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Sample records for two-fold serial dilution

  1. Serial Dilution Simulation Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keler, Cynthia; Balutis, Tabitha; Bergen, Kim; Laudenslager, Bryanna; Rubino, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Serial dilution is often a difficult concept for students to understand. In this short dry lab exercise, students perform serial dilutions using seed beads. This exercise helps students gain skill at performing dilutions without using reagents, bacterial cultures, or viral cultures, while being able to visualize the process.

  2. Estimation method for serial dilution experiments.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E

    2014-12-01

    Titration of microorganisms in infectious or environmental samples is a corner stone of quantitative microbiology. A simple method is presented to estimate the microbial counts obtained with the serial dilution technique for microorganisms that can grow on bacteriological media and develop into a colony. The number (concentration) of viable microbial organisms is estimated from a single dilution plate (assay) without a need for replicate plates. Our method selects the best agar plate with which to estimate the microbial counts, and takes into account the colony size and plate area that both contribute to the likelihood of miscounting the number of colonies on a plate. The estimate of the optimal count given by our method can be used to narrow the search for the best (optimal) dilution plate and saves time. The required inputs are the plate size, the microbial colony size, and the serial dilution factors. The proposed approach shows relative accuracy well within ±0.1log10 from data produced by computer simulations. The method maintains this accuracy even in the presence of dilution errors of up to 10% (for both the aliquot and diluent volumes), microbial counts between 10(4) and 10(12) colony-forming units, dilution ratios from 2 to 100, and plate size to colony size ratios between 6.25 to 200. PMID:25205541

  3. Electrocoalescence based serial dilution of microfluidic droplets

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Biddut; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2014-01-01

    Dilution of microfluidic droplets where the concentration of a reagent is incrementally varied is a key operation in drop-based biological analysis. Here, we present an electrocoalescence based dilution scheme for droplets based on merging between moving and parked drops. We study the effects of fluidic and electrical parameters on the dilution process. Highly consistent coalescence and fine resolution in dilution factor are achieved with an AC signal as low as 10?V even though the electrodes are separated from the fluidic channel by insulator. We find that the amount of material exchange between the droplets per coalescence event is high for low capillary number. We also observe different types of coalescence depending on the flow and electrical parameters and discuss their influence on the rate of dilution. Overall, we find the key parameter governing the rate of dilution is the duration of coalescence between the moving and parked drop. The proposed design is simple incorporating the channel electrodes in the same layer as that of the fluidic channels. Our approach allows on-demand and controlled dilution of droplets and is simple enough to be useful for assays that require serial dilutions. The approach can also be useful for applications where there is a need to replace or wash fluid from stored drops. PMID:25379096

  4. Serial dilution microchip for cytotoxicity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Hyunwoo; Lim, Sun Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Chung, Seok; Chung, Chanil; Han, Dong-Chul; Chang, Jun Keun

    2004-08-01

    Today's pharmaceutical industry is facing challenges resulting from the vast increases in sample numbers produced by high-throughput screening (HTS). In addition, the bottlenecks created by increased demand for cytotoxicity testing (required to assess compound safety) are becoming a serious problem. We have developed a polymer PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) based microfluidic device that can perform a cytotoxicity test in a rapid and reproducible manner. The concept that the device includes is well adjustable to automated robots in huge HTS systems, so we can think of it as a potential dilution and delivery module. Cytotoxicity testing is all about the dilution and dispensing of a drug sample. Previously, we made a PDMS based microfluidic device which automatically and precisely diluted drugs with a buffer solution with serially increasing concentrations. This time, the serially diluted drug solution was directly delivered to 96 well plates for cytotoxicity testing. Cytotoxic paclitaxel solution with 2% RPMI 1640 has been used while carrying out cancerous cell based cytotoxicity tests. We believe that this rapid and robust use of the PDMS microchip will overcome the growing problem in cytotoxicity testing for HTS.

  5. Implementing Inquiry-Based Learning in Teaching Serial Dilutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Candace L.; McGill, Michael T.; Buikema, Arthur L., Jr.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E model of inquiry-based learning was incorporated into a sophomore-level microbiology laboratory to increase student understanding of serial dilutions, a concept that is often difficult for most students to comprehend. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were conducted during the semester to determine the value of this approach for…

  6. Theory of a microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor for growth of planktonic and biofilm populations

    E-print Network

    Hsu, Sze-Bi

    Theory of a microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor for growth of planktonic and biofilm populations Sze-Bi Hsu and Ya-Tang Yang Abstract We present the theory of a microfluidic bioreactor with a two-compartment growth chamber and periodic serial dilution. In the model, coexisting plank- tonic and biofilm

  7. ON-DEMAND SERIAL DILUTION USING QUANTIZED NANO/PICOLITER-SCALE DROPLETS

    SciTech Connect

    Jambovane, Sachin R.; Prost, Spencer A.; Sheen, Allison M.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2014-10-29

    This paper describes a fully automated droplet-based microfluidic device for on-demand serial dilution that is capable of achieving a dilution ratio of >6000 (concentration ranges from 1 mM to 160nM) over 35 nanoliter-scale droplets. This serial diluter can be applied to high throughput and label-free kinetic assays by integrating with our previously developed on-demand droplet-based microfluidic with mass spectrometry detection.

  8. Optimizing production of serially diluted compounds and distribution to multiple targets.

    PubMed

    Harris, C O; Schweiker, S L

    2001-01-01

    The need for a multiple-target compound selectivity programme led to the establishment of a single robotic system that produces a compound's serial dilution and its distribution to multiple replicate assay plates. A Genesis RSP 150 integrated into a Zymate Laboratory Automation System XP produced the serial dilutions, and the subsequent replicate assay plates were produced quickly and accurately by an efficient use of the carousels and rapid plate. Currently, this process allows for the production of over 200 serial dilution assay plates in a workday. PMID:18924709

  9. Optimizing production of serially diluted compounds and distribution to multiple targets

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Cole O.; Schweiker, Stephanie L.

    2001-01-01

    The need for a multiple-target compound selectivity programme led to the establishment of a single robotic system that produces a compound's serial dilution and its distribution to multiple replicate assay plates. A Genesis RSP 150 integrated into a Zymate Laboratory Automation System XP produced the serial dilutions, and the subsequent replicate assay plates were produced quickly and accurately by an efficient use of the carousels and rapid plate. Currently, this process allows for the production of over 200 serial dilution assay plates in a workday. PMID:18924709

  10. Serial Dilution via Surface Energy Trap-Assisted Magnetic Droplet Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Shin, Dong Jin; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a facile method of generating precise serial dilutions in the form of droplets on an open surface platform. The method relies on the use of surface energy traps (SETs), etched areas of high surface energy on a Teflon coated glass substrate, to assist in the magnetic manipulation of droplets to meter and dispense liquid of defined volumes for the preparation of serial dilutions. The volume of the dispensed liquid can be precisely controlled by the size of the SETs, facilitating generation of concentration profiles of high linearity. We have applied this approach to the generation of serial dilutions of antibiotics for anti-microbial susceptibility testing (AST). PMID:24162777

  11. Biometrics 60, 407417 Bayesian Analysis of Serial Dilution Assays

    E-print Network

    Gelman, Andrew

    laboratory data on cockroach allergens measured in house dust samples. Our estimates are much more accurate of measurements versus dilutions from a single plate (assays of the cockroach allergen Bla g1), for the standards

  12. EMJH medium with 5-fluorouracil and nalidixic acid associated with serial dilution technique used to recover Leptospira spp from experimentally contaminated bovine semen

    PubMed Central

    Miraglia, Fabiana; de Moraes, Zenaide Maria; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2009-01-01

    Bovine semen experimentally contaminated with Leptospira santarosai serovar Guaricura was submitted to the modified EMJH medium with 5-fluorouracil (300mg/L) and nalidixic acid (20mg/L), named as “selective medium” and using the serial dilution technique, in order to evaluate the percentage of recovery of the added microorganism. The selective EMJH medium was found with higher percentage of recovery of leptospiras and minor losses of samples due to contamination with opportunistic microorganisms than the non-selective EMJH medium: 151/376 (40.0%) of positive growth; and 38/376 (10.0%) contamination and 58/376 (15%) and 129/376 (34.0%), respectively. These results were statistically significant (p<0. 0001; Fisher). Differences were found when the frequencies of positive leptospires recovery have been compared in the serial dilution technique (10-1 to 10-4) between the selective and non-selective media at different dilution factors. At 1/10th dilution the percentages found were (0%, 0/80) and (38%, 30/80), at 1/100th dilution, (3%, 2/80) and (49%, 39/ 80) and at 1/1,000th dilution, (25%, 20/80) and (50%, 40/80), respectively. The percentage of recovery of leptospires was found to be directly proportional to the dilution used. The methodology of the serial dilution technique (setting at least three dilutions) and the use of selective EMJH medium have been found to be efficient for the isolation of leptospires from the bovine semen samples. PMID:24031342

  13. Differences in Median Ultraviolet Light Transmissions of Serial Homeopathic Dilutions of Copper Sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and Sulfur

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sabine D.; Sandig, Annegret; Baumgartner, Stephan; Wolf, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Homeopathic remedies are produced by potentising, that is, the serial logarithmic dilution and succussion of a mother tincture. Techniques like ultraviolet spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, calorimetry, or thermoluminescence have been used to investigate their physical properties. In this study, homeopathic centesimal (c) potencies (6c to 30c) of copper sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and sulfur as well as succussed water controls were prepared. Samples of these preparations were exposed to external physical factors like heat, pressure, ultraviolet radiation, or electromagnetic fields to mimic possible everyday storage conditions. The median transmissions from 190?nm to 340?nm and 220?nm to 340?nm were determined by ultraviolet light spectroscopy on five measurement days distributed over several months. Transmissions of controls and potencies of sulfur differed significantly on two of five measurement days and after exposure to physical factors. Transmissions of potencies exposed to ultraviolet light and unexposed potencies of copper sulfate and Hypericum perforatum differed significantly. Potency levels 6c to 30c were also compared, and wavelike patterns of higher and lower transmissions were found. The Kruskal-Wallis test yielded significant differences for the potency levels of all three substances. Aiming at understanding the physical properties of homeopathic preparations, this study confirmed and expanded the findings of previous studies. PMID:23401712

  14. Stability of two-fold screw axis structures for cellulose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diffraction crystallography indicates that most forms of crystalline cellulose have two-fold screw axis symmetry. Even if exact symmetry is absent, the degree of pseudo symmetry is very high. On the other hand, this symmetry leads to short contacts between H4 and H1' across the glycosidic linkage....

  15. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed Central

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-01-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. Images PMID:6338826

  16. Serial Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    In a year filled with drama and hyperbole, the serials marketplace churned toward a future whose shape is the subject of fierce debate. Forecasts from commercial publishers touting collapse and disaster seemed oddly out of sync with the profits they enjoyed--around 25 percent on average. Nevertheless, in a market where prices continued to rise and…

  17. Pulse shape analysis of a two fold clover detector with empirical mode decomposition based algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwal, Davinder; Mandal, S.; Palit, R.; Schaffner, H.; Adamczewski, J.; Kurz, N.; Naidu, B. S.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Singh, R.

    2014-08-01

    A study of Second-Generation HPGe detectors, which aim at high resolution gamma spectroscopy are underway. The study will utilize the concept of Compton imaging in semiconductors, which will be probed by the Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) and Gamma-Ray Tracking (GRT) algorithms. The ?-ray track vertices inside the detector volume can be found by analyzing the core and mirror signals which result from different kinds of couplings among the electrodes. The energy accuracy of the reconstructed tracks will depend on the accuracy of the co-ordinate reconstruction. In the present investigation such co-ordinate reconstruction has been done under Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) based algorithm. The implications of EMD on pulse shapes of signals from a two fold clover detector has been studied.

  18. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  19. Transforming the Einstein static Universe into physically acceptable static fluid spheres II: A two - fold infinity of exact solutions

    E-print Network

    Cédric Grenon; Pascal J. Elahi; Kayll Lake

    2008-07-16

    Following a solution generating technique introduced recently by one of us, we transform the Einstein static Universe into a two - fold infinity class of physically acceptable exact perfect fluid solutions of Einstein's equations. Whereas the entire class of solutions can be considered as generalizations of the familiar Tolman IV solution, no member of the class can be written explicitly in isotropic coordinates. Further, except for a set of measure zero, no member of the class can be written explicitly in curvature coordinates either.

  20. Serial interprocessor communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

    1980-04-03

    A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM.

  1. Universal Serial Bus Specification

    E-print Network

    Borgonovo, Flaminio

    Universal Serial Bus Specification Compaq Hewlett-Packard Intel Lucent Microsoft NEC Philips Technologies Inc, Microsoft Corporation, NEC Corporation, Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. All rights Corporation Nobuo Furuya NEC Corporation Toshimi Sakurai NEC Corporation Moto Sato NEC Corporation Katsuya

  2. Serial Radiohippurate Renal Scintiphotography

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthall, Leonard; Greyson, N. David; Martin, Robert H.

    1970-01-01

    The results of serial radiohippurate scintiphotography in 222 patients are analyzed. The findings in various renal diseases are discussed and compared with those obtained from the excretory urogram, BUN, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4aFIG. 4bFIG. 5aFIG. 5b PMID:5536740

  3. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  4. Malaysian Serials: Issues and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahri, Che Norma

    This paper analyzes the issues and problems while looking at the trends and developments of serials publishing in Malaysia. The first section provides background; topics addressed include the country and people of Malaysia, the history of serials publishing in Malaysia, categories and formats of serials publishing, academic publications,…

  5. Rapid Serial Auditory Presentation.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ana; Eberlen, Julia; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Cleeremans, Axel; Bertels, Julie

    2015-11-01

    The Rapid Serial Visual Presentation procedure is a method widely used in visual perception research. In this paper we propose an adaptation of this method which can be used with auditory material and enables assessment of statistical learning in speech segmentation. Adult participants were exposed to an artificial speech stream composed of statistically defined trisyllabic nonsense words. They were subsequently instructed to perform a detection task in a Rapid Serial Auditory Presentation (RSAP) stream in which they had to detect a syllable in a short speech stream. Results showed that reaction times varied as a function of the statistical predictability of the syllable: second and third syllables of each word were responded to faster than first syllables. This result suggests that the RSAP procedure provides a reliable and sensitive indirect measure of auditory statistical learning. PMID:26592534

  6. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  7. Serial Powering of Silicon Sensors

    E-print Network

    Villani, E G; Tyndel, M; Apsimon, R

    2007-01-01

    Serial powering is a technique to provide power to a number of serially chained detector modules. It is an alternative option to independent powering that is particularly attractive when the number of modules is high, as in largescale silicon tracking detectors for particle physics. It uses a single power cable and a constant current source. On each module power is derived using local shunt regulators. Design aspects of local shunt regulators and system aspects of serial powering will be discussed. Test results and measurements obtained with a silicon strip supermodule will be presented. Specifications of radiation-hard custom serial powering circuitry will be discussed.

  8. Dilutions Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Lawrence

    1996-01-01

    Presents problems appropriate for high school and college students that highlight dilution methods. Promotes an understanding of dilution methods in order to prevent the unnecessary waste of chemicals and glassware in biology laboratories. (JRH)

  9. A bit serial sequential circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    Normally a sequential circuit with n state variables consists of n unique hardware realizations, one for each state variable. All variables are processed in parallel. This paper introduces a new sequential circuit architecture that allows the state variables to be realized in a serial manner using only one next state logic circuit. The action of processing the state variables in a serial manner has never been addressed before. This paper presents a general design procedure for circuit construction and initialization. Utilizing pass transistors to form the combinational next state forming logic in synchronous sequential machines, a bit serial state machine can be realized with a single NMOS pass transistor network connected to shift registers. The bit serial state machine occupies less area than other realizations which perform parallel operations. Moreover, the logical circuit of the bit serial state machine can be modified by simply changing the circuit input matrix to develop an adaptive state machine.

  10. Automated serial number recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Bao, Xudong; Luo, Limin; Lv, Guoqiang

    2003-05-01

    Serial number plays an important role in the manufacturing and managing processes to identify the industry products, and automatic recognition of the serial number has become an essential step in modern industries. The limits of manufacture condition in factories and the requirement of real-time operation, however, make the design of a practical automatic serial number recognition system a difficult task. We developed a novel automatic serial number recognition system for railway wheel products, which has been successfully used in real production lines. This system uses visual inspection approaches to automatically recognize the serial numbers in real-time. The flexibility and low cost of the system make it very suitable for the applications described in this paper.

  11. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  12. Two-fold transmission reach enhancement enabled by transmitter-side digital backpropagation and optical frequency comb-derived information carriers.

    PubMed

    Temprana, E; Myslivets, E; Liu, L; Ataie, V; Wiberg, A; Kuo, B P P; Alic, N; Radic, S

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate a two-fold reach extension of 16 GBaud 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) system based on erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)-only amplified standard and single mode fiber -based link. The result is enabled by transmitter-side digital backpropagation and frequency referenced carriers drawn from a parametric comb. PMID:26367930

  13. Serial Item Contribution Identifier: New SISAC Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Libraries, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of the Serial Item Contribution Identifier (SICI) standard for serials handling. Developed by the Serials Industry Systems Advisory Committee (SISAC), SICI applications through the use of a SISAC barcode are expected to benefit shipping, ordering, serials processing and claiming, document delivery, and information exchange.…

  14. Serial Input Output

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each stream, record or block name must be unique in its category (i.e. all streams must have different names, but a stream can have the same name as a record). Each category is an arbitrary length list which is handled by a 'manager' and there is one manager for each category.

  15. Bit-serial neuroprocessor architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A neuroprocessor architecture employs a combination of bit-serial and serial-parallel techniques for implementing the neurons of the neuroprocessor. The neuroprocessor architecture includes a neural module containing a pool of neurons, a global controller, a sigmoid activation ROM look-up-table, a plurality of neuron state registers, and a synaptic weight RAM. The neuroprocessor reduces the number of neurons required to perform the task by time multiplexing groups of neurons from a fixed pool of neurons to achieve the successive hidden layers of a recurrent network topology.

  16. The pattern of xylan acetylation suggests xylan may interact with cellulose microfibrils as a two-fold helical screw in the secondary plant cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    E-print Network

    Busse-Wicher, Marta; Gomes, Thiago C. F.; Tryfona, Theodora; Nikolovski, Nino; Stott, Katherine; Grantham, Nicholas J.; Bolam, David N.; Skaf, Munir S.; Dupree, Paul D.

    2014-06-02

    of Cambridge, Biochemistry Gomes, Thiago; University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Institute of Chemistry Tryfona, Theodora; University of Cambridge, Biochemistry Nikolovski, Nino; University of Cambridge, Biochemistry Stott, Katherine; University of Cambridge... suggests xylan may interact with cellulose microfibrils as a two-fold helical screw in the secondary plant cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana. Marta Busse-Wicher1#, Thiago C. F. Gomes2,3#, Theodora Tryfona1#, Nino Nikolovski1#, Katherine Stott1...

  17. Serial Verb Nominalisations in Dagaare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodomo, Adams B.; van Oostendorp, Marc

    This paper examines nominalization and serial verb construction (SVC) in Dagaare, a West African language. It discusses nominalization theory and its relation to Germanic languages such as English, German, and Dutch, using insights gained from the study of these languages to help illuminate nominalization in Dagaare and other similar West African…

  18. Serials Control Systems on Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherbury, Maurice C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes seven commercially available microcomputer serials systems in terms of the following functions: cataloging/title entry, searching, check-in, claims, routing, bindery control, duplicates control, financial control, ordering, subscription renewal/payment, vendor records, reports, technical descriptions, costs, and number of…

  19. Implementing a Serials Barcoding Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennertz, Lora L.; Conway, Cheryl L.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the process of planning and implementing a barcode project for library serials based on experiences at the University of Arkansas Fayetteville library. Topics include dumb versus smart barcodes, cataloging, classification, application rate of barcode labels, and library staff participation. (Author/LRW)

  20. The Serial Process in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilden, David L.; Thornton, Thomas L.; Marusich, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    The conditions for serial search are described. A multiple target search methodology (Thornton & Gilden, 2007) is used to home in on the simplest target/distractor contrast that effectively mandates a serial scheduling of attentional resources. It is found that serial search is required when (a) targets and distractors are mirror twins, and (b)…

  1. Digit Serial Arithmetic 1 Asger Munk Nielsen

    E-print Network

    Kornerup, Peter

    MSB­First Digit Serial Arithmetic 1 Asger Munk Nielsen (Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science Odense University, Denmark kornerup@imada.ou.dk ) Abstract: We develop a formal account of digit serial case of the general digit serial representations. Matrices are introduced as representations

  2. Serials Control System Procedures and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlembach, Mary C.

    This document includes procedures and policies for a networked serials control system originally developed at the Grainger Engineering Library Information Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). The serials control systems encompass serials processing, public service, and end-user functions. The system employs a…

  3. The Serials Maze: Providing Public Services for a Large Serials Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzelik, Barbara P.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public service for the users of serials collections in large libraries in light of the complexities of serial collection organization. A diagram of the decision points encountered by users dealing with serials collections and tables listing the types of serials records and error problems are included. (JL)

  4. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kern, Jan; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Schafer, Donald W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Sellberg, Jonas; McQueen, Trevor A.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H.; Glatzel, Pieter; Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bogan, Michael J.

    2012-11-01

    A low flow rate liquid microjet method for delivery of hydrated protein crystals to X-ray lasers is presented. Linac Coherent Light Source data demonstrates serial femtosecond protein crystallography with micrograms, a reduction of sample consumption by orders of magnitude. An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min{sup ?1} to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min{sup ?1} and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption.

  5. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  6. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  7. A two-fold interpenetrating 3D metal-organic framework material constructed from helical chains linked via 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Yiming; Zhao Zhenguo; Wu Xiaoyuan; Zhang Qisheng; Chen Lijuan; Wang Fei; Chen Shanci; Lu Canzhong

    2008-12-15

    A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound {l_brace}[Ag(L){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}]{r_brace}{sub n} (1) has been synthesized by self-assembly of 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz (L=4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz=3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-bipyrazole) and Ag{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} under hydrothermal conditions. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4{sub 1}/acd with a=21.406(4) A, b=21.406(4) A, c=36.298(8) A, Z=32. X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that 1 has a three-dimensional framework with an unprecedented alternate left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net. Photoluminescent investigation reveals that the title compound displays interesting emissions in a wide region, which shows that the title compound may be a good potential candidate as a photoelectric material. - Graphical abstract: A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound [Ag(4,4'-bpz){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}] shows unprecedented alternating left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net.

  8. 950 keV X-Band Linac For Material Recognition Using Two-Fold Scintillator Detector As A Concept Of Dual-Energy X-Ray System

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kiwoo; Natsui, Takuya; Hirai, Shunsuke; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Eiko

    2011-06-01

    One of the advantages of applying X-band linear accelerator (Linac) is the compact size of the whole system. That shows us the possibility of on-site system such as the custom inspection system in an airport. As X-ray source, we have developed X-band Linac and achieved maximum X-ray energy 950 keV using the low power magnetron (250 kW) in 2 {mu}s pulse length. The whole size of the Linac system is 1x1x1 m{sup 3}. That is realized by introducing X-band system. In addition, we have designed two-fold scintillator detector in dual energy X-ray concept. Monte carlo N-particle transport (MCNP) code was used to make up sensor part of the design with two scintillators, CsI and CdWO4. The custom inspection system is composed of two equipments: 950 keV X-band Linac and two-fold scintillator and they are operated simulating real situation such as baggage check in an airport. We will show you the results of experiment which was performed with metal samples: iron and lead as targets in several conditions.

  9. The sexually sadistic serial killer.

    PubMed

    Warren, J I; Hazelwood, R R; Dietz, P E

    1996-11-01

    This article explores characteristics and crime scene behavior of 20 sexually sadistic serial murderers. The pairing of character pathology with paraphilic arousal to the control and degradation of others is examined as it manifests itself in their murders. Commonalities across murders and across murderers are highlighted, i.e., the execution of murders that are well-planned, the use of preselected locations, captivity, a variety of painful sexual acts, sexual bondage, intentional torture, and death by means of strangulation and stabbing. PMID:8914287

  10. Serial turbo trellis coded modulation using a serially concatenated coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Pollara, Fabrizio (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Serial concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) includes an outer coder, an interleaver, a recursive inner coder and a mapping element. The outer coder receives data to be coded and produces outer coded data. The interleaver permutes the outer coded data to produce interleaved data. The recursive inner coder codes the interleaved data to produce inner coded data. The mapping element maps the inner coded data to a symbol. The recursive inner coder has a structure which facilitates iterative decoding of the symbols at a decoder system. The recursive inner coder and the mapping element are selected to maximize the effective free Euclidean distance of a trellis coded modulator formed from the recursive inner coder and the mapping element. The decoder system includes a demodulation unit, an inner SISO (soft-input soft-output) decoder, a deinterleaver, an outer SISO decoder, and an interleaver.

  11. Serial turbo trellis coded modulation using a serially concatenated coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Pollara, Fabrizio (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Serial concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) includes an outer coder, an interleaver, a recursive inner coder and a mapping element. The outer coder receives data to be coded and produces outer coded data. The interleaver permutes the outer coded data to produce interleaved data. The recursive inner coder codes the interleaved data to produce inner coded data. The mapping element maps the inner coded data to a symbol. The recursive inner coder has a structure which facilitates iterative decoding of the symbols at a decoder system. The recursive inner coder and the mapping element are selected to maximize the effective free Euclidean distance of a trellis coded modulator formed from the recursive inner coder and the mapping element. The decoder system includes a demodulation unit, an inner SISO (soft-input soft-output) decoder, a deinterleaver, an outer SISO decoder, and an interleaver.

  12. Scientific and Technical Serials Holdings Optimization in an Inefficient Market: A LSU Serials Redesign Project Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensman, Stephen J.; Wilder, Stanley J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the structure of the library market for scientific and technical (ST) serials. Describes an exercise aimed at a theoretical reconstruction of the ST-serials holdings of Louisiana State University (LSU) Libraries. Discusses the set definitions, measures, and algorithms necessary in the design of a computer program to appraise ST serials.…

  13. Diluted magnetic oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, XiaoLi; Qi, ShiFei; Jiang, FengXian; Quan, ZhiYong; Xu, XiaoHong

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we review the progress of research on ZnO- and In2O3-based diluted magnetic oxides (DMOs). Firstly, we present the preparation and characterization of DMOs. The former includes the preparation methods and conditions, and the latter includes the characterization techniques for measuring microstructures. Secondly, we introduce the magnetic and transport properties of DMOs, as well as the relationship between them. Thirdly, the origin and mechanism of the ferromagnetism are discussed. Fourthly, we introduce other related work, including computational work and pertinent heterogeneous structures, such as multilayers and magnetic tunnel junctions. Finally, we provide an overview and outlook for DMOs.

  14. Serial Position Functions in General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Matthew R.; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age;…

  15. The Serial Murderer's Motivations: An Interdisciplinary Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHart, Dana D.; Mahoney, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Defines serial killer as individual who murders two or more victims over an extended period of time, ranging from days to years, with the crimes often being sexually motivated. Reviews existing motivational theories of serial murder and proposes additional explications from range of disciplines. Presents suggestions for future research and…

  16. Perception of Serial Order in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Serial order is fundamental to perception, cognition and behavioral action. Three experiments investigated infants' perception, learning and discrimination of serial order. Four- and 8-month-old infants were habituated to three sequentially moving objects making visible and audible impacts and then were tested on separate test trials for their…

  17. Library, Documentation and Archives Serials. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, K. R., Ed.

    A listing of library, documentation, and archives serials contains 950 in-print items. An alphabetical list of 77 serials from international organizations is followed by alphabetical title lists from 79 countries, Argentina through Zambia. An additional section contains information about 58 abstracting, indexing, and current awareness services.…

  18. Serial Order: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michael I.

    Human behavior shows a variety of serially ordered action sequences. This paper presents a theory of serial order which describes how sequences of actions might be learned and performed. In this theory, parallel interactions across time (coarticulation) and parallel interactions across space (dual-task interference) are viewed as two aspects of a…

  19. Dilute oriented loop models

    E-print Network

    Eric Vernier; Jesper Lykke Jacobsen; Hubert Saleur

    2015-09-25

    We study a model of dilute oriented loops on the square lattice, where each loop is compatible with a fixed, alternating orientation of the lattice edges. This implies that loop strands are not allowed to go straight at vertices, and results in an enhancement of the usual O(n) symmetry to U(n). The corresponding transfer matrix acts on a number of representations (standard modules) that grows exponentially with the system size. We derive their dimension and those of the centraliser by both combinatorial and algebraic techniques. A mapping onto a field theory permits us to identify the conformal field theory governing the critical range, $n \\le 1$. We establish the phase diagram and the critical exponents of low-energy excitations. For generic n, there is a critical line in the universality class of the dilute O(2n) model, terminating in an SU(n+1) point. The case n=1 maps onto the critical line of the six-vertex model, along which exponents vary continuously.

  20. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anup; Purkait, Bulbul

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic) drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG) was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models. PMID:26555986

  1. Comparison of hepatic and renal drug-metabolising enzyme activities in sheep given single or two-fold challenge infections with Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Calléja, C; Bigot, K; Eeckhoutte, C; Sibille, P; Boulard, C; Galtier, P

    2000-07-01

    The activity of drug-metabolising enzymes was compared in liver and kidneys of adult sheep given single or two-fold fluke infection. Fascioliasis was induced by oral administration of 200 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica to female sheep either 10 or 20 weeks (mono-infections) or 10 and 20 weeks (bi-infection) before killing. The parasitic pathology was ascertained at autopsy and by clinical observation of animals. In the liver of both mono- and bi-infected animals, significant decreases (P<0.05) (17-44%) were observed in the microsomal content of cytochrome P450 and in the two measured P450-dependent monooxygenase activities, benzphetamine and ethylmorphine N-demethylations. Moreover, Western blot analysis of microsomes demonstrated a decrease in the expression of cytochrome P4503A subfamily correlative with that of its presumed corresponding activity ethylmorphine N-demethylase. By contrast, the conjugation of chloro-dinitrobenzene to glutathione remained unchanged in liver cytosolic fractions prepared from all these animals. In kidneys, a significant decrease (P<0.05) (30%) in microsomal cytochrome P450 level of 10-week mono-infected sheep was observed whereas there was no change in the other groups of animals. The inflammatory origin and the consequences in terms of pathology and animal productivity of the fascioliasis-induced decreases in tissue-oxidative drug metabolism are discussed, particularly in the case of adult sheep suffering repetitive infections. PMID:10927086

  2. Serial position functions in general knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2015-11-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age; animals and weight; basketball players and height; countries and area; and planets and diameter. In all cases, a serial position function was observed: People were more accurate to order the youngest and oldest actors, the lightest and heaviest animals, the shortest and tallest basketball players, the smallest and largest countries, and the smallest and largest planets, relative to intermediate items. The results support an explanation of serial position functions based on relative distinctiveness, which predicts that serial position functions will be observed whenever a set of items can be sensibly ordered along a particular dimension. The serial position function arises because the first and last items enjoy a benefit of having no competitors on 1 side and therefore have enhanced distinctiveness relative to mid-dimension items, which suffer by having many competitors on both sides. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26076327

  3. Dilute magnetic semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, J. S.; Kazakova, O.; Holmes, J. D.

    2006-11-01

    Semiconductor materials form the basis of modern electronics, communication, data storage and computing technologies. One of today’s challenges for the development of future technologies is the realization of devices that control not only the electron charge, as in present electronics, but also its spin, setting the basis for future spintronics. Spintronics represents the concept of the synergetic and multifunctional use of charge and spin dynamics of electrons, aiming to go beyond the traditional dichotomy of semiconductor electronics and magnetic storage technology. The most direct method to induce spin-polarized electrons into a semiconductor is by introducing appropriate transition-metal or rare-earth dopants producing a dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS). At the same time the seamless integration of future spintronic devices into nanodevices would require the fabrication of one-dimensional DMS nanostructures in well-defined architectures. In this review we focus on recent advances in the synthesis of DMS nanowires as well discussing the structural, optical and magnetic properties of these materials.

  4. Stress in dilute suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passman, Stephen L.

    1989-01-01

    Generally, two types of theory are used to describe the field equations for suspensions. The so-called postulated equations are based on the kinetic theory of mixtures, which logically should give reasonable equations for solutions. The basis for the use of such theory for suspensions is tenuous, though it at least gives a logical path for mathematical arguments. It has the disadvantage that it leads to a system of equations which is underdetermined, in a sense that can be made precise. On the other hand, the so-called averaging theory starts with a determined system, but the very process of averaging renders the resulting system underdetermined. A third type of theory is proposed in which the kinetic theory of gases is used to motivate continuum equations for the suspended particles. This entails an interpretation of the stress in the particles that is different from the usual one. Classical theory is used to describe the motion of the suspending medium. The result is a determined system for a dilute suspension. Extension of the theory to more concentrated systems is discussed.

  5. Dose reduction in CT with correlated-polarity noise reduction: context-dependent spatial resolution and noise properties demonstrating two-fold dose reduction with minimal artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, James T.; Wells, Jered R.; Segars, W. Paul

    2014-03-01

    Correlated-polarity noise reduction (CPNR) is a novel noise reduction technique that uses a statistical approach to reducing noise while maintaining excellent spatial resolution and a traditional noise appearance. It was demonstrated in application to CT imaging for the first time at SPIE 2013 and showed qualitatively excellent image quality at half of normal CT dose. In this current work, we measure quantitatively the spatial resolution and noise properties of CPNR in CT imaging. To measure the spatial resolution, we developed a metrology approach that is suitable for nonlinear algorithms such as CPNR. We introduce the formalism of Signal Modification Factor, SMF(u,v), which is the ratio in frequency space of the CPNR-processed image divided by the noise-free image, averaged over an ensemble of ROIs in a given anatomical context. SMF is a nonlinear analog to the MTF. We used XCAT computer-generated anthropomorphic phantom images followed by projection space processing with CPNR. The SMF revealed virtually no effect from CPNR on spatial resolution of the images (<7% degradation at all frequencies). Corresponding contextdependent NPS measurements generated with CPNR at half-dose were about equal to the NPS of full-dose images without CPNR. This result demonstrates for the first time the quantitative determination of a two-fold reduction in dose with CPNR with less than 7% reduction in spatial resolution. We conclude that CPNR shows strong promise as a method for reduction of noise (and hence, dose) in CT. CPNR may also be used in combination with iterative reconstruction techniques for yet further dose reduction, pending further investigation.

  6. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...

  11. Dilution refrigeration for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelsson, U. E.; Petrac, D.

    1990-01-01

    Dilution refrigerators are presently used routinely in ground based applications where temperatures below 0.3 K are required. The operation of a conventional dilution refrigerator depends critically on the presence of gravity. To operate a dilution refrigerator in space many technical difficulties must be overcome. Some of the anticipated difficulties are identified in this paper and possible solutions are described. A single cycle refrigerator is described conceptually that uses forces other than gravity to function and the stringent constraints imposed on the design by requiring the refrigerator to function on the earth without using gravity are elaborated upon.

