used as bits of information in both sequential or parallel transmission and processing configurations. Although all cavity solitons share common features, a variety of nuances show up which give rise to different classes of optical solitons. For instance, we can speak of conservative and dissipative optical solitons, the conservative ones usually appearing as propagating light pulses whereas the dissipative ones appear as `stored' in passive or active optical resonators. We can also speak of optical solitons which carry angular momentum, or are `vectorial' (composed of two or more coupled fields), or can be localized in the three spatial dimensions (like `light bullets'), or can couple with neighbouring solitons to from solitonic `molecules', or can interact with neighbours leading to repulsion or collapse, or can move in transverse directions, or can be `grey' or `dark' instead of `bright', or can form in periodic material structures (as in the case of gap solitons and mid-band solitons), or can have associated quantum effects, etc. Last but not least, the similarity between the equations governing light propagation in certain nonlinear media and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, has opened new avenues of research where the expertise gained with optical nonlinearities, and in particular with optical solitons, can be used to predict new phenomena in the field of Bose-Einstein condensation. The call for papers for this Special Issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics included (but was not limited to) the following topics: bullet Properties, control and dynamics of temporal solitons bullet Properties, control and dynamics of spatial solitons bullet Cavity solitons in passive and active resonators bullet Three-dimensional spatial solitons bullet Dark, bright and grey solitons; interface dynamics bullet Compound or vector solitons; incoherent solitons bullet Light and matter solitons in BEC bullet Nonlinear localized structures in microstructured and nanostructured materials (photonic crystals, etc) bullet Angular momentum effects associated with localized light structures; vortex solitons bullet Quantum effects associated with localized light structures bullet Interaction of solitons with atoms and other media bullet Applications of optical solitons In the 35 papers accepted for publication in this Special Issue, most of these aspects related to optical solitons have been considered, either from fundamental or applied points of view. We hope that this collection of papers, appearing together, will help the reader to better appreciate the richness of phenomena associated with optical solitons and will stimulate new ideas for progress in both theoretical and experimental areas of the field. Finally, we take the opportunity to express our gratitude to both authors and reviewers, for their efforts in preparing and ensuring the high quality of the papers in this Special Issue.
Simulation of two-dimensional vortex dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minnhagen, Petter; Westman, Olof
1994-02-01
The two-dimensional XY model is simulated with a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau type dynamics. The data are, in the limit of small driving force, well described by the Minnhagen phenomenology for vortex dynamics of a two-dimensional superfluid. This phenomenology is different and distinguishable from the conventional AHNS phenomenology. The Minnhagen phenomenology has been observed in recent experiments on Josephson-junction arrays and high- Tc BSCCO films. The present simulations suggest that this reflects an intrinsic property of the vortex dynamics for a two-dimensional superfluid.
Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.
2014-06-01
A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.
Two-dimensional materials for electronic applications
Wang, Han, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2013-01-01
The successful isolation of graphene in 2004 has attracted great interest to search for potential applications of this unique material and other members of the two-dimensional materials family in electronics, optoelectronics ...
Two-dimensional order and disorder thermofields
Belvedere, L. V.
2006-11-15
The main objective of this paper was to obtain the two-dimensional order and disorder thermal operators using the Thermofield Bosonization formalism. We show that the general property of the two-dimensional world according with the bosonized Fermi field at zero temperature can be constructed as a product of an order and a disorder variables which satisfy a dual field algebra holds at finite temperature. The general correlation functions of the order and disorder thermofields are obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hai; Yang, Chuping
2011-02-01
A two-dimensional multiscale windowed Fourier transform (2D-MWFT), based on two-dimensional Gabor wavelet transform (2D-GWT), for the phase extraction from a spatial fringe pattern in fringe projection profilometry is presented. First, the instantaneous frequencies on x and y direction of the modulated fringe pattern are determined by 2D-GWT, and then the local stationary lengths are obtained. The 2D-MWFT with different two-dimensional Gaussian windows whose width is set according to the local stationary length is preformed for each section of the modulated fringe pattern to achieve multiresolution analysis and phase demodulation. Comparing the result of the phase demodulated by 2D-GWT and two-dimensional windowed Fourier transform (2D-WFT) with that by 2D-MWFT in a numerical simulation, we show that the 2D-MWFT method is superior to these methods, especially for the local non-stationary signal with low frequency. The theory and the results of a simulation and experiment are shown.
Two-dimensional von Neumann--Wigner potentials with a multiple positive eigenvalue
R. G. Novikov; I. A. Taimanov; S. P. Tsarev
2013-07-19
By the Moutard transformation method we construct two-dimensional Schrodinger operators with real smooth potential decaying at infinity and with a multiple positive eigenvalue. These potentials are rational functions of spatial variables and their sines and cosines.
Solitons and ionospheric modification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheerin, J. P.; Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Hansen, P. J.; Weatherall, J. C.; Goldman, M. V.
1982-01-01
The possibility of Langmuir soliton formation and collapse during ionospheric modification is investigated. Parameters characterizing former facilities, existing facilities, and planned facilities are considered, using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. At a spatial location corresponding to the exact classical reflection point of the modifier wave, the Langmuir wave evolution is found to be dominated by modulational instability followed by soliton formation and three-dimensional collapse. The earth's magnetic field is found to affect the shape of the collapsing soliton. These results provide an alternative explanation for some recent observations.
Constituent Quarks as Solitons
John Ellis; Yitzhak Frishman; Marek Karliner
1991-10-02
We exhibit soliton solutions of QCD in two dimensions that have the quantum numbers of quarks. They exist only for quarks heavier than the dimensional gauge coupling, and have infinite energy, corresponding to the presence of a string carrying the non-singlet color flux off to spatial infinity. The quark solitons also disappear at finite temperature, as the temperature-dependent effective quark mass is reduced in the approach to the quark/hadron phase transition.
Entanglement Entropy in Two-Dimensional String Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartnoll, Sean A.; Mazenc, Edward A.
2015-09-01
To understand an emergent spacetime is to understand the emergence of locality. Entanglement entropy is a powerful diagnostic of locality, because locality leads to a large amount of short distance entanglement. Two-dimensional string theory is among the very simplest instances of an emergent spatial dimension. We compute the entanglement entropy in the large-N matrix quantum mechanics dual to two-dimensional string theory in the semiclassical limit of weak string coupling. We isolate a logarithmically large, but finite, contribution that corresponds to the short distance entanglement of the tachyon field in the emergent spacetime. From the spacetime point of view, the entanglement is regulated by a nonperturbative "graininess" of space.
Two-dimensional attosecond electron wave-packet interferometry.
Xie, Xinhua
2015-05-01
We propose a two-dimensional interferometry based on the electron wave-packet interference by using a cycle-shaped orthogonally polarized two-color laser field. With such a method, the subcycle and intercycle interferences can be disentangled into different directions in the measured photoelectron momentum spectra. The Coulomb influence can be minimized and the overlapping of interference fringes with the complicated low-energy structures can be avoided as well. The contributions of the excitation effect and the long-range Coulomb potential can be traced in the Fourier domain of the photoelectron distribution. Because of these advantages, precise information on valence electron dynamics of atoms or molecules with attosecond temporal resolution and additional spatial information with angstrom resolution can be obtained with the two-dimensional electron wave-packet interferometry. PMID:25978229
Entanglement Entropy in Two-Dimensional String Theory.
Hartnoll, Sean A; Mazenc, Edward A
2015-09-18
To understand an emergent spacetime is to understand the emergence of locality. Entanglement entropy is a powerful diagnostic of locality, because locality leads to a large amount of short distance entanglement. Two-dimensional string theory is among the very simplest instances of an emergent spatial dimension. We compute the entanglement entropy in the large-N matrix quantum mechanics dual to two-dimensional string theory in the semiclassical limit of weak string coupling. We isolate a logarithmically large, but finite, contribution that corresponds to the short distance entanglement of the tachyon field in the emergent spacetime. From the spacetime point of view, the entanglement is regulated by a nonperturbative "graininess" of space. PMID:26430982
Electrically Charged Two-Dimensional Skyrmions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loginov, A. Yu.
2015-04-01
The (2 + 1)-dimensional Skyrme gauge model with a Chern-Simons term is considered. The presence of the Chern-Simons term leads to the result that the Abelian gauge field of the model becomes massive. This, in turn, leads to the existence in the given model of two-dimensional skyrmions carrying magnetic flux and possessing an electric charge and, consequently, nonzero angular momentum. It is shown that the model also admits the existence of two-dimensional skyrmions, whose electrically charged fields rotate with a constant phase frequency. Due to the nontrivial topology of the configurations of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Skyrme gauge model with a Chern-Simons term, the magnetic flux, the electric charge, and the angular momentum of a rotating two-dimensional skyrmion turn out to be interrelated.
Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors.
Allain, Adrien; Kang, Jiahao; Banerjee, Kaustav; Kis, Andras
2015-12-01
The performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional layered crystals, including graphene, semiconductors of the transition metal dichalcogenide family such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2), as well as other emerging two-dimensional semiconductors such as atomically thin black phosphorus, is significantly affected by the electrical contacts that connect these materials with external circuitry. Here, we present a comprehensive treatment of the physics of such interfaces at the contact region and discuss recent progress towards realizing optimal contacts for two-dimensional materials. We also discuss the requirements that must be fulfilled to realize efficient spin injection in transition metal dichalcogenides. PMID:26585088
Classically spinning and isospinning solitons
Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike
2012-09-26
We investigate classically spinning topological solitons in (2+1)- and (3+1)-dimensional models; more explicitely spinning sigma model solitons in 2+1 dimensions and Skyrme solitons in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. For example, such types of solitons can be used to describe quasiparticle excitations in ferromagnetic quantum Hall systems or to model spin and isospin states of nuclei. The standard way to obtain solitons with quantised spin and isospin is the semiclassical quantization procedure: One parametrizes the zero-mode space - the space of energy-degenerate soliton configurations generated from a single soliton by spatial translations and rotations in space and isospace - by collective coordinates which are then taken to be time-dependent. This gives rise to additional dynamical terms in the Hamiltonian which can then be quantized following semiclassical quantization rules. A simplification which is often made in the literature is to apply a simple adiabatic approximation to the (iso)rotational zero modes of the soliton by assuming that the soliton's shape is rotational frequency independent. Our numerical results on classically spinning arbitrarily deforming soliton solutions clearly show that soliton deformation cannot be ignored.
Drag Law of Two Dimensional Granular Fluids
Satoshi Takada; Hisao Hayakawa
2015-11-04
The drag force law acting on a moving circular disk in a two-dimensional granular medium is analyzed based on the discrete element method (DEM). It is remarkable that the drag force on the moving disk in moderate dense and pure two-dimensional granular medium can be well reproduced by a perfect fluid with separation from the surface of the tracer. A yield force, being independent of the moving speed of the disk, appears if a dry friction between the granular disks and the bottom plate exists. The perfect fluidity is violated in this case. The yield force and the drag force diverge at the jamming point.
Crossflow in two-dimensional asymmetric nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sebacher, D. I.; Lee, L. P.
1975-01-01
An experimental investigation of the crossflow effects in three contoured, two-dimensional asymmetric nozzles is described. The data were compared with theoretical predictions of nozzle flow by using an inviscid method of characteristics solution and two-dimensional turbulent boundary-layer calculations. The effect of crossflow as a function of the nozzle maximum expansion angle was studied by use of oil-flow techniques, static wall-pressure measurements, and impact-pressure surveys at the nozzle exit. Reynolds number effects on crossflow were investigated.
Two-dimensional quantum-reflection traps
Madronero, Javier; Friedrich, Harald
2007-06-15
We study the confining properties of two-dimensional quantum-reflection traps, which are important for the transverse motion in atomic waveguides. For square geometry, the effect of nonseparability of the Schroedinger equation due to the corners is shown to be small. The survival probability due to quantum reflection is very similar for square and circular geometries.
Cosmologies with Two-Dimensional Inhomogeneity
A. Feinstein; J. Ibáñez; Ruth Lazkoz
1995-11-27
We present a new generating algorithm to construct exact non static solutions of the Einstein field equations with two-dimensional inhomogeneity. Infinite dimensional families of $G_1$ inhomogeneous solutions with a self interacting scalar field, or alternatively with perfect fluid, can be constructed using this algorithm. Some families of solutions and the applications of the algorithm are discussed.
New two dimensional compounds: beyond graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebegue, Sebastien
2015-03-01
In the field of nanosciences, the quest for materials with reduced dimensionality is only at its beginning. While a lot of effort has been put initially on graphene, the focus has been extended in the last past years to functionalized graphene, boron nitride, silicene, and transition metal dichalcogenides in the form of single layers. Although these two-dimensional compounds offer a larger range of properties than graphene, there is a constant need for new materials presenting equivalent or superior performances to the ones already known. Here I will present an approach that we have used to discover potential new two-dimensional materials. This approach corresponds to perform datamining in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database using simple geometrical criterias, and allowed us to identify nearly 40 new materials that could be exfoliated into two-dimensional sheets. Then, their electronic structure (density of states and bandstructure) was obtained with density functional theory to predict whether the two-dimensional material is metallic or insulating, as well as if it undergoes magnetic ordering at low temperatures. If time allows, I will also present some of our recent results concerning the electronic structure of transition metal dichalcogenides bilayers.
Two Dimensional Dictionary Matching Amihood Amir
Farach-Colton, Martin
Two Dimensional Dictionary Matching Amihood Amir Martin Farach Georgia Tech DIMACS September 10 of a given pattern string P in a given text T . Another important paradigm is the dictionary matching problem. Let D = {P1, ..., Pk} be the dictionary. We seek all locations of dictionary patterns that appear
Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok
2007-01-01
We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…
Nitrogenated holey two-dimensional structures
Mahmood, Javeed; Lee, Eun Kwang; Jung, Minbok; Shin, Dongbin; Jeon, In-Yup; Jung, Sun-Min; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Bae, Seo-Yoon; Sohn, So-Dam; Park, Noejung; Oh, Joon Hak; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-01-01
Recent graphene research has triggered enormous interest in new two-dimensional ordered crystals constructed by the inclusion of elements other than carbon for bandgap opening. The design of new multifunctional two-dimensional materials with proper bandgap has become an important challenge. Here we report a layered two-dimensional network structure that possesses evenly distributed holes and nitrogen atoms and a C2N stoichiometry in its basal plane. The two-dimensional structure can be efficiently synthesized via a simple wet-chemical reaction and confirmed with various characterization techniques, including scanning tunnelling microscopy. Furthermore, a field-effect transistor device fabricated using the material exhibits an on/off ratio of 107, with calculated and experimental bandgaps of approximately 1.70 and 1.96?eV, respectively. In view of the simplicity of the production method and the advantages of the solution processability, the C2N-h2D crystal has potential for use in practical applications. PMID:25744355
Nitrogenated holey two-dimensional structures.
Mahmood, Javeed; Lee, Eun Kwang; Jung, Minbok; Shin, Dongbin; Jeon, In-Yup; Jung, Sun-Min; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Bae, Seo-Yoon; Sohn, So-Dam; Park, Noejung; Oh, Joon Hak; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-01-01
Recent graphene research has triggered enormous interest in new two-dimensional ordered crystals constructed by the inclusion of elements other than carbon for bandgap opening. The design of new multifunctional two-dimensional materials with proper bandgap has become an important challenge. Here we report a layered two-dimensional network structure that possesses evenly distributed holes and nitrogen atoms and a C2N stoichiometry in its basal plane. The two-dimensional structure can be efficiently synthesized via a simple wet-chemical reaction and confirmed with various characterization techniques, including scanning tunnelling microscopy. Furthermore, a field-effect transistor device fabricated using the material exhibits an on/off ratio of 10(7), with calculated and experimental bandgaps of approximately 1.70 and 1.96?eV, respectively. In view of the simplicity of the production method and the advantages of the solution processability, the C2N-h2D crystal has potential for use in practical applications. PMID:25744355
Nitrogenated holey two-dimensional structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmood, Javeed; Lee, Eun Kwang; Jung, Minbok; Shin, Dongbin; Jeon, In-Yup; Jung, Sun-Min; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Bae, Seo-Yoon; Sohn, So-Dam; Park, Noejung; Oh, Joon Hak; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-03-01
Recent graphene research has triggered enormous interest in new two-dimensional ordered crystals constructed by the inclusion of elements other than carbon for bandgap opening. The design of new multifunctional two-dimensional materials with proper bandgap has become an important challenge. Here we report a layered two-dimensional network structure that possesses evenly distributed holes and nitrogen atoms and a C2N stoichiometry in its basal plane. The two-dimensional structure can be efficiently synthesized via a simple wet-chemical reaction and confirmed with various characterization techniques, including scanning tunnelling microscopy. Furthermore, a field-effect transistor device fabricated using the material exhibits an on/off ratio of 107, with calculated and experimental bandgaps of approximately 1.70 and 1.96?eV, respectively. In view of the simplicity of the production method and the advantages of the solution processability, the C2N-h2D crystal has potential for use in practical applications.
TWO DIMENSIONAL COMPUTER SIMULATION OF PLASMA IMMERSION
TWO DIMENSIONAL COMPUTER SIMULATION OF PLASMA IMMERSION ION IMPLANTATION K. G. Kostov, J. J Immersion Ion Implantation A novel implantation technique especially developed for fast and efficient;Objectives · Development of realistic, particle-in-cell (PIC), computer simulation of plasma immersion ion
Two-Dimensional Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kendl, A.
2008-01-01
In an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma the transport of energy and particles perpendicular to the magnetic field is in general mainly caused by quasi two-dimensional turbulent fluid mixing. The physics of turbulence and structure formation is of ubiquitous importance to every magnetically confined laboratory plasma for experimental or industrial…
Formation of discrete solitons in light-induced photonic lattices
Yang, Jianke
Formation of discrete solitons in light-induced photonic lattices Zhigang Chen1,2 , Hector Martin1 on discrete solitons in two-dimensional optically-induced photonic lattices in a variety of settings to discrete trapping is demonstrated with a waveguide lattice induced by partially coherent light in a bulk
Observation of stable-vector vortex solitons.
Izdebskaya, Yana; Assanto, Gaetano; Krolikowski, Wieslaw
2015-09-01
We report on the first experimental observation of stable-vector vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media with a reorientational response, such as nematic liquid crystals. These solitons consist of two co-polarized, mutually trapped beams of different colors, a bright fundamental spatial soliton, and a nonlinear optical vortex. The nonlinear vortex component, which is normally unstable in nonlinear media, is stabilized and confined here by the highly nonlocal refractive potential induced by the soliton. PMID:26368742
Illustrations of Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Pancaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchert, T.; Klaffl, R.
We present first results of some high-resolution studies of the large-scale structure distribution resulting from the pancake-approach. We show two sequences of pictures, one with a resolution of the spatial distribution of caustics computed from a two-dimensional flat spectrum with Gaussian distribution of amplitudes and cut-off (Buchert 1989), the second illustrating three-dimensional structures corresponding to the evolution of a three-dimensional flat Gaussian spectrum with cut-off (Klaffl 1988). Both sequences give new insight into details of the structures due to the use of special numerical programs.
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2010-10-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors
Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y. M.; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee
2014-01-01
A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics. PMID:24567472
Temporal reshaping of two-dimensional pulses.
Sheppard, Colin J R; Kou, Shan Shan; Lin, Jiao; Sharma, Manjula; Barbastathis, George
2014-12-29
An analytic study of complete cylindrical focusing of pulses in two dimensions is presented, and compared with the analogous three-dimensional case of focusing over a complete sphere. Such behavior is relevant for understanding the limiting performance of ultrafast, planar photonic and plasmonic devices. A particular spectral distribution is assumed that contains finite energy. Separate ingoing and outgoing pulsed waves are considered, along with the combination that would be generated in free space by an ingoing wave. It is shown that for the two dimensional case, in order to produce a temporally symmetrical pulse at the focus, an asymmetric pulse must be launched. A symmetrical outgoing pulse is generated from a source with asymmetric time behavior, or an anti-symmetric input pulse. These results are very different from the corresponding three-dimensional case, and imply fundamental limitations on the performance of ultrafast, tightly focused, two-dimensional devices. PMID:25607169
Kirigami for Two-Dimensional Electronic Membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Zenan; Bahamon, Dario; Campbell, David; Park, Harold
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional materials have recently drawn tremendous attention because of their unique properties. In this work, we introduce the notion of two-dimensional kirigami, where concepts that have been used almost exclusively for macroscale structures are applied to dramatically enhance their stretchability. Specifically, we show using classical molecular dynamics simulations that the yield and fracture strains of graphene and MoS2 can be enhanced by about a factor of three using kirigami as compared to standard monolayers. Finally, using graphene as an example, we demonstrate that the kirigami structure may open up interesting opportunities in coupling to the electronic behavior of 2D materials. Authors acknowledge Mechanical Engineering and Physics departments at Boston University, and Mackgrafe at Mackenzie Presbyterian University.
Statistical Mechanics of Two-dimensional Foams
Marc Durand
2010-09-07
The methods of statistical mechanics are applied to two-dimensional foams under macroscopic agitation. A new variable -- the total cell curvature -- is introduced, which plays the role of energy in conventional statistical thermodynamics. The probability distribution of the number of sides for a cell of given area is derived. This expression allows to correlate the distribution of sides ("topological disorder") to the distribution of sizes ("geometrical disorder") in a foam. The model predictions agree well with available experimental data.
Two dimensional wedge/translating shroud nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maiden, D. L. (inventor)
1978-01-01
A jet propulsion exhaust nozzle is reported for multi-engine installations which produces high internal/external, thrust-minus-drag, performance for transonic cruise or transonic acceleration as well as improved performance at subsonic and supersonic speeds. A two dimensional wedge/translating shroud provides the variable nozzle exit geometry needed to achieve high engine performance over a wide range of throttle power settings.
Deeply subrecoil two-dimensional Raman cooling
Boyer, V.; Phillips, W.D.; Lising, L.J.; Rolston, S.L.
2004-10-01
We report the implementation of a two-dimensional Raman cooling scheme using sequential excitations along the orthogonal axes. Using square pulses, we have cooled a cloud of ultracold cesium atoms down to an rms velocity spread of 0.39(5) recoil velocities, corresponding to an effective transverse temperature of 30 nK (0.15T{sub rec}). This technique can be useful to improve cold-atom atomic clocks and is particularly relevant for clocks in microgravity.
A Two-dimensional TSVD Resolution Enhancement for EO Ocean Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenti, F.; Migliaccio, M.; Nunziata, F.; Rodriguez, G.
2012-03-01
A two-dimensional truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) technique is first proposed to enhance spatial resolution of earth observation (EO) products related to ocean-atmosphere interaction. The technique is based on the assumption that the gain function is a two-dimensional tensor product. To set the value of the truncation parameter the Generalized Cross Validation is adopted. Experiments undertaken on a data set of simulated two-dimensional radiometer measurements show the robustness of the technique against the additive noise level and its effectiveness in both reconstruction accurancy and processing time.
A Two-dimensional TSVD Resolution Enhancement for EO Ocean Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenti, F.; Migliaccio, M.; Nunziata, F.; Rodriguez, G.
2012-03-01
A two-dimensional truncated singular value decomposi-tion (TSVD) technique is first proposed to enhance spa-tial resolution of earth observation (EO) products re- lated to ocean-atmosphere interaction. The technique is based on the assumption that the gain function is a two-dimensional tensor product. To set the value of the truncation parameter the Generalized Cross Validation is adopted. Experiments undertaken on a data set of simulated two- dimensional radiometer measurements show the robust- ness of the technique against the additive noise level and its effectivenes
Mode selection in two-dimensional Bragg resonators based on planar dielectric waveguides
Baryshev, V R; Ginzburg, N S; Zaslavskii, V Yu; Malkin, A M; Sergeev, A S; Thumm, M
2009-05-31
Two-dimensional Bragg resonators based on planar dielectric waveguides are analysed. It is shown that the doubly periodic corrugation deposited on the dielectric surface in the form of two gratings with translational vectors directed perpendicular to each other ensures effective selection of modes along two coordinates at large Fresnel parameters. This result is obtained both by the method of coupled waves (geometrical optics approximation) and by the direct numerical simulations. Two-dimensional Bragg resonators make it possible to fabricate two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers and to provide generation of spatially coherent radiation in large-volume active media. (waveguides)
Screening-photovoltaic bright solitons in lithium niobate and associated single-mode waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fazio, E.; Renzi, F.; Rinaldi, R.; Bertolotti, M.; Chauvet, M.; Ramadan, W.; Petris, A.; Vlad, V. I.
2004-09-01
Photorefractive screening-photovoltaic solitons are observed in lithium niobate. Two-dimensional bright circular solitons are formed thanks to a strong static bias field, externally applied, opposite to the photovoltaic internal field. The dynamics of the soliton formation is monitored and compared to a time-dependent numerical model allowing determination of the photovoltaic field. Efficient single mode waveguides are shown to be memorized by the soliton beam for a long time.
Chen, Yi-Xiang; Xu, Fang-Qian
2014-01-01
Two families of Gaussian-type soliton solutions of the (n+1)-dimensional Schrödinger equation with cubic and power-law nonlinearities in -symmetric potentials are analytically derived. As an example, we discuss some dynamical behaviors of two dimensional soliton solutions. Their phase switches, powers and transverse power-flow densities are discussed. Results imply that the powers flow and exchange from the gain toward the loss regions in the cell. Moreover, the linear stability analysis and the direct numerical simulation are carried out, which indicates that spatial Gaussian-type soliton solutions are stable below some thresholds for the imaginary part of -symmetric potentials in the defocusing cubic and focusing power-law nonlinear medium, while they are always unstable for all parameters in other media. PMID:25542020
Solitons of axion-dilaton gravity
Bakas, I.
