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1

Microfluidic serial dilution ladder.  

PubMed

Serial dilution is a fundamental procedure that is common to a large number of laboratory protocols. Automation of serial dilution is thus a valuable component for lab-on-a-chip systems. While a handful of different microfluidic strategies for serial dilution have been reported, approaches based on continuous flow mixing inherently consume larger amounts of sample volume and chip real estate. We employ valve-driven circulatory mixing to address these issues and also introduce a novel device structure to store each stage of the dilution process. The dilution strategy is based on sequentially mixing the rungs of a ladder structure. We demonstrate a 7-stage series of 1?:?1 dilutions with R(2) equal to 0.995 in an active device area of 1 cm(2). PMID:24231765

Ahrar, Siavash; Hwang, Michelle; Duncan, Philip N; Hui, Elliot E

2014-01-01

2

Serial dilutions: a new area of research for animal behavior.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to stimulate the psychological investigation of homeopathy and serially agitated dilutions. The history of homeopathy and serial dilutions is provided in a literature review of selected research areas. Two original illustrative experiments are also presented and discussed. The first examined the effect of serially agitated dilutions of Sevin on the mortality rate of honey bees (Apis mellifera). In a second experiment, the effect of serially agitated dilutions of sucrose on proboscis extension in honey bees was assessed. No differences were found between serially agitated dilutions of pesticides and sucrose compared with dilutions alone. Implications, limitations, and proposed further work are discussed. PMID:23234091

Nolf, Sondra L; Craig, David Philip Arthur; Abramson, Charles I

2012-10-01

3

Optimal serial dilutions designs for drug discovery experiments.  

PubMed

Dose-response studies are an essential part of the drug discovery process. They are typically carried out on a large number of chemical compounds using serial dilution experimental designs. This paper proposes a method of selecting the key parameters of these designs (maximum dose, dilution factor, number of concentrations and number of replicated observations for each concentration) depending on the stage of the drug discovery process where the study takes place. This is achieved by employing and extending results from optimal design theory. Population D- and D(S)-optimality are defined and used to evaluate the precision of estimating the potency of the tested compounds. The proposed methodology is easy to use and creates opportunities to reduce the cost of the experiments without compromising the quality of the data obtained in them. PMID:21442521

Donev, Alexander N; Tobias, Randall D

2011-05-01

4

Establishing quality assurance criteria for serial dilution operations on liquid-handling equipment.  

PubMed

Since the advent of high-throughput screening (HTS) in the early 1990s, parallel multichannel liquid handlers have become a mainstay in every drug discovery setting. Although several peer-reviewed publications have discussed methods and criteria for stamping multiwell copies, there is very little information about establishing a standard operating procedure (SOP) for standard (microliter-level) serial dilutions of compounds used in dose-response experiments. The authors discuss the 4 main criteria any serial dilution process must pass (accuracy, precision, fold dilution, and outliers) and the process for establishing thresholds for all of these values in a compound management or biological screening laboratory. The thresholds need to be both low enough to be acceptable from a biological potency variability perspective and high enough to allow the instruments to pass the quality assurance (QA) analysis on a regular basis. In this article, the authors suggest suitable thresholds arrived at by a variety of methods, including trend analysis of QA data, survey questionnaire from the main stakeholders (screening scientists, chemists), and published criteria for single-shot stamping. A mathematical analysis of the effect of threshold values on estimated XC(50)s was performed to ensure that the variability introduced by the serial dilution step is within acceptable overall variability limits. PMID:19675311

Popa-Burke, Ioana; Lupotsky, Brian; Boyer, Joseph; Gannon, William; Hughes, Rob; Kadwill, Paul; Lyerly, Donald; Nichols, Jason; Nixon, Elizabeth; Rimmer, Darren; Saiz-Nicolas, Isabel; Sanfiz-Pinto, Beatriz; Holland, Sue

2009-09-01

5

Research and Teaching: Implementing Inquiry-Based Learning in Teaching Serial Dilutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 5E model of inquiry-based learning was incorporated into a sophomore-level microbiology laboratory to increase student understanding of serial dilutions, a concept that is often difficult for most students to comprehend. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were conducted during the semester to determine the value of this approach for students; it was most beneficial to the middle 50% of the class.

Stevens, Ann M.; Buikema Jr., Arthur L.; Walker, Candace L.; Mcgill, Michael T.

2008-07-01

6

Generalized serial dilution module for monotonic and arbitrary microfluidic gradient generators.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose a generalized serial dilution module for universal microfluidic concentration gradient generators including N cascaded-mixing stages in a stepwise manner. Desired concentrations were generated by means of controlled volumetric mixing ratios of two merging solutions in each stage. The flow rates were adjusted by controlling channel length, which is proportional to fluidic resistance in each channel. A generalized mathematical model for generating any complex concentration and output flow rate gradients is presented based on the fact that there is an analogy between microfluidic circuits and electrical circuits. The pressure drop corresponds to a voltage drop, the flow rate to an electrical current, and the flow resistance to an electrical resistance. A simple equivalent electrical circuit model was generalized, and in the model each channel segment was represented by an electrical resistance. As a result of the mathematical modelling, the only variable parameter in the generalized serial dilution module was the channel length. By the use of the generalized serial dilution module with N = 4, three types of microfluidic gradient generators for linear, logarithmic and Gaussian gradients were successfully designed and tested. The proposed strategy is capable of generating universal monotonic gradients with a single module or arbitrary gradients with multiple modules ranging from linear to complex non-linear shapes of concentration gradients as well as arbitrary output flow rate gradients in a stepwise manner. The simple universal gradient generation technology using the generalized serial dilution module will find widespread use in the greater chemical and biological community, and address many challenges of gradient-dependent phenomena. PMID:19224022

Lee, Kangsun; Kim, Choong; Ahn, Byungwook; Panchapakesan, Rajagopal; Full, Anthony R; Nordee, Ledum; Kang, Ji Yoon; Oh, Kwang W

2009-03-01

7

Effects of non-ideal fabrication on the dilution performance of serially functioned microfluidic concentration gradient generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, serial dilution microfluidic chip attracts tremendous interests due to the important applications in generating logarithmic concentration gradients in chemical and biochemical experiments. In this work, effects of fabrication errors on the dilution performance were numerically studied and several guiding principles for the device design were presented. Based on the microfluidic resistance network, channel dimension and flow rate were found

Shiying Wang; Ning Ji; Wei Wang; Zhihong Li

2010-01-01

8

Exploration of the key microbes involved in the cellulolytic activity of a microbial consortium by serial dilution.  

PubMed

A highly cellulolytic consortium was serially diluted and incubated in fermentation medium with filter paper as carbon sources. The critical dilution point of the consortium for effective degradation of filter paper was 10(-5) as further dilution resulted in the loss of degradation ability of filter paper accompanied by the disappearance of four bands in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles. The loss of bands corresponding to 16S rRNA sequences from Clostridium clariflavum DSM 19732 and a Paenibacillus species coincided with the loss of degradation ability of filter paper. PMID:23265814

Zhang, Qinghua; Tian, Min; Tang, Lei; Li, Huixing; Li, Wencheng; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Hongjian; Mao, Zhonggui

2013-03-01

9

Comparison of the serial dilution indicator and intragastric titration methods for measurement of meal-stimulated gostric acid secretion in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twoin vivo methods that permit quantitation of gastric acid secretion immediately after the meal are currently in use: intragastric titration and the serial dilution indicator method. During intragastric titration, intragastric pH is artifically maintained at 5.5 to 7 by the continuous addition of alkali to the gastric contents, while during serial dilution the intragastric pH is permitted to seek its

Daniel L. Hogan; David Turken; Anthony I. Stern; Jon I. Isenberg

1983-01-01

10

Generation of arbitrary monotonic concentration profiles by a serial dilution microfluidic network composed of microchannels with a high fluidic-resistance ratio.  

PubMed

This paper reports a serial dilution microfluidic network composed of microchannels with a high fluidic-resistance ratio for generating linear concentration profiles as well as logarithmic concentration profiles spanning 3 and 6 orders of magnitude. The microfluidic networks were composed of thin fluidic-resistance microchannels with 160 to 730 microm(2) cross-sectional areas and thick diffusion-mixing microchannels with 3,600 to 17,000 microm(2) cross-sectional areas, and were fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane by multilayer photolithography and replica molding. We proposed a design algorithm of the microfluidic network for an arbitrary monotonic concentration profile by means of a hydrodynamic calculation. Because of the high fluidic-resistance ratio of the fluidic-resistance microchannels to the diffusion-mixing microchannels, appropriate geometry and dimensions of the fluidic-resistance microchannels allowed us to obtain desired concentration profiles. The fabricated microfluidic network was compact, occupying a 8 x 18 to 21.0 x 13.5 mm(2) area on the microchip. Both the linear and the logarithmic concentration profiles were successfully generated with the error less than 15% for the linear concentration profile, 22% and 35% for the logarithmic concentration profiles of 3 and 6 orders of magnitude, respectively. The generated linear concentration profiles of the small molecule, calcein, were independent of the flow rate within the range of 0.009 to 0.23 microL/min. The concentration profiles of the large molecules, dextrans, depended on the flow rate and molecular weight. The required residence time of large molecules in the diffusion-mixing microchannel was correlated with dimensionless diffusion time, Fick number, and was discussed based on the scaling law. These compact, stable serial dilution microfluidic networks are expected to be applied to various integrated on-chip analyses. PMID:19495461

Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

2009-06-21

11

Two-fold Simulated Annealing Approach to Unit Commitment Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a new approach to generator scheduling using two-fold simulated annealing (two-fold-SA) method that consists of decomposed-SA and coupling-SA. An initial solution is generated by priority list method. Firstly, the solution is decomposed into hourly schedules and each hourly schedule is modified by decomposed-SA using single bit flipping. If the generated new hourly schedule is better, by convention,

Ahmed Yousuf Saber; Tomonobu Senjyu; Tsukasa Miyagi; Naomitsu Urasaki; Toshihisa Funabashi

2007-01-01

12

Sex Is Always Well Worth Its Two-Fold Cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex is considered as an evolutionary paradox, since its evolutionary advantage does not necessarily overcome the two fold cost of sharing half of one's offspring's genome with another member of the population. Here we demonstrate that sexual reproduction can be evolutionary stable even when its Darwinian fitness is twice as low when compared to the fitness of asexual mutants. We

Alexander Feigel; Avraham Englander; Assaf Engel; Robert Belshaw

2009-01-01

13

Serial Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduce the RS232 standard and position it within the crowded field of serial communications standards. Configure the 8051\\u000a serial port. Read and write to the serial port. Introduce software and hardware handshaking.\\u000a \\u000a This chapter is a fast-paced introduction to RS232 serial communications. Unlike other books that start with a history lesson,\\u000a this one will present material as it is needed

Kai Qian; David Haring; Li Cao

14

Serial Killers and Serial Rapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews the typologies for serial murder and serial rape. The aim here is to showcase the principal conceptual\\u000a models that have accounted for these two forms of criminal behavior in the extant literature. Additionally, however, the chapter\\u000a considers where and how the typologies on serial rape and murder could be integrated, especially with respect to offender\\u000a motivations, cognitions,

Stacey L. Shipley; Bruce A. Arrigo

15

Serial Wars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a year filled with drama and hyperbole, the serials marketplace churned toward a future whose shape is the subject of fierce debate. Forecasts from commercial publishers touting collapse and disaster seemed oddly out of sync with the profits they enjoyed--around 25 percent on average. Nevertheless, in a market where prices continued to rise and…

Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

2007-01-01

16

Superluminal solitons in a {lambda}-type atomic system with two-folded levels  

SciTech Connect

With one weak pulsed probe field, one strong pumping field, and one coupling field, superluminal optical solitons are formed in a lifetime-broadened {lambda}-type atomic medium with two-folded levels. The corresponding group velocity of the solitons can be larger than the vacuum light speed c; i.e., superluminal solitons can be presented.

Han Dingan; Zeng Yaguang; Chen Weicheng; Lu Hong; Huang Chunqing [Department of Physics, Foshan University, Foshan 528000 (China)

2007-09-15

17

Issues in Serials Librarianship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine articles in this issue cover topics currently being discussed in serials librarianship: historical development, impact of technology, relationship of librarians and publishers of serials, collection development, management of serials automation, serials conversion, automated serials control, MARC format for holdings and locations, a union…

Ezzell, Joline, Ed.

1985-01-01

18

Two-Fold Pricing to Guarantee Individual Profits and Maximum Social Welfare in Wireless Access Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a multi-hop wireless access network where each node is an independent self-interested commercial entity, pricing is helpful not only to encourage collaboration but also to utilize the network resources efficiently. In this paper, we propose a market-based model with two-fold pricing (TFP) for wireless ac- cess networks. In our model, the relay-pricing is used to encourage nodes to forward

Amir Hamed Mohsenian Rad; Vincent W. S. Wong; Victor C. M. Leung

2008-01-01

19

Two-fold pricing for competitive spectrum sharing in cognitive wireless mesh networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A market-based two-fold relay-spectrum pricing (TFRSP) scheme for competitive spectrum sharing in cognitive wireless mesh network is proposed. The TFRSP scheme can guarantee non-negative profit for each secondary user for a wide range of user utilities and pricing functions. We determine the relay and spectrum pricing functions according to traffic load and profit maximization. Simulation results show that, compared to

Xin Huang; Suili Feng; Feng Ke; Hongcheng Zhuang

2010-01-01

20

Sea Urchin Embryology: Simple Dilutions 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SUMMARY: Building on what was learned in SIMPLE DILUTION, students will determine the best dilution strategy to solve a dilution problem. 1. Students are given an unknown dye solution and asked to determine its concentration by comparing it with standards they create. 2. Repeated "serial" dilutions will be necessary to determine accurate concentration readings. 3. Varying the color of the filters and the path length will aid in seeing lower concentrations.

PhD David Epel (Stanford U. Hopkins Marine Station)

2006-12-20

21

UltimaSerial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UltimaSerial is a Windows based controller for DATAQ Instrument's DI-1xx serial data acquisition device, or WinDaq Starter Kit. It includes access to analog inputs, digital inputs, event counters, various trigger modes, and is backward compatible with the DataqSerial ActiveX control. UltimaSerial comes sample code in a range of languages.

Ultimaserial

2003-10-10

22

Comment on 'Superluminal solitons in a {lambda}-type atomic system with two-folded levels'  

SciTech Connect

We show that the analysis of the optical solitons in a resonant, lifetime-broadened {lambda}-type atomic system with two-folded lower levels, given recently by D. Han et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2244 (2007)], is incorrect. Although in the anomalous dispersion regime near resonance one may obtain a superluminal optical soliton, such a soliton suffers serious absorption and hence cannot propagate a significant distance. However, by choosing appropriate system parameters to work in the normal dispersion regime and hence inside the transparency windows of double dark resonance, an ultraslow optical soliton with very low light intensity can form and propagate stably for a fairly long distance.

Hang Chao; Huang Guoxiang [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Luo Bin [Department of Physics and Information Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin 537000, Guangxi (China)

2008-06-15

23

Two-fold Mellin-Barnes transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous paper (Allendes et al., 2013 [10]), we showed that multi-fold Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms. The MB transforms were written there as polynomials of logarithms of ratios of squares of the external momenta with certain coefficients. We also showed that these coefficients have a combinatoric origin. In this paper, we present an explicit formula for these coefficients. The procedure of recovering the coefficients is based on taking the double-uniform limit in certain series of smooth functions of two variables which is constructed according to a pre-determined iterative way. The result is obtained by using basic methods of mathematical analysis. We observe that the finiteness of the limit of this iterative chain of smooth functions should reflect itself in other mathematical constructions, too, since it is not related in any way to the explicit form of the MB transforms. This finite double-uniform limit is represented in terms of a differential operator with respect to an auxiliary parameter which acts on the integrand of a certain two-fold MB integral. To demonstrate that our result is compatible with original representations of UD functions, we reproduce the integrands of these original integral representations by applying this differential operator to the integrand of the simple integral representation of the scalar triangle four-dimensional integral J(1,1,1-?).

Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kondrashuk, Igor; Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A.; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan; Rojas-Medar, Marko

2013-11-01

24

Serial tempering without exchange.  

PubMed

Serial tempering is a computational method that turns the temperature T (or more generally any independent ? parameter) into a dynamical variable. It is shown that, under conditions for which this variable is fast, serial tempering is equivalent to the umbrella sampling method with a single effective potential. This equivalence is demonstrated using both a small one-dimensional system and a small solvated peptide. The suggestion is then made to replace the serial tempering protocol with the equivalent umbrella sampling calculation. This approach, serial tempering without exchange (STeWiE), has the same performance as serial tempering in the limit that exchanges are frequent, is simpler to implement, and has fewer adjustable parameters than conventional serial tempering. The equivalence of serial tempering and STeWiE also provides a convenient route for estimating and optimizing the performance of serial tempering simulations and other generalized-ensemble methods. PMID:20866132

Nymeyer, Hugh

2010-09-21

25

Serial tempering without exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serial tempering is a computational method that turns the temperature T (or more generally any independent ? parameter) into a dynamical variable. It is shown that, under conditions for which this variable is fast, serial tempering is equivalent to the umbrella sampling method with a single effective potential. This equivalence is demonstrated using both a small one-dimensional system and a small solvated peptide. The suggestion is then made to replace the serial tempering protocol with the equivalent umbrella sampling calculation. This approach, serial tempering without exchange (STeWiE), has the same performance as serial tempering in the limit that exchanges are frequent, is simpler to implement, and has fewer adjustable parameters than conventional serial tempering. The equivalence of serial tempering and STeWiE also provides a convenient route for estimating and optimizing the performance of serial tempering simulations and other generalized-ensemble methods.

Nymeyer, Hugh

2010-09-01

26

Developments in Serials: 1977  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues and developments relating to several aspects of serials, including economics and acquisitions; bibliographic control; automation; education; serials literature and bibliographies; and copyrights. A bibliography is included. (Author/MBR)

James, John R.

1978-01-01

27

Commentaries on Serials Publishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This last in a series of articles on scholarly communications and serials prices presents three viewpoints on serials publishing contributed by Ronald Dow, Karen Hunter, and Gregory Lozier. Topics discussed include serials pricing and library budgets, overseas publishers, copyright issues, electronic journals, how to meet the needs of the scholar,…

Dow, Ronald F.; And Others

1991-01-01

28

Clustered serialization with fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serializing object graphs is an important activity since objects should be stored and reloaded on different environments. There is a plethora of frameworks to serialize objects based on recursive parsing of the object graphs. However such approaches are often too slow. Most approaches are limited in their provided features. For example, several serializers do not support class shape changes, global

Martín Dias; Mariano Martinez Peck; Stéphane Ducasse; Gabriela Arévalo

2011-01-01

29

Memory for Serial Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extension to Murdock's Theory of Distributed Associative Memory, based on associative chaining between items, is presented. The extended theory is applied to several serial order phenomena, including serial list learning, delayed recall effects, partial report effects, and buildup and release from proactive interference. (TJH)

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Murdock, Bennet B., Jr.

1989-01-01

30

HIPPI/Serial-HIPPI  

SciTech Connect

The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) is a simple high-performance, point-to-point channel for transmitting digital data at peak data rates of 800 or 1600 Mbit/S. The transmission distance between data processing equipment using copper cabling can be up to 25 meters. This distance may be increased by using a Serial-HIPPI extender. This paper describes the HIPPI channel, the choices considered for a serial extender, and the resulting agreement for the Serial-HIPPI specification. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Tolmie, D.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Halvorson, M.G. (Digital Equipment Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

31

Buffered Serial Data Card.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) User equipments (UEs) send out navigation information in the form of blocks of serial data. The format and transmitting rate of the data varies between UEs. Several agencies within the Australian Department of Defen...

G. Fielke

1991-01-01

32

Serial floating point formatter  

SciTech Connect

A floating point formatter for changing fixed point serial digital data, such as that received by a seismic data acquisition system, is disclosed wherein fixed point serial digital data is received and scaled to remove any bias added by preamplification. The scaled data is shifted a predetermined number of bits and a resulting exponent is calculated. The shifted data signal and corresponding exponent are combined and further scaled to permit stacking the data without exceeding the system capacity.

Peterson, R. D.; Penner, W. A.

1985-11-12

33

Two-Fold Pricing to Guarantee Individual Profits and Maximum Social Welfare in Multi-Hop Wireless Access Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a multi-hop wireless access network, where each node is an independent self-interested commercial entity, pricing is helpful not only to encourage collaboration but also to utilize the network resources efficiently. In this paper, we propose a market-based model with two-fold pricing (TFP) for wireless access networks. In our model, the relay-pricing is used to encourage nodes to forward packets

Amir-Hamed Mohsenian-Rad; Vincent W. S. Wong; Victor C. M. Leung

2009-01-01

34

Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

Fishel, Laurence A.

2010-01-01

35

Digit-serial DSP architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a systematic unfolding transformation technique to transform bit-serial architectures into equivalent digit-serial ones. The novel feature of the technique is the generation of functionally correct control circuits in the digit-serial architectures. Bit-serial systems process one bit of a word or sample in a clock cycle. For some applications bit-serial architectures may be too slow, and bit-parallel architectures

Keshab K. Parhi; Ching-Yi Wang

1990-01-01

36

Serial interprocessor communications system  

SciTech Connect

A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM.

Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

1980-04-03

37

Automated drug preparation apparatus including serial dilution functionality  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An automated medication preparation system for preparing a prescribed dosage of medication in a drug delivery device includes a plurality of stations for receiving, handling and processing the drug delivery device so that the prescribed dosage of medication is delivered to the drug delivery device and a transporting device that receives and holds more than one drug delivery device and moves the drug delivery devices in a controlled manner from one station to another station. The system is configured so that two or more separate drug delivery devices can be acted upon at the same time.

2011-03-29

38

Management of Serials in Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume reviews current options for handling serials problems and clarifies fundamental issues in one of the greatest challenges confronting today's library and information science professionals. Focusing on the management of serials in libraries and the role of serials in scholarly communications, this book combines descriptive and…

Nisonger, Thomas E.

39

Case for Digit Serial VLSI Signal Processors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digit serial architectures, which have digit serial data transmission combined with digit serial computation, are uniquely suited for the design of VLSI signal processors. The speed disadvantages of digit serial input are overcome if the input is overlapp...

M. J. Irwin R. M. Owens

1990-01-01

40

Serial position and sequential associations in serial learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

12-item serial lists were compared, with 3 items in either same-adjacent, changed-adjacent, or same-nonadjacent serial positions as in a previous list, wherein the 3 List 2 cluster items appeared in either beginning (2-3-4) or middle (6-7-8) serial positions and were learned to either 1 or 3 correct anticipations (1R-3R). Nonadjacent performance was significantly inferior to both same and changed conditions,

William F. Battig; Sam C. Brown; Mary E. Schild

1964-01-01

41

Serials Cancellation Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A serials cancellation pilot project was conducted by the Pittsburgh Regional Library Center (PRLC) from August 1981 to December 1983 in order to demonstrate the utility of using a large online union list of serials for making and reporting collection management decisions. A total of 21 academic libraries and one public library from Pennsylvania,…

Carter, Ruth C.; Bruntjen, Scott

42

Controller design for serial processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we aim at obtaining insight into how a multivariable feedback controller works, with special attention to serial processes. Serial processes are important in the process industry, and the structure of this process makes it simple to classify the different elements of the multivariable controller.In particular, we focus on the difference between the feedforward and feedback parts of

Audun Faanes; Sigurd Skogestad

2005-01-01

43

The Year's Work in Serials: 1981.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews publications for 1981 pertaining to cataloging and bibliographic control of serials, standardization and automation developments in the bibliographic control of serials, serial union list development, serials delivery systems (including electronic publishing), and library serials departments. A 52-item bibliography is included. (JL)

Weber, Benita M.

1982-01-01

44

Serials Control: Past, Present and Future Imperfect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1920s, libraries have been dealing with the various issues that have arisen from attempts to control serials. This article addresses the consistent themes surrounding serials management, including the importance of periodicals to libraries, maintenance of serial records, organization and staffing of serials departments, automation, and education. While libraries continue to try to manage serials, the virtual future may

Tyler Goldberg; Neal Nixon

2005-01-01

45

The Effect of Dilution on the Structure of Microbial Communities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To determine how dilution of microbial communities affects the diversity of the diluted assemblage a series of numerical simulations were conducted that determined the theoretical change in diversity, richness, and evenness of the community with serial dilution. The results of the simulation suggested that the effects are non linear with a high degree of dependence on the initial evenness of the community being diluted. A series of incubation experiments using a range of dilutions of raw sewage as an inoculum into sterile sewage was used for comparison to the simulations. The diluted communities were maintained in batch fed reactors (three day retention time) for nine days. The communities were harvested and examined by conventional plating and by molecular analysis of the whole-community DNA using AFLP and T-RFLP. Additional, CLPP analysis was also applied. The effects on richness predicted by the numerical simulations were confirmed by the analyses used. The diluted communities fell into three groups, a low dilution, intermediate dilution, and high dilution group, which corresponded well with the groupings obtained for community richness in simulation. The grouping demonstrated the non-linear nature of dilution of whole communities. Furthermore, the results implied that the undiluted community consisted of a few dominant types accompanied by a number of rare (low abundance) types as is typical in unevenly distributed communities.

Mills, Aaron L.

2000-01-01

46

Serial Network Flow Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

2009-01-01

47

Serial Input Output  

SciTech Connect

Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each stream, record or block name must be unique in its category (i.e. all streams must have different names, but a stream can have the same name as a record). Each category is an arbitrary length list which is handled by a 'manager' and there is one manager for each category.

Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

2011-09-07

48

Magnetic properties of the mixed spin-5\\/2 and spin-3\\/2 Blume-Capel Ising system on the two-fold Cayley tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use exact recursion relations to study the magnetic properties of the half-integer mixed spin-5\\/2 and spin-3\\/2 Blume-Capel\\u000a Ising ferromagnetic system on the two-fold Cayley tree that consists of two sublattices A and B. Two positive crystal-field interactions ?1 and ?2 are considered for the sublattice with spin-5\\/2 and spin-3\\/2 respectively. For different coordination numbers q of the Cayley tree

Rachidi A. Yessoufou; Saliou H. Amoussa; Felix Hontinfinde

2009-01-01

49

Magnetic properties of the mixed spin-5\\/2 and spin-3\\/2 Blume-Capel Ising system on the two-fold Cayley tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use exact recursion relations to study the magnetic properties of the half-integer mixed spin-5\\/2 and spin-3\\/2 Blume-Capel Ising ferromagnetic system on the two-fold Cayley tree that consists of two sublattices A and B. Two positive crystal-field interactions Delta1 and Delta2 are considered for the sublattice with spin-5\\/2 and spin-3\\/2 respectively. For different coordination numbers q of the Cayley tree

Rachidi A. Yessoufou; Saliou H. Amoussa; Felix Hontinfinde

2009-01-01

50

Bit-serial neuroprocessor architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A neuroprocessor architecture employs a combination of bit-serial and serial-parallel techniques for implementing the neurons of the neuroprocessor. The neuroprocessor architecture includes a neural module containing a pool of neurons, a global controller, a sigmoid activation ROM look-up-table, a plurality of neuron state registers, and a synaptic weight RAM. The neuroprocessor reduces the number of neurons required to perform the task by time multiplexing groups of neurons from a fixed pool of neurons to achieve the successive hidden layers of a recurrent network topology.

Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

2001-01-01

51

The mathematics of dilution.  

PubMed

The major objection to homeopathic medicine is that the doses of medicine prescribed in some cases are too dilute for any active ingredient to be present. The medicines would hence be rendered inactive, necessitating novel explanations for the action. A further examination of dilution in the light of the Langmuir equation shows that homeopathic medicines may not be as dilute as a simplistic application of Avogadro's Principle suggests, due to surface effects. PMID:24685420

Chatterjee, Barun Kumar

2014-04-01

52

The Serials Department's Responsibilities for Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the benefits and complexity of reference within the serials department and its interrelationship with general reference service. Practical solutions are suggested for problems of training, staffing and organization of serials reference service. (RAA)

Grochmal, Helen M.

1981-01-01

53

Serial port data communication using MODBUS protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial communication is the process of sending data sequentially one bit at a time, over a communication channel or computer bus [5,6,7]. RS-232 is a standard for serial binary data transfer between a data terminal equipment (DTE) and a data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE), commonly used in computer serial ports.

Saptarshi Naskar; Krishnendu Basuli; Samar Sen Sarma

2008-01-01

54

Filling the Gap in Serials Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of the creation, activities and evolution of the Regional Serials Committee of the Serials Section of the American Library Association's Resources and Technical Services Division. For approximately ten years the committee has been using various means to evaluate serials matters and to inform librarians concerning these. The committee has sponsored workshops and published helpful manuals. Energies

Elaine K. Rast; Mary A. Stout

1987-01-01

55

Serials Control System Procedures and Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document includes procedures and policies for a networked serials control system originally developed at the Grainger Engineering Library Information Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). The serials control systems encompass serials processing, public service, and end-user functions. The system employs a…

Schlembach, Mary C.

56

Serials—The Constant Midlife Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serials and the serials information chain have changed rapidly since the development of the electronic journal. Many recent developments are briefly described, including electronic resource management systems (ERMS) and functional requirements for bibliographic records (FRBR). The constantly changing nature of serials is compared to a psychological midlife crisis.

Kay G. Johnson

2006-01-01

57

Serial dependence in visual perception.  

PubMed

Visual input often arrives in a noisy and discontinuous stream, owing to head and eye movements, occlusion, lighting changes, and many other factors. Yet the physical world is generally stable; objects and physical characteristics rarely change spontaneously. How then does the human visual system capitalize on continuity in the physical environment over time? We found that visual perception in humans is serially dependent, using both prior and present input to inform perception at the present moment. Using an orientation judgment task, we found that, even when visual input changed randomly over time, perceived orientation was strongly and systematically biased toward recently seen stimuli. Furthermore, the strength of this bias was modulated by attention and tuned to the spatial and temporal proximity of successive stimuli. These results reveal a serial dependence in perception characterized by a spatiotemporally tuned, orientation-selective operator-which we call a continuity field-that may promote visual stability over time. PMID:24686785

Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

2014-05-01

58

The fallacy of serial extractions.  

PubMed

It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'. PMID:24380143

Lee, K Paul

2013-11-01

59

Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography  

PubMed Central

An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1?µl?min?1 to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17?µl?min?1 and diffracted to beyond 4?Å resolution, producing 14?000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140?µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption.

Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kern, Jan; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glockner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Schafer, Donald W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Sellberg, Jonas; McQueen, Trevor A.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H.; Glatzel, Pieter; Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sebastien; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bogan, Michael J.

2012-01-01

60

The Serials Maze: Providing Public Services for a Large Serials Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of public service for the users of serials collections in large libraries in light of the complexities of serial collection organization. A diagram of the decision points encountered by users dealing with serials collections and tables listing the types of serials records and error problems are included. (JL)

Pinzelik, Barbara P.

1982-01-01

61

950 keV X-Band Linac For Material Recognition Using Two-Fold Scintillator Detector As A Concept Of Dual-Energy X-Ray System  

SciTech Connect

One of the advantages of applying X-band linear accelerator (Linac) is the compact size of the whole system. That shows us the possibility of on-site system such as the custom inspection system in an airport. As X-ray source, we have developed X-band Linac and achieved maximum X-ray energy 950 keV using the low power magnetron (250 kW) in 2 {mu}s pulse length. The whole size of the Linac system is 1x1x1 m{sup 3}. That is realized by introducing X-band system. In addition, we have designed two-fold scintillator detector in dual energy X-ray concept. Monte carlo N-particle transport (MCNP) code was used to make up sensor part of the design with two scintillators, CsI and CdWO4. The custom inspection system is composed of two equipments: 950 keV X-band Linac and two-fold scintillator and they are operated simulating real situation such as baggage check in an airport. We will show you the results of experiment which was performed with metal samples: iron and lead as targets in several conditions.

Lee, Kiwoo; Natsui, Takuya; Hirai, Shunsuke; Uesaka, Mitsuru [University of Tokyo, 2-22 Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1188 (Japan); Hashimoto, Eiko [Japan atomic energy agency (JAEA), 4-49 Muramatsu Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

2011-06-01

62

A two-fold interpenetrating 3D metal-organic framework material constructed from helical chains linked via 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz fragments  

SciTech Connect

A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound {l_brace}[Ag(L){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}]{r_brace}{sub n} (1) has been synthesized by self-assembly of 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz (L=4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz=3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-bipyrazole) and Ag{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} under hydrothermal conditions. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4{sub 1}/acd with a=21.406(4) A, b=21.406(4) A, c=36.298(8) A, Z=32. X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that 1 has a three-dimensional framework with an unprecedented alternate left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net. Photoluminescent investigation reveals that the title compound displays interesting emissions in a wide region, which shows that the title compound may be a good potential candidate as a photoelectric material. - Graphical abstract: A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound [Ag(4,4'-bpz){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}] shows unprecedented alternating left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net.

Xie Yiming [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, the Key Laboratory for Functional Materials of Fujian Higher Education, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China); Zhao Zhenguo; Wu Xiaoyuan; Zhang Qisheng; Chen Lijuan; Wang Fei; Chen Shanci [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China); Lu Canzhong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China)], E-mail: czlu@fjirsm.ac.cn

2008-12-15

63

950 keV X-Band Linac For Material Recognition Using Two-Fold Scintillator Detector As A Concept Of Dual-Energy X-Ray System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the advantages of applying X-band linear accelerator (Linac) is the compact size of the whole system. That shows us the possibility of on-site system such as the custom inspection system in an airport. As X-ray source, we have developed X-band Linac and achieved maximum X-ray energy 950 keV using the low power magnetron (250 kW) in 2 ?s pulse length. The whole size of the Linac system is 1×1×1 m3. That is realized by introducing X-band system. In addition, we have designed two-fold scintillator detector in dual energy X-ray concept. Monte carlo N-particle transport (MCNP) code was used to make up sensor part of the design with two scintillators, CsI and CdWO4. The custom inspection system is composed of two equipments: 950 keV X-band Linac and two-fold scintillator and they are operated simulating real situation such as baggage check in an airport. We will show you the results of experiment which was performed with metal samples: iron and lead as targets in several conditions.

Lee, Kiwoo; Natsui, Takuya; Hirai, Shunsuke; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Eiko

2011-06-01

64

Dilution air dispensing apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dilution air dispensing apparatus for a double dome combustor. It comprises: a first dome combustor having an inlet opening and an exhaust opening, a first fuel nozzle operatively arranged in the inlet opening to dispense fuel to the first dome combustor, a second dome combustor having an inlet opening and an exhaust opening, a second fuel nozzle operatively arranged in the inlet opening to dispense fuel to the second dome combustor. The first and second dome combustor being joined towards their inlet ends to form a dilution air dispensing cavity therebetween. The dilution air dispensing cavity being formed by the inner adjacent walls of the first and second dome combustors. The dilution air dispensing cavity having a rearward portion which is located approximately one-third of the dome length from the inlets to the first and second dome combustors.

King, R.C.

1990-02-27

65

An Electrifying Year: A Year's Work in Serials, 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selectively reviews the serials literature published in 1992. Issues discussed include cataloging and specifications; networked information and electronic publishing; CD-ROM serials; collection development; serials pricing; serials management; and conference reports. (Contains 122 references.) (LRW)

Riddick, John F.

1993-01-01

66

Expression profiling of non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus mutants obtained by 5-azacytosine treatment or serial mycelial transfer.  

PubMed

Aflatoxins are carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Previous studies found that repeated serial mycelial transfer or treatment of A. parasiticus with 5-azacytidine produced colonies with a fluffy phenotype and inability to produce aflatoxins. To understand how these treatments affect expression of genes involved in aflatoxin production and development, we carried out expressed sequence tag (EST)-based microarray assays to identify genes in treated clones that are differentially expressed compared to the wild-type. Expression of 183 genes was significantly dysregulated. Of these, 38 had at least two-fold or lower expression compared to the untreated control and only two had two-fold or higher expression. The most frequent change was downregulation of genes predicted to encode membrane-bound proteins. Based on this result we hypothesize that the treatments cause changes in the structure of cellular and organelle membranes that prevent normal development and aflatoxin biosynthesis. PMID:22069749

Wilkinson, Jeffrey R; Kale, Shubha P; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C

2011-08-01

67

Expression Profiling of Non-Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus Mutants Obtained by 5-Azacytosine Treatment or Serial Mycelial Transfer  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxins are carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Previous studies found that repeated serial mycelial transfer or treatment of A. parasiticus with 5-azacytidine produced colonies with a fluffy phenotype and inability to produce aflatoxins. To understand how these treatments affect expression of genes involved in aflatoxin production and development, we carried out expressed sequence tag (EST)-based microarray assays to identify genes in treated clones that are differentially expressed compared to the wild-type. Expression of 183 genes was significantly dysregulated. Of these, 38 had at least two-fold or lower expression compared to the untreated control and only two had two-fold or higher expression. The most frequent change was downregulation of genes predicted to encode membrane-bound proteins. Based on this result we hypothesize that the treatments cause changes in the structure of cellular and organelle membranes that prevent normal development and aflatoxin biosynthesis.

Wilkinson, Jeffrey R.; Kale, Shubha P.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.

2011-01-01

68

Reconciling rising serials costs, the serials budget, and reference needs in a medical library serials retrenchment program: a methodology.  

PubMed

Devising a coherent serials retrenchment plan while maintaining quality reference service is a dilemma faced by increasing numbers of medical librarians. In 1991, the staff of the Shiffman Medical Library, Wayne State University, began to address increasing serials budget reductions that by 1994 amounted to a projected 20% maximum cut. The resulting retrenchment plan combined an ongoing serials use study, faculty and librarian reviews of cancellation lists, and systematic refinements in interlibrary cooperation and document delivery service. The Shiffman plan provides a constructive framework that can be adapted to other medical libraries facing immediate, major serials retrenchment. PMID:10142675

Spang, L

1995-01-01

69

Serial turbo trellis coded modulation using a serially concatenated coder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Serial concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) includes an outer coder, an interleaver, a recursive inner coder and a mapping element. The outer coder receives data to be coded and produces outer coded data. The interleaver permutes the outer coded data to produce interleaved data. The recursive inner coder codes the interleaved data to produce inner coded data. The mapping element maps the inner coded data to a symbol. The recursive inner coder has a structure which facilitates iterative decoding of the symbols at a decoder system. The recursive inner coder and the mapping element are selected to maximize the effective free Euclidean distance of a trellis coded modulator formed from the recursive inner coder and the mapping element. The decoder system includes a demodulation unit, an inner SISO (soft-input soft-output) decoder, a deinterleaver, an outer SISO decoder, and an interleaver.

Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Pollara, Fabrizio (Inventor)

2010-01-01

70

Serial turbo trellis coded modulation using a serially concatenated coder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Serial concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) includes an outer coder, an interleaver, a recursive inner coder and a mapping element. The outer coder receives data to be coded and produces outer coded data. The interleaver permutes the outer coded data to produce interleaved data. The recursive inner coder codes the interleaved data to produce inner coded data. The mapping element maps the inner coded data to a symbol. The recursive inner coder has a structure which facilitates iterative decoding of the symbols at a decoder system. The recursive inner coder and the mapping element are selected to maximize the effective free Euclidean distance of a trellis coded modulator formed from the recursive inner coder and the mapping element. The decoder system includes a demodulation unit, an inner SISO (soft-input soft-output) decoder, a deinterleaver, an outer SISO decoder, and an interleaver.

Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Pollara, Fabrizio (Inventor)

2011-01-01

71

Limiting-dilution transplantation assays in mammary stem cell studies.  

PubMed

Mammary reconstitution assays can be used to measure the stem cell frequency within an epithelial population by transplanting increasingly diluted single-cell preparations of the population of interest. There are fundamental steps in the single-cell isolation protocol which are directly related to the number of single epithelial cells obtained. Once single-cell suspensions have been obtained, serial dilutions are prepared and transplanted into the cleared fat pads of the host mice. After 8-10 weeks, the transplanted fat pads are reevaluated for the presence of epithelial outgrowths. Based on the frequency of no outgrowth for each one of the transplanted dilutions, it is possible to estimate the frequency of mammary repopulating cells present in a given cell population. Here, we give details on how to carry out all these steps. PMID:20405357

Illa-Bochaca, Irineu; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Shelton, Dawne N; Welm, Bryan E; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

2010-01-01

72

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOEpatents

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

1988-09-13

73

Dilution, Concentration, and Flotation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As both classroom teaching practice and literature show, many students have difficulties learning science concepts such as density. Here are some investigations that identify the relationship between density and floating through experimenting with successive dilution of a liquid, or the systematic change of concentration of a saltwater solution.…

Liang, Ling; Schmuckler, Joseph S.

2004-01-01

74

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOEpatents

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL) [Darien, IL; Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL

1988-01-01

75

Analysis of transitions at two-fold redundant sites in mammalian genomes. Transition redundant approach-to-equilibrium (TREx) distance metrics  

PubMed Central

Background The exchange of nucleotides at synonymous sites in a gene encoding a protein is believed to have little impact on the fitness of a host organism. This should be especially true for synonymous transitions, where a pyrimidine nucleotide is replaced by another pyrimidine, or a purine is replaced by another purine. This suggests that transition redundant exchange (TREx) processes at the third position of conserved two-fold codon systems might offer the best approximation for a neutral molecular clock, serving to examine, within coding regions, theories that require neutrality, determine whether transition rate constants differ within genes in a single lineage, and correlate dates of events recorded in genomes with dates in the geological and paleontological records. To date, TREx analysis of the yeast genome has recognized correlated duplications that established a new metabolic strategies in fungi, and supported analyses of functional change in aromatases in pigs. TREx dating has limitations, however. Multiple transitions at synonymous sites may cause equilibration and loss of information. Further, to be useful to correlate events in the genomic record, different genes within a genome must suffer transitions at similar rates. Results A formalism to analyze divergence at two fold redundant codon systems is presented. This formalism exploits two-state approach-to-equilibrium kinetics from chemistry. This formalism captures, in a single equation, the possibility of multiple substitutions at individual sites, avoiding any need to "correct" for these. The formalism also connects specific rate constants for transitions to specific approximations in an underlying evolutionary model, including assumptions that transition rate constants are invariant at different sites, in different genes, in different lineages, and at different times. Therefore, the formalism supports analyses that evaluate these approximations. Transitions at synonymous sites within two-fold redundant coding systems were examined in the mouse, rat, and human genomes. The key metric (f2), the fraction of those sites that holds the same nucleotide, was measured for putative ortholog pairs. A transition redundant exchange (TREx) distance was calculated from f2 for these pairs. Pyrimidine-pyrimidine transitions at these sites occur approximately 14% faster than purine-purine transitions in various lineages. Transition rate constants were similar in different genes within the same lineages; within a set of orthologs, the f2 distribution is only modest overdispersed. No correlation between disparity and overdispersion is observed. In rodents, evidence was found for greater conservation of TREx sites in genes on the X chromosome, accounting for a small part of the overdispersion, however. Conclusion The TREx metric is useful to analyze the history of transition rate constants within these mammals over the past 100 million years. The TREx metric estimates the extent to which silent nucleotide substitutions accumulate in different genes, on different chromosomes, with different compositions, in different lineages, and at different times.

Li, Tang; Chamberlin, Stephen G; Caraco, M Daniel; Liberles, David A; Gaucher, Eric A; Benner, Steven A

2006-01-01

76

Stabilization of a Prion Strain of Synthetic Origin Requires Multiple Serial Passages*  

PubMed Central

Transmission of prions to a new host is frequently accompanied by strain adaptation, a phenomenon that involves reduction of the incubation period, a change in neuropathological features and, sometimes, tissue tropism. Here we show that a strain of synthetic origin (SSLOW), although serially transmitted within the same species, displayed the key attributes of the strain adaptation process. At least four serial passages were required to stabilize the strain-specific SSLOW phenotype. The biological titration of SSLOW revealed a correlation between clinical signs and accumulation of PrPSc in brains of animals inoculated with high doses (10?1-10?5 diluted brain material), but dissociation between the two processes at low dose inocula (10?6-10?8 diluted brain material). At low doses, several asymptomatic animals harbored large amounts of PrPSc comparable with those seen in the brains of terminally ill animals, whereas one clinically ill animal had very little, if any, PrPSc. In summary, the current study illustrates that the phenomenon of prion strain adaptation is more common than generally thought and could be observed upon serial transmission without changing the host species. When PrPSc is seeded by recombinant PrP structures different from that of authentic PrPSc, PrPSc properties continued to evolve for as long as four serial passages.

Makarava, Natallia; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Savtchenko, Regina; Alexeeva, Irina; Budka, Herbert; Rohwer, Robert G.; Baskakov, Ilia V.

2012-01-01

77

Stabilization of a prion strain of synthetic origin requires multiple serial passages.  

PubMed

Transmission of prions to a new host is frequently accompanied by strain adaptation, a phenomenon that involves reduction of the incubation period, a change in neuropathological features and, sometimes, tissue tropism. Here we show that a strain of synthetic origin (SSLOW), although serially transmitted within the same species, displayed the key attributes of the strain adaptation process. At least four serial passages were required to stabilize the strain-specific SSLOW phenotype. The biological titration of SSLOW revealed a correlation between clinical signs and accumulation of PrP(Sc) in brains of animals inoculated with high doses (10(-1)-10(-5) diluted brain material), but dissociation between the two processes at low dose inocula (10(-6)-10(-8) diluted brain material). At low doses, several asymptomatic animals harbored large amounts of PrP(Sc) comparable with those seen in the brains of terminally ill animals, whereas one clinically ill animal had very little, if any, PrP(Sc). In summary, the current study illustrates that the phenomenon of prion strain adaptation is more common than generally thought and could be observed upon serial transmission without changing the host species. When PrP(Sc) is seeded by recombinant PrP structures different from that of authentic PrP(Sc), PrP(Sc) properties continued to evolve for as long as four serial passages. PMID:22807452

Makarava, Natallia; Kovacs, Gabor G; Savtchenko, Regina; Alexeeva, Irina; Budka, Herbert; Rohwer, Robert G; Baskakov, Ilia V

2012-08-31

78

Modeling Serial Arguments in Close Relationships: The Serial Argument Process Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though an emerging research area, serial argumentation has yet to be cohesively explored from a theoretical lens. The current project thus extends and updates Trapp and Hoff's (1985) original serial argument model by explicating and testing a theoretical process an individual goes through immediately before, during, and after a serial argument…

Bevan, Jennifer L.; Finan, Andrea; Kaminsky, Allison

2008-01-01

79

Dissociable lexical and phonological inuences on serial recognition and serial recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the lexicality of memory items on memory performance was compared in two paradigms, serial recall and serial recognition. Experiments 1 to 3 tested 7- and 8-year-old children. Memory accuracy was only mildly impaired in lists containing nonwords compared with words in a serial recognition task involving judgements of whether the items in two sequences were in the

Susan E. Gathercole; Susan J. Pickering; Sarah M. Peaker

80

Training Serials Specialists: Internships as an Option.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the lack of qualified, experienced serials librarians; suggests recruiting support staff from within technical services departments; and describes an internship program developed at Hofstra University (New York) to help train a library school student in serials work. The manager's perspective, the student's perspective, and an evaluation…

Meiseles, Linda; Feller, Sue

1994-01-01

81

Reidentifying hardware after loss of serial number  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System traces fabrication and inspection records of special hardware back to the raw material. Reidentification of hardware, after loss of serial numbers, is established by X raying all parts again and comparing the new film with the original, whose numbers were previously recorded on serialized documents.

Wells, R. J.

1969-01-01

82

A production system theory of serial memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory is described that provides a detailed model of how people recall serial lists of items. This theory is based on the Adaptive Character of Thought-Ratio nal (ACT-R) production system (J. R. Anderson, 1993). It assumes that serial lists are represented as hierarchical structures consisting of groups and items within groups. Declarative knowledge units encode the position of items

John R. Anderson; Michael Matessa

1997-01-01

83

The Impact of EDI on Serials Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two representatives from different parts of the electronic data interchange (EDI) process teamed up for a workshop on the impact of EDI on serials management. The presenters were: Charlene N. Simser, Electronic Resource\\/Serials Librarian and Interim Chair, Technical Services, Kansas State University; and Rachel R. Vukas, Account Services Manager, EBSCO Information Services. The two provided a general background of EDI,

Joan M. Stephens Recorder

2001-01-01

84

Bus Serialization for Reducing Power Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

yyy Shared-bus chip multiprocessors require buses with long wires. The portion of power consumed in wires relatively increases with device scaling. In this paper, we advocate the use of bus serialization to reduce bus power consumption. Bus serialization decreases the number of wires, and increases the pitch between wires. The wider pitch decreases the coupling capacitances of wires, and consequently

Naoya Hatta; Niko Demus Barli; Chitaka Iwama; Luong Dinh Hung; Daisuke Tashiro; Shuichi Sakai; Hidehiko Tanaka

2006-01-01

85

Magnetic Particle Recovery of Serial Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

One method used by crime labs to recover obliterated serial numbers in steel firearms (ferrous samples) is the magnetic particle technique. The use of this method is predicated on the detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers after the visible stamp has been removed. Equipment specialized for this detection is not used in these attempts; a portable magnetic

Dave Utrata; Marcus J. Johnson

2003-01-01

86

Serial Cohabitation and the Marital Life Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper tracks the experiences of "serial cohabitors." Results indicate that only a minority of cohabiting women (about 15%-20%) were involved in multiple cohabitations. Serial cohabitations were overrepresented among economically disadvantaged groups, especially those with low…

Lichter, Daniel T.; Qian, Zhenchao

2008-01-01

87

Electrically pumped random lasing from the light-emitting device based on two-fold-tandem SiO2/ZnO structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on remarkable decrease in threshold current for electrically pumped random lasing (RL) from the light-emitting device based on two-fold-tandem (double-) SiO2/ZnO-structure with respect to that in the case of single-SiO2/ZnO-structured device. Moreover, the former is of higher power conversion efficiency. In the double-SiO2/ZnO-structure, a waveguide is formed by the stacking SiO2/ZnO/SiO2, which enables photon confinement. Moreover, the electrons leaking out of the bottom SiO2/ZnO-structure are collected and partly involved in the radiative recombination in the top one. Furthermore, the RL photons generated in the bottom SiO2/ZnO-structure act as the stimuli to increase the stimulated emission rate in the top one. For the above-mentioned reasons, the RL performance of the double-SiO2/ZnO-structured device is substantially improved.

Li, Yunpeng; Wang, Canxing; Jin, Lu; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

2013-04-01

88

Comparison of hepatic and renal drug-metabolising enzyme activities in sheep given single or two-fold challenge infections with Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

The activity of drug-metabolising enzymes was compared in liver and kidneys of adult sheep given single or two-fold fluke infection. Fascioliasis was induced by oral administration of 200 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica to female sheep either 10 or 20 weeks (mono-infections) or 10 and 20 weeks (bi-infection) before killing. The parasitic pathology was ascertained at autopsy and by clinical observation of animals. In the liver of both mono- and bi-infected animals, significant decreases (P<0.05) (17-44%) were observed in the microsomal content of cytochrome P450 and in the two measured P450-dependent monooxygenase activities, benzphetamine and ethylmorphine N-demethylations. Moreover, Western blot analysis of microsomes demonstrated a decrease in the expression of cytochrome P4503A subfamily correlative with that of its presumed corresponding activity ethylmorphine N-demethylase. By contrast, the conjugation of chloro-dinitrobenzene to glutathione remained unchanged in liver cytosolic fractions prepared from all these animals. In kidneys, a significant decrease (P<0.05) (30%) in microsomal cytochrome P450 level of 10-week mono-infected sheep was observed whereas there was no change in the other groups of animals. The inflammatory origin and the consequences in terms of pathology and animal productivity of the fascioliasis-induced decreases in tissue-oxidative drug metabolism are discussed, particularly in the case of adult sheep suffering repetitive infections. PMID:10927086

Calléja, C; Bigot, K; Eeckhoutte, C; Sibille, P; Boulard, C; Galtier, P

2000-07-01

89

Two paradigms of measuring serial-order memory: two different patterns of serial-position functions.  

PubMed

There are two research paradigms in the area of serial-order memory. One typically uses serial recall (accuracy), and the other comparative judgment (reaction time) for measuring serial-order memory. Spontaneous subgrouping is commonly observed in the recall serial-position function in the form of multiple bowings. However, comparative judgment with a reaction time measure produces a single-bowing function. Researchers adopting these two approaches have opposing views on the form of the structure of serial-order memory with the former favoring a hierarchical, and the latter a unidimensional structure. The present study confirmed the above hypothesized relation between the two measuring procedures and the two different patterns of serial-position functions. It was suggested that a serial recall involves retrieving absolute position information, whereas a comparative judgment involves retrieving relative position information, and that subgrouping serves a facilitating function for the former, but may actually impede the latter process. PMID:20607283

Jou, Jerwen

2011-05-01

90

Serial microanalysis of renal transcriptomes  

PubMed Central

Large-scale gene expression studies can now be routinely performed on macroamounts of cells, but it is unclear to which extent current methods are valuable for analyzing complex tissues. In the present study, we used the method of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) for quantitative mRNA profiling in the mouse kidney. We first performed SAGE at the whole-kidney level by sequencing 12,000 mRNA tags. Most abundant tags corresponded to transcripts widely distributed or enriched in the predominant kidney epithelial cells (proximal tubular cells), whereas transcripts specific for minor cell types were barely evidenced. To better explore such cells, we set up a SAGE adaptation for downsized extracts, enabling a 1,000-fold reduction of the amount of starting material. The potential of this approach was evaluated by studying gene expression in microdissected kidney tubules (50,000 cells). Specific gene expression profiles were obtained, and known markers (e.g., uromodulin in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and aquaporin-2 in the collecting duct) were found appropriately enriched. In addition, several enriched tags had no databank match, suggesting that they correspond to unknown or poorly characterized transcripts with specific tissue distribution. It is concluded that SAGE adaptation for downsized extracts makes possible large-scale quantitative gene expression measurements in small biological samples and will help to study the tissue expression and function of genes not evidenced with other high-throughput methods.

Virlon, Berangere; Cheval, Lydie; Buhler, Jean-Marie; Billon, Emmanuelle; Doucet, Alain; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

1999-01-01

91

Diluted magnetic semiconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs), i.e. semiconducting crystals whose lattice is made up in part of substitutional magnetic ions (e.g. Cd1-xMnxTe, Hg1-xFex Se, Zn1-xCoxS), are reviewed. The focus is on materials of the type A1-xII MnxB VI, which are the most thoroughly understood. However, the similarities and differences between these materials and the A1-x IIFexBVI and A1-IICoxBVI systems are discussed wherever

Nitin Samarth; J. K. Furdyna

1990-01-01

92

Design of Serially Concatenated Trellis Coded Modulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Serial concatenation of an outer binary convolutional code with an inner TCM code over a multidimensional Euclidean constellation through an interleaver, allows to extend the extremely good performance of turbo codes to the case of high spectral efficiency.

Benedetto, S.; Divsalar, D.; Garello, R.; Montorsi, G.; Pollara, F.

1998-01-01

93

Union List of Serials, 1977. Second Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second edition of this joint listing of serials includes the holdings of the following library systems: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (including the Illinois Institute for Environmental Quality); Food and Drug Administration, Bureau of Fo...

1977-01-01

94

Aquatic Biology Serials -- Their Location and Characteristics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A documentation of aquatic biology serials is presented. Contents: Country of publication; Content characteristics; Subject content; Language in which published; Type of sponsorship; Frequency of issue; Birth and death; Abstract and index coverage; Locati...

C. W. Shilling M. Benton

1964-01-01

95

Cross-Serial Dependencies in Tagalog  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Cross-Serial Dependencies There are two salient linguistic uses of adjunction: for analyzing long-distance wh-movement (and related movement types) in many languages and for analyzing cross-serial dependencies (CSD) in Dutch and Swiss Ger- man. While the need for and the adequacy of adjunction to model wh-type movement have been questioned (Rambow and Vijay-Shanker, 1998; Rambow et al., 2001), CSD seems

Anna Maclachlan; Owen Rambow

96

Serial Interfacing for Embedded-Memory Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serial interfacing scheme in which several embedded memories share the built-in, self-test circuit is presented. For external testing, this approach requires only two serial pins for access to the data path. There is considerable savings in routing area, and fewer external pins are needed to test random-access memories with wide words, such as those in application-specific integrated circuits for

Benoit Nadeau-dostie; Allan Silburt; Vinod K. Agarwal

1990-01-01

97

Serial Juvenile Sex Offenders and Their Offenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the dearth of literature specifically on serial juvenile sex offenders, this chapter considers the findings of\\u000a research with juvenile sex offenders and juvenile repeat sex offenders with respect to what this might tell us about juvenile\\u000a serial sex offending and its investigation. The chapter reports on different types of juvenile sex offenders: those that offend\\u000a against younger

Jessica Woodhams; Clive Hollin; Ray Bull

98

Monsters Inc.: Serial killers and consumer culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial killing has become big business. Over the past 15 years, popular culture has been flooded by true-life crime stories, biographies, best-selling fiction, video games and television documentaries devoted to this subject. Cinema is the cultural space in which this phenomenon is perhaps most conspicuous. The Internet Movie Database (imdb.com) lists over 1000 films featuring serial killers and most of

Brian Jarvis

2007-01-01

99

Dilution jet mixing program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric tests were conducted to quantify the mixing of opposed rows of jets (two-sided injection) in a confined cross flow. Results show that jet penetrations for two sided injections are less than that for single-sided injections, but the jet spreading rates are faster for a given momentum ratio and orifice plate. Flow area convergence generally enhances mixing. Mixing characteristics with asymmetric and symmetric convergence are similar. For constant momentum ratio, the optimum S/H(0) with in-line injections is one half the optimum value for single sided injections. For staggered injections, the optimum S/H(0) is twice the optimum value for single-sided injection. The correlations developed predicted the temperature distributions within first order accuracy and provide a useful tool for predicting jet trajectory and temperature profiles in the dilution zone with two-sided injections.

Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Johnson, K.

1984-01-01

100

Serial Murder in Southeast Asia: Collecting and Preserving Serials in Changing Landscape.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper surveys the loss of important serials from and about Southeast Asia. At risk titles are described, including statistical serials, publications of regional presses, minority language magazines, science and technology journals, political and non-governmental organization publications, popular or mass press publications, women's magazines,…

Mitchell, Carol L.

101

Analyzing Current Serials in Virginia: An Application of the Ulrich's Serials Analysis System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

VIVA (the Virtual Library of Virginia) was one of the first subscribers to R. R. Bowker's Ulrich's Serials Analysis System (USAS). Creating a database that combined a union report of current serial subscriptions within most academic libraries in the state with the data elements present in Ulrich's made possible a comprehensive analysis designed…

Metz, Paul; Gasser, Sharon

2006-01-01

102

Estimation of the serial interval of influenza  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Estimates of the clinical-onset serial interval of human influenza infection (time between onset of symptoms in an index case and a secondary case) are used to inform public health policy and to construct mathematical models of influenza transmission. We estimate the serial interval of laboratory-confirmed influenza transmission in households. METHODS Index cases were recruited after reporting to a primary healthcare center with symptoms. Members of their households were followed up with repeated home visits. RESULTS Assuming a Weibull model and accounting for selection bias inherent in our field study design, we used symptom-onset times from 14 pairs of infector/infectee to estimate a mean serial interval of 3.6 days (95% confidence interval = 2.9–4.3 days), with standard deviation 1.6 days. CONCLUSION The household serial interval of influenza may be longer than previously estimated. Studies of the complete serial interval, based on transmission in all community contexts, are a priority.

Cowling, Benjamin J.; Fang, Vicky J.; Riley, Steven; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Leung, Gabriel M.

2011-01-01

103

Serial Expression Analysis: a web tool for the analysis of serial gene expression data  

PubMed Central

Serial transcriptomics experiments investigate the dynamics of gene expression changes associated with a quantitative variable such as time or dosage. The statistical analysis of these data implies the study of global and gene-specific expression trends, the identification of significant serial changes, the comparison of expression profiles and the assessment of transcriptional changes in terms of cellular processes. We have created the SEA (Serial Expression Analysis) suite to provide a complete web-based resource for the analysis of serial transcriptomics data. SEA offers five different algorithms based on univariate, multivariate and functional profiling strategies framed within a user-friendly interface and a project-oriented architecture to facilitate the analysis of serial gene expression data sets from different perspectives. SEA is available at sea.bioinfo.cipf.es.

Nueda, Maria Jose; Carbonell, Jose; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquin; Conesa, Ana

2010-01-01

104

Stochastic modeling of a serial killer.  

PubMed

We analyze the time pattern of the activity of a serial killer, who during 12 years had murdered 53 people. The plot of the cumulative number of murders as a function of time is of "Devil?s staircase" type. The distribution of the intervals between murders (step length) follows a power law with the exponent of 1.4. We propose a model according to which the serial killer commits murders when neuronal excitation in his brain exceeds certain threshold. We model this neural activity as a branching process, which in turn is approximated by a random walk. As the distribution of the random walk return times is a power law with the exponent 1.5, the distribution of the inter-murder intervals is thus explained. We illustrate analytical results by numerical simulation. Time pattern activity data from two other serial killers further substantiate our analysis. PMID:24721476

Simkin, M V; Roychowdhury, V P

2014-08-21

105

Stress in dilute suspensions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generally, two types of theory are used to describe the field equations for suspensions. The so-called postulated equations are based on the kinetic theory of mixtures, which logically should give reasonable equations for solutions. The basis for the use of such theory for suspensions is tenuous, though it at least gives a logical path for mathematical arguments. It has the disadvantage that it leads to a system of equations which is underdetermined, in a sense that can be made precise. On the other hand, the so-called averaging theory starts with a determined system, but the very process of averaging renders the resulting system underdetermined. A third type of theory is proposed in which the kinetic theory of gases is used to motivate continuum equations for the suspended particles. This entails an interpretation of the stress in the particles that is different from the usual one. Classical theory is used to describe the motion of the suspending medium. The result is a determined system for a dilute suspension. Extension of the theory to more concentrated systems is discussed.

Passman, Stephen L.

1989-01-01

106

Serial multiplier arrays for parallel computation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arrays of systolic serial-parallel multiplier elements are proposed as an alternative to conventional SIMD mesh serial adder arrays for applications that are multiplication intensive and require few stored operands. The design and operation of a number of multiplier and array configurations featuring locality of connection, modularity, and regularity of structure are discussed. A design methodology combining top-down and bottom-up techniques is described to facilitate development of custom high-performance CMOS multiplier element arrays as well as rapid synthesis of simulation models and semicustom prototype CMOS components. Finally, a differential version of NORA dynamic circuits requiring a single-phase uncomplemented clock signal introduced for this application.

Winters, Kel

1990-01-01

107

Extinction of diffusion flames burning diluted methane and diluted propane in diluted air  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical and experimental investigation of the extinction limits of counterflow diffusion flames burning methane and propane is outlined. A diffusion flame is stabilized between counterflowing streams of a fuel diluted with nitrogen and air diluted with nitrogen. Extinction limits for such flames were measured over a wide parametric range. Results for methane and propane were found to be in

I.K. Puri; K. Seshadri

1986-01-01

108

Iranian Vs. American Library Serial Selection Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay attempts to compare and contrast certain Iranian and American library serial selection policies. It assumes that many similarities exist between the selection policies of the two countries, but that special problems and contrasts exist in each one, also. The paper concentrates on the policies of two specific institutions, Drexel…

Harvey, John F.

109

Notes for Serials Cataloging. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes are indispensable to serials cataloging. Researchers, reference librarians, and catalogers regularly use notes on catalog records and, as the audience for these notes has expanded from the local library community to the global Internet community, the need for notes to be cogent, clear, and useful is greater than ever. This book is a…

Geer, Beverley, Ed.; Caraway, Beatrice L., Ed.

110

Supporting the Serial in the SERIOL Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is commonly assumed that orthographical lexical access in visual word recognition takes place in parallel, with all letters activated at the same time. In contrast, in the SERIOL model of letter-position encoding, letters fire sequentially (Whitney, 2001). I present further support for such seriality on several fronts. (1) The reasons that led…

Whitney, Carol

2008-01-01

111

Serial position effects in nonword repetition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research has emphasized the linkage between performance in immediate serial recall of lists, nonword repetition, and word learning. Recently, it has been reported that primacy and recency effects are obtained in repetition of individual syllables within nonwords (Gupta, in press). Five experiments examined whether such within-nonword primacy and recency effects are attributable to common sequencing mechanisms

Prahlad Gupta; John Lipinski; Brandon Abbs; Po-Han Lin

2005-01-01

112

"Serial" Effects in Parallel Models of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is now considerable evidence showing that the time to read a word out loud is influenced by an interaction between orthographic length and lexicality. Given that length effects are interpreted by advocates of dual-route models as evidence of serial processing this would seem to pose a serious challenge to models of single word reading which…

Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

2012-01-01

113

Cost Analysis of Monographs and Serials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two articles address the rising costs of monographs and serials in libraries and suggest strategies for coping with inflationary trends. Highlights include factors in price increases; gathering accurate data on the local budget; domestic and foreign price fluctuations; the increase in new journal titles; and publisher growth policies and…

Lynden, Frederick C.; And Others

1990-01-01

114

Serials in a Small College Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines specific issues in the administration of serials (publications issued in successive parts and intended to be continued indefinitely) as they have been addressed by a small academic library with budget constraints and limited personnel. Highlights include collection development, bibliographic control, acquisition, automation,…

Stagg, Deborah Bolton

1985-01-01

115

Serials Management: Adrift During a Sea Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies some of the significant changes underway within and outside libraries and analyzes their potential impact on research libraries. Explores issues important to serials managers. Discusses strategies for data gathering to support management decisions and outlines unresolved questions that await future developments or require additional…

Hurd, Julie M.

1999-01-01

116

Pneumatic micropumps with serially connected actuation chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a new pneumatic micropump featuring three membrane-enclosed air chambers with different volumes, such that serially connected actuation of these membranes can generate fluid movement. When compressed air fills the chambers, the membranes are pushed downward sequentially, resulting in the liquid in the underlying fluid channels being pumped forward peristaltically. Since the chambers are filled up sequentially with

Chun-Wei Huang; Song-Bin Huang; Gwo-Bin Lee

2006-01-01

117

Analysis of serial measurements in medical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In medical research data are often collected serially on subjects. The statistical analysis of such data is often inadequate in two ways: it may fail to settle clinically relevant questions and it may be statistically invalid. A commonly used method which compares groups at a series of time points, possibly with t tests, is flawed on both counts. There may,

J. N. S. Matthews; D. G. Altman; M. J. Campbell; P. Royston

1990-01-01

118

Exploring parallel algorithms having no serial analogues  

SciTech Connect

The ordering of data acquisitions in many computational problems is an artifact of algorithms developed for serial computers. Often these serial algorithms are highly parallel and thus are mapped directly onto a parallel processing system. This technique, however, does not fully exploit the additional opportunities provided by the system's parallelism. The design of optimal parallel algorithms requires new and different techniques and insights. Unfortunately, parallel performance can still be degraded even with optimal parallel algorithms that preserve the ordering of data access (that is, the data dependences between different computational code blocks) by synchronization primitives, such as locks, events, and barriers. Furthermore, additional decreases in performance are introduced by the various hardware/software components integrated to coordinate the particular parallel processing system. An alternative approach to the class of parallel iterative algorithms is to ignore the ordering of data accesses and allow the computational algorithm to execute asynchronously. These algorithms are referred to as chaotic algorithms and provide programming strategies that would otherwise be too cumbersome to implement and too inefficient to execute on a sequential processor. Although chaotic algorithms are difficult to analyze formally, the comparisons of their observed performance could lead to improved serial and deterministic (nonchaotic) parallel schemes. This paper will examine several chaotic iteration schemes and, based on their results, offer an alternative scheme that substantially improves the serial time to execute this algorithm. 11 refs., 11 figs.

Hiromoto, R.

1988-01-01

119

Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

120

Differential Serialization for Optimized SOAP Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SOAP protocol has emerged as a Web Service commu- nication standard, providing simplicity, robustness, and ex- tensibility. SOAP's relatively poor performance threatens to limit its usefulness, especially for high-performance scien- tic applications. The serialization of outgoing messages, which includes conversion of in-memory data types to XML- based string format and the packing of this data into mes- sage buffers,

Nayef Abu-ghazaleh; Michael J. Lewis; Madhusudhan Govindaraju

2004-01-01

121

Serial Deployment of Attention During Visual Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether objects are attended in serial or in parallel during a demanding visual search task. A component of the event-related potential waveform, the N2pc wave, was used as a continuous measure of the allocation of attention to possible targets in the search arrays. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the relative allocation of attention shifts rapidly, favoring one item

Geoffrey F. Woodman; Steven J. Luck

2003-01-01

122

Dilution refrigeration for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dilution refrigerators are presently used routinely in ground based applications where temperatures below 0.3 K are required. The operation of a conventional dilution refrigerator depends critically on the presence of gravity. To operate a dilution refrigerator in space many technical difficulties must be overcome. Some of the anticipated difficulties are identified in this paper and possible solutions are described. A single cycle refrigerator is described conceptually that uses forces other than gravity to function and the stringent constraints imposed on the design by requiring the refrigerator to function on the earth without using gravity are elaborated upon.

Israelsson, U. E.; Petrac, D.

1990-01-01

123

Serial ricinine levels in serum and urine after ricin intoxication.  

PubMed

Ricinine is an alkaloid present in the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) that can be used as a biomarker for ricin poisoning. Serial ricinine levels are reported in the serum and urine of a patient suffering from intentional ricin intoxication. The patient was brought to the hospital 4 h after injection and oral intake of a castor bean extract, but died 38 h later, despite intensive medical care. Ricinine was isolated from the samples by solid-phase extraction and quantitatively determined by isotopic dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ricinine level in serum declined from 33 to 23 ng/mL between 10 and 29 h post-exposure. Three urine samples collected from 12 to 41 h after ricin intoxication showed ricinine concentrations in the range of 20-58 ng/mL. The creatinine corrected values (21-30 µg/g) indicated a concentration-time profile with a maximum ricinine level in urine between 12 and 29 h after exposure. PMID:23592744

Røen, Bent Tore; Opstad, Aase Mari; Haavind, Anniken; Tønsager, Janne

2013-06-01

124

Sea Urchin Embryology: Sperm Dilution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lab directions for up to two 50 min periods and the last of the dilution labs. Includes set up information, materials, procedure, experimental design, things to observe, math possibilities, thought-provoking questions and an assessment.

PhD David Epel (Stanford U. Hopkins Marine Station)

2007-04-20

125

Sea Urchin Embryology: Simple Dilutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting from a known concentration students learn to use dilutions to determine the concentration of an unknown. The following skills are used in this lesson: 1. making dilutions 2. reading the meter on a simple homemade spectrophotometer 3. keeping careful laboratory records 4. graphing on linear graph paper 5. determining an unknown concentration from known 6. using a colored filter to enhance contrast and sensitivity

PhD David Epel (Stanford U. Hopkins Marine Station)

2006-12-20

126

Dilute acid hydrolysis of softwoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole tree chips obtained from softwood forest thinnings were converted to ethanol via a two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis\\u000a followed by yeast fermentation. The chips were first impregnated with dilute sulfuric acid, then pretreated in a steam explosion\\u000a reactor to hydrolyze, more than 90% of the hemicellulose and approx 10% of the cellulose. The hydrolysate was filtered and\\u000a washed with water

Quang A. Nguyen; Melvin P. Tucker; Fred A. Keller; Delicia A. Beaty; Kevin M. Connors; Fannie P. Eddy

1999-01-01

127

A Model of Serial Argument in Interpersonal Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While most scholars view argument as a single conversational event, the interaction can be seen as a serial episode that occurs and recurs in everyday life. This essay presents a model of serial argument with supporting data. (PD)

Trapp, Robert; Hoff, Nancy

1985-01-01

128

Magnetic Particle Recovery of Serial Numbers  

SciTech Connect

One method used by crime labs to recover obliterated serial numbers in steel firearms (ferrous samples) is the magnetic particle technique. The use of this method is predicated on the detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers after the visible stamp has been removed. Equipment specialized for this detection is not used in these attempts; a portable magnetic yoke used typically for flaw detection on large weldments or structures, along with dry visible magnetic powders, have been the tools of criminologists working in this area. Crime labs have reported low success rates using these tools [1, 2]. This is not surprising when one considers that little formal development has apparently evolved for use in such investigations since the publication of seminal work in this area some time ago [3]. The aim of this project is to investigate specific aspects of magnetic particle inspection for serial number recovery. This includes attempts to understand the magnetic characteristics of different steels that affect their performance in the test, such as varying results for carbon steels and alloy steels after different thermal and forming treatments. Also investigated are the effects of the nature of the sample magnetization (AC, rectified DC, and true DC) and the use of various detection media, such as visible powders and fluorescent sprays, on test outcome. Additionally, some aspects of surface preparation of firearm samples prior to number recovery were included in this work. The scope of this report includes a brief overview of the magnetic particle inspection method in general and its applications to forensic serial number recovery. This is followed by a description of how such investigations were simulated on lab samples, including a look at how the microstructure of a given steel will affect its performance in the test. Investigations into the serial number recovery in a series of ferromagnetic firearms (both steel and certain stainless steels) will then be presented. Recommendations for modifications to current approaches used in crime labs for serial number recovery, as well as suggestions for future work, conclude this document.

D. Utrata; M.J. Johnson

2003-10-01

129

Serial Publications Section. Collections and Services Division. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on the acquisition and cataloging of serials presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "CONSER (CONversion of SERials): What It Is and How It Works," a description by Barrie A. F. Burns (Canada) of a North American cooperative serials cataloging project and its origins, management,…

International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

130

Nineteenth-Century Catholic Serials and the Interest in Them.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines interest in 19th century Catholic serials through the historical work of various authors. Discusses the first Catholic serial, characteristics of early publications, accessing and preserving the early serial publications, relation of titles to each other and to the events of the time, and the need to identify and make available the…

Krieger, Michael T.

1996-01-01

131

Serials Cancellation Projects: Necessary Evil or Collection Assessment Opportunity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses serials cancellations; reviews library collection assessment policies and reasons for assessment studies; describes a survey of academic health sciences libraries that examined serials cancellation projects, including the decision-making process, regional or national cooperation, and the methodology used; and explains a generic serials…

Richards, Daniel T.; Prelec, Antonija

1992-01-01

132

Ritual and signature in serial sexual homicide.  

PubMed

Ritual and signature are fantasy-driven, repetitive crime scene behaviors that have been found to occur in serial sexual homicide. Notwithstanding numerous anecdotal case reports, ritual and signature have rarely been studied empirically. In a national sample of 38 offenders and their 162 victims, we examined behavioral and thematic consistency, as well as the evolution and uniqueness of these crime scene actions. The notion that serial sexual murderers engage in the same rituals and leave unique signatures at every scene was not supported by our data. In fact, the results suggest that the crime scene conduct of this group of offenders is fairly complex and varied. Implications of these findings for forensic assessments and criminal investigations are discussed. PMID:20542945

Schlesinger, Louis B; Kassen, Martin; Mesa, V Blair; Pinizzotto, Anthony J

2010-01-01

133

Testing Serial Independence against Time Irreversibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a unified framework for testing serial independence against time irreversibility. This framework extends the time reversibility tests of Ramsey and Rothman(1996, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking) and Chen, Chou, and Kuan(2000,Journal of Econometrics) in several important directions. It consists of a pair of original-series-based individual and portmanteau tests and the corresponding model diagnostic checks.

Yi-Ting Chen

2003-01-01

134

Droplet streams for serial crystallography of proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial diffraction of proteins requires an injection method to deliver analyte molecules—preferably uncharged, fully hydrated,\\u000a spatially oriented, and with high flux—into a focused probe beam of electrons or X-rays that is only a few tens of microns\\u000a in diameter. This work examines conventional Rayleigh sources and electrospray-assisted Rayleigh sources as to their suitability\\u000a for this task. A comparison is made

U. Weierstall; R. B. Doak; J. C. H. Spence; D. Starodub; D. Shapiro; P. Kennedy; J. Warner; G. G. Hembree; P. Fromme; H. N. Chapman

2008-01-01

135

When did (E)Books Become Serials?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This session explored how e-books are more serial-like than traditional printed books. The book “container” is eroding now that publishers supply abstracts, MARC records, and DOIs at the chapter level. Booksellers offer e-book packages that can be leased with annual renewal costs and options to trade content in and out. Libraries have to adjust workflow and budgets to handle monographic

Kim Armstrong; Bob Nardini; Peter McCracken; Rick Lugg; Kay G. Johnson

2009-01-01

136

Serial reversal learning in bumblebees (Bombus impatiens).  