  12. / http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/recent / 11 September 2014 / Page 1 / 10.1126/science.1256729 The hallmark of meiosis is a two-fold reduction in ploidy, which occurs

    E-print Network

    Asbury, Chip

    .1126/science.1256729 The hallmark of meiosis is a two-fold reduction in ploidy, which occurs because one round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation. During meiosis I, sister chromatids uniquely co-migrate, thereby enabling segregation of homologous chromosomes. During meiosis II

  13. Revisiting the Dilution Procedure Used To Manipulate Microbial Biodiversity in Terrestrial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Klinkhamer, Peter G. L.

    2015-01-01

    It is hard to assess experimentally the importance of microbial diversity in soil for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. An approach that is often used to make such assessment is the so-called dilution method. This method is based on the assumption that the biodiversity of the microbial community is reduced after dilution of a soil suspension and that the reduced diversity persists after incubation of more or less diluted inocula in soil. However, little is known about how the communities develop in soil after inoculation. In this study, serial dilutions of a soil suspension were made and reinoculated into the original soil previously sterilized by gamma irradiation. We determined the structure of the microbial communities in the suspensions and in the inoculated soils using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Upon dilution, several diversity indices showed that, indeed, the diversity of the bacterial communities in the suspensions decreased dramatically, with Proteobacteria as the dominant phylum of bacteria detected in all dilutions. The structure of the microbial community was changed considerably in soil, with Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia as the dominant groups in most diluted samples, indicating the importance of soil-related mechanisms operating in the assembly of the communities. We found unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) even in the highest dilution in both the suspensions and the incubated soil samples. We conclude that the dilution approach reduces the diversity of microbial communities in soil samples but that it does not allow accurate predictions of the community assemblage during incubation of (diluted) suspensions in soil. PMID:25888175

  14. Stochastic modeling of a serial killer.

    PubMed

    Simkin, M V; Roychowdhury, V P

    2014-08-21

    We analyze the time pattern of the activity of a serial killer, who during 12 years had murdered 53 people. The plot of the cumulative number of murders as a function of time is of "Devil's staircase" type. The distribution of the intervals between murders (step length) follows a power law with the exponent of 1.4. We propose a model according to which the serial killer commits murders when neuronal excitation in his brain exceeds certain threshold. We model this neural activity as a branching process, which in turn is approximated by a random walk. As the distribution of the random walk return times is a power law with the exponent 1.5, the distribution of the inter-murder intervals is thus explained. We illustrate analytical results by numerical simulation. Time pattern activity data from two other serial killers further substantiate our analysis. PMID:24721476

  15. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides. PMID:25682709

  16. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Howieson, Diane B.; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M.; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups. PMID:21128149

  17. Serial multiplier arrays for parallel computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, Kel

    1990-01-01

    Arrays of systolic serial-parallel multiplier elements are proposed as an alternative to conventional SIMD mesh serial adder arrays for applications that are multiplication intensive and require few stored operands. The design and operation of a number of multiplier and array configurations featuring locality of connection, modularity, and regularity of structure are discussed. A design methodology combining top-down and bottom-up techniques is described to facilitate development of custom high-performance CMOS multiplier element arrays as well as rapid synthesis of simulation models and semicustom prototype CMOS components. Finally, a differential version of NORA dynamic circuits requiring a single-phase uncomplemented clock signal introduced for this application.

  18. Serial Position Curves in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model…

  19. Notes for Serials Cataloging. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Beverley, Ed.; Caraway, Beatrice L., Ed.

    Notes are indispensable to serials cataloging. Researchers, reference librarians, and catalogers regularly use notes on catalog records and, as the audience for these notes has expanded from the local library community to the global Internet community, the need for notes to be cogent, clear, and useful is greater than ever. This book is a…

  20. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  1. SERIAL ORDER: A PARALLEL DISTRmUTED

    E-print Network

    Cottrell, Garrison W.

    SERIAL ORDER: A PARALLEL DISTRmUTED PROCESSING APPROACH Michael I. Jordan May 1986 Ies Report 8604 of California, San Diego; La Jolla, CA 92093. Copyright © 1986 by Michael I. Jordan. #12;#12;Unclassified AUTHOR(S) Michael I. Jordan 13a. TYPE OF REPORT Technical l13b. TIME COVERED 114. DATE ?F ~PORT (Year

  2. Parallel and Serial Processes in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Thomas L.; Gilden, David L.

    2007-01-01

    A long-standing issue in the study of how people acquire visual information centers around the scheduling and deployment of attentional resources: Is the process serial, or is it parallel? A substantial empirical effort has been dedicated to resolving this issue. However, the results remain largely inconclusive because the methodologies that have…

  3. Seriality in Contemporary American Memoir: 1957-2007 

    E-print Network

    McDaniel-Carder, Nicole Eve

    2010-10-12

    In this dissertation, I examine the practice of what I term serial memoir in the second-half of the twentieth century in American literature, arguing that serial memoir represents an emerging and significant trend in ...

  4. Dynamic Control of Serial-batch Processing Systems 

    E-print Network

    Cerekci, Abdullah

    2010-01-14

    This research explores how near-future information can be used to strategically control a batch processor in a serial-batch processor system setting. Specifically, improved control is attempted by using the upstream serial ...

  5. SUNCAT: The serials union catalogue for the UK research community 

    E-print Network

    Mulligan, Zena

    SUNCAT is the national Serials Union CATalogue for the UK research community and is available at http://www.suncat.ac.uk SUNCAT is a freely available tool to help both researchers and librarians locate serials held in ...

  6. Serial Position Markers in Space: Visuospatial Priming of Serial Order Working Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    De Belder, Maya; Abrahamse, Elger; Kerckhof, Emma; Fias, Wim; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Most general theories on serial order working memory (WM) assume the existence of position markers that are bound to the to-be-remembered items to keep track of the serial order. So far, the exact cognitive/neural characteristics of these markers have remained largely underspecified, while direct empirical evidence for their existence is mostly lacking. In the current study we demonstrate that retrieval from verbal serial order WM can be facilitated or hindered by spatial cuing: begin elements of a verbal WM sequence are retrieved faster after cuing the left side of space, while end elements are retrieved faster after cuing the right side of space. In direct complement to our previous work—where we showed the reversed impact of WM retrieval on spatial processing—we argue that the current findings provide us with a crucial piece of evidence suggesting a direct and functional involvement of space in verbal serial order WM. We outline the idea that serial order in verbal WM is coded within a spatial coordinate system with spatial attention being involved when searching through WM, and we discuss how this account can explain several hallmark observations related to serial order WM. PMID:25611595

  7. Serials Publications Section. Collections and Services Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on serials and their bibliographic control, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "ISDS [International Serials Data System] and the National Bibliography," in which Ross Bourne (United Kingdom) describes ISDS development, the distinctive features of serials in…

  8. Low-power broadband homonuclear dipolar recoupling in MAS NMR by two-fold symmetry pulse schemes for magnetization transfers and double-quantum excitation.

    PubMed

    Teymoori, Gholamhasan; Pahari, Bholanath; Edén, Mattias

    2015-12-01

    We provide an experimental, numerical, and high-order average Hamiltonian evaluation of an open-ended series of homonuclear dipolar recoupling sequences, SR [Formula: see text] with p=1,2,3,…. While operating at a very low radio-frequency (rf) power, corresponding to a nutation frequency of 1/2 of the magic-angle spinning (MAS) rate (?nut=?r/2), these recursively generated double-quantum (2Q) dipolar recoupling schemes offer a progressively improved compensation to resonance offsets and rf inhomogeneity for increasing pulse-sequence order p. The excellent recoupling robustness to these experimental obstacles, as well as to CSA, is demonstrated for 2Q filtering (2QF) experiments and for driving magnetization transfers in 2D NMR correlation spectroscopy, where the sequences may provide either double or zero quantum dipolar Hamiltonians during mixing. Experimental and numerical demonstrations, which mostly target conditions of "ultra-fast" MAS (?50kHz) and high magnetic fields, are provided for recoupling of (13)C across a wide range of isotropic and anisotropic chemical shifts, as well as dipolar coupling constants, encompassing [2,3-(13)C2]alanine, [1,3-(13)C2]alanine, diammonium [1,4-(13)C2]fumarate, and [U-(13)C]tyrosine. When compared at equal power levels, a superior performance is observed for the SR [Formula: see text] sequences with p?3 relative to existing and well-established 2Q recoupling techniques. At ultra-fast MAS, proton decoupling is redundant during the homonuclear dipolar recoupling of dilute spins in organic solids, which renders the family of SR [Formula: see text] schemes the first efficient 2Q recoupling option for general applications, such as 2Q-1Q correlation NMR and high-order multiple-quantum excitation, under truly low-power rf conditions. PMID:26515279

  9. Magnetic Particle Recovery of Serial Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    D. Utrata; M.J. Johnson

    2003-10-01

    One method used by crime labs to recover obliterated serial numbers in steel firearms (ferrous samples) is the magnetic particle technique. The use of this method is predicated on the detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers after the visible stamp has been removed. Equipment specialized for this detection is not used in these attempts; a portable magnetic yoke used typically for flaw detection on large weldments or structures, along with dry visible magnetic powders, have been the tools of criminologists working in this area. Crime labs have reported low success rates using these tools [1, 2]. This is not surprising when one considers that little formal development has apparently evolved for use in such investigations since the publication of seminal work in this area some time ago [3]. The aim of this project is to investigate specific aspects of magnetic particle inspection for serial number recovery. This includes attempts to understand the magnetic characteristics of different steels that affect their performance in the test, such as varying results for carbon steels and alloy steels after different thermal and forming treatments. Also investigated are the effects of the nature of the sample magnetization (AC, rectified DC, and true DC) and the use of various detection media, such as visible powders and fluorescent sprays, on test outcome. Additionally, some aspects of surface preparation of firearm samples prior to number recovery were included in this work. The scope of this report includes a brief overview of the magnetic particle inspection method in general and its applications to forensic serial number recovery. This is followed by a description of how such investigations were simulated on lab samples, including a look at how the microstructure of a given steel will affect its performance in the test. Investigations into the serial number recovery in a series of ferromagnetic firearms (both steel and certain stainless steels) will then be presented. Recommendations for modifications to current approaches used in crime labs for serial number recovery, as well as suggestions for future work, conclude this document.

  10. Concurrent Cognitive Processes in Rat Serial Pattern Learning: Item Memory, Serial Position, and Pattern Structure

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Melissa D.; Fountain, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined the processes mediating rat serial pattern learning for rule-consistent versus rule-violating pattern elements (“violation elements”). In all three experiments, rats were trained to press retractable levers in a circular array in a specific sequence for brain stimulation reward (BSR). Experiment 1 examined the role of lever location (L) and element serial position (SP) cues in rats’ ability to learn to anticipate a violation element positioned at the end of a 24-element serial pattern. Rats with L cues either alone or in combination with SP cues learned to anticipate the violation element, whereas those with SP cues alone did not. Rats in groups L and L+SP underwent a series of transfers designed to remove various cues that might have controlled their performance on the violation element. Results indicated that intra-chamber lever location cues mediated performance on the violation element whereas performance on rule-consistent elements within pattern chunks was mediated by an internal mnemonic representation that was insensitive to changes in lever location cues. Experiment 2 examined whether rats could learn to use SP cues alone to anticipate a violation element if it was positioned earlier in a serial pattern. Rats learned to anticipate the violation element based on SP cues alone when it was located in SP6 in a 24-element pattern, but not when it was in SP12. Experiment 3 examined whether or not rats spontaneously encode information about chunk length and the serial position of phrasing cues in serial patterns. Rats were trained to a high criterion on the serial pattern used in Experiment 1, then were challenged with three probe patterns that manipulated both chunk length and overall pattern length. Results indicated that rats spontaneously encoded information regarding the serial position of phrasing cues in relation to chunk length. Thus, rats appear to use at least three cognitive processes concurrently in serial pattern learning tasks, namely, item memory involving external discriminative cues, counting- or timing-like processes for encoding serial position, and rule abstraction for encoding an internal representation of pattern structure. PMID:22969166

  11. Stochastic modeling of a serial killer

    E-print Network

    Simkin, M V

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the time pattern of the activity of a serial killer, who during twelve years had murdered 53 people. The plot of the cumulative number of murders as a function of time is of "Devil's staircase" type. The distribution of the intervals between murders (step length) follows a power law with the exponent of 1.4. We propose a model according to which the serial killer commits murders when neuronal excitation in his brain exceeds certain threshold. We model this neural activity as a branching process, which in turn is approximated by a random walk. As the distribution of the random walk return times is a power law with the exponent 1.5, the distribution of the inter-murder intervals is thus explained. We confirm analytical results by numerical simulation.

  12. Serial Pixel Analog-to-Digital Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E D

    2010-02-01

    This method reduces the data path from the counter to the pixel register of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from as many as 10 bits to a single bit. The reduction in data path width is accomplished by using a coded serial data stream similar to a pseudo random number (PRN) generator. The resulting encoded pixel data is then decoded into a standard hexadecimal format before storage. The high-speed serial pixel ADC concept is based on the single-slope integrating pixel ADC architecture. Previous work has described a massively parallel pixel readout of a similar architecture. The serial ADC connection is similar to the state-of-the art method with the exception that the pixel ADC register is a shift register and the data path is a single bit. A state-of-the-art individual-pixel ADC uses a single-slope charge integration converter architecture with integral registers and “one-hot” counters. This implies that parallel data bits are routed among the counter and the individual on-chip pixel ADC registers. The data path bit-width to the pixel is therefore equivalent to the pixel ADC bit resolution.

  13. Science Notes: Dilution of a Weak Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher; Wai, Chooi Khee

    2014-01-01

    This "Science note" arose out of practical work involving the dilution of ethanoic acid, the measurement of the pH of the diluted solutions and calculation of the acid dissociation constant, K[subscript a], for each diluted solution. The students expected the calculated values of K[subscript a] to be constant but they found that the…

  14. Concurrent Cognitive Processes in Rat Serial Pattern Learning: Item Memory, Serial Position, and Pattern Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Melissa D.; Fountain, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined the processes mediating rat serial pattern learning for rule-consistent versus rule-violating pattern elements ("violation elements"). In all three experiments, rats were trained to press retractable levers in a circular array in a specific sequence for brain-stimulation reward (BSR). Experiment 1 examined the role of…

  15. Data Exploration Toolkit for serial diffraction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zeldin, Oliver B.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Zhou, Qiangjun; Zhao, Minglei; Weis, William I.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes a set of tools allowing experimentalists insight into the variation present within large serial data sets. Ultrafast diffraction at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has the potential to yield new insights into important biological systems that produce radiation-sensitive crystals. An unavoidable feature of the ‘diffraction before destruction’ nature of these experiments is that images are obtained from many distinct crystals and/or different regions of the same crystal. Combined with other sources of XFEL shot-to-shot variation, this introduces significant heterogeneity into the diffraction data, complicating processing and interpretation. To enable researchers to get the most from their collected data, a toolkit is presented that provides insights into the quality of, and the variation present in, serial crystallography data sets. These tools operate on the unmerged, partial intensity integration results from many individual crystals, and can be used on two levels: firstly to guide the experimental strategy during data collection, and secondly to help users make informed choices during data processing.

  16. Galileo - The Serial-Production AIT Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragnit, Ulrike; Brunner, Otto

    2008-01-01

    The Galileo Project is one of the most demanding projects of ESA, being Europe's autarkic navigation system and a constellation composed of 30 satellites. This presentation points out the different phases of the project up to the full operational capability and the corresponding launch options with respect to launch vehicles as well as launch configurations. One of the biggest challenges is to set up a small serial 'production line' for the overall integration and test campaign of satellites. This production line demands an optimization of all relevant tasks, taking into account also backup and recovery actions. A comprehensive AIT concept is required, reflecting a tightly merged facility layout and work flow design. In addition a common data management system is needed to handle all spacecraft related documentation and to have a direct input-out flow for all activities, phases and positions at the same time. Process optimization is a well known field of engineering in all small high tech production lines, nevertheless serial production of satellites are still not the daily task in space business and therefore new concepts have to be put in place. Therefore, and in order to meet the satellites overall system optimization, a thorough interface between unit/subsystem manufacturing and satellite AIT must be realized to ensure a smooth flow and to avoid any process interruption, which would directly lead to a schedule impact.

  17. [Linkage analysis of serial sex crimes].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kaeko; Watanabe, Kazumi; Wachi, Taeko; Otsuka, Yusuke; Kuraishi, Hiroki; Fujita, Goro

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to create an index for a behavioral linkage analysis of serial sex crimes, and second, to construct a predictive model for the analysis. Data on 720 sex crimes (rape, indecent assault) committed by 360 offenders arrested between 1993 and 2005 throughout Japan were collected. The following seven behaviors were examined during a series of analyses aimed at illustrating the effectiveness of crime linkage in serial sex crimes: victim age group, area type, publicness of offense site, weapon, time, contact method, and day of the week. The results indicated that six of the seven behaviors (excluding "day of the week") significantly distinguished between linked and unlinked crime pairs. Under a logistic regression of these six variables, which were dichotomously coded in terms of the concordance or discordance between each pair of incidents, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.82-0.87), indicating a high level of discriminative accuracy in identifying disparate sex crimes committed by the same person. PMID:26402952

  18. Serial powering of silicon strip detectors at SLHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Marc; Villani, Giulio; Tyndel, Mike; Apsimon, Robert

    2007-09-01

    Serial powering is a technique to power a large numbers of detector modules using a single power cable and a constant current source. Module power is derived using local shunt regulators. Serial powering is of great interest for large-scale silicon tracking detectors for particle physics with many thousands of densely packed detector modules. We have been operating six ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) modules using both serial powering and conventional independent powering. The modules operated stably with no indication of any extra noise sources. We present selected results and discuss the system aspects of serial powering.

  19. A Microgravity Helium Dilution Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat R.; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a He-3-He-4 dilution cooler to operate in microgravity. It uses charcoal adsorption pumps and heaters for its operation; it has no moving parts. It currently operates cyclically to well below 0.1 K and we have designed a version to operate continuously. We expect that the continuous version will be able to provide the long-duration cooling that many experiments need at temperatures down to 0.040 K. More importantly, such a dilution cooler could provide the precooling that enables the use of adiabatic demagnetization techniques that can reach temperatures below 0.001 K. At temperatures below 0.002 K many fascinating microgravity experiments on superfluid He-3 become possible. Among the possibilities are: research into a superfluid He-3 gyroscope, study of the nucleation of the B-phase of superfluid He-3 when the sample is floating out of contact with walls, study of the anisotropy of the surface tension of the B-phase, and NMR experiments on tiny free-floating clusters of superfluid He-3 atoms that should model the shell structure of nuclei.

  20. Dilution Robustness for Mean Field Ferromagnets

    E-print Network

    Adriano Barra; Federico Camboni; Pierluigi Contucci

    2009-03-26

    In this work we compare two different random dilution of a mean field ferromagnet: the first model is built on a Bernoulli-diluted network while the second lives on a Poisson-diluted network. While it is known that the two models have in the thermodynamic limit the same free energy we investigate on the structural constraints that the two models must fulfill. We rigorously derive for each model the set of identities for the multi-overlaps distribution using different methods for the two dilutions: constraints in the former model are obtained by studying the consequences of the self-averaging of the internal energy density, while in the latter are obtained by a stochastic-stability technique. Finally we prove that the identities emerging in the two models are the same, showing "robustness" of the ferromagnetic properties of diluted networks with respect to the details of dilution.

  1. Data Exploration Toolkit for serial diffraction experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zeldin, Oliver B.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Zhou, Qiangjun; Zhao, Minglei; Weis, William I.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2015-01-23

    Ultrafast diffraction at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has the potential to yield new insights into important biological systems that produce radiation-sensitive crystals. An unavoidable feature of the 'diffraction before destruction' nature of these experiments is that images are obtained from many distinct crystals and/or different regions of the same crystal. Combined with other sources of XFEL shot-to-shot variation, this introduces significant heterogeneity into the diffraction data, complicating processing and interpretation. To enable researchers to get the most from their collected data, a toolkit is presented that provides insights into the quality of, and the variation present in, serial crystallography datamore »sets. These tools operate on the unmerged, partial intensity integration results from many individual crystals, and can be used on two levels: firstly to guide the experimental strategy during data collection, and secondly to help users make informed choices during data processing.« less

  2. Serial murder by children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C

    2004-01-01

    Six cases of serial murder by children and adolescents spanning the past 150 years are presented. The available literature pertaining to this area is reviewed. Each of these six offenders committed sexually homicidal behavior as demonstrated by their expression of erotic interest or engagement in overt sexual behavior at the crime scenes. From a DSM-IV-TR perspective they all exhibited signs of sexual sadism, and their crime characteristics reflected behavior of a more predatory than affective nature. Hands on methods of killing were preferred, i.e., cutting, stabbing, or strangulation. These crimes are extremely rare. Case reports in this area are encouraged to advance our knowledge of these youths. PMID:15211557

  3. XAFS in dilute magnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhihu; Yan, Wensheng; Yao, Tao; Liu, Qinghua; Xie, Yi; Wei, Shiqiang

    2013-10-14

    X-Ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy has experienced a rapid development in the last four decades and has proved to be a powerful structure characterization technique in the study of local environments in condensed matter. In this article, we first introduce the XAFS basic principles including theory, data analysis and experiment in some detail. Then we attempt to make a review on the applications of XAFS to the study of atomic and electronic structure in dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) systems. The power of XAFS in characterizing this interesting material system, such as determining the occupation sites and distribution of the dopants, detecting the presence of metal clusters or secondary phases, as well as identifying the defect types and dopant valence, will be illuminated by selected examples. This review should be of interest both to newcomers in the DMS field and to an interdisciplinary community of researchers working in synthesis, characterization and utilization of DMS materials. PMID:23884341

  4. Band anticrossing in dilute nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, W.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.

    2003-12-23

    Alloying III-V compounds with small amounts of nitrogen leads to dramatic reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy in the resulting dilute nitride alloys. The effect originates from an anti-crossing interaction between the extended conduction-band states and localized N states. The interaction splits the conduction band into two nonparabolic subbands. The downward shift of the lower conduction subband edge is responsible for the N-induced reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy. The changes in the conduction band structure result in significant increase in electron effective mass and decrease in the electron mobility, and lead to a large enhance of the maximum doping level in GaInNAs doped with group VI donors. In addition, a striking asymmetry in the electrical activation of group IV and group VI donors can be attributed to mutual passivation process through formation of the nearest neighbor group-IV donor nitrogen pairs.

  5. Linking Associative and Serial List Memory: Pairs Versus Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Jeremy B.; Glaholt, Mackenzie G.; McIntosh, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    Paired associates and serial list memory are typically investigated separately. An "isolation principle" (J. B. Caplan, 2005) was proposed to explain behavior in both paradigms by using a single model, in which serial list and paired associates memory differ only in how isolated pairs of items are from interference from other studied items. In…

  6. Harmonic Syntax in the "Serial" Works of Dmitri Shostakovich

    E-print Network

    Webber, Miriam Brack

    2013-05-31

    HARMONIC SYNTAX IN THE “SERIAL” WORKS OF DMITRI SHOSTAKOVICH BY MIRIAM BRACK WEBBER Submitted to the graduate degree program in Music and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... The Thesis Committee for MIRIAM BRACK WEBBER certifies that this is the approved version of the following thesis: HARMONIC SYNTAX IN THE “SERIAL” WORKS OF DMITRI SHOSTAKOVICH...

  7. EXPLOITING IMMUNOLOGICAL METAPHORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL, PARALLEL, AND

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    EXPLOITING IMMUNOLOGICAL METAPHORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL, PARALLEL, AND DISTRIBUTED LEARNING;Abstract This thesis examines the use of immunological metaphors in building serial, parallel are placed in the context of this framework. An investigation into the use of immunological components

  8. Using a Text-Processing Language for Serial Record Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrey, James R.; Hardiman, Paul V.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the automation of the machine-readable library serials file at Golda Meir Library, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Highlights include purchase of the PERLINE/BOOKLINE system including a MARC interface module called MICA, five main aspects of the problem posed by the library serials conversion project, and use of the text-processing…

  9. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Participants engaged in 2 picture-judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content…

  10. Library Cooperation: A Serials Model Based on Philosophical Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pond, Kurt; Burlingame, Dwight F.

    1984-01-01

    Describes experience gained by applying philosophical principles to library serials cooperation between two academic libraries. Philosophical views concerning cooperation; conditions leading to success of the project; serials survey of selected faculty members from English, biology, and economics departments; and proposals based on computer…

  11. Sex Differences in a Children's Spatial Serial-Learning Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Eighty boys and 80 girls ages 9 to 10 from elementary schools in Naples, Italy completed a spatial span test and a spatial serial-learning task. Corsi's block-tapping test was used in each. Males performed better in both cases; their superior performance on the spatial serial-learning task was independent of their superiority in the spatial-span…

  12. INVESTIGATION Coalescence-Time Distributions in a Serial Founder

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    INVESTIGATION Coalescence-Time Distributions in a Serial Founder Model of Human Evolutionary quantities under the serial founder model, deriving distributions of coalescence times for pairs of lineages to obtain expectations for coalescence times and for homozygosity and heterozygosity values. A predicted

  13. Retrospective Revaluation Effects Following Serial Compound Training and Target Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effting, Marieke; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

    2010-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, two experiments examined retrospective revaluation effects after serial compound training in a release from overshadowing design. In Experiment 1, serial X [right arrow] A+ training produced suppression to target A, which was enhanced when preceded by feature X, whereas X by itself elicited no suppression.…

  14. Indexing Serialized Fiction: May the Force Be with You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Melissa M.

    The adult novel offers indexers an unusual opportunity to create a serialized fiction index. This research paper involved designing and creating a Character Index, Thesaurus, Glossary, and Abstract (with descriptors) for 21 novels based on the "Star Wars" movies. The novels are an unusual example of serialized fiction featuring main characters,…

  15. Serial Magnetization Transfer Imaging in Acute Optic Neuritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, S. J.; Toosy, A. T.; Jones, S. J.; Altmann, D. R.; Miszkiel, K. A.; MacManus, D. G.; Barker, G. J.; Plant, G. T.; Thompson, A. J.; Miller, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    In serial studies of multiple sclerosis lesions, reductions in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) are thought to be due to demyelination and axonal loss, with later rises due to remyelination. This study followed serial changes in MTR in acute optic neuritis in combination with clinical and electrophysiological measurements to determine if the MTR…

  16. Are Electronic Serials Helping or Hindering Academic Libraries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenius, Leila I. T.

    2007-01-01

    As academic libraries move toward the electronic frontier for their serial subscriptions, there are several issues to be considered. This paper intends to outline the advantages and disadvantages with respect to electronic and paper serials, address selection criteria, and describe our practice in coping with these issues at the Leddy Library of…

  17. Nutritional assessment by isotope dilution analysis of body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Szeluga, D.J.; Stuart, R.K.; Utermohlen, V.; Santos, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The three components of body mass, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular fluid (ECF), and fat + extracellular solids (ECS: bone, tendon, etc) can be quantified using established isotope dilution techniques. With these techniques, total body water (TBW) and ECF are measured using 3H/sub 2/O and /sup 82/Bromine, respectively, as tracers. BCM is calculated from intracellular fluid (ICF) where ICF . TBW - ECF. Fat + ECS is estimated as: body weight - (BCM + ECF). TBW and ECF can be determined by either of two calculation methods, one requiring several timed plasma samples (extrapolation method) and one requiring a single plasma sample and a 4-h urine collection (urine-corrected method). The comparability of the two calculation methods was evaluated in 20 studies in 12 bone marrow transplant recipients. We found that for determination of TBW and ECF there was a very strong linear relationship (r2 greater than 0.98) between the calculation methods. Further comparisons (by t test, 2-sided) indicated that for the determination of ECF, the methods were not significantly (p greater than 0.90) different; however, TBW determined by the urine-corrected method was slightly (0.1 to 6%), but significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than that determined by the extrapolation method. Therefore, relative to the extrapolation method, the urine-corrected method ''over-estimates'' BCM and ''under-estimates'' fat + ECS since determination of these compartment sizes depends on measurement of TBW. We currently use serial isotope dilution studies to monitor the body composition changes of patients receiving therapeutic nutritional support.

  18. 75 FR 22727 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government-Assigned Serial Number Marking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government- Assigned Serial Number Marking (DFARS...DFARS) to require contractors to apply Government-assigned serial numbers in human-readable...274 to require contractors to apply Government-assigned serial numbers, such...

  19. 75 FR 59102 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government-Assigned Serial Number Marking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ...Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government- Assigned Serial Number Marking (DFARS...DFARS) to require contractors to apply Government-assigned serial numbers in human-readable...Background Contractors are required to apply Government-assigned serial numbers, such...

  20. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2015-05-01

    Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters) of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified. PMID:26257946

  1. Passive serialization in a multitasking environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessey, J.P.; Osisek, D.L.; Seigh, J.W. II

    1989-02-28

    In a multiprocessing system having a control program in which data objects are shared among processes, this patent describes a method for serializing references to a data object by the processes so as to prevent invalid references to the data object by any process when an operation requiring exclusive access is performed by another process, comprising the steps of: permitting the processes to reference data objects on a shared access basis without obtaining a shared lock; monitoring a point of execution of the control program which is common to all processes in the system, which occurs regularly in the process' execution and across which no references to any data object can be maintained by any process, except references using locks; establishing a system reference point which occurs after each process in the system has passed the point of execution at least once since the last such system reference point; requesting an operation requiring exclusive access on a selected data object; preventing subsequent references by other processes to the selected data object; waiting until two of the system references points have occurred; and then performing the requested operation.

  2. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters) of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified. PMID:26257946

  3. Serial femtosecond crystallography: the first five years

    PubMed Central

    Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-01-01

    Protein crystallography using synchrotron radiation sources has had a tremendous impact on biology, having yielded the structures of thousands of proteins and given detailed insight into their mechanisms. However, the technique is limited by the requirement for macroscopic crystals, which can be difficult to obtain, as well as by the often severe radiation damage caused in diffraction experiments, in particular when using tiny crystals. To slow radiation damage, data collection is typically performed at cryogenic temperatures. With the advent of free-electron lasers (FELs) capable of delivering extremely intense femtosecond X-ray pulses, this situation appears to be remedied, allowing the structure determination of undamaged macromolecules using either macroscopic or microscopic crystals. The latter are exposed to the FEL beam in random orientations and their diffraction data are collected at cryogenic or room temperature in a serial fashion, since each crystal is destroyed upon a single exposure. The new approaches required for crystal growth and delivery, and for diffraction data analysis, including de novo phasing, are reviewed. The opportunities and challenges of SFX are described, including applications such as time-resolved measurements and the analysis of radiation damage-prone systems. PMID:25866661

  4. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Crosette, D.B.

    1994-07-19

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination. 9 figs.

  5. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Crosette, Dario B. (DeSoto, TX)

    1994-01-01

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination.

  6. Restoration of firearm serial numbers with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).

    PubMed

    White, Ryan M; Keller, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Firearm serial numbers are a critical identifying mark, and restoration of destroyed serial numbers is often crucial for prosecution of a criminal case. A method is presented utilizing electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) which allows for clear visualization of die-stamped imprints which have been completely polished away. Evidence of the stamp can be observed to a depth of approximately 760 ?m below the surface. With further development, the described method is capable of reconstructing an 8 character serial number in approximately 1 h. PMID:25747326

  7. Charge-coupled-device parallel-to-serial converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, John R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A CCD parallel-to-serial converter comprising two successions of charge transfer stages, recurrently side-loaded with respective ones of parallelly supplied charge packets, then serially unloaded by time-interleaved respective shift register operations. The charge packets converted to time-division-multiplexed serial form are supplied to a shared electrometer, and the electrometer response is de-multiplexed. Preferably, shift register operations are carried forward concurrently at the same rate, but with the final charge transfer stages clocked in phases staggered in time.

  8. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section...Devices § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully...

  9. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section...Devices § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully...

  10. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section...Devices § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully...

  11. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section...Devices § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully...

  12. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section...Devices § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully...

  13. Stiffness mapping of compliant parallel mechanisms in a serial arrangement

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Stiffness mapping of compliant parallel mechanisms in a serial arrangement Hyun K. Jung a , Carl D.: +1 352 392 9461; fax: +1 352 392 1071. E-mail addresses: hyunkwon.jung@gmail.com (H.K. Jung), ccrane

  14. Serially Concatenated Coded Continuous Phase Modulation for Aeronautical Telemetry

    E-print Network

    Porur Damodaran, Kanagaraj

    2008-08-26

    This thesis treats the development of bandwidth-efficient serially concatenated coded (SCC) continuous phase modulation (CPM) techniques for aeronautical telemetry. The concatenated code consists of an inner and an outer code, separated...

  15. Fast Grasp Contact Computation for a Serial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jianying (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system includes a controller and a serial robot having links that are interconnected by a joint, wherein the robot can grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object in response to a commanded grasp pose. The controller receives input information, including the commanded grasp pose, a first set of information describing the kinematics of the robot, and a second set of information describing the position of the object to be grasped. The controller also calculates, in a two-dimensional (2D) plane, a set of contact points between the serial robot and a surface of the 3D object needed for the serial robot to achieve the commanded grasp pose. A required joint angle is then calculated in the 2D plane between the pair of links using the set of contact points. A control action is then executed with respect to the motion of the serial robot using the required joint angle.

  16. [A serial killer as exemplified by T. R. Bundy].

    PubMed

    Ga?eska-Sliwka, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The question of serial homicides and their perpetrators poses a considerable problem of both a definitional and practical nature. T R. Bundy is the first perpetrator who was officially termed a "serial killer". Since that time, this concept has been commonly used and sometimes even overused, e.g. in reference to mass murderers. However, the definitions established for Bundy's case have been preserved and continue to be used in practice. PMID:18767504

  17. Serial and parallel computation of Kane's equations for multibody dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of the efficiency of algorithms resulting from Kane's Equation for serial and parallel computation of mass matrix is examined. The algorithms resulting from Kane's equation and Modified Kane's equations are detailed. An analysis was made of two classes of algorithms for computation of mass matrix: the Newton-Euler based algorithms and the Composite rigid body algorithms. An analysis was also made of the efficiency of different algorithms for serial and parallel computations. Conclusions are drawn and presented.