1996-11-01
We use soliton techniques of the two-dimensional reduced {beta}-function equations to obtain nontrivial string backgrounds from flat space. These solutions are characterized by two integers ({ital n},{ital m}) referring to the soliton numbers of the metric and axion-dilaton sectors, respectively. We show that the Nappi-Witten universe associated with the SL(2){times}SU(2)/SO(1,1){times}U(1) CFT coset arises as a (1,1) soliton in this fashion for certain values of the moduli parameters, while for other values of the soliton moduli we arrive at the SL(2)/SO(1,1){times}SO(1,1){sup 2} background. Ordinary four-dimensional black holes arise as two-dimensional (2,0) solitons, while the Euclidean wormhole background is described as a (0,2) soliton on flat space. The soliton transformations correspond to specific elements of the string Geroch group. These could be used as a starting point for exploring the role of {ital U} dualities in string compactifications to two dimensions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Kolmakov, German V.; Pomirchi, Leonid M.
2015-06-01
The Bose-stimulated self-organization of a quasi-two-dimensional nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate in an in-plane potential is proposed. We obtained the solution of the nonlinear, driven-dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in an external asymmetric parabolic potential within the method of the spectral expansion. We found that, in sharp contrast to previous observations, the condensate can spontaneously acquire a solitonlike shape for spatially homogeneous pumping. This condensate soliton performs oscillatory motion in a parabolic trap and, also, can spontaneously rotate. Stability of the condensate soliton in the spatially asymmetric trap is analyzed. In addition to the nonlinear dynamics of nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms, our findings can be applied to the condensates of quantum well excitons and cavity polaritons in semiconductor heterostructure, and to the condensates of photons.
Two-dimensional position-dependent massive particles: The case of Morse potential
A. de Souza Dutra; R. A. C. Correa; J. A. de Oliveira
2015-05-29
In this work we analyze a system consisting in two-dimensional position-dependent massive particles in the presence of a Morse-like potential in two spatial dimensions. We obtain the exact wavefunctions and energies for a complete set of eigenstates for a given dependence of the mass with the spatial variables.
Kinetic theory of a two-dimensional magnetized plasma.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vahala, G.; Montgomery, D.
1971-01-01
Several features of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a two-dimensional plasma in a uniform dc magnetic field are investigated. The charges are assumed to interact only through electrostatic potentials. The problem is considered both with and without the guiding-center approximation. With the guiding-center approximation, an appropriate Liouville equation and BBGKY hierarchy predict no approach to thermal equilibrium for the spatially uniform case. For the spatially nonuniform situation, a guiding-center Vlasov equation is discussed and solved in special cases. For the nonequilibrium, nonguiding-center case, a Boltzmann equation, and a Fokker-Planck equation are derived in the appropriate limits. The latter is more tractable than the former, and can be shown to obey conservation laws and an H-theorem, but contains a divergent integral which must be cut off on physical grounds. Several unsolved problems are posed.
Two dimensional foam rheology with viscous drag
E. Janiaud; D. Weaire; S. Hutzler
2006-07-18
We formulate and apply a continuum model that incorporates elasticity, yield stress, plasticity and viscous drag. It is motivated by the two-dimensional foam rheology experiments of Debregeas et al. [G. Debregeas, H. Tabuteau, and J.-M. di Meglio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 178305 (2001)] and Wang et al [Y. Wang, K. Krishan, and M. Dennin, Phys. Rev. E 73, 031401 (2006)], and is successful in exhibiting their principal features an exponentially decaying velocity profile and strain localisation. Transient effects are also identified.
The two-dimensional connectivity of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
German, R. M.
1987-06-01
Liquid phase sintered materials are characterized by a connected microstructure composed of contacting grains in a solidified matrix phase. Observations on the sintered microstructure are typically performed using two-dimensional cross sections. A computer calculation has been performed to determine the variation in the observed contacts per grain vs the true underlying microstructure connectivity. The results show that the observed coordination depends on both the volume fraction of solid phase and the dihedral angle. The findings of the calculation are favorably compared with observations on Fe-Cu and W-Ni-Fe alloys. In the limiting case, the current calculations approach those found for polycrystalline solids and cell networks.
Anisotropic Two-Dimensional Friedel Oscillations
Hofmann, P.; Plummer, E.W.; Briner, B.G.; Doering, M.; Rust, H.; Bradshaw, A.M.
1997-07-01
Scanning tunneling microscopy at 4K shows highly anisotropic screening charge density oscillations on Be(10{ovr 1}0) in the vicinity of surface defects and steps. The forms of these oscillations, which derive from the Friedel oscillations, can be directly related to the two-dimensional band structure of the surface (two electron pockets at the boundary of the surface Brillouin zone). Simple calculations show that the Friedel oscillations in such a case will contain major contributions from wavelengths which do not correspond to any Fermi wave vector. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Two-Dimensional Ground Water Transport
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1992-03-05
FRACFLO computes the two-dimensional, space, time dependent, convective dispersive transport of a single radionuclide in an unbounded single or multiple parallel fracture system with constant aperture. It calculates the one-dimensional diffusive transport into the rock matrix as well as the mass flux and cumulative mass flux at any point in the fracture. Steady-state isothermal ground water flow and parallel streamlines are assumed in the fracture, and the rock matrix is considered to be fully saturatedmore »with immobile water. The model can treat a single or multiple finite patch source or a Gaussian distributed source subject to a step or band release mode.« less
Vortices in Two- Dimensional Anisotropic ? Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, T.; Otsu, H.
1981-01-01
We define a topological number and clarify its role played in two-dimensional anisotropic ? models. Non-dissipative metastable states are obtained as counter-examples to which Derrick's theorem cannot be applied. Each metastable state classified by the topological number q turns out to carry |q| vortices and |q| stagnation points for the cases of XY-like anisotropy and to involve |q| antiparallel core spins for those of Ising-like one. The range and strength of vortices are studied in detail for the XY-model obtained from present systems.
Ultrashort light bullets described by the two-dimensional sine-Gordon equation
Leblond, Herve; Mihalache, Dumitru
2010-06-15
By using a reductive perturbation technique applied to a two-level model, this study puts forward a generic two-dimensional sine-Gordon evolution equation governing the propagation of femtosecond spatiotemporal optical solitons in Kerr media beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation. Direct numerical simulations show that, in contrast to the long-wave approximation, no collapse occurs, and that robust (2+1)-dimensional ultrashort light bullets may form from adequately chosen few-cycle input spatiotemporal wave forms. In contrast to the case of quadratic nonlinearity, the light bullets oscillate in both space and time and are therefore not steady-state lumps.
Two-dimensional vortices in superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bo; Halperin, W. P.; Guptasarma, Prasenjit; Hinks, D. G.; Mitrovi?,
2007-04-01
Superconductors have two key characteristics: they expel magnetic field and they conduct electrical current with zero resistance. However, both properties are compromised in high magnetic fields, which can penetrate the material and create a mixed state of quantized vortices. The vortices move in response to an electrical current, dissipating energy and destroying the zero-resistance state. One of the central problems for applications of high-temperature superconductivity is the stabilization of vortices to ensure zero electrical resistance. We find that vortices in the anisotropic superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? (Bi-2212) have a phase transition from a liquid state, which is inherently unstable, to a two-dimensional vortex solid. We show that at high field the transition temperature is independent of magnetic field, as was predicted theoretically for the melting of an ideal two-dimensional vortex lattice. Our results indicate that the stable solid phase can be reached at any field, as may be necessary for applications involving superconducting magnets. The vortex solid is disordered, as suggested by previous studies at lower fields. But its evolution with increasing magnetic field exhibits unexpected threshold behaviour that needs further investigation.
Two dimensional and linear scintillation detectors for fast neutron imaging — comparative analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikerov, V. I.; Koshelev, A. P.; Ozerov, O. V.; Sviridov, A. S.; Yurkov, D. I.
2014-05-01
The paper was aimed to compare performance capabilities of two types of scintillation detectors commonly used for fast neutron imaging: two dimensional and linear ones. Best-case values of quantum efficiency, spatial resolution and capacity were estimated for detectors with plastic converter-screen in case of 14 MeV neutrons. For that there were examined nuclear reactions produced in converter-screen by fast neutrons, spatial distributions of energy release of emerged charged particles and amplitude distributions of scintillations generated by these particles. The paper shows that the efficiency of the linear detector is essentially higher and this detector provides potentially better spatial resolution in comparison with the two dimensional detector. But, the two dimensional detector surpasses the linear one in capacity. The presented results can be used for designing radiographic fast neutron detectors with organic scintillators.
Two-dimensional phased array probe shape corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lupien, Vincent; Cancre, Fabrice; Lacroix, Benolt; Miller, Ted; Selman, John; Kinney, Andy; Duffy, Tim; Herzog, Pamela G.
2002-05-01
The availability of non-destructive testing hardware capable of controlling large numbers of elements has made possible forays into two-dimensional ultrasonic arrays. Here, we explore two such arrays. The first is a conical matrix array for three-dimensional imaging of fastener holes in aircraft wing structures, and the second is an annular-sectorial array with a compound radius of curvature for the inspection of aircraft engine grade billets. In both prototypes, significant departures of the true shape of the probe face from its ideal value are observed. Since the shape aberrations are many wavelengths in magnitude, it is impossible to arrive at the desired beam profile using the beamforming parameters for the ideal probe shape. We detail our approach for correcting the beamforming process. It is based on a combination of parametric representations of probe shape families and experimental measurements with specially designed targets. While exposing current limitations in the probe manufacturing process, our results demonstrate that complicated probe malformations of many wavelengths in magnitude can easily be corrected and that the spatially disjoint nature of two-dimensional arrays becomes an opportunity for such corrections.
Renormalization of two-dimensional XQCD
Fukaya, Hidenori
2015-01-01
Recently, Kaplan proposed an interesting extension of QCD named Extended QCD or XQCD with bosonic auxiliary fields [1]. While its partition function is kept exactly the same as that of QCD, XQCD naturally contains properties of low-energy hadrons. We apply this extension to the two-dimensional QCD in the large $N_c$ limit ('t Hooft model) [2]. In this solvable model, it is possible to directly examine the hadronic picture of the 2d XQCD and analyze its renormalization group flow to understand how the auxiliary degrees of freedom behave in the low energy region. We confirm that the additional scalar fields can become dynamical acquiring the kinetic term, and its parity-odd part becomes dominant in the low energy region. This renomalization of XQCD provides an "extension" of the renormalization scheme of QCD, inserting different field variables from those in the original theory, without any changes in physical observables.
Renormalization of two-dimensional XQCD
Hidenori Fukaya; Ryo Yamamura
2015-10-15
Recently, Kaplan proposed an interesting extension of QCD named Extended QCD or XQCD with bosonic auxiliary fields [1]. While its partition function is kept exactly the same as that of QCD, XQCD naturally contains properties of low-energy hadrons. We apply this extension to the two-dimensional QCD in the large $N_c$ limit ('t Hooft model) [2]. In this solvable model, it is possible to directly examine the hadronic picture of the 2d XQCD and analyze its renormalization group flow to understand how the auxiliary degrees of freedom behave in the low energy region. We confirm that the additional scalar fields can become dynamical acquiring the kinetic term, and its parity-odd part becomes dominant in the low energy region. This renomalization of XQCD provides an "extension" of the renormalization scheme of QCD, inserting different field variables from those in the original theory, without any changes in physical observables.
Two-dimensional Experiments With Descent Algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakubiak, B.
We examine the question of convergence of four descent variational algorithms: con- jugate gradient (cg), conjugate gradient squared (cgs), generalized minimum resid- ual (gmres) and transpose-free quasi minimal residual method (tfqmr) using two- dimensional, realistic, randomly located observational network. For the case of ac- curate uncorrelated observations and weakly correlated background error we define three diagnostic techniques and tested them for three different background error cor- relation models: SOAR, Gaussian and compact spline. The convergence rate depends largely on the condition number of innovation matrix. We found that practical mea- sure of the convergence can be based on estimating the norm of the gradient of the cost function. The norm is defined as the square root of the sum of the elements of the gradient and can be estimated at each iteration step. Other diagnostic techniques tested are more costly and can be used in simple situations only.
Two-dimensional Inductive Position Sensing System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A two-dimensional inductive position sensing system uses four drive inductors arranged at the vertices of a parallelogram and a sensing inductor positioned within the parallelogram. The sensing inductor is movable within the parallelogram and relative to the drive inductors. A first oscillating current at a first frequency is supplied to a first pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a first diagonal of the parallelogram. A second oscillating current at a second frequency is supplied to a second pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a second diagonal of the parallelogram. As a result, the sensing inductor generates a first output voltage at the first frequency and a second output voltage at the second frequency. A processor determines a position of the sensing inductor relative to the drive inductors using the first output voltage and the second output voltage.
Two-dimensional informative array testing.
McMahan, Christopher S; Tebbs, Joshua M; Bilder, Christopher R
2012-09-01
Array-based group-testing algorithms for case identification are widely used in infectious disease testing, drug discovery, and genetics. In this article, we generalize previous statistical work in array testing to account for heterogeneity among individuals being tested. We first derive closed-form expressions for the expected number of tests (efficiency) and misclassification probabilities (sensitivity, specificity, predictive values) for two-dimensional array testing in a heterogeneous population. We then propose two "informative" array construction techniques which exploit population heterogeneity in ways that can substantially improve testing efficiency when compared to classical approaches that regard the population as homogeneous. Furthermore, a useful byproduct of our methodology is that misclassification probabilities can be estimated on a per-individual basis. We illustrate our new procedures using chlamydia and gonorrhea testing data collected in Nebraska as part of the Infertility Prevention Project. PMID:22212007
Atomic Defects in Two Dimensional Materials.
Rasool, Haider I; Ophus, Colin; Zettl, Alex
2015-10-01
Atomic defects in crystalline structures have pronounced affects on their bulk properties. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy has proved to be a powerful characterization tool for understanding the bonding structure of defects in materials. In this article, recent results on the characterization of defect structures in two dimensional materials are discussed. The dynamic behavior of defects in graphene shows the stability of zigzag edges of the material and gives insights into the dislocation motion. Polycrystalline graphene is characterized using advanced electron microscopy techniques, revealing the global crystal structure of the material, as well as atomic-resolution observation of the carbon atom positions between neighboring crystal grains. Studies of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) are also visited, highlighting the interlayer bonding, which occurs upon defect formation, and characterization of grain boundary structures. Lastly, defect structures in monolayer polycrystalline transition metal dichalcogenides grown by CVD are discussed. PMID:25946075
Two-dimensional readout of GEM detectors
Bressan, A; Gandi, A; Labbé, J C; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Mörmann, D; Müller, T; Simonis, H J
1999-01-01
The recently introduced Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) permits the amplification of electrons released by ionizing radiation in a gas by factors approaching ten thousand, larger gains can be obtained combining two GEMs in cascade. We describe methods for implementing two- and three-dimensional projective localization of radiation, with sub-millimeter accuracy, making use of specially manufactured and patterned pick-up electrodes. Easy to implement and flexible in the choice of the readout geometry, the technology has the distinctive advantage of allowing all pick-up electrodes to be kept at ground potential, thus substantially improving the system simplicity and reliability. Preliminary results demonstrating the two-dimensional imaging capability of the devices are provided and discussed, as well as future perspectives of development.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2013-09-03
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
Acidity of two-dimensional zeolites.
Rybicki, Marcin; Sauer, Joachim
2015-10-14
Hybrid quantum mechanics:molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations of absolute deprotonation energies are performed with periodic boundary conditions for Brønsted sites of aluminosilicate bilayers with various Al/Si ratios (two-dimensional zeolite). The supercell method is applied and density functional theory is used. Much lower values are obtained (1042, 1069 and 1091 kJ mol(-1) for Al/Si = 1/63, 1/7 and 1/3, respectively) than those for bulk zeolites (1233 kJ mol(-1) for H-chabazite with Al/Si = 1/11). We ascribe the much lower deprotonation energy to the smaller effective dielectric constant (1.6-1.9) of an ultra-thin dielectric in a vacuum compared to that of the corresponding bulk systems (3.0 for H-chabazite), which leads to a better stabilization of the charge created upon deprotonation. PMID:26437870
Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials.
Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola
2015-01-01
The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane. PMID:25744932
Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola
2015-03-01
The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.
Epitaxial growth of two-dimensional stanene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Feng-Feng; Chen, Wei-Jiong; Xu, Yong; Gao, Chun-Lei; Guan, Dan-Dan; Liu, Can-Hua; Qian, Dong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Jia, Jin-Feng
2015-10-01
Following the first experimental realization of graphene, other ultrathin materials with unprecedented electronic properties have been explored, with particular attention given to the heavy group-IV elements Si, Ge and Sn. Two-dimensional buckled Si-based silicene has been recently realized by molecular beam epitaxy growth, whereas Ge-based germanene was obtained by molecular beam epitaxy and mechanical exfoliation. However, the synthesis of Sn-based stanene has proved challenging so far. Here, we report the successful fabrication of 2D stanene by molecular beam epitaxy, confirmed by atomic and electronic characterization using scanning tunnelling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, in combination with first-principles calculations. The synthesis of stanene and its derivatives will stimulate further experimental investigation of their theoretically predicted properties, such as a 2D topological insulating behaviour with a very large bandgap, and the capability to support enhanced thermoelectric performance, topological superconductivity and the near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect.
Sieving hydrogen isotopes through two dimensional crystals
Lozada-Hidalgo, M; Marshall, O; Mishchenko, A; Grigorenko, A N; Dryfe, R A W; Radha, B; Grigorieva, I V; Geim, A K
2015-01-01
One-atom-thick crystals are impermeable to atoms and molecules, but hydrogen ions (thermal protons) penetrate through them. We show that monolayers of graphene and boron nitride can be used to separate hydrogen ion isotopes. Employing electrical measurements and mass spectrometry, we find that deuterons permeate through these crystals much slower than protons, resulting in a separation factor of 10 at room temperature. The isotope effect is attributed to a difference of about 60 meV between zero-point energies of incident protons and deuterons, which translates into the equivalent difference in the activation barriers posed by two dimensional crystals. In addition to providing insight into the proton transport mechanism, the demonstrated approach offers a competitive and scalable way for hydrogen isotope enrichment.
Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, E.; Zetzsche, C.; Rentschler, I.
1998-01-01
We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features.
Information technologies for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography
Reichenbach, Stephen E.
Review Information technologies for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography Stephen E December 2003 Available online 8 March 2004 Abstract Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC Â-dimensional gas chromatography; GCÂGC; Information technology; Image processing; Visualization; Computer
Internal tide generation by arbitrary two-dimensional topography
Peacock, Thomas
To date, analytical models of internal tide generation by two-dimensional ridges have considered only idealized shapes. Here, we advance the Green function approach to address the generation of internal tides by two-dimensional ...
FPT Algorithm for Two-Dimensional Cyclic Convolutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Truong, Trieu-Kie; Shao, Howard M.; Pei, D. Y.; Reed, Irving S.
1987-01-01
Fast-polynomial-transform (FPT) algorithm computes two-dimensional cyclic convolution of two-dimensional arrays of complex numbers. New algorithm uses cyclic polynomial convolutions of same length. Algorithm regular, modular, and expandable.
SCAPS, a two-dimensional ion detector for mass spectrometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yurimoto, Hisayoshi
2014-05-01
Faraday Cup (FC) and electron multiplier (EM) are of the most popular ion detector for mass spectrometer. FC is used for high-count-rate ion measurements and EM can detect from single ion. However, FC is difficult to detect lower intensities less than kilo-cps, and EM loses ion counts higher than Mega-cps. Thus, FC and EM are used complementary each other, but they both belong to zero-dimensional detector. On the other hand, micro channel plate (MCP) is a popular ion signal amplifier with two-dimensional capability, but additional detection system must be attached to detect the amplified signals. Two-dimensional readout for the MCP signals, however, have not achieve the level of FC and EM systems. A stacked CMOS active pixel sensor (SCAPS) has been developed to detect two-dimensional ion variations for a spatial area using semiconductor technology [1-8]. The SCAPS is an integrated type multi-detector, which is different from EM and FC, and is composed of more than 500×500 pixels (micro-detectors) for imaging of cm-area with a pixel of less than 20 µm in square. The SCAPS can be detected from single ion to 100 kilo-count ions per one pixel. Thus, SCAPS can be accumulated up to several giga-count ions for total pixels, i.e. for total imaging area. The SCAPS has been applied to stigmatic ion optics of secondary ion mass spectrometer, as a detector of isotope microscope [9]. The isotope microscope has capabilities of quantitative isotope images of hundred-micrometer area on a sample with sub-micrometer resolution and permil precision, and of two-dimensional mass spectrum on cm-scale of mass dispersion plane of a sector magnet with ten-micrometer resolution. The performance has been applied to two-dimensional isotope spatial distribution for mainly hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen of natural (extra-terrestrial and terrestrial) samples and samples simulated natural processes [e.g. 10-17]. References: [1] Matsumoto, K., et al. (1993) IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40, 82-85. [2] Takayanagi et al. (1999) Proc. 1999 IEEE workshop on Charge-Coupled Devices and Advanced Image Sensors, 159-162. [3] Kunihiro et al. (2001) Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sec. A 470, 512-519. [4] Nagashima et al. (2001) Surface Interface Anal. 31, 131-137. [5] Takayanagi et al. (2003) IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 50, 70- 76. [6] Sakamoto and Yurimoto (2006) Surface Interface Anal. 38, 1760-1762. [7] Yamamoto et al. (2010) Surface Interface Anal. 42, 1603-1605. [8] Sakamoto et al. (2012) Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 076701. [9] Yurimoto et al. (2003) Appl. Surf. Sci. 203-204, 793-797. [10] Nagashima et al. (2004) Nature 428, 921-924. [11] Kunihiro et al. (2005) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69, 763-773. [12] Nakamura et al. (2005) Geology 33, 829-832. [13] Sakamoto et al. (2007) Science 317, 231-233. [14] Greenwood et al. (2008) Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L05203. [15] Greenwood et al. (2011) Nature Geoscience 4, 79-82. [16] Park et al. (2012) Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 47, 2070-2083. [17] Hashiguchi et al. (2013) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 122, 306-323.
Microwave near-field imaging of two-dimensional semiconductors.
Berweger, Samuel; Weber, Joel C; John, Jimmy; Velazquez, Jesus M; Pieterick, Adam; Sanford, Norman A; Davydov, Albert V; Brunschwig, Bruce; Lewis, Nathan S; Wallis, Thomas M; Kabos, Pavel
2015-02-11
Optimizing new generations of two-dimensional devices based on van der Waals materials will require techniques capable of measuring variations in electronic properties in situ and with nanometer spatial resolution. We perform scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) imaging of single layers of MoS2 and n- and p-doped WSe2. By controlling the sample charge carrier concentration through the applied tip bias, we are able to reversibly control and optimize the SMM contrast to image variations in electronic structure and the localized effects of surface contaminants. By further performing tip bias-dependent point spectroscopy together with finite element simulations, we distinguish the effects of the quantum capacitance and determine the local dominant charge carrier species and dopant concentration. These results underscore the capability of SMM for the study of 2D materials to image, identify, and study electronic defects. PMID:25625509
Approaches to verification of two-dimensional water quality models
Butkus, S.R. . Water Quality Dept.)
1990-11-01
The verification of a water quality model is the one procedure most needed by decision making evaluating a model predictions, but is often not adequate or done at all. The results of a properly conducted verification provide the decision makers with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with model predictions. Several statistical tests are available for quantifying of the performance of a model. Six methods of verification were evaluated using an application of the BETTER two-dimensional water quality model for Chickamauga reservoir. Model predictions for ten state variables were compared to observed conditions from 1989. Spatial distributions of the verification measures showed the model predictions were generally adequate, except at a few specific locations in the reservoir. The most useful statistics were the mean standard error of the residuals. Quantifiable measures of model performance should be calculated during calibration and verification of future applications of the BETTER model. 25 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.
-separated vector spatial solitons as the result of a force balance between vector-soliton components. We also demonstrate a link between such soliton bound states and two-hump, two-mode solitons, along with the induced coherence effect observed for incoherently interacting solitons. 2000 Optical Society of America OCIS codes
Two-Dimensional Black Holes and Planar General Relativity
Jose' P. S. Lemos
1994-07-20
The Einstein-Hilbert action with a cosmological term is used to derive a new action in 1+1 spacetime dimensions. It is shown that the two-dimensional theory is equivalent to planar symmetry in General Relativity. The two-dimensional theory admits black holes and free dilatons, and has a structure similar to two-dimensional string theories. Since by construction these solutions also solve Einstein's equations, such a theory can bring two-dimensional results into the four-dimensional real world. In particular the two-dimensional black hole is also a black hole in General Relativity.
Spectral tunneling of lattice nonlocal solitons
Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Torner, Lluis; Vysloukh, Victor A.
2010-07-15
We address spectral tunneling of walking spatial solitons in photorefractive media with nonlocal diffusion component of the nonlinear response and an imprinted shallow optical lattice. In contrast to materials with local nonlinearities, where solitons traveling across the lattice close to the Bragg angle suffer large radiative losses, in photorefractive media with diffusion nonlinearity resulting in self-bending, solitons survive when their propagation angle approaches and even exceeds the Bragg angle. In the spatial frequency domain this effect can be considered as tunneling through the band of spatial frequencies centered around the Bragg frequency where the spatial group velocity dispersion is positive.
Huang, Yi-Zhi
Two-dimensional conformal field theories The major problems solved Unsolved problems Two-Dimensional Conformal Field Theory Yi-Zhi Huang Department of Mathematics Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA Institute of Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences #12;Two-dimensional conformal field theories The major
Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.
Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I
2015-10-27
Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ? x ? 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:26394207
An atlas of two-dimensional materials.