PubMed

Bumblebees are capable of rapidly learning discriminations, but flexibility in bumblebee learning is less well understood. We tested bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) on a serial reversal learning task. A serial reversal task requires learning of an initial discrimination between two differentially rewarded stimuli, followed by multiple reversals of the reward contingency between stimuli. A reduction in errors with repeated reversals in a serial reversal task is an indicator of behavioural flexibility. Bees were housed in a large indoor environment and tested during foraging flights. Testing free-flying bees allowed for large numbers of trials and reversals. All bees were trained to perform a simultaneous discrimination between two colours for a nectar reward, followed by nine reversals of this discrimination. Results showed that bumblebees reduced errors and improved their performance across successive reversals. A reduction in perseverative errors was the major cause of the improvement in performance. Bees showed a slight increase in error rate in their final trials, perhaps as a consequence of increasing proactive interference, but proactive interference may also have contributed to the overall improvement in performance across reversals. Bumblebees are thus capable of behavioural flexibility comparable to that of other animals and may use proactive interference as a mechanism of behavioural flexibility in varying environments. PMID:24218120

Strang, Caroline G; Sherry, David F

2014-05-01

137

Managing and Coping with Electronic Serials: A Report from the ACRL New England Chapter Serials Interest Group's Fall 1996 Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a summary of the ACRL (Association of College and Research Libraries) New England Chapter Serials Interest Group's Fall 1996 program on electronic serials. The program's four principal speakers each dealt with a major aspect of electronic serial management: collection development, public services, cataloging, and systems. This report…

Gabriel, Joseph A.

1998-01-01

138

Superparamagnetism in Magnetically Dilute Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superparamagnetic behavior observed in magnetically dilute systems is discussed. The clusters that behave like superparamagnetic fine particles are ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic regions separated magnetically from the matrix, because these regions are surrounded by nonmagnetic atoms. The magnetic properties of dilute oxide systems such as: 0.9 ZnFe2O4-0.1 NiFe2O4; 0.9 FeTiO3-0.1 Fe2O3; and Y1.5Ca1.5Fe4.5Sn1.5O12 are better understood if we take into account

Yoshikazu Ishikawa

1964-01-01

139

Motorcycle Tailpipe Dilution CVS Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new exhaust dilution system has recently been designed and built for use in motorcycle testing at EPA. Prior to being put into use, it was necessary to determine if the new system was capable of meeting the requirements as described in section 86.509(b)...

1976-01-01

140

Serial Pulse Oximetry in Hepatopulmonary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim  The natural history of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is poorly characterized and how hypoxemia develops and progresses over\\u000a time is unclear. We evaluated oxygenation over time in advanced liver disease patients with and without HPS using serial pulse\\u000a oximetry.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data from a prospective cohort of patients evaluated for liver transplantation were analyzed. All patients with significant\\u000a cardiopulmonary disease were excluded and

Rajan Kochar; Rajasekhar Tanikella; Michael B. Fallon

2011-01-01

141

40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that you use a diluted exhaust flow meter that meets the specifications...for measuring diluted exhaust flow must meet the linearity verification...meters: (1) For constant-volume sampling (CVS) of the total flow of diluted exhaust, you...

2010-07-01

142

Concurrent Cognitive Processes in Rat Serial Pattern Learning: Item Memory, Serial Position, and Pattern Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments examined the processes mediating rat serial pattern learning for rule-consistent versus rule-violating pattern elements ("violation elements"). In all three experiments, rats were trained to press retractable levers in a circular array in a specific sequence for brain-stimulation reward (BSR). Experiment 1 examined the role of…

Muller, Melissa D.; Fountain, Stephen B.

2010-01-01

143

"Serial" effects in parallel models of reading  

PubMed Central

There is now considerable evidence showing that the time to read a word out loud is influenced by an interaction between orthographic length and lexicality. Given that length effects are interpreted by advocates of dual-route models as evidence of serial processing this would seem to pose a serious challenge to models of single word reading which postulate a common parallel processing mechanism for reading both words and nonwords (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; Rastle, Havelka, Wydell, Coltheart, & Besner, 2009). However, an alternative explanation of these data is that visual processes outside the scope of existing parallel models are responsible for generating the word-length related phenomena (Seidenberg & Plaut, 1998). Here we demonstrate that a parallel model of single word reading can account for the differential word-length effects found in the naming latencies of words and nonwords, provided that it includes a mapping from visual to orthographic representations, and that the nature of those orthographic representations are not preconstrained. The model can also simulate other supposedly “serial” effects. The overall findings were consistent with the view that visual processing contributes substantially to the word-length effects in normal reading and provided evidence to support the single-route theory which assumes words and nonwords are processed in parallel by a common mechanism.

Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

2012-01-01

144

Breaking the indexing ambiguity in serial crystallography.  

PubMed

In serial crystallography, a very incomplete partial data set is obtained from each diffraction experiment (a `snapshot'). In some space groups, an indexing ambiguity exists which requires that the indexing mode of each snapshot needs to be established with respect to a reference data set. In the absence of such re-indexing information, crystallographers have thus far resorted to a straight merging of all snapshots, yielding a perfectly twinned data set of higher symmetry which is poorly suited for structure solution and refinement. Here, two algorithms have been designed for assembling complete data sets by clustering those snapshots that are indexed in the same way, and they have been tested using 15,445 snapshots from photosystem I [Chapman et al. (2011), Nature (London), 470, 73-77] and with noisy model data. The results of the clustering are unambiguous and enabled the construction of complete data sets in the correct space group P63 instead of (twinned) P6322 that researchers have been forced to use previously in such cases of indexing ambiguity. The algorithms thus extend the applicability and reach of serial crystallography. PMID:24419383

Brehm, Wolfgang; Diederichs, Kay

2014-01-01

145

Inhibition of CD203c membrane up-regulation in human basophils by high dilutions of histamine: a controlled replication study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective   Previous research suggests that human basophil activation may be inhibited by histamine even at extremely low doses (high\\u000a dilutions). However, uncertainties about the nature of the phenomenon and its reproducibility mean that further, rigorously\\u000a controlled studies are necessary.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods   Serial 1:100 (v:v) histamine dilutions (centesimal dilutions, C) and water controls were tested on human basophil responsiveness\\u000a to anti-IgE antibodies,

Salvatore Chirumbolo; Maurizio Brizzi; Riccardo Ortolani; Antonio Vella; Paolo Bellavite

2009-01-01

146

New digit-serial implementations of stack filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose several new ways to find the tradeoff between throughput and complexity of stack filter implementations using digit-serial processing. First, we consider the problem in general for lexicographic representations of input data and suggest a digit-serial procedure to calculate the stack filter output. This procedure is a generalization of the bit-serial algorithm for stack filters (Chen, 1989) and we

J. Astola; D. Akopian; O. Vainio; S. Agaian

1997-01-01

147

CAMAC serial highway interface for the LSI-11  

SciTech Connect

A CAMAC Serial Highway Interface has been designed for the Local Control and Instrumentation System of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility. There are over 50 distinguishable systems in the facility, each of which consists of the LSI-11 computer, fiber optic communication links, and the CAMAC system. The LSI-11 computer includes a 32k memory, serial modem interface and the CAMAC Serial Highway Interface.

Lau, N.H.

1980-04-03

148

Malignant sex and aggression: an overview of serial sexual homicide.  

PubMed

Serial murderers have attracted considerable attention in the popular press and criminal justice field, but scientific literature about these individuals is limited. This article provides an overview, from a psychiatric perspective, of serial sexual homicide, one type of serial killing. Characteristics of this type of murder and of these offenders are discussed. Defining qualities and diagnoses applicable to serial sexual killers are reviewed. Various etiologic theories are discussed, with emphasis on the role of fantasy and psychodynamic explanations. Governmental agencies involved in combating this type of crime, along with the role of mental health professionals in criminal profiling, are presented. Finally, the authors explore the reaction of society to this phenomenon. PMID:8054674

Myers, W C; Reccoppa, L; Burton, K; McElroy, R

1993-01-01

149

Single-chip computer and serial communication of GPRS modem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communication between PC and Modem is common, while communication between single-chip computer and Modem is rare. This article will elaborate serial communication between single-chip computer and GPRS modem. The wide use of serial communication will enable various transmission units to connect as one organically and exchange data and information in safe and reliable manner. However, since signal of each transmission channel is different, the serial port in use should be various. Therefore, in order to realize communication among units, it is necessary to involve serial port conversion among each unit.

Li, Baohong

2013-03-01

150

RF stacking without emittance dilution  

SciTech Connect

A long-established technique for accumulating high current in a storage ring is to inject additional beam off-momentum and move it into the main beam stack by rf acceleration. This procedure necessarily dilutes the longitudinal phase space density, because the rf perturbs the stack as the new beam approaches closely in momentum. For accumulators that use beam cooling to obtain a high phase space density, this perturbation may result in an unacceptable performance limitation. Using broadband rf to establish and manipulate azimuthal barriers to the motion of the stack and injected beam permits practically dilution-free longitudinal phase space stacking. The concept is described and illustrated with a detailed example which pertains to the Fermilab Recycler ring.

J. A. MacLachlan

2000-06-23

151

Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction  

PubMed Central

Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

2013-01-01

152

BASIC RESEARCH ON HIGH DILUTION EFFECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic research on high dilution effects started with homeopathic therapy. So many models have been tested that we have tried to classify them according to the general concept of regulation. Firstly, succussed dilutions must be separated from unsuccussed very low doses from a physical point of view. This leads us to discuss the validity of the controls in high dilution

MADELEINE BASTIDE

153

Irish Serials in the Boston College Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Boston College Library system has online a searchable database of its noted Irish Serials collection. Researchers can now browse and search the list of over 1,400 newspapers, magazines, and journals that originate from or pertain to Ireland before deciding on whether to take a trip to Boston. The Libraries' holdings "range in date from 1685 to the present and cover Irish history, literature, politics, art, archaeology, economics, genealogy, music, and law." Users can search by title keyword, date range, or microform series. Search returns provide complete holdings information and a legend denoting microfiche or microform series. For example, NIPL denotes the Northern Ireland Political Literature series and IPRN (POST CW REP.) the Post Civil War Republican/Fianna Fail series.

154

Serial murder by children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Six cases of serial murder by children and adolescents spanning the past 150 years are presented. The available literature pertaining to this area is reviewed. Each of these six offenders committed sexually homicidal behavior as demonstrated by their expression of erotic interest or engagement in overt sexual behavior at the crime scenes. From a DSM-IV-TR perspective they all exhibited signs of sexual sadism, and their crime characteristics reflected behavior of a more predatory than affective nature. Hands on methods of killing were preferred, i.e., cutting, stabbing, or strangulation. These crimes are extremely rare. Case reports in this area are encouraged to advance our knowledge of these youths. PMID:15211557

Myers, Wade C

2004-01-01

155

Comparison of the E test and a proportion dilution method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium avium complex.  

PubMed

The newly developed E test was compared with an extended 1% proportion dilution method for determining the susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains to amikacin, streptomycin, fusidic acid, rifampicin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and fleroxacin. For all antibiotics tested except clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin, no more than one strain gave a different susceptibility result with the two methods. The discrepant results occurred near the chosen breakpoint concentration of clarithromycin and outside the concentration range of the E test for ciprofloxacin. For the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values obtained within the range of antibiotic concentrations tested, there was good correlation between the two methods; the MICs differed by more than one two-fold dilution in no more than two strains per antibiotic. It is concluded that the E test is suitable for susceptibility testing of MAC. PMID:8636943

Fabry, W; Schmid, E N; Ansorg, R

1996-03-01

156

Evaluation of a diet dilution technique for measuring the response of broiler chickens to increasing concentrations of lysine  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Three experiments were conducted on male broiler chickens between one and three weeks of age to determine their response to dietary lysine concentrations.2. Serial dilutions of a summit diet shown to be first?limiting in lysine were fed in all experiments. The balance between amino acids in these diets was maintained within narrow limits.3. Intake of the most?limiting amino acid

R. M. Gous; T. R. Morris

1985-01-01

157

U.S. Serial Services Price Index for 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1997 U.S. Serials Services Price Index, produced by the Library Materials Price Index Committee of the American Library Association's Association for Library Collections and Technical Services. Finds a 3.9% increase over 1996. Includes eight tables covering U.S. Serial Services, business, general and humanities, law, science and…

Chaffin, Nancy J.

1997-01-01

158

Serial position effects in implicit and explicit tests of memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of serial position at study on implicit and explicit tests of memory were investigated. Both primacy and recency effects were observed in implicit tests of word-stem completion. These effects, however, were transient. No serial position effects were found in the second half of testing (Experiments 1 and 3) or when testing followed a 1-min, filled delay (Experiment 2).

Felicia B. Gershberg; Arthur P. Shimamura

1994-01-01

159

Unified formulation of dynamics for serial rigid multibody systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a growing interest in the development of new and efficient algorithms for multibody dynamics in recent years. Serial rigid multibody systems form the basic subcomponents of general multibody systems, and a variety of algorithms to solve the serial chain forward dynamics problem have been proposed. In this paper, the economy of representation and analysis tools provided by

Abhinandan Jain

1991-01-01

160

Monitoring Serial Communications in Microcontroller Based Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more microcontrollers are embedded in a large area of products from industrial to domestic domains. A good example is the automobile, a modern one containing tens of microcontrollers. As their number increased the communication between them became necessary. The serial solution was preferred and a lot of serial buses and protocols were developed optimizing different parameters of the

M. Popal; A. S. Popa; V. Cretu; M. Micea

2006-01-01

161

The Designing of Serial Communication Based on RS232  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Paper discussed the principle of serial communication mainly, proposed the design method based on RS232, designed the hard circuit of serial communication, and realized the programming to PC Microcomputer and single chip microcomputer by using assembly language and C++ Builder separately.

Xinghai Han; Xiangxin Kong

2010-01-01

162

List Onset and Isolation in Continuous Serial Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment attempted to obtain an estimate of perceptual isolation effects when the isolated item was the only distinctive feature in the list and to obtain data on continuous serial learning in order that isolation and serial-position effects could be compared directly. (Author/RK)

Lippman, Louis G.

1974-01-01

163

Are Electronic Serials Helping or Hindering Academic Libraries?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As academic libraries move toward the electronic frontier for their serial subscriptions, there are several issues to be considered. This paper intends to outline the advantages and disadvantages with respect to electronic and paper serials, address selection criteria, and describe our practice in coping with these issues at the Leddy Library of…

Wallenius, Leila I. T.

2007-01-01

164

PDA Serials: Practical and Policy Issues for Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personal Digital Assistant serials are not just a subset of electronic serials from an acquisitions/collection development point of view because of their total dependence on patron-owned technology. Even if viewed as a "free" resource there are issues of expense and effort involved in gathering, classifying, and providing access and awareness of…

Good, Stephen

2007-01-01

165

Spatial clustering and hierarchical coding in immediate serial recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments are reported that demonstrate the benefits of clustering by spatial proximity in spatial serial recall and provide support for the notion that hierarchical coding underpins the retention of clustered sequences in spatial working memory. Sequences segregated by spatial clusters increased serial recall performance at different levels of sequence length in a variation of the Corsi test and produced

Carlo De Lillo; Valerie E. Lesk

2010-01-01

166

ISOLATION AND SERIAL CULTIVATION OF RABBIT SKIN EPITHELIAL CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to isolate and to serially cultivate rabbit skin epithelial cells from adult trunk skin has been developed. Using a collagen gel as substrate and trypsin and EDTA to dissociate cells, nonproliferative primary cultures of rabbit cells may be converted to proliferative populations, and at least 3 serial passages achieved. In the presence of large concentrations of methotrexate (up

Su-Chin Liu; Marvin Karasek

1978-01-01

167

Seriation: Development of serial order in free recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

80 undergraduates were required to recall lists of words presented in an incremental manner, i.e., by adding new items to a list on each trial. Word order was either constant, serial, or random, and new words were added at different loci of the list. Incremented lists produced just as adequate recall as traditional lists. Serial lists were acquired more efficiently

George Mandler; Peter J. Dean

1969-01-01

168

Forgetting in Immediate Serial Recall: Decay, Temporal Distinctiveness, or Interference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively.…

Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

2008-01-01

169

Serial magnetization transfer imaging in acute optic neuritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In serial studies of multiple sclerosis lesions, reduc- tions in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) are thought to be due to demyelination and axonal loss, with later rises due to remyelination. This study fol- lowed serial changes in MTR in acute optic neuritis in combination with clinical and electrophysiological measurements to determine if the MTR changes over time mirror the

S. J. Hickman; A. T. Toosy; S. J. Jones; D. R. Altmann; K. A. Miszkiel; D. G. MacManus; G. J. Barker; G. T. Plant; A. J. Thompson; D. H. Miller

2004-01-01

170

Building a Comprehensive Serials Decision Database at Virginia Tech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of library purchasing decisions regarding serials focuses on efforts at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to compile numerous measures into a comprehensive database for decision support. Discusses a faculty survey of serials needs and future implications. (Author/LRW)

Metz, Paul; Cosgriff, John

2000-01-01

171

Retrospective Revaluation Effects Following Serial Compound Training and Target Extinction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a conditioned suppression task, two experiments examined retrospective revaluation effects after serial compound training in a release from overshadowing design. In Experiment 1, serial X [right arrow] A+ training produced suppression to target A, which was enhanced when preceded by feature X, whereas X by itself elicited no suppression.…

Effting, Marieke; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

2010-01-01

172

Reconstructing Genealogies of Serial Samples Under the Assumption of a Molecular Clock Using Serial-Sample UPGMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction of evolutionary relationships from noncontemporaneous molecular samples provides a new challenge for phylogenetic reconstruction methods. With recent biotechnological advances there has been an increase in molecular sequencing throughput, and the potential to obtain serial samples of sequences from populations, including rapidly evolving pathogens, is fast being realized. A new method called the serial-sample unweighted pair grouping method with arithmetic

Alexei Drummond; Allen G. Rodrigo

173

Switch for serial or parallel communication networks  

DOEpatents

A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination. 9 figs.

Crosette, D.B.

1994-07-19

174

Switch for serial or parallel communication networks  

DOEpatents

A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination.

Crosette, Dario B. (DeSoto, TX)

1994-01-01

175

Pneumatic micropumps with serially connected actuation chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a new pneumatic micropump featuring three membrane-enclosed air chambers with different volumes, such that serially connected actuation of these membranes can generate fluid movement. When compressed air fills the chambers, the membranes are pushed downward sequentially, resulting in the liquid in the underlying fluid channels being pumped forward peristaltically. Since the chambers are filled up sequentially with compressed air, from the smallest to largest chamber, this time delay generates a peristaltic motion in the membranes and forces the liquids to flow only along one direction. The pneumatic micropump is made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using soft lithography techniques. When compared with other pneumatic micropumps that usually require at least three electromagnetic valves (EMV), this new micropump can be operated by using a single EMV. Experimental results show that the micropump provides good performance even at low flow rates. The back pressure of the pneumatic micropump is measured at a fixed peak frequency to demonstrate the functionality of the micropump. The optimum operating conditions and geometric parameters of the micropump are systematically explored. A maximum flow of 108 µl min-1 is obtained at a driving frequency of 10 Hz and an air pressure of 25 psi (172.4 kPa) when a membrane with a thickness of 80 µm and a microchannel with a width of 500 µm are tested. The development of these micropumps could be crucial for automatic miniature biomedical and chemical analysis systems.

Huang, Chun-Wei; Huang, Song-Bin; Lee, Gwo-Bin

2006-11-01

176

A Rising Sense of Urgency: The Year's Work in Serials, 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Review of the 1991 literature on serials discusses publishing and scholarly communication; subject bibliographies; acquisitions; pricing; evaluation and use studies; electronic serials; cataloging, classification, and shelf arrangement; indexing and content analysis; automated serials control; preservation; professional issues; union catalogs; and…

Riemer, John J.

1992-01-01

177

Charge-coupled-device parallel-to-serial converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A CCD parallel-to-serial converter comprising two successions of charge transfer stages, recurrently side-loaded with respective ones of parallelly supplied charge packets, then serially unloaded by time-interleaved respective shift register operations. The charge packets converted to time-division-multiplexed serial form are supplied to a shared electrometer, and the electrometer response is de-multiplexed. Preferably, shift register operations are carried forward concurrently at the same rate, but with the final charge transfer stages clocked in phases staggered in time.

Tower, John R. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

178

An endogenous distributed model of ordering in serial recall.  

PubMed

We introduce a distributed model of memory for serial order, called SOB, that produces ordered serial recall by relying on encoding and retrieval processes that are endogenous to the model. SOB explains the basic shape of the serial position curve, the pattern of errors during recall (including the balance between transpositions, omissions, intrusions, and erroneous repetitions), the effects of list length on the distribution of errors, the overall level of recall and response latency, and the effects of natural language frequency on recall performance. In addition, contrary to several recent suggestions, SOB demonstrates that distributed representations can support unambiguous recall, selective response suppression, and novelty-sensitive encoding. PMID:12026954

Farrell, Simon; Lewandowsky, Stephan

2002-03-01

179

Band anticrossing in dilute nitrides  

SciTech Connect

Alloying III-V compounds with small amounts of nitrogen leads to dramatic reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy in the resulting dilute nitride alloys. The effect originates from an anti-crossing interaction between the extended conduction-band states and localized N states. The interaction splits the conduction band into two nonparabolic subbands. The downward shift of the lower conduction subband edge is responsible for the N-induced reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy. The changes in the conduction band structure result in significant increase in electron effective mass and decrease in the electron mobility, and lead to a large enhance of the maximum doping level in GaInNAs doped with group VI donors. In addition, a striking asymmetry in the electrical activation of group IV and group VI donors can be attributed to mutual passivation process through formation of the nearest neighbor group-IV donor nitrogen pairs.

Shan, W.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.

2003-12-23

180

A compact rotating dilution refrigerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and performance of a new rotating dilution refrigerator that will primarily be used for investigating the dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid 4He. All equipment required to operate the refrigerator and perform experimental measurements is mounted on two synchronously driven, but mechanically decoupled, rotating carousels. The design allows for relative simplicity of operation and maintenance and occupies a minimal amount of space in the laboratory. Only two connections between the laboratory and rotating frames are required for the transmission of electrical power and helium gas recovery. Measurements on the stability of rotation show that rotation is smooth to around 10-3 rad s-1 up to angular velocities in excess of 2.5 rad s-1. The behavior of a high-Q mechanical resonator during rapid changes in rotation has also been investigated.

Fear, M. J.; Walmsley, P. M.; Chorlton, D. A.; Zmeev, D. E.; Gillott, S. J.; Sellers, M. C.; Richardson, P. P.; Agrawal, H.; Batey, G.; Golov, A. I.

2013-10-01

181

Residual Resistivity of Dilute Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The residual resistivity for 156 dilute alloys of 19 hosts of different groups of the periodic table has been studied on the basis of the single parametric model potential formalism. Ashcroft's empty core model (EMC) potential is explored for the first time with five different local field correction functions, viz, Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F), and Sarkar et al. (S) to investigate the effect of the exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. The comparison of the presently computed outcomes with the available theoretical and experimental data is highly encouraging. The investigation of residual resistivity is found to be quite sensitive to the selection of local field correction function, showing a significant variation with the change in the function.

Vora, Aditya M.

182

Dilute-Acid Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, treatment of lignocellulosic biomass with dilute sulfuric acid has been primarily used as a means of hemicellulose\\u000a hydrolysis and pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. A significant advancement has also been made in the area\\u000a of dilute acid hydrolysis of cellulose. An overview of reactor theory as it applies to the dilute acid hydrolysis and recent\\u000a developments

Y. Y. Lee; Prashant Iyer; R. W. Torget

183

Optical serial sectioned Chlorophyll a microstructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An underwater serial sectioning tomography technique is shown capable of determining three-dimensional Chlorophyll a (Chl a) microstructure in phytoplankton distributions. The technique involves scanning a 457-nm illumination plane through a range of distances parallel to the imaging plane of a digital CCD camera. Images of induced fluorescence at 685 nm in the sequentially illuminated planes are recorded. A theoretical model of the imaging process in the form of i = ln c + Ac + x shows that the image i is a function of a spatially varying c (Chl a) dependent absorption component A and a spatially invariant attenuation component x. A numerical inverse method, incorporating an environmentally dependent calibration constant, is used to calculate Chl a values from the image intensities for three-dimensional presentation. A stable reconstruction, not affected by noise-induced error propagation, is demonstrated. Laboratory testing of a prototype system has shown that Chl a concentrations from 0.1 to 2.0 mg Chl a m-3 at a 0.1 mg Chl a m-3 resolution can be determined. The limiting factor in the imaging process is the rapid attenuation of the fluoresced 685-nm light which determines the system optical depth ?. With 0.1 mg Chl a m-3 as a minimum, ? = 0.97. At this ? and c(685)?0.7 m-1, a 1 m3 volume of 0.1 mg Chl a m-3 can be imaged with a spatial resolution of 1 cm3. At higher Chl a levels, larger values of ? permit larger volumes to be imaged. The remote sensing aspect of this underwater tomography technique permits in situ Chl a microstructure information to be obtained without disturbing the naturally occurring phytoplankton distributions, thus providing a new mechanism for microscale biological and physical oceanographic investigation.

Palowitch, Andrew W.; Jaffe, Jules S.

1995-07-01

184

List of Serials Indexed for Online Users, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is designed to provide complete bibliographic information on serials and congress proceedings cited in three MEDLARS files: MEDLINE (including the backfiles), Health Planning and Administration, and POPLINE. The publication contains a listing f...

1987-01-01

185

Electron transport through silicon serial triple quantum dots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the electron transport through silicon serial triple quantum dots (TQDs) formed effectively in a lithographically-defined multiple quantum dot system on a silicon-on-insulator substrate at a temperature of 4.2K. Our serial TQDs are composed of two lithographically-patterned QDs and another one in-between formed by stress during the pattern-dependent oxidation process. The TQDs formation is confirmed by equivalent circuit simulations,

Gento Yamahata; Yoshishige Tsuchiya; Hiroshi Mizuta; Ken Uchida; Shunri Oda

2009-01-01

186

The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Participants engaged in 2 picture-judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content (concrete words in Experiment 1 and 3; nonwords in Experiments

Daniel J. Acheson; Maryellen C. MacDonald; Bradley R. Postle

2011-01-01

187

Three more semantic serial position functions and a SIMPLE explanation.  

PubMed

There are innumerable demonstrations of serial position functions-with characteristic primacy and recency effects-in episodic tasks, but there are only a handful of such demonstrations in semantic memory tasks, and those demonstrations have used only two types of stimuli. Here, we provide three more examples of serial position functions when recalling from semantic memory. Participants were asked to reconstruct the order of (1) two cartoon theme song lyrics, (2) the seven Harry Potter books, and (3) two sets of movies, and all three demonstrations yielded conventional-looking serial position functions with primacy and recency effects. The data were well-fit by SIMPLE, a local distinctiveness model of memory that was originally designed to account for serial position effects in short- and long-term episodic memory. According to SIMPLE, serial position functions in both episodic and semantic memory tasks arise from the same type of processing: Items that are more separated from their close neighbors in psychological space at the time of recall will be better remembered. We argue that currently available evidence suggests that serial position functions observed when recalling items that are presumably in semantic memory arise because of the same processes as those observed when recalling items that are presumably in episodic memory. PMID:23263860

Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

2013-05-01

188

Dilute Oxygen Combustion. Phase 3 Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total o...

M. F. Riley

2000-01-01

189

Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu\\/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from

Riley; Michael F

2000-01-01

190

Dilute Oxygen Combustion; Phase I Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting

H. M. Ryan; M. F. Riley; H. Kobayashi

1997-01-01

191

Dilute Oxygen Combustion; Phase 3 Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu\\/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from

M. F. Riley; H. M. Ryan

2000-01-01

192

Dilute Oxygen Combustion; Phase 2 Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting

H. M. Ryan; M. F. Riley; H. Kobayashi

2005-01-01

193

EPS dilution after SEOs and earnings management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Firms are concerned about earnings per share (EPS) dilution after equity issues. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether firms manage upward their discretionary accruals around seasoned equity offerings (SEOs) to mitigate the impact of dilution on reported earnings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors employ adjusted discretionary accruals from cash flow statements, normalized by the average common

Hui Di; Dalia Marciukaityte; Eugenie A. Goodwin

2012-01-01

194

Atmospheric dilution of fume hood exhaust gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guidelines are proposed for the design of fume hood exhaust systems such that sufficient atmospheric dilution is obtained to prevent unacceptable contamination of fresh air intakes. An empirical design criterion, which has been employed successfully at a number of large pharmaceutical research laboratories, is presented. The literature on the calculation of atmospheric dilution near buildings is reviewed, and suggestions are

JAMES HALITSKY

1982-01-01

195

Total time hypothesis in low-meaningful serial learning: Task, age and verbalization instructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate of studying consonant-vowel-consonant items was factorially combined with task (serial or modified serial learning), age (adult or child), and verbalization instructions (nonverbalized or verbalized). Rate had no effect on number correct. Verbalization and modified serial learning impeded learning, and verbalization influenced the serial position curve.

Elaine C. Koffman; Roy B. Weinstock

1974-01-01

196

Annual Survey of Serials Collection Assessment Programs, Practices, and Policies in Academic Libraries--1991-1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a survey of academic libraries that explored serials collection assessment. Highlights include serials budget allocations; serials cancellation projects; changes in ratio of allocation by subject area; use of computers for serials collection assessment; use of vendors, especially for statistics; and future plans for collection…

Alexander, Adrian W.; Smith, James L.

1992-01-01

197

Starting from Scratch: The Decisions, Policies, and Procedures behind Central Piedmont Community College Libraries' Serials Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Central Piedmont Community College Libraries moved from a separately maintained periodicals holdings list to a fully-integrated serials module. Establishing the serials module from scratch required the library to make a series of interrelated decisions beyond the realm of serials management and control. The implications of the serials module…

Arnold, Jennifer

2004-01-01

198

Hardware Implementation of Serially Concatenated PPM Decoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype decoder for a serially concatenated pulse position modulation (SCPPM) code has been implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). At the time of this reporting, this is the first known hardware SCPPM decoder. The SCPPM coding scheme, conceived for free-space optical communications with both deep-space and terrestrial applications in mind, is an improvement of several dB over the conventional Reed-Solomon PPM scheme. The design of the FPGA SCPPM decoder is based on a turbo decoding algorithm that requires relatively low computational complexity while delivering error-rate performance within approximately 1 dB of channel capacity. The SCPPM encoder consists of an outer convolutional encoder, an interleaver, an accumulator, and an inner modulation encoder (more precisely, a mapping of bits to PPM symbols). Each code is describable by a trellis (a finite directed graph). The SCPPM decoder consists of an inner soft-in-soft-out (SISO) module, a de-interleaver, an outer SISO module, and an interleaver connected in a loop (see figure). Each SISO module applies the Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR) algorithm to compute a-posteriori bit log-likelihood ratios (LLRs) from apriori LLRs by traversing the code trellis in forward and backward directions. The SISO modules iteratively refine the LLRs by passing the estimates between one another much like the working of a turbine engine. Extrinsic information (the difference between the a-posteriori and a-priori LLRs) is exchanged rather than the a-posteriori LLRs to minimize undesired feedback. All computations are performed in the logarithmic domain, wherein multiplications are translated into additions, thereby reducing complexity and sensitivity to fixed-point implementation roundoff errors. To lower the required memory for storing channel likelihood data and the amounts of data transfer between the decoder and the receiver, one can discard the majority of channel likelihoods, using only the remainder in operation of the decoder. This is accomplished in the receiver by transmitting only a subset consisting of the likelihoods that correspond to time slots containing the largest numbers of observed photons during each PPM symbol period. The assumed number of observed photons in the remaining time slots is set to the mean of a noise slot. In low background noise, the selection of a small subset in this manner results in only negligible loss. Other features of the decoder design to reduce complexity and increase speed include (1) quantization of metrics in an efficient procedure chosen to incur no more than a small performance loss and (2) the use of the max-star function that allows sum of exponentials to be computed by simple operations that involve only an addition, a subtraction, and a table lookup. Another prominent feature of the design is a provision for access to interleaver and de-interleaver memory in a single clock cycle, eliminating the multiple clock-cycle latency characteristic of prior interleaver and de-interleaver designs.

Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Barsoum, Maged; Cheng, Michael; Nakashima, Michael

2009-01-01

199

The relationship between serial sexual murder and autoerotic asphyxiation.  

PubMed

This case series documents and examines the association between autoerotic asphyxiation, sadomasochism, and serial sexual murderers. Autoerotic asphyxiation, along with other paraphilias found in this population, is reviewed. Five cases of serial sexual killers who engaged in autoerotic asphyxiation were identified worldwide: four from the United States and one from Russia. Case reports for each are provided. All (100%) were found to have sexual sadism in addition to autoerotic asphyxiation. Furthermore, two (40%) had bondage fetishism, and two (40%) had transvestic fetishism, consistent with these paraphilias co-occurring in those with autoerotic asphyxiation. Overall the group averaged 4.0 lifetime paraphilias. Some possible relationships were observed between the offenders' paraphilic orientation and their modus operandi, e.g., all of these serial killers strangled victims-suggesting an association between their sadistic and asphyxiative paraphilic interests. The overlap of seemingly polar opposite paraphilias in this sample--sexual sadism and autoerotic asphyxiation--is explored from a historical and clinical perspective. Multiple commonalities shared between these five offenders and serial sexual murderers in general are addressed. A primary limitation of this study is its small sample size and empirical basis; the results may not be generalizable beyond the sample. The findings from this study support the supposition that crime scene behaviors often reflect paraphilic disturbances in those who commit serial sexual homicides. PMID:17980531

Myers, Wade C; Bukhanovskiy, Alexandr; Justen, Elle; Morton, Robert J; Tilley, John; Adams, Kenneth; Vandagriff, Virgil L; Hazelwood, Robert R

2008-04-01

200

Genetic programming and serial processing for time series classification.  

PubMed

This work describes an approach devised by the authors for time series classification. In our approach genetic programming is used in combination with a serial processing of data, where the last output is the result of the classification. The use of genetic programming for classification, although still a field where more research in needed, is not new. However, the application of genetic programming to classification tasks is normally done by considering the input data as a feature vector. That is, to the best of our knowledge, there are not examples in the genetic programming literature of approaches where the time series data are processed serially and the last output is considered as the classification result. The serial processing approach presented here fills a gap in the existing literature. This approach was tested in three different problems. Two of them are real world problems whose data were gathered for online or conference competitions. As there are published results of these two problems this gives us the chance to compare the performance of our approach against top performing methods. The serial processing of data in combination with genetic programming obtained competitive results in both competitions, showing its potential for solving time series classification problems. The main advantage of our serial processing approach is that it can easily handle very large datasets. PMID:24032750

Alfaro-Cid, Eva; Sharman, Ken; Esparcia-Alcázar, Anna I

2014-01-01

201

Evaluation of bitterness in enzymatic hydrolysates of soy protein isolate by taste dilution analysis.  

PubMed

Although enzymatic hydrolysates of soy protein isolate (SPI) have physiological functionality, partially hydrolyzed SPI exhibits bitter taste depending on proteases and degree of hydrolysis (DH). To determine proteolysis conditions for SPI, it is important to evaluate bitterness during enzymatic hydrolysis. Taste dilution analysis (TDA) has been developed for the screening technique of taste-active compounds in foods. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate bitterness of enzyme-hydrolyzed SPI by TDA and to compare bitterness of SPI hydrolysates with respect to kinds of proteases and DH. SPI was hydrolyzed at 50 degrees C and pH 6.8 to 7.1 to obtain various DH with commercial proteases (flavourzyme, alcalase, neutrase, protamex, papain, and bromelain) at E/S ratios of 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. The DH of enzymatic hydrolysates was measured by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid method. The bitterness of enzymatic hydrolysates was evaluated by TDA, which is based on threshold detection in serially diluted samples. Taste dilution (TD) factor was defined as the dilution at which a taste difference between the diluted sample and 2 blanks could be detected. As DH increased, the bitterness increased for all proteases evaluated. Alcalase showed the highest TD factor at the same DH, followed by neutrase. Flavourzyme showed the lowest TD factor at the entire DH ranges. At the DH of 10%, TD factor of hydrolysate by flavourzyme was 0 whereas those by protamex and alcalase were 4 and 16, respectively. These results suggest that TDA could be applied for the alternative of bitterness evaluation to the hedonic scale sensory evaluation. PMID:18211368

Seo, W H; Lee, H G; Baek, H H

2008-01-01

202

Energy data base. Serial titles with ISSN listing  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is the first revision of DOE/TIC-4579 to include the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for journals. The TIC journal authority was established to bring about conformity in citing the approximately 16,000 titles contained in this authority. It can prove to be a valuable tool in establishing the precise journal by ISSN and CODEN indication, especially for journals with the same title published in different locations. Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is comprised of two parts. Part 1 is an alphabetical listing by full title of the publication and also includes abbreviated title, CODEN, ISSN, coverage code, and country code. Part 2 is an ISSN-title correlation arranged in numeric order by ISSN and also includes the CODEN and full title.

Hendricks, P.L. (ed.)

1984-03-01

203

Serial fetal MRI for the diagnosis of Aicardi syndrome.  

PubMed

Aicardi syndrome (AS) is defined by the triad of corpus callosum agenesis, chorioretinal "lacunae" and infantile spasms. Additional neuroimaging findings including migrational abnormalities are common. We report on serial neuroimaging findings of a female fetus with ventriculomegaly, corpus callosum agenesis and focal migrational abnormalities, suggestive of AS. Postnatal neuroimaging follow-up as well as ophthalmological evaluation and occurrence of infantile spasms confirmed the prenatally suspected diagnosis of AS. This case points out the key role of serial fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting the full spectrum of pathologies associated with fetal ventriculomegaly. The associated neuroimaging findings may go undetected on prenatal ultrasound, but are important in terms of diagnosis and counseling of the parents. Additionally, this case emphasizes the importance of serial fetal MRI studies to more accurately delineate the progression of findings during brain development. PMID:24007726

Hergan, B; Atar, O D; Poretti, A; Huisman, T A G M

2013-08-01

204

Temporal isolation effects in recognition and serial recall.  