  18. Serial Dependence in the Perception of Faces

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Alina; Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2014-01-01

    Summary From moment to moment, we perceive objects in the world as continuous despite fluctuations in their image properties due to factors like occlusion, visual noise, and eye movements. The mechanism by which the visual system accomplishes this object continuity remains elusive. Recent results have demonstrated that the perception of low-level stimulus features such as orientation and numerosity is systematically biased (i.e., pulled) toward visual input from the recent past [1, 2]. The spatial region over which current orientations are pulled by previous orientations is known as the continuity field, which is temporally tuned for the past 10–15 s [1]. This perceptual pull could contribute to the visual stability of low-level features over short time periods, but it does not address how visual stability occurs at the level of object identity. Here, we tested whether the visual system facilitates stable perception by biasing current perception of a face, a complex and behaviorally relevant object, toward recently seen faces. We found that perception of face identity is systematically biased toward identities seen up to several seconds prior, even across changes in viewpoint. This effect did not depend on subjects’ prior responses or on the method used to measure identity perception. Although this bias in perceived identity manifests as a misperception, it is adaptive: visual processing echoes the stability of objects in the world to create perceptual continuity. The serial dependence of identity perception promotes object identity invariance over time and provides the clearest evidence for the existence of an object-selective perceptual continuity field. PMID:25283781

  19. Automatic registration of serial mammary gland sections

    SciTech Connect

    Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos

    2004-04-13

    We present two new methods for automatic registration of microscope images of consecutive tissue sections. They represent two possibilities for the first step in the 3-D reconstruction of histological structures from serially sectioned tissue blocks. The goal is to accurately align the sections in order to place every relevant shape contained in each image in front of its corresponding shape in the following section before detecting the structures of interest and rendering them in 3D. This is accomplished by finding the best rigid body transformation (translation and rotation) of the image being registered by maximizing a matching function based on the image content correlation. The first method makes use of the entire image information, whereas the second one uses only the information located at specific sites, as determined by the segmentation of the most relevant tissue structures. To reduce computing time, we use a multiresolution pyramidal approach that reaches the best registration transformation in increasing resolution steps. In each step, a subsampled version of the images is used. Both methods rely on a binary image which is a thresholded version of the Sobel gradients of the image (first method) or a set of boundaries manually or automatically obtained that define important histological structures of the sections. Then distance-transform of the binary image is computed. A proximity function is then calculated between the distance image of the image being registered and that of the reference image. The transformation providing a maximum of the proximity function is then used as the starting point of the following step. This is iterated until the registration error lies below a minimum value.

  20. Three more semantic serial position functions and a SIMPLE explanation.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2013-05-01

    There are innumerable demonstrations of serial position functions-with characteristic primacy and recency effects-in episodic tasks, but there are only a handful of such demonstrations in semantic memory tasks, and those demonstrations have used only two types of stimuli. Here, we provide three more examples of serial position functions when recalling from semantic memory. Participants were asked to reconstruct the order of (1) two cartoon theme song lyrics, (2) the seven Harry Potter books, and (3) two sets of movies, and all three demonstrations yielded conventional-looking serial position functions with primacy and recency effects. The data were well-fit by SIMPLE, a local distinctiveness model of memory that was originally designed to account for serial position effects in short- and long-term episodic memory. According to SIMPLE, serial position functions in both episodic and semantic memory tasks arise from the same type of processing: Items that are more separated from their close neighbors in psychological space at the time of recall will be better remembered. We argue that currently available evidence suggests that serial position functions observed when recalling items that are presumably in semantic memory arise because of the same processes as those observed when recalling items that are presumably in episodic memory. PMID:23263860

  1. Calibration graphs in isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pagliano, Enea; Mester, Zoltán; Meija, Juris

    2015-10-01

    Isotope-based quantitation is routinely employed in chemical measurements. Whereas most analysts seek for methods with linear theoretical response functions, a unique feature that distinguishes isotope dilution from many other analytical methods is the inherent possibility for a nonlinear theoretical response curve. Most implementations of isotope dilution calibration today either eliminate the nonlinearity by employing internal standards with markedly different molecular weight or they employ empirical polynomial fits. Here we show that the exact curvature of any isotope dilution curve can be obtained from three-parameter rational function, y = f(q) = (a0 + a1q)/(1 + a2q), known as the Padé[1,1] approximant. The use of this function allows eliminating an unnecessary source of error in isotope dilution analysis when faced with nonlinear calibration curves. In addition, fitting with Padé model can be done using linear least squares. PMID:26481988

  2. Helium Dilution Cryocooler for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium Program Space Technology presents the Helium Dilution Cryocooler for Space Applications. The topics include: 1) Capability; 2) Applications; and 3) Advantages. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  3. Diluted ferromagnetic semiconductors as spintronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkarev, G. V.; Radchenko, M. V.; Karpina, V. A.; Sichkovskyi, V. I.

    2007-02-01

    A brief review of research papers on some diluted magnetic semiconductors is given. Experimental results on the study of the ferromagnetic state in the most promising materials for use in spintronics are presented.

  4. Impact of dilution on microbial community structure and functional potential: comparison of numerical simulations and batch culture experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, R. B.; Garland, J. L.; Bolster, C. H.; Mills, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    A series of microcosm experiments was performed using serial dilutions of a sewage microbial community to inoculate a set of batch cultures in sterile sewage. After inoculation, the dilution-defined communities were allowed to regrow for several days and a number of community attributes were measured in the regrown assemblages. Based upon a set of numerical simulations, community structure was expected to differ along the dilution gradient; the greatest differences in structure were anticipated between the undiluted-low-dilution communities and the communities regrown from the very dilute (more than 10(-4)) inocula. Furthermore, some differences were expected among the lower-dilution treatments (e.g., between undiluted and 10(-1)) depending upon the evenness of the original community. In general, each of the procedures used to examine the experimental community structures separated the communities into at least two, often three, distinct groups. The groupings were consistent with the simulated dilution of a mixture of organisms with a very uneven distribution. Significant differences in community structure were detected with genetic (amplified fragment length polymorphism and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism), physiological (community level physiological profiling), and culture-based (colony morphology on R2A agar) measurements. Along with differences in community structure, differences in community size (acridine orange direct counting), composition (ratio of sewage medium counts to R2A counts, monitoring of each colony morphology across the treatments), and metabolic redundancy (i.e., generalist versus specialist) were also observed, suggesting that the differences in structure and diversity of communities maintained in the same environment can be manifested as differences in community organization and function.

  5. Active accumulation of very diluted biomolecules by nano-dispensing for easy detection below the femtomolar range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, S.; Miccio, L.; Gennari, O.; Coppola, S.; Vespini, V.; Battista, L.; Orlando, P.; Ferraro, P.

    2014-11-01

    Highly sensitive detection of biomolecules is of paramount interest in many fields including biomedicine, safety and eco-pollution. Conventional analyses use well-established techniques with detection limits ~1?pM. Here we propose a pyro-concentrator able to accumulate biomolecules directly onto a conventional binding surface. The operation principle is relatively simple but very effective. Tiny droplets are drawn pyro-electro-dynamically and released onto a specific site, thus increasing the sensitivity. The reliability of the technique is demonstrated in case of labelled oligonucleotides diluted serially. The results show the possibility to detect very diluted oligonucleotides, down to a few hundreds of attomoles. Excellent results are shown also in case of a sample of clinical interest, the gliadin, where a 60-fold improved detection limit is reached, compared with standard ELISA. This method could open the way to a mass-based technology for sensing molecules at very low concentrations, in environmental as well as in diagnostics applications.

  6. The relationship between serial sexual murder and autoerotic asphyxiation.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Bukhanovskiy, Alexandr; Justen, Elle; Morton, Robert J; Tilley, John; Adams, Kenneth; Vandagriff, Virgil L; Hazelwood, Robert R

    2008-04-01

    This case series documents and examines the association between autoerotic asphyxiation, sadomasochism, and serial sexual murderers. Autoerotic asphyxiation, along with other paraphilias found in this population, is reviewed. Five cases of serial sexual killers who engaged in autoerotic asphyxiation were identified worldwide: four from the United States and one from Russia. Case reports for each are provided. All (100%) were found to have sexual sadism in addition to autoerotic asphyxiation. Furthermore, two (40%) had bondage fetishism, and two (40%) had transvestic fetishism, consistent with these paraphilias co-occurring in those with autoerotic asphyxiation. Overall the group averaged 4.0 lifetime paraphilias. Some possible relationships were observed between the offenders' paraphilic orientation and their modus operandi, e.g., all of these serial killers strangled victims-suggesting an association between their sadistic and asphyxiative paraphilic interests. The overlap of seemingly polar opposite paraphilias in this sample--sexual sadism and autoerotic asphyxiation--is explored from a historical and clinical perspective. Multiple commonalities shared between these five offenders and serial sexual murderers in general are addressed. A primary limitation of this study is its small sample size and empirical basis; the results may not be generalizable beyond the sample. The findings from this study support the supposition that crime scene behaviors often reflect paraphilic disturbances in those who commit serial sexual homicides. PMID:17980531

  7. Spin dynamics in paramagnetic diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Van-Nham; Tran, Minh-Tien

    2015-10-01

    Microscopic properties of low-energy spin dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductor are addressed in a framework of the Kondo lattice model including random distribution of magnetic dopants. Based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we derive an explicit dependence of the spin diffusion coefficient on the single-particle Green function which is directly evaluated by dynamical mean-field theory. In the paramagnetic state, the magnetic scattering has been manifested to suppress spin diffusion. In agreement with other ferromagnet systems, we also point out that the spin diffusion in diluted magnetic semiconductors at small carrier concentration displays a monotonic 1 /T -like temperature dependence. By investigating the spin diffusion coefficient on a wide range of the model parameters, the obtained results have provided a significant scenario to understand the spin dynamics in the paramagnetic diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  8. Serial alternative response training as intervention for target response resurgence.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Joseph M; Bloom, Sarah E; Samaha, Andrew L; Dayton, Elizabeth; Rodewald, Andrew M

    2015-12-01

    Failure to reinforce appropriate behavior could result in resurgence of previously extinguished problem behavior and degradation of previously effective treatments such as differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). We analyzed arbitrary responses (i.e., switch flipping) exhibited by 3 adults with developmental disabilities to compare the effect of a traditional DRA intervention against the effect of a serial DRA intervention on the magnitude of target response resurgence using a 2-component multiple schedule. The target response served as an analogue to problem behavior, and alternative responses served as analogues to socially appropriate alternative responses. In all cases, the percentage of total responding allocated toward target response resurgence was less in the serial DRA component than in the traditional DRA component. Furthermore, we observed both reversion and recency for 2 of 3 subjects. Our data provide preliminary evidence suggesting that serial DRA may produce more durable and desirable outcomes than traditional DRA. PMID:26404022

  9. Energy data base. Serial titles with ISSN listing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1984-03-01

    This issue of Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is the first revision of DOE/TIC-4579 to include the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for journals. The TIC journal authority was established to bring about conformity in citing the approximately 16,000 titles contained in this authority. It can prove to be a valuable tool in establishing the precise journal by ISSN and CODEN indication, especially for journals with the same title published in different locations. Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is comprised of two parts. Part 1 is an alphabetical listing by full title of the publication and also includes abbreviated title, CODEN, ISSN, coverage code, and country code. Part 2 is an ISSN-title correlation arranged in numeric order by ISSN and also includes the CODEN and full title.

  10. Towards time-resolved serial crystallography in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Pawate, Ashtamurthy S; Šrajer, Vukica; Schieferstein, Jeremy; Guha, Sudipto; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Schmidt, Marius; Ren, Zhong; Kenis, Paul J A; Perry, Sarah L

    2015-07-01

    Serial methods for crystallography have the potential to enable dynamic structural studies of protein targets that have been resistant to single-crystal strategies. The use of serial data-collection strategies can circumvent challenges associated with radiation damage and repeated reaction initiation. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for the serial time-resolved Laue diffraction analysis of macroscopic crystals of photoactive yellow protein (PYP). Reaction initiation was achieved via pulsed laser illumination, and the resultant electron-density difference maps clearly depict the expected pR(1)/pR(E46Q) and pR(2)/pR(CW) states at 10?µs and the pB1 intermediate at 1?ms. The strategies presented here have tremendous potential for extension to chemical triggering methods for reaction initiation and for extension to dynamic, multivariable analyses. PMID:26144226

  11. Recombinant nucleocapsid protein based single serum dilution ELISA for the detection of antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus in poultry.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Sunil K; Kamble, Nitin M; Pillai, Aravind S; Gaikwad, Satish S; Khulape, Sagar A; Reddy, M R; Mohan, C Madhan; Kataria, Jag Mohan; Dey, Sohini

    2014-12-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis is ubiquitous and highly contagious disease of poultry, with profound effect on commercial poultry production. For effective control of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), quick and specific diagnosis is of utmost importance. In this study, the virus was isolated from clinical samples from India and the full length nucleocapsid (N) gene was amplified, cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. The purified recombinant N protein based single serum dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for IBV to measure specific antibody in the sera of chickens. A total of 310 chicken sera samples were tested using the commercial IDEXX kit along with the assay developed. A linear correlation was obtained between predicted antibody titres at a single working dilution of 1:100 and the corresponding serum titres observed as determined by the standard serial dilution method. Regression analysis was used to construct a standard curve from which an equation was derived which confirmed their correlation. The developed equation was then used to extrapolate predicated ELISA antibody titer from corrected absorbance readings of the single working dilution. The assay proved to be specific (95.8%) and sensitive (96.8%) when compared to the commercial IDEXX ELISA test. PMID:25173423

  12. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong (El Cerrito, CA); Choi, Heonjin (Seoul, KR); Lee, Sangkwon (Daejeon, KR); He, Rongrui (Albany, CA); Zhang, Yanfeng (El Cerrito, CA); Kuykendal, Tevye (Berkeley, CA); Pauzauskie, Peter (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  13. Automatic dilution gaging of rapidly varying flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerk, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis showed that the discharges measured by dye-dilution techniques were generally within ± 10 percent of the discharges determined from ratings established by current-meter measurements. Larger differences were noted at the start of and on the rising limb of four hydrographs. Of the 20 storms monitored, dilution measurements on 17 were of acceptable accuracy. Peak discharges from the open-channel site ranged from 0 to 12 percent departures from the existing rating whereas the comparison of peak discharge at the storm sewer site ranged from 0 to 5 percent departures from the existing rating.

  14. In situ serial Laue diffraction on a microfluidic crystallization device

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Sarah L.; Guha, Sudipto; Pawate, Ashtamurthy S.; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Srajer, Vukica; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ren, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in room-temperature diffraction has been prompted by the desire to observe structural dynamics of proteins as they function. Serial crystallography, an experimental strategy that aggregates small pieces of data from a large uniform pool of crystals, has been demonstrated at synchrotrons and X-ray free-electron lasers. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for serial Laue diffraction from macroscopic crystals and proposes that a collection of small slices of Laue data from many individual crystals is a realistic solution to the difficulties in dynamic studies of irreversible biochemical reactions. PMID:25484843

  15. LAKE RESTORATION BY DILUTION: MOSES LAKE, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dilution water, low in macronutrients, was added to Moses Lake on three occasions in 1977 and once in 1978 during the spring-summer period. The addition resulted in reducing the annual average inflow concentration of phosphorus from about 130-140 micrograms/l to 100 micrograms/l....

  16. Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, I. A.

    2004-01-01

    On equilibrium properties of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid, Julius Thomsen has marked that the heat evolved on diluting liquid sulfuric acid with water is a continuous function of the water used, and excluded absolutely the acceptance of definite hydrates as existing in the solution. Information about thermochemical measurement, a discussion…

  17. THE MOST DILUTE LAKE IN THE WORLD?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Notasha, near the crest of the Oregon Cascade mountain range, is the most dilute lake known. he measured conductivity during two visits was 1.3 and 1.6 uS cm-1, with a sum of base cations of 9 and 18 ueq L-1; bicarbonate was the dominant anion. ost of the cations in the lake...

  18. A simple deep monitoring well dilution technique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogiers, Bart; Labat, Serge; Gedeon, Matej; Vandersteen, Katrijn

    2015-04-01

    Well dilution techniques are well known and studied as one of the basic techniques to quantify groundwater fluxes. A typical well dilution test consists of the injection of a tracer, a mixing mechanism (e.g. water circulation with a pump) to achieve a homogeneous concentration distribution within the well, and monitoring of the evolution of tracer concentration with time. An apparent specific discharge can be obtained from such a test, and when details on the well construction are known, it can be converted into a specific discharge representative of the undisturbed aquifer. For deep wells however, the injection of tracer becomes less practical and the use of pumps for circulating and mixing the water becomes problematic. This is due to the limited pressure that common pumps can endure at the outlet, as well as the large volume of water that makes it difficult to achieve a homogeneous concentration, and the impracticalities of getting a lot of equipment to large depths in very small monitoring wells. Injection and monitoring of tracer at a specific depth omits several of the problems with deep wells. We present a very simple device that can be used to perform a dilution test at a specific depth in deep wells. The injection device consists of a PVC tube with a detachable rubber seal at its bottom. To minimize disturbance of the water column in the well, we integrated an EC sensor in this injection device, which enables us to use demineralized water or dissolved salts as a tracer. Once at the target depth, the PVC tube is retracted and the EC sensor and tracer become subject to groundwater flow. The device was tested on a shallow well, on which different types of dilution tests were performed. The results of the other tests agree well with the injection tube results. Finally, the device was used to perform a dilution test in a deep well in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  19. Process to restore obliterated serial numbers on metal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.; Parker, B.; Chisum, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Metal smeared into grooves of serial numbers by grinding or filing can be cleaned out by process called cavitation. Ultrasonic vibrator generates very high frequency vibrations in water which create millions of microscopic bubbles. Cavitation bubbles impact metal surface at thousands of pounds per square inch pressure. Metal particles filling grooves are broken away.

  20. Serials Management by Microcomputer: The Potential of DBMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, J. Thomas; Burns, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes serials management at Philadelphia College of Textiles and Science library via a microcomputer, a file manager called PFS, and a relational database management system called dBase II. Check-in procedures, programing with dBase II, "static" and "active" databases, and claim procedures are discussed. Check-in forms are included. (EJS)

  1. Alternative models for the evolution of eyespots and of serial

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Antónia

    - solved questions relate to the evolutionary steps that lead to the appearance of these serial homologues, that over evolutionary time were co-opted into new compartments on the wing. I discuss the merits of each each of these wings. Eyespots have been shown to have an adaptive deflective or intimidating function

  2. Chapter 1: Introduction The Problem of Serial Order

    E-print Network

    Henson, Rik

    is often thought to reflect temporary storage in short-term memory versus more permanent storage in long-term with respect to short-term memory for temporal order. More generally, all our actions are sequenced in time; there is similarly no reason why they should not. This thesis is concerned with the problem of serial order in short-term

  3. Phosphorus and calcium retention in serially harvested cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 3 serial harvest trials were utilized to calculate phosphorus and calcium retention in cattle. Trial 1 evaluated three rates of gain during a growing period followed by a common finishing diet utilizing British crossbred steers. Four steers were harvested from each treatment following th...

  4. 6 A computational model of nonword repetition, immediate serial recall,

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Prahlad

    6 A computational model of nonword repetition, immediate serial recall, and nonword learning across word forms (as in list recall) and within word forms (as in nonword repetition). The model was set list recall and nonword repetition, and has the potential to play a useful role in investigation

  5. The Rise in Consumerism: The Year's Work in Serials, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonberger, Jana

    1991-01-01

    Examines major issues and trends in serials management represented in the literature published during 1990. Topics covered include the pricing crisis; publishing and scholarly communication; cancellation projects; technological developments and alternatives to print; claiming and replacement activities; acquisitions and collection development;…

  6. Serials Pricing and the Role of the Electronic Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Paul; Gherman, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    This third in a series of articles on scholarly communications and serials prices focuses on the possible role of electronic journals. Highlights include the increase in scientific and scholarly productivity; price differentials between private and for-profit journals; publisher's costs and profits; copyright issues; and the role of libraries and…

  7. Dutch Cross Serial Dependencies in HPSG Gerrit Rentier*

    E-print Network

    of arguments through "argument composition" ([H&N(1989)]). 1 Introduction Dutch cross serial dependencies-projection which de- notes an event. More particularly, as is proposed for German auxiliaries in [H&N(1989, and argument composition in German construc- tions with auxiliaries is well-motivated ([H&N(1989)]). So we have

  8. Picture Detection in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation: Features or Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Mary C.; Wyble, Brad; Pandav, Rijuta; Olejarczyk, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    A pictured object can be readily detected in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence when the target is specified by a superordinate category name such as "animal" or "vehicle". Are category features the initial basis for detection, with identification of the specific object occurring in a second stage (Evans & Treisman, 2005), or is…

  9. EVLA Memo 163 Recirculation in WIDAR with phase serialization

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    EVLA Memo 163 Recirculation in WIDAR with phase serialization R.J. Sault September 11, 2012. This issue is of interest with some modes (but not all modes) of recirculation in WIDAR. WIDAR can use baseboard stacking (sometimes called `static recirculation') as well as classical recirculation to achieve

  10. DC and RF Measurements of Serial Bi-SQUID Arrays

    E-print Network

    Prokopenko, G V; de Escobar, A Leese; Taylor, B; de Andrade, M C; Berggren, S; Longhini, P; Palacios, A; Nisenoff, M; Fagaly, R L

    2012-01-01

    SQUID arrays are promising candidates for low profile antennas and low noise amplifier applications. We present the integrated circuit designs and results of DC and RF measurements of the wideband serial arrays based on integration of linear bi-SQUID cells forming a Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter (bi-SQUID SQIF). Various configurations of serial arrays designs are described. The measured linearity, power gain, and noise temperature are analyzed and compared. The experimental results are matched to results of mathematical modeling. A serial bi-SQUID SQIF arrays are mounted into a coplanar waveguide (CPW) and symmetrically grounded to corresponding sides of CPW. The RF output comes out from the central common line, which is also used for DC biasing and forms a symmetrical balanced output. The signal and DC flux biasing line is designed as coplanar lines passed in parallel over each bi-SQUID cell in a bidirectional fashion concentrating magnetic flux inside of each cell. Serial bi-SQUID SQIF arrays ...

  11. Guidelines for the Compilation of Union Catalogues of Serials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, London (England).

    Intended for use in countries planning the establishment of new union catalogs, as well as in countries with long established traditions of library resource sharing, this document provides guiding principles and outlines standard methods and practices for the compilation of union catalogs of serials. Following definitions of relevant terminology…

  12. Prior-List Intrusions in Serial Recall Are Positional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osth, Adam F.; Dennis, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Henson (1996) provided a number of demonstrations of error patterns in serial recall that contradict chaining models. One such error pattern concerned when participants make intrusions from prior lists: Rather than originating from random positions in the prior list, intrusions tend to be recalled in the same position as their position in the…

  13. On the Asymmetry of Serial Verbs in the Edo Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Osamuyimen Thompson

    The serial verb construction (SVC) in Edo (Bini), a language spoken in Nigeria, is examined, and an analysis that systematically characterizes the notion of functional relationship of verbs within these constructions is proposed. It is argued that the verbs in series are sensitive to different semantic and grammatical phenomena and are therefore…

  14. Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy to Reconstruct

    E-print Network

    Born, Richard

    Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy to Reconstruct Three-Dimensional Tissue of tissue prepared using techniques that are routine for transmission electron microscopy. Low- vacuum (20 providing a two-dimensional cross section through the tissue. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (Ardenne

  15. 75 FR 52917 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...by revising the clause date to read ``(XXX 2010)'' and, at paragraph (a), by...Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items (XXX 2010) (a) Definition. ``Unique item...Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items (XXX 2010) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  16. 76 FR 42730 - In the Matter of Certain Univeral Serial Bus (“USB”) Portable Storage Devices, Including USB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ...In the Matter of Certain Univeral Serial Bus (``USB'') Portable Storage Devices...importation of certain universal serial bus (``USB'') portable storage devices...importation of certain universal serial bus (``USB'') portable storage...

  17. Serials Management in the Electronic Era: Papers in Honor of Peter Gellatly, Founding Editor of "The Serials Librarian."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jim, Ed.; Williams, James W., Ed.

    This book assesses progress and technical changes in the field of serials management and anticipates future directions and challenges for librarians. The book consists of 18 chapters: (1) "Introduction" (Jim Cole and James W. Williams); (2) "Peter Gellatly--Editor with a Deft Touch" (Ruth C. Carter); (3) "The "Deseret News" Web Edition" (Stewart…

  18. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Dilution air background emission correction...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission...

  19. 40 CFR 1066.610 - Dilution air background correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Dilution air background correction. 1066.610...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Calculations § 1066.610 Dilution air background correction....

  20. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Dilution air background emission correction...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Dilution air background emission correction...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Dilution air background emission correction...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Dilution air background emission correction...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission...

  4. Chapter 7: Item repetition in serial recall Repetition facilitation, inhibition and contamination

    E-print Network

    Henson, Rik

    180 Chapter 7: Item repetition in serial recall Repetition facilitation, inhibition describes three experiments that examine serial recall of lists in which an item is repeated. The results in serial recall. Ranschburg Repeated The presence of a repeated item in a list has important effects

  5. Children's Serial Recall Errors: Implications for Theories of Short-Term Memory Development

    E-print Network

    Henson, Rik

    Children's Serial Recall Errors: Implications for Theories of Short-Term Memory Development Teresa Kingdom Three experiments examined developmental changes in serial recall of lists of 6 letters in the pattern of serial recall errors. The errors of older participants were more likely to be movements than

  6. Long-Term Phonological Knowledge Supports Serial Ordering in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Masataka; Tanida, Yuki; Saito, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Serial ordering mechanisms have been investigated extensively in psychology and psycholinguistics. It has also been demonstrated repeatedly that long-term phonological knowledge contributes to serial ordering. However, the mechanisms that contribute to serial ordering have yet to be fully understood. To understand these mechanisms, we demonstrate…

  7. A SERIALS DATA PROGRAM FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, RESULTS OF A FEASIBILITY STUDY. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CREAGER, WILLIAM A.; SPARKS, DAVID E.

    THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE FEASIBILITY OF ESTABLISHING A CONTINUING NATIONAL INVENTORY OF THE WORLD'S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIALS. THE MAJOR TECHNICAL, OPERATIONAL, AND ECONOMIC FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION OF SUCH A SERIALS DATA PROGRAM HAVE BEEN EXAMINED. THE BASIC PARAMETERS OF A SERIALS DATA…

  8. Helium 3/Helium 4 dilution cryocooler for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, John B.; Dingus, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Prototype dilution cryocoolers based on dilution refrigeration and adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration (ADR) cycles were designed, constructed, and tested. Although devices the devices did not operate as fully functional dilution cryocoolers, important information was gathered. The porous metal phase separator was demonstrated to operate in the -1-g configuration; this phase separation is the critical element in the He-3 circulation dilution cryocooler. Improvements in instrumentation needed for additional tests and development were identified.

  9. Murphy's law of limiting dilution cloning.

    PubMed

    Staszewski, R

    1990-04-01

    Conventional practice and literature on limiting dilution cloning address the irrelevant problem of selection of a single progenitor from a uniform population, and provide optimistic estimates of monoclonality for interesting cultures and subcultures. Any cell line established via these estimates is suspect and may be polyclonally metastable. Cultures derived by limiting dilution of the progenitors of independently Poisson distributed populations obey a counterintuitive relation with the characteristics of a Murphy's law: the probability that an interesting culture is monotypic or monoclonal is less than that of a random non-sterile culture, decreases for increasingly rare interesting cultures, and is bounded below by the probability of sterility. A priori and empiric a posteriori estimates of the probability that interesting subcultures are monotypic or monoclonal are derived consistent with this principle. PMID:2362981

  10. Unstable blast shocks in dilute granular flows.

    PubMed

    Boudet, J F; Kellay, H

    2013-05-01

    Shocks and blasts can be readily obtained in granular flows be they dense or dilute. Here, by examining the propagation of a blast shock in a dilute granular flow, we show that such a front is unstable with respect to transverse variations of the density of grains. This instability has a well-defined wavelength which depends on the density of the medium and has an amplitude which grows as an exponential of the distance traveled. These features can be understood using a simple model for the shock front, including dissipation which is inherent to granular flows. While this instability bears much resemblance to that anticipated in gases, it is distinct and has special features we discuss here. PMID:23767525

  11. Serological Evidence for Non-Lethal Exposures of Mongolian Wild Birds to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Martin; Koel, Björn F.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Lewis, Nicola S.; Smith, Derek J.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2014-12-15

    , serum samples were incubated for 16 hours at 37 C? with the receptor-destroying enzyme of Vibrio cholera to remove non- specific inhibitors of hemagglutination activity, followed by inactivation for one hour at 56 C?. Two-fold serial dilutions of test...

  12. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...

  13. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710 Section...Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants...related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or...

  14. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics.

  15. The ADMX Site and Dilution Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, James; ADMX Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The ADMX experiment searches for axions by looking for their resonant conversion to detectable photons with a frequency that directly corresponds to the axion mass (a currently unknown value). Fundamentally, the RF photon detection is relatively straightforward; the exceptional technical challenge of ADMX is achieving the sensitivity required to discern the extremely weak (~ 10-22 W) photon signal above the system noise. Greater sensitivity is achieved by either lowering the physical and amplifier noise or by integrating for longer time over a given frequency range. Noise temperatures approaching the quantum limit are achieved by operating quantum electronics, SQUIDs and JPAs, at very low physical temperatures. In the past ADMX has achieved ~1.5K physical temperatures by operating with pumped 4 He. The addition of a 3 He/4 He dilution refrigerator into ADMX will lower the physical temperatures to ~100mK, dramatically increasing the scan rate and sensitivity. I will discuss the site and hardware modifications to ADMX to accommodate the dilution refrigerator and will report on the commissioning operations of the dilution refrigerator. Supported by DOE Grants DE-FG02-97ER41029, DE-FG02-96ER40956, DE- AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC03-76SF00098, NSF Grant 1067242, and the Livermore LDRD program.

  16. Insect morphological diversification through the modification of wing serial homologs.

    PubMed

    Ohde, Takahiro; Yaginuma, Toshinobu; Niimi, Teruyuki

    2013-04-26

    Fossil insects living some 300 million years ago show winglike pads on all thoracic and abdominal segments, which suggests their serial homology. It remains unclear whether winglike structures in nonwinged segments have been lost or modified through evolution. Here, we identified a ventral lateral part of the body wall on the first thoracic segment, the hypomeron, and pupal dorsolateral denticular outgrowths as wing serial homologs in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. Both domains transform into winglike structures under Hox RNA interference conditions. Gene expression and functional analyses revealed central roles for the key wing selector genes, vestigial and scalloped, in the hypomeron and the denticular outgrowth formation. We propose that modification, rather than loss, of dorsal appendages has provided an additional diversifying mechanism of insect body plan. PMID:23493422

  17. Serial network simplifies the design of multiple microcomputer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Folkes, D.

    1981-01-01

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in developing network communication schemes for carrying digital data between locally distributed computing stations. Many of these schemes have focused on distributed networking techniques for data processing applications. These applications suggest the use of a serial, multipoint bus, where a number of remote intelligent units act as slaves to a central or host computer. Each slave would be serially addressable from the host and would perform required operations upon being addressed by the host. Based on an MK3873 single-chip microcomputer, the SCU 20 is designed to be such a remote slave device. The capabilities of the SCU 20 and its use in systems applications are examined.

  18. Clinical application of serial operations with preserving spleen

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong-Chi; Sun, Bei; Qiao, Hai-Quan; Xu, Jun; Piao, Da-Xun; Yin, Hang

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical application of serial operations with preservation of spleen. METHODS: Serial operations with preserving spleen were performed on 211 cases in our hospital from 1980 to 2000. The patient’s age ranged from 13 to 56 years, averaging 38 years. Diseases included splenic injury in 171 cases, portal hypertension in 9 cases, splenic cyst in 10 cases, and the lesion of pancreatic body and tail in 21 cases. RESULTS: All the cases were cured, and 129 patients were followe dup from 3 mo to 3 years with the leukocyte phagocytosis test, detection of immunoglubin, CT, 99mTc scanning and ultrasonography. The results were satisfactory. CONCLUSION: The operations with preserving spleen were safe, feasible, and worth of clinical application. PMID:11854921

  19. The cost of serially chaining two cognitive operations.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhao; Singh, Krish; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Sigman, Mariano; Dehaene, Stanislas; Shapiro, Kimron

    2012-09-01

    As Turing (1936, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society) noted, a fundamental process in human cognition is to effect chained sequential operations in which the second operation requires an input from the preceding one. Although a great deal is known about the costs associated with 'independent' (unrelated) operations, e.g., from the classic psychological refractory period paradigm, far less is known about those operations to which Turing referred. We present the results of two behavioural experiments, where participants were required to perform two speeded sequential tasks that were either chained or independent. Both experiments reveal the reaction time cost of chaining, over and above classical dual-task serial costs. Moreover, the chaining operation significantly altered the distribution of reaction times relative to the Independent condition in terms of an increased mean and variance. These results are discussed in terms of the cognitive architecture underlying the serial chaining of cognitive operations. PMID:21877138

  20. Molluscan engrailed expression, serial organization, and shell evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, D. K.; Wray, C. G.; Wedeen, C. J.; Kostriken, R.; DeSalle, R.; Staton, J. L.; Gates, R. D.; Lindberg, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    Whether the serial features found in some molluscs are ancestral or derived is considered controversial. Here, in situ hybridization and antibody studies show iterated engrailed-gene expression in transverse rows of ectodermal cells bounding plate field development and spicule formation in the chiton, Lepidochitona cavema, as well as in cells surrounding the valves and in the early development of the shell hinge in the clam, Transennella tantilla. Ectodermal expression of engrailed is associated with skeletogenesis across a range of bilaterian phyla, suggesting a single evolutionary origin of invertebrate skeletons. The shared ancestry of bilaterian-invertebrate skeletons may help explain the sudden appearance of shelly fossils in the Cambrian. Our interpretation departs from the consideration of canonical metameres or segments as units of evolutionary analysis. In this interpretation, the shared ancestry of engrailed-gene function in the terminal/posterior addition of serially repeated elements during development explains the iterative expression of engrailed genes in a range of metazoan body plans.

  1. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Nogly, Przemyslaw; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; White, Thomas A.; Zatsepin, Nadia; Shilova, Anastasya; Nelson, Garrett; Liu, Haiguang; Johansson, Linda; Heymann, Michael; Jaeger, Kathrin; Metz, Markus; Wickstrand, Cecilia; Wu, Wenting; Båth, Petra; Berntsen, Peter; Oberthuer, Dominik; Panneels, Valerie; Cherezov, Vadim; Chapman, Henry; Schertler, Gebhard; Neutze, Richard; Spence, John; Moraes, Isabel; Burghammer, Manfred; Standfuss, Joerg; Weierstall, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs) have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR) at a resolution of 2.4?Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway. PMID:25866654

  2. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Nogly, Przemyslaw; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; White, Thomas A; Zatsepin, Nadia; Shilova, Anastasya; Nelson, Garrett; Liu, Haiguang; Johansson, Linda; Heymann, Michael; Jaeger, Kathrin; Metz, Markus; Wickstrand, Cecilia; Wu, Wenting; Båth, Petra; Berntsen, Peter; Oberthuer, Dominik; Panneels, Valerie; Cherezov, Vadim; Chapman, Henry; Schertler, Gebhard; Neutze, Richard; Spence, John; Moraes, Isabel; Burghammer, Manfred; Standfuss, Joerg; Weierstall, Uwe

    2015-03-01

    Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs) have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR) at a resolution of 2.4?Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway. PMID:25866654

  3. Low-Stroke Actuation for a Serial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Dalong (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A serial robot includes a base, first and second segments, a proximal joint joining the base to the first segment, and a distal joint. The distal joint that joins the segments is serially arranged and distal with respect to the proximal joint. The robot includes first and second actuators. A first tendon extends from the first actuator to the proximal joint and is selectively moveable via the first actuator. A second tendon extends from the second actuator to the distal joint and is selectively moveable via the second actuator. The robot includes a transmission having at least one gear element which assists rotation of the distal joint when an input force is applied to the proximal and/or distal joints by the first and/or second actuators. A robotic hand having the above robot is also disclosed, as is a robotic system having a torso, arm, and the above-described hand.

