Science.gov

Sample records for two-fold serial dilution

  1. Serial Dilution Simulation Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keler, Cynthia; Balutis, Tabitha; Bergen, Kim; Laudenslager, Bryanna; Rubino, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Serial dilution is often a difficult concept for students to understand. In this short dry lab exercise, students perform serial dilutions using seed beads. This exercise helps students gain skill at performing dilutions without using reagents, bacterial cultures, or viral cultures, while being able to visualize the process.

  2. Microfluidic serial dilution ladder.

    PubMed

    Ahrar, Siavash; Hwang, Michelle; Duncan, Philip N; Hui, Elliot E

    2014-01-01

    Serial dilution is a fundamental procedure that is common to a large number of laboratory protocols. Automation of serial dilution is thus a valuable component for lab-on-a-chip systems. While a handful of different microfluidic strategies for serial dilution have been reported, approaches based on continuous flow mixing inherently consume larger amounts of sample volume and chip real estate. We employ valve-driven circulatory mixing to address these issues and also introduce a novel device structure to store each stage of the dilution process. The dilution strategy is based on sequentially mixing the rungs of a ladder structure. We demonstrate a 7-stage series of 1 : 1 dilutions with R(2) equal to 0.995 in an active device area of 1 cm(2). PMID:24231765

  3. Estimation method for serial dilution experiments.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E

    2014-12-01

    Titration of microorganisms in infectious or environmental samples is a corner stone of quantitative microbiology. A simple method is presented to estimate the microbial counts obtained with the serial dilution technique for microorganisms that can grow on bacteriological media and develop into a colony. The number (concentration) of viable microbial organisms is estimated from a single dilution plate (assay) without a need for replicate plates. Our method selects the best agar plate with which to estimate the microbial counts, and takes into account the colony size and plate area that both contribute to the likelihood of miscounting the number of colonies on a plate. The estimate of the optimal count given by our method can be used to narrow the search for the best (optimal) dilution plate and saves time. The required inputs are the plate size, the microbial colony size, and the serial dilution factors. The proposed approach shows relative accuracy well within ±0.1log10 from data produced by computer simulations. The method maintains this accuracy even in the presence of dilution errors of up to 10% (for both the aliquot and diluent volumes), microbial counts between 10(4) and 10(12) colony-forming units, dilution ratios from 2 to 100, and plate size to colony size ratios between 6.25 to 200. PMID:25205541

  4. Electrocoalescence based serial dilution of microfluidic droplets

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Biddut; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2014-01-01

    Dilution of microfluidic droplets where the concentration of a reagent is incrementally varied is a key operation in drop-based biological analysis. Here, we present an electrocoalescence based dilution scheme for droplets based on merging between moving and parked drops. We study the effects of fluidic and electrical parameters on the dilution process. Highly consistent coalescence and fine resolution in dilution factor are achieved with an AC signal as low as 10 V even though the electrodes are separated from the fluidic channel by insulator. We find that the amount of material exchange between the droplets per coalescence event is high for low capillary number. We also observe different types of coalescence depending on the flow and electrical parameters and discuss their influence on the rate of dilution. Overall, we find the key parameter governing the rate of dilution is the duration of coalescence between the moving and parked drop. The proposed design is simple incorporating the channel electrodes in the same layer as that of the fluidic channels. Our approach allows on-demand and controlled dilution of droplets and is simple enough to be useful for assays that require serial dilutions. The approach can also be useful for applications where there is a need to replace or wash fluid from stored drops. PMID:25379096

  5. Implementing Inquiry-Based Learning in Teaching Serial Dilutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Candace L.; McGill, Michael T.; Buikema, Arthur L., Jr.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E model of inquiry-based learning was incorporated into a sophomore-level microbiology laboratory to increase student understanding of serial dilutions, a concept that is often difficult for most students to comprehend. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were conducted during the semester to determine the value of this approach for…

  6. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    PubMed

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs. PMID:21627628

  7. 2-layer based microfluidic concentration generator by hybrid serial and volumetric dilutions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kangsun; Kim, Choong; Kim, Youngeun; Jung, Keunhui; Ahn, Byungwook; Kang, Ji Yoon; Oh, Kwang W

    2010-04-01

    We present a 2-layer based microfluidic concentration generator by a hybrid of a serial and a volumetric dilution for dose-response experiments in drug screening. The hybrid dilution method using 2-layer based microfluidic network significantly reduces the total number of cascaded serial dilution stages. The proposed strategy is capable of generating a large number of universal stepwise monotonic concentrations with a wide range of logarithmic and linear scales. We have studied an equivalent electrical circuit to that of the 2-layer based microfluidic network, where the only variable parameter is channel length. We have designed a microfluidic dilution generator simultaneously covering 14 doses with a combination of 4-order logarithmic and 4-point linear concentrations. The design has been verified by a commercial circuit analysis software (e.g., P-Spice) for the electrical circuit analysis and a computational fluid dynamics software (e.g., CFD-ACE+) for the microfluidic circuit analysis. As a real-life application of the proposed dilution generator, we have successfully performed a dose-response experiment using MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. We expect that the proposed dilution method will be useful to study not only high throughput drug screening but also optimization in biology, chemistry, medicine, and material sciences. PMID:20077018

  8. Detailed Methodology and Implementation of a Semiautomated Serial Dilution Microtechnique for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    PubMed Central

    MacLowry, James D.; Jaqua, Mary J.; Selepak, Sally T.

    1970-01-01

    The detailed methodology and implementation of a semiautomatic microtechnique for performing serial dilution antimicrobial susceptibility studies are described. Quantitative susceptibility studies to a battery of antimicrobials are performed routinely on all significant clinical isolates. Results are reported as the minimal inhibitory concentration in micrograms per milliliter of broth. Guidelines relating standard doses of antimicrobials with expected blood and urine levels are presented to facilitate the use of the quantitative data. This microtechnique is used to measure serum and other body fluid levels of antimicrobial agents to document the level attained with a specific course of therapy. This technique is highly reproducible and has a high correlation with, and is at least 10 times faster than, standard glass tube techniques. PMID:4917462

  9. EMJH medium with 5-fluorouracil and nalidixic acid associated with serial dilution technique used to recover Leptospira spp from experimentally contaminated bovine semen

    PubMed Central

    Miraglia, Fabiana; de Moraes, Zenaide Maria; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2009-01-01

    Bovine semen experimentally contaminated with Leptospira santarosai serovar Guaricura was submitted to the modified EMJH medium with 5-fluorouracil (300mg/L) and nalidixic acid (20mg/L), named as “selective medium” and using the serial dilution technique, in order to evaluate the percentage of recovery of the added microorganism. The selective EMJH medium was found with higher percentage of recovery of leptospiras and minor losses of samples due to contamination with opportunistic microorganisms than the non-selective EMJH medium: 151/376 (40.0%) of positive growth; and 38/376 (10.0%) contamination and 58/376 (15%) and 129/376 (34.0%), respectively. These results were statistically significant (p<0. 0001; Fisher). Differences were found when the frequencies of positive leptospires recovery have been compared in the serial dilution technique (10-1 to 10-4) between the selective and non-selective media at different dilution factors. At 1/10th dilution the percentages found were (0%, 0/80) and (38%, 30/80), at 1/100th dilution, (3%, 2/80) and (49%, 39/ 80) and at 1/1,000th dilution, (25%, 20/80) and (50%, 40/80), respectively. The percentage of recovery of leptospires was found to be directly proportional to the dilution used. The methodology of the serial dilution technique (setting at least three dilutions) and the use of selective EMJH medium have been found to be efficient for the isolation of leptospires from the bovine semen samples. PMID:24031342

  10. Fast phase randomization via two-folds

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    A two-fold is a singular point on the discontinuity surface of a piecewise-smooth vector field, at which the vector field is tangent to the discontinuity surface on both sides. If an orbit passes through an invisible two-fold (also known as a Teixeira singularity) before settling to regular periodic motion, then the phase of that motion cannot be determined from initial conditions, and, in the presence of small noise, the asymptotic phase of a large number of sample solutions is highly random. In this paper, we show how the probability distribution of the asymptotic phase depends on the global nonlinear dynamics. We also show how the phase of a smooth oscillator can be randomized by applying a simple discontinuous control law that generates an invisible two-fold. We propose that such a control law can be used to desynchronize a collection of oscillators, and that this manner of phase randomization is fast compared with existing methods (which use fixed points as phase singularities), because there is no slowing of the dynamics near a two-fold. PMID:27118901

  11. Differences in Median Ultraviolet Light Transmissions of Serial Homeopathic Dilutions of Copper Sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and Sulfur

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sabine D.; Sandig, Annegret; Baumgartner, Stephan; Wolf, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Homeopathic remedies are produced by potentising, that is, the serial logarithmic dilution and succussion of a mother tincture. Techniques like ultraviolet spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, calorimetry, or thermoluminescence have been used to investigate their physical properties. In this study, homeopathic centesimal (c) potencies (6c to 30c) of copper sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and sulfur as well as succussed water controls were prepared. Samples of these preparations were exposed to external physical factors like heat, pressure, ultraviolet radiation, or electromagnetic fields to mimic possible everyday storage conditions. The median transmissions from 190 nm to 340 nm and 220 nm to 340 nm were determined by ultraviolet light spectroscopy on five measurement days distributed over several months. Transmissions of controls and potencies of sulfur differed significantly on two of five measurement days and after exposure to physical factors. Transmissions of potencies exposed to ultraviolet light and unexposed potencies of copper sulfate and Hypericum perforatum differed significantly. Potency levels 6c to 30c were also compared, and wavelike patterns of higher and lower transmissions were found. The Kruskal-Wallis test yielded significant differences for the potency levels of all three substances. Aiming at understanding the physical properties of homeopathic preparations, this study confirmed and expanded the findings of previous studies. PMID:23401712

  12. Generation of arbitrary monotonic concentration profiles by a serial dilution microfluidic network composed of microchannels with a high fluidic-resistance ratio.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2009-06-21

    This paper reports a serial dilution microfluidic network composed of microchannels with a high fluidic-resistance ratio for generating linear concentration profiles as well as logarithmic concentration profiles spanning 3 and 6 orders of magnitude. The microfluidic networks were composed of thin fluidic-resistance microchannels with 160 to 730 microm(2) cross-sectional areas and thick diffusion-mixing microchannels with 3,600 to 17,000 microm(2) cross-sectional areas, and were fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane by multilayer photolithography and replica molding. We proposed a design algorithm of the microfluidic network for an arbitrary monotonic concentration profile by means of a hydrodynamic calculation. Because of the high fluidic-resistance ratio of the fluidic-resistance microchannels to the diffusion-mixing microchannels, appropriate geometry and dimensions of the fluidic-resistance microchannels allowed us to obtain desired concentration profiles. The fabricated microfluidic network was compact, occupying a 8 x 18 to 21.0 x 13.5 mm(2) area on the microchip. Both the linear and the logarithmic concentration profiles were successfully generated with the error less than 15% for the linear concentration profile, 22% and 35% for the logarithmic concentration profiles of 3 and 6 orders of magnitude, respectively. The generated linear concentration profiles of the small molecule, calcein, were independent of the flow rate within the range of 0.009 to 0.23 microL/min. The concentration profiles of the large molecules, dextrans, depended on the flow rate and molecular weight. The required residence time of large molecules in the diffusion-mixing microchannel was correlated with dimensionless diffusion time, Fick number, and was discussed based on the scaling law. These compact, stable serial dilution microfluidic networks are expected to be applied to various integrated on-chip analyses. PMID:19495461

  13. Characteristics of a two-fold segmented Clover detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara Singh, B. S.; Jain, H. C.; Joshi, P. K.; Lakshmi, S.; Mazumdar, I.; Nagaraj, S.; Naidu, B. S.