PubMed

Recent temporal distinctiveness models of memory predict that temporally isolated items will be recalled better than temporally crowded items. The effect has been found in some tasks (free recall, memory for serial order when report order is unconstrained, running memory span) but not in others (forward serial recall). Such results suggest that the attentional weighting given to a temporal dimension in memory may vary with task demands. Here, we find robust temporal isolation effects in recognition memory (Experiment 1) and a smaller isolation effect in forward serial recall when an open pool of items is used (Experiment 2). Analysis of 26 temporal isolation effects suggests that the phenomenon occurs in a range of tasks but is larger when it is useful to attend to a temporal dimension in memory. The overall pattern of results is taken to favor memory models that rely on multiple weighted dimensions in memory, one of which is temporal. PMID:20921098

Morin, Caroline; Brown, Gordon D A; Lewandowsky, Stephan

2010-10-01

205

Dilute Oxygen Combustion, Phase 2 Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) ...

Y. Wang H. Kobayashi

2005-01-01

206

Dilution of cosmological densities by saxino decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saxino decay can generate significant cosmological entropy, and hence dilute theoretical estimates of the present mass density of a given particle species. The dilution factor depends on the saxino and axion masses, and is constrained by the requirement that saxino decay should not affect nucleosynthesis, as well as by the usual requirement that the axion density be less than the critical density. The latter constraint is evaluated carefully, under both the Harari-Sikivie and Davis proposals about the emission spectrum from axionic strings. Uncertainties are carefully evaluated, points of principle are addressed, and with an eye to future numerical simulation the spacing and typical oscillation wavelength of the strings are represented by parameters varying in the range 1 to 3. Within the constraints, the entropy dilution varies from 1 to 10-4. Only saxinos originating from thermal equilibrium are considered, so that more dilution might arise from nonthermal saxinos.

Lyth, David H.

1993-11-01

207

A neuropsychiatric developmental model of serial homicidal behavior.  

PubMed

Serial sexual homicide has been the object of intensive study from forensic psychiatric, criminological, developmental, and sociological perspectives. In contradistinction to these approaches, neuropsychiatric concepts and methods have received relatively little attention in this area. In this article we adopt a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective and undertake a review of the psychiatric literature on violence and autism spectrum disorders. Our analysis of this literature suggests the presence of an association between autism spectrum psychopathology and serial homicidal behavior. Recommendations for further research to help clarify the nature of this association are briefly discussed. PMID:15568202

Silva, J Arturo; Leong, Gregory B; Ferrari, Michelle M

2004-01-01

208

The presumptive role of fantasy in serial sexual homicide.  

PubMed

The authors examined the role of fantasy as an internal drive mechanism for repetitive acts of sexual violence. A sample of 25 serial sexual murderers with three or more known victims each was compared with a sample of 17 single sexual murderers, with only one known victim each. The drive mechanism was hypothesized to be an intrusive fantasy life manifested in higher prevalences of paraphilias, documented or self-reported violent fantasies, and organized crime scenes in the serial murderers. All three hypotheses were supported. PMID:2787122

Prentky, R A; Burgess, A W; Rokous, F; Lee, A; Hartman, C; Ressler, R; Douglas, J

1989-07-01

209

Optical serial coherent analyzer of radio-frequency (OSCAR).  

PubMed

Optical serial coherent analyzer of radio-frequency is a novel scheme that enables fast-scanning microwave signal measurements in a large bandwidth. The measurements are performed based on serial channelization realized by using a fast scanning laser source as the local oscillator to down-convert the to-be-measured radio-frequency (RF) signals. Optical coherent detection effectively removes interferences induced by RF's self-beating and guarantees the accuracy of measurements. In the experimental demonstration, instantaneous multi-frequency measurements and vector information acquisition of RF signals can be achieved by this scheme within 2.8 ?s over 14 GHz bandwidth. PMID:24921552

Li, Ruiyue; Chen, Hongwei; Lei, Cheng; Yu, Ying; Chen, Minghua; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

2014-06-01

210

LLW solidification in cement: Effect of dilution  

SciTech Connect

A simulated Low Level nuclear Waste (LLW) solution was tested for long term solidification in a cement-based matrix. The waste is characterized by high pH and high concentrations of sodium, aluminum, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and carbonate. The effect of diluting the waste with additional water was studied. The cementitious matrix was composed of cement, fly-ash and clay (21%, 68% and 11% respectively) with high solution to solid ratio (1 liter /1 kg.). Mixes were prepared at 45{degrees}C and cured at 90{degrees}C for 28 days. Maximum 28 day compressive strengths and early age heat evolution were achieved by diluting the LLW solution to approximately 67% of its original concentration. More dilution led to a lower heat evolution and compressive strength. No dilution was found to give lower compressive strength, and a heat evolution that was delayed, and lower in intensity. XRD spectra showed formation of zeolites and tobermorite at the higher concentrations (67, 85, and 100% of the concentration of the undiluted simulated LLW), with a change from Na-Pl zeolite for 67% of the undiluted concentration to a sodalite at 100%. SEM observations showed a porous system for the low and high dilution rates but a less porous one for an intermediate level of dilution.

Kruger, A.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Katz, A.; Brough, A.R.; Bakharev, T.; Kirkpatrick, R.J.; Struble, L.J.; Young, J.F. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Center for Advanced Cement Based Materials

1995-02-01

211

Within-word serial order control: Adjacent mora exchange and serial position effects in repeated single-word production.  

PubMed

An essential function of language processing is serial order control. Computational models of serial ordering and empirical data suggest that plan representations for ordered output of sound are governed by principles related to similarity. Among these principles, the temporal distance and edge principles at a within-word level have not been empirically demonstrated separately from other principles. Specifically, the temporal distance principle assumes that phonemes that are in the same word and thus temporally close are represented similarly. This principle would manifest as phoneme movement errors within the same word. However, such errors are rarely observed in English, likely reflecting stronger effects of syllabic constraints (i.e., phonemes in different positions within the syllable are distinctly represented). The edge principle assumes that the edges of a sequence are represented distinctly from other elements/positions. This principle has been repeatedly observed as a serial position effect in the context of phonological short-term memory. However, it has not been demonstrated in single-word production. This study provides direct evidence for the two abovementioned principles by using a speech-error induction technique to show the exchange of adjacent morae and serial position effects in Japanese four-mora words. Participants repeatedly produced a target word or nonword, immediately after hearing an aurally presented distractor word. The phonologically similar distractor words, which were created by exchanging adjacent morae in the target, induced adjacent-mora-exchange errors, demonstrating the within-word temporal distance principle. There was also a serial position effect in error rates, such that errors were mostly induced at the middle positions within a word. The results provide empirical evidence for the temporal distance and edge principles in within-word serial order control. PMID:24704531

Nakayama, Masataka; Saito, Satoru

2014-06-01

212

Impact of Dilution on Microbial Community Structure and Functional Potential: Comparison of Numerical Simulations and Batch Culture Experiments  

PubMed Central

A series of microcosm experiments was performed using serial dilutions of a sewage microbial community to inoculate a set of batch cultures in sterile sewage. After inoculation, the dilution-defined communities were allowed to regrow for several days and a number of community attributes were measured in the regrown assemblages. Based upon a set of numerical simulations, community structure was expected to differ along the dilution gradient; the greatest differences in structure were anticipated between the undiluted–low-dilution communities and the communities regrown from the very dilute (more than 10?4) inocula. Furthermore, some differences were expected among the lower-dilution treatments (e.g., between undiluted and 10?1) depending upon the evenness of the original community. In general, each of the procedures used to examine the experimental community structures separated the communities into at least two, often three, distinct groups. The groupings were consistent with the simulated dilution of a mixture of organisms with a very uneven distribution. Significant differences in community structure were detected with genetic (amplified fragment length polymorphism and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism), physiological (community level physiological profiling), and culture-based (colony morphology on R2A agar) measurements. Along with differences in community structure, differences in community size (acridine orange direct counting), composition (ratio of sewage medium counts to R2A counts, monitoring of each colony morphology across the treatments), and metabolic redundancy (i.e., generalist versus specialist) were also observed, suggesting that the differences in structure and diversity of communities maintained in the same environment can be manifested as differences in community organization and function.

Franklin, Rima B.; Garland, Jay L.; Bolster, Carl H.; Mills, Aaron L.

2001-01-01

213

Impact of dilution on microbial community structure and functional potential: comparison of numerical simulations and batch culture experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of microcosm experiments was performed using serial dilutions of a sewage microbial community to inoculate a set of batch cultures in sterile sewage. After inoculation, the dilution-defined communities were allowed to regrow for several days and a number of community attributes were measured in the regrown assemblages. Based upon a set of numerical simulations, community structure was expected to differ along the dilution gradient; the greatest differences in structure were anticipated between the undiluted-low-dilution communities and the communities regrown from the very dilute (more than 10(-4)) inocula. Furthermore, some differences were expected among the lower-dilution treatments (e.g., between undiluted and 10(-1)) depending upon the evenness of the original community. In general, each of the procedures used to examine the experimental community structures separated the communities into at least two, often three, distinct groups. The groupings were consistent with the simulated dilution of a mixture of organisms with a very uneven distribution. Significant differences in community structure were detected with genetic (amplified fragment length polymorphism and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism), physiological (community level physiological profiling), and culture-based (colony morphology on R2A agar) measurements. Along with differences in community structure, differences in community size (acridine orange direct counting), composition (ratio of sewage medium counts to R2A counts, monitoring of each colony morphology across the treatments), and metabolic redundancy (i.e., generalist versus specialist) were also observed, suggesting that the differences in structure and diversity of communities maintained in the same environment can be manifested as differences in community organization and function.

Franklin, R. B.; Garland, J. L.; Bolster, C. H.; Mills, A. L.

2001-01-01

214

Cortical attractor network dynamics with diluted connectivity.  

PubMed

The connectivity of the cerebral cortex is diluted, with the probability of excitatory connections between even nearby pyramidal cells rarely more than 0.1, and in the hippocampus 0.04. To investigate the extent to which this diluted connectivity affects the dynamics of attractor networks in the cerebral cortex, we simulated an integrate-and-fire attractor network taking decisions between competing inputs with diluted connectivity of 0.25 or 0.1, and with the same number of synaptic connections per neuron for the recurrent collateral synapses within an attractor population as for full connectivity. The results indicated that there was less spiking-related noise with the diluted connectivity in that the stability of the network when in the spontaneous state of firing increased, and the accuracy of the correct decisions increased. The decision times were a little slower with diluted than with complete connectivity. Given that the capacity of the network is set by the number of recurrent collateral synaptic connections per neuron, on which there is a biological limit, the findings indicate that the stability of cortical networks, and the accuracy of their correct decisions or memory recall operations, can be increased by utilizing diluted connectivity and correspondingly increasing the number of neurons in the network, with little impact on the speed of processing of the cortex. Thus diluted connectivity can decrease cortical spiking-related noise. In addition, we show that the Fano factor for the trial-to-trial variability of the neuronal firing decreases from the spontaneous firing state value when the attractor network makes a decision. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Neural Coding". PMID:21875702

Rolls, Edmund T; Webb, Tristan J

2012-01-24

215

Becoming the victim: Beyond sadism in serial sexual murderers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior and characteristics of sexually sadistic serial murderers have been described primarily in relation to their paraphilic arousal to the control and torture of their victims. Sadistic sexual murderers who demonstrate both sadism and masochism have been described, but less is known about this type of offender. This article will review a number of hypotheses proposed to explain these

James L. Knoll; Robert R. Hazelwood

2009-01-01

216

A Balanced Mode Phase Shifter for Serial Array Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, construction, and performance of a balanced mode phase shifter suitable for application in a serial array operating at 110 MHz are discussed. The phase shifter is of the variable delay line type with the delay through the device controlled by ...

C. G. Hollins

1969-01-01

217

Serial Access Memory Using Magnetic Domains in Thin Film Strips.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent relates to a polycrystalline thin film strip used to store information in a serial manner in the form of reversal domains. The reversal domains are propagated along the thin film strip, which may be Permalloy, and then sensed to detect the stor...

L. J. Schwee H. R. Irons

1974-01-01

218

Serial retinal fluorescein angiography and immune therapy in Susac's Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a patient with Susac's disease presenting classically in a young female with an encephalopathy and visual disturbance with later deafness and tinnitus. Her encephalopathy settled, but subsequent serial fluorescein angiograms allowed sensitive monitoring of continuing sub-clinical disease activity, and provide evidence of a clear therapeutic response to immune suppression with tacrolimus (but not steroids alone) — and of

Beth Mallam; Erika M. Damato; Neil J. Scolding; Clare Bailey

2009-01-01

219

Serial particle size fractionation and characterisation of an aquacultural effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particulate phase of the effluent from a salmonid hatchery was serially divided into seven size fractions using 200, 100, 85, 65, 47, 25, and 5 ?m pore size nylon membranes. The main aim was to determine the nutrient distribution associated with the particles and use this information to determine the screen pore size that would remove those particles containing

Simon J. Cripps

1995-01-01

220

Sparse Serial Tests of Uniformity for Random Number Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dierent versions of the serial test for testing the uniformity and independence of vectors of successive values produced by a (pseudo)random number generator are studied. These tests partition the t-dimensional unit hypercube into k cubic cells of equal volume, generate n points (vectors) in this hypercube, count how many points fall in each cell, and compute a test statistic dened

RICHARD SIMARD; STEFAN WEGENKITTL

2002-01-01

221

Novel serial parallel converter using SFQ logic circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-fast operation with ultra-low power consumption and ballistic transmission of signals are attractive features of single-flux-quantum (SFQ) circuits for building large-scale digital systems. We have been designing SFQ circuits based on the bit-serial architecture, which can reduce the circuit area and timing error induced by clocking skew. In the bit-serial circuits, a serial-parallel converter, which is one of key circuits, is used for I/O interfaces, address decoders, multipliers and so on. In this paper, we propose a novel architecture for the SFQ serial-parallel converter whose latency is very small compared with conventional one. And, we have designed some SFQ circuits suitable for the proposed circuit. As an example, we have implemented and tested SFQ 4-bit multifunctional buffers using the SRL 2.5 kA/cm 2 niobium standard process. We have successfully confirmed all functions of the multifunctional buffer at low speed.

Park, H.; Yamanashi, Y.; Taketomi, K.; Yoshikawa, N.; Fujimaki, A.; Takagi, N.

2008-09-01

222

Energy optimal control of serial manipulators avoiding collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-linear programming approach to energy optimal control of serial manipulators is introduced that prevents collision of manipulator and spatial obstacles. Attention is given to the description of spatial obstacles and the definition of a distance measure thereupon. The generalized coordinates of the manipulator model are approximated by suitable ansatz functions. Thus the optimal control problem, a boundary value problem,

Andreas Muller

2004-01-01

223

An Embedded Converter from RS232 to Universal Serial Bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a new personal computer interconnection protocol, developed to make the connection of peripheral devices to a computer easier and more efficient. It reduces the cost for the end-user, improves communication speed and supports simultaneous attachment of multiple devices (up to 127). RS232, in another hand, was designed to single device connection, but is one

Ana Luiza de Almeida Pereira Zuquim; Claudionor José Nunes Coelho Jr; Antônio Otávio Fernandes; Marcos Pêgo de Oliveira; Andréa Iabrudi Tavares

2001-01-01

224

Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Serial Decimal Adder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical properties of nanotechnological elements and application requirements demand reconsideration of funda- mental information principles of a computer architecture. First of all, it is expedient to return to decimal notation of numbers, which was successfully used in mechanical computers. Besides, it is prefer- able to use serial data transfer and processing because the cost function and signal propagation delay of

Michael Gladshtein

2011-01-01

225

FPGA based fast synchronous serial multi-wire links synchronization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper debates synchronization method of multi-wire, serial link of constant latency, by means of pseudo-random numbers generators. The solution was designed for various families of FPGA circuits. There were debated synchronization algorithm and functional structure of parameterized transmitter and receiver modules. The modules were realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form.

Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

2013-10-01

226

Rapid Serial Naming: Relations between Different Stimuli and Neuropsychological Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report two studies on rapid serial naming (RSN). Study 1 addressed the relations among RSN tasks comprising different stimuli. Separate components for RSN of alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric stimuli, as well as for tasks in which the stimuli alternated between categories were identified. In Study 2, phonological skills, processing speed, motor…

Narhi, Vesa; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Leppasaari, Taisto; Korhonen, Tapio T.; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Heikki

2005-01-01

227

Index to Titles of Union List of Serials - 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is an index to serial holdings in a joint listing of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (including the Illinois Institute for Environmental Quality), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the U.S. Patent and Trad...

1975-01-01

228

Parallel-to-serial biphase-data converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data converter produces a serial biphase output signal from parallel input data. Alternate bits are loaded into a shift register in complement form so that the bits appear at the end of the shift register in a true-complement form sequence.

Truelove, R. D.

1968-01-01

229

The Rise in Consumerism: The Year's Work in Serials, 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines major issues and trends in serials management represented in the literature published during 1990. Topics covered include the pricing crisis; publishing and scholarly communication; cancellation projects; technological developments and alternatives to print; claiming and replacement activities; acquisitions and collection development;…

Lonberger, Jana

1991-01-01

230

Process to restore obliterated serial numbers on metal surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal smeared into grooves of serial numbers by grinding or filing can be cleaned out by process called cavitation. Ultrasonic vibrator generates very high frequency vibrations in water which create millions of microscopic bubbles. Cavitation bubbles impact metal surface at thousands of pounds per square inch pressure. Metal particles filling grooves are broken away.

Young, S. G.; Parker, B.; Chisum, W. J.

1974-01-01

231

Serials in the Small Public Library: Not Out of Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This examination of collection development and bibliographic control in the small public library (small staff and modest resources) is concerned with three categories of library materials that can be identified as serials: (1) magazines; (2) reference books; (3) books in series that can circulate separately. (10 references) (EJS)

Boyer, Robert E.

1985-01-01

232

A design of experiment analysis of serial EEPROM endurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a study using a design of experiments approach to examine the effects of environmental operating conditions on serial EEPROM endurance are presented. The conditions studied in the experiment were operating temperature, applied voltage, device type, array usage, write cycles per day, data pattern, and write pulse width. An ANOVA table showing the significant effects and an estimation

D. Wilkie; R. Drwinga; E. Eichman; N. Kunnari; B. Negley; D. Richardson

1997-01-01

233

Dyslexia: The Effects of Visual Memory and Serial Recall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the role of visual memory and serial recall in dyslexia is reviewed. Findings touch on feature theory, which proposes that information is held in the form of "features," and that students for example learn to discriminate letters by marking certain identifiable aspects. Other studies are described which focus on speed of processing…

McIntyre, Thomas C.

234

Nymphalid eyespot serial homologues originate as a few individualized modules.  

PubMed

Serial homologues are repeated traits that share similar development but occur in different parts of the body. Variation in number of repeats accounts for substantial diversity in animal form and considerable work has focused on identifying the factors accounting for this variation. Little is known, however, about how serial homologues originally become repeated, or about the relative timing of repeat individuation relative to repeat origin. Here, we show that the serially repeated eyespots on nymphalid butterfly wings most likely arose as a small cluster of units on the ventral hindwing that were later co-opted to the dorsal and anterior wing surfaces. Based on comparative analyses of over 400 species, we found support for a model of eyespot origin followed by redeployment, rather than by the conventional model, where eyespots arose as a complete row of undifferentiated units that later gained individuation. In addition, eyespots most likely evolved from simpler pattern elements, single-coloured spots, which were already individuated among different wing sectors. Finally, the late appearance of eyespots on the dorsal, hidden wing surface further suggests that these novel complex traits originally evolved for one function (thwarting predator attacks) and acquired a second function (sexual signalling) when moved to a different body location. This broad comparative analysis illustrates how serial homologues may initially evolve as a few units serving a particular function and subsequently become repeated in novel body locations with new functions. PMID:24870037

Oliver, Jeffrey C; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Gall, Lawrence F; Piel, William H; Monteiro, Antónia

2014-07-22

235

Alignment of Serially Acquired Slices Using a Global Energy Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An accurate, computationally efficient and fully-automated algorithm for the alignment of 2D serially acquired sections forming a 3D volume is presented. The method accounts for the main shortcomings of 3D image alignment: corrupted data (cuts and tears),...

S. Krinidis C. Nikou I. Pitas

2001-01-01

236

Sublexical or Lexical Effects on Serial Recall of Nonwords?  

Microsoft Academic Search

S. E. Gathercole, C. R. Frankish, S. J. Pickering, and S. Peaker (1999) reported 2 experiments in which they manipulated phonotactic properties of nonword stimuli and observed the effects on serial recall. Their results show superior recall for items consisting of more frequent phoneme pairs (biphone frequency). Biphone frequency was counted as the number of 3 phoneme words in which

Steven Roodenrys; Melinda Hinton

2002-01-01

237

Benchmarking Usage Statistics in Collection Management Decisions for Serials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Usage statistics are an important metric for making decisions on serials. Although the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) Libraries have been collecting usage statistics, the statistics had not frequently been used to make decisions and had not been included in collection development policy. After undergoing a collection assessment, the…

Tucker, Cory

2009-01-01

238

Union List of Serials in Pacific Island Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This union list contains the serial holdings from Pacific Island libraries, including the University of the South Pacific Library (Fiji), the University of Guam Robert F. Kennedy Library, Guam Public Library, College of Micronesia-FSM Library, College of the Marshall Islands Library, Micronesian Seminar Library, Palau Community College Library,…

Cohen, Arlene G., Comp.; Yoshida, Patricia, Comp.

239

Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

Farrell, Simon

2006-01-01

240

Modelling Transposition Latencies: Constraints for Theories of Serial Order Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several competing theories of short-term memory can explain serial recall performance at a quantitative level. However, most theories to date have not been applied to the accompanying pattern of response latencies, thus ignoring a rich and highly diagnostic aspect of performance. This article explores and tests the error latency predictions of…

Farrell, Simon; Lewandowsky, Stephan

2004-01-01

241

Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

2008-01-01

242

Taking serial correlation into account in tests of the mean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The comparison of means derived from samples of noisy data is a standard part of climatology. When the data are not serially correlated the appropriate statistical tool for this task is usually the conventional Student's t-test. However, data frequently a...

F. W. Zwiers H. Storch

1993-01-01

243

Efficient evaluation of serial sections by iterative Gabor matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of electron microscopic images of serial sections is a time-consuming process requiring a high level of expertise. Here we present an algorithm to ease and accelerate this process. It is a modification of an algorithm successfully used in computer vision for object recognition. However, rather than recognising individual structures, we estimate the spatial mapping of a whole section onto

Peter König; Christoph Kayser; Vincent Bonin; Rolf P. Würtz

2001-01-01

244

Tethered cord syndrome preceding syrinx formation - serial radiological documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a case of tethered cord syndrome preceding the development of a syrinx, which subsequently resolved with detethering. This was shown conclusively with serial radiological imaging, although the patient did not improve clinically. The lack of clinical improvement is likely to be due to the delay in surgery caused by infections in this patient, and early detethering should

Wai Hoe Ng; Wan Tew Seow

2001-01-01

245

Serial Back-Plane Technologies in Advanced Avionics Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current back plane technologies such as VME, and current personal computer back planes such as PCI, are shared bus systems that can exhibit nondeterministic latencies. This means a card can take control of the bus and use resources indefinitely affecting the ability of other cards in the back plane to acquire the bus. This provides a real hit on the reliability of the system. Additionally, these parallel busses only have bandwidths in the 100s of megahertz range and EMI and noise effects get worse the higher the bandwidth goes. To provide scalable, fault-tolerant, advanced computing systems, more applicable to today s connected computing environment and to better meet the needs of future requirements for advanced space instruments and vehicles, serial back-plane technologies should be implemented in advanced avionics architectures. Serial backplane technologies eliminate the problem of one card getting the bus and never relinquishing it, or one minor problem on the backplane bringing the whole system down. Being serial instead of parallel improves the reliability by reducing many of the signal integrity issues associated with parallel back planes and thus significantly improves reliability. The increased speeds associated with a serial backplane are an added bonus.

Varnavas, Kosta

2005-01-01

246

The simultaneous chain: a new approach to serial learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances have allowed the application of behaviorism's rigor to the control of complex cognitive tasks in animals. This article examines recent research on serially organized behavior in animals. 'Chaining theory', the traditional approach to the study of such behavior, reduces intelligent action to sequences of discrete stimulus-response units in which each overt response is evoked by a particular stimulus.

Herbert S. Terrace

2005-01-01

247

Can serial rapists be distinguished from one-off rapists?  

PubMed

There are investigative advantages to being able to determine early in a police investigation whether a rape has been committed by a serial or a one-off rapist. Previous research has found some differences in the crime-scene behaviors of serial and one-off rapists; however, this research suffers from the limitation of utilizing a sample of rapes within which there was a mixture of victim-offender relationships. To address this limitation, this study sampled 38 serial (two or more convictions) and 50 one-off (one conviction) stranger rapists and compared their crime scene behavior across four domains (control, sex, escape and style behaviors). Serial and one-off rapists differed in some control and sexual behaviors, in particular, in the type of victim targeted, the offense locations, methods of control and the sexual acts forced upon the victim. However, the results did not indicate a striking difference in the offending behavior of the two groups. The implications of these findings for criminal investigations are discussed. PMID:24723507

Slater, Chelsea; Woodhams, Jessica; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

2014-01-01

248

Consistent 4D Brain Extraction of Serial Brain MR Images  

PubMed Central

Accurate and consistent skull stripping of serial brain MR images is of great importance in longitudinal studies that aim to detect subtle brain morphological changes. To avoid inconsistency and the potential bias introduced by independently performing skull-stripping for each time-point image, we propose an effective method that is capable of skull-stripping serial brain MR images simultaneously. Specifically, all serial images of the same subject are first affine aligned in a groupwise manner to a common space to avoid any potential bias introduced by asymmetric transforms. A brain probability map, which encapsulates prior information gathered from a population of real brain MR images, is then warped to the aligned serial images for guiding skull-stripping via a deformable surface method. In particular, the same initial surface meshes representing the initial brain surfaces are first placed on all aligned serial images, and then all these surface meshes are simultaneously evolved to the respective target brain boundaries, driven by the intensity-based force, the force from the probability map, as well as the force from the spatial and temporal smoothness. Especially, imposing the temporal smoothness helps achieve longitudinally consistent results. Evaluations on 20 subjects, each with 4 time points, from the ADNI database indicate that our method gives more accurate and consistent result compared with 3D skull-stripping method. To better show the advantages of our 4D brain extraction method over the 3D method, we compute the Dice ratio in a ring area (±5mm) surrounding the ground-truth brain boundary, and our 4D method achieves around 3% improvement over the 3D method. In addition, our 4D method also gives smaller mean and maximal surface-to-surface distance measurements, with reduced variances.

Wang, Yaping; Li, Gang; Nie, Jingxin; Yap, Pew-Thian; Guo, Lei

2014-01-01

249

Serials Management in the Electronic Era: Papers in Honor of Peter Gellatly, Founding Editor of "The Serials Librarian."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book assesses progress and technical changes in the field of serials management and anticipates future directions and challenges for librarians. The book consists of 18 chapters: (1) "Introduction" (Jim Cole and James W. Williams); (2) "Peter Gellatly--Editor with a Deft Touch" (Ruth C. Carter); (3) "The "Deseret News" Web Edition" (Stewart…

Cole, Jim, Ed.; Williams, James W., Ed.

250

Intensified reaction of dilute thiophenes in nanoreactor.  

PubMed

A discovery that catalytic reactivity is intensified on reducing the size of reactor toward several nanometers scale was applied for the separation of dilute species, for example, the thiophenic compounds in transportation fuels, in the present study. A characteristic reaction of the dilute species was selected as the separation mechanism, and a nanoreactor was formed with preloading reactant/catalyst in volumes of mesopore dimension. Probability for the dilute species to contact the nanoreactor radically enlarged due to the integration of such volumes in a porous material. Because all reagents and the reaction product stayed inside the nanoreactor, separation of fuel from sulfuric compounds and the surplus chemicals used in reaction becomes simple. It was experimentally shown that the nanoreaction exhibited first-order kinetics, and all thiophenes and benzothiophenes contained in different types of model fuels were completely removed at moderate conditions. PMID:18251529

Zhou, Li; Wang, Shengqiang; Dai, Wei; Zhou, Yaping

2008-03-01

251

Mossbauer effect in dilute iron alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of variable concentration, x, of Aluminum, Germanium, and Lanthanum atoms in Iron lattice on various Mossbauer parameters was studied. Dilute binary alloys of (Fe-Al), (Fe-Ge), (Fe-Al) containing up to x = 2 a/o of the dilute constituent were prepared in the form of ingots and rolled to a thickness of 0.001 in. Mossbauer spectra of these targets were then studied in transmission geometry to measure changes in the hyperfine field, peak widths isomer shifts as well as the ratio of the intensities of peaks (1,6) to the intensities of peaks (2,5). It was shown that the concept of effective hyperfine structure field in very dilute alloys provides a useful means of studying the effects of progressively increasing the solute concentration on host lattice properties.

Singh, J. J.

1975-01-01

252

Programed asynchronous serial data interrogation in a two-computer system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique permits redundant computers, with one unit in control mode and one in MONITOR mode, to interrogate the same serial data source. Its use for program-controlled serial data transfer results in extremely simple hardware and software mechanization.

Schneberger, N. A.

1975-01-01

253

Phase boundary detection for dilution refrigerators  

SciTech Connect

We describe a device to conveniently measure the positions of the phase boundaries in a dilution refrigerator. We show how a simple modification of a standard capacitive level gauge (segmentation of one of the electrodes) permits a direct calibration of the capacitance versus phase boundary position. We compare this direct calibration with the indirect procedure that must be adopted for a conventional capacitive level gauge. The device facilitates the correct adjustment of the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He fraction in the dilution refrigerator.

Haar, E. ter; Martin, R.V. [DFMT, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66.318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2004-09-01

254

Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance  

DOEpatents

A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

Yang, Peidong (El Cerrito, CA); Choi, Heonjin (Seoul, KR); Lee, Sangkwon (Daejeon, KR); He, Rongrui (Albany, CA); Zhang, Yanfeng (El Cerrito, CA); Kuykendal, Tevye (Berkeley, CA); Pauzauskie, Peter (Berkeley, CA)

2011-08-23

255

A systematic approach for design of digit-serial signal processing architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic unfolding transformation technique for transforming bit-serial architecture into equivalent digit-serial ones is presented. The novel feature of the unfolding technique lies in the generation of functionally correct control circuits in the digit-serial architectures. For some applications bit-serial architectures may be too slow, and bit-parallel architectures may be faster than necessary and may require too much hardware. The desired

Keshab K. Parhi

1991-01-01

256

Serial or parallel processing in dual tasks: What is more effortful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that dual tasks can be performed with a serial or parallel strategy and that the parallel strategy is preferred even if this implies performance costs. The present study investigates the hypothesis that parallel processing is favored because it requires less mental effort compared to serial processing. A serial or parallel processing strategy was induced in a sample

Carola Lehle; Marco Steinhauser; Ronald Hübner

2009-01-01

257

Control of serial port (RS232) communication in LabVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes control of serial communication in LabVIEW software. Serial communication is a popular means of transmitting data between a computer and a peripheral device such as a programmable instrument or even another computer. Serial communication uses a transmitter to send data, one bit at a time, over a single communication line to a receiver. You can use

J. Machacek; J. Drapela

2008-01-01

258

The Evolution of the Serials Unit at California State University, Fullerton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Serials Section at the California State University, Fullerton Library is an integral Part of the Department of Technical Services. The current structure of serial operitions is a result of the automation of serial operations and the reorganization of library functions and personnel. To a large extent rising journal prices, state budget decisions and campus personnel policies spurred efforts to

Teresa Malinowski

1990-01-01

259

9 CFR 113.8 - In vitro tests for serial release.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false In vitro tests for serial release. 113.8 Section...immunogenicity using a Qualifying Serial of product. (e) Final...including dose(s) and route of administration. (1) A one stage test... Failures for satisfactory serials Failures for...

2009-01-01

260

9 CFR 113.8 - In vitro tests for serial release.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false In vitro tests for serial release. 113.8 Section...immunogenicity using a Qualifying Serial of product. (e) Final...including dose(s) and route of administration. (1) A one stage test... Failures for satisfactory serials Failures for...

2010-01-01

261

Thirteen Steps to Avoiding Bad Luck in a Serials Cancellation Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rampant inflation in serials' pricing is forcing many academic libraries to initiate serials cancellation projects. If libraries plan carefully and involve faculty throughout the process, serials can be canceled without excessive damage to the collection or to the library's relationship with the rest of the college. (six references) (LAE)

Metz, Paul

1992-01-01

262

California State Library: Processing Center Design and Specifications. Volume IV, Serials Control System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The CSL Serials Control System is aimed primarily at satisfying control and retrieval requirements of serials data for subscribers to the California State Library Processing Center (CSL-PC). The primary objective of the system is to provide a method of serials control which will be very flexible both in terms of input requirements and output…

Fried, Martin D.; Dunham, Ruth

263

Serial-Order Short-Term Memory Predicts Vocabulary Development: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or…

Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve

2010-01-01

264

Serial network simplifies the design of multiple microcomputer systems  

SciTech Connect

Recently there has been a lot of interest in developing network communication schemes for carrying digital data between locally distributed computing stations. Many of these schemes have focused on distributed networking techniques for data processing applications. These applications suggest the use of a serial, multipoint bus, where a number of remote intelligent units act as slaves to a central or host computer. Each slave would be serially addressable from the host and would perform required operations upon being addressed by the host. Based on an MK3873 single-chip microcomputer, the SCU 20 is designed to be such a remote slave device. The capabilities of the SCU 20 and its use in systems applications are examined.

Folkes, D.

1981-01-01

265

Plastic optical fiber serial communications link for distributed control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most common interface for communications specified is RS 232C standard. Though widely accepted, RS232 has limited transmission speed, range and networking capabilities. RS 422 standard overcomes limitations by using differential signal lines. In automation of the operation of gas discharge lasers, multiple processors are used for control of lasers, cooling system, vacuum system etc. High EMI generated by lasers interfere through galvanic transmission or by radiation over the length of cables, and hang up operation of processors or control PC. A serial communications link was designed eliminating copper transmission media, using plastic optical fiber cables and components, to connect local controllers with the master PC working on RS232 protocols. The paper discusses the design and implementation of a high ly reliable EMI harden serial communications link.

Saxena, Piyush; Sharangpani, K. K.; Vora, H. S.; Nakhe, S. V.; Jain, R.; Shenoy, N. M.; Bhatnagar, R.; Shirke, N. D.

2001-09-01

266

[Some criminological and psychopathologic reflexions about serial crimes].  

PubMed

This article reviews the concept of serial crime, including murder as well as any action for the purpose of inflicting bodily harm upon any person. It characterizes three types of multi-murderers: serial killers, mass murderers, and spree killers. These offenders often have a specific (ritual) behavior that is idiosyncratic and repeated on each crime, which allows the psychological profiling of the murderer. Examples, a psychopathological background, and a description of both their criminal behavior and dynamics are provided for each of these criminals. They are further classified according to their different motivations: psychotic, prophetic or enlightened, pleasure, secondary or pecuniary profits, power or control. Finally, the author shares his personal experience over 20 years in the assessment of sexual offenders. PMID:22091451

Romi, Juan Carlos

2011-01-01

267

Response suppression contributes to recency in serial recall.  

PubMed

Serial recall is often assumed to involve response suppression: the removal or inhibition of items already recalled so that they are not recalled again. Evidence for response suppression includes repetition inhibition and the separation of erroneous repetitions. Some theorists have suggested that response suppression, by eliminating competing responses, also contributes to recency in forward serial recall. We present experiments in which performance on the final item was examined as a function of whether or not the preceding retrievals entailed suppression of potential response competitors. In line with the predictions of response suppression, recency was found to be reduced when the earlier recall errors consisted of intrusion errors (which leave list items unsuppressed) rather than transposition errors (which involve suppression). PMID:22555889

Farrell, Simon; Lewandowsky, Stephan

2012-10-01

268

Positional cues in serial learning: The spin list technique  

PubMed Central

To test the hypothesis that serial recall depends largely on the encoding and retrieval of position-to-item associations, we examined whether people can learn “spin” lists on which starting position is randomly varied across successive learning trials. By turning positional information from a reliable cue into a source of inter-trial interference, we expected learning to be greatly impaired. Contrary to this hypothesis, we found that participants were only slightly worse at serial learning under spin conditions and that this impairment reflects a substantial increase in initiation errors coupled with a small increase in inter-trial forgetting. These data show that participants can effectively use non-positional cues when positional cues are unreliable.

Kahana, Michael J.; Mollison, Matthew V.; Addis, Kelly M.

2009-01-01

269

Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall.  

PubMed

In short-term serial recall, similar sounding items are remembered less well than items that do not sound alike. This phonological similarity effect has been observed with lists composed only of similar items, and also with lists that mix together similar and dissimilar items. An additional consistent finding has been what the authors call dissimilar immunity, the finding that ordered recall of dissimilar items is the same whether these items occur in pure dissimilar or mixed lists. The authors present 3 experiments that disconfirm these previous findings by showing that dissimilar items on mixed lists are recalled better than their counterparts on pure lists if order errors are considered separately from intrusion errors (Experiment 1), or if intrusion errors are experimentally controlled (Experiments 2 and 3). The memory benefit for dissimilar items on mixed lists poses a challenge for current models of short-term serial recall. PMID:14516217

Farrell, Simon; Lewandowsky, Stephan

2003-09-01

270

Dilute Oxygen Combustion; Phase IV Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five

Riley

2003-01-01

271

Combustion System Using Dilute Hydrogen Peroxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application relates to a combustion system which uses hydrogen peroxide as a propellant and more particularly to a combustion system which uses dilute solution of hydrogen peroxide and a fuel as a propellant. This system has its primary use in...

R. J. Heffernan

1976-01-01

272

Combustion System Using Dilute Hydrogen Peroxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A combustion system uses a dilute hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) solution as an oxidizer. The system uses the concept of Liquid Phase Extraction and eliminates part of the water produced during the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water (H2O) and oxygen (...

R. J. Heffernan

1977-01-01

273

Viscoelastic Properties of Dilute Polymer Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The storage and loss shear moduli of dilute solutions of a large number of polymers (carefully characterized samples, mostly with narrow molecular weight distribution) have been measured in a frequency range from 100 to 8000 Hz and the data have been extr...