  4. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77?Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures. PMID:26627659

  5. Lipidic cubic phase injector facilitates membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Weierstall, Uwe; James, Daniel; Wang, Chong; White, Thomas A.; Wang, Dingjie; Liu, Wei; Spence, John C.H.; Doak, R. Bruce; Nelson, Garrett; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Liu, Haiguang; Basu, Shibom; Wacker, Daniel; Han, Gye Won; Katritch, Vsevolod; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J.; Koglin, Jason E.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Klinker, Markus; Gati, Cornelius; Shoeman, Robert L.; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N.; Kirian, Richard A.; Beyerlein, Kenneth R.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed T.A.; Howe, Nicole; Caffrey, Martin; Cherezov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallization has proven successful for high-resolution structure determination of challenging membrane proteins. Here we present a technique for extruding gel-like LCP with embedded membrane protein microcrystals, providing a continuously-renewed source of material for serial femtosecond crystallography. Data collected from sub-10 ?m-sized crystals produced with less than 0.5 mg of purified protein yield structural insights regarding cyclopamine binding to the Smoothened receptor. PMID:24525480

  6. Two Serial Data to Pulse Code Modulation System Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Phil

    2006-01-01

    Two pulse code modulation (PCM) system interfaces for asynchronous serial data are described. One interface is for global positioning system (GPS) data on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) F-15B (McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri) airplane, tail number 836 (F-15B/836). The other is for flight control computer data on the duPont Aerospace (La Jolla, California) DP-1, a 53-percent scale model of the duPont Aerospace DP-2.

  7. A nonparametric trend test for seasonal data with serial dependence.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, R.M.; Slack, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Statistical tests for monotonic trend in seasonal (eg monthly) hydrologic time series are commonly confounded by some of the following problems: nonnormal data, missing values, seasonality, censoring and serial dependence. An extension of the Mann-Kendall test for trend (designed for such data) is presented here. Because the test is based entirely on tanks, it is robust against nonnormality and censoring.-from Authors

  8. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-12-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77?Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures. PMID:26627659

  9. Voltage balancing strategies for serial connection of microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaled, Firas; Ondel, Olivier; Allard, Bruno; Buret, François

    2015-07-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) converts electrochemically organic matter into electricity by means of metabolisms of bacteria. The MFC power output is limited by low voltage and low current characteristics in the range of microwatts or milliwatts per litre. In order to produce a sufficient voltage level (>1.5 V) and sufficient power to supply real applications such as autonomous sensors, it is necessary to either scale-up one single unit or to connect multiple units together. Many topologies of connection are possible as the serial association to improve the output voltage, or the parallel connection to improve the output current or the series/parallel connection to step-up both voltage and current. The association of MFCs in series is a solution to increase the voltage to an acceptable value and to mutualize the unit's output power. The serial association of a large number of MFCs presents several issues. The first one is the hydraulic coupling among MFCs when they share the same substrate. The second one is the dispersion between generators that lead to a non-optimal stack efficiency because the maximum power point (MPP) operation of all MFCs is not permitted. Voltage balancing is a solution to compensate non-uniformities towards MPP. This paper presents solutions to improve the efficiency of a stack of serially connected MFCs through a voltage-balancing circuit. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2014)", edited by Adel Razek

  10. Sticky Plans: Inhibition and Binding during Serial Task Control

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests substantial response-time costs associated with lag-2 repetitions of tasks within explicitly controlled task sequences (Koch, Philipp, & Gade, 2006, Schneider, 2007), a result that has been interpreted as inhibition of no-longer relevant tasks. Experiments 1–3 confirm much larger lag-2 costs under serial-control than under externally cued conditions, but also show (a) that these costs occur only when sequences contain at least two distinct chunks and (b) that direct lag-2 repetitions are not a necessary condition for their occurrence. This pattern suggests the hypothesis that rather than task-set inhibition, the large lag-2 costs observed in complex sequences, reflect interference resulting from links between positions within a sequential plan and the individual tasks controlled by this plan. The remaining experiments successfully test this hypothesis (Exp. 4), rule out chaining accounts as a potential alternative explanation (Exp. 5), and demonstrate that interference results from information stored in long-term memory rather than working memory (Exp. 6). Implications of these results for an integration of models of serial-order control and serial memory are discussed. PMID:19427636

  11. On the serial connection of the regular asynchronous systems

    E-print Network

    Serban E. Vlad

    2012-06-20

    The asynchronous systems f are multi-valued functions, representing the non-deterministic models of the asynchronous circuits from the digital electrical engineering. In real time, they map an 'admissible input' function u:R\\rightarrow{0,1}^{m} to a set f(u) of 'possible states' x\\inf(u), where x:R\\rightarrow{0,1}^{m}. When f is defined by making use of a 'generator function' {\\Phi}:{0,1}^{n}\\times{0,1}^{m}\\rightarrow{0,1}^{n}, the system is called regular. The usual definition of the serial connection of systems as composition of multi-valued functions does not bring the regular systems into regular systems, thus the first issue in this study is to modify in an acceptable manner the definition of the serial connection in a way that matches regularity. This intention was expressed for the first time, without proving the regularity of the serial connection of systems, in a previous work. Our present purpose is to restate with certain corrections and prove that result.

  12. DDCMP protocol on a DMA serial-line board

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D.N.; Kessler, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Nuclear Chemistry Division of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is in the midst of an upgrade to their radiation counting facility. The result of this upgrade wil be a computer-based data acquisition network, the Nuclear Chemistry Counting Facility Network (NCCF-NET). This network will consist of forty dedicated LSI-11/2 based controllers, ten interactive LSI-11/23 based workstations and a VAX-11/750 central node for data reduction and storage. One of the data acquisition instruments used in this network is a Nuclear Data pulse-height analyzer, the ND66L. This analyzer communicates to a host system over a 9600-baud serial line, using the DDCMP link level protocol. In order to relieve the host computer from the overhead of handling the DDCMP protocol, an in-house designed DMA serial line board was implemented to communicate with the ND66L. The hardware used and its environment will be duscussed along with the design and implementation of the firmware, which implements the serial DDCMP link.

  13. Serial extraction: 20 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; OLTRAMARI-NAVARRO, Paula Vanessa Pedron; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; NAVARRO, Ricardo de Lima; de SOUZA, Karen Regina Siqueira

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a case treated by a serial extraction program at the mixed dentition stage followed by a corrective orthodontic treatment, with a long-term follow-up period. Twenty years after the interceptive treatment, a harmonious face was observed along with treatment stability in the anterior posterior direction, deep overbite (which has been mentioned as a disadvantage of the serial extraction program), and a small relapse of anterior tooth crowding. All these conditions have been regarded as normal occurrences for most orthodontic treatments with a long-term follow-up period. This case report demonstrated that the establishment of a serial extraction protocol determined relevant esthetic changes that afforded an improvement of the patient's self-esteem, with a positive social impact. Furthermore, the low cost of this protocol permits the use of this therapy with underprivileged populations. It is important to emphasize that an early correction of tooth crowding by this protocol does not guarantee stability, but small relapses do not invalidate its accomplishment. PMID:23032213

  14. Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research. Parallel and serial processing of multiple tasks are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, questions focusing exclusively on either task-processing mode are too simplified. We review empirical evidence and demonstrate that shifting between more parallel and more serial task processing critically depends on the conditions under which multiple tasks are performed. We conclude that efficient multitasking is reflected by the ability of individuals to adjust multitasking performance to environmental demands by flexibly shifting between different processing strategies of multiple task-component scheduling. PMID:26441742

  15. Serial lung scintigraphy: utility in diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Alderson, P O; Dzebolo, N N; Biello, D R; Seldin, D W; Martin, E C; Siegel, B A

    1983-12-01

    Pairs of sequential perfusion lung scans and pulmonary angiograms obtained in 45 patients were reviewed to investigate the utility of short-term, sequential scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Forty-six sequential scan pairs were reviewed; 13 were ventilation-perfusion (V-P) pairs. Angiograms were obtained within 48 hours of either the first (65%) or second (35%) perfusion scan in each pair. Sequential scintigraphic patterns were classified as showing change (i.e., improvement in defects, new defects), no change, or as being indeterminate. A changing perfusion pattern was associated with a high (20/23) likelihood of PE, but seven of 16 patients with stable perfusion patterns also had PE. The sensitivity of a changing perfusion pattern for PE was 0.74 (20/27) and its specificity was 0.75 (9/12). In two of six patients who had serial V-P studies that showed changing perfusion defects, there were matched changes in regional ventilation and angiograms were negative. The findings suggest that short-term serial perfusion lung scanning may aid the scintigraphic diagnosis of PE in certain circumstances. Serial V-P imaging is needed, however, to maximize diagnostic specificity. PMID:6227931

  16. Microbroth Dilution Susceptibility Testing of Candida species.

    PubMed

    Kuykendall, Randal J; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2016-01-01

    Antifungal susceptibility testing for Candida species is now widely accepted as a methodology to predict the success or failure of antifungal therapy for some antifungal/Candida species combinations. There are many different ways to perform susceptibility testing of antifungal agents, but broth microdilution has become the most popular over the last 10 years. This chapter describes in detail two methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species using the commercially available microbroth dilution tray (YeastOne(®)) and a commercially available gradient agar diffusion technique (Etest(®)) for isolates that appear resistant. PMID:26519073

  17. Magnetopolaron effect in diluted semimagnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Georgiy G.; Mazur, Yuri I.; Rakitin, Andrey S.; Lavoric, S. R.; Tomm, Jens W.; Hoerstel, W.

    1997-08-01

    Phonon-assisted self-trapping of free carrier is considered in diluted semimagnetics. It is shown that the binding energy of free magnetic polaron can be substantially larger when the 'spin-phonon' coupling is taken into account. For the particular case of 'soft' lattice dynamics the region of stability for hole-induced polaron can be promoted to the temperature of tenths of degrees and magnetic field of a few Tesla. The possible hybridized excitations with the partition of free magnetic polaron are discussed in semimagnetic semiconductors.

  18. Dilution jet mixing program, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Myers, G.; White, C.

    1985-01-01

    The main objectives for the NASA Jet Mixing Phase 3 program were: extension of the data base on the mixing of single sided rows of jets in a confined cross flow to discrete slots, including streamlined, bluff, and angled injections; quantification of the effects of geometrical and flow parameters on penetration and mixing of multiple rows of jets into a confined flow; investigation of in-line, staggered, and dissimilar hole configurations; and development of empirical correlations for predicting temperature distributions for discrete slots and multiple rows of dilution holes.

  19. Diluted equilibrium sterile neutrino dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Amol V.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Kusenko, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    We present a model where sterile neutrinos with rest masses in the range ˜keV to ˜MeV can be the dark matter and be consistent with all laboratory, cosmological, and large-scale structure, as well as x-ray constraints. These sterile neutrinos are assumed to freeze out of thermal and chemical equilibrium with matter and radiation in the very early Universe, prior to an epoch of prodigious entropy generation ("dilution") from out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy particles. In this work, we consider heavy, entropy-producing particles in the ˜TeV to ˜EeV rest-mass range, possibly associated with new physics at high-energy scales. The process of dilution can give the sterile neutrinos the appropriate relic densities, but it also alters their energy spectra so that they could act like cold dark matter, despite relatively low rest masses as compared to conventional dark matter candidates. Moreover, since the model does not rely on active-sterile mixing for producing the relic density, the mixing angles can be small enough to evade current x-ray or lifetime constraints. Nevertheless, we discuss how future x-ray observations, future lepton number constraints, and future observations and sophisticated simulations of large-scale structure could, in conjunction, provide evidence for this model and/or constrain and probe its parameters.

  20. Geometric Exponents of Dilute Loop Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencher, Guillaume; Saint-Aubin, Yvan; Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2012-04-01

    The fractal dimensions of the hull, the external perimeter and of the red bonds are measured through Monte Carlo simulations for dilute minimal models, and compared with predictions from conformal field theory and SLE methods. The dilute models used are those first introduced by Nienhuis. Their loop fugacity is ?=-2 \\cos(?/bar{kappa}) where the parameter bar{kappa} is linked to their description through conformal loop ensembles. It is also linked to conformal field theories through their central charges c(bar{kappa})=13-6(bar{kappa}+bar{kappa}^{-1}) and, for the minimal models of interest here, bar{kappa}=p/p' where p and p' are two coprime integers. The geometric exponents of the hull and external perimeter are studied for the pairs ( p, p')=(1,1),(2,3),(3,4),(4,5),(5,6),(5,7), and that of the red bonds for ( p, p')=(3,4). Monte Carlo upgrades are proposed for these models as well as several techniques to improve their speeds. The measured fractal dimensions are obtained by extrapolation on the lattice size H, V??. The extrapolating curves have large slopes; despite these, the measured dimensions coincide with theoretical predictions up to three or four digits. In some cases, the theoretical values lie slightly outside the confidence intervals; explanations of these small discrepancies are proposed.

  1. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements...-displacement pump (PDP), a subsonic venturi (SSV), or an ultrasonic flow meter (UFM). Combined with an upstream... dilution system, you may use a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi,...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements...-displacement pump (PDP), a subsonic venturi (SSV), or an ultrasonic flow meter (UFM). Combined with an upstream... dilution system, you may use a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi,...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements...-displacement pump (PDP), a subsonic venturi (SSV), or an ultrasonic flow meter (UFM). Combined with an upstream... dilution system, you may use a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi,...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements...-displacement pump (PDP), a subsonic venturi (SSV), or an ultrasonic flow meter (UFM). Combined with an upstream... dilution system, you may use a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi,...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements...-displacement pump (PDP), a subsonic venturi (SSV), or an ultrasonic flow meter (UFM). Combined with an upstream... dilution system, you may use a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi,...

  6. Motor-mediated microtubule self-organization in dilute and semi-dilute filament solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Ziebert, F.; Aranson, I. S.; Karpeev, D.

    2011-01-01

    We study molecular motor-induced microtubule self-organization in dilute and semi-dilute filament solutions. In the dilute case, we use a probabilistic model of microtubule interaction via molecular motors to investigate microtubule bundle dynamics. Microtubules are modeled as polar rods interacting through fully inelastic, binary collisions. Our model indicates that initially disordered systems of interacting rods exhibit an orientational instability resulting in spontaneous ordering. We study the existence and dynamic interaction of microtubule bundles analytically and numerically. Our results reveal a long term attraction and coalescing of bundles indicating a clear coarsening in the system; microtubule bundles concentrate into fewer orientations on a slow logarithmic time scale. In semi-dilute filament solutions, multiple motors can bind a filament to several others and, for a critical motor density, induce a transition to an ordered phase with a nonzero mean orientation. Motors attach to a pair of filaments and walk along the pair bringing them into closer alignment. We develop a spatially homogenous, mean-field theory that explicitly accounts for a force-dependent detachment rate of motors, which in turn affects the mean and the fluctuations of the net force acting on a filament. We show that the transition to the oriented state can be both continuous and discontinuous when the force-dependent detachment of motors is important.

  7. How dilute are dilute solutions in extensional flows? C. Clasen,a)

    E-print Network

    the boundary separating the physical and rheological definition of dilute and semidilute polymer solutions c, and L. E. Scriven Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Minnesota and their molar mass. Graessley 1980 provides a simple definition of c* that is widely accepted for de- marking

  8. Safety of serial MRI in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Junttila, M Juhani; Fishman, Joel E; Lopera, Gustavo A; Pattany, Pradip M; Velazquez, Darcy L; Williams, Adam R; Trachtenberg, Barry H; Sanina, Cristina; Mather, Jacques; Hare, Joshua M

    2014-01-01

    Objective While patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices could benefit from magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the presence of such devices has been designated as an absolute contraindication to MR. Although scanning algorithms are proposed for cardiac implantable electronic devices, their safety remains uncertain. To address this issue, the safety of serial cardiac MR scans was evaluated in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Methods Three serial cardiac MR scans were prospectively performed at 1.5 T on 10 patients (9 men) of median age 56 years (range 51–68) with ICDs. ICD interrogation was performed before and after the MR scan and at a follow-up of median 370 days (range 274–723). Image quality was also assessed. Results In all patients MR scanning occurred without complications. There were no differences between preand post-MR pacing capture threshold, pacing lead or high voltage lead impedance, or battery voltage values. During follow-up there were no occurrences of ICD dysfunction. Although most patients had image artifacts, the studies were generally diagnostic regarding left ventricular function and wall motion. Delayed enhancement imaging was of good quality for inferior wall and inferolateral infarcts, but ICD artifacts often affected the imaging of anterior wall infarcts. Conclusion Serial MR scans at 1.5 T in patients with ICDs, when carefully performed in a monitored setting, have no adverse effects on either patient or device. When required, single or multiple MR scans at 1.5 T may therefore be considered for clinical diagnostic purposes in these patients. PMID:21873440

  9. Molecular analysis of secretion genes located on the syr-syp genomic island of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain B301D 

    E-print Network

    Kang, Hyojeung

    2005-02-17

    bacterium (1). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests. The antimicrobial susceptibilities to acriflavine, aztreonam, carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin and novobiocin (Sigma) were tested using a microtiter broth dilution... was used as a control. Briefly, exponential phase bacterial cells were added to a sterile 96-well microtiter plate containing Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth medium and serial two- fold dilutions of antibiotics (19). Modification of the MICs was observed...

  10. A semiautomated approach for artefact removal in serial tissue cryosections.

    PubMed

    Kindle, L M; Kakadiaris, I A; Ju, T; Carson, J P

    2011-02-01

    Thinly sliced serial tissue sections of an organ can be imaged using optical microscopy at a resolution detailing individual cells. When the tissue sections are first subjected to in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry, these data sets can be analysed for changes in gene expression and gene products. Such spatial information is important for understanding the functional effects of experimental or environmental challenges to the organism. However, a critical step in analysing these data sets is mitigating artefacts that result from the preparation of the tissue sections. In this paper, we describe an automated method with manual validation tools that together enable detecting and addressing artefacts including dust particles and air bubbles. PMID:21118219

  11. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Liang, Mengning; Boutet, Sébastien; Coe, Jesse; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Fromme, Petra; Cherezov, Vadim; Hogue, Brenda G.

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  12. Hi-speed versatile serial crate controller for CAMAC

    SciTech Connect

    Horelick, D.

    1984-10-01

    A serial crate controller, primarily for use in the SLC CAMAC control system, has been designed, and has been in use for about 2 years. The design supports a party line approach, with up to 16 crates on a single twisted pair for data transfers, plus another pair for prompt L response. The bit rate is 5 megabits/s, and complete transaction times of about 10 ..mu..s are achieved for 16-bit data transfers over cables up to 1000 feet long. One of the primary objects of the design was simplicity - there are approximately 60 chips in the two-board unit.

  13. Characterization of the Dilute Ising Antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, T.

    2000-09-12

    A spin glass is a magnetic ground state in which ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions compete, thereby creating frustration and a multidegenerate state with no long range order. An Ising system is a system where the spins are constrained to lie parallel or antiparallel to a primary axis. There has been much theoretical interest in the past ten years in the effects of applying a magnetic field transverse to the primary axis in an Ising spin glass at low temperatures and thus study phase transitions at the T=0 limit. The focus of this study is to search for and characterize a new Ising spin glass system. This is accomplished by site diluting yttrium for terbium in the crystalline material TbNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. The first part of this work gives a brief overview of the physics of rare earth magnetism and an overview of experimental characteristics of spin glasses. This is followed by the methodology used to manufacture the large single crystals used in this study, as well as the measurement techniques used. Next, a summary of the results of magnetic measurements on across the dilution series from pure terbium to pure yttrium is presented. This is followed by detailed measurements on particular dilutions which demonstrate spin glass behavior. Pure TbNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is an Ising antiferromagnet with a several distinct metamagnetic states below 17 K. As the terbium is alloyed with yttrium, these magnetic states are weakened in a consistent manner, as is seen in measurements of the transition temperatures and analysis of Curie-Weiss behavior at high temperature. At low concentrations of terbium, below 35%, long range order is no longer present and a spin-glass-like state emerges. This state is studied through various measurements, dc and ac susceptibility, resistivity, and specific heat. This magnetic behavior was then compared to that of other well characterized spin glasses. It is concluded that there is a region of concentration s for which a spin glass state is formed with the best spin glasses existing between the concentration of 25% and 30%.

  14. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2500 Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2500 Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. (a) Identification....

  16. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2500 Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. (a) Identification....

  17. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2500 Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. (a) Identification....

  18. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2500 Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. (a) Identification....

  19. Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Golden, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2002-01-01

    A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

  20. Computational modeling of dilute biomass slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, Michael; Stickel, Jonathan; Fischer, Paul; Lischeske, James

    2012-11-01

    The biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid transportation fuels involves a multitude of physical and chemical transformations that occur in several distinct processing steps (e.g., pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation). In this work we focus on development of a computational fluid dynamics model of a dilute biomass slurry, which is a highly viscous particle-laden fluid that can exhibit yield-stress behavior. Here, we model the biomass slurry as a generalized Newtonian fluid that accommodates biomass transport due to settling and biomass-concentration-dependent viscosity. Within a typical mixing vessel, viscosity can vary over several orders of magnitude. We solve the model with the Nek5000 spectral-finite-element solver in a simple vane mixer, and validate against experimental results. This work is directed towards our goal of a fully coupled computational model of fluid dynamics and reaction kinetics for the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. Negative magnetophoresis in diluted ferrofluid flow.

    PubMed

    Hejazian, Majid; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2015-07-21

    We report magnetic manipulation of non-magnetic particles suspended in diluted ferrofluid. Diamagnetic particles were introduced into a circular chamber to study the extent of their deflection under the effect of a non-uniform magnetic field of a permanent magnet. Since ferrofluid is a paramagnetic medium, it also experiences a bulk magnetic force that in turn induces a secondary flow opposing the main hydrodynamic flow. Sheath flow rate, particle size, and magnetic field strength were varied to examine this complex behaviour. The combined effect of negative magnetophoresis and magnetically induced secondary flow leads to various operation regimes, which can potentially find applications in separation, trapping and mixing of diamagnetic particles such as cells in a microfluidic system. PMID:26054840

  2. Are Room Temperature Ionic Liquids Dilute Electrolytes?

    E-print Network

    Alpha A Lee; Dominic Vella; Susan Perkin; Alain Goriely

    2014-12-26

    An important question in understanding the structure of ionic liquids is whether ions are truly "free" and mobile which would correspond to a concentrated ionic melt, or are rather "bound" in ion pairs, that is a liquid of ion pairs with a small concentration of free ions. Recent surface force balance experiments from different groups have given conflicting answers to this question. We propose a simple model for the thermodynamics and kinetics of ion pairing in ionic liquids. Our model takes into account screened ion-ion, dipole-dipole and dipole-ion interactions in the mean field limit. The results of this model suggest that almost two thirds of the ions are free at any instant, and ion pairs have a short lifetime comparable to the characteristic timescale for diffusion. These results suggest that there is no particular thermodynamic or kinetic preference for ions residing in pairs. We therefore conclude that ionic liquids are concentrated, rather than dilute, electrolytes.

  3. Dynamical Threshold of Diluteness of Soft Colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Ren; Do, Changwoo; Egami, T; Falus, Peter; Li, Xin; Liu, Dazhi; Porcar, L.; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E; Smith, Gregory Scott; Wu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of soft colloids in solutions is characterized by internal collective motion as well as center-of-mass diffusion. Using neutron scattering we demonstrate that the competition between the relaxation processes associated with these two degrees of freedom results in strong dependence of dynamics and structure on colloid concentration, c, well below the overlap concentration c*. Triggered by the increasing inter-particle collisions, substantial structural dehydration and slowing-down of internal dynamics occurs before geometrically defined colloidal overlap develops. This observation is surprising since it is generally believed that the internal dynamics and conformation of soft colloidal particles essentially remain invariant below c*. The competition between these two relaxation processes gives rise to a new dynamically-defined dilute threshold concentration well below c*.

  4. Shock waves in a dilute granular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. H. Lakshminarayana; Ansumali, Santosh; Alam, Meheboob

    2014-12-01

    We study the evolution of shock waves in a dilute granular gas which is modelled using three variants of hydrodynamic equations: Euler, 10-moment and 14-moment models. The one-dimensional shock-wave problem is formulated and the resulting equations are solved numerically using a relaxation-type scheme. Focusing on the specific case of blast waves, the results on the density, the granular temperature, the skew temperature, the heat flux and the fourth moment are compared among three models. We find that the shock profiles are smoother for the 14-moment model compared to those predicted by the standard Euler equations. A shock-splitting phenomenon is observed in the skew granular temperature profiles for a blast wave.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Dilute magnetic semiconducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearton, S. J.; Heo, W. H.; Ivill, M.; Norton, D. P.; Steiner, T.

    2004-10-01

    A review of recent results on transition metal doping of electronic oxides such as ZnO, TiO2, SnO2, BaTiO3, Cu2O, SrTiO3 and KTaO3 is presented. There is interest in achieving ferromagnetism with Curie temperatures above room temperature in such materials for applications in the field of spintronic devices, in which the spin of the carriers is exploited. The incorporation of several atomic per cent of the transition metals without creation of second phases appears possible under optimized synthesis conditions, leading to ferromagnetism. Pulsed laser deposition, reactive sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy and ion implantation have all been used to produce the oxide-based dilute magnetic materials. The mechanism is still under debate, with carrier-induced, double-exchange and bound magnetic polaron formation all potentially playing a role depending on the conductivity type and level in the material.

  6. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  7. Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Michael F.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  8. Irreversible Adsorption from Dilute Polymer Solutions

    E-print Network

    Ben O'Shaughnessy; Dimitrios Vavylonis

    2003-06-06

    We study irreversible polymer adsorption from dilute solutions theoretically. Universal features of the resultant non-equilibrium layers are predicted. Two cases are considered, distinguished by the value of the local monomer-surface sticking rate Q: chemisorption (very small Q) and physisorption (large Q). Early stages of layer formation entail single chain adsorption. While single chain physisorption times tau_ads are typically microsecs, for chemisorbing chains of N units we find experimentally accessible times tau_ads = Q^{-1} N^{3/5}, ranging from secs to hrs. We establish 3 chemisorption universality classes, determined by a critical contact exponent: zipping, accelerated zipping and homogeneous collapse. For dilute solutions, the mechanism is accelerated zipping: zipping propagates outwards from the first attachment, accelerated by occasional formation of large loops which nucleate further zipping. This leads to a transient distribution omega(s) \\sim s^{-7/5} of loop lengths s up to a size s_max \\approx (Q t)^{5/3} after time t. By tau_ads the entire chain is adsorbed. The outcome of the single chain adsorption episode is a monolayer of fully collapsed chains. Having only a few vacant sites to adsorb onto, late arriving chains form a diffuse outer layer. In a simple picture we find for both chemisorption and physisorption a final loop distribution Omega(s) \\sim s^{-11/5} and density profile c(z) \\sim z^{-4/3} whose forms are the same as for equilibrium layers. In contrast to equilibrium layers, however, the statistical properties of a given chain depend on its adsorption time; the outer layer contains many classes of chain, each characterized by different fraction of adsorbed monomers f. Consistent with strong physisorption experiments, we find the f values follow a distribution P(f) \\sim f^{-4/5}.

  9. Unified formulation of dynamics for serial rigid multibody systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan

    1991-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in the development of new and efficient algorithms for multibody dynamics in recent years. Serial rigid multibody systems form the basic subcomponents of general multibody systems, and a variety of algorithms to solve the serial chain forward dynamics problem have been proposed. In this paper, the economy of representation and analysis tools provided by the spatial operator algebra are used to clarify the inherent structure of these algorithms, to identify those that are similar, and to study the relationships among the ones that are distinct. For the purposes of this study, the algorithms are categorized into three classes: algorithms that require the explicit computation of the mass matrix, algorithms that are completely recursive in nature, and algorithms of intermediate complexity. In addition, alternative factorizations for the mass matrix and closed form expressions for its inverse are derived. These results provide a unifying perspective, within which these diverse dynamics algorithms arise naturally as a consequence of a progressive exploitation of the structure of the mass matrix.

  10. Random-effects models for serial observations with binary response

    SciTech Connect

    Stiratelli, R.; Laird, N.; Ware, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    This paper presents a general mixed model for the analysis of serial dichotomous responses provided by a panel of study participants. Each subject's serial responses are assumed to arise from a logistic model, but with regression coefficients that vary between subjects. The logistic regression parameters are assumed to be normally distributed in the population. Inference is based upon maximum likelihood estimation of fixed effects and variance components, and empirical Bayes estimation of random effects. Exact solutions are analytically and computationally infeasible, but an approximation based on the mode of the posterior distribution of the random parameters is proposed, and is implemented by means of the EM algorithm. This approximate method is compared with a simpler two-step method proposed by Korn and Whittemore, using data from a panel study of asthmatics originally described in that paper. One advantage of the estimation strategy described here is the ability to use all of the data, including that from subjects with insufficient data to permit fitting of a separate logistic regression model, as required by the Korn and Whittemore method. However, the new method is computationally intensive.

  11. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology. PMID:25573845

  12. Limitations on regression analysis due to serially correlated residuals: Application to climate reconstruction from proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejll, Peter; Schmith, Torben

    2005-09-01

    The effects of serially correlated residuals on the accuracy of linear regression are considered, and remedies are suggested. The Cochrane-Orcutt method specifically remedies the effects of serially correlated residuals and yields more accurate regression coefficients than does ordinary least squares. We illustrate the effects of serially correlated residuals, explain the application of the CO method, and evaluate the gains to be achieved in its use. We apply the method to an example from climate reconstruction, and we show that the effects of serial correlation in residuals are present and show the significantly improved result.

  13. A low-power, radiation-hard gigabit serializer for use in the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Denes, P.; Baier, S.; Bussat, J.M.; Wixted, R.

    2000-02-01

    An integrated fiber-optic bit serializer and VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) driver has been constructed in radiation-hard complementary heterostructure GaAs FET (CHFET) technology. The serializer, which converts 20 parallel inputs into a high-speed serial output, consumes 60 mW at nominal supply voltage when operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) word rate of 40 MHz (0.8-GB/s serial rate). The integrated driver directly drives a VCSEL and provides 10-mA switched current and 5 mA of prebias. The complete digital optical link thus consumes 90 mW.

  14. Direct observation of polymer dynamics in semi-dilute solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Kai-Wen; Brockman, Christopher; Schroeder, Charles M.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we use single molecule techniques to study polymer dynamics in semi-dilute solutions. Here, we study the steady state extension and relaxation time dynamics of polymer molecules in semi-dilute DNA solutions in extensional flow. Polymer chain dynamics are complicated in semi-dilute solutions due to chain overlap, hydrodynamic interactions, and excluded volume interactions. We use single molecule fluorescence microscopy and a microfluidic-based hydrodynamic trap to directly observe the dynamics of polymers in non-dilute solutions. We report the scaling of polymer relaxation time as a function of polymer concentration, and we observe a crossover in chain behavior from the dilute to semi-dilute regime. Interestingly, we observe a pronounced center-of-mass drift of single polymer chains in directions orthogonal to flow in semi-dilute solutions, which is characterized as a function of concentration and flow rate. By using the automated hydrodynamic trap coupled with a piezoelectric stage, we are able to track the 3-D position of single polymer molecules and deduce the relationship between strain rate and polymer extension. Overall, our work reports on a key advance in the field of polymer dynamics via direct observation of dynamics in semi-dilute solutions in strong flows

  15. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  16. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  17. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  18. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  19. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell...

  20. UNCORRECTED 2 Effects of dilution on the extinction characteristics

    E-print Network

    Im, Hong G.

    UNCORRECTED PROOF 1 2 Effects of dilution on the extinction characteristics 3 of strained lean relevant to micro-combustor application, the effects of mixture dilution on the 10 lean extinction by consideration of charac- 16 teristic time scales calculated from the fuel consumption rate. The extinction

  1. A PRESSURIZED PROPORTIONAL DILUTER FOR AQUATIC TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A half-liter proportional diluter using positive pressure was designed and tested. Its primary siphons are activated by a pulse of pressure instead of by a partial vacuum as in conventional diluters. This method eliminated the need for venturi tubes, vacuum manifolds, and individ...

  2. 40 CFR 1066.610 - Dilution air background correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations § 1066.610 Dilution air background correction. (a... ratio of the test fuel. You may measure a or use default values from Table 1 of 40 CFR 1065.655. b... 40 CFR 1065.655. ER28AP14.101 (c) Determine the dilution factor, DF, over the test interval...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  8. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2006-02-01

    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces, and this reduction can be scaled by the gravitational dimensionless time. Mechanistic simulation of core-scale surfactant brine imbibition matches the experimentally observed imbibition data. In-situ distributions observed through simulation indicate that surfactant diffusion (which depends on temperature and molecular weight) is the rate limiting step. Most of the oil is recovered through gravitational forces. Oil left behind at the end of this process is at its residual oil saturation. The capillary and Bond numbers are not large enough to affect the residual oil saturation. At the field-scale, 50% of the recoverable oil is produced in about 3 years if the fracture spacing is 1 m and 25% if 10 m, in the example simulated. Decreasing fracture spacing and height, increasing permeability, and increasing the extent of wettability alteration increase the rate of oil recovery from surfactant-aided gravity drainage. This dilute surfactant aided gravity-drainage process is relatively cheap. The chemical cost for a barrel of oil produced is expected to be less than $1.

  9. Zinc oxide based diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Shivaraman

    During my graduate research I have synthesized materials known as diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) as epitaxial thin film structures using the process of pulsed laser deposition (PLD). These materials are envisioned to be of importance in the emerging field of spintronics where the charge as well as the spin of the charge carriers can be combined to yield unique functionalities to yield novel devices including, on-chip memories, ultra-low power devices etc. The material of interest in this dissertation was zinc oxide, a wide bandgap optoelectronic semiconductor. ZnO has a bandgap of 3.3 eV. It is an ideal candidate for spintronics applications, because Zn is the last of the first row transition metals, which leads to pretty high solubility of transition metals such as Co, Mn and V in ZnO. In a diluted magnetic semiconductor a fraction of the host atoms is substituted by the transition metal dopant ion. We have found that we can synthesize very high quality, single phase and single crystalline Zn(TM)O thin films on basal plane sapphire single crystals (alpha-Al 2O3). We have analyzed the magnetic properties of the three systems of ZnVO, ZnCoO and ZnMnO and found that ZnCoO and ZnMnO exhibit ferromagnetic ordering up to room temperature, when synthesized under high vacuum. In these conditions, the samples have a reasonable concentration of point defects which drive ZnO to n-type conductivity. By a combination of in-situ and ex-situ variation of parameters we have been able to tune the electronic and magnetic properties of these systems. From these studies we conclude that the main mechanism of magnetic ordering in these DMS materials is through a combination of defect related carrier induced exchange and bound magnetic polaron exchange. Device structures were fabricated using the as deposited samples to study the possibility of spin injection through semiconductors. We have observed that at low temperatures we see a considerable effect from this phenomenon in a magnetic tunnel junction kind of configuration. Hence, this study opens up new avenues and possibilities for a variety of spintronics applications.