    2003-07-01

    The characteristics of a Compton-suppressed, two-fold segmented, Clover detector have been studied in singles and add-back modes for using it in the study of heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions. The measurements have been performed with standard sources of 152Eu, 60Co and in-beam γ-rays from the fusion-evaporation reaction 28Si on 27Al at E lab=100 MeV. Reduction in γ-ray Doppler broadenings due to the two-fold segmentation is demonstrated through in-beam data.

  14. Stability of two-fold screw axis structures for cellulose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diffraction crystallography indicates that most forms of crystalline cellulose have two-fold screw axis symmetry. Even if exact symmetry is absent, the degree of pseudo symmetry is very high. On the other hand, this symmetry leads to short contacts between H4 and H1' across the glycosidic linkage....

  15. Sex is always well worth its two-fold cost.

    PubMed

    Feigel, Alexander; Englander, Avraham; Engel, Assaf

    2009-01-01

    Sex is considered as an evolutionary paradox, since its positive contribution to Darwinian fitness remains unverified for some species. Defenses against unpredictable threats (parasites, fluctuating environment and deleterious mutations) are indeed significantly improved by wider genetic variability and by positive epistasis gained by sexual reproduction. The corresponding evolutionary advantages, however, do not overcome universally the barrier of the two-fold cost for sharing half of one's offspring genome with another member of the population. Here we show that sexual reproduction emerges and is maintained even when its Darwinian fitness is twice as low as the fitness of asexuals. We also show that more than two sexes (inheritance of genetic material from three or even more parents) are always evolutionary unstable. Our approach generalizes the evolutionary game theory to analyze species whose members are able to sense the sexual state of their conspecifics and to adapt their own sex consequently, either by switching or by taxis towards the highest concentration of the complementary sex. The widespread emergence and maintenance of sex follows therefore from its co-evolution with the even more widespread environmental sensing abilities. PMID:19582152

  16. Sex Is Always Well Worth Its Two-Fold Cost

    PubMed Central

    Feigel, Alexander; Englander, Avraham; Engel, Assaf

    2009-01-01

    Sex is considered as an evolutionary paradox, since its positive contribution to Darwinian fitness remains unverified for some species. Defenses against unpredictable threats (parasites, fluctuating environment and deleterious mutations) are indeed significantly improved by wider genetic variability and by positive epistasis gained by sexual reproduction. The corresponding evolutionary advantages, however, do not overcome universally the barrier of the two-fold cost for sharing half of one's offspring genome with another member of the population. Here we show that sexual reproduction emerges and is maintained even when its Darwinian fitness is twice as low as the fitness of asexuals. We also show that more than two sexes (inheritance of genetic material from three or even more parents) are always evolutionary unstable. Our approach generalizes the evolutionary game theory to analyze species whose members are able to sense the sexual state of their conspecifics and to adapt their own sex consequently, either by switching or by taxis towards the highest concentration of the complementary sex. The widespread emergence and maintenance of sex follows therefore from its co-evolution with the even more widespread environmental sensing abilities. PMID:19582152

  17. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-02-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. PMID:6338826

  18. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed Central

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-01-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. Images PMID:6338826

  19. Serial Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    In a year filled with drama and hyperbole, the serials marketplace churned toward a future whose shape is the subject of fierce debate. Forecasts from commercial publishers touting collapse and disaster seemed oddly out of sync with the profits they enjoyed--around 25 percent on average. Nevertheless, in a market where prices continued to rise and…

  20. Wavelet Analysis on Symbolic Sequences and Two-Fold de Bruijn Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. Al.

    2016-05-01

    The concept of symbolic sequences play important role in study of complex systems. In the work we are interested in ultrametric structure of the set of cyclic sequences naturally arising in theory of dynamical systems. Aimed at construction of analytic and numerical methods for investigation of clusters we introduce operator language on the space of symbolic sequences and propose an approach based on wavelet analysis for study of the cluster hierarchy. The analytic power of the approach is demonstrated by derivation of a formula for counting of two-fold de Bruijn sequences, the extension of the notion of de Bruijn sequences. Possible advantages of the developed description is also discussed in context of applied problem of construction of efficient DNA sequence assembly algorithms.

  1. Wavelet Analysis on Symbolic Sequences and Two-Fold de Bruijn Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. Al.

    2016-07-01

    The concept of symbolic sequences play important role in study of complex systems. In the work we are interested in ultrametric structure of the set of cyclic sequences naturally arising in theory of dynamical systems. Aimed at construction of analytic and numerical methods for investigation of clusters we introduce operator language on the space of symbolic sequences and propose an approach based on wavelet analysis for study of the cluster hierarchy. The analytic power of the approach is demonstrated by derivation of a formula for counting of two-fold de Bruijn sequences, the extension of the notion of de Bruijn sequences. Possible advantages of the developed description is also discussed in context of applied problem of construction of efficient DNA sequence assembly algorithms.

  2. Two fold modified chitosan for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from simulated wastewater and industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Kahu, S S; Shekhawat, A; Saravanan, D; Jugade, R M

    2016-08-01

    Ionic solid (Ethylhexadecyldimethylammoniumbromide) impregnated phosphated chitosan (ISPC) was synthesized and applied for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from industrial effluent. The compound obtained was extensively characterized using instrumental techniques like FT-IR, TGA-DTA, XRD, SEM, BET and EDX. ISPC showed high adsorption capacity of 266.67mg/g in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model at pH 3.0 due to the presence of multiple sites which contribute for ion pair and electrostatic interactions with Cr(VI) species. The sorption kinetics and thermodynamic studies revealed that adsorption of Cr(VI) followed pseudo-second-order kinetics with exothermic and spontaneous behaviour. Applicability of ISPC for higher sample volumes was discerned through column studies. The real chrome plating industry effluent was effectively treated with total chromium recovery of 94%. The used ISPC was regenerated simply by dilute ammonium hydroxide treatment and tested for ten adsorption-desorption cycles with marginal decrease in adsorption efficiency. PMID:27112874

  3. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  4. Memory for Serial Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Murdock, Bennet B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An extension to Murdock's Theory of Distributed Associative Memory, based on associative chaining between items, is presented. The extended theory is applied to several serial order phenomena, including serial list learning, delayed recall effects, partial report effects, and buildup and release from proactive interference. (TJH)

  5. Automated Serials Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Elizabeth

    In 1967, the New York State Library at Albany (NYSL) developed a tape-oriented, off-line serials control system for 10,000 active titles. The system would perform all the serials control functions: bibliographic control, check-in of current receipts, claiming for gaps in receipts and late issues, binding notification for completed sets,…

  6. Amperometric quantification based on serial dilution microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Khaled; Pittet, Patrick; Sigaud, Monique; Renaud, Louis; Vittori, Olivier; Morin, Pierre; Ouaini, Naim; Ferrigno, Rosaria

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a microfluidic device fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) that was employed to perform amperometric quantifications using on-chip calibration curves and on-chip standard addition methods. This device integrated a network of Au electrodes within a microfluidic structure designed for automatic preparation of a series of solutions containing an electroactive molecule at a concentration linearly decreasing. This device was first characterized by fluorescence microscopy and then evaluated with a model electroactive molecule such as Fe(CN(6))(4-). Operating a quantification in this microfluidic parallel approach rather than in batch mode allows a reduced analysis time to be achieved. Moreover, the microfluidic approach is compatible with the on-chip calibration of sensors simultaneously to the analysis, therefore preventing problems due to sensor response deviation with time. When using the on-chip calibration and on-chip standard addition method, we reached concentration estimation better than 5%. We also demonstrated that compared to the calibration curve approach, the standard addition mode is less complex to operate. Indeed, in this case, it is not necessary to take into account flow rate discrepancies as in the calibration approach. PMID:19238282

  7. Serial interprocessor communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

    1980-04-03

    A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM.

  8. T4 fibrations over Calabi-Yau two-folds and non-Kähler manifolds in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hai

    2016-08-01

    We construct a geometric model of eight-dimensional manifolds and realize them in the context of type II string theory. These eight-manifolds are constructed by non-trivial T4 fibrations over Calabi-Yau two-folds. These give rise to eight-dimensional non-Kähler Hermitian manifolds with SU (4) structure. The eight-manifold is also a circle fibration over a seven-dimensional G2 manifold with skew torsion. The eight-manifolds of this type appear as internal manifolds with SU (4) structure in type IIB string theory with F3 and F7 fluxes. These manifolds have generalized calibrated cycles in the presence of fluxes.

  9. Serial interface controller

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, A.

    1995-04-14

    The idea of building a Serial Interface Controller (SIC) proposed by Paul O`Connor, Instrumentation Division, BNL is to determine the feasibility of incorporating a Serial Interface Controlled CMOS IC`s for charge amplification, shaping, analog storage and multiplexing used in particle detectors for high energy physics experiments. The serial data pumped into the CMOS ICs will be used to control many circuit parameters like digitally controlled gain, shaping time, precision preamplifier calibration circuits and many other parameters like timing discriminators mode of operation. The SIC board built will be tested on a Serial Interface Controlled Digital - to - Analog Convertor, which follows either Motorola`s SPI/QSPI or National Semiconductors Microwire interface technique. The DAC chosen for this was MAXIM`s MAX537, a Quad, 12-bit DAC. The function of this controller can be achieved by using some on-shelf micro-controllers like the Motorola`s MC68HC11, which offers dedicated SPI ports. The drawback encountered in using this controller is the overhead involved in putting together an user interface where the user can dynamically change its settings and load the SIC device. This is very critical in testing fewer number of CMOS IC`s having SIC. The SIC board described here takes care of this dynamic user interface issue.

  10. The Serials Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Jane; Ketcham, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the results of a national survey of libraries, publishers, and subscription agents that was conducted by the American Library Association (ALA) to address concerns about serials prices. Highlights include library budget trends; resource sharing; selection decisions; library automation; pricing practices of publishers; publisher services;…

  11. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  12. Malaysian Serials: Issues and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahri, Che Norma

    This paper analyzes the issues and problems while looking at the trends and developments of serials publishing in Malaysia. The first section provides background; topics addressed include the country and people of Malaysia, the history of serials publishing in Malaysia, categories and formats of serials publishing, academic publications,…

  13. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  14. An Unprecedented Two-Fold Nested Super-Polyrotaxane: Sulfate-Directed Hierarchical Polythreading Assembly of Uranyl Polyrotaxane Moieties.