Miró, Pere; Audiffred, Martha; Heine, Thomas
2014-09-21
The discovery of graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials together with recent advances in exfoliation techniques have set the foundations for the manufacturing of single layered sheets from any layered 3D material. The family of 2D materials encompasses a wide selection of compositions including almost all the elements of the periodic table. This derives into a rich variety of electronic properties including metals, semimetals, insulators and semiconductors with direct and indirect band gaps ranging from ultraviolet to infrared throughout the visible range. Thus, they have the potential to play a fundamental role in the future of nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and the assembly of novel ultrathin and flexible devices. We categorize the 2D materials according to their structure, composition and electronic properties. In this review we distinguish atomically thin materials (graphene, silicene, germanene, and their saturated forms; hexagonal boron nitride; silicon carbide), rare earth, semimetals, transition metal chalcogenides and halides, and finally synthetic organic 2D materials, exemplified by 2D covalent organic frameworks. Our exhaustive data collection presented in this Atlas demonstrates the large diversity of electronic properties, including band gaps and electron mobilities. The key points of modern computational approaches applied to 2D materials are presented with special emphasis to cover their range of application, peculiarities and pitfalls. PMID:24825454
Epitaxial growth of two-dimensional stanene.
Zhu, Feng-Feng; Chen, Wei-Jiong; Xu, Yong; Gao, Chun-Lei; Guan, Dan-Dan; Liu, Can-Hua; Qian, Dong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Jia, Jin-Feng
2015-10-01
Following the first experimental realization of graphene, other ultrathin materials with unprecedented electronic properties have been explored, with particular attention given to the heavy group-IV elements Si, Ge and Sn. Two-dimensional buckled Si-based silicene has been recently realized by molecular beam epitaxy growth, whereas Ge-based germanene was obtained by molecular beam epitaxy and mechanical exfoliation. However, the synthesis of Sn-based stanene has proved challenging so far. Here, we report the successful fabrication of 2D stanene by molecular beam epitaxy, confirmed by atomic and electronic characterization using scanning tunnelling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, in combination with first-principles calculations. The synthesis of stanene and its derivatives will stimulate further experimental investigation of their theoretically predicted properties, such as a 2D topological insulating behaviour with a very large bandgap, and the capability to support enhanced thermoelectric performance, topological superconductivity and the near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect. PMID:26237127
Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Y.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Shi, Z.
2014-07-01
Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.
Single Molecule Approaches for Two Dimensional Nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, Thomas; Guo, Shajun; Koh, Weon-Kyu; Makarov, Nikolay; Fiddler, Andrew; Robel, Istvan; Klimov, Victor
2014-03-01
A variety of two dimensional semiconductor nanostructures have been synthesized recently by a number of different groups. Of these, nanoplatelets made of a single to few layers of material have shown interesting promise due to confinement in only a single direction. The photophysics of these types of structures show large exciton binding energies and narrow emission widths in ensemble measurements. Only a few single molecule experiments have been reported in the literature and we hope to expand the insights that single molecule techniques can provide in the understanding of these new materials. Our group has recently extended our synthetic expertise gained from quantum dots into these 2D nanoplatelets including CdSe, MoS2 and graphene. Time correlated single photon counting experiments at the single molecule level provide information on the homogenous linewidths, quantum yield variations, and fluorescence lifetimes. Furthermore, two photon correlations at zero time delay allow us to confirm the single molecule nature of the emission and potentially determine biexciton quantum yields and lifetimes.
Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations
Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.
2014-07-28
Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5?Hz to 50?Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.
Braid Entropy of Two-Dimensional Turbulence
Francois, Nicolas; Xia, Hua; Punzmann, Horst; Faber, Benjamin; Shats, Michael
2015-01-01
The evolving shape of material fluid lines in a flow underlies the quantitative prediction of the dissipation and material transport in many industrial and natural processes. However, collecting quantitative data on this dynamics remains an experimental challenge in particular in turbulent flows. Indeed the deformation of a fluid line, induced by its successive stretching and folding, can be difficult to determine because such description ultimately relies on often inaccessible multi-particle information. Here we report laboratory measurements in two-dimensional turbulence that offer an alternative topological viewpoint on this issue. This approach characterizes the dynamics of a braid of Lagrangian trajectories through a global measure of their entanglement. The topological length of material fluid lines can be derived from these braids. This length is found to grow exponentially with time, giving access to the braid topological entropy . The entropy increases as the square root of the turbulent kinetic energy and is directly related to the single-particle dispersion coefficient. At long times, the probability distribution of is positively skewed and shows strong exponential tails. Our results suggest that may serve as a measure of the irreversibility of turbulence based on minimal principles and sparse Lagrangian data. PMID:26689261
Two-dimensional Dirac signature of germanene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, L.; Bampoulis, P.; van Houselt, A.; Zandvliet, H. J. W.
2015-09-01
The structural and electronic properties of germanene coated Ge2Pt clusters have been determined by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy at room temperature. The interior of the germanene sheet exhibits a buckled honeycomb structure with a lattice constant of 4.3 Å and a buckling of 0.2 Å. The zigzag edges of germanene are reconstructed and display a 4× periodicity. The differential conductivity of the interior of the germanene sheet has a V-shape, which is reminiscent of the density of states of a two-dimensional Dirac system. The minimum of the differential conductivity is located close to the Fermi level and has a non-zero value, which we ascribe to the metallic character of the underlying Ge2Pt substrate. Near the reconstructed germanene zigzag edges the shape of the differential conductivity changes from a V-shape to a more parabolic-like shape, revealing that the reconstructed germanene zigzag edges do not exhibit a pronounced metallic edge state.
Braid Entropy of Two-Dimensional Turbulence.
Francois, Nicolas; Xia, Hua; Punzmann, Horst; Faber, Benjamin; Shats, Michael
2015-01-01
The evolving shape of material fluid lines in a flow underlies the quantitative prediction of the dissipation and material transport in many industrial and natural processes. However, collecting quantitative data on this dynamics remains an experimental challenge in particular in turbulent flows. Indeed the deformation of a fluid line, induced by its successive stretching and folding, can be difficult to determine because such description ultimately relies on often inaccessible multi-particle information. Here we report laboratory measurements in two-dimensional turbulence that offer an alternative topological viewpoint on this issue. This approach characterizes the dynamics of a braid of Lagrangian trajectories through a global measure of their entanglement. The topological length of material fluid lines can be derived from these braids. This length is found to grow exponentially with time, giving access to the braid topological entropy . The entropy increases as the square root of the turbulent kinetic energy and is directly related to the single-particle dispersion coefficient. At long times, the probability distribution of is positively skewed and shows strong exponential tails. Our results suggest that may serve as a measure of the irreversibility of turbulence based on minimal principles and sparse Lagrangian data. PMID:26689261
Dynamics of two-dimensional dipole systems
Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Hartmann, Peter; Donko, Zoltan
2010-09-15
Using a combined analytical/molecular dynamics approach, we study the current fluctuation spectra and longitudinal and transverse collective mode dispersions of the classical two-dimensional (point) dipole system (2DDS) characterized by the {phi}{sub D}(r)={mu}{sup 2}/r{sup 3} repulsive interaction potential; {mu} is the electric dipole strength. The interest in the 2DDS is twofold. First, the quasi-long-range 1/r{sup 3} interaction makes the system a unique classical many-body system, with a remarkable collective mode behavior. Second, the system may be a good model for a closely spaced semiconductor electron-hole bilayer, a system that is in the forefront of current experimental interest. The longitudinal collective excitations, which are of primary interest for the liquid phase, are acoustic at long wavelengths. At higher wave numbers and for sufficiently high coupling strength, we observe the formation of a deep minimum in the dispersion curve preceded by a sharp maximum; this is identical to what has been observed in the dispersion of the zero-temperature bosonic dipole system, which in turn emulates so-called roton-maxon excitation spectrum of the superfluid {sup 4}He. The analysis we present gives an insight into the emergence of this apparently universal structure, governed by strong correlations. We study both the liquid and the crystalline solid state. We also observe the excitation of combination frequencies, resembling the roton-roton, roton-maxon, etc. structures in {sup 4}He.
Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.
Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R
2015-05-14
During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided. PMID:25898786
CALL FOR PAPERS: Optical solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drummond, P. D.; Haelterman, Marc; Vilaseca, R.
2003-06-01
A topical issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics will be devoted to recent advances in optical solitons. The topics to be covered will include, but are not limited to: bulletProperties, control and dynamics of temporal solitons bulletProperties, control and dynamics of spatial solitons bulletCavity solitons in passive and active resonators bulletThree-dimensional spatial solitons bulletDark, bright, grey solitons; interface dynamics bulletCompound or vector solitons; incoherent solitons bulletLight and matter solitons in BEC bulletNonlinear localized structures in microstructured and nanostructured materials (photonic crystals, etc) bulletAngular momentum effects associated with localized light structures; vortex solitons bulletQuantum effects associated with localized light structures bulletInteraction of solitons with atoms and other media bulletApplications of optical solitons The DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 31 July 2003 to allow the topical issue to appear in about February 2004. All papers will be peer-reviewed in accordance with the normal refereeing procedures and standards of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics. Advice on publishing your work in the journal may be found at www.iop.org/journals/authors/jopb. Submissions should ideally be in either standard LaTeX form or Microsoft Word. There are no page charges for publication. In addition to the usual 50 free reprints, the corresponding author of each paper published will receive a complimentary copy of the topical issue. Contributions to the topical issue should if possible be submitted electronically at www.iop.org/journals/jopb. or by e-mail to jopb@iop.org. Authors unable to submit online or by e-mail may send hard copy contributions (enclosing the electronic code) to: Dr Claire Bedrock (Publisher), Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics, Institute of Physics Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. All contributions should be accompanied by a readme file or covering letter, quoting `JOPB topical issue - Optical Solitons', giving the postal and e-mail addresses for correspondence. Any subsequent change of address should be notified to the publishing office. We look forward to receiving your contribution to this topical issue.
Control of two-dimensional electron population in a semiconductor quantum well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guanling; Fang, Zhengchuan; Wu, Feng
2016-01-01
We investigate the two-dimensional (2D) electron population in a semiconductor quantum well. It is found that, due to the position-dependent quantum interference, the 2D spatial distribution of electron population can be easily controlled via adjusting the system parameters. Thus, our scheme shows the underlying probability for the applications in solid-state optoelectronics.
Two-dimensional mapping of the electron density in laser-produced plasmas
Harilal, S. S.
Two-dimensional mapping of the electron density in laser-produced plasmas Mathew Polek, Sivanandan S. Harilal,* and A. Hassanein School of Nuclear Engineering and Center for Materials under Extreme density in a laser-produced plasma with high spatial and temporal resolution. The plasma was produced
Demonstration of two-dimensional time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brennan, J.; Brubaker, E.; Gerling, M.; Marleau, P.; McMillan, K.; Nowack, A.; Galloudec, N. Renard-Le; Sweany, M.
2015-12-01
We present a neutron detector system based on time-encoded imaging, and demonstrate its applicability toward the spatial mapping of special nuclear material. We demonstrate that two-dimensional fast-neutron imaging with 2° resolution at 2 m stand-off is feasible with only two instrumented detectors.
Gravity Effects on Steady Two-Dimensional Partially Premixed MethaneAir Flames
Aggarwal, Suresh K.
Gravity Effects on Steady Two-Dimensional Partially Premixed MethaneAir Flames ZHUANG SHU, CHUN W, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7022 Under normal-gravity conditions the flame heat is only weakly affected by gravity, the outer flame shows significant spatial differences for the two
Dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles.
Piedra, Saúl; Ramos, Eduardo; Herrera, J Ramón
2015-06-01
The dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles ascending under the influence of buoyant forces is numerically studied with a one-fluid model coupled with the front-tracking technique. The bubble dynamics are described by recording the position, shape, and orientation of the bubbles as functions of time. The qualitative properties of the bubbles and their terminal velocities are described in terms of the Eötvos (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension) and Archimedes numbers (ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces). The terminal Reynolds number result from the balance of buoyancy and drag forces and, consequently, is not an externally fixed parameter. In the cases that yield small Reynolds numbers, the bubbles follow straight paths and the wake is steady. A more interesting behavior is found at high Reynolds numbers where the bubbles follow an approximately periodic zigzag trajectory and an unstable wake with properties similar to the Von Karman vortex street is formed. The dynamical features of the motion of single bubbles are compared to experimental observations of air bubbles ascending in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. Although the comparison is not strictly valid in the sense that the effect of the lateral walls is not incorporated in the model, most of the dynamical properties observed are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical calculations. Hele-Shaw cells with different gaps have been used to determine the degree of approximation of the numerical calculation. It is found that for the relation between the terminal Reynolds number and the Archimedes number, the numerical calculations are closer to the observations of bubble dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells of larger gaps. PMID:26172798
Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional turbulence
Sunghwan Jung; P. J. Morrison; Harry L. Swinney
2006-03-09
The statistical mechanical description of two-dimensional inviscid fluid turbulence is reconsidered. Using this description, we make predictions about turbulent flow in a rapidly rotating laboratory annulus. Measurements on the continuously forced, weakly dissipative flow reveal coherent vortices in a mean zonal flow. Statistical mechanics has two crucial requirements for equilibrium: statistical independence of macro-cells (subsystems) and additivity of invariants of macro-cells. We use additivity to select the appropriate Casimir invariants from the infinite set available in vortex dynamics, and we do this in such a way that the exchange of micro-cells within a macro-cell does not alter an invariant of a macro-cell. A novel feature of the present study is our choice of macro-cells, which are continuous phase space curves based on mean values of the streamfunction. Quantities such as energy and enstrophy can be defined on each curve, and these lead to a local canonical distribution that is also defined on each curve. Our approach leads to the prediction that on a mean streamfunction curve there should be a linear relation between the ensemble-averaged potential vorticity and the time-averaged streamfunction, and our laboratory data are in good accord with this prediction. Further, the approach predicts that although the probability distribution function for potential vorticity in the entire system is non-Gaussian, the distribution function of micro-cells should be Gaussian on the macro-cells, i.e., for curves defined by mean values of the streamfunction. This prediction is also supported by the data. While the statistical mechanics approach used was motivated by and applied to experiments on turbulence in a rotating annulus, the approach is quite general and is applicable to a large class of Hamiltonian systems.
Dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piedra, Saúl; Ramos, Eduardo; Herrera, J. Ramón
2015-06-01
The dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles ascending under the influence of buoyant forces is numerically studied with a one-fluid model coupled with the front-tracking technique. The bubble dynamics are described by recording the position, shape, and orientation of the bubbles as functions of time. The qualitative properties of the bubbles and their terminal velocities are described in terms of the Eötvos (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension) and Archimedes numbers (ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces). The terminal Reynolds number result from the balance of buoyancy and drag forces and, consequently, is not an externally fixed parameter. In the cases that yield small Reynolds numbers, the bubbles follow straight paths and the wake is steady. A more interesting behavior is found at high Reynolds numbers where the bubbles follow an approximately periodic zigzag trajectory and an unstable wake with properties similar to the Von Karman vortex street is formed. The dynamical features of the motion of single bubbles are compared to experimental observations of air bubbles ascending in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. Although the comparison is not strictly valid in the sense that the effect of the lateral walls is not incorporated in the model, most of the dynamical properties observed are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical calculations. Hele-Shaw cells with different gaps have been used to determine the degree of approximation of the numerical calculation. It is found that for the relation between the terminal Reynolds number and the Archimedes number, the numerical calculations are closer to the observations of bubble dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells of larger gaps.
Quantum Criticality in Quasi-Two-Dimensional Itinerant Antiferromagnets.
Varma, C M
2015-10-30
Quasi-two-dimensional itinerant fermions in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) quantum-critical region of their phase diagram, such as in the Fe-based superconductors or in some of the heavy-fermion compounds, exhibit a resistivity varying linearly with temperature and a contribution to specific heat or thermopower proportional to TlnT. It is shown, here, that a generic model of itinerant anti-ferromagnet can be canonically transformed so that its critical fluctuations around the AFM-vector Q can be obtained from the fluctuations in the long wavelength limit of a dissipative quantum XY model. The fluctuations of the dissipative quantum XY model in 2D have been evaluated recently, and in a large regime of parameters, they are determined, not by renormalized spin fluctuations, but by topological excitations. In this regime, the fluctuations are separable in their spatial and temporal dependence and have a spatial correlation length which is proportional to the logarithm of the temporal correlation length, i.e., for some purposes, the effective dynamic exponent z=?. The time dependence gives ?/T scaling at criticality. The observed resistivity and entropy then follow. Several predictions to test the theory are also given. PMID:26565482
Lateral and Vertical Two-Dimensional Layered Topological Insulator Heterostructures.
Li, Yanbin; Zhang, Jinsong; Zheng, Guangyuan; Sun, Yongming; Hong, Seung Sae; Xiong, Feng; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Cui, Yi
2015-11-24
The heterostructured configuration between two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials has enabled the engineering of the band gap and the design of novel devices. So far, the synthesis of single-component topological insulator (TI) 2D materials such as Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 has been achieved through vapor phase growth and molecular beam epitaxy; however, the spatial controlled fabrication of 2D lateral heterostructures in these systems has not been demonstrated yet. Here, we report an in situ two-step synthesis process to form TI lateral heterostructures. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray mapping results show the successful spatial control of chemical composition in these as-prepared heterostructures. The edge-induced growth mechanism is revealed by the ex situ atomic force microscope measurements. Electrical transport studies demonstrate the existence of p-n junctions in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 heterostructures. PMID:26468661
Quantum Criticality in Quasi-Two-Dimensional Itinerant Antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varma, C. M.
2015-10-01
Quasi-two-dimensional itinerant fermions in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) quantum-critical region of their phase diagram, such as in the Fe-based superconductors or in some of the heavy-fermion compounds, exhibit a resistivity varying linearly with temperature and a contribution to specific heat or thermopower proportional to T ln T . It is shown, here, that a generic model of itinerant anti-ferromagnet can be canonically transformed so that its critical fluctuations around the AFM-vector Q can be obtained from the fluctuations in the long wavelength limit of a dissipative quantum X Y model. The fluctuations of the dissipative quantum X Y model in 2D have been evaluated recently, and in a large regime of parameters, they are determined, not by renormalized spin fluctuations, but by topological excitations. In this regime, the fluctuations are separable in their spatial and temporal dependence and have a spatial correlation length which is proportional to the logarithm of the temporal correlation length, i.e., for some purposes, the effective dynamic exponent z =? . The time dependence gives ? /T scaling at criticality. The observed resistivity and entropy then follow. Several predictions to test the theory are also given.
Twisted chimera states and multicore spiral chimera states on a two-dimensional torus.
Xie, Jianbo; Knobloch, Edgar; Kao, Hsien-Ching
2015-10-01
Chimera states consisting of domains of coherently and incoherently oscillating oscillators in a two-dimensional periodic array of nonlocally coupled phase oscillators are studied. In addition to the one-dimensional chimera states familiar from one spatial dimension, two-dimensional structures termed twisted chimera states and spiral wave chimera states are identified in simulations. The properties of many of these states, including stability, are determined using an evolution equation for a complex order parameter and are found to be in agreement with the simulations. PMID:26565318
Asymmetric partially coherent solitons in saturable nonlinear media Natalia M. Litchinitser,1
Akhmediev, Nail
number s : 42.65.Tg, 41.20.Jb Incoherent spatial solitons have attracted considerable at- tention exhibit very strong nonlinear effects at extremely low optical powers 1012 . Spatial incoherent solitons- ties. Nevertheless, the case of incoherent spatial solitons is a special one. From a conceptual point
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira
2015-10-01
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (?CN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ?CN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.
2094 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 28, No. 21 / November 1, 2003 Fundamental and vortex solitons in a
Yang, Jianke
2094 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 28, No. 21 / November 1, 2003 Fundamental and vortex solitons in a two-dimensional optical lattice Jianke Yang Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Vermont, Burlington-dimensional optically induced waveguide array are reported. In the strong localization regime the fundamental soliton
Soliton form factors from lattice simulations
Rajantie, Arttu; Weir, David J.
2010-12-01
The form factor provides a convenient way to describe properties of topological solitons in the full quantum theory, when semiclassical concepts are not applicable. It is demonstrated that the form factor can be calculated numerically using lattice Monte Carlo simulations. The approach is very general and can be applied to essentially any type of soliton. The technique is illustrated by calculating the kink form factor near the critical point in 1+1-dimensional scalar field theory. As expected from universality arguments, the result agrees with the exactly calculable scaling form factor of the two-dimensional Ising model.
Coherent two-dimensional infrared microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baiz, Carlos; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2015-03-01
We developed ultrafast 2D IR spectral microscopy, a new technique to measure spatially-resolved 2D infrared spectra and vibrational dynamics with diffraction-limited spatial resolution and femtosecond time resolution. The key enabling development consists of a new geometry where all three IR pulses propagate fully collinearly through an all-reflective IR microscope. A combination of polarization, chopping, and phase-cycling isolate the 2D IR signal by removing all unwanted signal and interference contributions. The single-beam collinear geometry enables us to implement 2D IR in three configurations: transmission, reflectance, and ATR. In terms of sensitivity, the 6 micron focus size produces an 8-fold enhancement of the signal compared to focusing with standard parabolic mirrors. These methods open up new possibilities for imaging proteins in cells, lipid membranes, or vesicles, as well as performing surface-sensitive studies on biological systems.
Dynamics of Bright Soliton in Optical Fiber
Yi Tang; Wei Wang
2001-05-12
The bright soliton in optical fiber is generally investigated via its spatial evolution in the time domain, where its waveform is considered in many studies. To be consistent with the well-established picture of the dynamics of solitons in other systems, in this letter, we propose it is helpful to study the temporal evolution of the bright soliton by examining its waveshape propagating along the space coordinate axis. We develop a singular theory. Equations governing the evolution of the parameters of the bright soliton in the slow time and the radiated field are explicitly formulated for the first time. In addition, localized modes are found to appear.
Traveling dark solitons in superfluid Fermi gases
Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim
2011-04-15
Families of dark solitons exist in superfluid Fermi gases. The energy-velocity dispersion and number of depleted particles completely determine the dynamics of dark solitons on a slowly varying background density. For the unitary Fermi gas, we determine these relations from general scaling arguments and conservation of local particle number. We find solitons to oscillate sinusoidally at the trap frequency reduced by a factor of 1/{radical}(3). Numerical integration of the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation determines spatial profiles and soliton-dispersion relations across the BEC-BCS crossover, and proves consistent with the scaling relations at unitarity.
Digital watermarking method using a two-dimensional barcode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeon, Seong-Goo; Choi, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Chan-Won; Kim, Il-Hwan
2005-12-01
This paper proposed a digital watermarking method using a two-dimensional bar code. In general, one-dimensional bar code was just a key that can access detailed information to the host computer database. But a two-dimensional bar code is a new technology capable of holding relatively large amounts of data compared to the conventional one-dimensional bar code. The study used Data Matrix that is the most widely used among the many kinds of two-dimensional bar code. The experimental results show a similarity of the embedded and extracted two-dimensional watermark.
Two-Dimensional Finite Element Ablative Thermal Response Analysis of an Arcjet Stagnation Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dec, John A.; Laub, Bernard; Braun, Robert D.
2011-01-01
The finite element ablation and thermal response (FEAtR, hence forth called FEAR) design and analysis program simulates the one, two, or three-dimensional ablation, internal heat conduction, thermal decomposition, and pyrolysis gas flow of thermal protection system materials. As part of a code validation study, two-dimensional axisymmetric results from FEAR are compared to thermal response data obtained from an arc-jet stagnation test in this paper. The results from FEAR are also compared to the two-dimensional axisymmetric computations from the two-dimensional implicit thermal response and ablation program under the same arcjet conditions. The ablating material being used in this arcjet test is phenolic impregnated carbon ablator with an LI-2200 insulator as backup material. The test is performed at the NASA, Ames Research Center Interaction Heating Facility. Spatially distributed computational fluid dynamics solutions for the flow field around the test article are used for the surface boundary conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilms, Dorothea; Virnau, Peter; Snook, Ian K.; Binder, Kurt
2012-11-01
The dynamical behavior of single-component two-dimensional colloidal crystals confined in a slit geometry is studied by Langevin dynamics simulation of a simple model. The colloids are modeled as pointlike particles, interacting with the repulsive part of the Lennard-Jones potential, and the fluid molecules in the colloidal suspension are not explicitly considered. Considering a crystalline strip of triangular lattice structure with n=30 rows, the (one-dimensional) walls confining the strip are chosen as two rigidly fixed crystalline rows at each side, commensurate with the lattice structure and, thus, stabilizing long-range order. The case when the spacing between the walls is incommensurate with the ideal triangular lattice is also studied, where (due to a transition in the number of rows, n?n-1) the confined crystal is incommensurate with the confining boundaries, and a soliton staircase forms along the walls. It is shown that mean-square displacements (MSDs) of particles as a function of time show an overshoot and then saturate at a horizontal plateau in the commensurate case, the value of the plateau being largest in the center of the strip. Conversely, when solitons are present, MSDs are largest in the rows containing the solitons, and all MSDs do not settle down at well-defined plateaus in the direction parallel to the boundaries, due to the lack of positional long-range order in ideal two-dimensional crystals. The MSDs of the solitons (which can be treated like quasiparticles at very low temperature) have also been studied and their dynamics are found to be about an order of magnitude slower than that of the colloidal particles themselves. Finally, transport of individual colloidal particles by diffusion processes is studied: both standard vacancy-interstitial pair formation and cooperative ring rotation processes are identified. These processes require thermal activation, with activation energies of the order of 10Tm (Tm being the melting temperature of the crystal), while the motions due to long-wavelength phonons decrease only linearly in temperature.
Classification of two dimensional fixed sun angle solar sail trajectories
Roberts, Mark
Classification of two dimensional fixed sun angle solar sail trajectories Stephen Wokes, Phil heliocentric trajectories for fixed sun angle solar sails are examined. The objective of this work which results in a two dimensional phase space interpretation of the problem. For a given sail quality
Terahertz rectification by periodic two-dimensional electron plasma
Popov, V. V.; Saratov State University, Saratov 410012
2013-06-24
The physics of terahertz rectification by periodic two-dimensional electron plasma is discussed. Two different effects yielding terahertz rectification are studied: the plasmonic drag and plasmonic ratchet. Ultrahigh responsivity of terahertz rectification by periodic two-dimensional electron plasma in semiconductor heterostructures and graphene is predicted.