  10. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in rat liver regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Cimica, Velasco . E-mail: vcimica@aecom.yu.edu; Batusic, Danko; Haralanova-Ilieva, Borislava; Chen, Yonglong; Hollemann, Thomas; Pieler, Tomas; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2007-08-31

    We have applied serial analysis of gene expression for studying the molecular mechanism of the rat liver regeneration in the model of 70% partial hepatectomy. We generated three SAGE libraries from a normal control liver (NL library: 52,343 tags), from a sham control operated liver (Sham library: 51,028 tags), and from a regenerating liver (PH library: 53,061 tags). By SAGE bioinformatics analysis we identified 40 induced genes and 20 repressed genes during the liver regeneration. We verified temporal expression of such genes by real time PCR during the regeneration process and we characterized 13 induced genes and 3 repressed genes. We found connective tissue growth factor transcript and protein induced very early at 4 h after PH operation before hepatocytes proliferation is triggered. Our study suggests CTGF as a growth factor signaling mediator that could be involved directly in the mechanism of liver regeneration induction.

  11. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlensinger, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios use error-correction techniques that approach Shannon s theoretical limit of performance. The authors describe the benefit of closed-loop measurements for a receiver when paired with a counterpart transmitter and representative channel conditions. We also describe a real-time Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in real-time during the development of software defined radios.

  12. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlesinger, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  13. The evolution of photosynthesis in chromist algae through serial endosymbioses

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, John W.; Schreiber, John; Yue, Jipei; Guo, Hui; Ding, Qin; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Chromist algae include diverse photosynthetic organisms of great ecological and social importance. Despite vigorous research efforts, a clear understanding of how various chromists acquired photosynthetic organelles has been complicated by conflicting phylogenetic results, along with an undetermined number and pattern of endosymbioses, and the horizontal movement of genes that accompany them. We apply novel statistical approaches to assess impacts of endosymbiotic gene transfer on three principal chromist groups at the heart of long-standing controversies. Our results provide robust support for acquisitions of photosynthesis through serial endosymbioses, beginning with the adoption of a red alga by cryptophytes, then a cryptophyte by the ancestor of ochrophytes, and finally an ochrophyte by the ancestor of haptophytes. Resolution of how chromist algae are related through endosymbioses provides a framework for unravelling the further reticulate history of red algal-derived plastids, and for clarifying evolutionary processes that gave rise to eukaryotic photosynthetic diversity. PMID:25493338

  14. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    PubMed Central

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is demonstrated that LCP can also be used as a suitable carrier medium for microcrystals of soluble proteins, enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1?mg of each protein. PMID:26306196

  15. The evolution of photosynthesis in chromist algae through serial endosymbioses.

    PubMed

    Stiller, John W; Schreiber, John; Yue, Jipei; Guo, Hui; Ding, Qin; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Chromist algae include diverse photosynthetic organisms of great ecological and social importance. Despite vigorous research efforts, a clear understanding of how various chromists acquired photosynthetic organelles has been complicated by conflicting phylogenetic results, along with an undetermined number and pattern of endosymbioses, and the horizontal movement of genes that accompany them. We apply novel statistical approaches to assess impacts of endosymbiotic gene transfer on three principal chromist groups at the heart of long-standing controversies. Our results provide robust support for acquisitions of photosynthesis through serial endosymbioses, beginning with the adoption of a red alga by cryptophytes, then a cryptophyte by the ancestor of ochrophytes, and finally an ochrophyte by the ancestor of haptophytes. Resolution of how chromist algae are related through endosymbioses provides a framework for unravelling the further reticulate history of red algal-derived plastids, and for clarifying evolutionary processes that gave rise to eukaryotic photosynthetic diversity. PMID:25493338

  16. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase.

    PubMed

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C H; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-09-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP-SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is demonstrated that LCP can also be used as a suitable carrier medium for microcrystals of soluble proteins, enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP-SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1?mg of each protein. PMID:26306196

  17. Serial MSK modem for the Advanced Communications Satellite Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The design and test results of the 550-Mb/s, 110-Mb/s, and 27.5-Mb/s modems for the Advanced Communication Satellite Program are described. The TDMA/FDMA satellite environmental constraints have resulted in several unique features which include total acquisition times of 100 bit times and modem degradation of less than 1.5 dB at 10 to the -6th Pe. Key to the serial implementation of MSK is the resulting hardware simplicity and degradation insensitivity relative to conventionally implemented MSK and QPSK modems. The 110/27.5-Mb/s modems use an integrated circuit specifically developed for the program to perform the key carrier and clock-loop functions.

  18. Liquid sample delivery techniques for serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Weierstall, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers overcome the problem of radiation damage in protein crystallography and allow structure determination from micro- and nanocrystals at room temperature. To ensure that consecutive X-ray pulses do not probe previously exposed crystals, the sample needs to be replaced with the X-ray repetition rate, which ranges from 120 Hz at warm linac-based free-electron lasers to 1 MHz at superconducting linacs. Liquid injectors are therefore an essential part of a serial femtosecond crystallography experiment at an X-ray free-electron laser. Here, we compare different techniques of injecting microcrystals in solution into the pulsed X-ray beam in vacuum. Sample waste due to mismatch of the liquid flow rate to the X-ray repetition rate can be addressed through various techniques. PMID:24914163

  19. Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew

    2003-01-01

    A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the quantum-mechanical sense) between neighboring dots within the cell. The Coulomb repulsion between the two electrons tends to make them occupy antipodal dots in the cell. For an isolated cell, there are two energetically equivalent arrangements (denoted polarization states) of the extra electrons. The cell polarization is used to encode binary information. Because the polarization of a nonisolated cell depends on Coulomb-repulsion interactions with neighboring cells, universal logic gates and binary wires could be constructed, in principle, by arraying QCA of suitable design in suitable patterns. Again, for reasons too complex to describe here, in order to ensure accuracy and timeliness of the output of a QCA array, it is necessary to resort to an adiabatic switching scheme in which the QCA array is divided into subarrays, each controlled by a different phase of a multiphase clock signal. In this scheme, each subarray is given time to perform its computation, then its state is frozen by raising its inter-dot potential barriers and its output is fed as the input to the successor subarray. The successor subarray is kept in an unpolarized state so it does not influence the calculation of preceding subarray. Such a clocking scheme is consistent with pipeline computation in the sense that each different subarray can perform a different part of an overall computation. In other words, QCA arrays are inherently suitable for pipeline and, moreover, systolic computations. This sequential or pipeline aspect of QCA would be utilized in the proposed bit-serial adders.

  20. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    SciTech Connect

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-08-04

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is shown enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein.

  1. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; et al

    2015-08-04

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is shown enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals deliveredmore »by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein.« less

  2. Modeling graphite anodes with serial and transmission line models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illig, J.; Ender, M.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    2015-05-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is an indispensable technique for the investigation of polarization processes in Lithium-ion Batteries. These cause performance limitation or degradation. A physically meaningful impedance model is key when drawing conclusions on further cell improvement. This study introduces an in-depth impedance analysis of a commercial high-power graphite anode. The impedance spectra measured between 0 °C and 30 °C and 0%-100% SOC were analyzed by the distribution of relaxation times (DRT-method), enabling a separation of loss processes by their individual time constants. Using this method, we separated charge transfer resistance and solid electrolyte interface resistance at medium frequencies (10 Hz-200 Hz) and the contact resistance anode/current collector in the at high frequency range (5 kHz-100 kHz). Two fundamentally different model structures were set up, either (i) two modifications of a serial model connecting RQ-elements and a Warburg element for solid state diffusion, or (ii) three modifications of a transmission line model with one-path or two-path design. The suitability of all serial and TLM model structures was tested, and the fitting procedure was supported using microstructure parameters gained from x-ray tomography. The favored one-path transmission line model reveals that the lithium-ion transport in the electrolyte contributes more to polarization than expected. Impediment of lithium-ion transport is caused by the pore structure and the tortuosity of the high-power graphite anode, and has to be considered for meaningful interpretation of impedance spectra.

  3. Geometric Design of Cylindric PRS Serial Chains suh@eng.uci.edu,

    E-print Network

    McCarthy, J. Michael

    Geometric Design of Cylindric PRS Serial Chains Hai-Jun Su suh@eng.uci.edu, Robotics and Automation This paper examines the design equations for the cylindric PRS serial chain. This five degree of the revolute joint. We call this a "cylindric" RPS chain. Our goal is to determine the dimensions and location

  4. Flexible Serial Response Learning by Pigeons (Columba livia) and Humans (Homo sapiens)

    E-print Network

    Herbranson, Wally

    Flexible Serial Response Learning by Pigeons (Columba livia) and Humans (Homo sapiens) Walter T to each target was measured. Pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens) both showed response time was 100%. Keywords: serial response time, procedural memory, pigeon, probability learning A compelling

  5. ON SERIAL AND PARALLEL IMPLEMENTATIONS OF THE ERLANG FIXED POINT ITERATION SCHEME

    E-print Network

    Pollett, Phil

    ON SERIAL AND PARALLEL IMPLEMENTATIONS OF THE ERLANG FIXED POINT ITERATION SCHEME Andrew G Hart of the weighting constant. Finally, a comparison between the serial implementation and a number of parallel, including cellular and mobile radio networks, database management systems, computer networks and circuit

  6. 9 CFR 114.14 - Extension of expiration date for a serial or subserial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...extension of the expiration date shall not exceed the maximum dating allowed in the filed Outline of Production. (1) Serials...to retest the redated serial for potency during the extended dating period and if found unsatisfactory require it be removed...

  7. 9 CFR 114.14 - Extension of expiration date for a serial or subserial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...extension of the expiration date shall not exceed the maximum dating allowed in the filed Outline of Production. (1) Serials...to retest the redated serial for potency during the extended dating period and if found unsatisfactory require it be removed...

  8. 9 CFR 114.14 - Extension of expiration date for a serial or subserial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...extension of the expiration date shall not exceed the maximum dating allowed in the filed Outline of Production. (1) Serials...to retest the redated serial for potency during the extended dating period and if found unsatisfactory require it be removed...

  9. 9 CFR 114.14 - Extension of expiration date for a serial or subserial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...extension of the expiration date shall not exceed the maximum dating allowed in the filed Outline of Production. (1) Serials...to retest the redated serial for potency during the extended dating period and if found unsatisfactory require it be removed...

  10. 9 CFR 114.14 - Extension of expiration date for a serial or subserial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...extension of the expiration date shall not exceed the maximum dating allowed in the filed Outline of Production. (1) Serials...to retest the redated serial for potency during the extended dating period and if found unsatisfactory require it be removed...

  11. Analysis of Readex's Serial Set MARC Records: Improving the Data for the Library Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Daniel; Lederer, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Colorado State University Libraries (CSUL) purchased the digitized "United States Congressional Serial Set," 1817-1994 and "American State Papers" (1789-1838) from the Readex Division of NewsBank, Inc. and, once funds and records were available, the accompanying MARC records. The breadth of information found in the "Serial Set" is described, along…

  12. Race as Seriality: A Response to David Benatar and Zimitri Erasmus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouws, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article I draw on the Sarte's notion of "seriality" as theorized in his book "Dialectic of Reason" and as interpreted by Iris Marion Young. I argue that seriality can be used to escape the false essentialism and identity politics of race as a category for admissions to universities. A series is a social collective whose members are unified…

  13. Using Signal Detection Theory to Model Changes in Serial Learning of Radiological Image Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutis, Kathy; Pecaric, Martin; Seeto, Brian; Pusic, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Signal detection theory (SDT) parameters can describe a learner's ability to discriminate (d[prime symbol]) normal from abnormal and the learner's criterion ([lambda]) to under or overcall abnormalities. To examine the serial changes in SDT parameters with serial exposure to radiological cases. 46 participants were recruited for this study: 20…

  14. 27 CFR 20.179 - Package identification number or serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... number or serial number. 20.179 Section 20.179 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Package identification number or serial number. (a) Requirement. A dealer who fills packages with specially denatured spirits shall mark each package with a package identification number, in accordance...

  15. 27 CFR 20.179 - Package identification number or serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... number or serial number. 20.179 Section 20.179 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Package identification number or serial number. (a) Requirement. A dealer who fills packages with specially denatured spirits shall mark each package with a package identification number, in accordance...

  16. 27 CFR 20.179 - Package identification number or serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... number or serial number. 20.179 Section 20.179 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Package identification number or serial number. (a) Requirement. A dealer who fills packages with specially denatured spirits shall mark each package with a package identification number, in accordance...

  17. 27 CFR 20.179 - Package identification number or serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... number or serial number. 20.179 Section 20.179 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Package identification number or serial number. (a) Requirement. A dealer who fills packages with specially denatured spirits shall mark each package with a package identification number, in accordance...

  18. 27 CFR 20.179 - Package identification number or serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... number or serial number. 20.179 Section 20.179 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Package identification number or serial number. (a) Requirement. A dealer who fills packages with specially denatured spirits shall mark each package with a package identification number, in accordance...

  19. Insights about Verbal Working Memory and Serial Recall Enabled by Precise Quantitative

    E-print Network

    Michigan, University of

    Insights about Verbal Working Memory and Serial Recall Enabled by Precise Quantitative Measurement memory, serial-recall accuracy and memory span should increase directly with the phonological dissimilarity of the items being recalled. However, little is known about the conditions under which

  20. The Locus of Serial Processing in Reading Aloud: Orthography-to-Phonology Computation or Speech Planning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousikou, Petroula; Rastle, Kathleen; Besner, Derek; Coltheart, Max

    2015-01-01

    Dual-route theories of reading posit that a sublexical reading mechanism that operates serially and from left to right is involved in the orthography-to-phonology computation. These theories attribute the masked onset priming effect (MOPE) and the phonological Stroop effect (PSE) to the serial left-to-right operation of this mechanism. However,…

  1. On the Design of Double Serially Concatenated Codes with an Outer Repetition Code 1

    E-print Network

    Kliewer, Joerg

    On the Design of Double Serially Concatenated Codes with an Outer Repetition Code 1 Francesca Vatta that repeat-accumulate-accumulate (RAA) codes with a repetition factor of three or larger are asymptotically good, we focus on the design of double-serially concatenated codes (DSCCs) with an outer rep- etition

  2. Compressive Sensing Underwater Laser Serial Imaging System Bing Ouyang*a

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    1 Compressive Sensing Underwater Laser Serial Imaging System Bing Ouyang*a , Fraser R. Dalgleisha mode is discussed. Keywords: laser imaging, underwater imaging, compressive sensing, scattering medium, spatial light modulation, laser line scan, serial imaging, electro-optical system 1. BACKGROUND

  3. 77 FR 66920 - Registration of Claims to Copyright: Group Registration of Serial Issues Filed Electronically

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... issues upon submitting an electronic application and payment, when electronic deposit copies do not exist... certain serial publications. 55 FR 50556 (December 7, 1990). Under these regulations, issues of serials... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LIBRARY OF...

  4. Automated Serials Control at the Indian Institutes of Technology: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Tapas Kumar; Panda, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the functional attributes of the automated serials control systems of the libraries in seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and provide a comparative analysis. Design/methodology/approach: Features of the serials control modules of the library management systems (LMSs) in use in the…

  5. The relationship between serial monogamy and rape in the United States (19601995)

    E-print Network

    Starks, Philip

    The relationship between serial monogamy and rape in the United States (1960­1995) Philip T. Starks cannot secure females through traditional methods may seek alternatives, such as rape, to ensure gene) rates of divorce and rape correlate positively. The former result suggests that serial monogamy

  6. Psychopathology in Childhood and Adolescence as Reflected in Projected Afterimage Serials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gudmund J. W.; Danielsson, Anna

    A serial visual afterimage (AI) test was administered to 136 normal and 75 anxiety-ridden children 4-16 years of age. The scoring of the AI serials involved signs of primitive functioning (size-constant and positive AIs), anxiety (large and dark AIs together with primitive AIs in older children) and process discontinuity (intermittent regressions…

  7. 9 CFR 113.8 - In vitro tests for serial release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....300; (2) Testing the Master Seed for immunogenicity in a manner acceptable to the Animal and Plant... requalify a reference with declining potency either by testing a Qualifying Serial in host animals or by... equal or exceed the required minimum, the serial or subserial is satisfactory without additional...

  8. 9 CFR 113.8 - In vitro tests for serial release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....300; (2) Testing the Master Seed for immunogenicity in a manner acceptable to the Animal and Plant... requalify a reference with declining potency either by testing a Qualifying Serial in host animals or by... equal or exceed the required minimum, the serial or subserial is satisfactory without additional...

  9. 9 CFR 113.8 - In vitro tests for serial release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....300; (2) Testing the Master Seed for immunogenicity in a manner acceptable to the Animal and Plant... requalify a reference with declining potency either by testing a Qualifying Serial in host animals or by... equal or exceed the required minimum, the serial or subserial is satisfactory without additional...

  10. 9 CFR 113.8 - In vitro tests for serial release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....300; (2) Testing the Master Seed for immunogenicity in a manner acceptable to the Animal and Plant... requalify a reference with declining potency either by testing a Qualifying Serial in host animals or by... equal or exceed the required minimum, the serial or subserial is satisfactory without additional...

  11. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: Monoplacophorans

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: Monoplacophorans. The anatomy of these molluscs shocked the zoological community for presenting serially repeated gills of molluscs ever assembled, clearly illustrate that monoplacophorans and chitons form a clade. This ``Serialia

  12. Serial Block Face-Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Method to Study Retinal

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Serial Block Face-Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Method to Study Retinal Degenerative Phenotypes to light microscopic methods, traditional electron microscopy can provide im- ages at sufficient resolution of serial block face- scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) provides the resolution needed

  13. Highly sensitive detection of small ruminant bovine spongiform encephalopathy within transmissible spongiform encephalopathy mixes by serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification.

    PubMed

    Gough, Kevin C; Bishop, Keith; Maddison, Ben C

    2014-11-01

    It is assumed that sheep and goats consumed the same bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat and bone meal that was fed to cattle and precipitated the BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom that peaked more than 20 years ago. Despite intensive surveillance for cases of BSE within the small ruminant populations of the United Kingdom and European Union, no instances of BSE have been detected in sheep, and in only two instances has BSE been discovered in goats. If BSE is present within the small ruminant populations, it may be at subclinical levels, may manifest as scrapie, or may be masked by coinfection with scrapie. To determine whether BSE is potentially circulating at low levels within the European small ruminant populations, highly sensitive assays that can specifically detect BSE, even within the presence of scrapie prion protein, are required. Here, we present a novel assay based on the specific amplification of BSE PrP(Sc) using the serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification assay (sPMCA), which specifically amplified small amounts of ovine and caprine BSE agent which had been mixed into a range of scrapie-positive brain homogenates. We detected the BSE prion protein within a large excess of classical, atypical, and CH1641 scrapie isolates. In a blind trial, this sPMCA-based assay specifically amplified BSE PrP(Sc) within brain mixes with 100% specificity and 97% sensitivity when BSE agent was diluted into scrapie-infected brain homogenates at 1% (vol/vol). PMID:25143565

  14. Magnetostrictive composites in the dilute limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L. P.; James, R. D.; Leo, P. H.

    2006-05-01

    We calculate the effective properties of a magnetostrictive composite in the dilute limit. The composite consists of well separated identical ellipsoidal particles of magnetostrictive material, surrounded by an elastic matrix. The free energy of the magnetostrictive particles is computed using the constrained theory of DeSimone and James [2002. A constrained theory of magnetoelasticity with applications to magnetic shape memory materials. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 50, 283-320], where application of an external field causes rearrangement of variants rather than rotation of the magnetization or elastic strain in a variant. The free energy of the composite has an elastic energy term associated with the deformation of the surrounding matrix and demagnetization terms. By using results from the constrained theory and from the Eshelby inclusion problem in linear elasticity, we show that the energy minimization problem for the composite can be cast as a quadratic programming problem. The solution of the quadratic programming problem yields the effective properties of Ni2MnGa and Terfenol-D composite systems. Numerical results show that the average strain of the composite depends strongly on the particle shape, the applied stress, and the elastic modulus of the matrix.

  15. Rheological characterization of dilute acid pretreated softwood.

    PubMed

    Wiman, Magnus; Palmqvist, Benny; Tornberg, Eva; Lidén, Gunnar

    2011-05-01

    Large-scale bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass will require high solids loading in the enzymatic hydrolysis step. However, slurries of pretreated lignocelluloses are complex fluids due to the fibrous nature, especially at high concentrations of water insoluble solids (WIS). A prerequisite for dealing with transport issues and for developing efficient full-scale processes is a fundamental understanding of the flow properties of pretreated lignocellulose. A comprehensive rheological characterization of dilute acid pretreated spruce has been carried out in this study, accounting for the effects of WIS concentration, particle size distribution (PSD), and the degree of enzymatic hydrolysis. The rheology of pretreated spruce slurries was found to be strongly dependent on the WIS concentration. The storage modulus (G'(LVR)) and yield stress showed typical power-law dependencies on volume fraction and WIS content. Milling of the pretreated material resulted in significantly higher yield stress and viscosity, likely due to narrower PSD, which suggests that the strength of the network of the coarsest fibers determines the rheology of these materials to a large extent. During enzymatic hydrolysis, yield stress and viscosity decreased dramatically, partly due to decreasing WIS content, but possibly also due to changes in fiber properties such as the chemical composition. PMID:21449021

  16. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-10-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the best hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (35-62% OOIP) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Core-scale simulation results match those of the experiments. Initial capillarity-driven imbibition gives way to a final gravity-driven process. As the matrix block height increases, surfactant alters wettability to a lesser degree, or permeability decreases, oil production rate decreases. The scale-up to field scale will be further studied in the next quarter.

  17. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (SS-6656, Alfoterra 35, 38, 63,65,68) have been identified which can change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. All the carbonate surfaces (Lithographic Limestone, Marble, Dolomite and Calcite) show similar behavior with respect to wettability alteration with surfactant 4-22. Anionic surfactants (5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38 and Alfoterra-68), which lower the interfacial tension with a West Texas crude oil to very low values (<10{sup -2} nM/m), have also been identified. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability, mobilization, and imbibition studies.

  18. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-04-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show about 61% oil recovery in the case of Alf-38 and 37% in the case of DTAB. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition of the laboratory experiment. Field-scale fracture block simulation shows that as the fracture spacing increases, so does the time of recovery. Plans for the next quarter include simulation studies.

  19. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-07-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show that imbibition rate is not very sensitive to the surfactant concentration (in the range of 0.05-0.2 wt%) and small amounts of trapped gas saturation. It is however very sensitive to oil permeability and water-oil-ratio. Less than 0.5 M Na2CO3 is needed for in situ soap generation and low adsorption; NaCl can be added to reach the necessary total salinity. The simulation result matches the laboratory imbibition experimental data. Small fracture spacing and high permeability would be needed for high rate of recovery.

  20. Chain Dynamics in a Dilute Magnetorheological Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jing; Hagenbuchle, Martin

    1996-01-01

    The structure, formation, and dynamics of dilute, mono-dispersive ferrofluid emulsions in an external magnetic field have been investigated using dynamic light scattering techniques. In the absence of the magnetic field, the emulsion particles are randomly distributed and behave like hard spheres in Brownian motion. An applied magnetic field induces a magnetic dipole moment in each particle. Dipolar interactions between particles align them into chains where correlation functions show two decay processes. The short-time decay shows the motion of straight chains as a whole where the apparent chain length increases with the applied magnetic field and the particle volume fraction. Good scaling results are obtained showing that the apparent chain length grows with time following a power law with exponent of 0.6 and depends on the applied field, particle volume fraction, and diffusion constant of the particles. The long-time decay in the correlation function shows oscillation when the chains reach a certain length with time and stiffness with threshold field This result shows that chains not only fluctuate, but move in a periodic motion with a frequency of 364 Hz at lambda = 15. It may suggest the existence of phonons. This work is the first step in the understanding of the structure formation, especially chain coarsening mechanism, of magnetorheological (MR) fluids at higher volume fractions.

  1. Dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors: Physics and spintronic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, Tomasz; Ohno, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    This review compiles results of experimental and theoretical studies on thin films and quantum structures of semiconductors with randomly distributed Mn ions, which exhibit spintronic functionalities associated with collective ferromagnetic spin ordering. Properties of p-type Mn-containing III-V as well as II-VI, IV-VI, V2-VI3, I-II-V, and elemental group IV semiconductors are described, paying particular attention to the most thoroughly investigated system (Ga,Mn)As that supports the hole-mediated ferromagnetic order up to 190 K for the net concentration of Mn spins below 10%. Multilayer structures showing efficient spin injection and spin-related magnetotransport properties as well as enabling magnetization manipulation by strain, light, electric fields, and spin currents are presented together with their impact on metal spintronics. The challenging interplay between magnetic and electronic properties in topologically trivial and nontrivial systems is described, emphasizing the entangled roles of disorder and correlation at the carrier localization boundary. Finally, the case of dilute magnetic insulators is considered, such as (Ga,Mn)N, where low-temperature spin ordering is driven by short-ranged superexchange that is ferromagnetic for certain charge states of magnetic impurities.

  2. Psychological profiling of offender characteristics from crime behaviors in serial rape offences.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W; Irwin, Harvey J

    2002-04-01

    Criminal psychological profiling has progressively been incorporated into police procedures despite a dearth of empirical research. Indeed, in the study of serial violent crimes for the purpose of psychological profiling, very few original, quantitative, academically reviewed studies actually exist. This article reports on the analysis of 62 incidents of serial sexual assault. The statistical procedure of multidimensional scaling was employed in the analysis of this data, which in turn produced a five-cluster model of serial rapist behavior. First, a central cluster of behaviors were identified that represent common behaviors to all patterns of serial rape. Second, four distinct outlying patterns were identified as demonstrating distinct offence styles, these being assigned the following descriptive labels brutality, intercourse, chaotic, and ritual. Furthermore, analysis of these patterns also identified distinct offender characteristics that allow for the use of empirically robust offender profiles in future serial rape investigations. PMID:12113160

  3. IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus

    SciTech Connect

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

  4. S.IM.PL Serialization: Type System Scopes Encapsulate Cross-Language, Multi-Format Information Binding 

    E-print Network

    Shahzad, Nabeel

    2012-02-14

    repetitive, tedious code to map loosely-typed serialized data to strongly-typed program objects. We developed S.IM.PL Serialization, a cross-language multi-format information binding framework to relieve developers from the burdens associated...

  5. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    2005-09-30

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  6. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  7. Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  8. Effect of dilution on carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase assays

    SciTech Connect

    Cauchon, N.; LeDuy, A.

    1984-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that the dilution of samples prior to the carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase assays causes serious discrepancies in the numerical values obtained for the enzyme activities. Even when the sample is assayed with the identical procedure, one could obtain different numerical values of the enzyme activity U depending on how much this sample has been diluted before the enzyme assay. Two crude commercial cellulase samples of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride as well as the culture filtrate of our newly isolated acidophilic fungus have been used for the demonstration. An empirical method for reporting the cellulolytic activity by taking into account this dilution effect is proposed.

  9. Special dilution refrigerator systems of Milli-Kelvin detector experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Batey, G.; Balshaw, N. )

    1993-11-01

    Several hundred ultra low temperature systems have been designed and built for a variety of applications. One common application is the refrigeration of low temperature detectors. Although many of the requirements are satisfied by standard designs, Oxford Instruments has often built special refrigerators to suit specific detector requirements. A few of the most interesting of these systems will be discussed. (1) dilution refrigerators to cool gravitational wave antennae to 65 mK; (2) rotating dilution refrigerator for cosmic ray detector experiments; (3) compact dilution refrigerator to cool large bolometer arrays within the SCUBA telescope; (4) side access systems for beam line experiments

  10. Ionic liquids behave as dilute electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Valtiner, Markus; Banquy, Xavier; Fox, Eric T; Henderson, Wesley A; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2013-06-11

    We combine direct surface force measurements with thermodynamic arguments to demonstrate that pure ionic liquids are expected to behave as dilute weak electrolyte solutions, with typical effective dissociated ion concentrations of less than 0.1% at room temperature. We performed equilibrium force-distance measurements across the common ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]) using a surface forces apparatus with in situ electrochemical control and quantitatively modeled these measurements using the van der Waals and electrostatic double-layer forces of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory with an additive repulsive steric (entropic) ion-surface binding force. Our results indicate that ionic liquids screen charged surfaces through the formation of both bound (Stern) and diffuse electric double layers, where the diffuse double layer is comprised of effectively dissociated ionic liquid ions. Additionally, we used the energetics of thermally dissociating ions in a dielectric medium to quantitatively predict the equilibrium for the effective dissociation reaction of [C4mim][NTf2] ions, in excellent agreement with the measured Debye length. Our results clearly demonstrate that, outside of the bound double layer, most of the ions in [C4mim][NTf2] are not effectively dissociated and thus do not contribute to electrostatic screening. We also provide a general, molecular-scale framework for designing ionic liquids with significantly increased dissociated charge densities via judiciously balancing ion pair interactions with bulk dielectric properties. Our results clear up several inconsistencies that have hampered scientific progress in this important area and guide the rational design of unique, high-free-ion density ionic liquids and ionic liquid blends. PMID:23716690

  11. Hopping Conductivity in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Robin; Stampe, Patricia; von Molnar, Stephan; Xiong, Peng; Hu, Erhong; Xin, Yan

    2004-11-01

    A principal difficulty in the development of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) has been determining whether the magnetic dopant material is entering the semiconductor lattice or forming clusters forming. Resolving this concern involves time-consuming microstructural examination using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Sheng et al[1] have shown that the presence of metallic clusters within a semiconducting matrix leads to a hopping-type conductivity and characteristic behaviors of both the temperature and electric field dependence of the conductivity. The resistivity of such a multiphase system is predicted to follow a log(?)-1/2 dependence, the slope of which gives information on the cluster size and distribution in the material. TiO_2:Co and SnO2 films have been grown under varying conditions. The presence of cobalt clusters in TiO_2:Co films grown at low pressures has been found by TEM analysis. The resistivity of these films is found to follow a log(?)-1/2 dependence over a wide temperature range, however this behavior is not seen in TiO_2:Co in which there are no clusters. Thus, transport measurements are shown to be sensitive to the appearance of metallic clusters in these systems. [ 1]P. Sheng, B. Abeles, and Y. Arie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 44 (1973) We acknowledge the support of DARPA through grant numbers MDA972-02-1-0002 and N-00014-99-1-1094. The TEM work was carried out at the NHMFL supported by NSF under DMR-0084173 and the State of Florida.

  12. Band Anticrossing Effects in Dilute Nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walukiewicz, Wladek

    2005-03-01

    Recent advances in nonequilibrium epitaxial growth techniques have led to successful synthesis of alloys of distinctly different semiconductors. An important class of such materials are Highly Mismatched Alloys (HMAs). These are compound semiconductors formed when metallic (electronegative) anions are partially replaced by isoelectronic, more electronegative (metallic) atoms. Dilute nitrides in which highly electronegative N atoms partially replace standard group V elements are the most prominent and extensively studied class of HMAs. Using Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x as a prototypical HMA, experimental and theoretical studies will be presented that show how all the unusual properties of these alloys can be explained by considering the interaction between highly localized states of substitutional N atoms and the extended states of Ga1-yInyAs matrix in the Band Anticrossing (BAC) model. The interaction splits the conduction band into two nonparabolic bands resulting in large changes in the electrical and optical properties of these materials. The BAC model provides a consistent and quantitative description of experimentally observed data including the large band gap bowing, splitting of the conduction band, and increase enhancement of the electron effective mass. Also, it explains the mutual passivation effect in which group IV donors form nearest neighbor pairs with substitutional N atoms, which eliminates the activity of both species. Most recently we have found that the electronic properties of N-rich GaN1-xAsx (x<0.06) HMAs are determined by an anticrossing interaction between localized donor-like As states and the valence band states of the GaN matrix. The finding provides a basis for a description of the electronic structure of these alloys in the whole composition range.

  13. Classification and Budgetary Control of Serial Publications in Medium-Sized and Large Academic Libraries and Large Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frederick S.

    Budgeting and accounting control of serials are examined based on a survey of 100 academic and public libraries. The questionnaire used in the survey stressed classification and encumbering of serials but was open-ended to encourage commentary. The lack of consensus among respondents regarding the budgetary control of serials precluded the…

  14. Southeastern ARL Libraries Cooperative Serials Project Report Phase I: October 1, 1981-December 23, 1982 and Project Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sook-Hyun

    A cooperative serials project was undertaken by eight members of the Association of Research Libraries to develop a regional resource sharing system for current serials. The goals of the program were to implement a cooperative serials acquisitions and deselection program and to promote a rapid and extensive interlibrary loan program through the…

  15. Exploiting Points-to Maps for De-/Serialization Code Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ciraci, Selim; Villa, Oreste

    2013-03-18

    Serialization code generators for C++ have restrictions on the implementation of dynamic arrays and void/function pointers. If the target program is not implemented with these restrictions, de- velopers have to manually change the source code to facilitate se- rialization code generation. Unfortunately, such changes hamper the benefits of code generation, and they are not localized. This pa- per presents the de-/serialization code generator Ser++ that does not restrict the implementation of these pointer types and, hence, eliminates the need to adapt the source code for serialization code generation. Ser++ can be considered an aspect weaver that i) traces the pointers, ii) identifies the statements in which properties regard- ing the serialization of pointer attributes can be extracted and, finally, iii) weaves the code to store these properties at runtime. It generates the de-/serialization functions in such a way that they serialize the pointer attributes according to the stored values of the properties. We have successfully used Ser++ to generate de- /serialization methods for a computer architecture and a power- flow simulator, without any modifications to the existing source code.

  16. On high moments of strongly diluted large Wigner random matrices

    E-print Network

    O. Khorunzhiy

    2015-06-24

    We consider a dilute version of the Wigner ensemble of nxn random matrices $H$ and study the asymptotic behavior of their moments $M_{2s}$ in the limit of infinite $n$, $s$ and $\\rho$, where $\\rho$ is the dilution parameter. We show that in the asymptotic regime of the strong dilution, the moments $M_{2s}$ with $s=\\chi\\rho$ depend on the second and the fourth moments of the random entries $H_{ij}$ and do not depend on other even moments of $H_{ij}$. This fact can be regarded as an evidence of a new type of the universal behavior of the local eigenvalue distribution of strongly dilute random matrices at the border of the limiting spectrum. As a by-product of the proof, we describe a new kind of Catalan-type numbers related with the tree-type walks.

  17. Separation processes using expulsion from dilute supercritical solutions

    DOEpatents

    Cochran, Jr., Henry D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A process for separating isotopes as well as other mixtures by utilizing the behavior of dilute repulsive or weakly attractive elements of the mixtures as the critical point of the solvent is approached.