    PubMed

    Mei, Lei; Wu, Qun-Yan; Yuan, Li-Yong; Wang, Lin; An, Shu-Wen; Xie, Zhen-Ni; Hu, Kong-Qiu; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Burns, Peter C; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2016-08-01

    The hierarchical assembly of well-organized submoieties could lead to more complicated superstructures with intriguing properties. We describe herein an unprecedented polyrotaxane polythreading framework containing a two-fold nested super-polyrotaxane substructure, which was synthesized through a uranyl-directed hierarchical polythreading assembly of one-dimensional polyrotaxane chains and two-dimensional polyrotaxane networks. This special assembly mode actually affords a new way of supramolecular chemistry instead of covalently linked bulky stoppers to construct stable interlocked rotaxane moieties. An investigation of the synthesis condition shows that sulfate can assume a vital role in mediating the formation of different uranyl species, especially the unique trinuclear uranyl moiety [(UO2 )3 O(OH)2 ](2+) , involving a notable bent [O=U=O] bond with a bond angle of 172.0(9)°. Detailed analysis of the coordination features, the thermal stability as well as a fluorescence, and electrochemical characterization demonstrate that the uniqueness of this super-polyrotaxane structure is mainly closely related to the trinuclear uranyl moiety, which is confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. PMID:27389048

  15. The Effect of Dilution on the Structure of Microbial Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Aaron L.

    2000-01-01

    To determine how dilution of microbial communities affects the diversity of the diluted assemblage a series of numerical simulations were conducted that determined the theoretical change in diversity, richness, and evenness of the community with serial dilution. The results of the simulation suggested that the effects are non linear with a high degree of dependence on the initial evenness of the community being diluted. A series of incubation experiments using a range of dilutions of raw sewage as an inoculum into sterile sewage was used for comparison to the simulations. The diluted communities were maintained in batch fed reactors (three day retention time) for nine days. The communities were harvested and examined by conventional plating and by molecular analysis of the whole-community DNA using AFLP and T-RFLP. Additional, CLPP analysis was also applied. The effects on richness predicted by the numerical simulations were confirmed by the analyses used. The diluted communities fell into three groups, a low dilution, intermediate dilution, and high dilution group, which corresponded well with the groupings obtained for community richness in simulation. The grouping demonstrated the non-linear nature of dilution of whole communities. Furthermore, the results implied that the undiluted community consisted of a few dominant types accompanied by a number of rare (low abundance) types as is typical in unevenly distributed communities.

  16. Dilutions Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Lawrence

    1996-01-01

    Presents problems appropriate for high school and college students that highlight dilution methods. Promotes an understanding of dilution methods in order to prevent the unnecessary waste of chemicals and glassware in biology laboratories. (JRH)

  17. Two-fold transmission reach enhancement enabled by transmitter-side digital backpropagation and optical frequency comb-derived information carriers.

    PubMed

    Temprana, E; Myslivets, E; Liu, L; Ataie, V; Wiberg, A; Kuo, B P P; Alic, N; Radic, S

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate a two-fold reach extension of 16 GBaud 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) system based on erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)-only amplified standard and single mode fiber -based link. The result is enabled by transmitter-side digital backpropagation and frequency referenced carriers drawn from a parametric comb. PMID:26367930

  18. A bit serial sequential circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    Normally a sequential circuit with n state variables consists of n unique hardware realizations, one for each state variable. All variables are processed in parallel. This paper introduces a new sequential circuit architecture that allows the state variables to be realized in a serial manner using only one next state logic circuit. The action of processing the state variables in a serial manner has never been addressed before. This paper presents a general design procedure for circuit construction and initialization. Utilizing pass transistors to form the combinational next state forming logic in synchronous sequential machines, a bit serial state machine can be realized with a single NMOS pass transistor network connected to shift registers. The bit serial state machine occupies less area than other realizations which perform parallel operations. Moreover, the logical circuit of the bit serial state machine can be modified by simply changing the circuit input matrix to develop an adaptive state machine.

  19. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  20. Serial Input Output

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  1. Serial Item Contribution Identifier: New SISAC Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Libraries, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of the Serial Item Contribution Identifier (SICI) standard for serials handling. Developed by the Serials Industry Systems Advisory Committee (SISAC), SICI applications through the use of a SISAC barcode are expected to benefit shipping, ordering, serials processing and claiming, document delivery, and information exchange.…

  2. Bit-serial neuroprocessor architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A neuroprocessor architecture employs a combination of bit-serial and serial-parallel techniques for implementing the neurons of the neuroprocessor. The neuroprocessor architecture includes a neural module containing a pool of neurons, a global controller, a sigmoid activation ROM look-up-table, a plurality of neuron state registers, and a synaptic weight RAM. The neuroprocessor reduces the number of neurons required to perform the task by time multiplexing groups of neurons from a fixed pool of neurons to achieve the successive hidden layers of a recurrent network topology.

  3. Serials Problems in Education Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrill, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the problem of rising costs for serial subscriptions and declining purchasing power of education libraries, and describes three studies undertaken in a university library to obtain reliable data for recommending the continuation or cancellation of education periodical subscriptions. Eleven references are listed. (CHC)

  4. Network-Based Electronic Serials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses electronic serials that are available on noncommercial international computer networks such as BITNET and Internet. Issues affecting libraries are discussed, including access and ownership; computer conferences are considered; examples of electronic newsletters and electronic journals are described; and the possible future of electronic…

  5. Implementing a Serials Barcoding Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennertz, Lora L.; Conway, Cheryl L.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the process of planning and implementing a barcode project for library serials based on experiences at the University of Arkansas Fayetteville library. Topics include dumb versus smart barcodes, cataloging, classification, application rate of barcode labels, and library staff participation. (Author/LRW)

  6. 950 keV X-Band Linac For Material Recognition Using Two-Fold Scintillator Detector As A Concept Of Dual-Energy X-Ray System

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kiwoo; Natsui, Takuya; Hirai, Shunsuke; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Eiko

    2011-06-01

    One of the advantages of applying X-band linear accelerator (Linac) is the compact size of the whole system. That shows us the possibility of on-site system such as the custom inspection system in an airport. As X-ray source, we have developed X-band Linac and achieved maximum X-ray energy 950 keV using the low power magnetron (250 kW) in 2 {mu}s pulse length. The whole size of the Linac system is 1x1x1 m{sup 3}. That is realized by introducing X-band system. In addition, we have designed two-fold scintillator detector in dual energy X-ray concept. Monte carlo N-particle transport (MCNP) code was used to make up sensor part of the design with two scintillators, CsI and CdWO4. The custom inspection system is composed of two equipments: 950 keV X-band Linac and two-fold scintillator and they are operated simulating real situation such as baggage check in an airport. We will show you the results of experiment which was performed with metal samples: iron and lead as targets in several conditions.

  7. A two-fold interpenetrating 3D metal-organic framework material constructed from helical chains linked via 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Yiming; Zhao Zhenguo; Wu Xiaoyuan; Zhang Qisheng; Chen Lijuan; Wang Fei; Chen Shanci; Lu Canzhong

    2008-12-15

    A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound {l_brace}[Ag(L){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}]{r_brace}{sub n} (1) has been synthesized by self-assembly of 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz (L=4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz=3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-bipyrazole) and Ag{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} under hydrothermal conditions. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4{sub 1}/acd with a=21.406(4) A, b=21.406(4) A, c=36.298(8) A, Z=32. X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that 1 has a three-dimensional framework with an unprecedented alternate left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net. Photoluminescent investigation reveals that the title compound displays interesting emissions in a wide region, which shows that the title compound may be a good potential candidate as a photoelectric material. - Graphical abstract: A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound [Ag(4,4'-bpz){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}] shows unprecedented alternating left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net.

  8. The Serial Process in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilden, David L.; Thornton, Thomas L.; Marusich, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    The conditions for serial search are described. A multiple target search methodology (Thornton & Gilden, 2007) is used to home in on the simplest target/distractor contrast that effectively mandates a serial scheduling of attentional resources. It is found that serial search is required when (a) targets and distractors are mirror twins, and (b)…

  9. Serials Control System Procedures and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlembach, Mary C.

    This document includes procedures and policies for a networked serials control system originally developed at the Grainger Engineering Library Information Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). The serials control systems encompass serials processing, public service, and end-user functions. The system employs a…

  10. 24 CFR 3280.6 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Serial number. 3280.6 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.6 Serial number. (a) A manufactured home serial number which will identify the manufacturer and the state in which the...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.6 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Serial number. 3280.6 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.6 Serial number. (a) A manufactured home serial number which will identify the manufacturer and the state in which the...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.6 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Serial number. 3280.6 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.6 Serial number. (a) A manufactured home serial number which will identify the manufacturer and the state in which the...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.6 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Serial number. 3280.6 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.6 Serial number. (a) A manufactured home serial number which will identify the manufacturer and the state in which the...

  14. 24 CFR 3280.6 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Serial number. 3280.6 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.6 Serial number. (a) A manufactured home serial number which will identify the manufacturer and the state in which the...

  15. Dilution, Concentration, and Flotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ling; Schmuckler, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    As both classroom teaching practice and literature show, many students have difficulties learning science concepts such as density. Here are some investigations that identify the relationship between density and floating through experimenting with successive dilution of a liquid, or the systematic change of concentration of a saltwater solution.…

  16. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  17. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Patrick R.; Gray, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  18. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kern, Jan; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Schafer, Donald W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Sellberg, Jonas; McQueen, Trevor A.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H.; Glatzel, Pieter; Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bogan, Michael J.

    2012-11-01

    A low flow rate liquid microjet method for delivery of hydrated protein crystals to X-ray lasers is presented. Linac Coherent Light Source data demonstrates serial femtosecond protein crystallography with micrograms, a reduction of sample consumption by orders of magnitude. An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min{sup −1} to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min{sup −1} and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption.