J. D. Ferry

1974-01-01

274

Bulk Superconductivity in Dilute Hexagonal Titanium Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superconductivity, the low-temperature specific heat, and the paramagnetic susceptibility have been investigated in a series of dilute hexagonal titanium alloys. In the solid solutions with V or Nb, both the transition temperature and the density of states are strongly increased and the entire volume exhibits superconductivity. A similar study of Ti-Fe alloys suggests either an incomplete volume transition or

F. Heiniger; J. Muller

1964-01-01

275

Automatic dilution gaging of rapidly varying flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Obtaining discharge ratings at urban gaging stations is often difficult. Results of using an automated constant-rate dye-dilution technique to measure discharge at two sites in Madison, Wisconsin, are presented. The sites selected have well-defined stage-discharge ratings, developed during previous hydrologic studies. One site is a 60-inch-diameter concrete storm sewer and the other a concrete-lined open trapezoidal channel. Equipment selected to automate the method included a portable automatic water sampler, four-channel event recorder; and for dye injection, a peristaltic pump. An electrical switching circuit was designed to coordinate the operation of the water sampler, injection pump, and four-channel recorder. During the data-collection period of 1 year, a total of 20 storms was monitored. The analyses showed that the discharges measured by dye-dilution techniques ranged from + or - 5 to + or - 10 percent of the discharges determined from ratings established by current-meter measurements. Larger differences were noted at the start of and on the rising limb of four hydrographs. Of the 20 storms monitored, 17 produced acceptable results. Peak discharges by the dilution method at the open-channel site ranged from 0 to 12 percent departures from the existing rating, whereas the peak discharge by the dilution method at the storm-sewer site ranged from 0 to 5 percent departures from the existing rating. (UGGS)

Duerk, M. D.

1983-01-01

276

Science Sampler: Dilution, Concentration, and Flotation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom teaching practice and literature show that many students have difficulties with science concepts such as density. These investigations identify the relationship between density and floating through experimenting with successive dilution of a liquid, or the systematic change of concentration of a saltwater solution. The lessons follow the constructivist teaching model--invitation, exploration, proposing explanations, and taking action.

Schmuckler, Joseph S.; Liang, Ling

2004-04-01

277

Lipidic cubic phase injector facilitates membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography.  

PubMed

Lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallization has proven successful for high-resolution structure determination of challenging membrane proteins. Here we present a technique for extruding gel-like LCP with embedded membrane protein microcrystals, providing a continuously renewed source of material for serial femtosecond crystallography. Data collected from sub-10-?m-sized crystals produced with less than 0.5 mg of purified protein yield structural insights regarding cyclopamine binding to the Smoothened receptor. PMID:24525480

Weierstall, Uwe; James, Daniel; Wang, Chong; White, Thomas A; Wang, Dingjie; Liu, Wei; Spence, John C H; Bruce Doak, R; Nelson, Garrett; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Liu, Haiguang; Basu, Shibom; Wacker, Daniel; Han, Gye Won; Katritch, Vsevolod; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J; Koglin, Jason E; Marvin Seibert, M; Klinker, Markus; Gati, Cornelius; Shoeman, Robert L; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N; Kirian, Richard A; Beyerlein, Kenneth R; Stevens, Raymond C; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed T A; Howe, Nicole; Caffrey, Martin; Cherezov, Vadim

2014-01-01

278

Two Serial Data to Pulse Code Modulation System Interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two pulse code modulation (PCM) system interfaces for asynchronous serial data are described. One interface is for global positioning system (GPS) data on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) F-15B (McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri) airplane, tail number 836 (F-15B/836). The other is for flight control computer data on the duPont Aerospace (La Jolla, California) DP-1, a 53-percent scale model of the duPont Aerospace DP-2.

Hamory, Phil

2006-01-01

279

Isozyme Pattern in Serially Xenotransplanted Childhood Tumors1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth rate, histológica! course, and polymorphic enzyme pattern (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose phos phate isomerase, and phosphofructokinase) were studied in eight childhood tumors xenotransplanted serially to nude mice. The growth rate of these tumors (three nephroblastomas, one hyper calcémie renal tumor, three rhabdomyosarcomas, and one malig nant histiocytosis) appeared stable for any one particular tumor line. The time interval between

Dominique Cottreau; Axel Kahn; Enfants Malades

280

Power and bandwidth efficient serially concatenated CPM with iterative decoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serially concatenated continuous phase modulation (SCCPM) with iterative decoding is analyzed and simulated. Earlier results on outer rate 1\\/2 convolutional codes combined with inner binary and quaternary CPM systems are extended to rate 2\\/3 and 3\\/4 codes with low-complexity octal and hexadecimal CPM systems, having the 2RC and 3RC frequency pulses. Analysis and simulations show that-among the evaluated systems-the octal

P. Moqvist; T. Aulin

2000-01-01

281

Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume distribution ratio of 80\\/20 and 90\\/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the

Kanokwan Boe; Irini Angelidaki

2009-01-01

282

A statistical approach to the serial condensation of amorphous clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A numerical simulation is proposed of extended closepacked systems of hard spheres obtained by serial deposition. The process\\u000a takes into account a random contribution to the growth of the aggregate; in this way, without using relaxation potential methods,\\u000a it was possible to reproduce, even for large systems, the splitting of the second peak in the pair correlation function, evidenced\\u000a both

M. Biasini; M. Stefanon

1985-01-01

283

Multistage serial interference cancellation for DS-CDMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of multi-stage serial interference cancellation (MSSIC) for DS-CDMA has been evaluated. It is shown that linear MSSIC is asymptotically equivalent to decorrelation, but performs better than the decorrelator for a limited number of stages. However, non-linear MSSIC clearly outperforms linear MSSIC, especially in a multi-ray environment, where the linear scheme loses much of its near-far resistance

Karim Jamal; Erik Dahlman

1996-01-01

284

A nonparametric trend test for seasonal data with serial dependence.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Statistical tests for monotonic trend in seasonal (eg monthly) hydrologic time series are commonly confounded by some of the following problems: nonnormal data, missing values, seasonality, censoring and serial dependence. An extension of the Mann-Kendall test for trend (designed for such data) is presented here. Because the test is based entirely on tanks, it is robust against nonnormality and censoring.-from Authors

Hirsch, R. M.; Slack, J. R.

1984-01-01

285

Lipidic cubic phase injector facilitates membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography  

PubMed Central

Lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallization has proven successful for high-resolution structure determination of challenging membrane proteins. Here we present a technique for extruding gel-like LCP with embedded membrane protein microcrystals, providing a continuously-renewed source of material for serial femtosecond crystallography. Data collected from sub-10 ?m-sized crystals produced with less than 0.5 mg of purified protein yield structural insights regarding cyclopamine binding to the Smoothened receptor.

Weierstall, Uwe; James, Daniel; Wang, Chong; White, Thomas A.; Wang, Dingjie; Liu, Wei; Spence, John C.H.; Doak, R. Bruce; Nelson, Garrett; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Liu, Haiguang; Basu, Shibom; Wacker, Daniel; Han, Gye Won; Katritch, Vsevolod; Boutet, Sebastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J.; Koglin, Jason E.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Klinker, Markus; Gati, Cornelius; Shoeman, Robert L.; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N.; Kirian, Richard A.; Beyerlein, Kenneth R.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed T.A.; Howe, Nicole; Caffrey, Martin; Cherezov, Vadim

2014-01-01

286

Reconstruction of serially acquired slices using physics-based modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an accurate, computationally efficient, fast, and fully automated algorithm for the alignment of two-dimensional (2-D) serially acquired sections forming a 3-D volume. The approach relies on the determination of interslice correspondences. The features used for correspondence are extracted by a 2-D physics-based deformable model parameterizing the object shape. Correspondence affinities and global constrains render the method efficient

Stelios Krinidis; C. Nikou; I. Pitas

2003-01-01

287

A serial hybrid bus with methanol-hydrogen engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen energy vehicle has become one of the key directions in the field of electric vehicle research and development worldwide. Hydrogen energy vehicles include three kinds such as fuel cell vehicle, hydrogen ICE vehicle and methanol-hydrogen engine vehicle. The paper presents a new kind of serial hybrid bus with an effective methanol-hydrogen engine. The methanol-hydrogen engine is a traditional engine

Liqing Sun; Ruchuan Liang; Qingcai Wang

2008-01-01

288

Serial extraction: 20 years of follow-up  

PubMed Central

This paper reports a case treated by a serial extraction program at the mixed dentition stage followed by a corrective orthodontic treatment, with a long-term follow-up period. Twenty years after the interceptive treatment, a harmonious face was observed along with treatment stability in the anterior posterior direction, deep overbite (which has been mentioned as a disadvantage of the serial extraction program), and a small relapse of anterior tooth crowding. All these conditions have been regarded as normal occurrences for most orthodontic treatments with a long-term follow-up period. This case report demonstrated that the establishment of a serial extraction protocol determined relevant esthetic changes that afforded an improvement of the patient's self-esteem, with a positive social impact. Furthermore, the low cost of this protocol permits the use of this therapy with underprivileged populations. It is important to emphasize that an early correction of tooth crowding by this protocol does not guarantee stability, but small relapses do not invalidate its accomplishment.

de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; OLTRAMARI-NAVARRO, Paula Vanessa Pedron; CONTI, Ana Claudia de Castro Ferreira; NAVARRO, Ricardo de Lima; de SOUZA, Karen Regina Siqueira

2012-01-01

289

A network-based Macintosh serial host interface program  

SciTech Connect

A program has been written for the Apple Macintosh to replace conventional host RS232 terminals with customizable user interfaces. Serial port NuBus cards in the Macintosh allow many simultaneous sessions to be maintained. A powerful system is attained by connecting multiple Macintoshes on a network, each running this program. Each is then able to share incoming data from any of its serial ports with any other Macintosh, as well as accept data from any other Macintosh for output to any of its serial ports. The program has been used to eliminate multiple host terminals, modernize the user interface, and to centralize operation of a complex control system. Minimal changes to host software have been required. By making extensive use of Macintosh resources, the same executable code serves in a variety of roles. An object oriented C language with a class library made the development straightforward and easy to modify. This program is used to control a 2 MW neutral beam system on the DIII-D magnetic fusion tokamak. 7 figs.

Wight, J.

1991-03-01

290

DDCMP protocol on a DMA serial-line board  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Chemistry Division of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is in the midst of an upgrade to their radiation counting facility. The result of this upgrade wil be a computer-based data acquisition network, the Nuclear Chemistry Counting Facility Network (NCCF-NET). This network will consist of forty dedicated LSI-11/2 based controllers, ten interactive LSI-11/23 based workstations and a VAX-11/750 central node for data reduction and storage. One of the data acquisition instruments used in this network is a Nuclear Data pulse-height analyzer, the ND66L. This analyzer communicates to a host system over a 9600-baud serial line, using the DDCMP link level protocol. In order to relieve the host computer from the overhead of handling the DDCMP protocol, an in-house designed DMA serial line board was implemented to communicate with the ND66L. The hardware used and its environment will be duscussed along with the design and implementation of the firmware, which implements the serial DDCMP link.

Hunt, D.N.; Kessler, G.C.

1982-01-01

291

Applying social learning theory to childhood and adolescent firesetting: can it lead to serial murder?  

PubMed

Despite the fact that serial murder has existed for centuries, it has been given little academic attention in the social science literature. Existing studies have primarily examined the motivational factors involved in the commission of serial murder. However, research examining the childhood and adolescent backgrounds of serial murderers is scant. Based on three case studies of serial murderers, this study contributes to the existing literature by exploring the possible link between childhood and/or adolescent fire setting and adult serial murder by applying social learning theory. PMID:15245657

Singer, Stephen D; Hensley, Christopher

2004-08-01

292

Highly Reliable, High-Speed, Unidirectional Serial Data Links  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly reliable, high-speed, unidirectional serial data-communication subsystems have been proposed to be installed in an upgrade of the computing systems aboard the space shuttles. The basic design concept of these serial data links is also adaptable to terrestrial use in applications in which there are requirements for highly reliable serial data communications. The hardware and software aspects of the architecture of the data links are dictated largely by a requirement, in the original space-shuttle application, for one computer to monitor the memory transactions and memory contents of other computers in real time with high reliability and without reliance on requests for retransmission. To minimize weight while affording a capability to transfer data at a required rate of 2.56 x 10(exp 8) bits per second, it was decided that the links would be serial ones of the fiber-channel type. [Fiber channel denotes a type of serial computer bus that is used to connect a computer (usually a supercomputer) with a high-speed data storage device. Depending on the specific application, the physical connection between the transmitter and receiver could be made via an optical fiber or a twisted pair of wires.] Heretofore, fiber-channel links have ordinarily been bidirectional and have operated under protocols that provide for receiving stations to detect errors and request retransmission when necessary. In the present case, the time taken by processing to request retransmission would conflict with the requirement for real-time transfer of data. To ensure reliability without retransmission, a link according to the proposal would utilize a modified version of the normal fiberchannel character set in conjunction with forward error correction by means of a Reed-Solomon code (see figure). The Reed-Solomon encoding and decoding and the translations between the normal and modified character sets would be effected by logic circuitry external to the fiber-channel transmitter and receiver, which would be commercial off-the-shelf units. The receiving end of the link could detect and correct errors at a rate as high as 4 million times per second, if necessary. The receiver detects uncorrectable double-byte errors. It has been estimated that uncorrectable-error rate would amount to one failure in about 10(exp 19) characters.

Cole, Robert M.; Bishop, Jamie

2005-01-01

293

Extended acoustic waves in diluted random systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the propagation of acoustic waves in an one-dimensional diluted random media which is composed of two interpenetrating chains with pure and random elasticity. We considered a discrete one-dimensional version of the wave equation where the elasticity distribution appears as an effective spring constant. By using a matrix recursive reformulation we compute the localization length within the band of allowed frequencies. In addition, we apply a second-order finite difference method for both time and spatial variables, and study the nature of the waves that propagate in the chain. We numerically demonstrate that the diluted random elasticity distribution promotes extended acoustic modes at high-frequencies.

Costa, A. E. B.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.

2011-03-01

294

Unstable blast shocks in dilute granular flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shocks and blasts can be readily obtained in granular flows be they dense or dilute. Here, by examining the propagation of a blast shock in a dilute granular flow, we show that such a front is unstable with respect to transverse variations of the density of grains. This instability has a well-defined wavelength which depends on the density of the medium and has an amplitude which grows as an exponential of the distance traveled. These features can be understood using a simple model for the shock front, including dissipation which is inherent to granular flows. While this instability bears much resemblance to that anticipated in gases, it is distinct and has special features we discuss here.

Boudet, J. F.; Kellay, H.

2013-05-01

295

21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully automated or semi-automated device used to make appropriate dilutions of a blood sample for further testing. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

2010-04-01

296

40 CFR 1065.340 - Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration. 1065.340 Section 1065.340...CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Flow-Related Measurements...340 Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration. (a) Overview . This...

2010-07-01

297

40 CFR 1065.340 - Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration. 1065.340 Section 1065.340...CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Flow-Related Measurements...340 Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration. (a) Overview . This...

2009-07-01

298

The Physics and Technology of Dilute Nitrides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilute nitrides have emerged from conventional III–V semiconductors such as GaAs or InP by the insertion of nitrogen into the group V sub-lattice, which has a profound influence on the electronic properties of these materials and allows widely extended band structure engineering. This is expected to lead to novel devices, e.g. for optical data transmission, solar cells, biophotonics or gas

N Balkan

2004-01-01

299

Nonthermal plasma processing for dilute VOCs decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative effect of catalysts with nonthermal plasma processing for dilute (100 ppm or 1000 ppm) TCE decomposition in air was investigated. As catalysts, titania, TiO2, was tested. One sample was 2-3 mm sphere pellets coated with vanadium oxide, V2 O5. Hand-made titania pellets with various sizes were also tested. GCMS analysis suggested that the catalyst assisted to decompose TCE with

T. Oda; Tadashi TAKAHAHSHI; K. Yamaji

2000-01-01

300

Nonthermal plasma processing for dilute VOCs decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of nonthermal plasma processing for dilute (100 or 1000 ppm) trichloroethylene (TCE) decomposition in air was investigated in combination with titania (TiO2) catalysts. One type of catalyst consisted of 2-3-mm-diameter spherical titania pellets coated with vanadium oxide, V2O5. Homemade various-sized titania pellets sintered at 400°C and 1000°C were also tested. Gas chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis of the plasma-processed

Tetsuji Oda; Tadashi Takahahshi; Kei Yamaji

2002-01-01

301

Multielement isotope dilution techniques for trace analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a typical isotope dilution of cadmium are shown in tabular form--a reproduction of the format produced by the computer densitometer system. The first entry shows the enrichment of the cadmium spike (88.4% ¹°⁶Cd). The second entry is a report of the natural abundance of cadmium in the sample, which was analyzed by mixing 1.00 ml of the

J. A. Carter; J. C. Franklin; D. L. Donohue

1978-01-01

302

Anaerobic toxic wastes treatment: dilution effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of waste strength on the treatability of toxic wastes such as coal gasification wastewater by the anaerobic GAC reactor operating with periodic GAC replacement was assessed by operating three units treating 30%, 60% and full strength wastewater. At a COD loading of 4.7 kg\\/m3 d performance was unimpacted by dilution at all the GAC replacement rates investigated in

G. F. Nakhla; M. T. Suidan

1995-01-01

303

A Dilute Three-Dimensional XY Ferromagnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron(III) bis(diselenocarbamate) chloride is a pentacoordinate molecular ferromagnet ordering near 3.4 K. The unusual site symmetry yields a spin 3/2 ground state. A rather substantial zero-field splitting occurs, with D positive, leading to XY like magnetic properties at low temperature. Significant exchange interactions occur between molecules via Fe-Se...Se-Fe contacts, without substantial spatial anisotropy. It is of interest to examine the effects of diamagnetic dilution on such a system. We have succeeded in dissolving modest amounts of diamagnetic Zn(II) bis(dithiocarbamate) into the Fe(III) system lattice. Analysis of susceptibility and magnetization data reveals a sizable reduction of the magnetic ordering temperature of the pure material on dilution. Comparisons are possible with previous work in which dilution of the approximate 3D-Ising system Fe(III) bis(dithiocarbamate) chloride was studied. *Supported by NSF-Solid State Chemistry-Grant No. DMR-0085662 and by a grant from the Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society.

Defotis, G. C.

2005-03-01

304

Seminal plasma addition attenuates the dilution effect in bovine sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilution of semen to low cell numbers\\/dose can result in a bull-dependent reduction in the post-thaw viability of cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa. It is possible that essential seminal plasma components are lacking at the greater dilution rates, thereby contributing to the deleterious effects of semen dilution. Ejaculates of 6 Holstein bulls were diluted to 120 × 106 sperm\\/mL in an egg

D. L. Garner; C. A. Thomas; C. G. Gravance; C. E. Marshall; J. M. DeJarnette; C. H. Allen

2001-01-01

305

Serial Gene Expression Profiling in the Intact Human Heart  

PubMed Central

Background In chronic heart failure due to a dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype, the molecular bases for contractile dysfunction and chamber remodeling remain largely unidentified. Methods To investigate the feasibility of measuring global gene expression serially in the intact failing human heart, we performed repeated messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiling using RNA extracted from endomyocardial biopsy specimens and gene chip methodology in 8 subjects with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. In patients treated with ?-blocking agents or placebo, myocardial gene expression was measured in endomyocardial biopsy material and radionuclide ejection fraction was measured at baseline and after 4 to 12 months of treatment. Gene expression was measured for 12,625 gene sequences by using Affymetrix U95 gene chips and commercially available software. For 6 mRNAs, gene chip results were compared with measurements made by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results In an unfiltered composite analysis of changes in expression detected in the patients with high-signal intensity chips, 241 genes showed an increase and 331 genes a decrease in mRNA abundance. There was good agreement between changes measured by quantitative RT-PCR and those determined by gene chips. There was less variance between differences in phenotype in patients sampled serially as compared between subjects with similar phenotypes sampled at baseline. Conclusions Serial gene expression profiling with association to phenotypic change is feasible in the intact human heart and may offer advantages to cross-sectional expression profiling. This study suggests that the intact failing remodeled human heart is in an activated state of gene expression, with a large net reduction in gene expression occurring as phenotypic improvement occurs. J Heart Lung Transplant 2006;25:579 – 88. Copyright © 2006 by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.

Lowes, Brian D.; Zolty, Ronald; Minobe, Wayne A.; Robertson, Alastair D.; Leach, Sonia; Hunter, Lawrence; Bristow, Michael R.

2009-01-01

306

Purification of dilute hydrofluoric acid by commercial ion exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results from an experimental study of the purification of dilute hydrofluoric acid (5wt.%) by ion exchange. Hydrofluoric acid was prepared by dilution from technical grade concentrated HF; important amounts of metal impurities were found in the diluted acid, mainly Na, Fe, As, B, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, PO43?, and Ti. The semiconductor industry developed the

I. Fernández-Olmo; J. L. Fernández; A. Irabien

2007-01-01

307

Phase transition kinetics in the site dilute Ising model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the phase transition kinetics of a quenched site dilute Ising model. To date, most studies of this model have focused on dilution-averaged quantities, such as the critical temperature and the associated critical exponents. In this talk we study how the spatial distribution of the dilution affects the local growth of the stable phase after an instantaneous quench. For

Kang Liu; Christopher Serino; Ranjit Chacko; William Klein

2011-01-01

308

Electrostatically defined serial triple quantum dot charged with few electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A serial triple quantum dot (TQD) electrostatically defined in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure is characterized by using a nearby quantum point contact as charge detector. Ground-state stability diagrams demonstrate control in the regime of few electrons charging the TQD. An electrostatic model is developed to determine the ground-state charge configurations of the TQD. Numerical calculations are compared with experimental results. In addition, the tunneling conductance through all three quantum dots in series is studied. Quantum cellular automata processes are identified, which are where charge reconfiguration between two dots occurs in response to the addition of an electron in the third dot.

Schröer, D.; Greentree, A. D.; Gaudreau, L.; Eberl, K.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Kotthaus, J. P.; Ludwig, S.

2007-08-01

309

Inorganic positive uniaxial films fabricated by serial bideposition.  

PubMed

The physical vapor deposition process of serial bideposition is adapted to the fabrication of uniaxial optical coatings. During the coating process the vapor impinges at an angle of incidence of about 70 on to the substrate, and a stepwise axial rotation with 90 increments causes a columnar structure to grow normal to the substrate. Symmetry considerations that follow from the choice of 90 for the stepwise increment ensure that the film is achiral and has negligible in-plane linear birefringence. Optical characterization techniques confirm that films of tantalum oxide, titanium oxide and zirconium oxide are positive uniaxial with ne -no in the range 0.10 to 0.14. PMID:19483917

Hodgkinson, Ian; Wu, Qi Hong; De Silva, Lakshman; Arnold, Matthew

2004-08-01

310

A serial section Golgi analysis of the primate claustrum.  

PubMed

The cellular composition of the primate claustrum was analyzed using serially sectioned Golgi impregnated neurons. The tissue used in this study was embedded in a soft resin mixture and cut with 25 mm long glass knives. The resin embedding allowed the sections to be cut serially at a thickness of only 3 micrometers. A camera lucida was employed for drawing the cellular processes from selected impregnated neurons; these drawings were later incorporated into a single composite picture of the neuron. Three types of neurons were observed in the primate claustrum. The largest of these neurons (Type 1) had a cell body and spine-laden dendritic arborization that varied in size and shape according to the neuron's position in the claustrum. The axons of Type I neurons were successfully impregnated in 25-day-old animals and were found to form collaterals within the claustrum. The collaterals from the axons of these cells appeared to leave the claustrum through both the external and extreme capsules. A second neuron found in the claustrum (Type II) had a round cell body with smooth beaded dendrites which radiated in all directions. The axon of the Type II neuron appeared to give off numerous collaterals that were not observed to leave the claustrum. A third type of neuron (Type III) had a small pear shaped cell body and a sparse dendritic tree. The axon and its collaterals appeared to remain within the dendritic circumference of the Type III neuron. PMID:6181715

Brand, S

1981-01-01

311

Unified formulation of dynamics for serial rigid multibody systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a growing interest in the development of new and efficient algorithms for multibody dynamics in recent years. Serial rigid multibody systems form the basic subcomponents of general multibody systems, and a variety of algorithms to solve the serial chain forward dynamics problem have been proposed. In this paper, the economy of representation and analysis tools provided by the spatial operator algebra are used to clarify the inherent structure of these algorithms, to identify those that are similar, and to study the relationships among the ones that are distinct. For the purposes of this study, the algorithms are categorized into three classes: algorithms that require the explicit computation of the mass matrix, algorithms that are completely recursive in nature, and algorithms of intermediate complexity. In addition, alternative factorizations for the mass matrix and closed form expressions for its inverse are derived. These results provide a unifying perspective, within which these diverse dynamics algorithms arise naturally as a consequence of a progressive exploitation of the structure of the mass matrix.

Jain, Abhinandan

1991-06-01

312

Unified formulation of dynamics for serial rigid multibody systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been a growing interest in the development of new and efficient algorithms for multibody dynamics in recent years. Serial rigid multibody systems form the basic subcomponents of general multibody systems, and a variety of algorithms to solve the serial chain forward dynamics problem have been proposed. In this paper, the economy of representation and analysis tools provided by the spatial operator algebra are used to clarify the inherent structure of these algorithms, to identify those that are similar, and to study the relationships among the ones that are distinct. For the purposes of this study, the algorithms are categorized into three classes: algorithms that require the explicit computation of the mass matrix, algorithms that are completely recursive in nature, and algorithms of intermediate complexity. In addition, alternative factorizations for the mass matrix and closed form expressions for its inverse are derived. These results provide a unifying perspective, within which these diverse dynamics algorithms arise naturally as a consequence of a progressive exploitation of the structure of the mass matrix.

Jain, Abhinandan

1991-01-01

313

Implementation of Bluetooth serial port based profiles in embedded systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bluetooth is a new short-range wireless communication technology developing rapidly in recent years. Bluetooth software architecture consists of stack and profiles. Serial Port Profile (SPP) is an underlying profile that emulates RS232 serial cable connections between two peer devices. Based on SPP, Dial-up Networking (DUN) Profile establishes PPP connection with remote dial-up server, Fax Profile realizes document facsimile function and LAN Access Profile (LAP) provides local area network access service. When it comes to their implementation in embedded systems, there are several challenges such as memory consumption, code efficiency, code reliability, and code portability onto different OS and hardware platforms to be attacked. In this paper, we propose integrated software architecture after discussing the great similarities shared among the three SPP based profiles. Then implementation of the architecture is given, in which OS-dependent and OS-independent parts are clearly separated. Profile interfaces with stack and OS are specified respectively so that the three profiles as a whole can be ported onto various software and hardware platforms easily. As a result, policy of transplanting our implementation onto different platforms is addressed at the end of the paper.

Liu, Guanglei; Qiu, Zhengding; Wang, Quanping; Gao, Qiang

2001-10-01

314

Serial crystallography on in vivo grown microcrystals using synchrotron radiation  

PubMed Central

Crystal structure determinations of biological macromolecules are limited by the availability of sufficiently sized crystals and by the fact that crystal quality deteriorates during data collection owing to radiation damage. Exploiting a micrometre-sized X-ray beam, high-precision diffractometry and shutterless data acquisition with a pixel-array detector, a strategy for collecting data from many micrometre-sized crystals presented to an X-ray beam in a vitrified suspension is demonstrated. By combining diffraction data from 80 Trypanosoma brucei procathepsin B crystals with an average volume of 9?µm3, a complete data set to 3.0?Å resolution has been assembled. The data allowed the refinement of a structural model that is consistent with that previously obtained using free-electron laser radiation, providing mutual validation. Further improvements of the serial synchrotron crystallography technique and its combination with serial femtosecond crystallography are discussed that may allow the determination of high-resolution structures of micrometre-sized crystals.

Gati, Cornelius; Bourenkov, Gleb; Klinge, Marco; Rehders, Dirk; Stellato, Francesco; Oberthur, Dominik; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Sommer, Benjamin P.; Mogk, Stefan; Duszenko, Michael; Betzel, Christian; Schneider, Thomas R.; Chapman, Henry N.; Redecke, Lars

2014-01-01

315

In vivo serial sampling of epididymal sperm in mice.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to refine the techniques of in vivo collection of sperm in the mouse. The principal objective was to offer a viable, safe and reliable method for serial collection of in vivo epididimary sperm through the direct puncture of the epididymis. Six C57Bl/6J males were subjected to the whole experiment. First we obtain a sperm sample of the right epididymis, and perform a vasectomy on the left side. This sample was used in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiment while the males were individually housed for 10 days to let them recover from the surgery, and then their fertility was tested with natural matings until we obtained a litter of each one. After that, the animals were subjected another time to the same process (sampling, recover and natural mating). The results of these experiments were a fertilization average value of 56.7%, and that all the males had a litter in the first month after the natural matings. This study documented the feasibility of the epididimary puncture technique to in vivo serial sampling of sperm in the mouse. PMID:23760960

Del Val, Gonzalo Moreno; Robledano, Patricia Muñoz

2013-07-01

316

Random-effects models for serial observations with binary response  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a general mixed model for the analysis of serial dichotomous responses provided by a panel of study participants. Each subject's serial responses are assumed to arise from a logistic model, but with regression coefficients that vary between subjects. The logistic regression parameters are assumed to be normally distributed in the population. Inference is based upon maximum likelihood estimation of fixed effects and variance components, and empirical Bayes estimation of random effects. Exact solutions are analytically and computationally infeasible, but an approximation based on the mode of the posterior distribution of the random parameters is proposed, and is implemented by means of the EM algorithm. This approximate method is compared with a simpler two-step method proposed by Korn and Whittemore, using data from a panel study of asthmatics originally described in that paper. One advantage of the estimation strategy described here is the ability to use all of the data, including that from subjects with insufficient data to permit fitting of a separate logistic regression model, as required by the Korn and Whittemore method. However, the new method is computationally intensive.

Stiratelli, R.; Laird, N.; Ware, J.H.

1984-12-01

317

Forgetting in immediate serial recall: decay, temporal distinctiveness, or interference?  

PubMed

Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively. The models were fit to 2 experiments investigating the effect of filled delays between items at encoding or at recall. Short delays between items, filled with articulatory suppression, led to massive impairment of memory relative to a no-delay baseline. Extending the delays had little additional effect, suggesting that the passage of time alone does not cause forgetting. Adding a choice reaction task in the delay periods to block attention-based rehearsal did not change these results. The interference-based SOB fit the data best; the primacy model overpredicted the effect of lengthening delays, and SIMPLE was unable to explain the effect of delays at encoding. The authors conclude that purely temporal views of forgetting are inadequate. PMID:18729591

Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

2008-07-01

318

Serial sectioning methods for 3D investigations in materials science.  

PubMed

A variety of methods for the investigation and 3D representation of the inner structure of materials has been developed. In this paper, techniques based on slice and view using scanning microscopy for imaging are presented and compared. Three different methods of serial sectioning combined with either scanning electron or scanning ion microscopy or atomic force microscopy (AFM) were placed under scrutiny: serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, which facilitates an ultramicrotome built into the chamber of a variable pressure scanning electron microscope; three-dimensional (3D) AFM, which combines an (cryo-) ultramicrotome with an atomic force microscope, and 3D FIB, which delivers results by slicing with a focused ion beam. These three methods complement one another in many respects, e.g., in the type of materials that can be investigated, the resolution that can be obtained and the information that can be extracted from 3D reconstructions. A detailed review is given about preparation, the slice and view process itself, and the limitations of the methods and possible artifacts. Applications for each technique are also provided. PMID:24811993

Zankel, Armin; Wagner, Julian; Poelt, Peter

2014-07-01

319

Serial lobar lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.  

PubMed

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease with worldwide distribution and an estimated incidence of 0.36 cases per million. We report a case of a PAP coexisting with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The patient was treated with serial lobar lung lavages, GM-CSF, cotrimoxazole, and antituberculosis drugs. His PaO2 on room air improved from 45.7 to 63.8 torr and pulmonary functions normalized (FVC 81.2%, FEV1 95.3%, FEV1/FVC 91.8). A high-resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax showed clearing of both lower lobes. Whole-lung lavage is used in the treatment of PAP, but it may worsen the hypoxemia and lead to hemodynamic instability during the procedure. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of bronchoscopic serial lobar lung lavages in cases of PAP performed in India. This method can be performed in bronchoscopic suites having general anesthesia facilities without the requirement of special gadgets. PMID:24162118

Baldi, Milind M; Nair, Jairaj; Athavale, Amita; Gavali, Varun; Sarkar, Manjula; Divate, Smita; Shah, Unmil

2013-10-01

320

Serial reaction modeling using random walk particles tracking methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the middle of the previous century, DNAPL contamination is a clear identified problem for the management of urban and suburban groundwater resources quality. Random walk particles tracking methods showed their legitimacy and efficiency for modeling reactive transport especially thanks to the absence of numerical dispersion and computational efficiency. We present a new method to efficiently simulate a serial reaction, i.e., the natural degradation of chlorinated solvents, into a trustable 3D random walk particle-tracking model (RW3D). The chemical specie is defined as a particle property (state of the particle). Results of the zeroth spatial moment of the mass transfer equation derivation in the Fourier domain are used as particle state transition probabilities. We obtain thereby the state of a particle after a given time i.e. the mass evolution of the different species involved into the serial reaction. The particle tracking approach is successfully compared to the well- known finite difference code RT3D. We apply this approach to model the behavior of chlorinated compounds resulting from the sequential degradation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in highly randomly heterogeneous porous media.

Henri, C.; Fernández-Garcia, D.

2012-04-01

321

Effects of adult aging on utilization of temporal and semantic associations during free and serial recall  

PubMed Central

Older adults show poorer performance than young adults at word list recall, especially for order information. In contrast with this temporal association deficit, older adults are generally adept at using preexisting semantic associations, when present, to aid recall. We compared the use of temporal and semantic associations in young and older adults’ word list recall following both free recall and serial recall instructions. Decomposition of serial position curves confirmed that older adults showed weakened use of temporal context in recall in relation to young adults, a difference that was amplified in serial recall. Older adults’ temporal associations were also less effective than young adults’ when correlated with serial recall performance. The differential age decrement for serial versus free recall was accompanied by a persistent influence of latent semantic associations in the older adults, even when maladaptive for serial recall.

Golomb, Julie D.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Addis, Kelly M.; Kahana, Michael J.; Wingfield, Arthur

2009-01-01

322

Inhibition of oil plume dilution in Langmuir ocean circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil spills from deep-water blowouts rise through and interact with the ocean mixed layer and Langmuir turbulence, leading to considerable diversity of oil slick dilution patterns observed on the ocean surface. Certain conditions can drive oil droplet plumes to organize into distinct bands called windrows, inhibiting oil dilution. Observations of blurred or even diffused plumes are also common, but conditions under which these various dilution regimes emerge are not well understood. Here we use large eddy simulations to explain and quantify the dilution patterns and their dependence on relevant physical parameters. Two mechanisms, the downwelling and dilution due to Langmuir cells and the inhibition of dilution due to buoyancy of oil droplets, compete. This competition can be characterized by the ratio of Stokes drift to droplet rise velocity—the drift-to-buoyancy parameter, Db. We find that plume appearance and quantitative measures of relative dilution depend mainly on Db.

Yang, Di; Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles

2014-03-01

323

Dilution jet mixing program, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objectives for the NASA Jet Mixing Phase 3 program were: extension of the data base on the mixing of single sided rows of jets in a confined cross flow to discrete slots, including streamlined, bluff, and angled injections; quantification of the effects of geometrical and flow parameters on penetration and mixing of multiple rows of jets into a confined flow; investigation of in-line, staggered, and dissimilar hole configurations; and development of empirical correlations for predicting temperature distributions for discrete slots and multiple rows of dilution holes.

Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Myers, G.; White, C.

1985-01-01

324

Strength in the Technical Communication Journals and Diversity in the Serials Cited  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 1,600 serials from across the disciplines were identified as sources for technical communication scholars. The 99 most frequently cited serials are described. This citation analysis is distinguished from others by the size of the database (25,000+ citations), the 10-year review of articles published in five technical communication journals between 1988 and 1997, the number of serials cited and

Elizabeth Overman Smith

2000-01-01

325

Rehearsal in serial memory for visual-spatial information: Evidence from eye movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that rote rehearsal plays a key role in serial memory for lists of verbal items. Although a great deal\\u000a of research has informed us about the nature of verbal rehearsal, much less attention has been devoted to rehearsal in serial\\u000a memory for visual-spatial information. By using the dot task—a visual-spatial analogue of the classical verbal serial

Sébastien Tremblay; Jean Saint-Aubin; Annie Jalbert

2006-01-01

326

Implementation of a FFT radix 2 butterfly using serial RSFQ multiplier-adders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed a Decimation-in-Time (DIT) radix 2 butterfly integrated circuit. This circuit will be used to implement the 32-point Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) in a parallel data flow architecture. The radix 2 butterfly circuit uses serial RSFQ math and consists of four single bit-wide serial multipliers and eight carry-save serial adders. The circuit with 16-bit word-length employs only 3400

Oleg A. Mukhanov; Alexander F. Kirichenko

1995-01-01

327

Two Phases of Engraftment Established by Serial Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serially transplanted bone marrow eventually fails to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice. The reasons for this loss of repopulating ability are unknown. We showed that serial bone marrow transplantation changed the ratio of hematopoietic progenitors in bone marrow. The numbers of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU- GM) in the bone marrow did not change with serial transplantation. Spleen CFU (CFU-S) numbers decreased

Richard J. Jones; Paul Celano; Saul J. Sharkis; Lyle L. Sensenbrenner

1989-01-01

328

A systematic approach for design of digit-serial signal processing architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic unfolding transformation technique for transforming bit-serial architectures into equivalent digit-serial ones is presented. The novel feature of the unfolding technique lies in the generation of functionally correct control circuits in the digit-serial architectures. For some applications bit-serial architectures may be too slow, and bit-parallel architectures may be faster than necessary and may require too much hardware. The desired sample rate in these applications can be achieved using the digit-serial approach, where multiple bits of a sample are processed in a single clock cycle. The number of bits processed in one clock cycle in the digit-serial systems is referred to as the digit size; the digit size can be any arbitrary integer (the digit size was restricted to be a divisor of wordlength in past ad hoc designs). Digit-serial implementation of two's complement adders and multipliers is described. Least-significant-bit-first bit-serial implementation of two's complement division, square-root, and compare-select operations are presented, and the corresponding digit-serial architectures for these operations are obtained using the unfolding algorithm. Unfolding of multiple-rate operations (such as interpolators and decimators) is also addressed.

Parhi, Keshab K.