New two-dimensional quantum models with shape invariance
Cannata, F.; Ioffe, M. V.; Nishnianidze, D. N.
2011-02-15
Two-dimensional quantum models which obey the property of shape invariance are built in the framework of polynomial two-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics. They are obtained using the expressions for known one-dimensional shape invariant potentials. The constructed Hamiltonians are integrable with symmetry operators of fourth order in momenta, and they are not amenable to the conventional separation of variables.
Large-scale two-dimensional turbulence in the atmosphere
Wirosoetisno, Djoko
Large-scale two-dimensional turbulence in the atmosphere Article Published Version Boer, G. J. and Shepherd, T. G. (1983) Large-scale two- dimensional turbulence in the atmosphere. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 40 (1). pp. 164-184. ISSN 1520-0469 doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1983)0402.0.CO;2
Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huggins, Elisha
2009-01-01
During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…
PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN A TWO DIMENSIONAL UNSTEADY FLOW
Patil, Mayuresh
PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN A TWO DIMENSIONAL UNSTEADY FLOW William Walker Virginia Polytechnic to obtain unsteady aerodynamic data from a two dimensional wing, and analyzing the pressure variations with time over the wing surface. The data was gathered by using electronic pressure transducers
DISSERTATION FREQUENCY ANALYSIS AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS
Julien, Pierre Y.
) calibrate and validate the model to the June 1921 and May 1894 extreme floods on the Arkansas River; (3DISSERTATION FREQUENCY ANALYSIS AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF EXTREME FLOODS ON A LARGE FREDRICK ENGLAND, JR. ENTITLED FREQUENCY ANALYSIS AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF EXTREME FLOODS
The Chandrasekhar's Equation for Two-Dimensional Hypothetical White Dwarfs
De, Sanchari
2014-01-01
In this article we have extended the original work of Chandrasekhar on the structure of white dwarfs to the two-dimensional case. Although such two-dimensional stellar objects are hypothetical in nature, we strongly believe that the work presented in this article may be prescribed as Master of Science level class problem for the students in physics.
Plastic flow in two-dimensional solids Akira Onuki
Plastic flow in two-dimensional solids Akira Onuki Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto-Landau model of plastic deformation in two-dimensional solids is presented. The fundamental dynamic variables in uniaxial stretching. High-density dislocations produced in plastic flow do not disappear even if the flow
Magnetic coupling of vortices in a two-dimensional lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nissen, D.; Mitin, D.; Klein, O.; Arekapudi, S. S. P. K.; Thomas, S.; Im, M.-Y.; Fischer, P.; Albrecht, M.
2015-11-01
We investigated the magnetization reversal of magnetic vortex structures in a two-dimensional lattice. The structures were formed by permalloy (Py) film deposition onto large arrays of self-assembled spherical SiO2-particles with a diameter of 330 nm. We present the dependence of the nucleation and annihilation field of the vortex structures as a function of the Py layer thickness (aspect ratio) and temperature. By increasing the Py thickness up to 90 nm or alternatively by lowering the temperature the vortex structure becomes more stable as expected. However, the increase of the Py thickness results in the onset of strong exchange coupling between neighboring Py caps due to the emergence of Py bridges connecting them. In particular, we studied the influence of magnetic coupling locally by in-field scanning magneto-resistive microscopy and full-field magnetic soft x-ray microscopy, revealing a domain-like nucleation process of vortex states, which arises via domain wall propagation due to exchange coupling of the closely packed structures. By analyzing the rotation sense of the reversed areas, large connected domains are present with the same circulation sense. Furthermore, the lateral core displacements when an in-plane field is applied were investigated, revealing spatially enlarged vortex cores and a broader distribution with increasing Py layer thickness. In addition, the presence of some mixed states, vortices and c-states, is indicated for the array with the thickest Py layer.
Two-dimensional, finite Larmor radius magnetohydrodynamics code
Huba, J.D.
1996-12-31
A two-dimensional, finite Larmor radius magnetohydrodynamics (2D FLR MHD) code has been developed. The code solves the 2D FLR equations in the isothermal limit. These equations are presented in Braginskii (1965) and include an anisotropic ion stress tensor in the momentum equation.the FLR MHD equations are solved in conservative form. A non-linear switch between an 8th order spatial scheme and a low-order scheme is used based upon the partial donor cell method (Hain, 1987). The novel feature of the code is the computation of the fluxes across cell interfaces. The code uses a variation of the beam scheme and computes fluxes based upon maxwellian-like distribution functions that contain the magnetic forces. As a test of the code, theoretical and computational results for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the FLR MHD regime will be presented. The authors also discuss the transition to the unmagnetized regime where the Hall term becomes important, and applications to plasma boundary layer dynamics.
Anisotropic stress correlations in two-dimensional liquids.
Wu, Bin; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi
2015-03-01
In this paper we demonstrate the presence of anisotropic stress correlations in the simulated two-dimensional liquids. Whereas the temporal correlation of macroscopic shear stress is known to contribute to viscosity via the Green-Kubo formula, the general question regarding angular dependence of the spatial correlation among atomic-level stresses in liquids without external shear has not been explored. We observed the apparent anisotropicity with well-defined symmetry which can be explained in terms of the elastic continuum theory by Eshelby. In addition, we found that the shear stress correlation is screened compared to the prediction by the elastic continuum theory, and the screening length depends on temperature and follows the power law, suggesting divergence around the glass transition temperature. The success of the Eshelby theory to explain the anisotropy of the stress correlations justifies the idea that the mismatch between the atom and its nearest neighbor cage produces the atomic-level stress as well as the long-range stress fields. PMID:25871104
Freely decaying turbulence in two-dimensional electrostatic gyrokinetics
Tatsuno, T.; Plunk, G. G.; Barnes, M.; Dorland, W.; Howes, G. G.; Numata, R.
2012-12-15
In magnetized plasmas, a turbulent cascade occurs in phase space at scales smaller than the thermal Larmor radius ('sub-Larmor scales') [Tatsuno et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 015003 (2009)]. When the turbulence is restricted to two spatial dimensions perpendicular to the background magnetic field, two independent cascades may take place simultaneously because of the presence of two collisionless invariants. In the present work, freely decaying turbulence of two-dimensional electrostatic gyrokinetics is investigated by means of phenomenological theory and direct numerical simulations. A dual cascade (forward and inverse cascades) is observed in velocity space as well as in position space, which we diagnose by means of nonlinear transfer functions for the collisionless invariants. We find that the turbulence tends to a time-asymptotic state, dominated by a single scale that grows in time. A theory of this asymptotic state is derived in the form of decay laws. Each case that we study falls into one of three regimes (weakly collisional, marginal, and strongly collisional), determined by a dimensionless number D{sub *}, a quantity analogous to the Reynolds number. The marginal state is marked by a critical number D{sub *}=D{sub 0} that is preserved in time. Turbulence initialized above this value become increasingly inertial in time, evolving toward larger and larger D{sub *}; turbulence initialized below D{sub 0} become more and more collisional, decaying to progressively smaller D{sub *}.
Polarization scattering by soliton-soliton collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mollenauer, L. F.; Gordon, J. P.; Heismann, F.
1995-10-01
We have discovered experimentally that soliton-soliton collisions in wavelength division multiplexing significantly alter the polarization states of the colliding solitons. Analysis shows that the change in polarization is according to the cross product of the Stokes vectors of the colliding solitons. Birefringence of the fiber spans can turn this polarization scattering into a significant source of timing jitter.
Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy
Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.
2014-10-07
The dephasing of excitons in a modulation doped single quantum well was carefully measured using time integrated four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. These are the first 2DFT measurements performed on a modulation doped single quantum well. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous excitonic line widths were obtained from the diagonal and cross-diagonal profiles of the 2DFT spectra. The laser excitation density and temperature were varied and 2DFT spectra were collected. A very rapid increase of the dephasing decay, and as a result, an increase in the cross-diagonal 2DFT linewidths with temperature was observed. The lineshapes of the 2DFT spectra suggest the presence of excitation induced dephasing and excitation induced shift.
Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy
Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.
2014-10-07
The dephasing of excitons in a modulation doped single quantum well was carefully measured using time integrated four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. These are the first 2DFT measurements performed on a modulation doped single quantum well. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous excitonic line widths were obtained from the diagonal and cross-diagonal profiles of the 2DFT spectra. The laser excitation density and temperature were varied and 2DFT spectra were collected. A very rapid increase of the dephasing decay, and as a result, an increase in the cross-diagonal 2DFT linewidths with temperature was observed. The lineshapes of the 2DFTmore »spectra suggest the presence of excitation induced dephasing and excitation induced shift.« less
The Thirring interaction in the two-dimensional axial-current-pseudoscalar derivative coupling model
Belvedere, L.V. . E-mail: armflavio@if.uff.br
2006-12-15
We reexamine the two-dimensional model of massive fermions interacting with a massless pseudoscalar field via axial-current derivative coupling. The hidden Thirring interaction in the axial-derivative coupling model is exhibited compactly by performing a canonical field transformation on the Bose field algebra and the model is mapped into the Thirring model with an additional vector-current-scalar derivative interaction (Schroer-Thirring model). The Fermi field operator is rewritten in terms of the Mandelstam soliton operator coupled to a free massless scalar field. The charge sectors of the axial-derivative model are mapped into the charge sectors of the massive Thirring model. The complete bosonized version of the model is presented. The bosonized composite operators of the quantum Hamiltonian are obtained as the leading operators in the Wilson short distance expansions.
Transfer of optical signals around bends in two-dimensional linear photonic networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolopoulos, G. M.
2015-02-01
The ability to navigate light signals in two-dimensional networks of waveguide arrays is a prerequisite for the development of all-optical integrated circuits for information processing and networking. In this article, we present a theoretical analysis of bending losses in linear photonic lattices with engineered couplings, and discuss possible ways for their minimization. In contrast to previous work in the field, the lattices under consideration operate in the linear regime, in the sense that discrete solitons cannot exist. The present results suggest that the functionality of linear waveguide networks can be extended to operations that go beyond the recently demonstrated point-to-point transfer of signals, such as blocking, routing, logic functions, etc.
Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas
Moon, Christopher
2010-05-26
The advent of bottom-up atomic manipulation heralded a new horizon for attainable information density, as it allowed a bit of information to be represented by a single atom. The discrete spacing between atoms in condensed matter has thus set a rigid limit on the maximum possible information density. While modern technologies are still far from this scale, all theoretical downscaling of devices terminates at this spatial limit. Here, however, we break this barrier with electronic quantum encoding scaled to subatomic densities. We use atomic manipulation to first construct open nanostructures - 'molecular holograms' - which in turn concentrate information into a medium free of lattice constraints: the quantum states of a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas of electrons. The information embedded in the holograms is transcoded at even smaller length scales into an atomically uniform area of a copper surface, where it is densely projected into both two spatial degrees of freedom and a third holographic dimension mapped to energy. In analogy to optical volume holography, this requires precise amplitude and phase engineering of electron wavefunctions to assemble pages of information volumetrically. This data is read out by mapping the energy-resolved electron density of states with a scanning tunnelling microscope. As the projection and readout are both extremely near-field, and because we use native quantum states rather than an external beam, we are not limited by lensing or collimation and can create electronically projected objects with features as small as {approx}0.3 nm. These techniques reach unprecedented densities exceeding 20 bits/nm{sup 2} and place tens of bits into a single fermionic state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zhenya; Wen, Zichao; Hang, Chao
2015-08-01
We present a unified theoretical study of the bright solitons governed by self-focusing and defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations with generalized parity-time- (PT ) symmetric Scarff-II potentials. Particularly, a PT -symmetric k -wave-number Scarff-II potential and a multiwell Scarff-II potential are considered, respectively. For the k -wave-number Scarff-II potential, the parameter space can be divided into different regions, corresponding to unbroken and broken PT symmetry and the bright solitons for self-focusing and defocusing Kerr nonlinearities. For the multiwell Scarff-II potential the bright solitons can be obtained by using a periodically space-modulated Kerr nonlinearity. The linear stability of bright solitons with PT -symmetric k -wave-number and multiwell Scarff-II potentials is analyzed in detail using numerical simulations. Stable and unstable bright solitons are found in both regions of unbroken and broken PT symmetry due to the existence of the nonlinearity. Furthermore, the bright solitons in three-dimensional self-focusing and defocusing NLS equations with a generalized PT -symmetric Scarff-II potential are explored. This may have potential applications in the field of optical information transmission and processing based on optical solitons in nonlinear dissipative but PT -symmetric systems.
Yan, Zhenya; Wen, Zichao; Hang, Chao
2015-08-01
We present a unified theoretical study of the bright solitons governed by self-focusing and defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations with generalized parity-time- (PT) symmetric Scarff-II potentials. Particularly, a PT-symmetric k-wave-number Scarff-II potential and a multiwell Scarff-II potential are considered, respectively. For the k-wave-number Scarff-II potential, the parameter space can be divided into different regions, corresponding to unbroken and broken PT symmetry and the bright solitons for self-focusing and defocusing Kerr nonlinearities. For the multiwell Scarff-II potential the bright solitons can be obtained by using a periodically space-modulated Kerr nonlinearity. The linear stability of bright solitons with PT-symmetric k-wave-number and multiwell Scarff-II potentials is analyzed in detail using numerical simulations. Stable and unstable bright solitons are found in both regions of unbroken and broken PT symmetry due to the existence of the nonlinearity. Furthermore, the bright solitons in three-dimensional self-focusing and defocusing NLS equations with a generalized PT-symmetric Scarff-II potential are explored. This may have potential applications in the field of optical information transmission and processing based on optical solitons in nonlinear dissipative but PT-symmetric systems. PMID:26382482
Third sound in one and two dimensional modulated structures
Komuro, T.; Kawashima, H., Shirahama, K.; Kono, K.
1996-02-01
An experimental technique is developed to study acoustic transmission in one and two dimensional modulated structures by employing third sound of a superfluid helium film. In particular, the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional quasiperiodic structure, is studied. In two dimensions, the scattering of third sound is weaker than in one dimension. Nevertheless, the authors find that the transmission spectrum in the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional prototype of the quasicrystal, is observable if the helium film thickness is chosen around 5 atomic layers. The transmission spectra in the Penrose lattice are explained in terms of dynamical theory of diffraction.
Two-dimensional Minkowski causal automorphisms and conformal maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgos, Juan Manuel
2013-02-01
Treating the two-dimensional Minkowski space as a Wick rotated version of the complex plane, we characterize the causal automorphisms in the two-dimensional Minkowski space as the Märzke-Wheeler maps of a certain class of observers. We also characterize the differentiable causal automorphisms of this space as the Minkowski conformal maps whose restriction to the time axis belongs to the class of observers mentioned above. We answer a recently raised question about whether causal automorphisms are characterized by their wave equation. As another application of the theory, we give a proper time formula for accelerated observers which solves the twin paradox in two-dimensional Minkowski spacetime.
Two-dimensional imaging with a single-sided NMR probe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casanova, F.; Blümich, B.
2003-07-01
A new low field unilateral NMR sensor equipped with a two-dimensional gradient coil system was built. A new NMR-MOUSE concept using a simple bar magnet instead of the classical U-shaped geometry was used to produce magnetic field profiles comparatively homogeneous in extended lateral planes defining a suitable field of view for 2D spatial localization. Slice selection along the depth direction is obtained by means of the highly constant static magnetic field gradient produced by this magnet geometry. Implementing a two-dimensional phase-encoding imaging method 2D cross sections of objects were obtained with high spatial resolution. By retuning the probe it was possible to change the depth of the selected slice obtaining a 3D imaging method. The details of the construction of the new device are presented together with imaging tests to show the quality of space encoding.
Two-dimensional direct numerical simulation of parametrically excited surface waves in viscous fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, Youichi; Chikano, Masatsugu
2001-01-01
Standing surface waves on a viscous fluid driven parametrically by a vertical harmonic oscillation are investigated, based on direct numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation, together with appropriate boundary conditions. The condition for the onset of the waves in the experiments by Lioubashevski et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3959 (1996)] is reproduced by our numerical simulation. The time evolution and the flow structures are investigated in detail. The form of the surface elevation is analyzed and the dependence of the saturated amplitude on the forcing strength shows a normal bifurcation. Instead of a localized state, spatially uniform standing waves are formed in an extended system. Using initial perturbations of the uniform state, numerical simulations show that the uniform standing waves are stable to two-dimensional disturbances, which suggests that three-dimensionality is essential for the spatially localized state to occur.
Stable topological modes in two-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau models with trapping potentials
Mihalache, D.; Mazilu, D.; Skarka, V.; Leblond, H.; Malomed, B. A.; Aleksic, N. B.; Lederer, F.
2010-08-15
Complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) models of laser media (with cubic-quintic nonlinearity) do not contain an effective diffusion term, which makes all vortex solitons unstable in these models. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the addition of a two-dimensional periodic potential, which may be induced by a transverse grating in the laser cavity, to the CGL equation stabilizes compound (four-peak) vortices, but the most fundamental 'crater-shaped' vortices (CSVs), alias vortex rings, which are essentially squeezed into a single cell of the potential, have not been found before in a stable form. In this work we report on families of stable compact CSVs with vorticity S=1 in the CGL model with the external potential of two different types: an axisymmetric parabolic trap and the periodic potential. In both cases, we identify a stability region for the CSVs and for the fundamental solitons (S=0). Those CSVs which are unstable in the axisymmetric potential break up into robust dipoles. All the vortices with S=2 are unstable, splitting into tripoles. Stability regions for the dipoles and tripoles are identified, too. The periodic potential cannot stabilize CSVs with S{>=}2 either; instead, families of stable compact square-shaped quadrupoles are found.
On integrability of a noncommutative q-difference two-dimensional Toda lattice equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, C. X.; Nimmo, J. J. C.; Shen, Shoufeng
2015-12-01
In our previous work (C.X. Li and J.J.C. Nimmo, 2009 [18]), we presented a generalized type of Darboux transformations in terms of a twisted derivation in a unified form. The twisted derivation includes ordinary derivatives, forward difference operators, super derivatives and q-difference operators as its special cases. This result not only enables one to recover the known Darboux transformations and quasideterminant solutions to the noncommutative KP equation, the non-Abelian two-dimensional Toda lattice equation, the non-Abelian Hirota-Miwa equation and the super KdV equation, but also inspires us to investigate quasideterminant solutions to q-difference soliton equations. In this paper, we first construct the bilinear Bäcklund transformations for the known bilinear q-difference two-dimensional Toda lattice equation (q-2DTL) and then derive a Lax pair whose compatibility gives a formally different nonlinear q-2DTL equation and finally obtain its quasideterminant solutions by iterating its Darboux transformations.
Coherent atomic soliton molecules for matter-wave switching
Yin, Chenyun; Berloff, Natalia G.; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Novoa, David; Carpentier, Alicia V.; Michinel, Humberto
2011-05-15
We discuss the dynamics of interacting dark-bright two-dimensional vector solitons in multicomponent immiscible bulk Bose-Einstein condensates. We describe matter-wave molecules without a scalar counterpart that can be seen as bound states of vector objects. We also analyze the possibility of using these structures as building blocks for the design of matter-wave switchers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
Thermal relaxation of a two dimensional plasma in a dc magnetic field. Part 2: Numerical simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, J. Y.; Joyce, G.; Montgomery, D.
1974-01-01
The thermal relaxation process for a spatially uniform two dimensional plasma in a uniform dc magnetic field is simulated numerically. Thermal relaxation times are defined in terms of the time necessary for the numerically computer Boltzman H-function to decrease through a given part of the distance to its minimum value. Dependence of relaxation time on two parameters is studied: number of particles per Debye square and ratio of gyrofrequency to plasma frequency.
Local Electron Correlations in a Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model on the Penrose Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takemori, Nayuta; Koga, Akihisa
2015-02-01
We study electron correlations in the half-filled Hubbard model on a two-dimensional Penrose lattice. Applying real-space dynamical mean-field theory to large clusters, we discuss how low-temperature properties are affected by a quasiperiodic structure. By calculating the double occupancy and renormalization factor at each site, we clarify the existence of the Mott transition. The spatially dependent renormalization characteristic of a geometrical structure is also addressed.
Two-dimensional probe absorption spectrum in a semiconductor quantum well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guanling; Wu, Feng
2015-11-01
We investigate the two-dimensional (2D) probe absorption spectrum in a semiconductor quantum well driven by two orthogonal standing-wave lasers. It is found that, due to the position-dependent quantum interference, the 2D spatial distribution of probe absorption spectrum can be easily controlled via adjusting the system parameters. Thus, our scheme shows the underlying probability for the applications in solid-state optic communication and transmission.
Nodal Domain Integration Model of Unsaturated Two-Dimensional Soil-Water Flow: Development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hromadka, T. V., II; Guymon, G. L.; Pardoen, G. C.
1981-10-01
The nodal domain integration method is applied to a two-dimensional unsaturated soil water flow problem where the solution domain is discretized into irregular triangular elements and the state variable is approximated by a spatial linear trial function within each triangular element. The resulting element matrices incorporate the well-known Galerkin finite element, subdomain, and integrated finite difference numerical statements as special cases of the nodal domain integration numerical statement.
Multidimensional solitons in fiber arrays
Aceves, A.B.; De Angelis, C.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Turitsyn, S.K.
1993-08-16
We demonstrate that nonlinear optical fiber arrays can support stable soliton-like pulses with finite energy. The bound state that we have found is localized both in time and in a spatial domain in the direction perpendicular to the pulse propagation. We have proved the boundedness of the Hamiltonian function for the array. Finally, numerical studies support our analytical conclusions.
Dynamics of two-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sung, Bong June; Yethiraj, Arun
2013-06-01
The dynamic properties of dense two-dimensional (2D) polymer melts are studied using discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations. Both strictly 2D and quasi-2D systems are investigated. The strictly 2D model system consists of a fluid of freely jointed tangent hard disc chains. The translational diffusion coefficient, D, is strongly system size dependent with D ˜ ln L where L is the linear dimension of the square simulation cell. The rotational correlation time, ?rot, is, however, independent of system size. The dynamics is consistent with Rouse behavior with D/ln L ˜ N-1 and ?rot ˜ N2 for all area fractions. Analysis of the intermediate scattering function, Fs(k, t), shows that the dynamics becomes slow for N = 256 and the area fraction of 0.454 and that there might be a glass transition for long polymers at sufficiently high area fractions. The polymer mobility is not correlated with the conformation of the molecules. In the quasi-2D system hard sphere chains are confined between corrugated surfaces so that chains cannot go over each other or into the surfaces. The conformational properties are identical to the 2D case, but D and ?rot are independent of system size. The scaling of D and ?rot with N is similar to that of strictly 2D systems. The simulations suggest that 2D polymers are never entangled and follow Rouse dynamics at all densities.
Difficulties that Students Face with Two-Dimensional Motion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mihas, P.; Gemousakakis, T.
2007-01-01
Some difficulties that students face with two-dimensional motion are addressed. The difficulties addressed are the vectorial representation of velocity, acceleration and force, the force-energy theorem and the understanding of the radius of curvature.
A two-dimensional Wigner crystal (Review Article)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monarkha, Yu. P.; Syvokon, V. E.
2012-12-01
The current state of theoretical and experimental studies of the Wigner crystallization of a two-dimensional electron gas is reviewed. The Wigner crystal (WC) has first been observed experimentally in a two-dimensional electron system on the surface of liquid helium in 1979. This success was favored by the exceptional purity of the free surface of superfluid liquid and the ability to fairly accurately describe the polaronic deformation phenomena accompanying the crystallization of electrons. Very pure samples of heterostructures (GaAs/GaAlAs) and strong magnetic fields, making easier the localization of electrons in a conducting layer, were necessary in order to observe the Wigner crystallization in semiconductor two-dimensional electron systems This review discusses the basic properties of a two-dimensional WC, common to the both above-mentioned electronic systems, and also major advances in the study of transport properties of WC caused by response of the environment on motion of the electron lattice.
Notes on the two-dimensional fractional Brownian motion
Baudoin, Fabrice; Nualart, David
2006-02-17
We study the two-dimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter H>½. In particular, we show, using stochastic calculus, that this process admits a skew-product decomposition and deduce from this representation some asymptotic properties...
Near-Surface Geophysics: Two-Dimensional Resistivity
USGS hydrologist conducts a two-dimensional (2D) resistivity survey to investigate and characterize the shallow subsurface. The survey was conducted as part of an applied research effort by the USGS Office of Groundwater Branch of Geophysics in 2006....
Single particle spectrum of the two dimensional electron gas
Dial, Oliver Eugene, III
2007-01-01
Accurate spectroscopy has driven advances in chemistry, materials science, and physics. However, despite their importance in the study of highly correlated systems, two-dimensional systems (2DES) have proven difficult to ...
Geometric coupling thresholds in a two-dimensional strip
Geometric coupling thresholds in a two-dimensional strip D. Borisov a , P. Exner, b;c and R. Gadyl, Ufa Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernyshevskogo St., 112, 450000, Ufa, Russia Borisov
Healing of defects in a two-dimensional granular crystal
Rice, Marie C
2014-01-01
Using a macroscopic analog for a two dimensional hexagonal crystal, we perform an experimental investigation of the self-healing properties of circular grain defects with an emphasis on defect orientation. A circular grain ...
CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE EDDY DIFFUSION INOFFICE SPACE
The paper discusses the development of a two-dimensional turbulentkinetic energy - dissipation rate (k-epsilon) turbulence model inthe form of vorticity and stream functions. his turbulence modelprovides the distribution of turbulent kinematic viscosity, used tocalculate the effe...
Local curvature and stability of two-dimensional systems
Guan, Jie
We propose a fast method to determine the local curvature in two-dimensional (2D) systems with arbitrary shape. The curvature information, combined with elastic constants obtained for a planar system, provides an accurate ...
Optical properties of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides
Lin, Yuxuan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2014-01-01
The re-discovery of the atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), which are mostly semiconductors with a wide range of band gaps, has diversified the family of two-dimensional materials and boosted the ...