  19. Serial dependence in visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2014-01-01

    Visual input often arrives in a noisy and discontinuous stream, owing to head and eye movements, occlusion, lighting changes, and many other factors. Yet the physical world is generally stable—objects and physical characteristics rarely change spontaneously. How then does the human visual system capitalize on continuity in the physical environment over time? Here we show that visual perception is serially dependent, using both prior and present input to inform perception at the present moment. Using an orientation judgment task, we found that even when visual input changes randomly over time, perceived orientation is strongly and systematically biased toward recently seen stimuli. Further, the strength of this bias is modulated by attention and tuned to the spatial and temporal proximity of successive stimuli. These results reveal a serial dependence in perception characterized by a spatiotemporally tuned, orientation-selective operator—which we call a continuity field—that may promote visual stability over time. PMID:24686785

  20. The fallacy of serial extractions.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Paul

    2013-11-01

    It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'. PMID:24380143

  1. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Raymond G; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kern, Jan; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Schafer, Donald W; Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W; Sellberg, Jonas; McQueen, Trevor A; Fry, Alan R; Messerschmidt, Marc M; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H; Glatzel, Pieter; Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E; Adams, Paul D; Williams, Garth J; Boutet, Sébastien; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Sauter, Nicholas K; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K; Bogan, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14-3.1 µl min(-1) to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min(-1) and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14,000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption. PMID:23090408

  2. Expression Profiling of Non-Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus Mutants Obtained by 5-Azacytosine Treatment or Serial Mycelial Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jeffrey R.; Kale, Shubha P.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Previous studies found that repeated serial mycelial transfer or treatment of A. parasiticus with 5-azacytidine produced colonies with a fluffy phenotype and inability to produce aflatoxins. To understand how these treatments affect expression of genes involved in aflatoxin production and development, we carried out expressed sequence tag (EST)-based microarray assays to identify genes in treated clones that are differentially expressed compared to the wild-type. Expression of 183 genes was significantly dysregulated. Of these, 38 had at least two-fold or lower expression compared to the untreated control and only two had two-fold or higher expression. The most frequent change was downregulation of genes predicted to encode membrane-bound proteins. Based on this result we hypothesize that the treatments cause changes in the structure of cellular and organelle membranes that prevent normal development and aflatoxin biosynthesis. PMID:22069749

  3. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kern, Jan; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Schafer, Donald W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Sellberg, Jonas; McQueen, Trevor A.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H.; Glatzel, Pieter; Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bogan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min−1 to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min−1 and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption. PMID:23090408

  4. Application specific serial arithmetic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, K.; Mathews, D.; Thompson, T.

    1990-01-01

    High performance systolic arrays of serial-parallel multiplier elements may be rapidly constructed for specific applications by applying hardware description language techniques to a library of full-custom CMOS building blocks. Single clock pre-charged circuits have been implemented for these arrays at clock rates in excess of 100 Mhz using economical 2-micron (minimum feature size) CMOS processes, which may be quickly configured for a variety of applications. A number of application-specific arrays are presented, including a 2-D convolver for image processing, an integer polynomial solver, and a finite-field polynomial solver.

  5. The sexually sadistic serial killer.

    PubMed

    Warren, J I; Hazelwood, R R; Dietz, P E

    1996-11-01

    This article explores characteristics and crime scene behavior of 20 sexually sadistic serial murderers. The pairing of character pathology with paraphilic arousal to the control and degradation of others is examined as it manifests itself in their murders. Commonalities across murders and across murderers are highlighted, i.e., the execution of murders that are well-planned, the use of preselected locations, captivity, a variety of painful sexual acts, sexual bondage, intentional torture, and death by means of strangulation and stabbing. PMID:8914287

  6. Serial analysis of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Velculescu, V E; Zhang, L; Vogelstein, B; Kinzler, K W

    1995-10-20

    The characteristics of an organism are determined by the genes expressed within it. A method was developed, called serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), that allows the quantitative and simultaneous analysis of a large number of transcripts. To demonstrate this strategy, short diagnostic sequence tags were isolated from pancreas, concatenated, and cloned. Manual sequencing of 1000 tags revealed a gene expression pattern characteristic of pancreatic function. New pancreatic transcripts corresponding to novel tags were identified. SAGE should provide a broadly applicable means for the quantitative cataloging and comparison of expressed genes in a variety of normal, developmental, and disease states. PMID:7570003

  7. Evolution of human serial pairbonding.

    PubMed

    Fisher, H E

    1989-03-01

    Data on divorce taken for all available years between 1947 and 1981 from the Demographic Yearbooks of the United Nations on 58 peoples illustrate that divorce has a consistent pattern. Divorces exhibit a skewed distribution, characterized by the occurrence of the mode early in marriage (with a divorce peak on or around the fourth year) and a gradual, long-tailed decline following this peak. Divorce risk peaks in age category 25-29 for males and age categories 20-24 and 25-29 for females, the height of reproductive and parenting years, and divorce counts peak among couples with two or fewer children. These properties of divorce are unrelated to divorce rate; they occur in societies with both high and low divorce rates. Data on available horticultural and gathering/hunting societies illustrate that divorce also peaks among young couples early in marriage. Remarriage by divorced and widowed individuals of reproductive age is also common cross-culturally. It is proposed that the above four-year modal marriage duration among couples of reproductive age who divorce reflects a hominid reproductive strategy that probably evolved some time after the appearance of Homo in response to increased female "reproductive burden" and functioned to ensure the survival of the hominid infant through weaning. Serial pairbonding during the female's reproductive years had ancestral adaptive advantages, producing the modern cross-cultural pattern of serial pairbonding. PMID:2929738

  8. The Long-term Risk of Upper-extremity Lymphedema is Two-fold Higher in Breast Cancer Patients than in Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Rachel K.; Cromwell, Kate D.; Chiang, Yi-Ju; Armer, Jane M.; Ross, Merrick I.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Stewart, Bob R.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Cormier, Janice N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives We assessed the cumulative incidence, symptoms, and risk factors for upper-extremity lymphedema in breast cancer and melanoma patients undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection. Methods Patients were recruited preoperatively (time 0) and assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postoperatively. Limb volume change (LVC) was measured by perometry. Lymphedema was categorized as none, mild (LVC 5–9.9%), or moderate/severe (LVC≥10%). Symptoms were assessed with a validated lymphedema instrument. Longitudinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors associated with moderate/severe lymphedema. Results Among 205 breast cancer and 144 melanoma patients, the cumulative incidence of moderate/severe lymphedema at 18 months was 36.5% and 35.0, respectively. However, in adjusted analyses, factors associated with moderate/severe lymphedema were breast cancer (OR 2.0, p=0.03), body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (OR 1.6, p=0.04), greater number of lymph nodes removed (OR 1.05, p<0.01), and longer interval since surgery (OR 2.33 at 18 months, p<0.01). Conclusions: Lymphedema incidence increased over time in both cohorts. However, the adjusted risk of moderate/severe lymphedema was two-fold higher in breast cancer patients. These results may be attributed to surgical treatment of the primary tumor in the breast and more frequent use of radiation. PMID:26477877

  9. Serial turbo trellis coded modulation using a serially concatenated coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Pollara, Fabrizio (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Serial concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) includes an outer coder, an interleaver, a recursive inner coder and a mapping element. The outer coder receives data to be coded and produces outer coded data. The interleaver permutes the outer coded data to produce interleaved data. The recursive inner coder codes the interleaved data to produce inner coded data. The mapping element maps the inner coded data to a symbol. The recursive inner coder has a structure which facilitates iterative decoding of the symbols at a decoder system. The recursive inner coder and the mapping element are selected to maximize the effective free Euclidean distance of a trellis coded modulator formed from the recursive inner coder and the mapping element. The decoder system includes a demodulation unit, an inner SISO (soft-input soft-output) decoder, a deinterleaver, an outer SISO decoder, and an interleaver.

  10. Serial turbo trellis coded modulation using a serially concatenated coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Pollara, Fabrizio (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Serial concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) includes an outer coder, an interleaver, a recursive inner coder and a mapping element. The outer coder receives data to be coded and produces outer coded data. The interleaver permutes the outer coded data to produce interleaved data. The recursive inner coder codes the interleaved data to produce inner coded data. The mapping element maps the inner coded data to a symbol. The recursive inner coder has a structure which facilitates iterative decoding of the symbols at a decoder system. The recursive inner coder and the mapping element are selected to maximize the effective free Euclidean distance of a trellis coded modulator formed from the recursive inner coder and the mapping element. The decoder system includes a demodulation unit, an inner SISO (soft-input soft-output) decoder, a deinterleaver, an outer SISO decoder, and an interleaver.

  11. Dose reduction in CT with correlated-polarity noise reduction: context-dependent spatial resolution and noise properties demonstrating two-fold dose reduction with minimal artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, James T.; Wells, Jered R.; Segars, W. Paul

    2014-03-01

    Correlated-polarity noise reduction (CPNR) is a novel noise reduction technique that uses a statistical approach to reducing noise while maintaining excellent spatial resolution and a traditional noise appearance. It was demonstrated in application to CT imaging for the first time at SPIE 2013 and showed qualitatively excellent image quality at half of normal CT dose. In this current work, we measure quantitatively the spatial resolution and noise properties of CPNR in CT imaging. To measure the spatial resolution, we developed a metrology approach that is suitable for nonlinear algorithms such as CPNR. We introduce the formalism of Signal Modification Factor, SMF(u,v), which is the ratio in frequency space of the CPNR-processed image divided by the noise-free image, averaged over an ensemble of ROIs in a given anatomical context. SMF is a nonlinear analog to the MTF. We used XCAT computer-generated anthropomorphic phantom images followed by projection space processing with CPNR. The SMF revealed virtually no effect from CPNR on spatial resolution of the images (<7% degradation at all frequencies). Corresponding contextdependent NPS measurements generated with CPNR at half-dose were about equal to the NPS of full-dose images without CPNR. This result demonstrates for the first time the quantitative determination of a two-fold reduction in dose with CPNR with less than 7% reduction in spatial resolution. We conclude that CPNR shows strong promise as a method for reduction of noise (and hence, dose) in CT. CPNR may also be used in combination with iterative reconstruction techniques for yet further dose reduction, pending further investigation.

  12. Dilution jet mixing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Johnson, K.

    1984-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted to quantify the mixing of opposed rows of jets (two-sided injection) in a confined cross flow. Results show that jet penetrations for two sided injections are less than that for single-sided injections, but the jet spreading rates are faster for a given momentum ratio and orifice plate. Flow area convergence generally enhances mixing. Mixing characteristics with asymmetric and symmetric convergence are similar. For constant momentum ratio, the optimum S/H(0) with in-line injections is one half the optimum value for single sided injections. For staggered injections, the optimum S/H(0) is twice the optimum value for single-sided injection. The correlations developed predicted the temperature distributions within first order accuracy and provide a useful tool for predicting jet trajectory and temperature profiles in the dilution zone with two-sided injections.