  18. Biodiversity inhibits parasites: Broad evidence for the dilution effect

    E-print Network

    Rohr, Jason

    Biodiversity inhibits parasites: Broad evidence for the dilution effect David J. Civitello1 the mechanisms that shape outbreaks. Simultaneously, human activ- ities are drastically reducing biodiversity. These concurrent pat- terns have prompted repeated suggestions that biodiversity and disease are linked

  19. 40 CFR 1066.140 - Diluted exhaust flow calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Analytical Gas Specifications...calibrate flow meters for diluted...subsonic venturi or ultrasonic flow to measure...element, or an ultrasonic flow meter. Use a reference...Reserved] (j) Ultrasonic flow meter...

  20. The Carlina-type diluted telescope: Stellar fringes on Deneb

    E-print Network

    Coroller, H Le; Hespeels, F; Arnold, L; Andersen, T; Deram, P; Ricci, D; Berio, P; Blazit, A; Clausse, J-M; Guillaume, C; Meunier, J-P; Regal, X; Sottile, R

    2014-01-01

    Context. The performance of interferometers has largely been increased over the last ten years. But the number of observable objects is still limited due to the low sensitivity and imaging capability of the current facilities. Studies have been done to propose a new generation of interferometers. Aims. The Carlina concept studied at the Haute-Provence Observatory consists in an optical interferometer configured as a diluted version of the Arecibo radio telescope: above the diluted primary mirror made of fixed co-spherical segments, a helium balloon or cables suspended between two mountains and/or pylons, carries a gondola containing the focal optics. This concept does not require delay lines. Methods. Since 2003, we have been building a technical demonstrator of this diluted telescope. The main goals of this project were to find the opto-mechanical solutions to stabilize the optics attached under cables at several tens of meters above the ground, and to characterize this diluted telescope under real condition...

  1. Translation of dilution tolerance for gasoline SI engine

    E-print Network

    Niekamp, Troy S. (Troy Steven)

    2013-01-01

    There are a variety of fuel improvement strategies being developed for spark ignition engines which use dilution. Many of these technologies use a combination of different diluents. It is impractical in optimizing these ...

  2. Separation processes using expulsion from dilute supercritical solutions

    DOEpatents

    Cochran, H.D. Jr.

    1993-04-20

    A process is described for separating isotopes as well as other mixtures by utilizing the behavior of dilute repulsive or weakly attractive elements of the mixtures as the critical point of the solvent is approached.

  3. Contraction/expansion flow of dilute elastic solutions in microchannels

    E-print Network

    Scott, Timothy Peter, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted on the nature of extensional flows of mobile dilute polymer solutions in microchannel. By observing such fluids on the microscale it is possible to generate large strain rates ([approximately] ...

  4. The Propagation of Photons in the Dilute Ionized Gas

    E-print Network

    Yijia Zheng

    2013-05-02

    The dilute ionized gas is very popular in the Universe. Usually only the Compton interactions, the "Sunyaev-Zel'dovich" effect, were considered while photons propagated in this medium. In this paper the "soft-photon process" is considered. Due to the soft photons emitted during the propagation of a photon in the dilute ionized gas, the main photon (propagating in the original direction) will be redshifted. The formula to calculate this redshift is derived.

  5. Anatomy of symmetry energy of dilute nuclear matter

    E-print Network

    J. N. De; S. K. Samaddar; B. K. Agrawal

    2010-09-23

    The symmetry energy coefficients of dilute clusterized nuclear matter are evaluated in the $S$-matrix framework. Employing a few different definitions commonly used in the literature for uniform nuclear matter, it is seen that the different definitions lead to perceptibly different results for the symmetry coefficients for dilute nuclear matter. They are found to be higher compared to those obtained for uniform matter in the low density domain. The calculated results are in reasonable consonance with those extracted recently from experimental data.

  6. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

  7. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Chelsie E; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; Hunter, Mark S; Koglin, Jason E; Kupitz, Christopher; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; White, Thomas A; Zhao, Yun; Zook, James; Boutet, Sébastien; Cherezov, Vadim; Spence, John C H; Fromme, Raimund; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra

    2015-07-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallo-graphy by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, the structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5?Å resolution using 300?µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes. PMID:26177184

  8. A serial study of the erythropoietic response to thermal injury.

    PubMed Central

    Deitch, E A; Sittig, K M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Since controversy exists over whether erythropoietin levels are increased or decreased after thermal injury, a prospective study was performed to answer this question as well as to characterize the erythropoietic response to thermal injury. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The concept of using erythropoietin to reduce the need for blood transfusions after thermal injury is attractive. However, since the etiology of burn anemia is both unclear and multifocal, prior to initiating a trial of erythropoietin therapy, it will be necessary to better define the erythropoietic response to thermal injury. METHODS: Twenty-four burn patients with a mean burn size of 31 +/- 18% had serial measurements of serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, erythropoietin, transferrin saturation, hemoglobin, and reticulocyte counts performed on burn days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and then weekly. RESULTS: The erythropoietic response was characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin levels as well as serum iron, TIBC, and transferrin saturation (p < 0.05). Ferritin and erythropoietin levels increased as did the reticulocyte count. The erythropoietin response to anemia appeared to be at least grossly intact, since there was an appropriate inverse relationship between the degree of anemia and the magnitude of the erythropoietin response (r2 = .61, p < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS: Since the erythropoietin levels of these anemic burn victims reached supranormal levels and they manifested a moderate reticulocytosis, the role of replacement erythropoietin therapy after thermal injury requires further study. PMID:8452408

  9. Serial Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks Associated with Multiple Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianwei; Xu, Xuerong; Weng, Qinyun; Hong, Huarong; Guo, Zhinan; He, Shuizhen; Niu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) have been recognized as an important pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis worldwide during the past three decades. In the spring of 2012, a series of foodborne outbreaks in tourist groups were reported to Xiamen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xiamen, Fujian province, China. Among a total of 268 tourists in 7 groups, the prevalence rate of acute gastroenteritis was 16.0% (43/268). Twenty-three feces or anal swabs were collected for laboratory tests of causative agents, no bacterial pathogen was identified, while 22 of them were positive for NoV RNA. In addition, thirteen NoV fragments were recovered from positive specimens and sequenced, belonging to five genotypes such as GI.3, GI.4, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.14, respectively. However, NoV fragments obtained from locally infected patients showed distinct genotypes. Therefore, epidemiological investigation and laboratory analyses demonstrated that the serial foodborne NoV outbreaks in tourists were co-infection of multiple genotypes induced acute gastroenteritis linked to a restaurant. PMID:23667602

  10. Serial pharmacological prescribing practices for tic management in Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mena; Stern, Jeremy S; Simmons, Helen; Robertson, Mary M

    2015-11-01

    Pharmacological treatments for Tourette syndrome (TS) vary in efficacy between different patients. The evidence base is limited as even high quality controlled studies tend to be of relatively short duration which may lose relevance in clinical usage. Patients are frequently treated with serial agents in the search for efficacy and tolerability. The success of this strategy has not been previously documented. We examined 400 consecutive TS patients seen over a 10-year period, some with a longer prior history in other clinics; 255/400 (64%) were prescribed medication. We present this heterogeneous cohort in terms of the number of drugs they had tried, and as a proxy measure of some benefit of the last drug used, whether it had been prescribed under our supervision for ?5?months. The most commonly prescribed medications were aripiprazole (64%), clonidine (40%), risperidone (30%) and sulpiride (29%) with changes in prescribing practises over the period examined. The number of different drugs tried were one (n?=?155), two (n?=?69), three (n?=?36), four (n?=?14), five (n?=?15), six (n?=?5), seven (n?=?2) and eight (n?=?1). The data illustrate the difficulty in drug treatment of tics and suggest that even after trials of several agents there is potential benefit in trying further options. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26299248

  11. Serially connected solid oxide fuel cells having monolithic cores

    DOEpatents

    Herceg, J.E.

    1985-05-20

    Disclosed is a solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output. The cell core has an array of cell segments electrically serially connected in the flow direction, each segment consisting of electrolyte walls and interconnect that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageways; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte composite materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick. Between 2 and 50 cell segments may be connected in series.

  12. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; et al

    2015-06-30

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, themore »structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5 Å resolution using 300 µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.« less

  13. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Kupitz, Christopher; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; White, Thomas A.; Zhao, Yun; Zook, James; Boutet, Sébastien; Cherezov, Vadim; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Raimund; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallo­graphy by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, the structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5?Å resolution using 300?µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes. PMID:26177184

  14. Redintegration, task difficulty, and immediate serial recall tasks.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Gabrielle; Tolan, Georgina Anne; Tehan, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    While current theoretical models remain somewhat inconclusive in their explanation of short-term memory (STM), many theories suggest at least a contribution of long-term memory (LTM) to the short-term system. A number of researchers refer to this process as redintegration (e.g., Schweickert, 1993). Under short-term recall conditions, the current study investigated the effects of redintegration and task difficulty in order to extend research conducted by Neale and Tehan (2007). Thirty participants in Experiment 1 and 26 participants in Experiment 2 completed a serial recall task in which retention interval, presentation rate, and articulatory suppression were used to modify task difficulty. Redintegration was examined by manipulating the characteristics of the to-be-remembered items; lexicality in Experiment 1 and wordlikeness in Experiment 2. Responses were scored based on correct-in-position recall, item scoring, and order accuracy scoring. In line with the Neale and Tehan results, as the difficulty of the task increased so did the effects of redintegration. This was evident in that the advantage for words in Experiment 1 and wordlikeness in Experiment 2 decreased as task difficulty increased. This relationship was observed for item but not order memory, and findings were discussed in relation to the theory of redintegration. PMID:25730640

  15. Serial Assessment of Physiological Evaluation Indices for Repetitive Mental Workload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Akio; Karita, Keita

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of daily repetitive mental workload on physiological indices. Especially, the index derived from the nasal skin temperature(NST) measured by the infrared thermography was focused. The NST was the physiological index representing the sympathetic nervous system activity. The NST declines with the sympathetic nervous system's activation. The mental workload causes sympathetic nervous system's activation, so the mental workload can be measured by NST as a declining temperature. We have found that the relationship between the amount of mental workload and the NST declining under time pressure, even more complex stimuli. However, there's no study on evaluating the NST measured for the repetitive mental workload for certain period of time. In this paper, the NST and other physiological indices, which were Fm? wave component of Electroencephalograms(EEG) and high frequency component(HF) of R-wave interval time series of Electrocardiograms(ECG) were serially measured and evaluated on repetitive mental workload. Significant difference was found between those NST indices in each experiment by paired t-test. A stability of NST as an evaluation index for MWL was proved.

  16. Structure of the Angiotensin receptor revealed by serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Unal, Hamiyet; Gati, Cornelius; Han, Gye Won; Liu, Wei; Zatsepin, Nadia A; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Nelson, Garrett; Weierstall, Uwe; Sawaya, Michael R; Xu, Qingping; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J; Boutet, Sébastien; Yefanov, Oleksandr M; White, Thomas A; Wang, Chong; Ishchenko, Andrii; Tirupula, Kalyan C; Desnoyer, Russell; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E; Fromme, Petra; Stevens, Raymond C; Katritch, Vsevolod; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that serves as a primary regulator for blood pressure maintenance. Although several anti-hypertensive drugs have been developed as AT(1)R blockers (ARBs), the structural basis for AT(1)R ligand-binding and regulation has remained elusive, mostly due to the difficulties of growing high-quality crystals for structure determination using synchrotron radiation. By applying the recently developed method of serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser, we successfully determined the room-temperature crystal structure of the human AT(1)R in complex with its selective antagonist ZD7155 at 2.9-Å resolution. The AT(1)R-ZD7155 complex structure revealed key structural features of AT(1)R and critical interactions for ZD7155 binding. Docking simulations of the clinically used ARBs into the AT(1)R structure further elucidated both the common and distinct binding modes for these anti-hypertensive drugs. Our results thereby provide fundamental insights into AT(1)R structure-function relationship and structure-based drug design. PMID:25913193

  17. Serial analysis of gene expression in a microglial cell line.

    PubMed

    Inoue, H; Sawada, M; Ryo, A; Tanahashi, H; Wakatsuki, T; Hada, A; Kondoh, N; Nakagaki, K; Takahashi, K; Suzumura, A; Yamamoto, M; Tabira, T

    1999-12-01

    We used the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) method to systematically analyze transcripts present in a microglial cell line. Over 10,000 SAGE tags were sequenced, and shown to represent 6,013 unique transcripts. Among the diverse transcripts that had not been previously detected in microglia were those for cytokines such as endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide I (EMAP I), and for cell surface antigens, including adhesion molecules such as CD9, CD53, CD107a, CD147, CD162 and mast cell high affinity IgE receptor. In addition, we detected transcripts that were characteristic of hematopoietic cells or mesodermal structures, such as E3 protein, A1, EN-7, B94, and ufo. Furthermore, the profile contained a transcript, Hn1, that is important in hematopoietic cells and neurological development (Tang et al. Mamm Genome 8:695-696, 1997), suggesting the probable neural differentiation of microglia from the hematopoietic system in development. Messenger RNA expression of these genes was confirmed by RT-PCR in primary cultures of microglia. Significantly, this is the first systematic profiling of the genes expressed in a microglial cell line. The identification and further characterization of the genes described here should provide potential new targets for the study of microglial biology. PMID:10559785

  18. Hierarchical neural networks perform both serial and parallel processing.

    PubMed

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Galluzzi, Andrea; Guerra, Francesco; Tantari, Daniele; Tavani, Flavia

    2015-06-01

    In this work we study a Hebbian neural network, where neurons are arranged according to a hierarchical architecture such that their couplings scale with their reciprocal distance. As a full statistical mechanics solution is not yet available, after a streamlined introduction to the state of the art via that route, the problem is consistently approached through signal-to-noise technique and extensive numerical simulations. Focusing on the low-storage regime, where the amount of stored patterns grows at most logarithmical with the system size, we prove that these non-mean-field Hopfield-like networks display a richer phase diagram than their classical counterparts. In particular, these networks are able to perform serial processing (i.e. retrieve one pattern at a time through a complete rearrangement of the whole ensemble of neurons) as well as parallel processing (i.e. retrieve several patterns simultaneously, delegating the management of different patterns to diverse communities that build network). The tune between the two regimes is given by the rate of the coupling decay and by the level of noise affecting the system. The price to pay for those remarkable capabilities lies in a network's capacity smaller than the mean field counterpart, thus yielding a new budget principle: the wider the multitasking capabilities, the lower the network load and vice versa. This may have important implications in our understanding of biological complexity. PMID:25795510

  19. Serial postmortem abdominal radiographic findings in canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Heng, Hock Gan; Selvarajah, Gayathri Thevi; Lim, Hiang Tee; Ong, Jin Seng; Lim, Jiehan; Ooi, Jin Tatt

    2009-11-20

    Postmortem radiographic examinations of animals are often performed in judicial investigation to rule out gunshot and fractures due to cruelty or illegal hunting or poaching activities. Literature describing postmortem changes seen on radiographs of animals is rarely available. Serial abdominal radiography of 6 recently euthanized dogs were performed in an interval of 8h at a tropical ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. Severe decomposition of the cadavers prevented the study to be performed beyond 24h. Gradual increment of gas accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, kidney and blood vessels were observed. Increased amount of gas in the gastrointestinal tract was detected as early as 8h post-euthanasia and continuously increased throughout the study. Gas was seen in the portal vein and caudal vena cava of all cadavers at 16h post-euthanasia. The presence of gas in the aorta occurred at a later stage. Tubular branching gas pattern in the liver and spleen was first observed and progressed to vesicular gas pattern due to tissue decomposition. This study showed that abdominal radiographic postmortem changes occurred most rapidly between 8 and 16h post-euthanasia at the ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. PMID:19716666

  20. LabVIEW Serial Driver Software for an Electronic Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scullin, Vincent; Garcia, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    A LabVIEW-language computer program enables monitoring and control of a Transistor Devices, Inc., Dynaload WCL232 (or equivalent) electronic load via an RS-232 serial communication link between the electronic load and a remote personal computer. (The electronic load can operate at constant voltage, current, power consumption, or resistance.) The program generates a graphical user interface (GUI) at the computer that looks and acts like the front panel of the electronic load. Once the electronic load has been placed in remote-control mode, this program first queries the electronic load for the present values of all its operational and limit settings, and then drops into a cycle in which it reports the instantaneous voltage, current, and power values in displays that resemble those on the electronic load while monitoring the GUI images of pushbuttons for control actions by the user. By means of the pushbutton images and associated prompts, the user can perform such operations as changing limit values, the operating mode, or the set point. The benefit of this software is that it relieves the user of the need to learn one method for operating the electronic load locally and another method for operating it remotely via a personal computer.

  1. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Kupitz, Christopher; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; White, Thomas A.; Zhao, Yun; Zook, James; Boutet, Sébastien; Cherezov, Vadim; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Raimund; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra

    2015-06-30

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, the structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5 Å resolution using 300 µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.

  2. Development of gallium arsenide high-speed, low-power serial parallel interface modules: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Final report to NASA LeRC on the development of gallium arsenide (GaAS) high-speed, low power serial/parallel interface modules. The report discusses the development and test of a family of 16, 32 and 64 bit parallel to serial and serial to parallel integrated circuits using a self aligned gate MESFET technology developed at the Honeywell Sensors and Signal Processing Laboratory. Lab testing demonstrated 1.3 GHz clock rates at a power of 300 mW. This work was accomplished under contract number NAS3-24676.

  3. Serial knife stabbings with HIV exposure--implications for post-exposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Pernille; Marcus, Ulrich; Albrecht, Helmut; Suttorp, Norbert; Schürmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-three persons became victims of a serial knife stabbing incident. One of the first victims one day later disclosed that he was HIV-infected. Thereafter thirty-one victims initiated HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), one exposed patient declined. None of the victims evaluated had seroconverted six months later. In most such incidents HIV exposure will be difficult to rule out as reliable information on the HIV serostatus of all serial victims will be lacking. It appears prudent, however, to inform serial stab victims about the potential risk of HIV transmission and to at least consider PEP in such scenarios. PMID:19840818

  4. Dominance of the odometer over serial landmark learning in honeybee navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Randolf; Fuchs, Jacqueline; Nadler, Leonard; Weiss, Benjamin; Kumbischinski, Nicole; Adebiyi, Daniel; Hartfil, Sergej; Greggers, Uwe

    2010-08-01

    Honeybees use their visual flow field to measure flight distance. It has been suggested that the experience of serial landmarks encountered on the flight toward a feeding place contributes to distance estimation. Here, we address this question by tracing the flight paths of individual bees with a harmonic radar system. Bees were trained along an array of three landmarks (tents), and the distance between these landmarks was either increased or decreased under two test conditions. We find that absolute distance estimation dominates the search for the feeding place, but serial position effects are also found. In the latter case, bees search only or additionally at locations determined by serial experience of the landmarks.

  5. Destructive hostility: the Jeffrey Dahmer case. A psychiatric and forensic study of a serial killer.

    PubMed

    Jentzen, J; Palermo, G; Johnson, L T; Ho, K C; Stormo, K A; Teggatz, J

    1994-12-01

    We were involved as forensic experts in the case of the serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer. We discuss the scene and victim autopsy findings, with a brief consideration of the basic emotion of hostility. These findings support the thesis that at the basis of this serial killer's behavior were primary unconscious feelings of hate that he had channeled into a sadistic programmed destruction of 17 young men. The interview of the serial killer, the photographic scene documentation, and the autopsy findings stress the ambivalent homosexuality of the killer, his sexual sadism, his obsessive fetishism, and his possible cannibalism and necrophilia. PMID:7879770

  6. Sugar yields from dilute oxalic acid pretreatment of maple wood compared to those with other dilute acids and hot water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Taiying; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-01-30

    Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment was applied to maple wood to improve compatibility with downstream operations, and its performance in pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was compared to results for hydrothermal and dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acid pretreatments. The highest total xylose yield of ?84% of the theoretical maximum was for both 0.5% oxalic and sulfuric acid pretreatment at 160 °C, compared to ?81% yield for hydrothermal pretreatment at 200 °C and for 0.5% hydrochloric acid pretreatment at 140 °C. The xylooligomer fraction from dilute oxalic acid pretreatment was only 6.3% of the total xylose in solution, similar to results with dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acids but much lower than the ?70% value for hydrothermal pretreatment. Combining any of the four pretreatments with enzymatic hydrolysis with 60 FPU cellulase/g of glucan plus xylan in the pretreated maple wood resulted in virtually the same total glucose plus xylose yields of ?85% of the maximum possible. PMID:23218303

  7. ISBD(S), International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials; Recommended by the Joint Working Group on the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials set up by the IFLA Committee on Cataloguing and the IFLA Committee on Serial Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, London (England). Committee on Cataloguing.

    The International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials--ISBD(S)--provides a format for the international communication of bibliographic information so that records may be interchanged between sources, interpreted across language barriers, and converted to machine readable form. The ISBD(S) standards are limited to the descriptive…

  8. A Hardware Implementation of the Soft Output Viterbi Algorithm for Serially Concatenated Convolutional Codes

    E-print Network

    Werling, Brett William

    2010-06-28

    This thesis outlines the hardware design of a soft output Viterbi algorithm decoder for use in a serially concatenated convolutional code system. Convolutional codes and their related structures are described, as well as the algorithms used...

  9. Checking the United Nations: A Checklist Evaluation of United Nations Specialized Agencies Serial Publications

    E-print Network

    Monroe-Gulick, Amalia

    2010-01-01

    were compared to the list to develop a record of UN specialized agency serial publication holdings at KU. The goal was to identify both electronic and print holdings within this specific collection. The project also sought publications that were freely...

  10. A serially concatenated BCH-Turbo code scheme over an Additive White Gaussion Noise channel 

    E-print Network

    Ovalekar, Sameer V.

    1997-01-01

    This work deals with the implementation of a serially concatenated BCH-turbo code scheme for faster decoding over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. Turbo codes, first presented in 1993, represent the most innovative and breakthrough...

  11. Evolution of double-dwell serial search acquisition with automatic threshold control 

    E-print Network

    Jung, Sung-Hyun

    1998-01-01

    An evolutionary double dwell serial search acquisition ics. with automatic threshold control for a code division multiple access (CDMA) direct sequence spread spectrum system is presented and analyzed. The acquisition approach adaptively estimates...

  12. 77 FR 66920 - Registration of Claims to Copyright: Group Registration of Serial Issues Filed Electronically

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ...LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office...AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Interim...Office's electronic registration system. This interim rule will also...the serial promptly to the Library of Congress as a...

  13. The Paranormal: A Selected Bibliography of Serials and Reference Works, with Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    Provides bibliography of references and serials to assist acquisitions librarians in selection of the paranormal. Topics include alchemy, astrology, magic, conjuring, witchcraft, paganism, demonology, satanism, voodooism, sorcery, cults, shamanism, UFOs, exobiology, curious physical and biological phenomena, ghosts, poltergeists, haunted places,…

  14. Genes Differentially Expressed by Aspergillus flavus Strains After Loss of Aflatoxin Production by Serial Transfers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and other closely related species. To better understand the molecular events that are associated with aflatoxin production, three separate nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains were produced through serial transfer...

  15. Performance of serial time-encoded amplified Kevin K. Tsia,1,2,*

    E-print Network

    Jalali. Bahram

    serve as a blue print for implementation and optimization of this new imaging technology. ©2010 Optical and barcode reading," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131109 (2008). 11. K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, "Serial

  16. Herative Decoding of Serially Concatenated Codes with Interleavers and Comparison with Turbo Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedetto, S.; Montorsi, G.; Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1997-01-01

    A serially concatenated code with interleaver consists of the cascade of an outer encoder, an interleaver permuting the outer codewords bits, and an inner encoder whose input words are the permuted outer codewords.

  17. Modeling syngas-fired gas turbine engines with two dilutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawk, Mitchell E.

    2011-12-01

    Prior gas turbine engine modeling work at the University of Wyoming studied cycle performance and turbine design with air and CO2-diluted GTE cycles fired with methane and syngas fuels. Two of the cycles examined were unconventional and innovative. The work presented herein reexamines prior results and expands the modeling by including the impacts of turbine cooling and CO2 sequestration on GTE cycle performance. The simple, conventional regeneration and two alternative regeneration cycle configurations were examined. In contrast to air dilution, CO2 -diluted cycle efficiencies increased by approximately 1.0 percentage point for the three regeneration configurations examined, while the efficiency of the CO2-diluted simple cycle decreased by approximately 5.0 percentage points. For CO2-diluted cycles with a closed-exhaust recycling path, an optimum CO2-recycle pressure was determined for each configuration that was significantly lower than atmospheric pressure. Un-cooled alternative regeneration configurations with CO2 recycling achieved efficiencies near 50%, which was approximately 3.0 percentage points higher than the conventional regeneration cycle and simple cycle configurations that utilized CO2 recycling. Accounting for cooling of the first two turbine stages resulted in a 2--3 percentage point reduction in un-cooled efficiency, with air dilution corresponding to the upper extreme. Additionally, when the work required to sequester CO2 was accounted for, cooled cycle efficiency decreased by 4--6 percentage points, and was more negatively impacted when syngas fuels were used. Finally, turbine design models showed that turbine blades are shorter with CO2 dilution, resulting in fewer design restrictions.

  18. Revealing mental defaults in face space with serial reproduction.

    PubMed

    Uddenberg, Stefan; Scholl, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Great strides have been made in recent years in understanding how we perceive faces in terms of underlying "face spaces". Our work is focused on the relatively unexplored notion of default regions of these spaces, toward which our face representations may be attracted. Picture a person standing before you, asking for directions. Now consider: what did that person look like? And where did that information come from? Here we used a novel instantiation of the method of serial reproduction to explore the effective 'default settings' in face space. As a first case study, we explored the perception of race. A single face was briefly presented to each observer, with its race selected from a smooth continuum between White and Black (with all faces matched for mean luminance). The observer then simply reproduced that face, by using a slider to morph a test face along this continuum. Their response was then used as the face initially presented to the next observer, and so on down the line in each reproduction chain. This method has been shown (albeit in very different contexts) to reveal the contents of people's default assumptions about the world. In our experiments, White observers' reproduction chains consistently and steadily converged onto faces that were significantly Whiter than both the original face and the continuum's midpoint. Indeed, even chains beginning near the Black end of the continuum inevitably ended up well inside the White region. These results highlight a default region of face space for White observers, which biases downstream perception and memory. In further experiments, we report extensions both to other cultures (e.g. exploring White and Indian observers' face-space defaults in race continua from White to South Asian faces) and to other types of features (in particular, continua that vary faces' age, gender, and perceived animacy). Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326902

  19. Statistical identifiability and sample size calculations for serial seroepidemiology.

    PubMed

    Vinh, Dao Nguyen; Boni, Maciej F

    2015-09-01

    Inference on disease dynamics is typically performed using case reporting time series of symptomatic disease. The inferred dynamics will vary depending on the reporting patterns and surveillance system for the disease in question, and the inference will miss mild or underreported epidemics. To eliminate the variation introduced by differing reporting patterns and to capture asymptomatic or subclinical infection, inferential methods can be applied to serological data sets instead of case reporting data. To reconstruct complete disease dynamics, one would need to collect a serological time series. In the statistical analysis presented here, we consider a particular kind of serological time series with repeated, periodic collections of population-representative serum. We refer to this study design as a serial seroepidemiology (SSE) design, and we base the analysis on our epidemiological knowledge of influenza. We consider a study duration of three to four years, during which a single antigenic type of influenza would be circulating, and we evaluate our ability to reconstruct disease dynamics based on serological data alone. We show that the processes of reinfection, antibody generation, and antibody waning confound each other and are not always statistically identifiable, especially when dynamics resemble a non-oscillating endemic equilibrium behavior. We introduce some constraints to partially resolve this confounding, and we show that transmission rates and basic reproduction numbers can be accurately estimated in SSE study designs. Seasonal forcing is more difficult to identify as serology-based studies only detect oscillations in antibody titers of recovered individuals, and these oscillations are typically weaker than those observed for infected individuals. To accurately estimate the magnitude and timing of seasonal forcing, serum samples should be collected every two months and 200 or more samples should be included in each collection; this sample size estimate is sensitive to the antibody waning rate and the assumed level of seasonal forcing. PMID:26342240

  20. Automated Stitching of Microtubule Centerlines across Serial Electron Tomograms

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Britta; Tranfield, Erin M.; Höög, Johanna L.; Baum, Daniel; Antony, Claude; Hyman, Tony; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Prohaska, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Tracing microtubule centerlines in serial section electron tomography requires microtubules to be stitched across sections, that is lines from different sections need to be aligned, endpoints need to be matched at section boundaries to establish a correspondence between neighboring sections, and corresponding lines need to be connected across multiple sections. We present computational methods for these tasks: 1) An initial alignment is computed using a distance compatibility graph. 2) A fine alignment is then computed with a probabilistic variant of the iterative closest points algorithm, which we extended to handle the orientation of lines by introducing a periodic random variable to the probabilistic formulation. 3) Endpoint correspondence is established by formulating a matching problem in terms of a Markov random field and computing the best matching with belief propagation. Belief propagation is not generally guaranteed to converge to a minimum. We show how convergence can be achieved, nonetheless, with minimal manual input. In addition to stitching microtubule centerlines, the correspondence is also applied to transform and merge the electron tomograms. We applied the proposed methods to samples from the mitotic spindle in C. elegans, the meiotic spindle in X. laevis, and sub-pellicular microtubule arrays in T. brucei. The methods were able to stitch microtubules across section boundaries in good agreement with experts' opinions for the spindle samples. Results, however, were not satisfactory for the microtubule arrays. For certain experiments, such as an analysis of the spindle, the proposed methods can replace manual expert tracing and thus enable the analysis of microtubules over long distances with reasonable manual effort. PMID:25438148

  1. Room-temperature macromolecular serial crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Stellato, Francesco; Oberthür, Dominik; Liang, Mengning; Bean, Richard; Gati, Cornelius; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Barty, Anton; Burkhardt, Anja; Fischer, Pontus; Galli, Lorenzo; Kirian, Richard A.; Meyer, Jan; Panneerselvam, Saravanan; Yoon, Chun Hong; Chervinskii, Fedor; Speller, Emily; White, Thomas A.; Betzel, Christian; Meents, Alke; Chapman, Henry N.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach for collecting data from many hundreds of thousands of microcrystals using X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser has recently been developed. Referred to as serial crystallography, diffraction patterns are recorded at a constant rate as a suspension of protein crystals flows across the path of an X-ray beam. Events that by chance contain single-crystal diffraction patterns are retained, then indexed and merged to form a three-dimensional set of reflection intensities for structure determination. This approach relies upon several innovations: an intense X-ray beam; a fast detector system; a means to rapidly flow a suspension of crystals across the X-ray beam; and the computational infrastructure to process the large volume of data. Originally conceived for radiation-damage-free measurements with ultrafast X-ray pulses, the same methods can be employed with synchrotron radiation. As in powder diffraction, the averaging of thousands of observations per Bragg peak may improve the ratio of signal to noise of low-dose exposures. Here, it is shown that this paradigm can be implemented for room-temperature data collection using synchrotron radiation and exposure times of less than 3?ms. Using lysozyme microcrystals as a model system, over 40?000 single-crystal diffraction patterns were obtained and merged to produce a structural model that could be refined to 2.1?Å resolution. The resulting electron density is in excellent agreement with that obtained using standard X-ray data collection techniques. With further improvements the method is well suited for even shorter exposures at future and upgraded synchrotron radiation facilities that may deliver beams with 1000 times higher brightness than they currently produce. PMID:25075341

  2. Statistical identifiability and sample size calculations for serial seroepidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Vinh, Dao Nguyen; Boni, Maciej F.

    2015-01-01

    Inference on disease dynamics is typically performed using case reporting time series of symptomatic disease. The inferred dynamics will vary depending on the reporting patterns and surveillance system for the disease in question, and the inference will miss mild or underreported epidemics. To eliminate the variation introduced by differing reporting patterns and to capture asymptomatic or subclinical infection, inferential methods can be applied to serological data sets instead of case reporting data. To reconstruct complete disease dynamics, one would need to collect a serological time series. In the statistical analysis presented here, we consider a particular kind of serological time series with repeated, periodic collections of population-representative serum. We refer to this study design as a serial seroepidemiology (SSE) design, and we base the analysis on our epidemiological knowledge of influenza. We consider a study duration of three to four years, during which a single antigenic type of influenza would be circulating, and we evaluate our ability to reconstruct disease dynamics based on serological data alone. We show that the processes of reinfection, antibody generation, and antibody waning confound each other and are not always statistically identifiable, especially when dynamics resemble a non-oscillating endemic equilibrium behavior. We introduce some constraints to partially resolve this confounding, and we show that transmission rates and basic reproduction numbers can be accurately estimated in SSE study designs. Seasonal forcing is more difficult to identify as serology-based studies only detect oscillations in antibody titers of recovered individuals, and these oscillations are typically weaker than those observed for infected individuals. To accurately estimate the magnitude and timing of seasonal forcing, serum samples should be collected every two months and 200 or more samples should be included in each collection; this sample size estimate is sensitive to the antibody waning rate and the assumed level of seasonal forcing. PMID:26342240

  3. 40 CFR 1065.140 - Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.140 Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents. (a) General. You may dilute exhaust with ambient air, synthetic air, or... diluting exhaust at a location as close as possible to the location where ambient air dilution would...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.140 - Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.140 Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents. (a) General. You may dilute exhaust with ambient air, synthetic air, or... diluting exhaust at a location as close as possible to the location where ambient air dilution would...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.140 - Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.140 Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents. (a) General. You may dilute exhaust with ambient air, synthetic air, or... diluting exhaust at a location as close as possible to the location where ambient air dilution would...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.140 - Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.140 Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents. (a) General. You may dilute exhaust with ambient air, synthetic air, or... diluting exhaust at a location as close as possible to the location where ambient air dilution would...

  7. Finding the answer in space: the mental whiteboard hypothesis on serial order in working memory

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamse, Elger; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Majerus, Steve; Fias, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Various prominent models on serial order coding in working memory (WM) build on the notion that serial order is achieved by binding the various items to-be-maintained to fixed position markers. Despite being relatively successful in accounting for empirical observations and some recent neuro-imaging support, these models were largely formulated on theoretical grounds and few specifications have been provided with respect to the cognitive and/or neural nature of these position markers. Here we outline a hypothesis on a novel candidate mechanism to substantiate the notion of serial position markers. Specifically, we propose that serial order WM is grounded in the spatial attention system: (I) The position markers that provide multi-item WM with a serial context should be understood as coordinates within an internal, spatially defined system; (II) internal spatial attention is involved in searching through the resulting serial order representation; and (III) retrieval corresponds to selection by spatial attention. We sketch the available empirical support and discuss how the hypothesis may provide a parsimonious framework from which to understand a broad range of observations across behavioral, neural and neuropsychological domains. Finally, we pinpoint what we believe are major questions for future research inspired by the hypothesis. PMID:25505394

  8. Limiting dilution analysis of the stem cells for T cell lineage

    SciTech Connect

    Katsura, Y.; Kina, T.; Amagai, T.; Tsubata, T.; Hirayoshi, K.; Takaoki, Y.; Sado, T.; Nishikawa, S.I.