String & Sticky Tape Experiments: Two-Dimensional Collisions Using Pendulums.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edge, R. D.
1989-01-01
Introduces a method for two-dimensional kinematics measurements by hanging marbles with long strings. Describes experimental procedures for conservation of momentum and obtaining the coefficient of restitution. Provides diagrams and mathematical expressions for the activities. (YP)
Design and analysis of a two-dimensional camera array
Yang, Jason C. (Jason Chieh-Sheng), 1977-
2005-01-01
I present the design and analysis of a two-dimensional camera array for virtual studio applications. It is possible to substitute conventional cameras and motion control devices with a real-time, light field camera array. ...
Model of a Negatively Curved Two-Dimensional Space.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eckroth, Charles A.
1995-01-01
Describes the construction of models of two-dimensional surfaces with negative curvature that are used to illustrate differences in the triangle sum rule for the various Big Bang Theories of the universe. (JRH)
Dynamic patterns in a two-dimensional neural field with refractoriness.
Qi, Yang; Gong, Pulin
2015-08-01
The formation of dynamic patterns such as localized propagating waves is a fascinating self-organizing phenomenon that happens in a wide range of spatially extended systems including neural systems, in which they might play important functional roles. Here we derive a type of two-dimensional neural-field model with refractoriness to study the formation mechanism of localized waves. After comparing this model with existing neural-field models, we show that it is able to generate a variety of localized patterns, including stationary bumps, localized waves rotating along a circular path, and localized waves with longer-range propagation. We construct explicit bump solutions for the two-dimensional neural field and conduct a linear stability analysis on how a stationary bump transitions to a propagating wave under different spatial eigenmode perturbations. The neural-field model is then partially solved in a comoving frame to obtain localized wave solutions, whose spatial profiles are in good agreement with those obtained from simulations. We demonstrate that when there are multiple such propagating waves, they exhibit rich propagation dynamics, including propagation along periodically oscillating and irregular trajectories; these propagation dynamics are quantitatively characterized. In addition, we show that these waves can have repulsive or merging collisions, depending on their collision angles and the refractoriness parameter. Due to its analytical tractability, the two-dimensional neural-field model provides a modeling framework for studying localized propagating waves and their interactions. PMID:26382427
Dynamic patterns in a two-dimensional neural field with refractoriness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Yang; Gong, Pulin
2015-08-01
The formation of dynamic patterns such as localized propagating waves is a fascinating self-organizing phenomenon that happens in a wide range of spatially extended systems including neural systems, in which they might play important functional roles. Here we derive a type of two-dimensional neural-field model with refractoriness to study the formation mechanism of localized waves. After comparing this model with existing neural-field models, we show that it is able to generate a variety of localized patterns, including stationary bumps, localized waves rotating along a circular path, and localized waves with longer-range propagation. We construct explicit bump solutions for the two-dimensional neural field and conduct a linear stability analysis on how a stationary bump transitions to a propagating wave under different spatial eigenmode perturbations. The neural-field model is then partially solved in a comoving frame to obtain localized wave solutions, whose spatial profiles are in good agreement with those obtained from simulations. We demonstrate that when there are multiple such propagating waves, they exhibit rich propagation dynamics, including propagation along periodically oscillating and irregular trajectories; these propagation dynamics are quantitatively characterized. In addition, we show that these waves can have repulsive or merging collisions, depending on their collision angles and the refractoriness parameter. Due to its analytical tractability, the two-dimensional neural-field model provides a modeling framework for studying localized propagating waves and their interactions.
Multi-component vector solitons in photorefractive crystals Kristian Motzeka
spatial transverse dimensions, composite solitons were shown to exist in two fundamental forms. The first-component spatial optical solitons in anisotropic nonlocal photore- fractive media. For the case of three components self-trapped beams that are mutually incoherent with each constituent beam being a corresponding
From the Academy Mathematical frontiers in optical solitons
Weinstein, Michael I.
in a uniform medium. We review recent developments in incoherent spatial solitons and in gap solitons). To understand the ideas involved, some aspects of incoherent light have to be explained first. A spatially (1), Lax (2), Zakharov and Shabat (3), and Miura et al. (4), and the development of the laser (5, 6
Supercurrent reversal in two-dimensional topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zyuzin, Alexander; Alidoust, Mohammad; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel
2015-11-01
We calculate a supercurrent across a two-dimensional topological insulator subjected to an external magnetic field. When the edge states of a narrow two-dimensional topological insulator are hybridized, an external magnetic field can close the hybridization gap, thus driving a quantum phase transition from insulator to semimetal states of the topological insulator. We find a sign reversal of the supercurrent at the quantum phase transition revealing intrinsic properties of topological insulators via the Josephson effect.
The Two-Dimensional Analogue of General Relativity
Lemos, José P S; 10.1088/0264-9381/11/1/003
2009-01-01
General Relativity in three or more dimensions can be obtained by taking the limit $\\omega\\rightarrow\\infty$ in the Brans-Dicke theory. In two dimensions General Relativity is an unacceptable theory. We show that the two-dimensional closest analogue of General Relativity is a theory that also arises in the limit $\\omega\\rightarrow\\infty$ of the two-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory.
Two-Dimensional Imaging of Gauge Fields in Optical Lattices
Cho, Jaeyoon; Kim, M. S.
2011-12-23
We propose a scheme to generate an arbitrary Abelian vector potential for atoms trapped in a two-dimensional optical lattice. By making the optical lattice potential dependent on the atomic state, we transform the problem into that of a two-dimensional imaging. It is shown that an arbitrarily fine pattern of the gauge field in the lattice can be realized without need of diffraction-limited imaging.
Two-Dimensional Systolic Array For Kalman-Filter Computing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Jaw John; Yeh, Hen-Geul
1988-01-01
Two-dimensional, systolic-array, parallel data processor performs Kalman filtering in real time. Algorithm rearranged to be Faddeev algorithm for generalized signal processing. Algorithm mapped onto very-large-scale integrated-circuit (VLSI) chip in two-dimensional, regular, simple, expandable array of concurrent processing cells. Processor does matrix/vector-based algebraic computations. Applications include adaptive control of robots, remote manipulators and flexible structures and processing radar signals to track targets.
Muscle protein analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
Giometti, C.S.
1982-01-01
Two-dimensional electrophoresis of muscle proteins has provided valuable new information concerning the heterogeneity of some of the major contractile proteins, alterations in the protein population of developing muscle fibers during various stages of myogenesis, and protein aberrations that correlate with muscle diseases. As with all electrophoretic techniques, careful attention must be paid to the preparation of samples and the selection of reagents to be used for the protein separations. Two-dimensional electrophoresis is the obvious method of choice when analysis of protein mixtures is required. The routine clinical application of two-dimensional electrophoresis to analysis of muscle tissue remains to be demonstrated. However, methods of sample preparation for two-dimensional electrophoresis compatible with existing clinical procedures have been described, and the equipment for multiple analyses is available. As protein abnormalities related to human myopathy are detected through the use of two-dimensional electrophoresis as a research tool, useful clinical markers of specific myopathic processes will be found. The preliminary work on muscle protein analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis described in this review has begun a new approach to the enigma of human muscle disease.
Lightlike shell solitons of extremal space-time film
Alexander A. Chernitskii
2015-10-22
New exact solution class of Born -- Infeld type nonlinear scalar field model is obtained. The variational principle of this model has a specific form which is characteristic for extremal four-dimensional hypersurface or hyper film in five-dimensional space-time. Obtained solutions are singular solitons propagating with speed of light and having energy, momentum, and angular momentum which can be calculated for explicit conditions. The soliton singularity has a form of moving two-dimensional surface or shell. The lightlike soliton can have a set of tubelike singular shells with the appropriate cavities. A twisted lightlike soliton is considered. It is notable that its energy is proportional to its angular momentum in high-frequency approximation. A case with one tubelike cavity is considered. In this case the soliton shell is diffeomorphic to cylindrical surface with cuts by multifilar helix. The shell transverse size of the appropriate finite energy soliton can be converging to zero at infinity. The ideal gas of such lightlike solitons with minimal twist parameter is considered in a finite volume. Explicit conditions provide that the angular momentum of each soliton in the volume equals Planck constant. The equilibrium energy spectral density for the solitons is obtained. It has the form of Planck distribution in some approximation. A beam of twisted lightlike solitons is considered. The representation of arbitrary polarization for beam with twisted lightlike solitons is discussed. It is shown that this beam provides the effect of mechanical angular momentum transfer to absorbent by circularly polarized beam. This effect well known for photon beam. Thus the soliton solution which have determinate likeness with photon is obtained in particular.
Nonstationarity of a two-dimensional perpendicular shock: Competing mechanisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lembège, Bertrand; Savoini, Philippe; Hellinger, Petr; Trávní?ek, Pavel M.
2009-03-01
Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are used for analyzing in detail different nonstationary behaviors of a perpendicular supercritical shock. A recent study by Hellinger et al. (2007) has shown that the front of a supercritical shock can be dominated by the emission of large-amplitude whistler waves. These waves inhibit the self-reformation driven by the reflected ions; then, the shock front appears almost ``quasi-stationary.'' The present study stresses new complementary results. First, for a fixed ? i value, the whistler waves emission (WWE) persists for high M A above a critical Mach number (i.e., M A >= M A WWE). The quasi-stationarity is only apparent and disappears when considering the full 3-D field profiles. Second, for lower M A , the self-reformation is retrieved and becomes dominant as the amplitude of the whistler waves becomes negligible. Third, there exists a transition regime in M A within which both processes compete each other. Fourth, these results are observed for a strictly perpendicular shock only as B 0 is within the simulation plane. When B 0 is out of the simulation plane, no whistler waves emission is evidenced and only self-reformation is recovered. Fifth, the occurrence and disappearance of the nonlinear whistler waves are well recovered in both 2-D PIC and 2-D hybrid simulations. The impacts on the results of the mass ratio (2-D PIC simulations), of the resistivity and spatial resolution (2-D hybrid simulations), and of the size of the simulation box along the shock front are analyzed in detail.
Modeling Meandering Channel by Two-Dimensional Shallow Water Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, C.; Duan, J. G.
2014-12-01
This research is to simulate the process of channel meandering using a two-dimensional depth-averaged hydrodynamic model. The multiple interactions between unsteady flow, turbulence, secondary flow, nonequilibrium sediment transport and bank erosion are considered by the model. The governing equations are the 2D depth-averaged Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (2D-RANS) equations and the Exner equation for bed elevation evolution. The Reynolds stresses are calculated by the k-? turbulence model. The secondary flow, is modeled by the dispersion terms in momentum equations. The spatial lag between the instantaneous flow properties and the rate of sediment transport is simulated by the nonequilibrium sediment transport model. During the process of adaptation, the sediment transport rate gradually develops into the transport capacity of a given flow condition. The evolution of channel bed and bank is modeled by the general Exner equation that accounts for both vertical deformation of bed elevation as well as lateral migration of bank. The system of governing equations is solved by a semi-implicit finite volume method over the Cartesian mesh. The advective fluxes across each cell interface are simultaneously calculated by the extended HLL Riemann solver. At each time step, the diffusion terms in the governing equations are solved by the implicit Euler scheme. The source terms are discretized in a well-balanced way to retain the C-property of the proposed model. Application of the model to different test cases indicates that the model can correctly simulate different phases of meandering channel evolution which include streamwise migration, transverse migration and rotation of channel bends.
Two-Dimensional Aperture Coding for Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russell, Zachary E.; Chen, Evan X.; Amsden, Jason J.; Wolter, Scott D.; Danell, Ryan M.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Gehm, Michael E.; Brady, David J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.
2015-02-01
In mass spectrometer design, there has been a historic belief that there exists a fundamental trade-off between instrument size, throughput, and resolution. When miniaturizing a traditional system, performance loss in either resolution or throughput would be expected. However, in optical spectroscopy, both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) aperture coding have been used for many years to break a similar trade-off. To provide a viable path to miniaturization for harsh environment field applications, we are investigating similar concepts in sector mass spectrometry. Recently, we demonstrated the viability of 1D aperture coding and here we provide a first investigation of 2D coding. In coded optical spectroscopy, 2D coding is preferred because of increased measurement diversity for improved conditioning and robustness of the result. To investigate its viability in mass spectrometry, analytes of argon, acetone, and ethanol were detected using a custom 90-degree magnetic sector mass spectrometer incorporating 2D coded apertures. We developed a mathematical forward model and reconstruction algorithm to successfully reconstruct the mass spectra from the 2D spatially coded ion positions. This 2D coding enabled a 3.5× throughput increase with minimal decrease in resolution. Several challenges were overcome in the mass spectrometer design to enable this coding, including the need for large uniform ion flux, a wide gap magnetic sector that maintains field uniformity, and a high resolution 2D detection system for ion imaging. Furthermore, micro-fabricated 2D coded apertures incorporating support structures were developed to provide a viable design that allowed ion transmission through the open elements of the code.
Finite Differences and Collocation Methods for the Solution of the Two Dimensional Heat Equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kouatchou, Jules
1999-01-01
In this paper we combine finite difference approximations (for spatial derivatives) and collocation techniques (for the time component) to numerically solve the two dimensional heat equation. We employ respectively a second-order and a fourth-order schemes for the spatial derivatives and the discretization method gives rise to a linear system of equations. We show that the matrix of the system is non-singular. Numerical experiments carried out on serial computers, show the unconditional stability of the proposed method and the high accuracy achieved by the fourth-order scheme.
Ion acoustic solitons in Earth's upward current region
Main, D. S.; Scholz, C.; Newman, D. L.; Ergun, R. E.
2012-07-15
The formation and evolution of ion acoustic solitons in Earth's auroral upward current region are studied using one- and two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations. The one-dimensional simulations are confined to processes that occur in the auroral cavity and include four plasma populations: hot electrons, H{sup +} and O{sup +} anti-earthward ion beams, and a hot H{sup +} background population. Ion acoustic solitons are found to form for auroral-cavity ion beams consistent with acceleration through double-layer (DL) potentials measured by FAST. A simplified one-dimensional model simulation is then presented in order to isolate the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the ion acoustic soliton. Results of a two-dimensional simulation, which include both the ionosphere and the auroral cavity, separated by a low-altitude DL, are then presented in order to confirm that the soliton forms in a more realistic 2D geometry. The 2D simulation is initialized with a U-shaped potential structure that mimics the inferred shape of the low altitude transition region based on observations. In this simulation, a soliton localized perpendicular to the geomagnetic field is observed to form and reside next to the DL. Finally, the 2D simulation results are compared with FAST data and it is found that certain aspects of the data can be explained by assuming the presence of an ion acoustic soliton.
Ion acoustic solitons in the upward current region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholz, Clark; Main, Daniel; Newman, David; Ergun, Robert
2011-10-01
The formation of ion acoustic solitons in the upward current region is demonstrated through one and two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations. The simulations include cold ionospheric electrons, hot auroral cavity electrons and H+ ions, and H+ and O+ beams. The interaction of the H+ and O+ beams in the auroral cavity leads to the formation of an earthward traveling H+ population. In order to understand the mechanism which leads to the formation of the soliton, we then simplify the simulation so that it includes only a H+ beam, hot electrons and an earthward traveling H+ population (which mimics the population that forms in the more complicated simulation). Both the above plasmas are unstable to ion acoustic soliton formation. However, in order for the soliton to form, we show that it is necessary to trigger the formation of the soliton, which occurs at the interface of the earthward and the anti-earthward traveling H+ population.After the initial soliton forms, ``baby'' solitons form from the initial soliton, consistent with previous studies (Kono, 1986). FAST data are presented which show the presence of earthward traveling ions and bipolar electric field structures in support of the above numerical results. Research supported by NSF award number PHY-0903556.
De Haas-van Alphen effect of a two-dimensional ultracold atomic gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farias, B.; Furtado, C.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we show how the ultracold atom analogue of the two-dimensional de Haas-van Alphen effect in electronic condensed matter systems can be induced by optical fields in a neutral atomic system. The interaction between the suitable spatially varying laser fields and tripod-type trapped atoms generates a synthetic magnetic field which leads the particles to organize themselves in Landau levels. Initially, with the atomic gas in a regime of lowest Landau level, we display the oscillatory behaviour of the atomic energy and its derivative with respect to the effective magnetic field (B) as a function of 1/B. Furthermore, we estimate the area of the Fermi circle of the two-dimensional atomic gas.
Two-Dimensional Hybrid Model for High-Current Electron Beam Transport in a Dense Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Lihua; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Zhanjun; Wu, Junfeng; Li, Baiwen
2014-11-01
A two-dimensional hybrid code is developed to model the transport of a high-current electron beam in a dense plasma target. The beam electrons are treated as particles and described by particle-in-cell simulation including collisions with the target plasma particles. The background target plasma is assumed to be a stationary fluid with temperature variations. The return current and the self-generated electric and magnetic fields are obtained by combining Ampère's law without the displacement current, the resistive Ohm's law and Faraday's law. The equations are solved in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry with rotational symmetry on a regular grid, with centered spatial differencing and first-order implicit time differencing. The algorithms implemented in the code are described, and a numerical experiment is performed for an electron beam with Maxwellian distribution ejected into a uniform deuterium-tritium plasma target.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rybakov, Iu. P.
Liapunov's direct method is used to analyze the stability of periodically time-dependent multidimensional soliton solutions. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the stability of charged solitons are formulated. The Hobart-Derrick theorem concerning the energy instability of multidimensional solitons is generalized, and it is shown that Q-theorem conditions are necessary for the stability of nodeless scalar solitons.
Continuous Solitons in a Lattice Nonlinearity.
Pierangeli, D; Flammini, M; Di Mei, F; Parravicini, J; de Oliveira, C E M; Agranat, A J; DelRe, E
2015-05-22
We study theoretically and experimentally the propagation of optical solitons in a lattice nonlinearity, a periodic pattern that both affects and is strongly affected by the wave. Observations are carried out using spatial photorefractive solitons in a volume microstructured crystal with a built-in oscillating low-frequency dielectric constant. The pattern causes an oscillating electro-optic response that induces a periodic optical nonlinearity. On-axis results in potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate indicate the appearance of effective continuous saturated-Kerr solitons, where all spatial traces of the lattice vanish, independently of the ratio between beam width and lattice constant. Decoupling the lattice nonlinearity allows the detection of discrete delocalized and localized light distributions, demonstrating that the continuous solitons form out of the combined compensation of diffraction and of the underlying periodic volume pattern. PMID:26047230
Solitons and Oscillitons in Complex Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauer, K.; Dubinin, E.; McKenzie, J. F.
2002-12-01
The properties of electromagnetic solitons and oscillitons in a plasma containing a massive ion (or dusty) species are discussed within a multi-fluid framework in which the magnetic field is frozen into the electrons. Oscillitons may be viewed as a generalization of a soliton in that they exhibit spatial oscillations superimposed on the classical `hump of water' shape which characterizes classical solitons. These waves can arise in certain wave speed regimes where the linear phase and group velocities are equal. A fully nonlinear computation reveals the rich structure imbedded in large amplitude coherent waves. An application to space plasmas where coherent waves are observed is briefly discussed.
Solitons in curved space of constant curvature
Batz, Sascha; Peschel, Ulf
2010-05-15
We consider spatial solitons as, for example, self-confined optical beams in spaces of constant curvature, which are a natural generalization of flat space. Due to the symmetries of these spaces we are able to define respective dynamical parameters, for example, velocity and position. For positively curved space we find stable multiple-hump solitons as a continuation from the linear modes. In the case of negatively curved space we show that no localized solution exists and a bright soliton will always decay through a nonlinear tunneling process.
Complexity and efficient approximability of two dimensional periodically specified problems
Marathe, M.V.; Hunt, H.B. III; Stearns, R.E.
1996-09-01
The authors consider the two dimensional periodic specifications: a method to specify succinctly objects with highly regular repetitive structure. These specifications arise naturally when processing engineering designs including VLSI designs. These specifications can specify objects whose sizes are exponentially larger than the sizes of the specification themselves. Consequently solving a periodically specified problem by explicitly expanding the instance is prohibitively expensive in terms of computational resources. This leads one to investigate the complexity and efficient approximability of solving graph theoretic and combinatorial problems when instances are specified using two dimensional periodic specifications. They prove the following results: (1) several classical NP-hard optimization problems become NEXPTIME-hard, when instances are specified using two dimensional periodic specifications; (2) in contrast, several of these NEXPTIME-hard problems have polynomial time approximation algorithms with guaranteed worst case performance.
Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation
Pavlov, Maxim V.
2014-01-01
In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo–Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo–Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented. PMID:25484603
Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, Thomas R.
1988-01-01
Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.
Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy Using Incoherent Light: Theoretical Analysis
Turner, Daniel B; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J
2012-01-01
Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I(4) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and opp...
A two-dimensional spin liquid in quantum kagome ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrasquilla, Juan; Hao, Zhihao; Melko, Roger G.
2015-06-01
Actively sought since the turn of the century, two-dimensional quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter where magnetic moments remain disordered even at zero temperature. Despite ongoing searches, QSLs remain elusive, due to a lack of concrete knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms that inhibit magnetic order in materials. Here we study a model for a broad class of frustrated magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore materials called quantum spin ices. When subject to an external magnetic field along the [111] crystallographic direction, the resulting interactions contain a mix of geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations in decoupled two-dimensional kagome planes. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we identify a set of interactions sufficient to promote a groundstate with no magnetic long-range order, and a gap to excitations, consistent with a Z2 spin liquid phase. This suggests an experimental procedure to search for two-dimensional QSLs within a class of pyrochlore quantum spin ice materials.
Nonlinear inversion of two-dimensional SH-wave equation
Hongnian, W.; Jing, X. )
1991-01-01
In solving nonlinear inversion problem of two-dimensional SH-wave equation with the use of least square method, a general inversion problem of two-dimensional SH-wave equation can be reduced to a physically realizable optimal control problem in model space by introducing the nonlinear functional of SH-wave velocity variation, so that synthetic seismogram of theoretical model is optimally fitted into real seismic record in the sense of least square. The optimal solution is obtained by adopting gradient method. The gradient is calculated from the forward wave field generated by real seismic sources and the backward wave field created by residual seismic data. Consequently, an iterative inversion scheme can be obtained which is similar to that in seismic migration. The inversion results of synthetic seismograms from two different two-dimensional models prove this approach feasible.
A two-dimensional spin liquid in quantum kagome ice.
Carrasquilla, Juan; Hao, Zhihao; Melko, Roger G
2015-01-01
Actively sought since the turn of the century, two-dimensional quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter where magnetic moments remain disordered even at zero temperature. Despite ongoing searches, QSLs remain elusive, due to a lack of concrete knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms that inhibit magnetic order in materials. Here we study a model for a broad class of frustrated magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore materials called quantum spin ices. When subject to an external magnetic field along the [111] crystallographic direction, the resulting interactions contain a mix of geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations in decoupled two-dimensional kagome planes. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we identify a set of interactions sufficient to promote a groundstate with no magnetic long-range order, and a gap to excitations, consistent with a Z2 spin liquid phase. This suggests an experimental procedure to search for two-dimensional QSLs within a class of pyrochlore quantum spin ice materials. PMID:26096331
Dynamical class of a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Érica de Mello
2015-10-01
A current goal in plasmonic science and technology is to figure out how to manage the relaxational dynamics of surface plasmons in graphene since its damping constitutes a hinder for the realization of graphene-based plasmonic devices. In this sense we believe it might be of interest to enlarge the knowledge on the dynamical class of two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac systems. According to the recurrence relations method, different systems are said to be dynamically equivalent if they have identical relaxation functions at all times, and such commonality may lead to deep connections between seemingly unrelated physical systems. We employ the recurrence relations approach to obtain relaxation and memory functions of density fluctuations and show that a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system at long wavelength and zero temperature belongs to the same dynamical class of standard two-dimensional electron gas and classical harmonic oscillator chain with an impurity mass.
Quantum walks on two kinds of two-dimensional models
Dan Li; Michael Mc Gettrick; Wei-Wei Zhang; Ke-Jia Zhang
2015-01-08
In this paper, we numerically study quantum walks on two kinds of two-dimensional graphs: cylindrical strip and Mobius strip. The two kinds of graphs are typical two-dimensional topological graph. We study the crossing property of quantum walks on these two models. Also, we study its dependence on the initial state, size of the model. At the same time, we compare the quantum walk and classical walk on these two models to discuss the difference of quantum walk and classical walk.
Two dimensional hydrodynamic and evolution sequences of rotating stars
Deupree, R. G.; Guzik, J. A.; Neuforge, C. M.
2001-01-01
Two dimensional hydrodynamic simulations were calculated for ZAMS models with Z=0.02, and masses of 3,5, 8,12, and 20 Ma. For each mass five models were calculated - one nonrotating and four with progressively higher rotation rates. The rotating models were categorized by the ratio of the polar to the equatorial radius, with values of 0.985, 0.92, 0.84, and 0.72. The simulations were performed with the fully two dimensional implicit code ROTORC (actually what is known as 2.5 dimensions, with azimuthal symmetry, but with a conservation law for the rotational velocity in the azimuthal direction.)
Exact Solvability of Two-Dimensional Real Singular Morse Potential
M. V. Ioffe; D. N. Nishnianidze
2007-09-19
The supersymmetric approach in the form of second order intertwining relations is used to prove the exact solvability of two-dimensional Schrodinger equation with generalized two-dimensional Morse potential for $a_0=-1/2$. This two-parametric model is not amenable to conventional separation of variables, but it is completely integrable: the symmetry operator of fourth order in momenta exists. All bound state energies are found explicitly, and all corresponding wave functions are built analytically. By means of shape invariance property, the result is extended to the hierarchy of Morse models with arbitrary integer and half-integer values $a_k=-(k+1)/2.$
A two-dimensional dam-break flood plain model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hromadka, T. V.; Berenbrock, C. E.; Freckleton, J. R.; Guymon, G. L.