  13. Standard dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Willis B; Donati, George L; Calloway, Clifton P; Jones, Bradley T

    2015-02-17

    Standard dilution analysis (SDA) is a novel calibration method that may be applied to most instrumental techniques that will accept liquid samples and are capable of monitoring two wavelengths simultaneously. It combines the traditional methods of standard additions and internal standards. Therefore, it simultaneously corrects for matrix effects and for fluctuations due to changes in sample size, orientation, or instrumental parameters. SDA requires only 200 s per sample with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Neither the preparation of a series of standard solutions nor the construction of a universal calibration graph is required. The analysis is performed by combining two solutions in a single container: the first containing 50% sample and 50% standard mixture; the second containing 50% sample and 50% solvent. Data are collected in real time as the first solution is diluted by the second one. The results are used to prepare a plot of the analyte-to-internal standard signal ratio on the y-axis versus the inverse of the internal standard concentration on the x-axis. The analyte concentration in the sample is determined from the ratio of the slope and intercept of that plot. The method has been applied to the determination of FD&C dye Blue No. 1 in mouthwash by molecular absorption spectrometry and to the determination of eight metals in mouthwash, wine, cola, nitric acid, and water by ICP OES. Both the accuracy and precision for SDA are better than those observed for the external calibration, standard additions, and internal standard methods using ICP OES. PMID:25599250

  14. The Serial Murderer's Motivations: An Interdisciplinary Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHart, Dana D.; Mahoney, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Defines serial killer as individual who murders two or more victims over an extended period of time, ranging from days to years, with the crimes often being sexually motivated. Reviews existing motivational theories of serial murder and proposes additional explications from range of disciplines. Presents suggestions for future research and…

  15. Serials Selection and Management. CE 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueby, Cheryl

    This syllabus outlines the objectives and content for a professional continuing education course on serials selection and management. The following topics are covered: (1) types of serials publications, issuing agencies, and identification aids; (2) selection and evaluation, including a collection development policy, selection aids, criteria for…

  16. Serial Cohabitation and the Marital Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Qian, Zhenchao

    2008-01-01

    Using cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper tracks the experiences of "serial cohabitors." Results indicate that only a minority of cohabiting women (about 15%-20%) were involved in multiple cohabitations. Serial cohabitations were overrepresented among economically disadvantaged groups, especially those with low…

  17. The Year's Work in Serials, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankus, Tony

    1988-01-01

    This review of the 1987 journal literature on serials covers (1) electronic and optical storage; (2) automation of processing; (3) cataloging; (4) holdings information and cooperative efforts; (5) cost analysis and collection contraction; (6) work abroad; (7) subject collections; (8) serving patrons; (9) serials as a professional specialty; and…

  18. Serials standards work: the next frontier.

    PubMed

    Tseng, S C; Arcand, J L; Brugger, J M; Finn, M; Olson, A J; Somers, S

    1990-04-01

    Serials, one of the more complicated areas of library technical endeavors, has lacked the benefit of standards for a long time. Even now, with standards beginning to be available, the majority of institutions are not working within standard serials formats. A survey to determine the use of serials standards in libraries was conducted in 1988 by the American Library Association, Resources and Technical Services Division, Serials Section, Committee to Study Serials Standards. In the spring of 1988 a survey was sent to a group encompassing the Association of Research Libraries members, CONSER participants, United States Newspaper Program participants, Microform Project libraries, and some vendors and librarians who attended the Committee meetings on a regular basis. The survey questionnaire assessed the current level of serials standards awareness of librarians and vendors. Topics included the type of serials systems used, standards relevant to serials control and union listing and whether or not they are implemented, types and levels of training staff received in the application of standards, benefits of the standards, and areas where standards are most needed. PMID:10104416

  19. Serial Position Functions in General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Matthew R.; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age;…

  20. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  1. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  2. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  3. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  4. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  5. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heumann, Klaus G.

    1992-09-01

    In the past isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) has usually been applied using the formation of positive thermal ions of metals. Especially in calibrating other analytical methods and for the certification of standard reference materials this type of IDMS became a routine method. Today, the progress in this field lies in the determination of ultra trace amounts of elements, e.g. of heavy metals in Antarctic ice and in aerosols in remote areas down to the sub-pg g-1 and sub-pg m-3 levels respectively, in the analysis of uranium and thorium at concentrations of a few pg g-1 in sputter targets for the production of micro- electronic devices or in the determination of sub-picogram amounts of230Th in corals for geochemical age determinations and of226Ra in rock samples. During the last few years negative thermal ionization IDMS has become a frequently used method. The determination of very small amounts of selenium and technetium as well as of other transition metals such as vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and tungsten are important examples in this field. Also the measurement of silicon in connection with a re-determination of Avogadro's number and osmium analyses for geological age determinations by the Re/Os method are of special interest. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry is increasingly being used for multi-element analyses by the isotope dilution technique. Determinations of heavy metals in samples of marine origin are representative examples for this type of multi-element analysis by IDMS. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems have also been successfully applied after chelation of metals (for example Pt determination in clinical samples) or for the determination of volatile element species in the environment, e.g. dimethyl sulfide. However, IDMS--specially at low concentration levels in the environment--seems likely to be one of the most powerful analytical methods for speciation in the future. This has been shown, up to now, for species of

  6. Serial position encoding of signs.

    PubMed

    Miozzo, Michele; Petrova, Anna; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Peressotti, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Reduced short-term memory (STM) capacity has been reported for sign as compared to speech when items have to be recalled in a specific order. This difference has been attributed to a more precise and efficient serial position encoding in verbal STM (used for speech) than visuo-spatial STM (used for sign). We tested in the present investigation whether the reduced STM capacity with signs stems from a lack of positional encoding available in verbal STM. Error analyses reported in prior studies have revealed that positions are defined in verbal STM by distance from both the start and the end of the sequence (both-edges positional encoding scheme). Our analyses of the errors made by deaf participants with finger-spelled letters revealed that the both-edges positional encoding scheme underlies the STM representation of signs. These results indicate that the cause of the STM disadvantage is not the type of positional encoding but rather the difficulties in binding an item in visuo-spatial STM to its specific position in the sequence. Both-edges positional encoding scheme could be specific of sign, since it has not been found in visuo-spatial STM tasks conducted with hearing participants. PMID:27244095

  7. Stress in dilute suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passman, Stephen L.

    1989-01-01

    Generally, two types of theory are used to describe the field equations for suspensions. The so-called postulated equations are based on the kinetic theory of mixtures, which logically should give reasonable equations for solutions. The basis for the use of such theory for suspensions is tenuous, though it at least gives a logical path for mathematical arguments. It has the disadvantage that it leads to a system of equations which is underdetermined, in a sense that can be made precise. On the other hand, the so-called averaging theory starts with a determined system, but the very process of averaging renders the resulting system underdetermined. A third type of theory is proposed in which the kinetic theory of gases is used to motivate continuum equations for the suspended particles. This entails an interpretation of the stress in the particles that is different from the usual one. Classical theory is used to describe the motion of the suspending medium. The result is a determined system for a dilute suspension. Extension of the theory to more concentrated systems is discussed.

  8. Serials Librarianship, 1981-85: A Review Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clack, Mary Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    Reviews nine significant publications in serials librarianship published from 1981 through 1985. Topics covered include publishing and electronic publishing, cataloging, acquisitions, and serials automation. (Author/EM)

  9. Visual Encoding in Preschoolers' Serial Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Donald S.; Schulze, Sharon A.

    1977-01-01

    To determine whether young children consistently employ a visual code for remembering pictures in serial recall, 36 preschool children were asked to match picture lists composed of visually similar, phonetically similar, or unrelated items. (JMB)

  10. Gratifications of Daytime TV Serial Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compesi, Ronald J.

    1980-01-01

    The gratifications identified by viewers of the daytime television serial "All My Children" were (in rank order): entertainment, habit, convenience, social utility, relaxation or escape from problems, escape from boredom, and reality exploration or advice. (GT)

  11. Dilution refrigeration for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelsson, U. E.; Petrac, D.

    1990-01-01

    Dilution refrigerators are presently used routinely in ground based applications where temperatures below 0.3 K are required. The operation of a conventional dilution refrigerator depends critically on the presence of gravity. To operate a dilution refrigerator in space many technical difficulties must be overcome. Some of the anticipated difficulties are identified in this paper and possible solutions are described. A single cycle refrigerator is described conceptually that uses forces other than gravity to function and the stringent constraints imposed on the design by requiring the refrigerator to function on the earth without using gravity are elaborated upon.

  12. Serial position functions in general knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2015-11-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age; animals and weight; basketball players and height; countries and area; and planets and diameter. In all cases, a serial position function was observed: People were more accurate to order the youngest and oldest actors, the lightest and heaviest animals, the shortest and tallest basketball players, the smallest and largest countries, and the smallest and largest planets, relative to intermediate items. The results support an explanation of serial position functions based on relative distinctiveness, which predicts that serial position functions will be observed whenever a set of items can be sensibly ordered along a particular dimension. The serial position function arises because the first and last items enjoy a benefit of having no competitors on 1 side and therefore have enhanced distinctiveness relative to mid-dimension items, which suffer by having many competitors on both sides. PMID:26076327

  13. Low-power broadband homonuclear dipolar recoupling in MAS NMR by two-fold symmetry pulse schemes for magnetization transfers and double-quantum excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teymoori, Gholamhasan; Pahari, Bholanath; Edén, Mattias

    2015-12-01

    We provide an experimental, numerical, and high-order average Hamiltonian evaluation of an open-ended series of homonuclear dipolar recoupling sequences, SR2 2p 1 with p = 1, 2, 3, … . While operating at a very low radio-frequency (rf) power, corresponding to a nutation frequency of 1/2 of the magic-angle spinning (MAS) rate (ωnut =ωr / 2), these recursively generated double-quantum (2Q) dipolar recoupling schemes offer a progressively improved compensation to resonance offsets and rf inhomogeneity for increasing pulse-sequence order p. The excellent recoupling robustness to these experimental obstacles, as well as to CSA, is demonstrated for 2Q filtering (2QF) experiments and for driving magnetization transfers in 2D NMR correlation spectroscopy, where the sequences may provide either double or zero quantum dipolar Hamiltonians during mixing. Experimental and numerical demonstrations, which mostly target conditions of "ultra-fast" MAS (≳50 kHz) and high magnetic fields, are provided for recoupling of 13C across a wide range of isotropic and anisotropic chemical shifts, as well as dipolar coupling constants, encompassing [2,3-13C2 ]alanine, [1,3-13C2 ]alanine, diammonium [1,4-13C2 ]fumarate, and [U-13 C]tyrosine. When compared at equal power levels, a superior performance is observed for the SR2p 1 sequences with p ⩾ 3 relative to existing and well-established 2Q recoupling techniques. At ultra-fast MAS, proton decoupling is redundant during the homonuclear dipolar recoupling of dilute spins in organic solids, which renders the family of SR2p 1 schemes the first efficient 2Q recoupling option for general applications, such as 2Q-1Q correlation NMR and high-order multiple-quantum excitation, under truly low-power rf conditions.

  14. Low-power broadband homonuclear dipolar recoupling in MAS NMR by two-fold symmetry pulse schemes for magnetization transfers and double-quantum excitation.