1991-04-01

329

Serial agonistic attacks by greylag goose families, Anser anser, against the same opponent  

PubMed Central

It is known from primates that alliance partners may support each other’s interests in competition with others, for example, through repeated agonistic attacks against a particular individual. We examined serial aggressive interactions between greylag goose families and other flock members. We found that repeated attacks towards the same individual were common and that up to five serial attacks by family members followed an initial attack. Family size did not affect the frequency of such serial attacks. Juvenile geese evidently benefited most from active social support through serial attacks. About 60% of the juveniles’ lost primary interactions were subsequently reversed by another family member. This may be one of the reasons why juveniles rank higher in the social hierarchy than would be expected from their age and size alone. Losses in serial attacks predominantly occurred against other, presumably higher-ranking, family geese and ganders. We propose three major functions/consequences of serial attacks. Analogous to primates, serial attacks in greylag geese may serve to reinforce a losing experience of an opponent defeated in a preceding attack. On the side of the winning family, serial attacks may reinforce the experience of winning. Both winning and losing experiences are linked with physiological consequences in higher vertebrates, affecting the future social performance of winners or losers. Finally, serial attacks may signal the agonistic potential of a family to other flock members. This is supported by heart rate data, which indicate that greylags are competent to interpret third-party relationships.

Scheiber, Isabella B.R.; Kotrschal, Kurt; Weiss, Brigitte M.

2011-01-01

330

ANALYSIS OF BORON DILUTION TRANSIENTS IN PWRS.  

SciTech Connect

A study has been carried out with PARCS/RELAP5 to understand the consequences of hypothetical boron dilution events in pressurized water reactors. The scenarios of concern start with a small-break loss-of-coolant accident. If the event leads to boiling in the core and then the loss of natural circulation, a boron-free condensate can accumulate in the cold leg. The dilution event happens when natural circulation is re-established or a reactor coolant pump (RCP) is restarted in violation of operating procedures. This event is of particular concern in B&W reactors with a lowered-loop design and is a Generic Safety Issue for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The results of calculations with the reestablishment of natural circulation show that there is no unacceptable fuel damage. This is determined by calculating the maximum fuel pellet enthalpy, based on the three-dimensional model, and comparing it with the criterion for damage. The calculation is based on a model of a B&W reactor at beginning of the fuel cycle. If an RCP is restarted, unacceptable fuel damage may be possible in plants with sufficiently large volumes of boron-free condensate in the cold leg.

DIAMOND,D.J.BROMLEY,B.P.ARONSON,A.L.

2004-02-04

331

40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...positive-displacement pump (PDP), a subsonic venturi (SSV), or an ultrasonic flow meter (UFM). Combined with an upstream heat exchanger...dilution system, you may use a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a critical-flow...

2013-07-01

332

Motor-mediated microtubule self-organization in dilute and semi-dilute filament solutions.  

SciTech Connect

We study molecular motor-induced microtubule self-organization in dilute and semi-dilute filament solutions. In the dilute case, we use a probabilistic model of microtubule interaction via molecular motors to investigate microtubule bundle dynamics. Microtubules are modeled as polar rods interacting through fully inelastic, binary collisions. Our model indicates that initially disordered systems of interacting rods exhibit an orientational instability resulting in spontaneous ordering. We study the existence and dynamic interaction of microtubule bundles analytically and numerically. Our results reveal a long term attraction and coalescing of bundles indicating a clear coarsening in the system; microtubule bundles concentrate into fewer orientations on a slow logarithmic time scale. In semi-dilute filament solutions, multiple motors can bind a filament to several others and, for a critical motor density, induce a transition to an ordered phase with a nonzero mean orientation. Motors attach to a pair of filaments and walk along the pair bringing them into closer alignment. We develop a spatially homogenous, mean-field theory that explicitly accounts for a force-dependent detachment rate of motors, which in turn affects the mean and the fluctuations of the net force acting on a filament. We show that the transition to the oriented state can be both continuous and discontinuous when the force-dependent detachment of motors is important.

Swaminathan, S.; Ziebert, F.; Aranson, I. S.; Karpeev, D. (Mathematics and Computer Science); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.); (UMR CNRS)

2011-01-01

333

Serially connected solid oxide fuel cells having monolithic cores  

DOEpatents

A solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of cell segments electrically serially connected in the flow direction, each segment consisting of electrolyte walls and interconnect that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageways; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte composite materials is of the order of 0.002-0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002-0.05 cm thick. Between 2 and 50 cell segments may be connected in series.

Herceg, Joseph E. (Naperville, IL)

1987-01-01

334

Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlesinger, Adam M.

2013-01-01

335

Context dependent learning in the serial RT task  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the development of contextual dependencies for sequential perceptual-motor learning on static features in the learning environment. In three experiments we assessed the effect of manipulating task irrelevant static context features in a serial reaction-time task. Experiment 1 demonstrated impaired performance after simultaneously changing display color, placeholder shape, and placeholder location. Experiment 2 showed that this effect was mainly caused by changing placeholder shape. Finally, Experiment 3 indicated that changing context affected both the application of sequence knowledge and the selection of individual responses. It is proposed either that incidental stimulus features are integrated with a global sequence representation, or that the changed context causes participants to strategically inhibit sequence skills.

Verwey, Willem B.

2007-01-01

336

Star adaptation for two-algorithms used on serial computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two representative algorithms used on a serial computer and presently executed on the Control Data Corporation 6000 computer were adapted to execute efficiently on the Control Data STAR-100 computer. Gaussian elimination for the solution of simultaneous linear equations and the Gauss-Legendre quadrature formula for the approximation of an integral are the two algorithms discussed. A description is given of how the programs were adapted for STAR and why these adaptations were necessary to obtain an efficient STAR program. Some points to consider when adapting an algorithm for STAR are discussed. Program listings of the 6000 version coded in 6000 FORTRAN, the adapted STAR version coded in 6000 FORTRAN, and the STAR version coded in STAR FORTRAN are presented in the appendices.

Howser, L. M.; Lambiotte, J. J., Jr.

1974-01-01

337

Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios use error-correction techniques that approach Shannon s theoretical limit of performance. The authors describe the benefit of closed-loop measurements for a receiver when paired with a counterpart transmitter and representative channel conditions. We also describe a real-time Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in real-time during the development of software defined radios.

Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlensinger, Adam M.

2012-01-01

338

Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in rat liver regeneration  

SciTech Connect

We have applied serial analysis of gene expression for studying the molecular mechanism of the rat liver regeneration in the model of 70% partial hepatectomy. We generated three SAGE libraries from a normal control liver (NL library: 52,343 tags), from a sham control operated liver (Sham library: 51,028 tags), and from a regenerating liver (PH library: 53,061 tags). By SAGE bioinformatics analysis we identified 40 induced genes and 20 repressed genes during the liver regeneration. We verified temporal expression of such genes by real time PCR during the regeneration process and we characterized 13 induced genes and 3 repressed genes. We found connective tissue growth factor transcript and protein induced very early at 4 h after PH operation before hepatocytes proliferation is triggered. Our study suggests CTGF as a growth factor signaling mediator that could be involved directly in the mechanism of liver regeneration induction.

Cimica, Velasco [Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Robert Koch Str. 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)]. E-mail: vcimica@aecom.yu.edu; Batusic, Danko [Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Robert Koch Str. 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Haralanova-Ilieva, Borislava [Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Robert Koch Str. 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Chen, Yonglong [Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Department of Developmental Biochemistry, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 11, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Hollemann, Thomas [Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Department of Developmental Biochemistry, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 11, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Pieler, Tomas [Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Department of Developmental Biochemistry, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 11, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Ramadori, Giuliano [Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Robert Koch Str. 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

2007-08-31

339

Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the quantum-mechanical sense) between neighboring dots within the cell. The Coulomb repulsion between the two electrons tends to make them occupy antipodal dots in the cell. For an isolated cell, there are two energetically equivalent arrangements (denoted polarization states) of the extra electrons. The cell polarization is used to encode binary information. Because the polarization of a nonisolated cell depends on Coulomb-repulsion interactions with neighboring cells, universal logic gates and binary wires could be constructed, in principle, by arraying QCA of suitable design in suitable patterns. Again, for reasons too complex to describe here, in order to ensure accuracy and timeliness of the output of a QCA array, it is necessary to resort to an adiabatic switching scheme in which the QCA array is divided into subarrays, each controlled by a different phase of a multiphase clock signal. In this scheme, each subarray is given time to perform its computation, then its state is frozen by raising its inter-dot potential barriers and its output is fed as the input to the successor subarray. The successor subarray is kept in an unpolarized state so it does not influence the calculation of preceding subarray. Such a clocking scheme is consistent with pipeline computation in the sense that each different subarray can perform a different part of an overall computation. In other words, QCA arrays are inherently suitable for pipeline and, moreover, systolic computations. This sequential or pipeline aspect of QCA would be utilized in the proposed bit-serial adders.

Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew

2003-01-01

340

Liquid sample delivery techniques for serial femtosecond crystallography.  

PubMed

X-ray free-electron lasers overcome the problem of radiation damage in protein crystallography and allow structure determination from micro- and nanocrystals at room temperature. To ensure that consecutive X-ray pulses do not probe previously exposed crystals, the sample needs to be replaced with the X-ray repetition rate, which ranges from 120 Hz at warm linac-based free-electron lasers to 1 MHz at superconducting linacs. Liquid injectors are therefore an essential part of a serial femtosecond crystallography experiment at an X-ray free-electron laser. Here, we compare different techniques of injecting microcrystals in solution into the pulsed X-ray beam in vacuum. Sample waste due to mismatch of the liquid flow rate to the X-ray repetition rate can be addressed through various techniques. PMID:24914163

Weierstall, Uwe

2014-07-17

341

An improved integration method in serial femtosecond crystallography.  

PubMed

Recent experiments in serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) have demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining structural information from nanoscale crystals using X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). However, millions of crystals are required to determine one reliable structure. Here, an improved integration algorithm for SFX data processing is reported. By evaluating the dimensions of each crystal and correcting for the geometric factors of single patterns, the effective diffraction intensities, as opposed to the directly measured single-shot pattern diffraction intensities, can be merged to acquire more accurate integrated intensities which can be used for structure determination. This improvement enhances the quality of electron-density maps and decreases the number of diffraction patterns that are needed to solve the crystal structure in SFX experiments. PMID:24816090

Qu, Kun; Zhou, Liang; Dong, Yu-Hui

2014-05-01

342

Picture detection in rapid serial visual presentation: features or identity?  

PubMed

A pictured object can be readily detected in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence when the target is specified by a superordinate category name such as animal or vehicle. Are category features the initial basis for detection, with identification of the specific object occurring in a second stage (Evans & Treisman, 2005), or is identification of the object the basis for detection? When 2 targets in the same superordinate category are presented successively (lag 1), only the identification-first hypothesis predicts lag 1 sparing of the second target. The results of 2 experiments with novel pictures and a wide range of categories supported the identification-first hypothesis and a transient-attention model of lag 1 sparing and the attentional blink (Wyble, Bowman, & Potter, 2009). PMID:20695696

Potter, Mary C; Wyble, Brad; Pandav, Rijuta; Olejarczyk, Jennifer

2010-12-01

343

A Serial of Technologies Exploiting Towards Data Share  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the purposes of the Virtual Observatory is providing data share. The Solar Multi-Channel Telescope in Huairou Solar Observing Station, Beijing of China is not only used for science research but also for solar activity prediction and space environment prediction. For providing these services, we have been carrying through a serial of technologies exploiting. In this article, we will discuss the exploiting. The exploiting includes setting up WWW server, network, network safety facility, data processing software and designing international unified meta data for our speciality, etc. So far, as result of these exploiting, the initial needs have can be reached. We still have further work to implement. Such as, uploading data in real time, setting up database with query function, continuous improvement of the software, etc.

Lin, G. H.

2006-08-01

344

Serial and Parallel Processing in the Primate Auditory Cortex Revisited  

PubMed Central

Over a decade ago it was proposed that the primate auditory cortex is organized in a serial and parallel manner in which there is a dorsal stream processing spatial information and a ventral stream processing non-spatial information. This organization is similar to the “what”/“where” processing of the primate visual cortex. This review will examine several key studies, primarily electrophysiological, that have tested this hypothesis. We also review several human imaging studies that have attempted to define these processing streams in the human auditory cortex. While there is good evidence that spatial information is processed along a particular series of cortical areas, the support for a non-spatial processing stream is not as strong. Why this should be the case and how to better test this hypothesis is also discussed.

Recanzone, Gregg H.; Cohen, Yale E.

2009-01-01

345

Serial cytokine expressions in infants with incontinentia pigmenti.  

PubMed

NF-?B dysfunction resulting from NEMO (NF-kappaB essential modulator) mutation can lead to significant alterations in cytokine production. However, little is known about changes in the expression of downstream molecules in patients with incontinentia pigmenti (IP). We aim to investigate serial cytokine expressions during the first 2 years of life in young infants with IP, the period in which skin inflammation and morphological changes are most significant. Gene analysis and X-inactivation test were performed for the two neonates with IP. Peripheral mononuclear cells were obtained after birth and successively at 6-month interval up to the age of two years. Levels of TNF-? and IL-6 were analyzed with ELISA before and after stimulating with Toll-like receptor ligands. The result showed the male IP patient had normal NEMO allele. His cytokine level, although initially lower, had returned to a level comparable with those of controls at 12 months of age. The female infant had mutated NEMO gene. Her baseline TNF-? level was significantly higher than those of the control subjects at birth and remained high by 6 months of age. All cytokine responses had decreased significantly by 2 years of age, the time in which all vesicular skin lesions had resolved. Both infants had normal serum immunoglobulin level and remained infection free during the follow up period. To our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates serial changes of cytokine profiles in humans with IP. This study showed that in the presence of NEMO mutation, alteration of cytokine production was remarkable during the first year of life, which may account for the prominent inflammatory changes in skin morphology. PMID:23079196

Liao, Sui-Ling; Lai, Shen-Hao; Huang, Jing-Long; Lee, Ni-Chung; Lee, Wen-I

2013-05-01

346

Assessing sleep consciousness within subjects using a serial awakening paradigm  

PubMed Central

Dreaming—a particular form of consciousness that occurs during sleep—undergoes major changes in the course of the night. We aimed to outline state-dependent features of consciousness using a paradigm with multiple serial awakenings/questionings that allowed for within as well as between subject comparisons. Seven healthy participants who spent 44 experimental study nights in the laboratory were awakened by a computerized sound at 15–30 min intervals, regardless of sleep stage, and questioned for the presence or absence of sleep consciousness. Recall without content (“I was experiencing something but do not remember what”) was considered separately. Subjects had to indicate the content of the most recent conscious experience prior to the alarm sound and to estimate its duration and richness. We also assessed the degree of thinking and perceiving, self- and environment-relatedness and reflective consciousness of the experiences. Of the 778 questionings, 5% were performed during wakefulness, 2% in stage N1, 42% in N2, 33% in N3, and 17% in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Recall with content was reported in 34% of non-REM and in 77% of REM sleep awakenings. Sleep fragmentation inherent to the study design appeared to only minimally affect the recall of conscious experiences. Each stage displayed a unique combination of characteristic features of sleep consciousness. In conclusion, our serial awakening paradigm allowed us to collect a large and representative sample of conscious experiences across states of being. It represents a time-efficient method for the study of sleep consciousness that may prove particularly advantageous when combined with techniques such as functional MRI and high-density EEG.

Siclari, Francesca; LaRocque, Joshua J.; Postle, Bradley R.; Tononi, Giulio

2013-01-01

347

In vitro antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of honokiol and magnolol against Propionibacterium sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honokiol and magnolol, two major phenolic constituents of Magnolia sp., have been known to exhibit antibacterial activities. However, until now, their antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium sp. has not been reported. To this end, the antibacterial activities of honokiol and magnolol were detected using the disk diffusion method and a two-fold serial dilution assay. Honokiol and magnolol showed strong antibacterial activities

Junho Park; Jongsung Lee; Eunsun Jung; Yumi Park; Kukhyun Kim; Kwangseon Jung; Jieun Kim

2004-01-01

348

Condensate fluctuations in the dilute Bose gas  

SciTech Connect

The fluctuations of a number of particles in the Bose-Einstein condensate are studied in the grand canonical ensemble with an effective single-mode Hamiltonian, which is derived from an assumption that the mode corresponding to the Bose-Einstein condensate does not asymptotically correlate with other modes. The fluctuations are evaluated in the dilute limit with a proposed simple method, which is beyond the mean-field approximation. The accuracy of the latter is estimated; it is shown that the mean-field scheme does not work for the single-mode Hamiltonian, while for the Hartree Hamiltonian it allows us to estimate the condensate fluctuations up to a numerical factor. As a hypothesis, a formula is proposed that relates the fluctuations in the canonical ensemble with that of the grand canonical one.

Cherny, Alexander Yu. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); and Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation)

2005-04-01

349

Sibling dilution hypothesis: a regression surface analysis.  

PubMed

This study examined relationships between sibship size (the number of children in a family), birth order, and measures of academic performance, academic self-concept, and educational aspirations at different levels of family educational resources. As part of a national longitudinal study of Australian secondary school students data were collected from 2,530 boys and 2,450 girls in Years 9 and 10. Regression surfaces were constructed from models that included terms to account for linear, interaction, and curvilinear associations among the variables. Analysis suggests the general propositions (a) family educational resources have significant associations with children's school-related outcomes at different levels of sibling variables, the relationships for girls being curvilinear, and (b) sibling variables continue to have small significant associations with affective and cognitive outcomes, after taking into account variations in family educational resources. That is, the investigation provides only partial support for the sibling dilution hypothesis. PMID:11729548

Marjoribanks, K

2001-08-01

350

Shearing instability of a dilute granular mixture.  

PubMed

The shearing instability of a dilute granular mixture composed of smooth inelastic hard spheres or disks is investigated. By using the Navier-Stokes hydrodynamic equations, it is shown that the scaled transversal velocity mode exhibits a divergent behavior, similarly to what happens in one-component systems. The theoretical prediction for the critical size is compared with direct Monte Carlo simulations of the Boltzmann equations describing the system, and a good agreement is found. The total energy fluctuations in the vicinity of the transition are shown to scale with the second moment of the distribution. The scaling distribution function is the same as found in other equilibrium and nonequilibrium phase transitions, suggesting the existence of some kind of universality. PMID:23496508

Brey, J Javier; Ruiz-Montero, M J

2013-02-01

351

TOPICAL REVIEW: Dilute magnetic semiconducting oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of recent results on transition metal doping of electronic oxides such as ZnO, TiO2, SnO2, BaTiO3, Cu2O, SrTiO3 and KTaO3 is presented. There is interest in achieving ferromagnetism with Curie temperatures above room temperature in such materials for applications in the field of spintronic devices, in which the spin of the carriers is exploited. The incorporation of several atomic per cent of the transition metals without creation of second phases appears possible under optimized synthesis conditions, leading to ferromagnetism. Pulsed laser deposition, reactive sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy and ion implantation have all been used to produce the oxide-based dilute magnetic materials. The mechanism is still under debate, with carrier-induced, double-exchange and bound magnetic polaron formation all potentially playing a role depending on the conductivity type and level in the material.

Pearton, S. J.; Heo, W. H.; Ivill, M.; Norton, D. P.; Steiner, T.

2004-10-01

352

A new technique of correcting emittance dilutions in linear colliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes a new method of reducing the transverse emittance dilution in linear colliders due to both transverse wakefields and dispersive errors. The technique is a generalization of the dispersion-free [1] correction algorithm; the dilutions are corrected locally by varying the beam trajectory. This technique will complement the BNS damping [2] method which primarily corrects the dilutions resulting from coherent betatron oscillations. Finally, the results of simulations are presented demonstrating the viability of the technique.

Raubenheimer, T. O.

1991-08-01

353

Serial Position Effects in the Identification of Letters, Digits, and Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 6 experiments, the authors investigated the form of serial position functions for identification of letters, digits, and symbols presented in strings. The results replicated findings obtained with the target search paradigm, showing an interaction between the effects of serial position and type of stimulus, with symbols generating a distinct…

Tydgat, Ilse; Grainger, Jonathan

2009-01-01

354

Analysis of Readex's Serial Set MARC Records: Improving the Data for the Library Catalog  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colorado State University Libraries (CSUL) purchased the digitized "United States Congressional Serial Set," 1817-1994 and "American State Papers" (1789-1838) from the Readex Division of NewsBank, Inc. and, once funds and records were available, the accompanying MARC records. The breadth of information found in the "Serial Set" is described, along…

Draper, Daniel; Lederer, Naomi

2013-01-01

355

Design of the Modbus Communication through Serial Port in QNX Operation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general design method on serial interface device driver, which is based on the analysis of Modbus protocol and QNX operation system (QNX OS) device driver architecture. Further, the paper specifies serial port communication in C program under QNX OS, and tests its communication with SIEMENS S7-200 PLC. The test result has proved that the method is

Sen Xu; Haipeng Pan; Jia Ren; Jie Su

2008-01-01

356

Visible Korean Human. Improved Serially Sectioned Images of The Entire Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data from the Visible Human Project (VHP) and the Chinese Visible Human (CVH), which are the serially sectioned images of the entire cadaver, are being used to produce three-dimensional (3D) images and software. The purpose of our research, the Visible Korean Human (VKH), is to produce an enhanced version of the serially sectioned images of an entire cadaver that

Min Suk Chung

2005-01-01

357

Visible Korean Human: Improved serially sectioned images of the entire body  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data from the Visible Human Project (VHP) and the Chinese Visible Human (CVH), which are the serially sectioned images of the entire cadaver, are being used to produce three-di- mensional (3-D) images and software. The purpose of our research, the Visible Korean Human (VKH), is to produce an enhanced ver- sion of the serially sectioned images of an entire

Jin Seo Park; Min Suk Chung; Sung Bae Hwang; Yong Sook Lee; Dong-hwan Har; Hyung Seon Park

2005-01-01

358

Serial and Parallel Attentive Visual Searches: Evidence from Cumulative Distribution Functions of Response Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants searched a visual display for a target among distractors. Each of 3 experiments tested a condition proposed to require attention and for which certain models propose a serial search. Serial versus parallel processing was tested by examining effects on response time means and cumulative distribution functions. In 2 conditions, the…

Sung, Kyongje

2008-01-01

359

Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amniocenteses in the treatment of severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Severe twin-twin transfusion can be treated by either serial amniocenteses with removal of large volumes of amniotic fluid or by endoscopic laser coagulation of the communicating vessels. We investigated the benefit of laser surgery in comparison to serial amniocenteses in terms of pregnancy outcome. Study Design: The data used in this comparative study were collected from 116 patients with

Kurt Hecher; Hanno Plath; Thomas Bregenzer; Manfred Hansmann; Bernhard J. Hackelöer

1999-01-01

360

What's Your Money Worth? Materials Budgets and the Selection and Evaluation of Book and Serial Vendors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses budgets for library materials and how to select and evaluate book and serial vendors. Trends in automation, publishing, and economics that affect both libraries and vendors are discussed; and examples from the University of California at Berkeley that include serials service charges and approval plan discounts are presented. (six…

Barker, Joseph W.

1992-01-01

361

In Support of Collection Assessment: The Role of Automation in the Acquisitions and Serials Departments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the role of automation in library acquisitions and serials departments in support of collection development. Highlights include workstations and expert systems; links to external databases; vendor services, including serials services and online review and selection of approval books; and automated access to collection development…

Hawks, Carol Pitts

1992-01-01

362

Print Serial Cancellations in University Libraries Post 1990: What Do the CAUL Statistics Reveal?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent reports on Australia's research infrastructure have highlighted the decline in serial subscriptions in academic and research libraries during the 1990s. They have used the annual CAUL statistics in order to support these claims. This article examines the CAUL statistics for serial subscriptions, indicating their numerous flaws when used for…

Genoni, Paul

2004-01-01

363

Pathophysiologic evaluation of MELAS strokes by serially quantified MRS and CASL perfusion images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To clarify the roles of serial MR spectroscopy (MRS) and continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) perfusion images for evaluating cerebral lesions in patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Materials and methods: Two cases of MELAS followed up serially using MRS and CASL images in addition to routine MR imaging were enrolled. Results: Newly appeared

Tetsuya Tsujikawa; Makoto Yoneda; Yukio Shimizu; Hidemasa Uematsu; Mariko Toyooka; Masamichi Ikawa; Takashi Kudo; Hidehiko Okazawa; Masaru Kuriyama; Hirohiko Kimura

2010-01-01

364

Psychological Profiling of Offender Characteristics from Crime Behaviors in Serial Rape Offences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criminal psychological profiling has progressively been incorporated into police procedures despite a dearth of empirical research. Indeed, in the study of serial violent crimes for the purpose of psychological profiling, very few original, quantitative, academically reviewed studies actually exist. This article reports on the analysis of 62 incidents of serial sexual assault. The statistical procedure of multidimensional scaling was employed

Richard N. Kocsis; Ray W. Cooksey; Harvey J. Irwin

2002-01-01

365

Serial and semantic encoding of lists of words in schizophrenia patients with visual hallucinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has suggested that visual hallucinations in schizophrenia are associated with abnormal salience of visual mental images. Since visual imagery is used as a mnemonic strategy to learn lists of words, increased visual imagery might impede the other commonly used strategies of serial and semantic encoding. We had previously published data on the serial and semantic strategies implemented by

Gildas Brébion; Ruth I. Ohlsen; Lyn S. Pilowsky; Anthony S. David

2011-01-01

366

Serial rebinding of ligands to clustered receptors as exemplified by bacterial chemotaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial ligation is the repeated reversible binding of a ligand to one receptor after another. It is a widespread phenomenon throughout biochemical systems, occurring anytime receptors are clustered together and ligand binding is reversible. Computer simulations are used in this work to investigate a representative example, which is the serial ligation of an extracellular aspartate molecule to the membrane-bound chemotaxis

Steven S. Andrews

2005-01-01

367

Effects of Domain-Specific Knowledge on Memory for Serial Order  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge concerning domain-specific regularities in sequential structure has long been known to affect recall for serial order. However, very little work has been done toward specifying the exact role such knowledge plays. The present article proposes a theory of serial recall in structured domains, based on Bayesian decision theory and a set of…

Botvinick, Matthew M.

2005-01-01

368

Serial agonistic attacks by greylag goose families, Anser anser, against the same opponent  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known from primates that alliance partners may support each other's interests in competition with others, for example, through repeated agonistic attacks against a particular individual. We examined serial aggressive interactions between greylag goose families and other flock members. We found that repeated attacks towards the same individual were common and that up to five serial attacks by family

Isabella B. R. Scheiber; Kurt Kotrschal; Brigitte M. Weiß

2009-01-01

369

Asymptotic properties of a quast-maximum likelihood estimator in truncated regression model with serial correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robinson (1982a) presented a general approach to serial correlation in limited dependent variable models and proved the strong consistency and asymptotic normality of the quasi-maximum likelihood estimator (QMLE) for the Tobit model with serial correlation, obtained under the assumption of independent errors. This paper proves the strong consistency and asymptotic normality of the QMLE based on independent errors for the

Sunil K. Sapra

1992-01-01

370

Subject-Verb Agreement in Children and Adults: Serial or Hierarchical Processing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two processes, serial and hierarchical, are generally opposed to account for grammatical encoding in language production. In a developmental perspective, the question addressed here is whether the subject-verb agreement during writing is computed serially, once the words are linearly ordered in the sentence, or hierarchically, as soon as the…

Negro, Isabelle; Chanquoy, Lucile; Fayol, Michel; Louis-Sidney, Maryse

2005-01-01

371

Serials Cited by Marine Sciences Research Center Faculty, University at Stony Brook, 1986-1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent creation of the Marine and Atmospheric Sciences Information Center at the University at Stony Brook prompted a study to determine which serials were most cited by faculty of the Marine Sciences Research Center to best locate the most useful serials in this new facility. An analysis of 5,242 citations by this faculty group resulted in a list of

Rosalind Walcott

1994-01-01

372

Psychopathology in Childhood and Adolescence as Reflected in Projected Afterimage Serials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A serial visual afterimage (AI) test was administered to 136 normal and 75 anxiety-ridden children 4-16 years of age. The scoring of the AI serials involved signs of primitive functioning (size-constant and positive AIs), anxiety (large and dark AIs together with primitive AIs in older children) and process discontinuity (intermittent regressions…

Smith, Gudmund J. W.; Danielsson, Anna

373

Entertainment-Education Radio Serial Drama and Outcomes Related to HIV Testing in Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Makgabaneng" is an entertainment-education radio serial drama written and produced in Botswana to promote prevention of HIV. This effort is part of the national response to HIV/AIDS. Broadcast of the serial drama began in August 2001, and two new 15-minute episodes air each week. We examined associations between exposure to "Makgabaneng" and…

Pappas-Deluca, Katina A.; Kraft, Joan Marie; Galavotti, Christine; Warner, Lee; Mooki, Maungo; Hastings, Phil; Koppenhaver, Todd; Roels, Thierry H.; Kilmarx, Peter H.

2008-01-01

374

Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics  

DOEpatents

A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

Nguyen, Quang A. (Golden, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2002-01-01

375

Female serial murderers: directions for future research on a hidden population.  

PubMed

This comprehensive overview on a sample of 65 cases (134 total offenders, including some partnered teams of more than 2 offenders) provides information on female serial murderers who either work in a mixed-sex offending group or alone. These female serial homicide offenders have a distinct set of offender-victim characteristics, including specific victim preferences, methods, and motivations: Partnered serial homicide offenders are more likely to target adult strangers and dispatch them using a combination of methods, whereas solo female serial murderers are most likely to target adult family members and murder them with poison. These patterns have the potential to add to our understanding of the possible similarities and differences of serial homicide cases by building on established offender characteristics. Convictions and sentences for the offenders are included and areas of future research and implications for treatment with this sample are also explored. PMID:19910510

Gurian, Elizabeth A

2011-02-01

376

IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus  

SciTech Connect

Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

Gaunt, R.

1997-05-01

377

Binding Serial Order to Representations in Working Memory: a Spatial/Verbal Dissociation  

PubMed Central

Verbal information is coded naturally as ordered representations in working memory (WM). However, this may not be true for spatial information. Accordingly, we used memory-span tasks to test the hypothesis that serial order is more readily bound to verbal than to spatial representations. Removing serial-order requirements improved performance more for spatial locations than for digits. Furthermore, serial order was freely reproduced twice as frequently for digits as for locations. When participants reordered spatial sequences, they minimized the mean distance between items. Participants also failed to detect changes in serial order more frequently for spatial than for verbal sequences. These results provide converging evidence for a dissociation in the binding of serial order to spatial vs. verbal representations. There may be separable domain-specific control processes responsible for this binding. Alternatively, there may be fundamental differences in how effectively temporal information can be bound to different types of stimulus features in WM.

Gmeindl, Leon; Walsh, Megan; Courtney, Susan M.

2011-01-01

378

Cross-domain interference costs during concurrent verbal and spatial serial memory tasks are asymmetric.  

PubMed

Some evidence suggests that memory for serial order is domain-general. Evidence also points to asymmetries in interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks. We confirm that concurrently remembering verbal and spatial serial lists provokes substantial interference compared with remembering a single list, but we further investigate the impact of this interference throughout the serial position curve, where asymmetries are indeed apparent. A concurrent verbal order memory task affects spatial memory performance throughout the serial positions of the list, but performing a spatial order task affects memory for the verbal serial list only for early list items; in the verbal task only, the final items are unaffected by a concurrent task. Adding suffixes eliminates this asymmetry, resulting in impairment throughout the list for both tasks. These results suggest that domain-general working memory resources may be supplemented with resources specific to the verbal domain, but perhaps not with equivalent spatial resources. PMID:22512308

Morey, Candice C; Mall, Jonathan T

2012-01-01

379

The case of Jeffrey Dahmer: sexual serial homicide from a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective.  

PubMed

Sexual serial homicidal behavior has received considerable attention during the last three decades. Substantial progress has been made in the development of methods aimed at identifying and apprehending individuals who exhibit these behaviors. In spite of these advances, the origins of sexual serial killing behavior remain for the most part unknown. In this article we propose a biopsychosocial psychiatric model for understanding the origins of sexual serial homicidal behavior from both neuropsychiatric and developmental perspectives, using the case of convicted serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer as the focal point. We propose that his homicidal behavior was intrinsically associated with autistic spectrum psychopathology, specifically Asperger's disorder. The relationship of Asperger's disorder to other psychopathology and to his homicidal behavior is explored. We discuss potential implications of the proposed model for the future study of the causes of sexual serial homicidal crime. PMID:12455663

Silva, J Arturo; Ferrari, Michelle M; Leong, Gregory B

2002-11-01

380

The Unified Renormalization Group Description of Dilute and Semi-dilute Polymer Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modification of renormalization group analysis of the theory of OHTA and OONO permits to describe dilute and semi-dilute polymer solutions in a unified way in a wide z region. Osmotic compressibility represented as a function of reduced concentration weakly depends on z in agreement with experimental observations by Wiltzius et al.Translated AbstractEinheitliche Renormierungsgruppenbeschreibung verdünnter und halbverdünnter PolymerslösungenDurch Modifizierung der RG-Analyse der Theorie von OHTA und OONO konnten die verdünnten und halbverdünnten Polymerlösungen auf einheitliche Weise im breiten z-Bereich beschrieben werden. Die osmotische Kompressibilität, dargestellt als Funktion der reduzierten Konzentration, hängt in Übereinstimmung mit dem Experiment von Wiltzius u. a. schwach von z ab.

Helmis, G.; Stepanow, S.

381

Re-evaluating the 38th Parallel Serial Impact Hypothesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea that the 38th-parallel structures across Kansas, Missouri, and Illinois are serial impacts has been controversial. In addition to the original eight, two other structures are proximal to the 38th parallel, Dent Branch and Silver City Dome. Only Weaubleau, Decaturville, and Crooked Creek contain quartz grains with multiple directions of planar deformational features (PDFs). Shatter cones have been found at Decaturville and Crooked Creek. Key macroscopic observations of these impacts include: (1) circular outlines and notable central uplifts, (2) remarkably intense levels of structural deformation (folding, faulting, fracturing, and brecciation), (3) deformation dying out with depth and laterally away from the central uplift, and (4) associated igneous rocks only as clasts. From field and core studies and published reports, we consider other structures along the 38th parallel to be dubious (Hazelgreen), intrusive, (Hick's Dome), or volcanic in origin (Silver City Dome, Rose Dome, Furnace Creek, Dent Branch, and Avon). The age of the Weaubleau structure is constrained biostratigraphically as middle Mississippian (latest Osagean or early Meramecian). Crooked Creek and Decaturville are deeply eroded; their ages are poorly constrained. Crooked Creek contains isolated blocks of sandstone of late Osagean age, but the stratigraphic context of the blocks is poorly known. Other investigators contend the age of Decaturville is Pennsylvanian or Permian, based on CRM paleomagnetism and occurrence of an isolated sulfide breccia body in the central uplift. The Ozark plateau experienced Missouri Valley Type (MVT) sulfide mineralization during the Ouachita orogeny, but our examination of a sample from the sulfide breccia shows it is shattered pyrite and differs from typical MVT deposits. If the breccia is not associated with the regional mineralization, a middle Mississippian age cannot be excluded. Weaubleau, Decaturville, and Crooked Creek are aligned across 199 km. A line connecting the centers of the central uplifts of Weaubleau and Crooked Creek passes 1.5 km north of the center of Decaturville. Monte Carlo simulation was used to examine the probability that three temporally unrelated impacts could be aligned (±2° angular discordance) randomly over relatively short distances in an area that approximates the continental land surface. Modeling variables included number of impacts (N=200, N=300...N=1,000) and search radii (100-600 km). Twenty repetitions of 10,000 runs provided for analysis of standard deviation. For N=200 and radius of 100 km, an average of 6.6±2.5 aligned sets were found. For N=300, the results were 25.9±3.7, yielding a probability of P=0.003. Larger sample sizes and wider search radii produced more probable results, but given the number of known impacts (~175), it is highly improbable that Weaubleau, Decaturville, and Crooked Creek structures could be aligned but not temporally related. If Weaubleau, Decaturville, and Crooked Creek were products of a serial impact, they were not analogous with the Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts on Jupiter, where planetary rotation affected the distribution, so the impacts would have occurred within seconds. In Mississippian paleogeographic reconstructions, the direction of impact would have been WSW-ENE, arguably along the ecliptic and near the equator. The distribution of deformation at Weaubleau suggests an oblique impact from present-day WSW-ENE, an argument against the serial impact hypothesis.

Evans, K. R.; Davis, G. H.; Miao, X.; Mickus, K. L.; Miller, J. F.; Morrow, J. R.

2008-12-01

382

Selection of attenuated dengue 4 viruses by serial passage in primary kidney cells. III. Reversion to virulence by passage of cloned virus in fetal rhesus lung cells.  

PubMed

Two strains of primary dog kidney-passaged dengue (DEN) 4 (H-241) virus cloned by terminal dilution (PDK 24-TD3 and 35-TD3) were propagated in fetal rhesus lung (FRhL) cells to produce candidate vaccine virus seeds. Both serial passage and prolonged replication of PDK 24-TD3 in FRhL resulted in appearance of medium and large plaques in LLC-MK2 assays. When picked, these plaques proved to contain temperature-resistant, monkey-virulent revertants. Serial passage and prolonged replication of PDK 24-TD3 in LLC-MK2 cells did not result in reversion; but, prolonged replication in PDK cells did. Passage of PDK 35-TD3 in FRhL cells resulted in appearance of medium size plaques which, when picked, yielded temperature sensitive (ts) (38.5 degrees C) viruses of low monkey-virulence. Because of its stability in monkeys and FRhL cells, reduced monkey virulence and ts property. PDK 35-TD3 is a promising candidate for trial in man. PMID:6476214

Halstead, S B; Marchette, N J; Diwan, A R; Palumbo, N E; Putvatana, R; Larsen, L K

1984-07-01

383

Serial evoked potentials and outcome in cerebrovascular critical care patients.  