    1986-10-15

    Stem cell activities of bone marrow, spleen, thymus, and fetal liver cells for T cell lineage were studied comparatively by transferring the cells from these organs through i.v. or intrathymus (i.t.) route into right leg- and tail-shielded (L-T-shielded) and 900 R-irradiated recipient mice, which were able to survive without supplying hemopoietic stem cells. Cells from B10.Thy-1.1 (H-2b, Thy-1.1) mice were serially diluted and were transferred into L-T-shielded and irradiated C57BL/6 (H-2b, Thy-1.2) mice, and 21 days later the thymus cells of recipient mice were assayed for Thy-1.1+ cells by flow cytofluorometry. The percentage of recipient mice possessing donor-type T cells was plotted against the number of cells transferred, and the stem cell activity in each cell source was expressed as the 50% positive value, the number of donor cells required for generating donor-type T cells in the thymuses of 50% of recipient mice. In i.v. transfer experiments, the activity of bone marrow cells was similar to that of fetal liver cells, and about 100 times and nearly 1000 times higher than those of spleen cells and thymus cells, respectively. In i.t. transfer experiments, the number of cells required for generating donor-type T cells was much lower than that in i.v. transfer experiments, although the ratio in 50% positive values between i.v. and i.t. transfers differed among cell sources. In i.t. transfers, the 50% positive value of bone marrow cells was five times, 400 times, and 500 times higher than that of fetal liver cells, spleen cells, and thymus cells, respectively. Our previous finding that stem cells are enriched in the spleens of mice which were whole body-irradiated and marrow-reconstituted 7 days earlier was confirmed also by the present limiting dilution assay carried out in i.v. as well as i.t. transfers.

  9. Experimental Study of Turbulent Impinging Jets of Dilute Polymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Alvarez, Ricardo; Christensen, Kenneth

    2006-11-01

    Turbulent impinging jets play an important role in a variety of technologically-relevant applications, including cooling, heating and drying operations, drilling and mixing. Many of these applications take advantage of the enhanced of heat transfer commonly observed near the impingement surface where complex vortex interactions are known to exist. Dilute polymer solutions have been observed to stabilize free jets but their impact on further heat-transfer efficiency in the impinging-jet configuration has not been adequately addressed. To this end, the impact of dilute polymer solutions on the structure of turbulent impinging jets is being studied using particle-image velocimetry. Measurements are made for both plain water and dilute polymer solutions (<100,pm) at comparable Reynolds numbers for various nozzle-to-plate spacings. Instantaneous velocity fields are analyzed to uncover structural modifications imposed by the presence of polymer, particularly in the impingement zone. Turbulence statistics are also computed to assess the overall impact of dilute polymer solutions on this complex turbulent flow. These measurements will be followed by simultaneous velocity--temperature measurements to deduce the impact of dilute polymer solutions on heat transfer in the impingement zone.

  10. Mobile Melt-Dilute Treatment for Russian Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H.

    2002-09-17

    Treatment of spent Russian fuel using a Melt-Dilute (MD) process is proposed to consolidate fuel assemblies into a form that is proliferation resistant and provides critically safety under storage and disposal configurations. Russian fuel elements contain a variety of fuel meat and cladding materials. The Melt-Dilute treatment process was initially developed for aluminum-based fuels so additional development is needed for several cladding and fuel meat combinations in the Russian fuel inventory (e.g. zirconium-clad, uranium-zirconium alloy fuel). A Mobile Melt-Dilute facility (MMD) is being proposed for treatment of spent fuels at reactor site storage locations in Russia; thereby, avoiding the costs of building separate treatment facilities at each site and avoiding shipment of enriched fuel assemblies over the road. The MMD facility concept is based on laboratory tests conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), and modular pilot-scale facilities constructed at the Savannah River Site for treatment of US spent fuel. SRTC laboratory tests have shown the feasibility of operating a Melt-Dilute treatment process with either a closed system or a filtered off-gas system. The proposed Mobile Melt-Dilute process is presented in this paper.

  11. [Wound healing by homeopathic silica dilutions in mice].

    PubMed

    Oberbaum, M; Markovits, R; Weisman, Z; Kalinkevits, A; Bentwich, Z

    1992-08-01

    Highly diluted solutions of silica are widely used in homeopathic medicine to treat lesions such as chronic wounds, ulcers, and abscesses. We tested the therapeutic effects of homeopathic dilutions of silica on induced chronic wounds. Holes were made in the ears of mice by dental wire, which then remained hanging from the ear to cause persistent mechanical irritation. In each experiment 3 or 4 groups of 10 mice each were treated by adding homeopathic dilutions of silica (10(-10), 10(-60), 10(-400)) and of saline (10(-10), respectively, to the drinking water of the mice for 4-20 days. The size of the wound holes was measured every second day (grades 0-4) and/or by an objective image analysis system. The results showed that in 7/11 experiments the ear holes of the silica-treated animals were significantly smaller (p less than 0.05-0.001) and healed faster than in those treated with saline. Also the therapeutic effect increased progressively with increase in dilution of the silica (10(-10) less than 10(-60) less than 10(-400)). These results show that homeopathic dilutions of silica (even well beyond Avogadro's number) clearly have a therapeutic effect on wound healing and that our experimental model for studying wound healing is a very useful tool for such studies. PMID:1325402

  12. Dilution of protein-surfactant complexes: A fluorescence study

    PubMed Central

    Azadi, Glareh; Chauhan, Anuj; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2013-01-01

    Dilution of protein–surfactant complexes is an integrated step in microfluidic protein sizing, where the contribution of free micelles to the overall fluorescence is reduced by dilution. This process can be further improved by establishing an optimum surfactant concentration and quantifying the amount of protein based on the fluorescence intensity. To this end, we study the interaction of proteins with anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) using a hydrophobic fluorescent dye (sypro orange). We analyze these interactions fluourometrically with bovine serum albumin, carbonic anhydrase, and beta-galactosidase as model proteins. The fluorescent signature of protein–surfactant complexes at various dilution points shows three distinct regions, surfactant dominant, breakdown, and protein dominant region. Based on the dilution behavior of protein–surfactant complexes, we propose a fluorescence model to explain the contribution of free and bound micelles to the overall fluorescence. Our results show that protein peak is observed at 3 mM SDS as the optimum dilution concentration. Furthermore, we study the effect of protein concentration on fluorescence intensity. In a single protein model with a constant dye quantum yield, the peak height increases with protein concentration. Finally, addition of CTAB to the protein–SDS complex at mole fractions above 0.1 shifts the protein peak from 3 mM to 4 mM SDS. The knowledge of protein–surfactant interactions obtained from these studies provides significant insights for novel detection and quantification techniques in microfluidics. PMID:23868358

  13. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  14. Gas dilution system results and application to acid rain utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley-Souders, K.; Geib, R.; Dunn, C.

    1997-12-31

    In 1997, the United States EPA will remove restrictions preventing acid rain utilities from using gas dilution systems for calibration or linearity studies for continuous emissions monitoring, Test Method 205 in 40CFR51 requires that a gas dilution system must produce calibration gases whose measured values are within {+-}2% of predicted values. This paper presents the evaluation of the Environics/CalMat 2020 Dilution System for use in calibration studies. Internal studies show that concentrations generated by this unit are within {+-}0.5% of predicted values. Studies are being conducted by several acid rain utilities to evaluate the Environics/CalMat system using single minor component calibration standards. In addition, an internally generated study is being performed to demonstrate the system`s accuracy using a multi-component gas mixture. Data from these tests will be presented in the final version of the paper.

  15. Dilution cycle control for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A dilution cycle control system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The control system includes a time delay relay for sensing shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system and for generating a control signal only after expiration of a preselected time period measured from the sensed shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system, during which the absorption refrigeration system is not restarted. A dilution cycle for the absorption refrigeration system is initiated in response to generation of a control signal by the time delay relay. This control system is particularly suitable for use with an absorption refrigeration system which is frequently cycled on and off since the time delay provided by the control system prevents needless dilution of the absorption refrigeration system when the system is turned off for only a short period of time and then is turned back on.

  16. Application of Cryocoolers to a Vintage Dilution Refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Richard; Smith, Gary; Ruschman, Mark; Beaty, Jim; /Minnesota U.

    2011-06-06

    A dilution refrigerator is required for 50mK detector operation of CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search). Besides shielding the dilution refrigerator itself, the liquid nitrogen shield and liquid helium bath in the refrigerator cool the detector cryostat heat shields and cool electronics, resulting in significant external heat loads at 80K and at 4K. An Oxford Instruments Kelvinox 400 has served this role for ten years but required daily transfers of liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Complicating the cryogen supply is the location 800 meters below ground in an RF shielded, class 10000 clean room at Soudan, MN. Nitrogen and helium re-liquefiers using cryocoolers were installed outside the clean room and continuously condense room temperature gas and return the liquids to the dilution refrigerator through a transfer line. This paper will describe the design, installation, controls and performance of liquefaction systems.

  17. Maximum First Transfer and Dilution Volumes for 241SY101

    SciTech Connect

    BARTON, W.B.

    1999-10-28

    This report discusses the solution to the following problem: what is the maximum waste transfer and dilution quantities and locations which can be allowed in the first transfer of waste from SY-101 given the following constraints? (1) The crust must float on the submerged waste (waste becomes less dense when diluted, eventually allowing crust to sink); (2) No credit is taken for the top dilution; (3) Addition of water to the bulk slurry through the transfer pump must be able to refloat the crust base to above 295 inches; (4) The margin between refloating to 295 inches and crust sinking must be at least 10,000 gallons; (5) The crust can't be thinned to less than 60 inches thick.

  18. Characterization of an anaerobic baffled reactor treating dilute aircraft de-icing fluid and long term effects of operation on granular biomass.

    PubMed

    Marin, Juan; Kennedy, Kevin J; Eskicioglu, Cigdem

    2010-04-01

    Successful treatment of dilute ethylene glycol based-aircraft de-icing fluid (ADF) was achieved using a four compartment, anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR). Three ADF concentrations (0.04, 0.07, and 0.13%v/v) were continuously fed at different hydrological retention times (HRTs; 24, 12, 6 and 3h) with concomitant organic loading rates (OLRs) varying between 0.3 and 6 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m(3)/d. ABR achieved over 75% soluble COD removal and an average methane production potential of 0.30+/-0.05LCH(4)/gCOD(removed) at 33 degrees C for the experimental conditions evaluated. The different experimental conditions tested and a four-month summer shut-down simulation had no significant effect on reactor performance or on the settling characteristics of the granular biomass, which remained almost constant during the study. Biomass specific acetoclastic activity however, changed through the study; increasing two fold for the last three compartments and decreasing almost the same magnitude for the first compartment compared to inoculum, suggesting that a new distribution of microbial consortia was established in each compartment of the reactor by the end of the study. PMID:20005091

  19. Gas turbine annular combustor with radial dilution air injection

    SciTech Connect

    Shekelton, J.R.; Johnson, D.C.

    1991-10-22

    This patent describes a radial flow gas turbine. It comprises: a rotor including turbine blades and a nozzle adjacent the turbine blades, the nozzle being adapted to direct hot gases at the turbine blades to cause rotation of the rotor; an annular combustor about the rotor and having a combustor outlet leading to the nozzle, the annular combustor having spaced inner and outer walls connected by a generally radially extending wall, the annular combustor including a combustion annulus defined by the inner, outer and radially extending walls upstream of the outlet; a dilution air annulus disposed downstream of the combustion annulus and immediately radially outwardly of the nozzle axially adjacent to and immediately downstream of the combustor outlet of the annular combustion; and a housing substantially surrounding the annular combustor in spaced relation to the inner, outer and radially extending walls thereof, the housing and walls together defining at least a portion of a dilution air flow path having a compressed air inlet in communication with a compressor for supplying dilution air at one end thereof, a turbine nozzle shroud and the inner wall defining the remainder of the dilution air flow path, the compressed air outlet injecting dilution air directly across the combustor outlet toward the compressed air inlet, the illusion air being injected into the hot gases at generally a right angle thereto assist hot gases approach the combustor outlet, the compressed air outlet being in communication with the dilution air annulus directly through the combustor outlet of the annular combustor downstream of the combustion annulus.

  20. Shear-driven solidification of dilute colloidal suspensions

    E-print Network

    Alessio Zaccone; Daniele Gentili; Hua Wu; Massimo Morbidelli; Emanuela Del Gado

    2011-03-09

    We show that the shear-induced solidification of dilute charge-stabilized (DLVO) colloids is due to the interplay between the shear-induced formation and breakage of large non-Brownian clusters. While their size is limited by breakage, their number density increases with the shearing-time. Upon flow cessation, the dense packing of clusters interconnects into a rigid state by means of grainy bonds, each involving a large number of primary colloidal bonds. The emerging picture of shear-driven solidification in dilute colloidal suspensions combines the gelation of Brownian systems with the jamming of athermal systems.

  1. Amplitude mode in diluted O(N) models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, Yury; Arovas, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The relativistic O(N) model has recently been shown to exhibit a robust amplitude mode peak in its scalar susceptibility which exhibits scaling in the vicinity of the quantum critical point [PRL 110, 140401 (2013)]. We report on the O(N) model with random site dilution, which we study using the worm algorithm [PRL 87, 160601 (2001)]. We present results for the scalar susceptibility and O(N) conductivity in the critical region and follow the system's behavior as the dilution tends to the percolation threshold.

  2. Effect of Different Attentional Instructions on the Acquisition of a Serial Movement Task

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Mei Teng; Chow, Jia Yi; Koh, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in attentional focus of instruction has predominantly over-emphasized the investigation of discrete and continuous skills rather than serial skills. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the effect of different attentional focus instructions on learning a serial skill task (i.e., taekwondo routine) in novice learners. It was predicted that the use of movement outcome instructions could enhance the learning of a serial skill as previously supported in studies examining the acquisition of discrete and continuous skills. Thirteen female participants were recruited for this study and were assigned to either movement form condition - control group (n = 7) or movement outcome condition – treatment group (n = 6). All participants underwent 12 practice sessions over an 8-week period with their respective instructional conditions with each session lasting 30 minutes. Video recording of the serial skill tasks (hand techniques, kicking techniques and 10-step routine) were captured at “the-twelfth-training session”, “after 1-week”, and “after 1-month”. It was found that more participants in the treatment group obtained a higher score in all three serial skill tasks, especially in Mastery component of ‘Kicking’ techniques at ‘after 1-week’ (p < 0.05, r = 0.57). This study suggested that movement outcome instructions have positive medium effect on balance control for serial skill task, especially in kicking actions. Key Points Movement outcome (MO) instructions have a positive impact on learning a serial task, especially in kicking actions. More functional coordination during movement executions for MO participants. Benefits for MO instructions may be individual specific. PMID:25435770

  3. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors FOCUS ON DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gallagher, Bryan

    2008-05-01

    This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is devoted to the materials science of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). A DMS is traditionally defined as a diamagnetic semiconductor doped with a few to several atomic per cent of some transition metal with unpaired d electrons. Several kinds of dopant dopant interactions can in principle couple the dopant spins leading to a ferromagnetic ground state in a dilute magnetic system. These include superexchange, which occurs principally in oxides and only between dopants with one intervening oxygen, and double exchange, in which dopants of different formal charges exchange an electron. In both of these mechanisms, the ferromagnetic alignment is not critically dependent on free carriers in the host semiconductor because exchange occurs via bonds. A third mechanism, discovered in the last few years, involves electrons associated with lattice defects that can apparently couple dopant spins. This mechanism is not well understood. Finally, the most desirable mechanism is carrier-mediated exchange interaction in which the dopant spins are coupled by itinerant electrons or holes in the host semiconductor. This mechanism introduces a fundamental link between magnetic and electrical transport properties and offers the possibility of new spintronic functionalities. In particular electrical gate control of ferromagnetism and the use of spin polarized currents to carry signals for analog and digital applications. The spin light emitting diode is a prototypical device of this kind that has been extensively used to characterize the extent of spin polarization in the active light emitting semiconductor heterostructure. The prototypical carrier mediated ferromagnetic DMS is Mn-doped GaAs. This and closely related narrow gap III V materials have been very extensively studied. Their properties are generally quite well understood and they have led to important insights into fundamental properties of ferromagnetic systems with strong spin-orbit coupling. They have also led to the demonstration of a wide range of novel phenomena including some, like tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance, which have subsequently been achieved in metal ferromagnetic systems. However despite considerable effort over many years the maximum Curie point achieved in (Ga,Mn)As is still less than 200 K. So unless some major new breakthrough is achieved these materials are unlikely to be of use for practical spin electronics technologies. In 2000, Dietl et al [1] published a seminal paper in which mean field theory was used to predict which of the common diamagnetic semiconductors would exhibit a Curie point above ambient if doped with 5 at.% Mn and a hole concentration of 3.5 × 1020 cm-3. Of the many host semiconductors simulated, only ZnO and GaN were predicted to exhibit a critical temperature in excess of 300 K. Since 2000, high-Tc DMS research has proliferated in both experimental and theoretical arenas. Many papers have been published containing claims of new DMS materials based largely on limited film growth, powder diffraction, and magnetometry. In these papers, a film which exhibits a hysteretic SQUID or VSM loop at 300 K and phase purity with only the host semiconductor detected by XRD are often claimed to be true ferromagnetic DMSs. Many of these papers are flawed because the criteria for a well-defined DMS are much more extensive. These include: (i) a random dopant distribution, (ii) a well-known and preferably unique charge state and preferentially a unique local structural environment for the dopant, (iii) a demonstrated coupling of the dopant spin to the host band structure, leading to spin polarization of the majority carriers, and (iv) a rational dependence of the saturation magnetization and Curie point on the magnetic dopant and carrier concentrations. Implicit in this list is that trivial causes of ferromagnetism, such as magnetic contamination and magnetic secondary phase formation, are eliminated. Yet, in many papers, the authors have not carried out the necessary control experiments and materials c

  4. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710 Section 172.710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific...

  5. Analysis of boron dilution in a four-loop PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal mixing and boron dilution in a pressurized water reactor were analyzed with COMMIX codes. The reactor system was the four loop Zion reactor. Two boron dilution scenarios were analyzed. In the first scenario, the plant is in cold shutdown and the reactor coolant system has just been filled after maintenance on the steam generators. To flush the air out of the steam generator tubes, a reactor coolant pump (RCP) is started, with the water in the pump suction line devoid of boron and at the same temperature as the coolant in the system. In the second scenario, the plant is at hot standby and the reactor coolant system has been heated up to operating temperature after a long outage. It is assumed that an RCP is started, with the pump suction line filled with cold unborated water, forcing a slug of diluted coolant down the downcomer and subsequently through the reactor core. The subsequent transient thermal mixing and boron dilution that would occur in the reactor system is simulated for these two scenarios. The reactivity insertion rate and the total reactivity are evaluated.

  6. Maximum-likelihood estimation for indicator dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuenen, Maarten P J; Herold, Ingeborg H F; Korsten, Hendrikus H M; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2014-03-01

    Indicator-dilution methods are widely used by many medical imaging techniques and by dye-, lithium-, and thermodilution measurements. The measured indicator dilution curves are typically fitted by a mathematical model to estimate the hemodynamic parameters of interest. This paper presents a new maximum-likelihood algorithm for parameter estimation, where indicator dilution curves are considered as the histogram of underlying transit-time distribution. Apart from a general description of the algorithm, semianalytical solutions are provided for three well-known indicator dilution models. An adaptation of the algorithm is also introduced to cope with indicator recirculation. In simulations as well as in experimental data obtained by dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging, the proposed algorithm shows a superior parameter estimation accuracy over nonlinear least-squares regression. The feasibility of the algorithm for use in vivo is evaluated using dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound recordings obtained with the purpose of prostate cancer detection. The proposed algorithm shows an improved ability (increase in receiver-operating characteristic curve area of up to 0.13) with respect to existing methods to differentiate between healthy tissue and cancer. PMID:24239967

  7. 40 CFR 1065.340 - Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... action does not resolve a failure to meet the diluted exhaust flow verification (i.e., propane check) in...) Verify the calibration by performing a CVS verification (i.e., propane check) as described in § 1065.341... § 1065.640. (11) Verify the calibration by performing a CVS verification (i.e., propane check)...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.340 - Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exhaust flow verification (i.e., propane check) in § 1065.341. (c) Ex-situ CFV and SSV calibration. You... minimum of 10 flow points for an SSV using the propane check as described in § 1065.341. Your propane...) Use a constant flow device like a CFO kit to deliver a constant flow of propane to the dilution...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.340 - Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... action does not resolve a failure to meet the diluted exhaust flow verification (i.e., propane check) in... emission testing. (12) Verify the calibration by performing a CVS verification (i.e., propane check) as... verification (i.e., propane check) as described in § 1065.341. (12) If your CVS is configured to operate...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.340 - Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exhaust flow verification (i.e., propane check) in § 1065.341. (c) Ex-situ CFV and SSV calibration. You... minimum of 10 flow points for an SSV using the propane check as described in § 1065.341. Your propane...) Use a constant flow device like a CFO kit to deliver a constant flow of propane to the dilution...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.340 - Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exhaust flow verification (i.e., propane check) in § 1065.341. (c) Ex-situ CFV and SSV calibration. You... minimum of 10 flow points for an SSV using the propane check as described in § 1065.341. Your propane...) Use a constant flow device like a CFO kit to deliver a constant flow of propane to the dilution...

  12. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  14. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  16. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microtiter diluting and dispensing device. 866.2500 Section 866.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices §...

  17. Nonequilibrium Work Relations for Polymer Dynamics in Dilute Folarin Latinwo

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, Charles

    . During processing, polymer chains are exposed to nonequilibrium conditions that give rise to complexNonequilibrium Work Relations for Polymer Dynamics in Dilute Solutions Folarin Latinwo and Charles at UrbanaChampaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States ABSTRACT: Equilibrium and nonequilibrium free

  18. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710 Section 172.710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific...

  19. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710 Section 172.710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific...

  20. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710 Section 172.710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD...

  1. 40 CFR 89.424 - Dilute emission sampling calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Effective weighing factor. Pi = Power measured during each...sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction...bag sample volume corrected for water vapor and carbon dioxide extraction...the dilution air corrected for water vapor extraction, ppm....

  2. A new gas dilution method for measuring body volume.

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, N; Tamaki, K; Kuchiki, T; Nagao, M

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the validity of a new gas dilution method (GD) for measuring human body volume and to compare its accuracy with the results obtained by the underwater weighing method (UW). We measured the volume of plastic bottles and 16 subjects (including two females), aged 18-42 years with each method. For the bottles, the volume measured by hydrostatic weighing was correlated highly (r = 1.000) with that measured by the new gas dilution method. For the subjects, the body volume determined by the two methods was significantly correlated (r = 0.998). However, the subject's volume measured by the gas dilution method was significantly larger than that by underwater weighing method. There was significant correlation (r = 0.806) between GD volume-UW volume and the body mass index (BMI), so that UW volume could be predicted from GD volume and BMI. It can be concluded that the new gas dilution method offers promising possibilities for future research in the population who cannot submerge underwater. PMID:7551760

  3. Reusable chelating resins concentrate metal ions from highly dilute solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, A. J.; Weetal, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Column chromatographic method uses new metal chelating resins for recovering heavy-metal ions from highly dilute solutions. The absorbed heavy-metal cations may be removed from the chelating resins by acid or base washes. The resins are reusable after the washes are completed.

  4. 40 CFR 89.424 - Dilute emission sampling calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilute emission sampling calculations. 89.424 Section 89.424 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.424...

  5. 40 CFR 89.424 - Dilute emission sampling calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mode for bag measurements and diesel heat exchanger system measurements is determined from the..., for diesel heat exchanger systems, average hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample as... as measured, ppm. (Note: If a CO instrument that meets the criteria specified in 40 CFR part...

  6. 40 CFR 89.424 - Dilute emission sampling calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mode for bag measurements and diesel heat exchanger system measurements is determined from the..., for diesel heat exchanger systems, average hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample as... as measured, ppm. (Note: If a CO instrument that meets the criteria specified in 40 CFR part...

  7. 40 CFR 89.424 - Dilute emission sampling calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mode for bag measurements and diesel heat exchanger system measurements is determined from the..., for diesel heat exchanger systems, average hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample as... as measured, ppm. (Note: If a CO instrument that meets the criteria specified in 40 CFR part...

  8. 40 CFR 89.424 - Dilute emission sampling calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mode for bag measurements and diesel heat exchanger system measurements is determined from the..., for diesel heat exchanger systems, average hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample as... as measured, ppm. (Note: If a CO instrument that meets the criteria specified in 40 CFR part...

  9. Propofol solubilization and structural transformations in dilutable microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Perlstein, My; Aserin, Abraham; Wachtel, Ellen J; Garti, Nissim

    2015-12-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is a drug for both induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Pure propofol cannot be injected because of its lipophilic character, low water-solubility, and low bioavailability. Presently, propofol is formulated in an unstable emulsion, easily oxidized, and easily contaminated with bacteria. We are proposing new, propofol-loaded modified microemulsions, stable thermodynamically, and microbiologically safe; the microemulsions are fully dilutable with water. Structural characterization of the empty and the propofol-loaded systems as a function of water dilution was accomplished using advanced analytical tools such as SD-NMR, SAXS, cryo-TEM, DSC, electrical conductivity, and viscosity. Upon water dilution the propofol-loaded concentrate forms swollen reverse micelles that upon further dilution (40wt% water) progressively transform into a bicontinuous mesophase and then invert (>65wt% water) into O/W nanodroplets without "losing" the solubilized propofol. The drug exhibits strong interactions with the surfactant (DSC and SD-NMR). Propofol increases the size of the microemulsion nanodroplets, but does not modify the microemulsion behavior. Water, ethanol, and PG are essential structural components, but do not interact directly with propofol. PMID:26409686

  10. Dry dilution refrigerator with 4He-1 K-loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, Kurt

    2015-03-01

    In this article we summarize experimental work on cryogen-free 3He/4He dilution refrigerators which, in addition to the dilution refrigeration circuit, are equipped with a 4He-1 K-stage. This type of DR becomes worth considering when high cooling capacities are needed at T ? 1 K to cool cold amplifiers and heat sink cables. In our application, the motivation for the construction of this type of cryostat was to do experiments on superconducting quantum circuits for quantum information technology and quantum simulations. In other work, DRs with 1 K-stage were proposed for astro-physical cryostats. For neutron scattering research, a top-loading cryogen-free DR with 1 K-stage was built which was equipped with a standard commercial dilution refrigeration insert. Cooling powers of up to 100 mW have been reached with our 1 K-stage, but higher refrigeration powers were achieved with more powerful pulse tube cryocoolers and higher 4He circulation rates in the 1 K-loop. Several different versions of a 1 K-loop have been tested in combination with a dilution refrigeration circuit. The lowest temperature of our DR was 4.3 mK.

  11. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  12. Activity coefficients of chlorophenols in water at infinite dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Tabai, S.; Rogalski, M.; Solimando, R.; Malanowski, S.K.

    1997-11-01

    The total pressure of aqueous solutions of chlorophenols was determined by a ebulliometric total pressure method for the aqueous solutions of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol in the temperature range from 40 to 90 C. The activity coefficients at infinite dilution and the Henry constants were derived.

  13. System and method for simultaneously collecting serial number information from numerous identity tags

    DOEpatents

    Doty, M.A.

    1997-01-07

    A system and method are disclosed for simultaneously collecting serial number information reports from numerous colliding coded-radio-frequency identity tags. Each tag has a unique multi-digit serial number that is stored in non-volatile RAM. A reader transmits an ASCII coded ``D`` character on a carrier of about 900 MHz and a power illumination field having a frequency of about 1.6 Ghz. A one MHz tone is modulated on the 1.6 Ghz carrier as a timing clock for a microprocessor in each of the identity tags. Over a thousand such tags may be in the vicinity and each is powered-up and clocked by the 1.6 Ghz power illumination field. Each identity tag looks for the ``D`` interrogator modulated on the 900 MHz carrier, and each uses a digit of its serial number to time a response. Clear responses received by the reader are repeated for verification. If no verification or a wrong number is received by any identity tag, it uses a second digital together with the first to time out a more extended period for response. Ultimately, the entire serial number will be used in the worst case collision environments; and since the serial numbers are defined as being unique, the final possibility will be successful because a clear time-slot channel will be available. 5 figs.

  14. Serial association analyses of recurrent gap time data via Kendall's tau.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tsung-Chiung; Su, Deng-Huang; Chang, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent event data are frequently encountered in long-term follow-up studies. In many applications, the gap times between two successive recurrent events are natural outcomes of interest. Investigation on patterns of associations among recurrent gap times within subjects is an important inferential issue. In this paper, we introduce flexible functions of previous gap times to create a class of summary measures of serial associations for a sequence of recurrent gap times through Kendall's tau. Such a general class of serial association measures provides a useful tool to quantify the predictive abilities of event history with different aspects. Non-parametric estimators of the proposed measures of serial associations are developed by generalizing the existing estimator of Kendall's tau for two serial gap times, in which inverse probability of censoring weights is used to overcome the induced dependent censoring. Various tests are further constructed for testing the constancy of serial associations over different events. Our method is applied to Denmark schizophrenia data and the results show that association structures are different for distinct ages of onset of schizophrenia. PMID:26395906

  15. The locus of serial processing in reading aloud: orthography-to-phonology computation or speech planning?

    PubMed

    Mousikou, Petroula; Rastle, Kathleen; Besner, Derek; Coltheart, Max

    2015-07-01

    Dual-route theories of reading posit that a sublexical reading mechanism that operates serially and from left to right is involved in the orthography-to-phonology computation. These theories attribute the masked onset priming effect (MOPE) and the phonological Stroop effect (PSE) to the serial left-to-right operation of this mechanism. However, both effects may arise during speech planning, in the phonological encoding process, which also occurs serially and from left to right. In the present paper, we sought to determine the locus of serial processing in reading aloud by testing the contrasting predictions that the dual-route and speech planning accounts make in relation to the MOPE and the PSE. The results from three experiments that used the MOPE and the PSE paradigms in English are inconsistent with the idea that these effects arise during speech planning, and consistent with the claim that a sublexical serially operating reading mechanism is involved in the print-to-sound translation. Simulations of the empirical data on the MOPE with the dual route cascaded (DRC) and connectionist dual process (CDP++) models, which are computational implementations of the dual-route theory of reading, provide further support for the dual-route account. PMID:25528095

  16. The SPi chip as an integrated power management device for serial powering of future HEP experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Trimpl, M.; Deptuch, G.; Gingu, C.; Yarema, R.; Holt, R.; Weber, M.; Kierstead, J.; Lynn, D.; /Brookhaven

    2009-01-01

    Serial powering is one viable and very efficient way to distribute power to future high energy physics (HEP) experiments. One promising way to realize serial powering is to have a power management device on the module level that provides the necessary voltage levels and features monitoring functionality. The SPi (Serial Powering Interface) chip is such a power manager and is designed to meet the requirements imposed by current SLHC upgrade plans. It incorporates a programmable shunt regulator, two linear regulators, current mode ADCs to monitor the current distribution on the module, over-current detection, and also provides module power-down capabilities. Compared to serially powered setups that use discrete components, the SPi offers a higher level of functionality in much less real estate and is designed to be radiation tolerant. Bump bonding techniques are used for chip on board assembly providing the most reliable connection at lowest impedance. This paper gives an overview of the SPi and outlines the main building blocks of the chip. First stand alone tests are presented showing that the chip is ready for operation in serially powered setups.

  17. Parallel and serial methods of calculating thermal insulation in European manikin standards.

    PubMed

    Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi; Wang, Faming; Holmér, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Standard No. EN 15831:2004 provides 2 methods of calculating insulation: parallel and serial. The parallel method is similar to the global one defined in Standard No. ISO 9920:2007. Standards No. EN 342:2004, EN 14058:2004 and EN 13537:2002 refer to the methods defined in Standard No. EN ISO 15831:2004 for testing cold protective clothing or equipment. However, it is necessary to consider several issues, e.g., referring to measuring human subjects, when using the serial method. With one zone, there is no serial-parallel issue as the results are the same, while more zones increase the difference in insulation value between the methods. If insulation is evenly distributed, differences between the serial and parallel method are relatively small and proportional. However, with more insulation layers overlapping in heavy cold protective ensembles, the serial method produces higher insulation values than the parallel one and human studies. Therefore, the parallel method is recommended for standard testing. PMID:22721536

  18. Linking memory and language: Evidence for a serial-order learning impairment in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Hachmann, Wibke M; Page, Mike P A; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated long-term serial-order learning impairments, operationalized as reduced Hebb repetition learning (HRL), in people with dyslexia. In a first multi-session experiment, we investigated both the persistence of a serial-order learning impairment as well as the long-term retention of serial-order representations, both in a group of Dutch-speaking adults with developmental dyslexia and in a matched control group. In a second experiment, we relied on the assumption that HRL mimics naturalistic word-form acquisition and we investigated the lexicalization of novel word-forms acquired through HRL. First, our results demonstrate that adults with dyslexia are fundamentally impaired in the long-term acquisition of serial-order information. Second, dyslexic and control participants show comparable retention of the long-term serial-order representations in memory over a period of 1 month. Third, the data suggest weaker lexicalization of newly acquired word-forms in the dyslexic group. We discuss the integration of these findings into current theoretical views of dyslexia. PMID:26164302

  19. System and method for simultaneously collecting serial number information from numerous identity tags

    DOEpatents

    Doty, Michael A. (Manteca, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for simultaneously collecting serial number information reports from numerous colliding coded-radio-frequency identity tags. Each tag has a unique multi-digit serial number that is stored in non-volatile RAM. A reader transmits an ASCII coded "D" character on a carrier of about 900 MHz and a power illumination field having a frequency of about 1.6 Ghz. A one MHz tone is modulated on the 1.6 Ghz carrier as a timing clock for a microprocessor in each of the identity tags. Over a thousand such tags may be in the vicinity and each is powered-up and clocked by the 1.6 Ghz power illumination field. Each identity tag looks for the "D" interrogator modulated on the 900 MHz carrier, and each uses a digit of its serial number to time a response. Clear responses received by the reader are repeated for verification. If no verification or a wrong number is received by any identity tag, it uses a second digital together with the first to time out a more extended period for response. Ultimately, the entire serial number will be used in the worst case collision environments; and since the serial numbers are defined as being unique, the final possibility will be successful because a clear time-slot channel will be available.

  20. Serial correlation in neural spike trains: Experimental evidence, stochastic modeling, and single neuron variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkhooi, Farzad; Strube-Bloss, Martin F.; Nawrot, Martin P.