    PubMed

    Teymoori, Gholamhasan; Pahari, Bholanath; Edén, Mattias

    2015-12-01

    We provide an experimental, numerical, and high-order average Hamiltonian evaluation of an open-ended series of homonuclear dipolar recoupling sequences, SR [Formula: see text] with p=1,2,3,…. While operating at a very low radio-frequency (rf) power, corresponding to a nutation frequency of 1/2 of the magic-angle spinning (MAS) rate (ωnut=ωr/2), these recursively generated double-quantum (2Q) dipolar recoupling schemes offer a progressively improved compensation to resonance offsets and rf inhomogeneity for increasing pulse-sequence order p. The excellent recoupling robustness to these experimental obstacles, as well as to CSA, is demonstrated for 2Q filtering (2QF) experiments and for driving magnetization transfers in 2D NMR correlation spectroscopy, where the sequences may provide either double or zero quantum dipolar Hamiltonians during mixing. Experimental and numerical demonstrations, which mostly target conditions of "ultra-fast" MAS (≳50kHz) and high magnetic fields, are provided for recoupling of (13)C across a wide range of isotropic and anisotropic chemical shifts, as well as dipolar coupling constants, encompassing [2,3-(13)C2]alanine, [1,3-(13)C2]alanine, diammonium [1,4-(13)C2]fumarate, and [U-(13)C]tyrosine. When compared at equal power levels, a superior performance is observed for the SR [Formula: see text] sequences with p⩾3 relative to existing and well-established 2Q recoupling techniques. At ultra-fast MAS, proton decoupling is redundant during the homonuclear dipolar recoupling of dilute spins in organic solids, which renders the family of SR [Formula: see text] schemes the first efficient 2Q recoupling option for general applications, such as 2Q-1Q correlation NMR and high-order multiple-quantum excitation, under truly low-power rf conditions. PMID:26515279

  15. Intermittency in dilute granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenxuan; Zhang, Qiang; Wylie, Jonathan J.

    2016-07-01

    In this letter, we show that dilute granular systems can exhibit a type of intermittency that has no analogue in gas dynamics. We consider a simple system in which a very dilute set of granular particles falls under gravity through a nozzle. This setting is analogous to the classical problem of high-speed nozzle flow in the study of compressible gases. It is well known that very dilute granular systems exhibit behavior qualitatively similar to gases, and that gas flowing through a nozzle does not exhibit intermittency. Nevertheless, we show that the intermittency in dilute granular nozzle flows can occur and corresponds to complicated transitions between supersonic and subsonic regimes. We also provide detailed explanations of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon.

  16. A Manual for Recording Serial Publications in Kardex, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhanpal, S. K.

    Recording of serials is among the very important functions of a serials department. It helps in controlling the in-coming serials, claiming the not-received and missing issues, and answering inquiries regarding the current holdings of the library. This manual briefly describes the 3x5 file card system of recording serials, defines the various…

  17. Serial Murder in Southeast Asia: Collecting and Preserving Serials in Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Carol L.

    This paper surveys the loss of important serials from and about Southeast Asia. At risk titles are described, including statistical serials, publications of regional presses, minority language magazines, science and technology journals, political and non-governmental organization publications, popular or mass press publications, women's magazines,…

  18. [The serial murder: a few theoretical perspectives].

    PubMed

    Leistedt, S; Linkowski, P

    2011-01-01

    Despite numbers of publications and effort to try to establish the definition, the classification, the epidemiology, the clinical aspects and the psychopathology of serial killers, a universal consensus seems to say the least. Crime, though reduced in some countries, appears to impact more and more consistent worldwide, generating controversial ideas and a multitude of possible explanations. The serial killer usually presents as a caucasian man, aged between 20 and 40 years, often embedded socially and in his family, but with serious psychiatric, personal and especially family history. Usually acting alone, the serial killer plans a crime well in advance, but sometimes within the scope of impulsivity for a minority, the victim not being previously selected. In the latter case, an actual mental illness like psychosis is found. It is clear from numerous psychopathological studies conducted so far that most serial killers are defined as psychopathic sexual sadists, whose childhood was difficult, if not flouted, punctuated by physical and psychological violence situations. In addition, pervasive fantasies combined with thoughts of death, sex and violence are as much in common with the original acts of which they are the instigators. Beyond a relentless media that is constantly watering the public with stories and pictures depicting them as such, serial killers remain an enigma. We can therefore attempt to answer the various questions raised by this phenomenon, the way these people operate and how we can curb the rise, thanks to the neurobiological and neurophysiological approaches that science offers us. PMID:21834446

  19. Serial Expression Analysis: a web tool for the analysis of serial gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    Nueda, Maria José; Carbonell, José; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín; Conesa, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Serial transcriptomics experiments investigate the dynamics of gene expression changes associated with a quantitative variable such as time or dosage. The statistical analysis of these data implies the study of global and gene-specific expression trends, the identification of significant serial changes, the comparison of expression profiles and the assessment of transcriptional changes in terms of cellular processes. We have created the SEA (Serial Expression Analysis) suite to provide a complete web-based resource for the analysis of serial transcriptomics data. SEA offers five different algorithms based on univariate, multivariate and functional profiling strategies framed within a user-friendly interface and a project-oriented architecture to facilitate the analysis of serial gene expression data sets from different perspectives. SEA is available at sea.bioinfo.cipf.es. PMID:20525784

  20. Why extreme dilutions reach non-zero asymptotes: a nanoparticulate hypothesis based on froth flotation.

    PubMed

    Chikramane, Prashant S; Kalita, Dhrubajyoti; Suresh, Akkihebbal K; Kane, Shantaram G; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2012-11-13

    Extreme dilutions, especially homeopathic remedies of 30c, 200c, and higher potencies, are prepared by a process of serial dilution of 1:100 per step. As a result, dilution factors of 10(60), 10(400), or even greater are achieved. Therefore, both the presence of any active ingredient and the therapeutic efficacy of these medicines have been contentious because the existence of even traces of the starting raw materials in them is inconceivable. However, physicochemical studies of these solutions have unequivocally established the presence of the starting raw materials in nanoparticulate form even in these extreme (super-Avogadro, >10(23)) dilutions. In this article, we propose and validate a hypothesis to explain how nanoparticles are retained even at such enormous dilution levels. We show that once the bulk concentration is below a threshold level of a few nanograms/milliliter (ng/mL), at the end of each dilution step, all of the nanoparticles levitate to the surface and are accommodated as a monolayer at the top. This dominant population at the air-liquid interface is preserved and carried to the subsequent step, thereby forming an asymptotic concentration. Thus, all dilutions are only apparent and not real in terms of the concentrations of the starting raw materials. PMID:23083226

  1. Serial concept maps: tools for concept analysis.

    PubMed

    All, Anita C; Huycke, LaRae I

    2007-05-01

    Nursing theory challenges students to think abstractly and is often a difficult introduction to graduate study. Traditionally, concept analysis is useful in facilitating this abstract thinking. Concept maps are a way to visualize an individual's knowledge about a specific topic. Serial concept maps express the sequential evolution of a student's perceptions of a selected concept. Maps reveal individual differences in learning and perceptions, as well as progress in understanding the concept. Relationships are assessed and suggestions are made during serial mapping, which actively engages the students and faculty in dialogue that leads to increased understanding of the link between nursing theory and practice. Serial concept mapping lends itself well to both online and traditional classroom environments. PMID:17547345

  2. Stochastic modeling of a serial killer.

    PubMed

    Simkin, M V; Roychowdhury, V P

    2014-08-21

    We analyze the time pattern of the activity of a serial killer, who during 12 years had murdered 53 people. The plot of the cumulative number of murders as a function of time is of "Devil's staircase" type. The distribution of the intervals between murders (step length) follows a power law with the exponent of 1.4. We propose a model according to which the serial killer commits murders when neuronal excitation in his brain exceeds certain threshold. We model this neural activity as a branching process, which in turn is approximated by a random walk. As the distribution of the random walk return times is a power law with the exponent 1.5, the distribution of the inter-murder intervals is thus explained. We illustrate analytical results by numerical simulation. Time pattern activity data from two other serial killers further substantiate our analysis. PMID:24721476

  3. Stochastic modeling of a serial killer

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, M.V.; Roychowdhury, V.P.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the time pattern of the activity of a serial killer, who during twelve years had murdered 53 people. The plot of the cumulative number of murders as a function of time is of “Devil’s staircase” type. The distribution of the intervals between murders (step length) follows a power law with the exponent of 1.4. We propose a model according to which the serial killer commits murders when neuronal excitation in his brain exceeds certain threshold. We model this neural activity as a branching process, which in turn is approximated by a random walk. As the distribution of the random walk return times is a power law with the exponent 1.5, the distribution of the inter-murder intervals is thus explained. We illustrate analytical results by numerical simulation. Time pattern activity data from two other serial killers further substantiate our analysis. PMID:24721476

  4. Revisiting the Dilution Procedure Used To Manipulate Microbial Biodiversity in Terrestrial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Klinkhamer, Peter G. L.

    2015-01-01

    It is hard to assess experimentally the importance of microbial diversity in soil for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. An approach that is often used to make such assessment is the so-called dilution method. This method is based on the assumption that the biodiversity of the microbial community is reduced after dilution of a soil suspension and that the reduced diversity persists after incubation of more or less diluted inocula in soil. However, little is known about how the communities develop in soil after inoculation. In this study, serial dilutions of a soil suspension were made and reinoculated into the original soil previously sterilized by gamma irradiation. We determined the structure of the microbial communities in the suspensions and in the inoculated soils using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Upon dilution, several diversity indices showed that, indeed, the diversity of the bacterial communities in the suspensions decreased dramatically, with Proteobacteria as the dominant phylum of bacteria detected in all dilutions. The structure of the microbial community was changed considerably in soil, with Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia as the dominant groups in most diluted samples, indicating the importance of soil-related mechanisms operating in the assembly of the communities. We found unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) even in the highest dilution in both the suspensions and the incubated soil samples. We conclude that the dilution approach reduces the diversity of microbial communities in soil samples but that it does not allow accurate predictions of the community assemblage during incubation of (diluted) suspensions in soil. PMID:25888175

  5. Serial multiplier arrays for parallel computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, Kel

    1990-01-01

    Arrays of systolic serial-parallel multiplier elements are proposed as an alternative to conventional SIMD mesh serial adder arrays for applications that are multiplication intensive and require few stored operands. The design and operation of a number of multiplier and array configurations featuring locality of connection, modularity, and regularity of structure are discussed. A design methodology combining top-down and bottom-up techniques is described to facilitate development of custom high-performance CMOS multiplier element arrays as well as rapid synthesis of simulation models and semicustom prototype CMOS components. Finally, a differential version of NORA dynamic circuits requiring a single-phase uncomplemented clock signal introduced for this application.

  6. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides. PMID:25682709

  7. "Serial" Effects in Parallel Models of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence showing that the time to read a word out loud is influenced by an interaction between orthographic length and lexicality. Given that length effects are interpreted by advocates of dual-route models as evidence of serial processing this would seem to pose a serious challenge to models of single word reading which…

  8. Supporting the Serial in the SERIOL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Carol

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that orthographical lexical access in visual word recognition takes place in parallel, with all letters activated at the same time. In contrast, in the SERIOL model of letter-position encoding, letters fire sequentially (Whitney, 2001). I present further support for such seriality on several fronts. (1) The reasons that led…

  9. Notes for Serials Cataloging. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Beverley, Ed.; Caraway, Beatrice L., Ed.