PubMed

Median-nerve evoked somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), examined early in the course of patients suffering from cerebrovascular disease, correlate statistically significantly with outcome. Little is known about the changes of evoked potentials in the course of disease and their correlation to outcome. In a series of 215 patients (75 supratentorial infarctions, 36 infratentorial infarctions, 58 supratentorial hemorrhages, 18 infratentorial hemorrhages, and 28 aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhages) requiring neurologic intensive care treatment, we prospectively examined the correlation between the findings of serial SEPs and BAEPs and outcome at 4 weeks. Evoked potentials were examined after admission, after 1 week, and after 2 weeks. The findings were classified in 4 categories (normal, unilateral or bilateral pathologic findings, unilaterally attenuated, and bilaterally attenuated). Clinical outcome was determined by classification according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (death, persistent vegetative state, severely incapacitated, mildly incapacitated, and recovery). Statistical evaluation was performed using Fisher's exact test for all variables. In all subgroups, SEPs correlated statistically significantly with outcome at all three examinations. No correlation was found for BAEPs at first examination in infratentorial disease, nor at second examination in subarachnoid hemorrhages. In all other cases, SEPs and BAEPs were correlated statistically significantly with outcome at all three examination timepoints. PMID:10928644

Haupt, W F; Birkmann, C; Halber, M

2000-05-01

384

LabVIEW Serial Driver Software for an Electronic Load  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A LabVIEW-language computer program enables monitoring and control of a Transistor Devices, Inc., Dynaload WCL232 (or equivalent) electronic load via an RS-232 serial communication link between the electronic load and a remote personal computer. (The electronic load can operate at constant voltage, current, power consumption, or resistance.) The program generates a graphical user interface (GUI) at the computer that looks and acts like the front panel of the electronic load. Once the electronic load has been placed in remote-control mode, this program first queries the electronic load for the present values of all its operational and limit settings, and then drops into a cycle in which it reports the instantaneous voltage, current, and power values in displays that resemble those on the electronic load while monitoring the GUI images of pushbuttons for control actions by the user. By means of the pushbutton images and associated prompts, the user can perform such operations as changing limit values, the operating mode, or the set point. The benefit of this software is that it relieves the user of the need to learn one method for operating the electronic load locally and another method for operating it remotely via a personal computer.

Scullin, Vincent; Garcia, Christopher

2003-01-01

385

Serial analysis of gene expression in the chicken otocyst.  

PubMed

The inner ear arises from multipotent placodal precursors that are gradually committed to the otic fate and further differentiate into all inner ear cell types, with the exception of a few immigrating neural crest-derived cells. The otocyst plays a pivotal role during inner ear development: otic progenitor cells sub-compartmentalize into non-sensory and prosensory domains, giving rise to individual vestibular and auditory organs and their associated ganglia. The genes and pathways underlying this progressive subdivision and differentiation process are not entirely known. The goal of this study was to identify a comprehensive set of genes expressed in the chicken otocyst using the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) method. Our analysis revealed several hundred transcriptional regulators, potential signaling proteins, and receptors. We identified a substantial collection of genes that were previously known in the context of inner ear development, but we also found many new candidate genes, such as SOX4, SOX5, SOX7, SOX8, SOX11, and SOX18, which previously were not known to be expressed in the developing inner ear. Despite its limitation of not being all-inclusive, the generated otocyst SAGE library is a practical bioinformatics tool to study otocyst gene expression and to identify candidate genes for developmental studies. PMID:21853378

Sinkkonen, Saku T; Starlinger, Veronika; Galaiya, Deepa J; Laske, Roman D; Myllykangas, Samuel; Oshima, Kazuo; Heller, Stefan

2011-12-01

386

Serial retinal fluorescein angiography and immune therapy in Susac's syndrome.  

PubMed

We report a patient with Susac's disease presenting classically in a young female with an encephalopathy and visual disturbance with later deafness and tinnitus. Her encephalopathy settled, but subsequent serial fluorescein angiograms allowed sensitive monitoring of continuing sub-clinical disease activity, and provide evidence of a clear therapeutic response to immune suppression with tacrolimus (but not steroids alone)--and of a lack of efficacy of nimodipine and aspirin. We believe this single case study has both pathogenetic and useful practical implications: the apparently favourable response to immunosuppression lends support to the hypothesis that Susac's Syndrome is an immune-mediated disease; while the presence during symptomatic clinical remission of sporadic, multi-focal episodes of hyper-fluorescence, suggestive of breakthrough vasculopathy despite treatment, underlines the fact that the natural history of this rare condition is still not fully understood. Fluorescein angiography is proposed as a sensitive and important approach to the monitoring of sub-clinical disease activity, and so optimising immune suppressive treatment. PMID:19577774

Mallam, Beth; Damato, Erika M; Scolding, Neil J; Bailey, Clare

2009-10-15

387

Serial Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks Associated with Multiple Genotypes  

PubMed Central

Noroviruses (NoV) have been recognized as an important pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis worldwide during the past three decades. In the spring of 2012, a series of foodborne outbreaks in tourist groups were reported to Xiamen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xiamen, Fujian province, China. Among a total of 268 tourists in 7 groups, the prevalence rate of acute gastroenteritis was 16.0% (43/268). Twenty-three feces or anal swabs were collected for laboratory tests of causative agents, no bacterial pathogen was identified, while 22 of them were positive for NoV RNA. In addition, thirteen NoV fragments were recovered from positive specimens and sequenced, belonging to five genotypes such as GI.3, GI.4, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.14, respectively. However, NoV fragments obtained from locally infected patients showed distinct genotypes. Therefore, epidemiological investigation and laboratory analyses demonstrated that the serial foodborne NoV outbreaks in tourists were co-infection of multiple genotypes induced acute gastroenteritis linked to a restaurant.

Huang, Jianwei; Xu, Xuerong; Weng, Qinyun; Hong, Huarong; Guo, Zhinan; He, Shuizhen; Niu, Jianjun

2013-01-01

388

Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections using triakis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various methods for serial-section reconstruction from images of tissue sections have been investigated using the Apple Macintosh-based program Triakis. Triakis is a three-dimensional mathematical morphology software package that processes 3-D binary data in the FCC (face centered cubic) tessellation by means of LUT (look-up table) manipulations. Tissue sections have been obtained from a breast tumor and traced using PC3-D [Jandel Scientific, Corte Madera, Calif.] were transferred via a software interface to Triakis. Triakis uses the Apple Macintosh polygon filling routine to fill each tracing with binary ones. Next, ranking transforms in the binary FCC tessellation were used in order to demonstrate their capability of smoothly interpolating from one section to the other. The optimum transform is based on the placement of the binarized tissue sections in hexagonal planes and uses three cycles of a rank three transform for the initial interpolation. Irregularities are then removed from the resulting solid by seven cycles of a compound transform. Thereafter, the filled polygons were eroded using Triakis and, from the annular histogram, the spatial interrelationships of malignant cells within the tumor determined.

Preston, Kendall; Siderits, Richard

1992-06-01

389

Automated serial sectioning applied to 3D paper structure analysis.  

PubMed

A better understanding of paper properties requires a detailed knowledge about the spatial arrangement of its constituent materials in its structure. This paper presents a novel approach for the analysis of the three-dimensional paper structure at the fibre level. A technique combining a rotary microtome and an optical microscopy was developed allowing serial sectioning of hundreds of cuts. The microscope is fixed on a moveable stage and mounted in front of a microtome. Repeatedly, thin slices are cut off an embedded paper sample and the cut block surface is scanned in a fully automated process. The prototype built is able to digitize paper samples with a size of more than 1 cm(2) at a possible three-dimensional resolution below 1 ?m. Advanced computer vision methods are applied to extract relevant information from the digitized samples. Currently, the most important applications are the analysis of pigment coating layers on the paper surfaces and the analysis of fibre transverse morphology. Besides the analysis of paper structures, this technique is also suited for the spatial analysis of other materials, if the structural features are accessible with light optical microscopy. PMID:21118393

Wiltsche, M; Donoser, M; Kritzinger, J; Bauer, W

2011-05-01

390

Serial foodborne norovirus outbreaks associated with multiple genotypes.  

PubMed

Noroviruses (NoV) have been recognized as an important pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis worldwide during the past three decades. In the spring of 2012, a series of foodborne outbreaks in tourist groups were reported to Xiamen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xiamen, Fujian province, China. Among a total of 268 tourists in 7 groups, the prevalence rate of acute gastroenteritis was 16.0% (43/268). Twenty-three feces or anal swabs were collected for laboratory tests of causative agents, no bacterial pathogen was identified, while 22 of them were positive for NoV RNA. In addition, thirteen NoV fragments were recovered from positive specimens and sequenced, belonging to five genotypes such as GI.3, GI.4, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.14, respectively. However, NoV fragments obtained from locally infected patients showed distinct genotypes. Therefore, epidemiological investigation and laboratory analyses demonstrated that the serial foodborne NoV outbreaks in tourists were co-infection of multiple genotypes induced acute gastroenteritis linked to a restaurant. PMID:23667602

Huang, Jianwei; Xu, Xuerong; Weng, Qinyun; Hong, Huarong; Guo, Zhinan; He, Shuizhen; Niu, Jianjun

2013-01-01

391

Serial monogamy and sex ratio bias in Nazca boobies.  

PubMed

Biased operational sex ratios (OSRs) can drive sexual selection on members of the over-represented sex via competition for mates, causing higher variance and skew in reproductive success (RS) among them if an individual's quality is a persistent characteristic. Alternatively, costs of reproduction may degrade breeding performance, creating the opportunity for members of the limiting sex to switch mates adaptively, effectively homogenizing variance and skew in RS among the sex in excess. We tested these two contrasting models in a male-biased population of the Nazca booby (Sula granti) with demonstrated costs of reproduction with data on total RS over a 14-year period. Variances and skews in RS were similar, and males changed from breeder to non-breeder more frequently than females. Under the persistent individual quality model, females should mate only with high quality males, and non-breeding males should seldom enter the breeding pool, yet 45% of non-breeding males (re)entered the breeding pool each year on average. Many Nazca booby females apparently exchange a depleted male for a new mate from the pool of current non-breeder males. Our evidence linking serial monogamy to costs of reproduction is novel and suggests selection on female mating preferences based on an interaction between at least two life-history components (OSR and reproductive effort). PMID:17567557

Maness, Terri J; Anderson, David J

2007-08-22

392

Serial postmortem thoracic radiographic findings in canine cadavers.  

PubMed

Postmortem radiographic examinations of animals are often performed in judicial investigation to rule out gunshot and fractures due to cruelty. Literature describing postmortem changes seen on radiographs of animals is rarely available. Serial thoracic radiography of six recently euthanized dogs was performed in an interval of 8 h at a tropical ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. Severe decomposition of the cadavers prevented the study to be performed beyond 24 h. Gradual increment of gas accumulation in the pleural cavity, mediastinum, esophagus, blood vessels, cardiac chambers and subcutaneous tissue was observed. Lung changes observed were typical of alveolar pattern and subsequently collapsed secondary to severe pneumothorax. Vacuum phenomenon of the scapulohumeral joints which was not documented in humans was seen in four cadavers. Most radiographic changes were detected at 16 h post-euthanasia. Severe subcutaneous emphysema developed between 16 and 24 h post-euthanasia. This study showed that rapid postmortem changes which could be detected radiographically occur within 24 h of death at the ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. PMID:19394170

Heng, Hock Gan; Selvarajah, Gayathri Thevi; Lim, Hiang Tee; Ong, Jin Seng; Lim, Jiehan; Ooi, Jin Tatt

2009-07-01

393

Serial postmortem abdominal radiographic findings in canine cadavers.  

PubMed

Postmortem radiographic examinations of animals are often performed in judicial investigation to rule out gunshot and fractures due to cruelty or illegal hunting or poaching activities. Literature describing postmortem changes seen on radiographs of animals is rarely available. Serial abdominal radiography of 6 recently euthanized dogs were performed in an interval of 8h at a tropical ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. Severe decomposition of the cadavers prevented the study to be performed beyond 24h. Gradual increment of gas accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, kidney and blood vessels were observed. Increased amount of gas in the gastrointestinal tract was detected as early as 8h post-euthanasia and continuously increased throughout the study. Gas was seen in the portal vein and caudal vena cava of all cadavers at 16h post-euthanasia. The presence of gas in the aorta occurred at a later stage. Tubular branching gas pattern in the liver and spleen was first observed and progressed to vesicular gas pattern due to tissue decomposition. This study showed that abdominal radiographic postmortem changes occurred most rapidly between 8 and 16h post-euthanasia at the ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. PMID:19716666

Heng, Hock Gan; Selvarajah, Gayathri Thevi; Lim, Hiang Tee; Ong, Jin Seng; Lim, Jiehan; Ooi, Jin Tatt

2009-11-20

394

Serial analysis of gene expression in a microglial cell line.  

PubMed

We used the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) method to systematically analyze transcripts present in a microglial cell line. Over 10,000 SAGE tags were sequenced, and shown to represent 6,013 unique transcripts. Among the diverse transcripts that had not been previously detected in microglia were those for cytokines such as endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide I (EMAP I), and for cell surface antigens, including adhesion molecules such as CD9, CD53, CD107a, CD147, CD162 and mast cell high affinity IgE receptor. In addition, we detected transcripts that were characteristic of hematopoietic cells or mesodermal structures, such as E3 protein, A1, EN-7, B94, and ufo. Furthermore, the profile contained a transcript, Hn1, that is important in hematopoietic cells and neurological development (Tang et al. Mamm Genome 8:695-696, 1997), suggesting the probable neural differentiation of microglia from the hematopoietic system in development. Messenger RNA expression of these genes was confirmed by RT-PCR in primary cultures of microglia. Significantly, this is the first systematic profiling of the genes expressed in a microglial cell line. The identification and further characterization of the genes described here should provide potential new targets for the study of microglial biology. PMID:10559785

Inoue, H; Sawada, M; Ryo, A; Tanahashi, H; Wakatsuki, T; Hada, A; Kondoh, N; Nakagaki, K; Takahashi, K; Suzumura, A; Yamamoto, M; Tabira, T

1999-12-01

395

THE DILUTION/FLUSHING TECHNIQUE IN LAKE RESTORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Dilution/flushing has been documented as an effective restoration technique for Moses and Green Lakes in Washington State. The dilution water added in both lakes was low in nitrogen and phosphorus content relative to the lake or normal input water. Consequently, lake nutrient con...

396

Infinite dilution activity coefficients in chemical, environmental and biochemical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we briefly review several methods by which infinite dilution activity coefficients can be obtained, and then consider how such data can be used. In particular, we examine the accuracy of predictions of vapor-liquid equilibria over the complete concentration range, and over a range of temperatures based on infinite dilution activity coefficient data at a single temperature. Next, we review

S. I. Sandler

1996-01-01

397

Phase diagrams of site diluted ferromagnetic thin film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase transition properties of Ising, classical XY and Heisenberg of diluted ferromagnetic thin film are studied by the method of exact high-temperature series expansions extrapolated with the Padé approximants method. The reduced critical temperature ?c of the diluted ferromagnetic thin films is studied as a function of film thickness L and the exchange interactions in the bulk Jb, in

M. Hamedoun; K. Bouslykhane; H. Bakrim; A. Hourmatallah; N. Benzakour; R. Masrour

2006-01-01

398

Dilution Effects in Two-Dimensional Quantum Orbital Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interacting orbital degrees of freedom in a Mott insulator are essentially directional and frustrated. In this Letter, the effect of dilution in a quantum-orbital system with this kind of interaction is studied by analyzing a minimal orbital model which we call the two-dimensional quantum compass model. We find that the decrease of the ordering temperature due to dilution is stronger

Takayoshi Tanaka; Sumio Ishihara

2007-01-01

399

A PRESSURIZED PROPORTIONAL DILUTER FOR AQUATIC TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A half-liter proportional diluter using positive pressure was designed and tested. Its primary siphons are activated by a pulse of pressure instead of by a partial vacuum as in conventional diluters. This method eliminated the need for venturi tubes, vacuum manifolds, and individ...

400

Estimating DNAPL composition and VOC dilution from extraction well data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field data from a large-scale ground-water extraction system at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina indicate that considerable dilution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) occurs at extraction wells when compared with the effective solubilities of the VOC components (TCE and PCE) in the dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone. This dilution is believed to be due to the

R. E. Jackson; P. E. Mariner

1995-01-01

401

Efficacy comparison between simple mixed-dilution and simple mid-dilution on-line hemodiafiltration techniques: a crossover study.  

PubMed

Mid-dilution and mixed-dilution on-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) techniques are innovated to overcome the limitations of two standard techniques including predilution and postdilution. Unfortunately, the head-to-head comparisons between these two novel techniques in the same study are still limited. Moreover, the original mid-dilution and mixed-dilution OL-HDF need special dialyzers and special machines. In the present study, simple mid-dilution and simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF were settled with the aim for clinical use in general hemodialysis (HD) centers. The efficacies of uremic toxins removal between both modalities were measured and compared. This prospective randomized crossover study was conducted on 12 stable HD patients undergoing simple mixed-dilution and simple mid-dilution OL-HDF techniques. HD prescriptions were similar in both techniques. The dialysis efficacies were determined by calculating small- (urea, creatinine, and phosphate) and middle-molecule (beta-2 microglobulin [?2M]) removal. Moreover, potential complications such as high transmembrane pressure (TMP) and protein loss were also observed. Simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF provided significantly greater clearances of urea, creatinine, and ?2M when compared with the simple mid-dilution OL-HDF techniques. Phosphate clearances in both techniques were comparable. In addition, TMP and dialysate albumin loss were not different. There were no intradialytic complications in both techniques. Simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF could provide greater efficacy for small- and middle-molecule clearances and acceptable potential risks, while phosphate removal is comparable. PMID:22882579

Susantitaphong, Paweena; Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Katavetin, Pisut; Hanwiwatwong, Orawadee; Wittayalertpanya, Supeecha; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Tungsanga, Kriang; Eiam-Ong, Somchai

2012-12-01

402

Chain Dynamics in a Dilute Magnetorheological Fluid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure, formation, and dynamics of dilute, mono-dispersive ferrofluid emulsions in an external magnetic field have been investigated using dynamic light scattering techniques. In the absence of the magnetic field, the emulsion particles are randomly distributed and behave like hard spheres in Brownian motion. An applied magnetic field induces a magnetic dipole moment in each particle. Dipolar interactions between particles align them into chains where correlation functions show two decay processes. The short-time decay shows the motion of straight chains as a whole where the apparent chain length increases with the applied magnetic field and the particle volume fraction. Good scaling results are obtained showing that the apparent chain length grows with time following a power law with exponent of 0.6 and depends on the applied field, particle volume fraction, and diffusion constant of the particles. The long-time decay in the correlation function shows oscillation when the chains reach a certain length with time and stiffness with threshold field This result shows that chains not only fluctuate, but move in a periodic motion with a frequency of 364 Hz at lambda = 15. It may suggest the existence of phonons. This work is the first step in the understanding of the structure formation, especially chain coarsening mechanism, of magnetorheological (MR) fluids at higher volume fractions.

Liu, Jing; Hagenbuchle, Martin

1996-01-01

403

Boundary layers in dilute particle suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boundary layers in dilute particle suspensions have been found to have a number of interesting features. The development of a singularity at the wall has recently been found to be common to many of these flows, ootnotetextSee Foster, Duck & Hewitt, J. Fluid Mech. 474 (2003) and Duck, Hewitt & Foster, J. Fluid Mech. 514, (2004) and we note here that Falkner-Skan-type boundary layers (layers with `edge' velocity proportional to x^m) and the boundary layer under a linearly decelerating flow ootnotetextHowarth (1934) also break down at the wall in the absence of gravity, but can be singularity-free for heavy particles. In addition, we find that matching of the Falkner-Skan profile to an outer flow is problematic for some values of m, though the case most studied heretofore---the Blasius case (for m=0)---does not feature this difficulty. Finally, a boundary layer that does not develop a singularity takes on a the typical Falkner-Skan self-similarity far downstream, in the absence of gravity. For heavy particles, however, gravity causes a constant drift of particles toward the wall, and a constant-thickness far-downstream layer. The far-downstream behavior in a light-particle suspension is different, with a particle-free zone between the wall and a particle `shock' that grows like x^(1-m).

Foster, M. R.; Duck, P. W.; Hewitt, R. E.

2005-11-01

404

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Imbibition in an originally oil-wet 2D capillary is the fastest in the case of Alf-38 and slowest in the case of DTAB (among the surfactants studied). Force of adhesion studies and contact angle measurements show that greater wettability alteration is possible with these anionic surfactants than the cationic surfactant studied. The water imbibition rate does not increase monotonically with an increase in the surfactant concentration. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-01-01

405

Microscopy of DNA in dilute polymer solutions  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of separation of DNA in polymer solutions is not well understood. In this paper the authors use epifluorescence videomicroscopy to investigate the dynamic behavior of DNA electrophoresing through dilute polymer solutions. DNA collides with polymer obstacles, which cause the conformation of DNA to change from the globular, random coil conformation it takes in free solution. There are two main types of DNA-polymer collisions: U-shape collisions and brief collisions. In U-shape collisions, the DNA collides with a polymer obstacle, extends into a U-shape, and then slides around the polymer obstacle like a pulley. There are occasionally multiple entanglement points, causing the DNA to take more complex conformations, such as W-shapes. In the brief collision process, the DNA collides with a polymer obstacle and begins to extend but then collapses back into its globular conformation before a full U-shape is formed. The frequency of these interactions increases as the DNA size increases, and it also increases when the polymer size or concentration increases. These data support the transient entanglement coupling mechanism of separation of DNA, which states that entanglements between DNA and polymer molecules result in the separation of DNA.

Sunada, W.M.; Blanch, H.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-09-01

406

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Alfoterra-38 (0.05 wt%), Alfoterra-35 (0.05 wt%), SS-6656 (0.05 wt%), and DTAB (1 wt%) altered the wettability of the initially oil-wet calcite plate to an intermediate/water-wet state. Low IFT ({approx}10{sup -3} dynes/cm) is obtained with surfactants 5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability and mobilization studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2003-10-01

407

Anomalous Rayleigh scatter in dilute media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous Rayleigh scatter is examined for dilute concentrations of the biomedically relevant element iodine in aqueous media including measurements with monochromatic synchrotron radiation in the vicinity of the iodine K-edge. The measurements agree with anomalous scatter-factor corrections to the form-factor approximation which has been shown to have good agreement with higher precision S-matrix calculations for small angle scatter over a wide range of energies but has not been adequately tested at the edge. Monte Carlo modelling, including the modelling of polarized Compton and Rayleigh scattered x-rays, is used to determine the relative contributions of the scatter and fluorescent components at the detector as well as the modelling of self-absorption and relative dose in the determination of detection limits. A Rayleigh scatter minimum of 28 barns/sr was observed at an energy 10 +/- 5 eV below the K-edge of iodine at a position predicted from an evaluation of the dispersion integral that includes bound-bound resonance contributions. Minimum detectable concentrations for observation of the anomalous Rayleigh scatter feature at an exposure of 10 mSv, predicted for iodine and iron, are 1 mg ml-1 and 10 mg ml-1, respectively. Upper limits to detection of the feature imposed by degradation of the signal by self-absorption are 0.021 g cm-2 and 0.0029 g cm-2 radiation lengths, respectively.

Hugtenburg, Richard P.; Muthuvelu, P.; Bradley, David A.

2002-09-01

408

Strengthening of solidified dilute tailings slurry  

SciTech Connect

Tailings produced during mineral processing contain up to 75% or more water and are pumped into settling ponds for disposal. They often become a pollution source due to acid generation. While tailings have been used in underground backfill, the use is very limited at present. This paper presents research results on direct solidification and strengthening of the dilute tailings slurry without dewatering. Two types of tailings were tested at water/binder ratios of up to 4.5 using a special high-water binder. Adequate strength was achieved by solidifying the tailings as is. To further improve the strength, sands and fly ash were used as reinforcement materials or partial replacement of the binder. For oil sands tailings, the 3-day strength was increased by up to 114% with 10--15% additives. For hard rock tailings, up to 30% strength gain was achieved with 15% fly ash addition, and the strength was increased by up to 36% at 10% binder replacement and no strength reduction was observed at 20--25% replacement. These results indicate that higher strength can be achieved with the proper amount of additives and that the backfill process can be simplified and the operation cost reduced.

Zou, D.H.; Li, L.P. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. Mining and Metallurgical Engineering] [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. Mining and Metallurgical Engineering

1999-01-01

409

Numerical modeling for dilute and dense sprays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have successfully implemented a numerical model for spray-combustion calculations. In this model, the governing gas-phase equations in Eulerian coordinate are solved by a time-marching multiple pressure correction procedure based on the operator-splitting technique. The droplet-phase equations in Lagrangian coordinate are solved by a stochastic discrete particle technique. In order to simplify the calculation procedure for the circulating droplets, the effective conductivity model is utilized. The k-epsilon models are utilized to characterize the time and length scales of the gas phase in conjunction with turbulent modulation by droplets and droplet dispersion by turbulence. This method entails random sampling of instantaneous gas flow properties and the stochastic process requires a large number of computational parcels to produce the satisfactory dispersion distributions even for rather dilute sprays. Two major improvements in spray combustion modelings were made. Firstly, we have developed a probability density function approach in multidimensional space to represent a specific computational particle. Secondly, we incorporate the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model for handling the dense spray effects. This breakup model is based on the reasonable assumption that atomization and drop breakup are indistinguishable processes within a dense spray near the nozzle exit. Accordingly, atomization is prescribed by injecting drops which have a characteristic size equal to the nozzle exit diameter. Example problems include the nearly homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent particle dispersion, and the non-evaporating, evaporating, and burning dense sprays. Comparison with experimental data will be discussed in detail.

Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.; Ziebarth, J. P.; Wang, T. S.

1992-01-01

410

Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations  

SciTech Connect

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the best hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (35-62% OOIP) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Core-scale simulation results match those of the experiments. Initial capillarity-driven imbibition gives way to a final gravity-driven process. As the matrix block height increases, surfactant alters wettability to a lesser degree, or permeability decreases, oil production rate decreases. The scale-up to field scale will be further studied in the next quarter.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-10-01

411

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show that imbibition rate is not very sensitive to the surfactant concentration (in the range of 0.05-0.2 wt%) and small amounts of trapped gas saturation. It is however very sensitive to oil permeability and water-oil-ratio. Less than 0.5 M Na2CO3 is needed for in situ soap generation and low adsorption; NaCl can be added to reach the necessary total salinity. The simulation result matches the laboratory imbibition experimental data. Small fracture spacing and high permeability would be needed for high rate of recovery.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-07-01

412

Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations  

SciTech Connect

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover more than 40% of the oil in about 50 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 28% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Residual oil saturation showed little capillary number dependence between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -2}. Wettability alteration increases as the number of ethoxy groups increases in ethoxy sulfate surfactants. Plans for the next quarter include conducting mobilization, and imbibition studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2004-03-31

413

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Simulation studies indicate that both wettability alteration and gravity-driven flow play significant role in oil recovery from fractured carbonates. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover about 55% of the oil in about 150 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration and low tension in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 40% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Cationic surfactant, DTAB recovers about 35% of the oil. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2004-10-01

414

Dominance of the odometer over serial landmark learning in honeybee navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honeybees use their visual flow field to measure flight distance. It has been suggested that the experience of serial landmarks encountered on the flight toward a feeding place contributes to distance estimation. Here, we address this question by tracing the flight paths of individual bees with a harmonic radar system. Bees were trained along an array of three landmarks (tents), and the distance between these landmarks was either increased or decreased under two test conditions. We find that absolute distance estimation dominates the search for the feeding place, but serial position effects are also found. In the latter case, bees search only or additionally at locations determined by serial experience of the landmarks.

Menzel, Randolf; Fuchs, Jacqueline; Nadler, Leonard; Weiss, Benjamin; Kumbischinski, Nicole; Adebiyi, Daniel; Hartfil, Sergej; Greggers, Uwe

2010-08-01

415

Development of gallium arsenide high-speed, low-power serial parallel interface modules: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Final report to NASA LeRC on the development of gallium arsenide (GaAS) high-speed, low power serial/parallel interface modules. The report discusses the development and test of a family of 16, 32 and 64 bit parallel to serial and serial to parallel integrated circuits using a self aligned gate MESFET technology developed at the Honeywell Sensors and Signal Processing Laboratory. Lab testing demonstrated 1.3 GHz clock rates at a power of 300 mW. This work was accomplished under contract number NAS3-24676.

1988-01-01

416

SSCC TD: A Serial and Simultaneous Configural-Cue Compound Stimuli Representation for Temporal Difference Learning  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel representational framework for the Temporal Difference (TD) model of learning, which allows the computation of configural stimuli – cumulative compounds of stimuli that generate perceptual emergents known as configural cues. This Simultaneous and Serial Configural-cue Compound Stimuli Temporal Difference model (SSCC TD) can model both simultaneous and serial stimulus compounds, as well as compounds including the experimental context. This modification significantly broadens the range of phenomena which the TD paradigm can explain, and allows it to predict phenomena which traditional TD solutions cannot, particularly effects that depend on compound stimuli functioning as a whole, such as pattern learning and serial structural discriminations, and context-related effects.

Mondragon, Esther; Gray, Jonathan; Alonso, Eduardo; Bonardi, Charlotte; Jennings, Domhnall J.

2014-01-01

417

Destructive hostility: the Jeffrey Dahmer case. A psychiatric and forensic study of a serial killer.  

PubMed

We were involved as forensic experts in the case of the serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer. We discuss the scene and victim autopsy findings, with a brief consideration of the basic emotion of hostility. These findings support the thesis that at the basis of this serial killer's behavior were primary unconscious feelings of hate that he had channeled into a sadistic programmed destruction of 17 young men. The interview of the serial killer, the photographic scene documentation, and the autopsy findings stress the ambivalent homosexuality of the killer, his sexual sadism, his obsessive fetishism, and his possible cannibalism and necrophilia. PMID:7879770

Jentzen, J; Palermo, G; Johnson, L T; Ho, K C; Stormo, K A; Teggatz, J

1994-12-01

418

In vivo indicator dilution kinetics of PAH transport in dog kidney.  

PubMed

In vivo multiple indicator-dilution (MID) data were analyzed using a computer-assisted mathematical model of transepithelial cell transport to determine p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) transport kinetics across the proximal tubular antiluminal (ALM) and luminal (LM) membranes. A bolus of 125I-labeled albumin (plasma reference), [14C]creatinine (interstitial reference), and tracer [3H]PAH was injected into the left renal artery of anesthetized mongrel dogs (n = 21), and immediate serial sampling of the left renal venous and left and right urine outputs was performed (control). MID runs were then repeated in the same dog following intravenous infusion of unlabeled PAH. For all plasma PAH concentrations ([PAH]P), the steady-state unidirectional flux coefficients were calculated at the ALM and LM. The computer-derived unidirectional flux coefficients were in keeping with active ALM transport and passive, carrier-mediated LM transport. The Km calculated for ALM uptake (interstitium to cell) was 0.51 mM. PAH transport was completely inhibited by probenecid. As [PAH]P increased, the renal vein mean transit time ratio t[3H]PAH/t[14C]creatinine was greater than 1.0, indicating backflux from cells into the interstitium, then declined toward unity, as ALM and LM transport became saturated. This study, which used PAH as a model substrate demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing computer-assisted mathematical models to quantitate the kinetics of transepithelial transport from in vivo experimentation. PMID:2916659

Silverman, M; Whiteside, C; Lumsden, C J; Steinhart, H

1989-02-01

419

Specialized postsynaptic morphology enhances neurotransmitter dilution and high-frequency signaling at an auditory synapse.  

PubMed

Sensory processing in the auditory system requires that synapses, neurons, and circuits encode information with particularly high temporal and spectral precision. In the amphibian papillia, sound frequencies up to 1 kHz are encoded along a tonotopic array of hair cells and transmitted to afferent fibers via fast, repetitive synaptic transmission, thereby promoting phase locking between the presynaptic and postsynaptic cells. Here, we have combined serial section electron microscopy, paired electrophysiological recordings, and Monte Carlo diffusion simulations to examine novel mechanisms that facilitate fast synaptic transmission in the inner ear of frogs (Rana catesbeiana and Rana pipiens). Three-dimensional anatomical reconstructions reveal specialized spine-like contacts between individual afferent fibers and hair cells that are surrounded by large, open regions of extracellular space. Morphologically realistic diffusion simulations suggest that these local enlargements in extracellular space speed transmitter clearance and reduce spillover between neighboring synapses, thereby minimizing postsynaptic receptor desensitization and improving sensitivity during prolonged signal transmission. Additionally, evoked EPSCs in afferent fibers are unaffected by glutamate transporter blockade, suggesting that transmitter diffusion and dilution, and not uptake, play a primary role in speeding neurotransmission and ensuring fidelity at these synapses. PMID:24920639

Graydon, Cole W; Cho, Soyoun; Diamond, Jeffrey S; Kachar, Bechara; von Gersdorff, Henrique; Grimes, William N

2014-06-11

420

Motor Lateralization is characterized by a serial hybrid control scheme  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies of limb coordination in healthy right and left-handers led to the development of a theoretical model of motor lateralization, dynamic dominance, which was recently supported by studies in patients with unilateral stroke (For Review, see Sainburg, 2010: Lateralization of Goal-Directed Movements, in Human Kinetics). One of our most robust findings was on single joint movements in young healthy subjects (Sainburg and Schaefer, 2004: Interlimb differences in control of movement extent). In this study, subjects made elbow joint reaching movements toward 4 targets of different amplitudes with each arm. Whereas, both arms achieved equivalent task performance, each did so through different strategies. The dominant arm strategy scaled peak acceleration with peak velocity and movement extent, while the nondominant strategy adjusted acceleration duration to achieve the different velocities and distances. We now propose that these observed interlimb differences can be explained using a serial hybrid controller, in which movements are initiated using predictive control and terminated using impedance control. Further, we propose that the two arms should differ in the relative time that control switches from the predictive to the impedance mechanisms. We present a mathematical formulation of our hybrid controller and then test the plausibility of this control paradigm by investigating how well our model can explain interlimb differences in experimental data. Our findings confirm that the model predicts early shifts between controllers for left arm movements, which rely on impedance control mechanisms, and late shifts for right arm movements, which rely on predictive control mechanisms. This is the first computational model of motor lateralization, and is consistent with our theoretical model that emerged from empirical findings. It represents a first step in consolidating our theoretical understanding of motor lateralization into an operational model of control.

Yadav, V.; Sainburg, R.L.

2011-01-01

421

Automated matching and segmentation of lymphoma on serial CT examinations  

SciTech Connect

In patients with lymphoma, identification and quantification of the tumor extent on serial CT examinations is critical for assessing tumor response to therapy. In this paper, we present a computer method to automatically match and segment lymphomas in follow-up CT images. The method requires that target lymph nodes in baseline CT images be known. A fast, approximate alignment technique along the x, y, and axial directions is developed to provide a good initial condition for the subsequent fast free form deformation (FFD) registration of the baseline and the follow-up images. As a result of the registration, the deformed lymph node contours from the baseline images are used to automatically determine internal and external markers for the marker-controlled watershed segmentation performed in the follow-up images. We applied this automated registration and segmentation method retrospectively to 29 lymph nodes in 9 lymphoma patients treated in a clinical trial at our cancer center. A radiologist independently delineated all lymph nodes on all slices in the follow-up images and his manual contours served as the ''gold standard'' for evaluation of the method. Preliminary results showed that 26/29 (89.7%) lymph nodes were correctly matched; i.e., there was a geometrical overlap between the deformed lymph node from the baseline and its corresponding mass in the follow-up images. Of the matched 26 lymph nodes, 22 (84.6%) were successfully segmented; for these 22 lymph nodes, several metrics were calculated to quantify the method's performance. Among them, the average distance and the Hausdorff distance between the contours generated by the computer and those generated by the radiologist were 0.9 mm (stdev. 0.4 mm) and 3.9 mm (stdev. 2.1 mm), respectively.

Yan Jiayong; Zhao Binsheng; Curran, Sean; Zelenetz, Andrew; Schwartz, Lawrence H. [Medical Physics Department, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Radiology Department, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Medicine Department, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Radiology Department, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (United States)

2007-01-15

422

Room-temperature macromolecular serial crystallography using synchrotron radiation  

PubMed Central

A new approach for collecting data from many hundreds of thousands of microcrystals using X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser has recently been developed. Referred to as serial crystallography, diffraction patterns are recorded at a constant rate as a suspension of protein crystals flows across the path of an X-ray beam. Events that by chance contain single-crystal diffraction patterns are retained, then indexed and merged to form a three-dimensional set of reflection intensities for structure determination. This approach relies upon several innovations: an intense X-ray beam; a fast detector system; a means to rapidly flow a suspension of crystals across the X-ray beam; and the computational infrastructure to process the large volume of data. Originally conceived for radiation-damage-free measurements with ultrafast X-ray pulses, the same methods can be employed with synchrotron radiation. As in powder diffraction, the averaging of thousands of observations per Bragg peak may improve the ratio of signal to noise of low-dose exposures. Here, it is shown that this paradigm can be implemented for room-temperature data collection using synchrotron radiation and exposure times of less than 3?ms. Using lysozyme microcrystals as a model system, over 40?000 single-crystal diffraction patterns were obtained and merged to produce a structural model that could be refined to 2.1?Å resolution. The resulting electron density is in excellent agreement with that obtained using standard X-ray data collection techniques. With further improvements the method is well suited for even shorter exposures at future and upgraded synchrotron radiation facilities that may deliver beams with 1000 times higher brightness than they currently produce.

Stellato, Francesco; Oberthur, Dominik; Liang, Mengning; Bean, Richard; Gati, Cornelius; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Barty, Anton; Burkhardt, Anja; Fischer, Pontus; Galli, Lorenzo; Kirian, Richard A.; Meyer, Jan; Panneerselvam, Saravanan; Yoon, Chun Hong; Chervinskii, Fedor; Speller, Emily; White, Thomas A.; Betzel, Christian; Meents, Alke; Chapman, Henry N.

2014-01-01

423

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30

424

Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

NONE

1997-10-01

425

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31

426

Bacterial survival in a dilute environment.  

PubMed Central

Bacteria were isolated from lake water, and their ability to remain viable in a dilute, nutrient-deficient environment was tested by a method that permits suspension of test bacteria between two appressed microporous membranes in an aqueous environment. This approach permitted separation of the lake isolates into two categories. Members of the tribe Klebsielleae were shown to have a prolonged survival rate of 40% or better after 24 h, whereas nonsurvivors were not viable for much longer than 24 h. These nonsurvivors belonged to the genera Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Erwinia, Escherichia, Flavobacterium, and Pseudomonas. Differences in ribonuclease and adenosine triphosphatase levels between Escherichia coli (nonsurvivor) and Klebsiella (survivor) cells were detected. At pH 7.5, stressed E. coli cells contained 14% of the adenosine triphosphatase activity detected in the control, whereas at pH 5.5, in the presence of calcium ions, these same cells contained 50% of the control adenosine triphosphatase levels. At pH 7.2, E. coli cells were strongly inhibited by an adenosine triphosphatase inhibitor, bathophenanthroline (88%); oligomycin (64%); and the proton ionophore carbonyl- cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (67%). Both sodium azide and valinomycin were only moderately inhibitory (15 and 28%, respectively). Although the ability to scavenge internal endogenous reserves seems important, we postulate that certain enteric bacteria are capable of utilizing acidic conditions (pH 5.5) as an electrochemical gradient to generate necessary high-energy intermediates for prolongation of survival beyond that possible in environments of near-neutraL pH.