A simple two-dimensional dam-break model is developed for flood plain study purposes. Both a finite difference grid and an irregular triangle element integrated finite difference formulation are presented. The governing flow equations are approximately solved as a diffusion model coupled to the equation of continuity. Application of the model to a hypothetical dam-break study indicates that the approach can be used to predict a two-dimensional dam-break flood plain over a broad, flat plain more accurately than a one-dimensional model, especially when the flow can break-out of the main channel and then return to the channel at other downstream reaches.
Coherent structures and two-dimensionalization in rotating turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruppert-Felsot, Jori Elan
2005-11-01
We study laboratory-produced fluid turbulence under the influence of rapid rotation. Three-dimensional (3D) turbulence is generated by strong pumping through sources and sinks at the bottom of a rotating tank (48.4 cm high, 39.4 cm diameter) filled with water. This flow evolves toward quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) turbulence with increasing height in the tank. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) measurements were taken using tracer particles illuminated by a horizontal laser light-sheet. The quasi-2D flow near the top of the tank contains many long-lived coherent vortices and jets with a wide range of sizes near the top of the tank. The vertical vorticity field exhibits complex dynamics such as vortex birth, merger, scattering, and destruction. Measurements using two synchronized cameras and vertically separated light sheets revealed coherent structures that were columnar and extended vertically throughout the tank. The effect of rotation greatly increased the vertical correlation of the flow, even for small rotation rates. A gradual decay in the correlation of increasingly vertically separated planes was observed, rather than a sharp transition. The discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were used to extract and study the dynamics of the localized coherent structures near the top of our tank. We separated the flow into a low-entropy "coherent" and a high entropy "incoherent" component by thresholding the coefficients of the DWPT and DWT of the vorticity field. Similar thresholdings using the Fourier transform and JPEG compression, the Okubo-Weiss criterion and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) were also tested. We found that the DWPT and DWT yield similar results and are much more efficient at representing the total flow than other methods. Only about 3% of the large-amplitude coefficients of the DWPT and DWT were necessary to represent the coherent component and preserve the vorticity probability density function, transport properties, and spatial and temporal correlations of the measured fields. The remaining small amplitude coefficients represent the incoherent component, which has near Gaussian vorticity PDF, contains no coherent structures, rapidly loses correlation in time, and does not contribute significantly to the transport properties of the flow. This suggests that one can faithfully describe and simulate such turbulent flow using a relatively small number of wavelet or wavelet packet modes.
Matter-wave solitons in nonlinear optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Malomed, Boris A.
2005-10-01
We introduce a dynamical model of a Bose-Einstein condensate based on the one-dimensional (1D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) with a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL), which is represented by the cubic term whose coefficient is periodically modulated in the coordinate. The model describes a situation when the atomic scattering length is spatially modulated, via the optically controlled Feshbach resonance, in an optical lattice created by interference of two laser beams. Relatively narrow solitons supported by the NOL are predicted by means of the variational approximation (VA), and an averaging method is applied to broad solitons. A different feature is a minimum norm (number of atoms), N=Nmin , necessary for the existence of solitons. The VA predicts Nmin very accurately. Numerical results are chiefly presented for the NOL with the zero spatial average value of the nonlinearity coefficient. Solitons with values of the amplitude A larger than at N=Nmin are stable. Unstable solitons with smaller, but not too small, A rearrange themselves into persistent breathers. For still smaller A , the soliton slowly decays into radiation without forming a breather. Broad solitons with very small A are practically stable, as their decay is extremely slow. These broad solitons may freely move across the lattice, featuring quasielastic collisions. Narrow solitons, which are strongly pinned to the NOL, can easily form stable complexes. Finally, the weakly unstable low-amplitude solitons are stabilized if a cubic term with a constant coefficient, corresponding to weak attraction, is included in the GPE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, R. B.; Pegoraro, L.; Oltean, M.
2011-12-01
We numerically obtain a class of soliton solutions for Einstein gravity in (n+1) dimensions coupled to massive Abelian gauge fields and with a negative cosmological constant with Lifshitz asymptotic behavior. We find that for all n?3, a discrete set of magic values for the charge density at the origin (guaranteeing an asymptotically Lifshitz geometry) exists when the critical exponent associated with the Lifshitz scaling is z=2; moreover, in all cases, a single magic value is obtained for essentially every 1
Ultrafast two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy using constant acquisition gradients
Frydman, Lucio
Ultrafast two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy using constant acquisition gradients Yoav Shrot NMR spectroscopy plays an important role in the characterization of molecular structure and dynamics for clinical diagnosis within the context of in vivo NMR spectroscopy.13 The information content of multidimen
Two-Dimensional Grids About Airfoils and Other Shapes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sorenson, R.
1982-01-01
GRAPE computer program generates two-dimensional finite-difference grids about airfoils and other shapes by use of Poisson differential equation. GRAPE can be used with any boundary shape, even one specified by tabulated points and including limited number of sharp corners. Numerically stable and computationally fast, GRAPE provides aerodynamic analyst with efficient and consistant means of grid generation.
Winding angle distributions for two-dimensional collapsing polymers
Prellberg, Thomas
Winding angle distributions for two-dimensional collapsing polymers Arturo Narros School provide numerical support for a long-standing prediction of universal scaling of winding angle distributions. Simulations of interacting self-avoiding walks show that the winding angle distribution for N
Conformal invariance in two-dimensional turbulence Antonio Celani
Fominov, Yakov
Conformal invariance in two-dimensional turbulence Antonio Celani CNRS - Institut non linéaire de (CNRS - INLN) Conformal invariance in turbulence Trieste, 12/12/2005 1 / 16 #12;Conformal invariance in statistical physics Homogeneity + isotropy + scale invariance conformal invariance.Holds under broad
Conformal invariance in two-dimensional D. BERNARD1
Loss, Daniel
ARTICLES Conformal invariance in two-dimensional turbulence D. BERNARD1 , G. BOFFETTA2 , A. CELANI3 invariance to a wider class of conformal transformations that allow non-uniform rescaling. Conformal. Is there conformal invariance in 2D turbulence, a paradigmatic example of a strongly interacting non
Two-Dimensional Porous Electrode Model for Capacitive Deionization
Santiago, Juan G.
deionization (CDI). In CDI, a pair of porous carbon electrodes is employed to electrostatically retain of engineered porous carbon electrodes. Upon application of 1 V across these electrodes (the charging processTwo-Dimensional Porous Electrode Model for Capacitive Deionization Ali Hemmatifar, Michael
Study of Protein Aggregation Using Two-Dimensional
Pezolet, Michel
Study of Protein Aggregation Using Two-Dimensional Correlation Infrared Spectroscopy and Spectral Simulations Thierry Lefe` vre Karin Arseneault Michel Pe´ zolet Centre de Recherche en Sciences et Inge obtained from a mutant protein that differs by one amino acid. To determine whether the aggregation
Microdiffraction applications utilizing a two-dimensional proportional detector.
Tissot, Ralph George, Jr.
2003-02-01
Two-dimensional proportional detectors with their faster data collection, large dynamic range, and more available information than point or linear proportional detectors make them ideal for microdiffraction analysis. The unique capabilities of these detectors coupled with a rotating anode source, capillary optics, and a variety of accessories allow for a wide range of applications.
Two-Dimensional Vortex Dynamics With Background Vorticity
Schecter, David
vorticity. Experiments have shown that background vorticity can calm chaotic vortex motion, and cool. To appreciate the influence of background vorticity on the vortex motion, let us first consider the vortexTwo-Dimensional Vortex Dynamics With Background Vorticity David A. Schecter Advanced Study Program
Two-dimensional vortex motion and 'negative temperatures.'
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, D.
1972-01-01
Explanation of the novel phenomenon, tentatively identified as the 'ergodic boundary' in a space of initial conditions for turbulent flow, suggested by the recent numerical integration of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations at high Reynolds numbers reported by Deem and Zabusky (1971). The proposed explanation is presented in terms of negative temperatures for a point vortex model.
Anomalous Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas
Nunner, Tamara S.; Sinitsyn, N. A.; Borunda, Mario F.; Dugaev, V. K.; Kovalev, A. A.; Abanov, Artem; Timm, Carsten; Jungwirth, T.; Inoue, Jun-ichiro; MacDonald, A. H.; Sinova, Jairo.
2007-01-01
The anomalous Hall effect in a magnetic two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is studied within the Kubo-Streda formalism in the presence of pointlike potential impurities. We find that all contributions to the anomalous Hall...
Pairing in two-dimensional boson-fermion mixtures
Mur-Petit, J.; Polls, A.; Baldo, M.; Schulze, H.-J.
2004-02-01
The possibilities of pairing in two-dimensional boson-fermion mixtures are carefully analyzed. It is shown that the boson-induced attraction between two identical fermions dominates the p wave pairing at low density. For a given fermion density, the pairing gap becomes maximal at a certain optimal boson concentration. The conditions for observing pairing in current experiments are discussed.
Chaotic dynamics for two-dimensional tent maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pumariño, Antonio; Ángel Rodríguez, José; Carles Tatjer, Joan; Vigil, Enrique
2015-02-01
For a two-dimensional extension of the classical one-dimensional family of tent maps, we prove the existence of an open set of parameters for which the respective transformation presents a strange attractor with two positive Lyapounov exponents. Moreover, periodic orbits are dense on this attractor and the attractor supports a unique ergodic invariant probability measure.
Two-dimensional plasma acceleration in a divergent magnetic nozzle
Carlos III de Madrid, Universidad
Two-dimensional plasma acceleration in a divergent magnetic nozzle E. Ahedo and M. Merino E of a current-free plasma in a divergent magnetic nozzle with fully magnetically guided electrons is discussed. Introduction A divergent magnetic nozzle, created by a longitudinal magnetic field is being used
Two-dimensional Manifold with Point-like Defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gani, V. A.; Dmitriev, A. E.; Rubin, S. G.
We study a class of two-dimensional compact extra spaces isomorphic to the sphere S 2 in the framework of multidimensional gravitation. We show that there exists a family of stationary metrics that depend on the initial (boundary) conditions. All these geometries have a singular point. We also discuss the possibility for these deformed extra spaces to be considered as dark matter candidates.
Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Analysis of Helicopter Flyover Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
SantaMaria, Odilyn L.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.
1999-01-01
A method to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise from a helicopter in flight is explored. Being the sum of two periodic signals of disproportionate, or incommensurate frequencies, helicopter noise is neither periodic nor stationary. The single Fourier transform divides signal energy into frequency bins of equal size. Incommensurate frequencies are therefore not adequately represented by any one chosen data block size. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis method is used to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise. The two-dimensional spectral analysis method is first applied to simulated signals. This initial analysis gives an idea of the characteristics of the two-dimensional autocorrelations and spectra. Data from a helicopter flight test is analyzed in two dimensions. The test aircraft are a Boeing MD902 Explorer (no tail rotor) and a Sikorsky S-76 (4-bladed tail rotor). The results show that the main rotor and tail rotor signals can indeed be separated in the two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum. The separation occurs along the diagonals associated with the frequencies of interest. These diagonals are individual spectra containing only information related to one particular frequency.
Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Applied to Helicopter Flyover Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Santa Maria, Odilyn L.
1999-01-01
A method to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise from a helicopter in flight is explored. Being the sum of two periodic signals of disproportionate, or incommensurate frequencies, helicopter noise is neither periodic nor stationary, but possibly harmonizable. The single Fourier transform divides signal energy into frequency bins of equal size. Incommensurate frequencies are therefore not adequately represented by any one chosen data block size. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis method is used to show helicopter noise as harmonizable. The two-dimensional spectral analysis method is first applied to simulated signals. This initial analysis gives an idea of the characteristics of the two-dimensional autocorrelations and spectra. Data from a helicopter flight test is analyzed in two dimensions. The test aircraft are a Boeing MD902 Explorer (no tail rotor) and a Sikorsky S-76 (4-bladed tail rotor). The results show that the main rotor and tail rotor signals can indeed be separated in the two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum. The separation occurs along the diagonals associated with the frequencies of interest. These diagonals are individual spectra containing only information related to one particular frequency.
Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole
Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos
2009-10-15
We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.
Error Detection and Recovery in Two Dimensional Topological Navigation
Âguided robotics 1 #12; 1 Introduction Our navigational environment consists of identically featured objects by the navigator, they are used to filter the perceptions of the mapÂmaker and the navigator. 1.1 The mapError Detection and Recovery in Two Dimensional Topological Navigation IlÂPyung Park and John R
Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis in Platelet Proteomics Research
23 Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis in Platelet Proteomics Research Ángel García Summary Proteomics technology allows a comprehensive and efficient analysis of the proteome and has become electrophoresis (2-DE) in proteomics and its application to platelet research. 2-DE separates proteins according
Consequence in Context: Two-Dimensional Semantics meets Logical Consequence
Koolen, Marijn
Maria Aloni and Dr Catarina Dutilh Novaes, and submitted to the Board of Examiners in partial of the public defense: Members of the Thesis Committee: December 23, 2011 Dr Maria Aloni Dr Paul Dekker Dr Emar Maier Dr Catarina Dutilh Novaes Prof Dr Frank Veltman #12;Abstract Two-dimensional semantics is a formal
A STABLE HIGH-ORDER METHOD FOR TWO-DIMENSIONAL ...
SIAM (#1) 1035 2001 Apr 10 12:32:38
2006-08-10
A stable and high-order method for solving the Helmholtz equation on a two- dimensional domain exterior ... analytic continuation, implemented via Padé approximation. .... dimensions, and leave the more general three-dimensional setting for future work. ... scattering and recall a classical boundary perturbation algorithm.
Two-dimensional superstrings and the supersymmetric matrix model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGreevy, John; Murthy, Sameer; Verlinde, Herman
2004-04-01
We present evidence that the supersymmetric matrix model of Marinari and Parisi represents the world-line theory of N unstable D-particles in type II superstring theory in two dimensions. This identification suggests that the matrix model gives a holographic description of superstrings in a two-dimensional black hole geometry.
Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nayfeh, A. H.
1974-01-01
The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL MELTING AND RESOLIDIFICATION OF
Zhang, Yuwen
uses two types of the metal powders possessing significantly different melting points [3, 4]. The high-melting-point necessary to avoid ``balling.'' Solidification of the low-melting-point metal bonds the high-melting- pointNUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL MELTING AND RESOLIDIFICATION OF A TWO-COMPONENT METAL
Acoustic quasimodes in two-dimensional dispersed random media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xin; Liu, Zhengyou; Wu, Fugen; Liu, Youyan
2006-06-01
Using the generalized coherent-potential-approximation approach, we present the dispersion relation of the two-dimensional dispersed random media. In the intermediate-frequency regime, two acoustic modes are found in colloidal suspensions including cylindrical plastic rod in water background. The scattering cross section offers a good explanation for the two modes and the observed frequency gaps in the excitation spectra.
Nesting of two-dimensional irregular parts: an integrated approach
Wang, Gaofeng Gary
Nesting of two-dimensional irregular parts: an integrated approach S. Q. XIE*{, G. G. WANG{ and Y The present paper reports an intelligent computer-aided nesting (CAN) system for optimal nesting of two the utilization ratio of sheet materials. This paper also systemically reviews the nesting algorithms that were
A note on two-dimensional asymptotic magnetotail equilibria
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voigt, Gerd-Hannes; Moore, Brian D.
1994-01-01
In order to understand, on the fluid level, the structure, the time evolution, and the stability of current sheets, such as the magnetotail plasma sheet in Earth's magnetosphere, one has to consider magnetic field configurations that are in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force equilibrium. Any reasonable MHD current sheet model has to be two-dimensional, at least in an asymptotic sense (B(sub z)/B (sub x)) = epsilon much less than 1. The necessary two-dimensionality is described by a rather arbitrary function f(x). We utilize the free function f(x) to construct two-dimensional magnetotail equilibria are 'equivalent' to current sheets in empirical three-dimensional models. We obtain a class of asymptotic magnetotail equilibria ordered with respect to the magnetic disturbance index Kp. For low Kp values the two-dimensional MHD equilibria reflect some of the realistic, observation-based, aspects of three-dimensional models. For high Kp values the three-dimensional models do not fit the asymptotic MHD equlibria, which is indicative of their inconsistency with the assumed pressure function. This, in turn, implies that high magnetic activity levels of the real magnetosphere might be ruled by thermodynamic conditions different from local thermodynamic equilibrium.
Nonlinear elastic behavior of two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, Ryan C.; Lee, Changgu; Marianetti, Chris A.; Wei, Xiaoding; Hone, James; Kysar, Jeffrey W.
2013-01-01
This research explores the nonlinear elastic properties of two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide. We derive a thermodynamically rigorous nonlinear elastic constitutive equation and then calculate the nonlinear elastic response of two-dimensional MoS2 with first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The nonlinear elastic properties are used to predict the behavior of suspended monolayer MoS2 subjected to a spherical indenter load at finite strains in a multiple-length-scale finite element analysis model. The model is validated experimentally by indenting suspended circular MoS2 membranes with an atomic force microscope. We find that the two-dimensional Young's modulus and intrinsic strength of monolayer MoS2 are 130 and 16.5 N/m, respectively. The results approach Griffith's predicted intrinsic strength limit of ?int˜(E)/(9), where E is the Young's modulus. This study reveals the predictive power of first-principles density functional theory in the derivation of nonlinear elastic properties of two-dimensional MoS2. Furthermore, the study bridges three main gaps that hinder understanding of material properties: DFT to finite element analysis, experimental results to DFT, and the nanoscale to the microscale. In bridging these three gaps, the experimental results validate the DFT calculations and the multiscale constitutive model.
Nonlinear Optical Processes in Two-Dimensional Semiconductor Structures
Wang, Yongrui
2015-07-28
The optical properties of two types of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor structures are studied. One of them is for structures based on quantum wells (QWs), and the other is graphene. We study the dynamics of optically excited electron-hole plasma...
Lattice Boltzmann simulation for forced two-dimensional turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, YuXian; Qian, YueHong
2014-08-01
The direct numerical simulations of forced two-dimensional turbulent flow are presented by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The development of an energy-enstrophy double cascade is investigated in the two cases of external force of two-dimensional turbulence, Gaussian force and Kolmogorov force. It is found that the friction force is a necessary condition of the occurrence of a double cascade. The energy spectrum k-3 in the enstrophy inertial range is in accord with the classical Kraichnan theory for both external forces. The energy spectrum of the Gaussian force case in an inverse cascade is k-2; however, the Kolmogorov force drives the k-5/3 energy in a backscatter cascade. The result agrees with Scott's standpoint, which describes nonrobustness of the two-dimensional turbulent inverse cascade. Also, intermittency is found for the enstrophy cascade in two cases of the external force form. Intermittency refers to the nonuniform distribution of saddle points in the two-dimensional turbulent flow.
Intersections of valuation overrings of two-dimensional Noetherian domains
Olberding, Bruce
Intersections of valuation overrings of two-dimensional Noetherian domains Bruce Olberding Abstract, where such overrings are viewed as intersections of valuation overrings. Of particular interest are the cases where the domain can be represented uniquely by an irredundant intersection of valuation rings
FLOW AND DISPERSION OF POLLUTANTS WITHIN TWO-DIMENSIONAL VALLEYS
Wind-tunnel experiments and a theoretical model concerning the flow structure and pollutant diffusion over two-dimensional valleys of varying aspect ratio are described and compared. hree model valleys were used, having small, medium, and steep slopes. Measurements of mean and tu...
An Optimization Model for Aesthetic TwoDimensional
Chang, Ee-Chien
An Optimization Model for Aesthetic TwoDimensional Barcodes Fang Chengfang, Zhang Chunwang Barcodes · 2D barcodes visually resemble random dots. We want to make them visually interesting barcodes. From 15 Beautiful and Creative QR Codes. ( http://mashable.com/2011/07/23/creativeqrcodes/ ) 9Jan
Operator splitting for two-dimensional incompressible fluid equations
Holden, Helge; Karper, Trygve K
2011-01-01
We analyze splitting algorithms for a class of two-dimensional fluid equations, which includes the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the surface quasi-geostrophic equation. Our main result is that the Godunov and Strang splitting methods converge with the expected rates provided the initial data are sufficiently regular.
Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs
Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.
1982-05-04
Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.
Two-dimensional optimization of free electron laser designs
Prosnitz, Donald (Walnut Creek, CA); Haas, Roger A. (Pleasanton, CA)
1985-01-01
Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a "synchronous electron" at an optimal transverse radius r>0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.
Two-Dimensional Diverging Shocks in a Nonuniform Medium
Roy A. Axford
1998-08-01
An analytic solution is derived from the time evolution of a two- dimensional diverging shock in r - z geometry. The shock propagates through a condensed medium characterized by a Mie-Gruneisen equation of state with a nonzero density gradient in the axial direction.
Carmon, Tal
Tal Carmon, Past studies, http://www.its.caltech.edu/~tal/1 1 Studies on Solitons and Pattern Formation. Tal Carmon Department of Physics, Technion-Israel ins. of Thechnology, Haifa 32000. tal@caltech.edu http://www.its.caltech.edu/~tal/ A. Introduction Optical Spatial Solitons Optical spatial solitons
Toward the Accurate Simulation of Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giussani, Angelo; Nenov, Artur; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K.; Rivalta, Ivan; Dumont, Elise; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco
2015-06-01
Two-dimensional pump-probe electronic spectroscopy is a powerful technique able to provide both high spectral and temporal resolution, allowing the analysis of ultrafast complex reactions occurring via complementary pathways by the identification of decay-specific fingerprints. [1-2] The understanding of the origin of the experimentally recorded signals in a two-dimensional electronic spectrum requires the characterization of the electronic states involved in the electronic transitions photoinduced by the pump/probe pulses in the experiment. Such a goal constitutes a considerable computational challenge, since up to 100 states need to be described, for which state-of-the-art methods as RASSCF and RASPT2 have to be wisely employed. [3] With the present contribution, the main features and potentialities of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy are presented, together with the machinery in continuous development in our groups in order to compute two-dimensional electronic spectra. The results obtained using different level of theory and simulations are shown, bringing as examples the computed two-dimensional electronic spectra for some specific cases studied. [2-4] [1] Rivalta I, Nenov A, Cerullo G, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Int. J. Quantum Chem., 2014, 114, 85 [2] Nenov A, Segarra-Martí J, Giussani A, Conti I, Rivalta I, Dumont E, Jaiswal V K, Altavilla S, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Faraday Discuss. 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00175C [3] Nenov A, Giussani A, Segarra-Martí J, Jaiswal V K, Rivalta I, Cerullo G, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, J. Chem. Phys. submitted [4] Nenov A, Giussani A, Fingerhut B P, Rivalta I, Dumont E, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Submitted [5] Krebs N, Pugliesi I, Hauer J, Riedle E, New J. Phys., 2013,15, 08501
Suppression of transverse instabilities for vector solitons Ziad H. Musslimani,1
the transverse instability of two-component spatial solitons in a saturable nonlinear medium, in relation of stable incoherently coupled soliton pairs, we investigate the transverse instability of all types of twoSuppression of transverse instabilities for vector solitons Ziad H. Musslimani,1 Mordechai Segev,2
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The accepted method for comparing bacterial proteomes has traditionally been two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. However, in recent years, new procedures for protein separation have been introduced. One of these new procedures utilizes column-based liquid chromatography separation. The tech...
trapping of a dipole mode by the soliton-induced waveguides. These solitons, which appear as a consequence explains the growing interest in self-guided beams (or spatial optical solitons) and the recent theoretical and ex- perimental study of spatial solitons and their interactions [1]. Not only reconfigurable
Real-time mapping of electronic structure with single-shot two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy
Harel, Elad; Fidler, Andrew F.; Engel, Gregory S.
2010-01-01
Electronic structure and dynamics determine material properties and behavior. Important time scales for electronic dynamics range from attoseconds to milliseconds. Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy has proven an incisive tool to probe fast spatiotemporal electronic dynamics in complex multichromophoric systems. However, acquiring these spectra requires long point-by-point acquisitions that preclude observations on the millisecond and microsecond time scales. Here we demonstrate that imaging temporally encoded information within a homogeneous sample allows mapping of the evolution of the electronic Hamiltonian with femtosecond temporal resolution in a single-laser-shot, providing real-time maps of electronic coupling. This method, which we call GRadient-Assisted Photon Echo spectroscopy (GRAPE), eliminates phase errors deleterious to Fourier spectroscopies while reducing the acquisition time by orders of magnitude using only conventional optical components. In analogy to MRI in which magnetic field gradients are used to create spatial correlation maps, GRAPE spectroscopy takes advantage of a similar type of spatial encoding to construct electronic correlation maps. Unlike magnetic resonance, however, this spatial encoding of the nonlinear polarization along the excitation frequency axis of the two-dimensional spectrum results in no loss in signal while simultaneously reducing overall noise. Correlating the energy transfer events and electronic coupling occurring in tens of femtoseconds with slow dynamics on the subsecond time scale is fundamentally important in photobiology, solar energy research, nonlinear spectroscopy, and optoelectronic device characterization. PMID:20810917
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serkin, Vladimir N.; Belyaeva, T. L.
2001-11-01
It is shown that optical solitons in nonlinear fibre-optic communication systems and soliton lasers can be represented as nonlinear Bloch waves in periodic structures. The Bloch theorem is proved for solitons of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation in systems with the dispersion, the nonlinearity, and the gain (absorption coefficient) periodically changing over the length. The dynamics of formation and interaction, as well as stability of the coupled states of nonlinear Bloch waves are investigated. It is shown that soliton Bloch waves exist only under certain self-matching conditions for the basic parameters of the system and reveal a structural instability with respect to the mismatch between the periods of spatial modulation of the dispersion, nonlinearity or gain.
T. Gopinath; Anil Kumar
2006-09-08
Hadamard spectroscopy has earlier been used to speed-up multi-dimensional NMR experiments. In this work we speed-up the two-dimensional quantum computing scheme, by using Hadamard spectroscopy in the indirect dimension, resulting in a scheme which is faster and requires the Fourier transformation only in the direct dimension. Two and three qubit quantum gates are implemented with an extra observer qubit. We also use one-dimensional Hadamard spectroscopy for binary information storage by spatial encoding and implementation of a parallel search algorithm.