    Notes are indispensable to serials cataloging. Researchers, reference librarians, and catalogers regularly use notes on catalog records and, as the audience for these notes has expanded from the local library community to the global Internet community, the need for notes to be cogent, clear, and useful is greater than ever. This book is a…

  10. Parallel and Serial Processes in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Thomas L.; Gilden, David L.

    2007-01-01

    A long-standing issue in the study of how people acquire visual information centers around the scheduling and deployment of attentional resources: Is the process serial, or is it parallel? A substantial empirical effort has been dedicated to resolving this issue. However, the results remain largely inconclusive because the methodologies that have…

  11. Proposal for a National Serials Data System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Scott

    A hypothetical model is given for a National Serials Data System based on the best educated guesses of what the system should do and how, therefore, it should function. The model focuses attention on the ultimate goal rather than on the decision-making processes relating to choice of data elements, unique identification codes, etc. This conceptual…

  12. Cooperative Serials Review: A Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Library Consortium, MA.

    This report describes a 1980/81 project concerned with the formulation and validation of a model for determining whether cancellation and/or consolidation of serial subscriptions and holdings should be recommended to maximize the cost-effective use of combined collections and staff resources in the Boston Library Consortium (BLC). The publication…

  13. Serial Position Effects in Nonword Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, P.; Lipinski, J.; Abbs, B.; Lin, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of research has emphasized the linkage between performance in immediate serial recall of lists, nonword repetition, and word learning. Recently, it has been reported that primacy and recency effects are obtained in repetition of individual syllables within nonwords (Gupta, in press). Five experiments examined whether such…

  14. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  15. Serial Position Curves in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model…

  16. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H; Saito, Satoru; Morita, Aiko; Varma, Samarth; Norris, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers of English recalled visually presented words. In all experiments, items varied in visual similarity and were controlled for phonological similarity. For Kanji and for English, performance on lists comprising visually similar items was overall poorer than for lists of visually distinct items across all serial positions. For mixed lists in which visually similar and visually distinct items alternated through the list, a clear "zig-zag" pattern appeared with better recall of the visually distinct items than for visually similar items. This is the first time that this zig-zag pattern has been shown for manipulations of visual similarity in serial-ordered recall. These data provide new evidence that retaining a sequence of visual codes relies on similar principles to those that govern the retention of a sequence of phonological codes. We further illustrate this by demonstrating that the data patterns can be readily simulated by at least one computational model of serial-ordered recall, the Primacy model (Page and Norris, Psychological Review, 105(4), 761-81, 1998). Together with previous evidence from neuropsychological studies and experimental studies with healthy adults, these results are interpreted as consistent with two domain-specific, limited-capacity, temporary memory systems for phonological material and for visual material, respectively, each of which uses similar processes that have evolved to be optimal for retention of serial order. PMID:26704711

  17. Serial position markers in space: visuospatial priming of serial order working memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    De Belder, Maya; Abrahamse, Elger; Kerckhof, Emma; Fias, Wim; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Most general theories on serial order working memory (WM) assume the existence of position markers that are bound to the to-be-remembered items to keep track of the serial order. So far, the exact cognitive/neural characteristics of these markers have remained largely underspecified, while direct empirical evidence for their existence is mostly lacking. In the current study we demonstrate that retrieval from verbal serial order WM can be facilitated or hindered by spatial cuing: begin elements of a verbal WM sequence are retrieved faster after cuing the left side of space, while end elements are retrieved faster after cuing the right side of space. In direct complement to our previous work--where we showed the reversed impact of WM retrieval on spatial processing--we argue that the current findings provide us with a crucial piece of evidence suggesting a direct and functional involvement of space in verbal serial order WM. We outline the idea that serial order in verbal WM is coded within a spatial coordinate system with spatial attention being involved when searching through WM, and we discuss how this account can explain several hallmark observations related to serial order WM. PMID:25611595

  18. Magnetic Particle Recovery of Serial Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    D. Utrata; M.J. Johnson

    2003-10-01

    One method used by crime labs to recover obliterated serial numbers in steel firearms (ferrous samples) is the magnetic particle technique. The use of this method is predicated on the detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers after the visible stamp has been removed. Equipment specialized for this detection is not used in these attempts; a portable magnetic yoke used typically for flaw detection on large weldments or structures, along with dry visible magnetic powders, have been the tools of criminologists working in this area. Crime labs have reported low success rates using these tools [1, 2]. This is not surprising when one considers that little formal development has apparently evolved for use in such investigations since the publication of seminal work in this area some time ago [3]. The aim of this project is to investigate specific aspects of magnetic particle inspection for serial number recovery. This includes attempts to understand the magnetic characteristics of different steels that affect their performance in the test, such as varying results for carbon steels and alloy steels after different thermal and forming treatments. Also investigated are the effects of the nature of the sample magnetization (AC, rectified DC, and true DC) and the use of various detection media, such as visible powders and fluorescent sprays, on test outcome. Additionally, some aspects of surface preparation of firearm samples prior to number recovery were included in this work. The scope of this report includes a brief overview of the magnetic particle inspection method in general and its applications to forensic serial number recovery. This is followed by a description of how such investigations were simulated on lab samples, including a look at how the microstructure of a given steel will affect its performance in the test. Investigations into the serial number recovery in a series of ferromagnetic firearms (both steel and certain stainless steels

  19. National Serials Data Program; Phase I, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Information Systems Office.

    The primary objective of the National Serials Data Program is the design and implementation of a national serials information system. The goals of this system are the provisions of timely, accurate, and comprehensive information about serial publications within a framework of quantitative efficiency and agreed upon cost effectiveness. The intent…

  20. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  1. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  2. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  3. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  4. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  5. Serial Millisecond Crystallography of Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Kathrin; Dworkowski, Florian; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Milne, Christopher; Wang, Meitian; Standfuss, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) is a powerful method to determine high-resolution structures of pharmaceutically relevant membrane proteins. Recently, the technology has been adapted to carry out serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at synchrotron sources, where beamtime is more abundant. In an injector-based approach, crystals grown in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) or embedded in viscous medium are delivered directly into the unattenuated beam of a microfocus beamline. Pilot experiments show the application of microjet-based SMX for solving the structure of a membrane protein and compatibility of the method with de novo phasing. Planned synchrotron upgrades, faster detectors and software developments will go hand-in-hand with developments at free-electron lasers to provide a powerful methodology for solving structures from microcrystals at room temperature, ligand screening or crystal optimization for time-resolved studies with minimal or no radiation damage. PMID:27553240

  6. Default Mode and Executive Networks Areas: Association with the Serial Order in Divergent Thinking.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Jarmo; Numminen, Jussi; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Antell, Henrik; Taatila, Vesa; Suomala, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Scientific findings have suggested a two-fold structure of the cognitive process. By using the heuristic thinking mode, people automatically process information that tends to be invariant across days, whereas by using the explicit thinking mode people explicitly process information that tends to be variant compared to typical previously learned information patterns. Previous studies on creativity found an association between creativity and the brain regions in the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the default mode network and the executive network. However, which neural networks contribute to the explicit mode of thinking during idea generation remains an open question. We employed an fMRI paradigm to examine which brain regions were activated when participants (n = 16) mentally generated alternative uses for everyday objects. Most previous creativity studies required participants to verbalize responses during idea generation, whereas in this study participants produced mental alternatives without verbalizing. This study found activation in the left anterior insula when contrasting idea generation and object identification. This finding suggests that the insula (part of the brain's salience network) plays a role in facilitating both the central executive and default mode networks to activate idea generation. We also investigated closely the effect of the serial order of idea being generated on brain responses: The amplitude of fMRI responses correlated positively with the serial order of idea being generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, which is part of the central executive network. Positive correlation with the serial order was also observed in the regions typically assigned to the default mode network: the precuneus/cuneus, inferior parietal lobule and posterior cingulate cortex. These networks support the explicit mode of thinking and help the individual to convert conventional mental models to new ones. The serial order correlated

  7. Lipidic phase membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Linda C; Arnlund, David; White, Thomas A; Katona, Gergely; DePonte, Daniel P; Weierstall, Uwe; Doak, R Bruce; Shoeman, Robert L; Lomb, Lukas; Malmerberg, Erik; Davidsson, Jan; Nass, Karol; Liang, Mengning; Andreasson, Jakob; Aquila, Andrew; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Caleman, Carl; Coffee, Ryan; Coppola, Nicola; Ekeberg, Tomas; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y; Hartmann, Robert; Hartmann, Andreas; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Hunter, Mark S; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kimmel, Nils; Kirian, Richard A; Maia, Filipe R N C; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V; Reich, Christian; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M Marvin; Sierra, Raymond G; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Strüder, Lothar; Timneanu, Nicusor; Ullrich, Joachim; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y; Wang, Xiaoyu; Weidenspointner, Georg; Wunderer, Cornelia; Fromme, Petra; Chapman, Henry N; Spence, John C H; Neutze, Richard

    2012-01-01

    X-ray free electron laser (X-feL)-based serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging method with potential to rapidly advance the challenging field of membrane protein structural biology. here we recorded interpretable diffraction data from micrometer-sized lipidic sponge phase crystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center delivered into an X-feL beam using a sponge phase micro-jet. PMID:22286383

  8. Serial Pixel Analog-to-Digital Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E D

    2010-02-01

    This method reduces the data path from the counter to the pixel register of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from as many as 10 bits to a single bit. The reduction in data path width is accomplished by using a coded serial data stream similar to a pseudo random number (PRN) generator. The resulting encoded pixel data is then decoded into a standard hexadecimal format before storage. The high-speed serial pixel ADC concept is based on the single-slope integrating pixel ADC architecture. Previous work has described a massively parallel pixel readout of a similar architecture. The serial ADC connection is similar to the state-of-the art method with the exception that the pixel ADC register is a shift register and the data path is a single bit. A state-of-the-art individual-pixel ADC uses a single-slope charge integration converter architecture with integral registers and “one-hot” counters. This implies that parallel data bits are routed among the counter and the individual on-chip pixel ADC registers. The data path bit-width to the pixel is therefore equivalent to the pixel ADC bit resolution.

  9. Serial FBG sensor network allowing overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbenseth, S.; Lochmann, S.; Ahrens, A.; Rehm, B.

    2016-05-01

    For structure or material monitoring low impact serial fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks have attracted increasing research interest. Common sensor networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for FBG interrogation are limited in their efficiency by the spectral width of their light source, the FBG tuning range and the spectral guard bands. Overlapping spectra are strictly forbidden in this case. Applying time division multiplexing (TDM) or active resonator schemes may overcome these restrictions. However, they introduce other substantial disadvantages like signal roundtrip dependency or sophisticated control of active resonating structures. Code division multiplexing (CDM) as a means of FBG interrogation by simple autocorrelation of appropriate codes has been shown to be superior in this respect. However, it came at the cost of a second spectrometer introducing additional equalization efforts. We demonstrate a new serial FBG sensor network utilizing CDM signal processing for efficient sensor interrogation without the need of a second spectrometer and additional state of polarization (SOP) controlling components. It allows overlapping spectra even when all sensing FBGs are positioned at the same centre wavelength and it shows a high degree of insensitivity to SOP. Sequence inversed keyed (SIK) serial signal processing utilizing quasi-orthogonal balanced codes ensures simple and quick sensor interrogation with high signal-to-interference/noise ratio.