Sjogren, R E; Gibson, M J

1981-01-01

427

Correlations in quantum spin ladders with site and bond dilution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effects of quenched disorder, in the form of site and bond dilution, on the physics of the S=1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on even-leg ladders. Site dilution is found to prune rung singlets and thus create localized moments which interact via a random, unfrustrated network of effective couplings, realizing a random-exchange Heisenberg model in one spatial dimension. This system exhibits a power-law diverging correlation length as the temperature decreases. Contrary to previous claims, we observe that the scaling exponent is nonuniversal, i.e., doping dependent. This finding can be explained by the discrete nature of the values taken by the effective exchange couplings in the doped ladder. Bond dilution on even-leg ladders leads to a more complex evolution with doping of correlations, which are weakly enhanced in 2-leg ladders, and are even suppressed for low dilution in the case of 4-leg and 6-leg ladders. We clarify the different aspects of correlation enhancement and suppression due to bond dilution by isolating the contributions of rung-bond dilution and leg-bond dilution.

Trinh, Kien; Haas, Stephan; Yu, Rong; Roscilde, Tommaso

2012-01-01

428

Serial Concatenated Trellis Coded Modulation with Iterative Decoding: Design and Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we propose a novel method to design serial concatenation of an outer convolutional code with an inner trellis code with multi-level amplitude/phase modulations and a suitable bit-by-bit iterative decoding structure.

Benedetto, S.; Divsalar, D.; Montorsi, G.; Pollara, F.

1997-01-01

429

Bandpass Filter Formed by Serial Gratings Operating in a Wood's Anomaly Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides a bandpass filter formed by serially-arranged reflection gratings operating in a Wood's anomaly region which is designed to satisfy the aforementioned needs. The device of the present invention uses a series of reflection gr...

P. R. Peterson

1982-01-01

430

Paths to destruction: the lives and crimes of two serial killers.  

PubMed

Although research into the phenomenon of serial murder has revealed that serial killers frequently do not fit the initially described paradigm in terms of their physical and psychological profiles, backgrounds, and motives to kill, the media continues to sensationalize the figures of such killers and the investigators who attempt to analyze them on the basis of aspects of their crimes. Although the so-called "typical" profile of the serial murderer has proven accurate in some instances, in many other cases the demographics and behaviors of these killers have deviated widely from the generalized assumptions. This report details two unusual cases in which five and eight murders were committed in upstate New York. The lives and crimes of these offenders illustrate the wide spectrum of variations in the backgrounds, demographics, motivations, and actions witnessed among serial murderers, and highlight the limitations and dangers of profiling based on generalities. PMID:17209938

Wolf, Barbara C; Lavezzi, Wendy A

2007-01-01

431

Rehearsal in serial memory for visual-spatial information: evidence from eye movements.  

PubMed

It is well established that rote rehearsal plays a key role in serial memory for lists of verbal items. Although a great deal of research has informed us about the nature of verbal rehearsal, much less attention has been devoted to rehearsal in serial memory for visual-spatial information. By using the dot task--a visual-spatial analogue of the classical verbal serial recall task--with delayed recall, performance and eyetracking data were recorded in order to establish whether visual-spatial rehearsal could be evidenced by eye movement. The use of eye movement as a form of rehearsal is detectable (Experiment 1), and it seems to contribute to serial memory performance over and above rehearsal based on shifts of spatial attention (Experiments 1 and 2). PMID:17048730

Tremblay, Sébastien; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Jalbert, Annie

2006-06-01

432

The International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) and Its Use by the United States Postal Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rationale and procedures for the implementation of the mandatory printing of ISSN on serials mailed at special rates through the United States mail. The article cites bibliographical, commercial, and managerial benefits for the information community. (Author/RAA)

Bartley, Linda K.

1980-01-01

433

77 FR 66920 - Registration of Claims to Copyright: Group Registration of Serial Issues Filed Electronically  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Part...Electronically AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Interim regulations...subscription copies of the serial promptly to the Library of Congress as a condition of...

2012-11-08

434

Characteristics Data Base. Programmer's guide to the LWR Serial Numbers Data Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The LWR Serial Numbers Database System (SNDB) contains detailed data about individual, historically discharged LWR spent fuel assemblies. This data includes the reactor where used, the year the assemblies were discharged, the pool where they are currently...

E. D. Lewis R. S. Moore

1990-01-01

435

A New Modality for Treating Congenital Melanocytic Nevus: "Cogwheel Pattern" Serial Excision Method  

PubMed Central

Congenital melanocytic nevus consists of congregations of nevomelanocytes. It is found in approximately 1% of new born infants. Congenital melanocytic nevus needs to be excised before it transforms into a malignant lesion. Many strategies have been attempted for the removal and reconstruction of the nevus. Serial excision enables wound closure to be accomplished with a shorter scar than if the original lesion was elliptically excised in a single stage and reorientation of the scar closer to the relaxed skin lines. The routine utilization of an elliptical serial excision as a standard method of closure often leads to the formation of elongated scars and waste of skin. The "Cogwheel pattern" serial excision is a new technique for reducing the size of the nevus efficiently. Reducing the final scar length, distributing the tension over many directions, and having the chance of decrease in operation numbers are ultimately achieved with the use of the "Cogwheel pattern" serial excision.

Kang, Hyun Gu; Park, Myong Chul

2014-01-01

436

Sequential Influence on the Interpretation of Meaningless Serial Patterns: Local Precedence and Global Preference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Structural Information Theory (SIT) being a general theory of perceived pattern structure is used to predict the interpretation, stored in memory, of serial patterns. Hatfield and Epstein (1985) attempted to explain processes underlying Structural Informa...

C. van Leeuwen H. Buffart

1986-01-01

437

The Paranormal: A Selected Bibliography of Serials and Reference Works, with Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides bibliography of references and serials to assist acquisitions librarians in selection of the paranormal. Topics include alchemy, astrology, magic, conjuring, witchcraft, paganism, demonology, satanism, voodooism, sorcery, cults, shamanism, UFOs, exobiology, curious physical and biological phenomena, ghosts, poltergeists, haunted places,…

Smith, Charles H.

1997-01-01

438

Reverse isotope dilution assay and lactose intolerance assay  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A "reverse isotope dilution assay" herein, wherein a pathway that produces a given metabolite is assayed by diluting a labelled metabolite produced by a second constitutive pathway. In one aspect, the invention relates to a method for monitoring lactose maldigestion or lactose intolerance in humans. Specifically, the method requires administering a reverse tracer of labeled glucose and unlabeled lactose to an individual and assessing labeled carbon dioxide in breath or blood. If the lactose is digested, the labeled CO.sub.2 produced by the labeled glucose is diluted by the metabolism of the lactose.

2005-06-07

439

Two-stage dilute acid prehydrolysis of biomass  

SciTech Connect

A two-stage dilute acid prehydrolysis process on xylan containing hemicellulose in biomass is effected by: treating feedstock of hemicellulosic material comprising xylan that is slow hydrolyzable and xylan that is fast hydrolyzable under predetermined low temperature conditions with a dilute acid for a residence time sufficient to hydrolyze the fast hydrolyzable xylan to xylose; removing said xylose from said fast hydrolyzable xylan and leaving a residue; and treating said residue having a slow hydrolyzable xylan with a dilute acid under predetermined high temperature conditions for a residence time required to hydrolyze said slow hydrolyzable xylan to xylose.

Grohmann, Karel (Winter Haven, FL); Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO)

1992-01-01

440

Stability of the replica symmetric solution in diluted perceptron learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the role played by dilution in the average behavior of a perceptron model with continuous coupling with the replica method. We analyze the stability of the replica symmetric solution as a function of the dilution field for the generalization and memorization problems. Thanks to a Gardner-like stability analysis we show that at any fixed ratio ? between the number of patterns M and the dimension N of the perceptron (? = M/N), there exists a critical dilution field hc above which the replica symmetric ansatz becomes unstable.

Lage-Castellanos, Alejandro; Pagnani, Andrea; Quintero Angulo, Gretel

2013-02-01

441

Characterization and modeling for dilute and dense sprays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present numerical modeling of dilute and dense spray combustion solves the governing gas-phase equations in Eulerian coordinates by means of a time-marching multiple pressure correction procedure that is based on the operator-splitting technique. A sequence of validating cases involving (1) nonevaporating, (2) evaporating, (3) burning, (4) dilute, and (5) dense spray cases is undertaken; it is found that in the combusting dilute spray case, the present procedure correctly predicts the general features of flows and yields qualitative agreement with experimental data. In the other cases, reasonably good agreement with experimental results is obtained.

Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.

1992-01-01

442

Serial correlation and heterogeneous volatility in financial markets: beyond the LeBaron effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the relation between serial correlation of financial returns and volatility at intraday level for the S&P500 stock index. At daily and weekly level, serial correlation and volatility are known to be negatively correlated (LeBaron effect). While confirming that the LeBaron effect holds also at intraday level, we go beyond it and, complementing the efficient market hyphotesis (for returns)

Simone Bianco; Fulvio Corsi; Roberto Reno

2008-01-01

443

Rad-Hard high speed serial communication using Honeywell SerDes macros  

Microsoft Academic Search

SerDes (serializer\\/deserializer) is a key component of serial communication architecture for high-speed servers and communications networking systems and point to point communication links. It is a vital building block for space-based high-speed data communications. Honeywell is enabling optimized communication systems with a SerDes macro-cell as part of their HX5000 rad-hard ASIC design platform and a SerDes standard part for next-generation

G. Roosevelt; D. Bueno; J. Haque; W. Roper; T. Romanko

2009-01-01

444

Coded Modulation for the Deep-Space Optical Channel: Serially Concatenated Pulse-Position Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an error-control coding technique for optical communications. It consists of the serial concatenation of an outer convolutional code, an interleaver, a bit-accumulator, and pulse-position modulation (PPM). We refer to the coded modulation as serially concatenated PPM, or SCPPM. The encoding is accom- plished with simple shift register operations and a table look-up to map code bits to PPM

B. Moision; J. Hamkins

2005-01-01

445

A Distributed Shared-Memory System on a Workstation Cluster Using Fast Serial Links  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a fast serial link, Serial Transparent Asynchronous First-in First-out Link (STAFF-Link), is introduced. Using such links, we construct a parallel processing system based on a workstation cluster. The workstation cluster implements a distributed sharedmemory mechanism for inter-process communication using a software controlled cache using a STAFF-Link router board. The board has a chained multicast capability with which

Hironori Nakajo; Akihiro Ichikawa; Yukio Kaneda

2000-01-01

446

Analysis of morphological changes in carrot somatic embryogenesis by serial observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrot somatic embryogenesis was serially observed using a cell cluster immobilizing system with Phytagel. Embryogenic cell\\u000a clusters ranging in size from 32 to 63 ?m were collected by filtration and used for somatic embryo induction. Of the 432 cell\\u000a clusters, 253 grew, i.e., the size of these cell clusters increased, and 192 developed into globular embryos. Through serial\\u000a observation, the

Y. Ibaraki; R. Matsushima; K. Kurata

2000-01-01

447

Selective Serial Multi-Antibody Biosensing with TOPAS Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers  

PubMed Central

We have developed a fluorescence-based fiber-optical biosensor, which can selectively detect different antibodies in serial at preselected positions inside a single piece of fiber. The fiber is a microstructured polymer optical fiber fabricated from TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer, which allows for UV activation of localized sensor layers inside the holes of the fiber. Serial fluorescence-based selective sensing of Cy3-labelled ?-streptavidin and Cy5-labelled ?-CRP antibodies is demonstrated.

Emiliyanov, Grigoriy; H?iby, Poul E.; Pedersen, Lars H.; Bang, Ole

2013-01-01

448

Examining the relationship between word learning, nonword repetition, and immediate serial recall in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined whether the association between word-learning, nonword repetition, and immediate serial recall observed in children also exists in normal adults. The experiments also introduce a novel paradigm for studying word-learning. Experiment 1 studied the performance of 52 adults in nonword repetition, immediate serial recall, and word-learning tasks, examining the correlation between these measures. The results indicate that the

Prahlad Gupta

2003-01-01

449

Application of Three-Dimensional Digital Image Processing for Reconstruction of Microstructural Volume from Serial Sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional digital image processing is useful for reconstruction of microstructural volume from a stack of serial sections. Application of this technique is demonstrated via reconstruction of a volume segment of the liquid-phase sintered microstructure of a tungsten heavy alloy processed in the microgravity environment of NASAs'space shuttle, Columbia. Ninety serial sections (approximately one micrometer apart) were used for reconstruction of

Asim Tewari; Arun M Gokhale

2000-01-01

450

Short-Term Memory for Serial Order: The Start-End Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three solutions to the problem of serial order can be identified: chaining, ordinal and positional theories. Error patterns in serial recall from short-term memory fail to support chaining theories, yet provide unequivocal evidence for positional theories. In a new model of short-term memory, the Start-End Model (SEM), the positions of items in a sequence are coded relative to the start

Richard N. A. Henson

1998-01-01

451

Serial change of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial concentration in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial change of the metaiodobenzylguanidine iodine-123 (123I-MIBG) myocardial concentration was investigated in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Eight DCM patients and 6 control subjects were examined. After the injection of thallium-201 and 123I-MIBG, planar chest images were obtained simultaneously for both tracers in every 30–60 min over 5 h. Serial changes of myocardial uptake ratio (MUR) were compared for both

K. Yamakado; K. Takeda; T. Kitano; T. Nakagawa; Y. Futagami; T. Konishi; M. Hamada; T. Nakano; T. Ichihara

1992-01-01

452

A proteomic analysis during serial subculture and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell.  

PubMed

Although previous studies have reported the effects of extensive subculturing on proliferation rates and osteogenic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), the results remain controversial. The aim of our study was to characterize the proliferation and osteogenic potential of hMSCs during serial subculture, and also to identify proteins that are differentially regulated in hMSCs during serial subculture and osteogenic differentiation using proteome analysis. Here we show that the proliferation and osteogenic capacity of hMSCs decrease during serial subculturing. Several proteins were shown to be differentially regulated during serial subculture; among these the expression of T-complex protein 1 alpha subunit (TCP-1alpha), a protein known to be associated with cell proliferation, cell cycle, morphological changes, and apoptosis, gradually decreased during serial subculture. Among proteins that were differentially regulated during osteogenic differentiation, chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1) was downregulated only during the early passages eukaryotic translation elongation factor, and acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 was downregulated during the middle passages, while annexin V, LIM, and SH3 domain protein 1 (LASP-1), and 14-3-3 protein gamma (YWHAG) were upregulated during the later passage. These studies suggest that differentially regulated passage-specific proteins may play a role in the decrease of osteogenic differentiation potential under serial subculturing. PMID:16947300

Sun, Hyun Jin; Bahk, Young Yil; Choi, Yon Rak; Shim, Jung Hye; Han, Seung Hwan; Lee, Jin Woo

2006-11-01

453

Frequency of serial sexual homicide victimization in Virginia for a ten-year period.  

PubMed

The frequency of serial sexual murder has been widely discussed, and estimates of the number of victims in the United States range from 500 to 6000 per year. This study attempted to quantify the number of serial sexual murder victims in Virginia for a ten-year period. Multiple sources of data were utilized, including Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) case files, FBI's Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (ViCAP) reports, Virginia State Police ViCAP reports, Virginia Homicide Investigators Association, and the Virginia Division of Forensic Science DNA database, to effectively cull out all the known serial sexual murder victims for the given time period. Review of these records revealed a total of 28 victims of serial sexual murder, compared with a total of 5183 murder victims for the same ten-year period. The frequency of serial sexual victimization was 0.5% of all homicides for the given period. These results highlight the unusual frequency of serial sexual murder. PMID:15171171

McNamara, James J; Morton, Robert J

2004-05-01

454

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

Riley, M.F.

2003-04-30

455

Thermodynamic and Physical Properties of Crystals Formed from Dilute Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some of the thermodynamic and physical properties of crystals of linear polyethylene, formed from dilute solution are discussed. These properties include density, enthalpy of fusion, infrared absorption spectrum, selective oxidation and dynamic mechanical...

L. Mandelkern

1969-01-01

456

Separation processes using expulsion from dilute supercritical solutions  

DOEpatents

A process for separating isotopes as well as other mixtures by utilizing the behavior of dilute repulsive or weakly attractive elements of the mixtures as the critical point of the solvent is approached.

Cochran, Jr., Henry D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

457

Modelling of CO Oxidation in Dilution Jet Flows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Existing equilibrium chemistry and laminar flamelet computer codes are inadequate for calculation of post-flame carbon monoxide burn-up in gas turbine combustion chamber dilution zones. The amount of reaction occurring in such zones is small, but signific...

P. V. Chleboun K. P. Hubbert C. G. W. Sheppard

1988-01-01

458

USING ISOTOPE DILUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY TO DETERMINE AQUEOUS TRICHLOROACETIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

The development, verification, and application of a method based on isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine aqueous trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) at the micrograms per litre level are described. The simultaneous determination of aqueous chloroform is also...

459

Separation processes using expulsion from dilute supercritical solutions  

DOEpatents

A process is described for separating isotopes as well as other mixtures by utilizing the behavior of dilute repulsive or weakly attractive elements of the mixtures as the critical point of the solvent is approached.

Cochran, H.D. Jr.

1993-04-20

460

21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2500 Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. (a)...

2013-04-01

461

Managing Electronic Serials: Essays Based on the ALCTS Electronic Serials Institutes 1997-1999. ALCTS Papers on Library Technical Services & Collections, No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If managed well, electronic journals (e-journals) can be extremely efficient, saving money and space while improving access and speeding information delivery. With the help of the Internet, e-journals can also make library collections more accessible to both users and staff. Covering the process of managing electronic serials from licensing,…

Bluh, Pamela M., Ed.

462

Praxair's dilute oxygen combustion technology for pyrometallurgical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) technology uses separate high-velocity fuel and oxygen jets to generate strong in-furnace gas recirculation, producing combustion between the fuel and a highly diluted oxygen and furnace-gas mixture. These very low NOx oxy-fuel burners have been developed and commercially demonstrated in steel reheating furnaces. The burner design meets industry needs for increased productivity and lower operating costs

M. F. Riley; H. Kobayashi; A. C. Deneys

2001-01-01

463

Praxair’s dilute oxygen combustion technology for pyrometallurgical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) technology uses separate high-velocity fuel and oxygen jets to generate strong in-furnace gas\\u000a recirculation, producing combustion between the fuel and a highly diluted oxygen and furnace-gas mixture. These very low NOx\\u000a oxy-fuel burners have been developed and commercially demonstrated in steel reheating furnaces. The burner design meets industry\\u000a needs for increased productivity and lower operating costs

M. F. Riley; H. Kobayashi; A. C. Deneys

2001-01-01

464

Diluted tributyl phosphate as an extraetant for silver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A new method is devised for the rapid solvent extraction of silver with diluted tributyl phosphate. Thus 40% TBP in butanol quantitatively extracts silver (49.8µg) from 1M nitric acid that is 2M in lithium nitrate as salting-out agent. Silver is stripped with dilute ammonia and is determined photometrically at 495 ran as its red-violet complex withp-diethylaminobenzylidenerhodanine. The effect of

A. A. Yadav; S. M. Khopkar

1971-01-01

465

Anatomy of the symmetry energy of dilute nuclear matter  

SciTech Connect

The symmetry energy coefficients of dilute clusters nuclear matter are evaluated in the S-matrix framework. Employing a few different definitions commonly used in the literature for uniform nuclear matter, it is seen that the different definitions lead to perceptibly different results for the symmetry coefficients for dilute nuclear matter. They are found to be higher compared to those obtained for uniform matter in the low density domain. The calculated results are in reasonable consonance with those extracted recently from experimental data.

De, J. N.; Samaddar, S. K.; Agrawal, B. K. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

2010-10-15

466

Fate of phosphorus in diluted urine with tap water.  

PubMed

P loss during the fresh urine storage process is inevitable because of the presence of Ca and Mg. Dilution is one of the most important parameters influencing urine composition and subsequent P recovery. This study aimed to investigate the fate of P in urine with different dilution ratios (Vwater/Vurine, i.e., 0/100, 25/75, 50/50 and 75/25). The results indicate that the percentage of P loss increased from 43% to 76% as the dilution ratio increased from 0/100 to 75/25 because of more Ca and Mg obtained from tap water. Meanwhile, P removal efficiency through struvite precipitation decreased from 51% to 8% because of lower supersaturation ratio as a result of dilution. Struvite crystals with high purity were still obtained even under a dilution ratio of 50/50 urine solution. Batch experiments were also performed to study the influence of temperature (15-35°C) on P recovery and crystal size. For different dilution ratios of urine solutions, no significant discrepancy for the P removal efficiencies were observed at 15 and 35°C, whereas the P removal efficiencies at 25°C showed an increasing gap with those at 15 and 35°C. The largest average crystal sizes were found at 25°C, which was opposite to the trend of P removal efficiency. PMID:25065802

Liu, Xiaoning; Wen, Guoqi; Wang, Huihui; Zhu, Xiaoqi; Hu, Zhengyi

2014-10-01

467

Dry dilute acid pretreatment by co-currently feeding of corn stover feedstock and dilute acid solution without impregnation.  

PubMed

Impregnation of lignocellulose materials with dilute acid solution is a routine operation in conventional dilute acid pretreatment. The dry dilute acid pretreatment (DDAP) at high solids content up to 70% is naturally considered to require longer impregnation time. In this study, a co-currently feeding operation of corn stover and dilute sulfuric acid solution without any impregnation was tested for DDAP. The DDAP pretreated corn stover without impregnation is found to be essentially no difference in pretreatment efficiency compared to those with impregnation in the helically agitated reactor. The yield from cellulose to ethanol in SSF again shows no obvious difference between the DDAP pretreated corn stover with and without impregnation. This study suggests that impregnation in DDAP was not necessary under the helical agitation mixing. The results provided a useful way of cost reduction and process simplification in pretreatment. PMID:24630497

He, Yanqing; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

2014-04-01

468

Erosive events in dilute pyroclastic density currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of the dynamics of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is largely based on the study of their deposits. However, sedimentological structures reflect only the low energy, depositional phases of a flow. To enlarge the source of information on PDC behaviour, we provided wind-tunnel experiments to measure the minimal velocity necessary to erode dry, volcanic ash. Our results permit to link erosive surfaces that are often found in PDC deposits to the minimum velocity that must have acted to produce them. We apply the method to field examples and discuss the occurrence of hydraulic-jumps in dilute PDCs. We measured the threshold of surface friction-velocity for erosion of two types of volcanic ash: 1) a mixture of fragments of vesiculated scoria containing also lithics and crystals and 2) pumice clasts from the Plinian Laacher See eruption. Both were sampled in quarries from the East Eifel volcanic field (Germany). For each type, we measured the threshold for particles from 63 ?m to 2 mm in 1 phi-size steps. Static threshold friction-velocities have been measured experimentally in an open, 6 m-long wind-tunnel at Aarhus University. In order to quickly guarantee the downwind equilibrium-dynamics of the saltating sand-surface, we produced roughness-carpets upstream of the study area. The roughness-carpets consist of particles of the measured sample fixed onto the bed in order to create an appropriate static roughness. The measuring section (1 m in length) is located at the downwind end of the wind-tunnel and covered with 10 mm of sample. The wind velocity in the wind-tunnel was progressively increased until a small but continuous number of grains left the surface. This wind velocity was taken as the threshold, and the associated surface friction-velocity was deduced by calibration from wind-profiles data taken over the fixed surface of material of the same characteristics. We apply our results to sedimentary features found in natural deposits and usually interpreted as "chute and pool" structures. These are characterized by erosional events producing a steep side facing the flow, and lensoidal layers deposited on the stoss face of the un-eroded, remaining strata. Our experimental results allow for quantifying the minimum current-velocity required for the observed erosion. Based on this, we discuss the interpretation of such erosional features as "chute and pool" structures, which are the sedimentary record of hydraulic-jumps. There is no clear evidence of the presence of internal hydraulic-jumps in the sedimentary record of PDCs. Moreover, such flows can decelerate drastically and eventually stop without leaving the supercritical flow regime due to their highly depositional nature. Accordingly, they would not experience a hydraulic-jump.

Douillet, G.; Kueppers, U.; Rasmussen, K.; Merrison, J. P.; Dingwell, D. B.

2011-12-01

469

Effects of dietary dilution source and dilution level on feather damage, performance, behavior, and litter condition in pullets.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary dilution sources and levels on feather damage, performance, feeding behavior, and litter condition in rearing pullets. It was hypothesized that dietary dilution increases feeding-related behavior and improves feather condition, particularly if insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides are used as the dilution source. In total, 864 Lohmann Brown 1-d-old non-beak-trimmed pullets were used until 18 wk of age. Four dietary treatments, a control diet without any dilution (R_0%), 7.5% diluted diet with sunflower seed extract/oat hulls (R_7.5%), 15% diluted diet with sunflower seed extract (R_15%_S), and 15% diluted diet with oat hulls (R_15%_O), with 6 replicates (1 replicate is a pen with 36 pullets) per treatment were used. On 4-wk intervals, behavioral parameters, including eating time, feather pecking, feather condition, and general behavior were evaluated. Pullets fed the control diet showed increased feather, comb, and wire pecking compared with pullets fed diluted diets. The level of feather damage decreased with increasing dietary dilution level. Pullets receiving R_15%_S and R_15%_O showed more feeding-related behavior than the pullets on R_7.5% and R_0%. Oat hulls were more effective in preventing feather damage than sunflower seed extract. Pullets did not fully compensate their feed intake if fed a dietary dilution, resulting in a proportionally reduced available ME intake. The R_15%_O pullets had 2.9% lower average BW gain compared with those fed R_0%. Average eating duration increased by 12.8, 33.2, and 42.1% in R_7.5%, R_15%_S, and R_15%_O fed pullets, respectively, compared with R_0%, whereas eating rate [feed intake (g)/pullet per eating min] was decreased in R_15%_S and R_15%_O pullets. Relative weights of empty gizzards were 3.95, 10.30, and 62.72% greater in R_7.5%, R_15%_S, and R_15%_O pullets compared with pullets fed R_0%. It was concluded that dietary dilution affected time budgets of the pullets, as shown by more feeding-related behavior, resulting in less feather pecking behavior. Based on our results, application of this feeding strategy could improve production and welfare in pullets. PMID:23436509

Qaisrani, S N; van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P

2013-03-01

470

Argon dilution of silane as an alternative to hydrogen dilution for stable and high efficiency silicon thin films solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films by rf-PECVD from a silane highly diluted into hydrogen mixture was shown to give more stable layers and solar devices. However, hydrogen–silane mixture is quite hazardous. That is why the possibility to obtain stable and device grade thin films using argon dilution of silane has been investigated. We present the correlations we

P. Chaudhuri; R. Meaudre; C. Longeaud

2004-01-01

471

Serial correlation in neural spike trains: experimental evidence, stochastic modeling, and single neuron variability.  

PubMed

The activity of spiking neurons is frequently described by renewal point process models that assume the statistical independence and identical distribution of the intervals between action potentials. However, the assumption of independent intervals must be questioned for many different types of neurons. We review experimental studies that reported the feature of a negative serial correlation of neighboring intervals, commonly observed in neurons in the sensory periphery as well as in central neurons, notably in the mammalian cortex. In our experiments we observed the same short-lived negative serial dependence of intervals in the spontaneous activity of mushroom body extrinsic neurons in the honeybee. To model serial interval correlations of arbitrary lags, we suggest a family of autoregressive point processes. Its marginal interval distribution is described by the generalized gamma model, which includes as special cases the log-normal and gamma distributions, which have been widely used to characterize regular spiking neurons. In numeric simulations we investigated how serial correlation affects the variance of the neural spike count. We show that the experimentally confirmed negative correlation reduces single-neuron variability, as quantified by the Fano factor, by up to 50%, which favors the transmission of a rate code. We argue that the feature of a negative serial correlation is likely to be common to the class of spike-frequency-adapting neurons and that it might have been largely overlooked in extracellular single-unit recordings due to spike sorting errors. PMID:19391776

Farkhooi, Farzad; Strube-Bloss, Martin F; Nawrot, Martin P

2009-02-01

472

Serial list combination by monkeys (Macaca mulatta): test cues and linking.  

PubMed

This investigation assessed prospective bases of non-human primate cognitive operations that support serial list memory. Four macaques learned 3-, 5-item ordered lists of objects (as two-choice problems) and then either did or did not (in a within-subject design) receive training on pairs that linked the three original lists into a 15-item serial order. Next, subjects experienced selective exposure trials on object pairs that either maintained or contrasted to the serial position relationships seen during original learning. Subsequent comprehensive tests assessed the interactive effects of linking and exposure conditions on choosing in accord with a combined 15-item serial order. Linking readily induced monkeys to merge lists into a 15-item order, but restricting early exposure to pairs with the same positional relationships as original training slowed, but did not prevent, list combination. Exposure to positional relationships congruent with the combined (15-item) list and different from those of original 5-item training aided both expression of the linking effect and acquisition after no link training. Thus, list linking facilitated serial reorganization by inducing release from error derived from memory for prior learned positional relationships. The task was recommended as a prospective evaluator of continuity of cognitive processes among species. PMID:19533183

Treichler, F Robert; Raghanti, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

473

The motivation behind serial sexual homicide: is it sex, power, and control, or anger?  

PubMed

Controversy exists in the literature and society regarding what motivates serial sexual killers to commit their crimes. Hypotheses range from the seeking of sexual gratification to the achievement of power and control to the expression of anger. The authors provide theoretical, empirical, evolutionary, and physiological support for the argument that serial sexual murderers above all commit their crimes in pursuit of sadistic pleasure. The seeking of power and control over victims is believed to serve the two secondary purposes of heightening sexual arousal and ensuring victim presence for the crime. Anger is not considered a key component of these offenders' motivation due to its inhibitory physiological effect on sexual functioning. On the contrary, criminal investigations into serial sexual killings consistently reveal erotically charged crimes, with sexual motivation expressed either overtly or symbolically. Although anger may be correlated with serial sexual homicide offenders, as it is with criminal offenders in general, it is not causative. The authors further believe serial sexual murderers should be considered sex offenders. A significant proportion of them appear to have paraphilic disorders within the spectrum of sexual sadism. "sexual sadism, homicidal type" is proposed as a diagnostic subtype of sexual sadism applicable to many of these offenders, and a suggested modification of DSM criteria is presented. PMID:16882237

Myers, Wade C; Husted, David S; Safarik, Mark E; O'Toole, Mary Ellen

2006-07-01

474

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A full asynchronous serial transmission converter for network-on-chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large transmission power consumptions and excessive interconnection lines are two shortcomings which exist in conventional network-on-chips. To improve performance in these areas, this paper proposes a full asynchronous serial transmission converter for network-on-chips. By grouping the parallel data between routers into smaller data blocks, interconnection lines between routers can be greatly reduced, which finally brings about saving of power overheads in the transmission process. Null convention logic units are used to make the circuit quasi-delay insensitive and highly robust. The proposed serial transmission converter and serial channel are implemented based on SMIC 0.18 ?m standard CMOS technology. Results demonstrate that this full asynchronous serial transmission converter can save up to three quarters of the interconnection line resources and also reduce up to two-thirds of the power consumption under 32 bit data widths. The proposed full asynchronous serial transmission converter can apply to the on chip network which is sensitive to area and power.

Yintang, Yang; Xuguang, Guan; Duan, Zhou; Zhangming, Zhu

2010-04-01

475

Serial correlation in neural spike trains: Experimental evidence, stochastic modeling, and single neuron variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity of spiking neurons is frequently described by renewal point process models that assume the statistical independence and identical distribution of the intervals between action potentials. However, the assumption of independent intervals must be questioned for many different types of neurons. We review experimental studies that reported the feature of a negative serial correlation of neighboring intervals, commonly observed in neurons in the sensory periphery as well as in central neurons, notably in the mammalian cortex. In our experiments we observed the same short-lived negative serial dependence of intervals in the spontaneous activity of mushroom body extrinsic neurons in the honeybee. To model serial interval correlations of arbitrary lags, we suggest a family of autoregressive point processes. Its marginal interval distribution is described by the generalized gamma model, which includes as special cases the log-normal and gamma distributions, which have been widely used to characterize regular spiking neurons. In numeric simulations we investigated how serial correlation affects the variance of the neural spike count. We show that the experimentally confirmed negative correlation reduces single-neuron variability, as quantified by the Fano factor, by up to 50%, which favors the transmission of a rate code. We argue that the feature of a negative serial correlation is likely to be common to the class of spike-frequency-adapting neurons and that it might have been largely overlooked in extracellular single-unit recordings due to spike sorting errors.

Farkhooi, Farzad; Strube-Bloss, Martin F.; Nawrot, Martin P.

2009-02-01

476

System and method for simultaneously collecting serial number information from numerous identity tags  

DOEpatents

A system and method for simultaneously collecting serial number information reports from numerous colliding coded-radio-frequency identity tags. Each tag has a unique multi-digit serial number that is stored in non-volatile RAM. A reader transmits an ASCII coded "D" character on a carrier of about 900 MHz and a power illumination field having a frequency of about 1.6 Ghz. A one MHz tone is modulated on the 1.6 Ghz carrier as a timing clock for a microprocessor in each of the identity tags. Over a thousand such tags may be in the vicinity and each is powered-up and clocked by the 1.6 Ghz power illumination field. Each identity tag looks for the "D" interrogator modulated on the 900 MHz carrier, and each uses a digit of its serial number to time a response. Clear responses received by the reader are repeated for verification. If no verification or a wrong number is received by any identity tag, it uses a second digital together with the first to time out a more extended period for response. Ultimately, the entire serial number will be used in the worst case collision environments; and since the serial numbers are defined as being unique, the final possibility will be successful because a clear time-slot channel will be available.

Doty, Michael A. (Manteca, CA)

1997-01-01

477

Is compound chaining the serial-order mechanism of spelling? A simple recurrent network investigation.  

PubMed

Although considerable progress has been made in determining the cognitive architecture of spelling, less is known about the serial-order mechanism of spelling: the process(es) involved in producing each letter in the proper order. In this study, we investigate compound chaining as a theory of the serial-order mechanism of spelling. Chaining theories posit that the retrieval from memory of each element in a sequence is dependent upon the retrieval of previous elements. We examine this issue by comparing the performance of simple recurrent networks (a class of neural networks that we show can operate by chaining) with that of two individuals with acquired dysgraphia affecting the serial-order mechanism of spelling-the graphemic buffer. We compare their performance in terms of the effects of serial position, the effect of length on overall letter accuracy, and the effect of length on the accuracy of specific positions within the word. We find that the networks produce significantly different patterns of performance from those of the dysgraphics, indicating that compound chaining is not an appropriate theory of the serial-order mechanism of spelling. PMID:18568817

Goldberg, Ariel M; Rapp, Brenda

2008-03-01

478

Effects of dilution on the properties of nC??.  

PubMed

C60 forms colloidally stable nanoparticles (nC60) via extended mixing or solvent exchange. Many studies on the environmental impacts of nC60 use aliquots from a large batch of nC60 suspension and either dilute them or subject them to other modifications under the assumption that the properties of the parent suspension remain stable over time and are unaltered by these manipulations. In the present study, nC60 produced via stirring in the presence of sodium citrate (cit/nC60) was characterized with respect to particle size, surface charge, and morphology following dilution. Counter-intuitively, the results show that the colloidal properties of diluted cit/nC60 are not fixed despite constant solution chemistry and are dependent upon the ratios of [C60] to [Na(+)] and [citrate]. In some cases, diluted nC60 had significantly different morphology. This study suggests that any experiment involving modifications of stock nC60 suspensions must take the altered colloidal properties of the diluted nC60 into consideration. PMID:23811179

Chang, Xiaojun; Vikesland, Peter J

2013-10-01

479

Evaluation of heavy water for indicator dilution cardiac output measurement  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated deuterium oxide (D2O) as a tracer for cardiac output measurements. Cardiac output measurements made by thermodilution were compared with those made by indicator dilution with D2O and indocyanine green as tracers. Five triplicate measurements for each method were made at intervals of 30 minutes in each of 9 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated goats. Cardiac output ranged between 0.68 and 3.79 L/min. The 45 data points yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.948 for the comparison of D2O indicator dilution cardiac output measurements with thermodilution measurements and a linear regression slope of 1.046. D2O indicator dilution measurements were biased by -0.11 +/- 0.22 L/min compared with thermodilution measurements and had a standard deviation of +/- 0.12 L/min for triplicate measurements. Hematocrits ranging between 20 and 50 vol% had no effect on optical density for D2O. D2O is more stable than indocyanine green and approximately one-tenth the price (40 cents per injection compared with $4). The basic instrumentation cost of approximately $9,000 is an additional initial expense, but provides the ability to perform pulmonary extravascular water measurements with a double-indicator dilution technique. D2O has potential as a tracer for the clinical determination of indicator dilution cardiac output measurements and pulmonary extravascular water measurements.

Schreiner, M.S.; Leksell, L.G.; Neufeld, G.R. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA))

1989-10-01

480

Measurement of nutrient intake by deuterium dilution in premature infants.  

PubMed

To assess whether a simple nonrestrictive method of determining nutrient intake could be applied to premature infants, we compared actual measured formula intake during a 7-day period with intake calculated from deuterium dilution in 13 hospitalized, growing, premature newborn infants. An oral dose of deuterium oxide (D2O) was administered, and urine samples were analyzed by deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry for D2O concentration. Using an exponential model, we calculated formula intake from the decline in D2O concentration during the 7-day study period. Intake as assessed by the deuterium model correlated well with actual intake (r = 0.93; p < 0.001). However, because the deuterium dilution model measures both dietary and nondietary water intake (metabolic and cutaneous water influx), deuterium dilution-derived intake exceeded actual intake by 25 +/- 18 ml/kg per day (16% +/- 11%). When corrections were applied to account for nondietary water intake, deuterium dilution-derived nutrient intake (160 +/- 30 ml/kg per day) closely approximated actual intake (155 +/- 17 ml/kg per day). If corrections are made for nondietary water intake, the deuterium dilution method may be a useful nonrestrictive method of measuring nutrient intake in a variety of neonatal populations. PMID:8355126

Peppard, R J; Karn, C A; McCabe, M A; Wassall, S R; Liechty, E A; Denne, S C

1993-09-01