Gopinath, T; Kumar, Anil
2006-01-01
Hadamard spectroscopy has earlier been used to speed-up multi-dimensional NMR experiments. In this work we speed-up the two-dimensional quantum computing scheme, by using Hadamard spectroscopy in the indirect dimension, resulting in a scheme which is faster and requires the Fourier transformation only in the direct dimension. Two and three qubit quantum gates are implemented with an extra observer qubit. We also use one-dimensional Hadamard spectroscopy for binary information storage by spatial encoding and implementation of a parallel search algorithm.
Excitation of coherent polaritons in a two-dimensional atomic lattice
Barinov, I O; Alodzhants, A P; Arakelyan, Sergei M
2009-07-31
We describe a new type of spatially periodic structure (lattice models): a polaritonic crystal formed by a two-dimensional lattice of trapped two-level atoms interacting with the electromagnetic field in a cavity (or in a one-dimensional array of tunnelling-coupled microcavities), which allows polaritons to be fully localised. Using a one-dimensional polaritonic crystal as an example, we analyse conditions for quantum degeneracy of a lower-polariton gas and those for quantum optical information recording and storage. (special issue devoted to the 80th birthday of S.A. Akhmanov)
Two-dimensional colloid-based photonic crystals for distributed feedback polymer lasers
Mafouana, Rodrigue; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Hirlimann, Charles; Estournes, Claude; Dorkenoo, Kokou D.
2004-11-08
We report on a process to design highly ordered monolayers of two-dimensional photonic crystals, made of silica nanoparticules, that can be used for the development of organic optical devices. We have used a photopolymerization process to incorporate a dye gain medium into the nanoparticle layers in order to achieve a laser cavity. The high spatial coherence of the deposits allows for single-mode laser emission in the plane of the layer when the light excitation is perpendicular to the plane. Such periodic films should help in reducing the number of layers needed for future electrically pumped distributed feedback lasers.
Universal Velocity Profile for Coherent Vortices in Two-Dimensional Turbulence
M. Chertkov; I. Kolokolov; V. Lebedev
2009-12-29
Two-dimensional turbulence generated in a finite box produces large-scale coherent vortices coexisting with small-scale fluctuations. We present a rigorous theory explaining the $\\eta=1/4$ scaling in the $V\\propto r^{-\\eta}$ law of the velocity spatial profile within a vortex, where $r$ is the distance from the vortex center. This scaling, consistent with earlier numerical and laboratory measurements, is universal in its independence of details of the small-scale injection of turbulent fluctuations and details of the shape of the box.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaci, Said; Zaourar, Naima; Hachay, Olga
2015-04-01
A natural process is the mixture of various components of different scales. The two-dimensional anisotropic wavelet analysis appears to be perfectly appropriate to investigate such processes and to highlight details at a given analyzing scale. Here, we present a wavelet-based technique, which is specifically the Normalized Optimized Anisotropic Wavelet Coefficient (NOAWC). Then, the potential of the latter is demonstrated through its application on a digitized image of a core extracted from an Algerian exploration borehole. The NOAWC method has allowed to accurately quantify anisotropies of orientation, shape and spatial distributions of the investigated core at different scales, and thus to provide supplementary information enriching the conventional analysis.
Statistics and spin on two-dimensional surfaces
Balachandran, A.P. . Dept. of Physics); Einaroson, T. . Inst. of Theoretical Physics); Govindarajan, T.R.; Ramachandran, R. )
1991-09-28
The fundamental groups of the configuration spaces for the O(3) nonlinear {sigma}-model on the compact genus g surfaces T{sup 2g} and on the connected sums R{sup 2} {number sign} T{sup 2g} are known for any soliton number N. So are the braid groups for N spinless particles on these manifolds. The representations of these groups govern the possible statistics of solitons and particles. This paper shows that when spin and creation/annihilation processes are introduced, the fundamental groups for the particles are the same as the corresponding {sigma}-model groups. These fundamental groups incorporate the spin-statistics connection and are of greater physical relevance than the standard braid groups.
Vortex solitons of the discrete Ginzburg-Landau equation
Mejia-Cortes, C.; Soto-Crespo, J. M.; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.; Molina, Mario I.
2011-04-15
We have found several families of vortex soliton solutions in two-dimensional discrete dissipative systems governed by the cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. There are symmetric and asymmetric solutions, and some of them have simultaneously two different topological charges for two different closed loops encircling, i.e., centered at, the singularity. Their regions of existence and stability are determined. Additionally, we have analyzed the relationship between dissipation and stability for a number of solutions, finding that dissipation favors the stability of the vortex soliton solutions.
Soliton dynamics in a PT-symmetric optical lattice with a longitudinal potential barrier.
Zhou, Keya; Wei, Tingting; Sun, Haipeng; He, Yingji; Liu, Shutian
2015-06-29
We present dynamics of spatial solitons propagating through a PT symmetric optical lattice with a longitudinal potential barrier. We find that a spatial soliton evolves a transverse drift motion after transmitting through the lattice barrier. The gain/loss coefficient of the PT symmetric potential barrier plays an essential role on such soliton dynamics. The bending angle of solitons depends on the lattice parameters including the modulation frequency, incident position, potential depth and the barrier length. Besides, solitons tend to gain a certain amount of energy from the barrier, which can also be tuned by barrier parameters. PMID:26191701
Two-dimensional self-modulation of lower hybrid waves in inhomogeneous plasmas
Karney, Charles
profiles, exact nonlinear solutions (solitons) are obtained by the inverse scattering method. The solitons ~ / 2 ,inhomogeneity introduces a second condition for solitons to occur. It is shown that this second condition is not satisfied in typical tokamak plasmas, i.e., there is no soliton formation, in contrast
Chen, Zhigang
via coherent beam inter- ference [9]. Meanwhile, pixel-like spatial solitons have also been lattices created by partially incoherent light. By exploiting the anisotropic properties observe transverse velocity slowdown of the probe as well as soliton-induced lattice dislocation
On comparing helioseismic two-dimensional inversion methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schou, J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Thompson, M. J.
1994-01-01
We consider inversion techniques for investigating the structure and dynamics of the solar interior as functions of radius and latitude. In particular, we look at the problem of inferring the radial and latitudinal dependence of the Sun's internal rotation, using a fully two-dimensional least-squares inversion algorithm. Concepts such as averaging kernels, measures of resolution, and trade-off curves, which have previously been used in the one-dimensional case, are generalized to facilitate a comparison of two-dimensional methods. We investigate the weighting given to different modes and discuss the implications of this for observational strategies. As an illustration we use a mode set whose properties are similar to those expected for data from the GONG network.
Preliminary results on two-dimensional interferometry of HL Tau
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tollestrup, Eric V.; Harvey, Paul M.
1989-10-01
Preliminary two-dimensional speckle interferometry results of HL Tau were found to be qualitatively similar to those found with one-dimensional slit scanning techniques; results consist of a resolved component (approximately 0.7 arcsec in size) and an unresolved component. Researchers are currently reducing the rest of the data (taken on three different telescopes and at three different wavelengths) and are also exploring other high resolution methods like the shift and add technique and selecting only the very best images for processing. The availability of even better two-dimensional arrays within the next couple of years promises to make speckle interferometry and other high resolution techniques very powerful and exiting tools for probing a variety of objects in the subarcsec regime.
A two-dimensional dam-break flood plain model
Hromadka, T.V., II; Berenbrock, C.E.; Freckleton, J.R.; Guymon, G.L.
1985-01-01
A simple two-dimensional dam-break model is developed for flood plain study purposes. Both a finite difference grid and an irregular triangle element integrated finite difference formulation are presented. The governing flow equations are approximately solved as a diffusion model coupled to the equation of continuity. Application of the model to a hypothetical dam-break study indicates that the approach can be used to predict a two-dimensional dam-break flood plain over a broad, flat plain more accurately than a one-dimensional model, especially when the flow can break-out of the main channel and then return to the channel at other downstream reaches. ?? 1985.
Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores
Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng
2014-11-14
Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ?15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.
Tunable refraction in a two dimensional quantum metamaterial
M. J. Everitt; J. H. Samson; S. E. Savelev; T. P. Spiller; R. Wilson; A. M. Zagoskin
2012-08-22
In this paper we consider a two-dimensional metamaterial comprising an array of qubits (two level quantum objects). Here we show that a two-dimensional quantum metamaterial may be controlled, e.g. via the application of a magnetic flux, so as to provide controllable refraction of an input signal. Our results are consistent with a material that could be quantum birefringent (beam splitter) or not dependent on the application of this control parameter. We note that quantum metamaterials as proposed here may be fabricated from a variety of current candidate technologies from superconducting qubits to quantum dots. Thus the ideas proposed in this work would be readily testable in existing state of the art laboratories.
Some applications of two-dimensional stress transfer analyses
Hsueh, C.H.
1998-03-23
Two-dimensional stress transfer analyses are performed for the following system: a long central plate bonded on opposite sides along its length to two short plates and subjected to tensile loading at its ends. The load transfers from the long plate to the short plate through the interfacial shear stress. The system represents the unit cell of platelet-reinforced composites, in which parallel matrix cracks are uniformly spaced and are bridged by the platelet, in a two-dimensional sense. Analytical solutions for the crack opening displacement, the additional displacement of the composite due to the presence of cracks, and stress intensity factor at the crack tip are derived. Letting the long plate and the short plates have the same mechanical properties, the analytical solutions are compared to the existing numerical solutions for tensile loading of both a double edge notch strip and a semi-infinite plane with parallel edge cracks.
Unshielded fetal magnetocardiography system using two-dimensional gradiometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seki, Yusuke; Kandori, Akihiko; Kumagai, Yukio; Ohnuma, Mitsuru; Ishiyama, Akihiko; Ishii, Tetsuko; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Horigome, Hitoshi; Chiba, Toshio
2008-03-01
We developed a fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) system that uses a pair of two-dimensional gradiometers to achieve high signal-to-noise ratio. The gradiometer, which is based on a low-Tc superconducting quantum interference device, detects the gradient of a magnetic field in two orthogonal directions. Gradiometer position is easy to adjust by operating the gantry to drive the cryostat in both the swinging and axial directions. As a result, a fMCG waveform for 25weeks' gestation was measured under an unshielded environment in real time. Moreover, the P and T waves for 25 and 34weeks' gestation, respectively, were obtained by averaging. These results indicate that this two-dimensional gradiometer is one of the most promising techniques for measuring fetal heart rate and diagnosing fetal arrhythmia.
The stability of a two-dimensional rising bubble
Nie, Q.; Tanveer, S.
1995-06-01
The stability of an inviscid two-dimensional bubble subject to two-dimensional disturbances is considered and the bubbles are found to be linearly stable for all Weber numbers, for which a steady solution is known. Certain aspects of the nonlinear initial value problem are also studied. An initial condition that consists of a superposition of a suitable symmetric eigenmode (of the linear stability operator) on a steady state is found to result in pinching of the bubble neck as it tends to oscillate about the steady state. An estimate of the threshold amplitude of such a disturbance needed to cause breakup of a large aspect ratio bubble is obtained. The presence of gravity appears to inhibit this pinching process.
Two-dimensional Raman-terahertz spectroscopy of water
Savolainen, Janne; Ahmed, Saima; Hamm, Peter
2013-01-01
Two-dimensional Raman-terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is presented as a multidimensional spectroscopy directly in the far-IR regime. The method is used to explore the dynamics of the collective intermolecular modes of liquid water at ambient temperatures that emerge from the hydrogen-bond networks water forming. Two-dimensional Raman-THz spectroscopy interrogates these modes twice and as such can elucidate couplings and inhomogeneities of the various degrees of freedoms. An echo in the 2D Raman-THz response is indeed identified, indicating that a heterogeneous distribution of hydrogen-bond networks exists, albeit only on a very short 100-fs timescale. This timescale appears to be too short to be compatible with more extended, persistent structures assumed within a two-state model of water. PMID:24297930
Two-Dimensional Computational Model for Wave Rotor Flow Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, Gerard E.
1996-01-01
A two-dimensional (theta,z) Navier-Stokes solver for multi-port wave rotor flow simulation is described. The finite-volume form of the unsteady thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are integrated in time on multi-block grids that represent the stationary inlet and outlet ports and the moving rotor passages of the wave rotor. Computed results are compared with three-port wave rotor experimental data. The model is applied to predict the performance of a planned four-port wave rotor experiment. Two-dimensional flow features that reduce machine performance and influence rotor blade and duct wall thermal loads are identified. The performance impact of rounding the inlet port wall, to inhibit separation during passage gradual opening, is assessed.
Shen, Ming; Gao, Jinsong; Ge, Lijuan
2015-01-01
We investigate the spatially optical solitons shedding from Airy beams and anomalous interactions of Airy beams in nonlocal nonlinear media by means of direct numerical simulations. Numerical results show that nonlocality has profound effects on the propagation dynamics of the solitons shedding from the Airy beam. It is also shown that the strong nonlocality can support periodic intensity distribution of Airy beams with opposite bending directions. Nonlocality also provides a long-range attractive force between Airy beams, leading to the formation of stable bound states of both in-phase and out-of-phase breathing Airy solitons which always repel in local media. PMID:25900878
Shen, Ming; Gao, Jinsong; Ge, Lijuan
2015-01-01
We investigate the spatially optical solitons shedding from Airy beams and anomalous interactions of Airy beams in nonlocal nonlinear media by means of direct numerical simulations. Numerical results show that nonlocality has profound effects on the propagation dynamics of the solitons shedding from the Airy beam. It is also shown that the strong nonlocality can support periodic intensity distribution of Airy beams with opposite bending directions. Nonlocality also provides a long-range attractive force between Airy beams, leading to the formation of stable bound states of both in-phase and out-of-phase breathing Airy solitons which always repel in local media. PMID:25900878
Accelerating universe in two-dimensional noncommutative dilaton cosmology
Wontae Kim; Myung Seok Yoon
2006-12-01
We show that the phase transition from the decelerating universe to the accelerating universe, which is of relevance to the cosmological coincidence problem, is possible in the semiclassically quantized two-dimensional dilaton gravity by taking into account the noncommutative field variables during the finite time. Initially, the quantum-mechanically induced energy from the noncommutativity among the fields makes the early universe decelerate and subsequently the universe is accelerating because the dilaton driven cosmology becomes dominant later.
Notes on quantum fields on two dimensional spacetimes
Leonardo Ortíz
2014-11-23
We point out how to construct the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state for the minimaly coupled massless quantum real scalar field in the two dimensional BTZ black hole. We also calculate the renormalized energy-momentum tensor for the same field in the eternal CGHS black hole, AdS, Robertson-Walker and Rindler spacetime in two dimensions. We also discuss the Boulware, the Hartle-Hawking-Israel and the Unruh state for the eternal CGHS black hole.
Two-Dimensional Laser-Speckle Surface-Strain Gauge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barranger, John P.; Lant, Christian
1992-01-01
Extension of Yamaguchi's laser-speckle surface-strain-gauge method yields data on two-dimensional surface strains in times as short as fractions of second. Laser beams probe rough spot on surface of specimen before and after processing. Changes in speckle pattern of laser light reflected from spot indicative of changes in surface strains during processing. Used to monitor strains and changes in strains induced by hot-forming and subsequent cooling of steel.
CBEAM. 2-D: a two-dimensional beam field code
Dreyer, K.A.
1985-05-01
CBEAM.2-D is a two-dimensional solution of Maxwell's equations for the case of an electron beam propagating through an air medium. Solutions are performed in the beam-retarded time frame. Conductivity is calculated self-consistently with field equations, allowing sophisticated dependence of plasma parameters to be handled. A unique feature of the code is that it is implemented on an IBM PC microcomputer in the BASIC language. Consequently, it should be available to a wide audience.
Spirals and Skyrmions in two dimensional oxide heterostructures.
Li, Xiaopeng; Liu, W Vincent; Balents, Leon
2014-02-14
We construct the general free energy governing long-wavelength magnetism in two dimensional oxide heterostructures, which applies irrespective of the microscopic mechanism for magnetism. This leads, in the relevant regime of weak but non-negligible spin-orbit coupling, to a rich phase diagram containing in-plane ferromagnetic, spiral, cone, and Skyrmion lattice phases, as well as a nematic state stabilized by thermal fluctuations. PMID:24580706
Spiral vortices in a two-dimensional ferromagnet
Borisov, A.B.; Bostrem, I.G.; Ovchinnikov, A.S.
2005-10-01
We present a study of a class of exact solutions having a form of spiral vortices for an isotropic two-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnet using a continuum theory and direct numerical simulations of the spin system on a square lattice. We find their features issued from the conservation laws and describe their interaction. Reasons behind the formation of the proper spin configurations on a square lattice are investigated.
Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassic black hole
Levanony, Dana; 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.084008
2009-01-01
We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. The field equations admit two types of singularities, and their local asymptotic structure is investigated. One of these singularities is found to develop, as a spacelike singularity, inside the black hole. We then study the internal structure of the evaporating black hole from the horizon to the singularity.
Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassic black hole
Dana Levanony; Amos Ori
2009-12-28
We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. The field equations admit two types of singularities, and their local asymptotic structure is investigated. One of these singularities is found to develop, as a spacelike singularity, inside the black hole. We then study the internal structure of the evaporating black hole from the horizon to the singularity.
Suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases
Kazazis, D.; Bourhis, E.; Gierak, J.; Gennser, U.; Bourgeois, O.; Antoni, T.
2013-12-04
We report on the fabrication of fully suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases in III-V heterostructures. Low temperature transport measurements verify that the properties of the suspended gases are only slightly degraded with respect to the non-suspended gases. Focused ion beam technology is used to pattern suspended nanostructures with minimum damage from the ion beam, due to the small width of the suspended membrane.
One- and Two-Dimensional Refocused INADEQUATE NMR Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakai, T.; Mcdowell, C. A.
We describe details of the refocused INADEQUATE method, which yields in-phase J doublets from 13C- 13C spin pairs in natural-abundance samples. The procedure for obtaining two-dimensional pure-absorptive INADEQUATE spectra is explained. This is used to determine J coupling constants with high accuracy because of higher spectral resolution than that obtained in magnitude-mode spectra. The method has been demonstrated using hexanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid as test samples.
A two dimensional heat pipe model for vapor temperature calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walvekar, Anand K.
1993-01-01
A two dimensional heat conduction model is developed for predicting vapor temperature and temperature distribution over outside surface of the heat pipe. The vapor temperature variation is studied with various parameters and performance limit graphs are plotted for a given design of the heat pipe. The performance limit graphs help the experimenter to judge the limiting heat transport of the heat pipe for given boundary condition at the condenser, like convective or radiative cooling.
Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in polymer study
Park, Yeonju; Noda, Isao; Jung, Young Mee
2015-01-01
This review outlines the recent works of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) in polymer study. 2DCOS is a powerful technique applicable to the in-depth analysis of various spectral data of polymers obtained under some type of perturbation. The powerful utility of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in polymer studies and noteworthy developments of 2DCOS used in this field are also highlighted. PMID:25815286
The scaling state in two-dimensional grain growth
Mulheran, P.A. . Dept. of Physics)
1994-11-01
A new model of normal grain growth in two-dimensional systems is derived from considerations of Potts model simulations. This Randomly Connected Bubble model is based on Hillert's theory and combines the essential topological features of the grain boundary network with the action of capillarity. It successfully predicts what the scaling state of the network should be and explains why the system evolves into this state. The implications for grain growth in real materials are also discussed.
Two-dimensional dipolar bosons with weak disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudjemâa, Abdelâali
2015-10-01
We consider two-dimensional dipolar bosonic gas with dipoles oriented perpendicularly to the plane in a weak random potential. We investigate analytically and numerically the condensate depletion, the one-body density-matrix, the ground state energy, the sound velocity and the superfluid fraction. Concentrating on the regime where a roton-like excitation spectrum forms, our results show that the superfluidity disappears below a critical value of disorder strength yielding the transition to a non-trivial quantum regime.
The Study of Two-dimensional Polytropic Stars
Sanchari De; Somenath Chakrabarty
2015-10-09
In this article we have studied the structure of hypothetical two-dimensional polytropic stars. Considering some academic interest, we have developed a formalism to investigate some of the gross properties of such stellar objects. However, we strongly believe that the formalism developed here may be prescribed as class problem for post-graduate level students in physics or a post-graduate dissertation project work in physics.
Thermodynamic Studies of Two-Dimensional Correlated Electron Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pudalov, V. M.; Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Burmistrov, I. S.; Reznikov, M.
2015-11-01
This paper describes recent developments in experimental techniques for thermodynamic measurements. Particularly, we focus on the derivatives of the chemical potential with respect to magnetic field and temperature. The former enables to determine the spin magnetization per electron and the latter the entropy per electron. We briefly describe recent results obtained with these techniques and their impact on the current understanding of the still challenging problem of the ground state(s) of strongly correlated two-dimensional electron systems.
Particle transport in a two-dimensional septate channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borromeo, M.; Marchesoni, F.
2010-10-01
We analyze the transport properties of a Brownian particle diffusing along a two-dimensional septate channel, namely, a channel formed by equal rectangular cavities separated by narrow pores, subjected to an external longitudinal drive. We determine analytical formulas for the dependence of the particle mobility and diffusivity on the geometric channel parameters at zero and large applied drives. Finally, we rule out anomalous negative mobility for pointlike particles in a septate channel.
In vivo two-dimensional NMR correlation spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraft, Robert A.
1999-10-01
The poor resolution of in-vivo one- dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has limited its clinical potential. Currently, only the large singlet methyl resonances arising from N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline, and creatine are quantitated in a clinical setting. Other metabolites such as myo- inositol, glutamine, glutamate, lactate, and ?- amino butyric acid (GABA) are of clinical interest but quantitation is difficult due to the overlapping resonances and limited spectral resolution. To improve the spectral resolution and distinguish between overlapping resonances, a series of two- dimensional chemical shift correlation spectroscopy experiments were developed for a 1.5 Tesla clinical imaging magnet. Two-dimensional methods are attractive for in vivo spectroscopy due to their ability to unravel overlapping resonances with the second dimension, simplifying the interpretation and quantitation of low field NMR spectra. Two-dimensional experiments acquired with mix-mode line shape negate the advantages of the second dimension. For this reason, a new experiment, REVOLT, was developed to achieve absorptive mode line shape in both dimensions. Absorptive mode experiments were compared to mixed mode experiments with respect to sensitivity, resolution, and water suppression. Detailed theoretical and experimental calculations of the optimum spin lock and radio frequency power deposition were performed. Two-dimensional spectra were acquired from human bone marrow and human brain tissue. The human brain tissue spectra clearly reveal correlations among the coupled spins of NAA, glutamine, glutamate, lactate, GABA, aspartate and myo-inositol obtained from a single experiment of 23 minutes from a volume of 59 mL. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)
Dirac Points in Two-Dimensional Inverse Opals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahan, G. D.
2013-10-01
The electron energy states and energy bands are calculated for a two-dimensional inverse opal structure. Assume that the opal structure is closed-packed circles, the inverse opal has the honeycomb lattice. The honeycomb lattice in two dimensions has a Dirac point. Its properties can be manipulated by altering the structure of the inverse opal: the radius of the circle, and the small gap between circles.
Two-dimensional potential double layers and discrete auroras
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kan, J. R.; Lee, L. C.; Akasofu, S.-I.
1979-01-01
This paper is concerned with the formation of the acceleration region for electrons which produce the visible auroral arc and with the formation of the inverted V precipitation region. The former is embedded in the latter, and both are associated with field-aligned current sheets carried by plasma sheet electrons. It is shown that an electron current sheet driven from the plasma sheet into the ionosphere leads to the formation of a two-dimensional potential double layer. For a current sheet of a thickness less than the proton gyrodiameter solutions are obtained in which the field-aligned potential drop is distributed over a length much greater than the Debye length. For a current sheet of a thickness much greater than the proton gyrodiameter solutions are obtained in which the potential drop is confined to a distance on the order of the Debye length. The electric field in the two-dimensional double-layer model is the zeroth-order field inherent to the current sheet configuration, in contrast to those models in which the electric field is attributed to the first-order field due to current instabilities or turbulences. The maximum potential in the two-dimensional double-layer models is on the order of the thermal energy of plasma sheet protons, which ranges from 1 to 10 keV.
Two-dimensional DNA fingerprinting of human individuals
Uitterlinden, A.G.; Slagboom, P.E.; Knook, D.L.; Vijg, J. )
1989-04-01
The limiting factor in the presently available techniques for the detection of DNA sequence variation in the human genome is the low resolution of Southern blot analysis. To increase the analytical power of this technique, the authors applied size fractionation of genomic DNA restriction fragments in conjunction with their sequence-dependent separation in denaturing gradient gels; the two-dimensional separation patterns obtained were subsequently transferred to nylon membranes. Hybridization analysis using minisatellite core sequences as probes resulted in two-dimensional genomic DNA fingerprints with a resolution of up to 625 separated spots per probe per human individual; by conventional Southern blot analysis, only 20-30 bands can be resolved. Using the two-dimensional DNA fingerprinting technique, they demonstrate in a small human pedigree the simultaneous transmission of 37 polymorphic fragments (out of 365 spots) for probe 33.15 and 105 polymorphic fragments (out of 625 spots) for probe 33.6. In addition, a mutation was detected in this pedigree by probe 33.6. They anticipate that this method will be of great use in studies aimed at (i) measuring human mutation frequencies, (ii) associating genetic variation with disease, (iii) analyzing genomic instability in relation to cancer and aging, and (iv) linkage analysis and mapping of disease genes.
Procedures for two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins
Tollaksen, S.L.; Giometti, C.S.
1996-10-01
High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of proteins, using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the second, was first described in 1975. In the 20 years since those publications, numerous modifications of the original method have evolved. The ISO-DALT system of 2DE is a high-throughput approach that has stood the test of time. The problem of casting many isoelectric focusing gels and SDS-PAGE slab gels (up to 20) in a reproducible manner has been solved by the use of the techniques and equipment described in this manual. The ISO-DALT system of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis originated in the late 1970s and has been modified many times to improve its high-resolution, high-throughput capabilities. This report provides the detailed procedures used with the current ISO-DALT system to prepare, run, stain, and photograph two-dimensional gels for protein analysis.