    2009-02-01

    The activity of spiking neurons is frequently described by renewal point process models that assume the statistical independence and identical distribution of the intervals between action potentials. However, the assumption of independent intervals must be questioned for many different types of neurons. We review experimental studies that reported the feature of a negative serial correlation of neighboring intervals, commonly observed in neurons in the sensory periphery as well as in central neurons, notably in the mammalian cortex. In our experiments we observed the same short-lived negative serial dependence of intervals in the spontaneous activity of mushroom body extrinsic neurons in the honeybee. To model serial interval correlations of arbitrary lags, we suggest a family of autoregressive point processes. Its marginal interval distribution is described by the generalized gamma model, which includes as special cases the log-normal and gamma distributions, which have been widely used to characterize regular spiking neurons. In numeric simulations we investigated how serial correlation affects the variance of the neural spike count. We show that the experimentally confirmed negative correlation reduces single-neuron variability, as quantified by the Fano factor, by up to 50%, which favors the transmission of a rate code. We argue that the feature of a negative serial correlation is likely to be common to the class of spike-frequency-adapting neurons and that it might have been largely overlooked in extracellular single-unit recordings due to spike sorting errors.

  1. Segmentation propagation for the automated quantification of ventricle volume from serial MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linguraru, Marius George; Butman, John A.

    2009-02-01

    Accurate ventricle volume estimates could potentially improve the understanding and diagnosis of communicating hydrocephalus. Postoperative communicating hydrocephalus has been recognized in patients with brain tumors where the changes in ventricle volume can be difficult to identify, particularly over short time intervals. Because of the complex alterations of brain morphology in these patients, the segmentation of brain ventricles is challenging. Our method evaluates ventricle size from serial brain MRI examinations; we (i) combined serial images to increase SNR, (ii) automatically segmented this image to generate a ventricle template using fast marching methods and geodesic active contours, and (iii) propagated the segmentation using deformable registration of the original MRI datasets. By applying this deformation to the ventricle template, serial volume estimates were obtained in a robust manner from routine clinical images (0.93 overlap) and their variation analyzed.

  2. A serial-kinematic nanopositioner for high-speed atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wadikhaye, Sachin P. Yong, Yuen Kuan; Reza Moheimani, S. O.

    2014-10-15

    A flexure-guided serial-kinematic XYZ nanopositioner for high-speed Atomic Force Microscopy is presented in this paper. Two aspects influencing the performance of serial-kinematic nanopositioners are studied in this work. First, mass reduction by using tapered flexures is proposed to increased the natural frequency of the nanopositioner. 25% increase in the natural frequency is achieved due to reduced mass with tapered flexures. Second, a study of possible sensor positioning in a serial-kinematic nanopositioner is presented. An arrangement of sensors for exact estimation of cross-coupling is incorporated in the proposed design. A feedforward control strategy based on phaser approach is presented to mitigate the dynamics and nonlinearity in the system. Limitations in design approach and control strategy are discussed in the Conclusion.

  3. SSCC TD: A Serial and Simultaneous Configural-Cue Compound Stimuli Representation for Temporal Difference Learning

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Esther; Gray, Jonathan; Alonso, Eduardo; Bonardi, Charlotte; Jennings, Dómhnall J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel representational framework for the Temporal Difference (TD) model of learning, which allows the computation of configural stimuli – cumulative compounds of stimuli that generate perceptual emergents known as configural cues. This Simultaneous and Serial Configural-cue Compound Stimuli Temporal Difference model (SSCC TD) can model both simultaneous and serial stimulus compounds, as well as compounds including the experimental context. This modification significantly broadens the range of phenomena which the TD paradigm can explain, and allows it to predict phenomena which traditional TD solutions cannot, particularly effects that depend on compound stimuli functioning as a whole, such as pattern learning and serial structural discriminations, and context-related effects. PMID:25054799

  4. An application of stereoscopy and image processing in forensics: recovering obliterated firearms serial number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Nunes, L. C.; dos Santos, Paulo Acioly M.

    2004-10-01

    We present an application of the use of stereoscope to recovering obliterated firearms serial number. We investigate a promising new combined cheap method using both non-destructive and destructive techniques. With the use of a stereomicroscope coupled with a digital camera and a flexible cold light source, we can capture the image of the damaged area, and with continuous polishing and sometimes with the help of image processing techniques we could enhance the observed images and they can also be recorded as evidence. This method has already proven to be useful, in certain cases, in aluminum dotted pistol frames, whose serial number is printed with a laser, when etching techniques are not successful. We can also observe acid treated steel surfaces and enhance the images of recovered serial numbers, which sometimes lack of definition.

  5. A remotely operated serial sampler for collecting gas-tight fluid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun; Ding, Kang; Tan, Chun-yang

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and preliminary test results for a gas-tight serial sampler intended to be deployed at seafloor for long-term operation to take time-series fluid samples from deep-sea environments such as cold seeps, water column and hydrothermal vents. The serial sampler is a modular system that is based on independent and identical sampling modules, which are designed to collect six 160 ml gas-tight fluid samples maintained at high pressure to a depth of 4000 meters. With two working modes, the sampler can be deployed either with seafloor cabled observatory for remote control or as a stand-alone device for autonomous operation. A prototype of the instrument has been constructed and tested on the MARS cabled observatory for two months. The laboratory and field tests proved the success of the design and construction of the serial sampler, and indicated the potential for future ocean sciences.

  6. Differential Expression of Ecdysone Receptor Leads to Variation in Phenotypic Plasticity across Serial Homologs

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xiaoling; Bear, Ashley; Liew, Seng Fatt; Bhardwaj, Shivam; Wasik, Bethany R.; Dinwiddie, April; Bastianelli, Carole; Cheong, Wei Fun; Wenk, Markus R.; Cao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Bodies are often made of repeated units, or serial homologs, that develop using the same core gene regulatory network. Local inputs and modifications to this network allow serial homologs to evolve different morphologies, but currently we do not understand which modifications allow these repeated traits to evolve different levels of phenotypic plasticity. Here we describe variation in phenotypic plasticity across serial homologous eyespots of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, hypothesized to be under selection for similar or different functions in the wet and dry seasonal forms. Specifically, we document the presence of eyespot size and scale brightness plasticity in hindwing eyespots hypothesized to vary in function across seasons, and reduced size plasticity and absence of brightness plasticity in forewing eyespots hypothesized to have the same function across seasons. By exploring the molecular and physiological causes of this variation in plasticity across fore and hindwing serial homologs we discover that: 1) temperature experienced during the wandering stages of larval development alters titers of an ecdysteroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in the hemolymph of wet and dry seasonal forms at that stage; 2) the 20E receptor (EcR) is differentially expressed in the forewing and hindwing eyespot centers of both seasonal forms during this critical developmental stage; and 3) manipulations of EcR signaling disproportionately affected hindwing eyespots relative to forewing eyespots. We propose that differential EcR expression across forewing and hindwing eyespots at a critical stage of development explains the variation in levels of phenotypic plasticity across these serial homologues. This finding provides a novel signaling pathway, 20E, and a novel molecular candidate, EcR, for the regulation of levels of phenotypic plasticity across body parts or serial homologs. PMID:26405828

  7. Differential Expression of Ecdysone Receptor Leads to Variation in Phenotypic Plasticity across Serial Homologs.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Antónia; Tong, Xiaoling; Bear, Ashley; Liew, Seng Fatt; Bhardwaj, Shivam; Wasik, Bethany R; Dinwiddie, April; Bastianelli, Carole; Cheong, Wei Fun; Wenk, Markus R; Cao, Hui; Prudic, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Bodies are often made of repeated units, or serial homologs, that develop using the same core gene regulatory network. Local inputs and modifications to this network allow serial homologs to evolve different morphologies, but currently we do not understand which modifications allow these repeated traits to evolve different levels of phenotypic plasticity. Here we describe variation in phenotypic plasticity across serial homologous eyespots of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, hypothesized to be under selection for similar or different functions in the wet and dry seasonal forms. Specifically, we document the presence of eyespot size and scale brightness plasticity in hindwing eyespots hypothesized to vary in function across seasons, and reduced size plasticity and absence of brightness plasticity in forewing eyespots hypothesized to have the same function across seasons. By exploring the molecular and physiological causes of this variation in plasticity across fore and hindwing serial homologs we discover that: 1) temperature experienced during the wandering stages of larval development alters titers of an ecdysteroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in the hemolymph of wet and dry seasonal forms at that stage; 2) the 20E receptor (EcR) is differentially expressed in the forewing and hindwing eyespot centers of both seasonal forms during this critical developmental stage; and 3) manipulations of EcR signaling disproportionately affected hindwing eyespots relative to forewing eyespots. We propose that differential EcR expression across forewing and hindwing eyespots at a critical stage of development explains the variation in levels of phenotypic plasticity across these serial homologues. This finding provides a novel signaling pathway, 20E, and a novel molecular candidate, EcR, for the regulation of levels of phenotypic plasticity across body parts or serial homologs. PMID:26405828

  8. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS USING SEQUENTIAL DETECTION IN A SERIAL MULTI-HOP WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK 

    E-print Network

    Choi, Dae H.

    2010-01-16

    DETECTION IN A SERIAL MULTI-HOP WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK A Thesis by DAE HYUN CHOI Submitted to the O?ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulflllment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2008 Major Subject...: Electrical Engineering PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS USING SEQUENTIAL DETECTION IN A SERIAL MULTI-HOP WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK A Thesis by DAE HYUN CHOI Submitted to the O?ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulflllment of the requirements...

  9. A serial digital data communications device. [for real time flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetter, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    A general purpose computer peripheral device which is used to provide a full-duplex, serial, digital data transmission link between a Xerox Sigma computer and a wide variety of external equipment, including computers, terminals, and special purpose devices is reported. The interface has an extensive set of user defined options to assist the user in establishing the necessary data links. This report describes those options and other features of the serial communications interface and its performance by discussing its application to a particular problem.

  10. Application of a computer serial probe recognition (SPR) task in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, A.V.; Kahler, D.W.

    1992-11-01

    The Serial Probe Recognition (SPR) task was established to fulfill a requirement for a nonhuman primate behavioral task as a final screening of candidate compound for the pretreatment and treatment (PT) against chemical warfare agents. Initially, equipment on hand was reconfigured to support this requirement. From this prototype, we designed and developed a behavioral testing system to study SPR memory in nonhuman primates. Our system consisted of an operant chamber, a personal computer with a monitor, a touch sensitive screen, a pellet dispenser and an interface system. In this report we describe the development and application of the behavioral testing system in our laboratory. Serial probe recognition, Behavior, Training Rhesus Monkeys, Macaca Mulatta.

  11. Serial identification of EEG patterns using adaptive wavelet-based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazimov, A. I.; Pavlov, A. N.; Nazimova, A. A.; Grubov, V. V.; Koronovskii, A. A.; Sitnikova, E.; Hramov, A. E.

    2013-10-01

    A problem of recognition specific oscillatory patterns in the electroencephalograms with the continuous wavelet-transform is discussed. Aiming to improve abilities of the wavelet-based tools we propose a serial adaptive method for sequential identification of EEG patterns such as sleep spindles and spike-wave discharges. This method provides an optimal selection of parameters based on objective functions and enables to extract the most informative features of the recognized structures. Different ways of increasing the quality of patterns recognition within the proposed serial adaptive technique are considered.

  12. The death of recency: Relationship between end-state comfort and serial position effects in serial recall: Logan and Fischman (2011) revisited.

    PubMed

    Logan, Samuel W; Fischman, Mark G

    2015-12-01

    Two experiments examined the dynamic interaction between cognitive resources in short-term memory and bimanual object manipulation by extending recent research by Logan and Fischman (2011). In Experiment 1, 16 participants completed a bimanual end-state comfort task and a memory task requiring serial recall of 12 words or pictures. The end-state comfort task involved moving two glasses between two shelves. Participants viewed the items, performed the end-state comfort task, and then serially recalled the items. Recall was evaluated by the presence or absence of primacy and recency effects. The end-state comfort effect (ESCE) was assessed by the percentage of initial hand positions that allowed the hands to end comfortably. The main findings indicated that the ESCE was disrupted; the primacy effect remained intact; and the recency effect disappeared regardless of the type of memory item recalled. In Experiment 2, 16 participants viewed six items, performed an end-state comfort task, viewed another six items, and then serially recalled all 12 items. Results were essentially the same as in Experiment 1. Findings suggest that executing a bimanual end-state comfort task, regardless of when it is completed during a memory task, diminishes the recency effect irrespective of the type of memory item. PMID:26298213

  13. The Carlina-type diluted telescope. Stellar fringes on Deneb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Coroller, H.; Dejonghe, J.; Hespeels, F.; Arnold, L.; Andersen, T.; Deram, P.; Ricci, D.; Berio, P.; Blazit, A.; Clausse, J.-M.; Guillaume, C.; Meunier, J. P.; Regal, X.; Sottile, R.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The performance of interferometers has been much increased over the past ten years. But the number of observable objects is still limited by the low sensitivity and imaging capability of the current facilities. Studies have been conducted with the aim to propose a new generation of interferometers. Aims: The Carlina concept studied at the Haute-Provence Observatory consists of an optical interferometer configured as a diluted version of the Arecibo radio telescope: above the diluted primary mirror made of fixed co-spherical segments, a helium balloon or cables that are suspended between two mountains and/or pylons carry a gondola containing the focal optics. This concept does not require delay lines. Methods: Since 2003, we have been building a technical demonstrator of this diluted telescope. The main goals of this project were to find opto-mechanical solutions to stabilize the optics attached to cables at several tens of meters above the ground, and to characterize this diluted telescope under real conditions. In 2012, we obtained metrology fringes, and co-spherized the primary mirrors within one micron accuracy. In 2013, we tested the whole optical train: servo loop, metrology, and the focal gondola. Results: We obtained stellar fringes on Deneb in September 2013. We here present the characteristics of these observations: quality of the guiding, signal-to-noise ratio reached, and possible improvements for a future system. Conclusions: By detecting fringes on Deneb, we confirm that the entire system conceptually has worked correctly. It also proves that when the primary mirrors are aligned using the metrology system, we can directly record fringes in the focal gondola, even in blind operation. It is an important step that demonstrates the feasibility of building a diluted telescope using cables strained between cliffs or pylons. Carlina, like the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) or Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), could be one of the first members of a new class of telescopes named large diluted telescopes. Its optical architecture has many advantages for future projects: Planet Formation Imager (PFI), post-ELTs, interferometer in space.

  14. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description...90.421 Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

  15. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description...89.419 Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

  16. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description...89.419 Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

  17. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description...90.421 Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

  18. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description...89.419 Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

  19. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description...91.421 Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

  20. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description...90.421 Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

  1. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description...91.421 Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

  2. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description...89.419 Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

  3. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description...91.421 Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

  4. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description...90.421 Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

  5. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description...91.421 Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

  6. Effect of fuel type on the extinction of fuel and air stream diluted partially premixed flames

    E-print Network

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    Effect of fuel type on the extinction of fuel and air stream diluted partially premixed flames flames 1. Introduction Our previous investigations of the extinction of CO2-diluted methane­air partially

  7. Controlling properties of DLC: Effects of pressure and precursor dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Grill, A.; Patel, V.

    1995-12-31

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been deposited by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition using a RF excited plasma of cyclohexane. The films have been deposited at different pressures and constant RF power density. For specific combinations of plasma parameters the precursor has been diluted with argon. It has been found that the physical properties and the wear resistance of the DLC films are strongly dependent on the pressure in the reactor and corresponding substrate bias. Films deposited at a pressure above a threshold value had polymer-like characteristics. It was further found that it is possible to enhance diamond-like properties of films deposited above the threshold pressure by diluting the precursor with argon.

  8. Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: A nanoparticulate perspective.

    PubMed

    Chikramane, Prashant Satish; Suresh, Akkihebbal K; Bellare, Jayesh Ramesh; Kane, Shantaram Govind

    2010-10-01

    Homeopathy is controversial because medicines in high potencies such as 30c and 200c involve huge dilution factors (10?? and 10??? respectively) which are many orders of magnitude greater than Avogadro's number, so that theoretically there should be no measurable remnants of the starting materials. No hypothesis which predicts the retention of properties of starting materials has been proposed nor has any physical entity been shown to exist in these high potency medicines. Using market samples of metal-derived medicines from reputable manufacturers, we have demonstrated for the first time by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction and chemical analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), the presence of physical entities in these extreme dilutions, in the form of nanoparticles of the starting metals and their aggregates. PMID:20970092

  9. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Eakin, David E. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  10. Anomalous chiral Luttinger liquid behavior of diluted fractionally charged quasiparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y. C.; Heiblum, M.; Oreg, Y.; Umansky, V.; Mahalu, D.

    2003-05-01

    Fractionally charged quasiparticles in edge states, are expected to condense to a chiral Luttinger liquid (CLL). We studied their condensation by measuring the conductance and shot noise due to an artificial backscatterer embedded in their path. At sufficiently low-temperatures backscattering events were found to be strongly correlated, producing a highly nonlinear current-voltage characteristic and a nonclassical shot noise—both are expected in a CLL. When, however, the impinging beam of quasiparticles was made dilute, either artificially via an additional weak backscatterer or by increasing the temperature, the resultant outgoing noise was classical, indicating the scattering of independent quasiparticles. Here, we study in some detail this surprising crossover from correlated particle behavior to an independent behavior, as a function of beam dilution and temperature.

  11. Praxair's dilute oxygen combustion technology for pyrometallurgical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, M. F.; Kobayashi, H.; Deneys, A. C.

    2001-05-01

    Dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) technology uses separate high-velocity fuel and oxygen jets to generate strong in-furnace gas recirculation, producing combustion between the fuel and a highly diluted oxygen and furnace-gas mixture. These very low NOx oxy-fuel burners have been developed and commercially demonstrated in steel reheating furnaces. The burner design meets industry needs for increased productivity and lower operating costs with minimal capital expense and low maintenance. The performance of DOC technology has been measured under laboratory and industrial conditions encompassing both natural gas and coke oven gas firing, and a wide range of furnace temperatures and nitrogen levels that simulate air infiltration. This paper describes the results of the tests using natural gas as the fuel and lists potential applications for DOC technology in the non-ferrous metals industry.

  12. Thermal Conductivity and Sound Attenuation in Dilute Atomic Fermi Gases

    E-print Network

    Braby, Matt; Schaefer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We compute the thermal conductivity and sound attenuation length of a dilute atomic Fermi gas in the framework of kinetic theory. Above the critical temperature for superfluidity, T_c, the quasi-particles are fermions, whereas below T_c, the dominant excitations are phonons. We calculate the thermal conductivity in both cases. We find that at unitarity the thermal conductivity \\kappa in the normal phase scales as \\kappa ~ T^{3/2}. In the superfluid phase we find \\kappa ~ T^{2}. At high temperature the Prandtl number, the ratio of the momentum and thermal diffusion constants, is 2/3. The ratio increases as the temperature is lowered. As a consequence we expect sound attenuation in the normal phase just above T_c to be dominated by shear viscosity. We comment on the possibility of extracting the shear viscosity of the dilute Fermi gas at unitarity using measurements of the sound absorption length.

  13. Derivation of Equivalent Continuous Dilution for Cyclic, Unsteady Driving Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering; Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2010-12-15

    This article uses an analytical approach to determine the dilution of an unsteadily-generated solute in an unsteady solvent stream, under cyclic temporal boundary conditions. The goal is to find a simplified way of showing equivalence of such a process to a reference case where equivalent dilution is defined as a weighted average concentration. This derivation has direct applications to the ventilation of indoor spaces where indoor air quality and energy consumption cannot in general be simultaneously optimized. By solving the equation we can specify how much air we need to use in one ventilation pattern compared to another to obtain same indoor air quality. Because energy consumption is related to the amount of air exchanged by a ventilation system, the equation can be used as a first step to evaluate different ventilation patterns effect on the energy consumption. The use of the derived equation is demonstrated by representative cases of interest in both residential and non-residential buildings.

  14. Thermal Conductivity and Sound Attenuation in Dilute Atomic Fermi Gases

    E-print Network

    Matt Braby; Jingyi Chao; Thomas Schaefer

    2010-10-15

    We compute the thermal conductivity and sound attenuation length of a dilute atomic Fermi gas in the framework of kinetic theory. Above the critical temperature for superfluidity, T_c, the quasi-particles are fermions, whereas below T_c, the dominant excitations are phonons. We calculate the thermal conductivity in both cases. We find that at unitarity the thermal conductivity \\kappa in the normal phase scales as \\kappa ~ T^{3/2}. In the superfluid phase we find \\kappa ~ T^{2}. At high temperature the Prandtl number, the ratio of the momentum and thermal diffusion constants, is 2/3. The ratio increases as the temperature is lowered. As a consequence we expect sound attenuation in the normal phase just above T_c to be dominated by shear viscosity. We comment on the possibility of extracting the shear viscosity of the dilute Fermi gas at unitarity using measurements of the sound absorption length.

  15. Development of a compact dilution refrigerator for zero gravity operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat R.; Helvensteijn, Ben

    1990-01-01

    A compact dilution refrigerator design based on internal charcoal adsorption is being tested for operation in zero gravity. This refrigerator is self-contained with no external pumps or gas handling system and provides reliable operation since it has no moving parts. All operations are performed with heaters and are completely computer controlled. The refrigerator is capable of providing many hours of operation at very low temperature before the charcoal pumps must be recycled.

  16. Learning and forgetting on asymmetric, diluted neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Derrida, B.; Nadal, J.P.

    1987-12-01

    It is possible to construct diluted asymmetric models of neural networks for which the dynamics can be calculated exactly. The authors test several learning schemes, in particular, models for which the values of the synapses remain bounded and depend on the history. Our analytical results on the relative efficiencies of the various learning schemes are qualitatively similar to the corresponding ones obtained numerically on fully connected symmetric networks.

  17. Dry dilution refrigerator with He-4 precool loop

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlig, Kurt

    2014-01-29

    He-3/He-4 dilution refrigerators (DR) are very common in sub-Kelvin temperature research. We describe a pulse tube precooled DR where a separate He-4 circuit condenses the He-3 of the dilution loop. Whereas in our previous work the dilution circuit and the He-4 circuit were separate, we show how the two circuits can be combined. Originally, the He-4 loop with a base temperature of ? 1 K was installed to make an additional cooling power of up to 100 mW available to cool cold amplifiers and electrical lines. In the new design, the dilution circuit is run through a heat exchanger in the vessel of the He-4 circuit so condensation of the He-3 stream of the DR is done by the He-4 stage. A much reduced condensation time (factor of 2) of the He-3/He-4 gas mixture at the beginning of an experiment is achieved. A compressor is no longer needed with the DR as the condensation pressure remains below atmospheric pressure at all times; thus the risk of losing expensive He-3 gas is small. The performance of the DR has been improved compared to previous work: The base temperature of the mixing chamber at a small He-3 flow rate is now 4.1 mK; at the highest He-3 flow rate of 1.2 mmol/s this temperature increases to 13 mK. Mixing chamber temperatures were measured with a cerium magnesium nitrate (CMN) thermometer which was calibrated with a superconducting fixed point device.

  18. High-efficiency multijunction solar cells employing dilute nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabnis, Vijit; Yuen, Homan; Wiemer, Mike

    2012-10-01

    Solar Junction has developed a set of dilute nitride compound semiconductors with antimony that offer tunable absorption between the GaAs and Ge bandedges, while retaining lattice matching to GaAs or Ge substrates. By replacing the Ge junction in a conventional triple junction solar cell with a GaInNAsSb junction, world record cell efficiencies of 43.5% have been achieved, and CPV module efficiencies (DC) exceeding 35% may now be possible in the near future.

  19. Nematic ordering in dilute solutions of rodlike polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemkin, Igor I.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2004-06-01

    Quantitative theory of orientational behavior of rodlike polyelectrolytes in dilute solution is developed. We find that in salt-free solutions many-body Coulomb interactions between macro- and counterions favor nematic ordering. It is shown that the orientationally isotropic phase of the solution becomes unstable toward nematic ordering at polymer concentration smaller than the overlap concentration. Our predictions are consistent with experimental observations for synthetic polyelectrolytes poly(p-phenylene)sulfonates in aqueous solutions.

  20. Dry dilution refrigerator with He-4 precool loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    He-3/He-4 dilution refrigerators (DR) are very common in sub-Kelvin temperature research. We describe a pulse tube precooled DR where a separate He-4 circuit condenses the He-3 of the dilution loop. Whereas in our previous work the dilution circuit and the He-4 circuit were separate, we show how the two circuits can be combined. Originally, the He-4 loop with a base temperature of ˜ 1 K was installed to make an additional cooling power of up to 100 mW available to cool cold amplifiers and electrical lines. In the new design, the dilution circuit is run through a heat exchanger in the vessel of the He-4 circuit so condensation of the He-3 stream of the DR is done by the He-4 stage. A much reduced condensation time (factor of 2) of the He-3/He-4 gas mixture at the beginning of an experiment is achieved. A compressor is no longer needed with the DR as the condensation pressure remains below atmospheric pressure at all times; thus the risk of losing expensive He-3 gas is small. The performance of the DR has been improved compared to previous work: The base temperature of the mixing chamber at a small He-3 flow rate is now 4.1 mK; at the highest He-3 flow rate of 1.2 mmol/s this temperature increases to 13 mK. Mixing chamber temperatures were measured with a cerium magnesium nitrate (CMN) thermometer which was calibrated with a superconducting fixed point device.

  1. Entropy Production and Thermal Conductivity of A Dilute Gas

    E-print Network

    Yong-Jun Zhang

    2011-02-16

    It is known that the thermal conductivity of a dilute gas can be derived by using kinetic theory. We present here a new derivation by starting with two known entropy production principles: the steepest entropy ascent (SEA) principle and the maximum entropy production (MEP) principle. A remarkable feature of the new derivation is that it does not require the specification of the existence of the temperature gradient. The known result is reproduced in a similar form.

  2. Serial Scanning and Registration of High Resolution Quantitative Computed Tomography Volume Scans for the Determination of Local Bone Density Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Napel, Sandy; Yan, Chye H.

    1996-01-01

    Progress in development of the methods required to study bone remodeling as a function of time is reported. The following topics are presented: 'A New Methodology for Registration Accuracy Evaluation', 'Registration of Serial Skeletal Images for Accurately Measuring Changes in Bone Density', and 'Precise and Accurate Gold Standard for Multimodality and Serial Registration Method Evaluations.'

  3. 30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.49 Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. The performance and adequacy of the exhaust-gas dilution system shall be determined in tests of the complete equipment....

  4. Ecological Modelling 178 (2004) 349356 Growth dilution in multilevel food chains

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    2004-01-01

    Ecological Modelling 178 (2004) 349­356 Growth dilution in multilevel food chains Robert A of growth dilution in all trophic levels of a food chain. We are concerned with concentration as well by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Growth dilution; Bioaccumulation; Biomagnification; Food chain 1. Introduction

  5. Spin-glass and antiferromagnet critical behavior in a diluted fcc antiferromagnet Carsten Wengel

    E-print Network

    Henley, Christopher L.

    on a Monte Carlo study of a diluted Ising antiferromagnet on a fcc lattice. This is a typical model example Carlo study of a diluted frustrated Ising model on a fcc lattice given by the Hamiltonian H J i,j i) and the slightly diluted case (p 1), that has already been studied by Monte Carlo MC simulation3­5 and other

  6. 40 CFR 1065.546 - Validation of minimum dilution ratio for PM batch sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over... exhaust flow (or previously diluted flow), dilution air flow, and dilute exhaust flow. You may determine the raw exhaust flow rate based on the measured intake air molar flow rate and the chemical...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.546 - Validation of minimum dilution ratio for PM batch sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over... exhaust flow (or previously diluted flow), dilution air flow, and dilute exhaust flow. You may determine the raw exhaust flow rate based on the measured intake air molar flow rate and the chemical...

  8. Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; McAughey, J.

    2009-02-01

    Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

  9. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, Jared M.; Cohen, Andrew L.; Shiffrin, Richard M.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies), may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects. PMID:26406323

  10. Hyponatremia in acute decompensated heart failure: depletion versus dilution.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, Frederik H; Steels, Paul; Grieten, Lars; Nijst, Petra; Tang, W H Wilson; Mullens, Wilfried

    2015-02-10

    Hyponatremia frequently poses a therapeutic challenge in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Treating physicians should differentiate between depletional versus dilutional hyponatremia. The former is caused by diuretic agents, which enhance sodium excretion, often with concomitant potassium/magnesium losses. This can be treated with isotonic saline, whereas potassium/magnesium administration may be helpful if plasma concentrations are low. In contrast, as impaired water excretion, rather than sodium deficiency, is the culprit in dilutional hyponatremia, isotonic saline administration may further depress the serum sodium concentration. Because free water excretion is achieved by continuous sodium reabsorption in distal nephron segments with low water permeability, diuretic agents that impair this mechanism (e.g., thiazide-type diuretic agents and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) should be avoided, and proximally acting agents (e.g., acetazolamide and loop diuretic agents) are preferred. Vasopressin antagonists, which promote low water permeability in the collecting ducts and, hence, free water excretion, remain under investigation for dilutional hyponatremia in ADHF. PMID:25660927

  11. Hormetic effects of extremely diluted solutions on gene expression.

    PubMed

    Dei, Andrea; Bernardini, Simonetta

    2015-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results of investigations showing how molecular biological tools, such as DNA-microarrays, can provide useful suggestions about the behaviour of human organisms treated with microamounts of drugs or homeopathic medicines. The results reviewed here suggest firstly that the action of drugs is not quenched by ultra-high dilution and proceeds through modulation of gene expressions. The efficacy of drug solutions seems to be maintained in ultra-highly diluted preparations, a fact which constitutes a challenge to the dogma of quantization of matter. The second and more important result is that the different gene expression profiles of cell systems treated with the same drugs at different dilutions suggest the existence of hormetic mechanisms. The gene expression profiles of cells treated with copper(II) sulfate, Gelsemium sempervirens and Apis mellifica, are characterized by the same common denominator of the concentration-dependent inversion of gene expression, which can justify at a molecular level the concept of simile adopted in homeopathy. The main conclusion we draw from these results is that these procedures provide new kinds of information and a tool for disclosing the mechanisms involved in hormetic effects. The application of these effects to modern medicine may allow researchers to conceive unprecedented therapeutic applications or to optimize the currently used ones in the framework of a low-dose pharmacology based on a reliable experimental platform. PMID:25869976

  12. Infinitely Dilute Partial Molar Properties of Proteins from Computer Simulation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A detailed understanding of temperature and pressure effects on an infinitely dilute protein’s conformational equilibrium requires knowledge of the corresponding infinitely dilute partial molar properties. Established molecular dynamics methodologies generally have not provided a way to calculate these properties without either a loss of thermodynamic rigor, the introduction of nonunique parameters, or a loss of information about which solute conformations specifically contributed to the output values. Here we implement a simple method that is thermodynamically rigorous and possesses none of the above disadvantages, and we report on the method’s feasibility and computational demands. We calculate infinitely dilute partial molar properties for two proteins and attempt to distinguish the thermodynamic differences between a native and a denatured conformation of a designed miniprotein. We conclude that simple ensemble average properties can be calculated with very reasonable amounts of computational power. In contrast, properties corresponding to fluctuating quantities are computationally demanding to calculate precisely, although they can be obtained more easily by following the temperature and/or pressure dependence of the corresponding ensemble averages. PMID:25325571

  13. Equivalent Effects of Grouping by Time, Voice, and Location on Response Timing in Verbal Serial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Maybery, Murray T.

    2008-01-01

    The grouping of list items is known to improve serial memory accuracy and constrain the nature of temporal errors. A recent study (M. T. Maybery, F. B. R. Parmentier, & D. M. Jones, 2002) showed that grouping results in a temporal organization of the participants' responses that mimics the list structure but not the timing of its presentation.…

  14. Substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons code initiation of a serial pattern: implications for natural action sequences

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    activity, obsessive±compulsive disorder, Parkinson's disease, rat, serial order, syntax, Tourette). Conversely, initiation of excessively stereotyped sequences is a feature of obsessive±compulsive disorder for natural action sequences and sequential disorders Melanie Meyer-Luehmann,1,4 Jeffrey F. Thompson,2,4 Kent

  15. Short-Term Memory for Serial Order: A Recurrent Neural Network Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvinick, Matthew M.; Plaut, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite a century of research, the mechanisms underlying short-term or working memory for serial order remain uncertain. Recent theoretical models have converged on a particular account, based on transient associations between independent item and context representations. In the present article, the authors present an alternative model, according…

  16. The Microcomputer in the Library: V. Circulation Control and Serials Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggate, Peter; Dyer, Hilary

    1986-01-01

    Describes features of existing software packages for circulation control (borrower and item files, data capture and verification, issue, return, renewal, loan conditions, reservations, overdues, updating, and management information), and serials control (ordering, recording receipt, reader access, binding and financial control, listings, and…

  17. On the Fate of Distractor Stimuli in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dux, Paul E.; Coltheart, Veronika; Harris, Irina M.

    2006-01-01

    Observers demonstrate an impaired ability to report the second of two targets in a "rapid serial visual presentation" (RSVP) stream if it appears within 500 ms of the first target--a phenomenon known as the "attentional blink." This study investigated the fate of stimuli in dual-target RSVP streams that do not require report--the distractors. In…

  18. Evidence for a Specific Impairment of Serial Order Short-Term Memory in Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Trecy Martinez; Majerus, Steve; Mahot, Aline; Poncelet, Martine

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the nature of verbal short-term memory (STM) deficits in dyslexic children, the present study used the distinction between item and serial order retention capacities in STM tasks. According to recent STM models, storage of verbal item information depends very directly upon the richness of underlying phonological and…

  19. Serial Sectioning of the Fallopian Tube Allows for Improved Identification of Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Ernst; Fleming, Saroj; McEwen, Kelsey A; Montag, Anthony; Temkin, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Serial sectioning of the fallopian tube in women undergoing risk reducing surgery has been shown to increase the detection rate of occult malignancy in BRCA mutation carriers. We undertook this study to determine whether this protocol at the time of surgery for ovarian cancer (OV) or primary peritoneal malignancies (PP) changes the detection rate of fallopian tube carcinoma (FT). We secondarily investigated where this difference affects patient outcomes. Methods A retrospective review of 130 patients treated at the University of Chicago Medical Center for ovarian, peritoneal or fallopian tube carcinoma was conducted. Sixty five patients diagnosed with OV, PP or FT who had serial sectioning of the fallopian tubes at the time of diagnoses (SS) were compared to 65 patients whose fallopian tubes were sectioned in a standard fashion (PSS). Results Serial sectioning of the fallopian tube at the time of pathologic examination in women with presumed OV or PP led to an increase in the number of women diagnosed with FT as the primary site of origin (p<0.001). Clinical or pathologic risk factors leading to an increased risk of FT were not identified. Survival between the two groups was similar. Conclusion In women with presumed OV or PP, serial sectioning identifies women with FT. FT may be more common than previously noted, however distinct biologic or clinical behavior to differentiate it from OV or PP could not be identified. Clinical management of FT should continue to be the same as that of OV or PP. PMID:23237768

  20. The Relationship between Working Memory for Serial Order and Numerical Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, the link between verbal working memory (WM) and calculation abilities remains poorly understood. The present longitudinal study focuses specifically on the role of serial order retention capacities, based on recent findings suggesting a link between ordinal processing in verbal WM and numerical processing tasks. Children…