Two dimensional liquid crystal devices and their computer simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bin
The main focus of the dissertation is design and optimization two dimensional liquid crystal devices, which means the liquid crystal director configurations vary in two dimensions. Several optimized and designed devices are discussed in the dissertation. They include long-term bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display (BTN LCD), which is very low power consumption LCD and suitable for E-book application; wavelength tunable liquid crystal Fabry-Perot etalon filter, which is one of the key components in fiber optic telecommunications; high speed refractive index variable devices, which can be used in infrared beam steering and telecommunications; high density polymer wall diffractive liquid crystal on silicon (PWD-LCoS) light valve, which is a promising candidate for larger screen projection display and also can be used in other display applications. Two dimensional liquid crystal director simulation program (relaxation method) and two dimensional optical propagation simulation program (finite-difference time-domain, FDTD method) are developed. The algorithms of these programs are provided. It has been proved that they are the very efficient tools that used in design and optimization the devices described above.
Strongly correlated two-dimensional plasma explored from entropy measurements.
Kuntsevich, A Y; Tupikov, Y V; Pudalov, V M; Burmistrov, I S
2015-01-01
Charged plasma and Fermi liquid are two distinct states of electronic matter intrinsic to dilute two-dimensional electron systems at elevated and low temperatures, respectively. Probing their thermodynamics represents challenge because of lack of an adequate technique. Here, we report a thermodynamic method to measure the entropy per electron in gated structures. Our technique appears to be three orders of magnitude superior in sensitivity to a.c. calorimetry, allowing entropy measurements with only 10(8) electrons. This enables us to investigate the correlated plasma regime, previously inaccessible experimentally in two-dimensional electron systems in semiconductors. In experiments with clean two-dimensional electron system in silicon-based structures, we traced entropy evolution from the plasma to Fermi liquid regime by varying electron density. We reveal that the correlated plasma regime can be mapped onto the ordinary non-degenerate Fermi gas with an interaction-enhanced temperature-dependent effective mass. Our method opens up new horizons in studies of low-dimensional electron systems. PMID:26099565
Diversity of puroindolines as revealed by two-dimensional electrophoresis.
Branlard, Gérard; Amiour, Nardjis; Igrejas, Gilberto; Gaborit, Thérèse; Herbette, Stephane; Dardevet, Mireille; Marion, Didier
2003-02-01
Puroindolines are endosperm lipid binding proteins, which are separated by reversed phase-high-performance liquid chromatography or cation exchange chromatography into two isoforms, puroindoline-a (PIN-a) and puroindoline-b (PIN-b). Being very basic and close in molecular weight, PIN-a and PIN-b have never been separated using conventional isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A two-dimensional electrophoresis method, linear immobiline pH gradient (IPGxSDS-PAGE), was developed, using 6-11 linear immobiline Dry Strips in the first dimension, which allowed the puroindolines to be focused between isoelectric point 10.5 and 11. Immunoblotting revealed that both PIN-a and PIN-b were each composed of several spots. Two-dimensional patterns from unrelated wheat varieties revealed that several spots can be highlighted among varieties. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight spectrometry allowed the majority of the spots revealed in the puroindoline zone to be identified. The two-dimensional IPGxSDS-PAGE of these very basic wheat endosperm proteins, puroindolines and related grain softness proteins should facilitate the identification of the proteins associated with wheat endosperm texture that have a strong effect on milling, dough properties and end-uses of wheats. PMID:12601809
Enhanced diffraction radiation from two dimensional periodical structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Tao; Zhong, Renbin; Gong, Sen; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Xiaoxing; Hu, Min; Liu, Shenggang
2014-10-01
Stronger surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) enhanced diffraction radiation will be obtained on rectangular metallic bigrating comparing to one dimensional grating excited by a uniformly parallel moving electron beam, the stronger enhancement comes from the interaction effect of two SPPs excited simultaneously along the orthogonal period structure of rectangular metallic bigrating. Based on the advantage of rectangular bigrating, we presented and explored a novel metal film attached two-dimensional periodical lattice structure by reducing the thickness of the bigrating substrate to tens of nanometers. In this structure, with the excitation of uniform electron beam moving above the metal film surface, SPPs are firstly excited on the metal film, which will couple with the electromagnetic fields in the two-dimensional periodical lattice, and then transformed into enhanced radiation wave by diffracting of the rectangular lattice. The radiation power can reach 2.7 times that of the bigrating with dramatically decreased exciting beam energy, the fields can radiate to the whole space comparing to only the upper half space for the bigrating. To obtain better radiation behavior, double metal films sandwiched two-dimensional periodical lattice structure is proposed, which provides radiation power over 10 times that of bigrating. The results will be beneficial to electromagnetic radiation source based on SPPs in ultraviolet region.
a Two-Dimensional Radiative-Convective Climate Model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiehl, Jeffrey Theodore
A two-dimensional radiative-convective climate model has been developed, which includes meridional heat transport, surface albedo feedback and lapse rate feedback. The radiative part of the model is based upon the one-dimensional radiative-convective model of Ramanathan (1976). The two -dimensional model is designed to calculate a mean annual zonally averaged temperature profile for a symmetric model earth. The two-dimensional model calculates the vertical temperature profile for six latitudinal belts of 15(DEGREES) width. These six belts serve as a basis set from which the temperature at any latitude can be calculated. The heat transport is parameterized in terms of a diffuse transport mechanism. The surface albedo feedback for latitudes above 45(DEGREES)N is derived from seasonal data for the present atmosphere. The lapse rate feedback is based upon the suggestions for Stone and Carlson (1979). Three climatic studies have been carried out with the model: increased CO(,2), variation of the solar constant, and variation of cloud amount and height. These studies suggest that the lapse rate parameterization of Stone and Carlson (1979) is extremely sensitive to climatic perturbations. The model proves to be very stable to variations in the solar constant when lapse rate feedback is removed. A great advantage to this model is its flexibility. The model is also computationally efficient compared to the three-dimensional models. Because of the flexibility and computational efficiency, this model can serve as a useful tool in studying the importance of various atmospheric processes.
Two-dimensional oxides: multifunctional materials for advanced technologies.
Pacchioni, Gianfranco
2012-08-13
The last decade has seen spectacular progress in the design, preparation, and characterization down to the atomic scale of oxide ultrathin films of few nanometers thickness grown on a different material. This has paved the way towards several sophisticated applications in advanced technologies. By playing around with the low-dimensionality of the oxide layer, which sometimes leads to truly two-dimensional systems, one can exploit new properties and functionalities that are not present in the corresponding bulk materials or thick films. In this review we provide some clues about the most recent advances in the design of these systems based on modern electronic structure theory and on their preparation and characterization with specifically developed growth techniques and analytical methods. We show how two-dimensional oxides can be used in mature technologies by providing added value to existing materials, or in new technologies based on completely new paradigms. The fields in which two-dimensional oxides are used are classified based on the properties that are exploited, chemical or physical. With respect to chemical properties we discuss use of oxide ultrathin films in catalysis, solid oxide fuel cells, gas sensors, corrosion protection, and biocompatible materials; regarding the physical properties we discuss metal-oxide field effect transistors and memristors, spintronic devices, ferroelectrics and thermoelectrics, and solar energy materials. PMID:22847915
Stochastic acceleration of solitons for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation
Walid K. Abou Salem; Catherine Sulem
2008-06-15
The effective dynamics of solitons for the generalized nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation in a random potential is rigorously studied. It is shown that when the external potential varies slowly in space compared to the size of the soliton, the dynamics of the center of the soliton is almost surely described by Hamilton's equations for a classical particle in the random potential, plus error terms due to radiation damping. Furthermore, a limit theorem for the dynamics of the center of mass of the soliton in the weak-coupling and space-adiabatic limit is proven in two and higher dimensions: Under certain mixing hypotheses for the potential, the momentum of the center of mass of the soliton converges in law to a diffusion process on a sphere of constant momentum. Moreover, in three and higher dimensions, the trajectory of the center of mass of the soliton converges to a spatial Brownian motion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiu, Hong-Yee
1990-01-01
The theory of Lee and Pang (1987), who obtained solutions for soliton stars composed of zero-temperature fermions and bosons, is applied here to quark soliton stars. Model soliton stars based on a simple physical model of the proton are computed, and the properties of the solitons are discussed, including the important problem of the existence of a limiting mass and thus the possible formation of black holes of primordial origin. It is shown that there is a definite mass limit for ponderable soliton stars, so that during cooling a soliton star might reach a stage beyond which no equilibrium configuration exists and the soliton star probably will collapse to become a black hole. The radiation of ponderable soliton stars may alter the short-wavelength character of the cosmic background radiation, and may be observed as highly redshifted objects at z of about 100,000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyritsis, Dimitrios Constantinou
Spontaneous Raman Scattering was used for quantitative, two-dimensional, single-shot measurements of species concentration in optically accessible confinements and in an experimental single-cylinder internal combustion engine. The study comprised three parts. In the first part, the technique was used for methane concentration measurements in a laminar jet issuing into compressed nitrogen (10 bar, 293 K). The injection Reynolds number was 550. Initial results showed unexpected structures in the acquired concentration profiles. Thus, the steadiness of the laminar flow was confirmed with high speed shadowgraph movies and laser induced fluorescence measurements. Eventually, it was proven that the structures were due to characteristics of the camera system. A technique was then devised for the proper acquisition and processing of data and spatial resolution of 500 mum was achieved. Methane number density equal to 12% of the number density of pure methane (0.247E+26 molecules/msp3) was then measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 3. The measurements were compared with the results of direct numerical simulation of the flow field. In the second part, measurements in a laminar hydrogen jet were taken. Because of the reduced Raman signal of hydrogen, the incident laser power was increased by installing the pressurized chamber within the laser cavity. This yielded an increase in power by a factor of 2.5. For the measurement of the laser sheet intensity in the laser cavity, insertion of a fluorescent dye cell and Rayleigh scattering were used and evaluated comparatively. The precise location of the waist of the laser sheet was determined by trial and error. The spatial resolution of the measurements was 650 mum and a number density of 0.371E+26 hydrogen molecules/msp3 was measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The measurements were again compared with results of direct numerical simulation. In the third part, the feasibility of two-dimensional single-shot Spontaneous Raman measurements in an engine cylinder was established. Measurements of methane concentration after direct injection in the cylinder of an experimental single-cylinder engine were taken. The engine was not fired to avoid laser induced incandescence interference. The spatial resolution was limited to 800 mum by the thickness of the laser sheet. Fast mixing of the methane jet was documented but a precise evaluation of the equivalence ratio was beyond the resolution of this first attempt. Finally, existing hardware for data acquisition and algorithms for two dimensional data reduction were reviewed and recommendations were made for the extraction of quantitative information from two-dimensional, single-shot Spontaneous Raman signals which are weak and noisy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baizakov, B. B.; Al-Marzoug, S. M.; Bahlouli, H.
2015-09-01
The interaction between two bright solitons in a one-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is investigated, with the aim of finding the regimes where they form a stable bound state, known as the soliton molecule. To study soliton interactions in BECs we employed a method similar to that used in experimental investigation of the interaction between solitons in optical fibers. The idea consists in creating two solitons at some spatial separation from each other at initial time t0 and then measuring the distance between them at a later time t1>t0 . Depending on whether the distance between solitons has increased, decreased, or remained unchanged, compared to its initial value at t0, we conclude that the soliton interaction was repulsive, attractive, or neutral, respectively. We propose an experimentally viable method for estimating the binding energy of a soliton molecule, based on its dissociation at critical soliton velocity. Our theoretical analysis is based on the variational approach, which appears to be quite accurate in describing the properties of soliton molecules in dipolar BECs, as reflected in the good agreement between the analytical and the numerical results.
H. Zhang; D. Y. Tang; L. M. Zhao; X. Wu; Q. L. Bao; K. P. Loh
2009-05-08
We report on the experimental observation of stable dark solitons in an all normal dispersion fiber laser. We found experimentally that dark soliton formation is a generic feature of the fiber laser under strong continuous wave (CW) emission. However, only under appropriate pump strength and negative cavity feedback, stable single or multiple dark soliton could be achieved. Furthermore, we show that the features of the observed dark solitons could be well understood based on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE).
Batalov, S. V.; Maslov, E. M. Shagalov, A. G.
2009-05-15
The effect of an external wave perturbation with a slowly varying frequency on a soliton of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is investigated. The equations that describe the time evolution of the perturbed-soliton parameters are derived. The necessary and sufficient soliton phase locking conditions that relate the rate of change in the frequency of the perturbation, its amplitude, wave number, and phase to the initial values of parameters for the soliton have been found.
Fundamental solitons in parity-time symmetric lattice with a vacancy defect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ba?c?, Mahmut; Bak?rta?, ?lkay; Antar, Nalan
2015-12-01
We put forward a mechanism for delaying the collapse of the fundamental solitons in nonlinear media whose dynamics is governed by two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with parity-time symmetric (PT-symmetric) periodic potentials with/without a vacancy defect. We observed that strengthened gain-loss component (imaginary part of the potential) in the periodic lattice impoverish the stability properties of the solitons, on the other hand adding a vacancy defect to the periodic PT-symmetric lattice acts as a delaying mechanism for collapsing solitons.
Supersolitons: Solitonic Excitations in Atomic Soliton Chains
Novoa, David; Michinel, Humberto; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.
2008-10-03
We show that, by tuning interactions in nonintegrable vector nonlinear Schroedinger equations modeling Bose-Einstein condensates and other relevant physical systems, it is possible to achieve a regime of elastic particlelike collisions between solitons. This would allow one to construct a Newton's cradle with solitons and supersolitons: localized collective excitations in solitary-wave chains.
Soliton fay identities: II. Bright soliton case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vekslerchik, V. E.
2015-11-01
We present a set of bilinear matrix identities that generalize the ones that have been used to construct the bright soliton solutions for various models. As an example of an application of these identities, we present a simple derivation of the N-bright soliton solutions for the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy.
Frequency-domain nonlinear optics in two-dimensionally patterned quasi-phase-matching media
Phillips, C R; Gallmann, L; Keller, U
2015-01-01
Advances in the amplification and manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses has led to revolutions in several areas. Examples include chirped pulse amplification for generating high peak-power lasers, power-scalable amplification techniques, pulse shaping via modulation of spatially-dispersed laser pulses, and efficient frequency-mixing in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear crystals to access new spectral regions. In this work, we introduce and demonstrate a new platform for nonlinear optics which has the potential to combine all of these separate functionalities (pulse amplification, frequency transfer, and pulse shaping) into a single monolithic device. Moreover, our approach simultaneously offers solutions to the performance-limiting issues in the conventionally-used techniques, and supports scaling in power and bandwidth of the laser source. The approach is based on two-dimensional patterning of quasi-phase-matching gratings combined with optical parametric interactions involving spatially dispersed laser pulses...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paw?owski, Krzysztof; Rz??ewski, Kazimierz
2015-10-01
We numerically generate and then study the basic properties of dark soliton-like excitations in a dipolar gas confined in a quasi one-dimensional trap. These excitations, although very similar to dark solitons in a gas with contact interaction, interact with each other and can form bound states. During collisions these dipolar solitons emit phonons, losing energy but accelerating. Even after thousands of subsequent collisions they survive as gray solitons and finally reach dynamical equilibrium with background quasiparticles. Finally, in the frame of classical field approximation, we verified, that these solitons appear spontaneously in thermal samples, analogously to the type II excitations in a gas of atoms with contact interaction.
Multicolor Bound Soliton Molecule
Luo, Rui; Lin, Qiang
2015-01-01
We show a new class of bound soliton molecule that exists in a parametrically driven nonlinear optical cavity with appropriate dispersion characteristics. The composed solitons exhibit distinctive colors but coincide in time and share a common phase, bound together via strong inter-soliton four-wave mixing and Cherenkov radiation. The multicolor bound soliton molecule shows intriguing spectral locking characteristics and remarkable capability of spectrum management to tailor soliton frequencies, which may open up a great avenue towards versatile generation and manipulation of multi-octave spanning phase-locked Kerr frequency combs, with great potential for applications in frequency metrology, optical frequency synthesis, and spectroscopy.
Maimistov, Andrei I
2010-11-13
The classic examples of optical phenomena resulting in the appearance of solitons are self-focusing, self-induced transparency, and parametric three-wave interaction. To date, the list of the fields of nonlinear optics and models where solitons play an important role has significantly expanded. Now long-lived or stable solitary waves are called solitons, including, for example, dissipative, gap, parametric, and topological solitons. This review considers nonlinear optics models giving rise to the appearance of solitons in a narrow sense: solitary waves corresponding to the solutions of completely integrable systems of equations basic for the models being discussed. (review)
High order hybrid numerical simulations of two dimensional detonation waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cai, Wei
1993-01-01
In order to study multi-dimensional unstable detonation waves, a high order numerical scheme suitable for calculating the detailed transverse wave structures of multidimensional detonation waves was developed. The numerical algorithm uses a multi-domain approach so different numerical techniques can be applied for different components of detonation waves. The detonation waves are assumed to undergo an irreversible, unimolecular reaction A yields B. Several cases of unstable two dimensional detonation waves are simulated and detailed transverse wave interactions are documented. The numerical results show the importance of resolving the detonation front without excessive numerical viscosity in order to obtain the correct cellular patterns.
On Two-Dimensional Sonic-Subsonic Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Gui-Qiang; Dafermos, Constantine M.; Slemrod, Marshall; Wang, Dehua
2007-05-01
A compensated compactness framework is established for sonic-subsonic approximate solutions to the two-dimensional Euler equations for steady irrotational flows that may contain stagnation points. Only crude estimates are required for establishing compactness. It follows that the set of subsonic irrotational solutions to the Euler equations is compact; thus flows with sonic points over an obstacle, such as an airfoil, may be realized as limits of sequences of strictly subsonic flows. Furthermore, sonic-subsonic flows may be constructed from approximate solutions. The compactness framework is then extended to self-similar solutions of the Euler equations for unsteady irrotational flows.
Human muscle proteins: analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis
Giometti, C.S.; Danon, M.J.; Anderson, N.G.
1983-09-01
Proteins from single frozen sections of human muscle were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and detected by fluorography or Coomassie Blue staining. The major proteins were identical in different normal muscles obtained from either sex at different ages, and in Duchenne and myotonic dystrophy samples. Congenital myopathy denervation atrophy, polymyositis, and Becker's muscular dystrophy samples, however, showed abnormal myosin light chain compositions, some with a decrease of fast-fiber myosin light chains and others with a decrease of slow-fiber light chains. These protein alterations did not correlate with any specific disease, and may be cause by generalized muscle-fiber damage.
Scattering and bound states in two-dimensional anisotropic potentials
Matthias Rosenkranz; Weizhu Bao
2012-01-30
We propose a framework for calculating scattering and bound state properties in anisotropic two-dimensional potentials. Using our method, we derive systematic approximations of partial wave phase shifts and binding energies. Moreover, the method is suitable for efficient numerical computations. We calculate the s-wave phase shift and binding energy of polar molecules in two layers polarized by an external field along an arbitrary direction. We find that scattering depends strongly on their polarization direction and that absolute interlayer binding energies are larger than thermal energies at typical ultracold temperatures.
Approaching two-dimensional polymers with macroscopic sizes.
Payamyar, Payam; Sakamoto, Junji; Schlüter, A Dieter
2013-01-01
We describe the challenges involved with extending the limited lateral size of two-dimensional polymers (2DPs). An amphiphilic monomer with three-fold symmetry is chosen to form an ideally tessellated monolayer at the air/water interface. Anthracene [4+4] photo-dimerization is chosen as the growth reaction. Formation of covalent net-points upon anthracene dimerization has an influence on the mechanical coherence of the resulting sheets which could be investigated qualitatively and quantitatively by means of AFM nano-indentation. PMID:23967707
Quantum control in two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy
Lim, Jongseok; Lee, Han-gyeol; Lee, Sangkyung; Ahn, Jaewook
2011-07-15
We present a method that harnesses coherent control capability to two-dimensional Fourier-transform optical spectroscopy. For this, three ultrashort laser pulses are individually shaped to prepare and control the quantum interference involved in two-photon interexcited-state transitions of a V-type quantum system. In experiments performed with atomic rubidium, quantum control for the enhancement and reduction of the 5P{sub 1/2}{yields} 5P{sub 3/2} transition was successfully tested in which the engineered transitions were distinguishably extracted in the presence of dominant one-photon transitions.
Monte Carlo Simulations of the two-dimensional dipolar fluid
Caillol, Jean-Michel
2015-01-01
We study a two-dimensional fluid of dipolar hard disks by Monte Carlo simulations in a square with periodic boundary conditions and on the surface of a sphere. The theory of the dielectric constant and the asymptotic behaviour of the equilibrium pair correlation function in the fluid phase is derived for both geometries. After having established the equivalence of the two methods we study the stability of the liquid phase in the canonical ensemble. We give evidence of a phase made of living polymers at low temperatures and provide a tentative phase diagram.
Two-dimensional laminar incompressible separated flow past airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plotkin, A.
1973-01-01
A method is proposed to treat the problem of steady, two-dimensional, laminar, incompressible high Reynolds number separated flow past thin airfoils. An integral form of the boundary layer equations with interaction is used and the interaction between the inviscid and viscous flow fields is provided for by use of a thin-airfoil integral. Documentation of the attempts at obtaining a solution is presented. A survey of the current state-of-the-art of problems involving viscous-inviscid interactions in flow fields with separation is given.
Novel Colloidal Crystalline States on Two Dimensional Periodic Substrates
C. Reichhardt; C. J. Olson
2002-01-15
We show using numerical simulations that a rich variety of novel colloidal crystalline states are realized on square and triangular two dimensional periodic substrates which can be experimentally created using crossed laser arrays. When there are more colloids than potential substrate minima, multiple colloids are trapped at each substrate minima and act as a single particle with a rotational degree of freedom, giving rise to a new type of orientational order. We call these states colloidal molecular crystals. A two-step melting can also occur in which individual colloidal molecules initially rotate, destroying the overall orientational order, followed by the onset of inter-well colloidal hopping.
Structure determination of two-dimensional adenine crystals on graphite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freund, J. E.; Edelwirth, M.; Kröautbel, P.; Heckl, W. M.
1997-02-01
Two-dimensional molecular-packing structure and monolayer preparation of adenine adsorbates on the graphite (0001) surface have been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, and thermal-desorption spectroscopy. By combining real-space images and diffraction data a close-packed hydrogen-bonded network of adenine dimers is proposed, containing two dimers in a unit cell with the symmetry group p2gg. The energy-minimized molecular arrangement could be determined by force field calculations. Adenine adsorbate layers were prepared by sublimation in UHV.
Two-Dimensional Electron Gases at Complex Oxide Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stemmer, Susanne; James Allen, S.
2014-07-01
Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at oxide interfaces may exhibit unique properties, including effects from strong electron correlations, extremely high electron densities, magnetism, and 2D superconductivity. This article discusses routes to high-mobility 2DEGs in complex oxide heterostructures, with a particular focus on 2DEGs that involve transport in SrTiO3. We discuss what is known about the electronic states in SrTiO3 2DEGs, both experimentally and theoretically. Examples from the current literature are summarized.
Particle acceleration at a two dimensional dipolarization front
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimbardo, Gaetano; Greco, Antonella; Artemyev, Anton
2014-05-01
We consider the particle acceleration at dipolarization fronts that can be formed in the Earth's magnetotail in association with strong reconnection events. We set up an analytical two-dimensional model of the front which is a solution of the full set of Maxwell equation. A test particle simulation is performed to explore the influence of the various physical parameters, which are modelled according to the spacecraft observations. We find that energies up to a few tens of keV can be obtained, in reasonable agreement with observations. Application of this model to the heating of heavy ions in the solar corona are also discussed.
Quasi-two-dimensional Turing patterns in an imposed gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lengyel, István; Kádár, Sándor; Epstein, Irving R.
1992-11-01
In experiments on quasi-two-dimensional Turing structures, patterns form perpendicular to a concentration gradient imposed by the boundary conditions. Using linear stability analysis, with the ClO2-I2-MA (malonic acid) reaction as an example, we obtain conditions on the position along the gradient direction and possible three dimensionality of the structures. Experiments on the effects of MA and starch concentrations on the position of the structures support the theory. Simulations taking into account the starch indicator yield Turing patterns even with equal diffusion coefficients for the activator and inhibitor species.
Entropy, topology of two-dimensional extreme black holes
Bin Wang; Ru-Keng Su
1999-01-29
Through direct thermodynamic calculations we have shown that different classical entropies of two-dimensional extreme black holes appear due to two different treatments, namely Hawking's treatment and Zaslavskii's treatment. Geometrical and topological properties corresponding to these different treatments are investigated. Quantum entropies of the scalar fields on the backgrounds of these black holes concerning different treatments are also exhibited. Different results of entropy and geometry lead us to argue that there are two kinds of extreme black holes in the nature. Explanation of black hole phase transition has also been given from the quantum point of view.
Optical and electronic properties of two dimensional graphitic silicon carbide
Lin, Xiao; Lin, Shisheng; Hakro, Ayaz Ali; Cao, Te; Chen, Hongsheng; Zhang, Baile
2012-01-01
Optical and electronic properties of two dimensional few layers graphitic silicon carbide (GSiC), in particular monolayer and bilayer, are investigated by density functional theory and found different from that of graphene and silicene. Monolayer GSiC has direct bandgap while few layers exhibit indirect bandgap. The bandgap of monolayer GSiC can be tuned by an in-plane strain. Properties of bilayer GSiC are extremely sensitive to the interlayer distance. These predictions promise that monolayer GSiC could be a remarkable candidate for novel type of light-emitting diodes utilizing its unique optical properties distinct from graphene, silicene and few layers GSiC.