  10. Science Notes: Dilution of a Weak Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher; Wai, Chooi Khee

    2014-01-01

    This "Science note" arose out of practical work involving the dilution of ethanoic acid, the measurement of the pH of the diluted solutions and calculation of the acid dissociation constant, K[subscript a], for each diluted solution. The students expected the calculated values of K[subscript a] to be constant but they found that the…

  11. Implementation of a Multichannel Serial Data Streaming Algorithm using the Xilinx Serial RapidIO Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxley, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current world of applications that use reconfigurable technology implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), there is a need for flexible architectures that can grow as the systems evolve. A project has limited resources and a fixed set of requirements that development efforts are tasked to meet. Designers must develop robust solutions that practically meet the current customer demands and also have the ability to grow for future performance. This paper describes the development of a high speed serial data streaming algorithm that allows for transmission of multiple data channels over a single serial link. The technique has the ability to change to meet new applications developed for future design considerations. This approach uses the Xilinx Serial RapidIO LOGICORE Solution to implement a flexible infrastructure to meet the current project requirements with the ability to adapt future system designs.

  12. CAR-T cells are serial killers

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Ritchie, David S; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have enjoyed unprecedented clinical success against haematological malignancies in recent years. However, several aspects of CAR T cell biology remain unknown. We recently compared CAR and T cell receptor (TCR)-based killing in the same effector cell and showed that CAR T cells can not only efficiently kill single tumor targets, they can also kill multiple tumor targets in a sequential manner. Single and serial killing events were not sustained long term due to CAR down-regulation after 20 hours. PMID:26587330

  13. Serial Dissection of Parasite Gene Families.

    PubMed

    Bzik, David J

    2016-05-01

    Calcium ion signaling regulates central aspects of the biology controlling stage and life cycle transitions of apicomplexan parasites. In the current issue of Infection and Immunity, Long and coworkers (S. Long, Q. Wang, and L. D. Sibley, Infect Immun 84:1262-1273, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01173-15) describe a powerful genetic system enabling reliable serial genetic dissection of a large gene family encoding novel calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) that provides new insights into the roles of CDPKs during Toxoplasma gondii infection. PMID:26953326

  14. Serial Femtosecond Crystallography of Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lan; Weierstall, Uwe; Cherezov, Vadim; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), constitute the most important drug targets. The increasing number of targets requires new structural information, which has proven tremendously challenging due to the difficulties in growing diffraction-quality crystals. Recent developments of serial femtosecond crystallography at X-ray free electron lasers combined with the use of membrane-mimetic gel-like matrix of lipidic cubic phase (LCP-SFX) for crystal growth and delivery hold significant promise to accelerate structural studies of membrane proteins. This chapter describes the development and current status of the LCP-SFX technology and elaborates its future role in structural biology of membrane proteins. PMID:27553241

  15. Theories of serial flow in intergenerational transfers.

    PubMed

    Cheal, D J

    1988-01-01

    Recent improvements in the economic position of the elderly population necessitate a more thorough understanding of the serial flow of economic supports from preceding to succeeding generations. Five theories which might extend our understanding of the decision rules employed in intergenerational transfers are discussed. They are: social exchange theory, the kin selection theory of altruism, human capital theory, social constructivist theory, and rational transfers theory. The underlying assumptions of these theories are presented and compared, and models of intergenerational transactions are developed. Comparative studies are recommended in order to gain deeper insights into the relative strengths and weaknesses of these different views of relationships between the generations. PMID:3049398

  16. Dilute acid and autohydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    Exposure of cellulosic biomass to temperatures of about 120-210 degrees C can remove most of the hemicellulose and produce cellulose-rich solids from which high glucose yields are possible with cellulase enzymes. Furthermore, the use of dilute sulfuric acid in this pretreatment operation can increase recovery of hemicellulose sugars substantially to about 85-95% of the maximum possible versus only about 65% if no acid is employed. The use of small-diameter tubes makes it possible to employ high solids concentrations similar to those preferred for commercial operations, with rapid heat-up, good temperature control, and accurate closure of material balances. Mixed reactors can be employed to pretreat larger amounts of biomass than possible in such small-diameter tubes, but solids concentrations are limited to about 15% or less to provide uniform temperatures. Pretreatment of large amounts of biomass at high solids concentrations is best carried out using direct steam injection and rapid pressure release, but closure of material balances in such "steam gun" devices is more difficult. Although flow of water alone or containing dilute acid is not practical commercially, such flow-through configurations provide valuable insight into biomass deconstruction kinetics not possible in the batch tubes, mixed reactors, or steam gun systems. PMID:19768619

  17. A Microgravity Helium Dilution Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat R.; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a He-3-He-4 dilution cooler to operate in microgravity. It uses charcoal adsorption pumps and heaters for its operation; it has no moving parts. It currently operates cyclically to well below 0.1 K and we have designed a version to operate continuously. We expect that the continuous version will be able to provide the long-duration cooling that many experiments need at temperatures down to 0.040 K. More importantly, such a dilution cooler could provide the precooling that enables the use of adiabatic demagnetization techniques that can reach temperatures below 0.001 K. At temperatures below 0.002 K many fascinating microgravity experiments on superfluid He-3 become possible. Among the possibilities are: research into a superfluid He-3 gyroscope, study of the nucleation of the B-phase of superfluid He-3 when the sample is floating out of contact with walls, study of the anisotropy of the surface tension of the B-phase, and NMR experiments on tiny free-floating clusters of superfluid He-3 atoms that should model the shell structure of nuclei.

  18. Concurrent Cognitive Processes in Rat Serial Pattern Learning: Item Memory, Serial Position, and Pattern Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Melissa D.; Fountain, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined the processes mediating rat serial pattern learning for rule-consistent versus rule-violating pattern elements ("violation elements"). In all three experiments, rats were trained to press retractable levers in a circular array in a specific sequence for brain-stimulation reward (BSR). Experiment 1 examined the role of…

  19. "Serial" effects in parallel models of reading.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    There is now considerable evidence showing that the time to read a word out loud is influenced by an interaction between orthographic length and lexicality. Given that length effects are interpreted by advocates of dual-route models as evidence of serial processing this would seem to pose a serious challenge to models of single word reading which postulate a common parallel processing mechanism for reading both words and nonwords (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; Rastle, Havelka, Wydell, Coltheart, & Besner, 2009). However, an alternative explanation of these data is that visual processes outside the scope of existing parallel models are responsible for generating the word-length related phenomena (Seidenberg & Plaut, 1998). Here we demonstrate that a parallel model of single word reading can account for the differential word-length effects found in the naming latencies of words and nonwords, provided that it includes a mapping from visual to orthographic representations, and that the nature of those orthographic representations are not preconstrained. The model can also simulate other supposedly "serial" effects. The overall findings were consistent with the view that visual processing contributes substantially to the word-length effects in normal reading and provided evidence to support the single-route theory which assumes words and nonwords are processed in parallel by a common mechanism. PMID:22343366

  20. [Linkage analysis of serial sex crimes].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kaeko; Watanabe, Kazumi; Wachi, Taeko; Otsuka, Yusuke; Kuraishi, Hiroki; Fujita, Goro

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to create an index for a behavioral linkage analysis of serial sex crimes, and second, to construct a predictive model for the analysis. Data on 720 sex crimes (rape, indecent assault) committed by 360 offenders arrested between 1993 and 2005 throughout Japan were collected. The following seven behaviors were examined during a series of analyses aimed at illustrating the effectiveness of crime linkage in serial sex crimes: victim age group, area type, publicness of offense site, weapon, time, contact method, and day of the week. The results indicated that six of the seven behaviors (excluding "day of the week") significantly distinguished between linked and unlinked crime pairs. Under a logistic regression of these six variables, which were dichotomously coded in terms of the concordance or discordance between each pair of incidents, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.82-0.87), indicating a high level of discriminative accuracy in identifying disparate sex crimes committed by the same person. PMID:26402952

  1. Galileo - The Serial-Production AIT Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragnit, Ulrike; Brunner, Otto

    2008-01-01

    The Galileo Project is one of the most demanding projects of ESA, being Europe's autarkic navigation system and a constellation composed of 30 satellites. This presentation points out the different phases of the project up to the full operational capability and the corresponding launch options with respect to launch vehicles as well as launch configurations. One of the biggest challenges is to set up a small serial 'production line' for the overall integration and test campaign of satellites. This production line demands an optimization of all relevant tasks, taking into account also backup and recovery actions. A comprehensive AIT concept is required, reflecting a tightly merged facility layout and work flow design. In addition a common data management system is needed to handle all spacecraft related documentation and to have a direct input-out flow for all activities, phases and positions at the same time. Process optimization is a well known field of engineering in all small high tech production lines, nevertheless serial production of satellites are still not the daily task in space business and therefore new concepts have to be put in place. Therefore, and in order to meet the satellites overall system optimization, a thorough interface between unit/subsystem manufacturing and satellite AIT must be realized to ensure a smooth flow and to avoid any process interruption, which would directly lead to a schedule impact.

  2. Data Exploration Toolkit for serial diffraction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zeldin, Oliver B.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Zhou, Qiangjun; Zhao, Minglei; Weis, William I.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes a set of tools allowing experimentalists insight into the variation present within large serial data sets. Ultrafast diffraction at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has the potential to yield new insights into important biological systems that produce radiation-sensitive crystals. An unavoidable feature of the ‘diffraction before destruction’ nature of these experiments is that images are obtained from many distinct crystals and/or different regions of the same crystal. Combined with other sources of XFEL shot-to-shot variation, this introduces significant heterogeneity into the diffraction data, complicating processing and interpretation. To enable researchers to get the most from their collected data, a toolkit is presented that provides insights into the quality of, and the variation present in, serial crystallography data sets. These tools operate on the unmerged, partial intensity integration results from many individual crystals, and can be used on two levels: firstly to guide the experimental strategy during data collection, and secondly to help users make informed choices during data processing.

  3. Serial Cognition and Personality in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Altschul, Drew M.; Terrace, Herbert S.; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between serial cognition and personality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Nine macaques were tested on a simultaneous chaining task to assess their cognitive abilities. They were also rated for personality traits and scored according to a previously extracted six component structure derived from free-ranging rhesus macaques. Friendliness and Openness were positively associated with good performance on three measures of accuracy on the serial learning task: Progress, Error, and Rewarded (i.e., correctly completed) Trials. Faster Reaction Times were associated with lower Friendliness and higher Confidence, as well as higher Openness when only correct responses were analyzed. We also used regularized exploratory factor analysis to extract two, three, four, five, and six factor structures, and found consistent associations between accuracy and single factors within each of these structures. Prior results on intelligence in other nonhuman primate species have focused on basic intelligence tests; this study demonstrates that more complex, abstract cognitive tasks can be used to assess intelligence and personality in nonhuman primates. PMID:27158661

  4. Recovering obliterated laser engraved serial numbers in firearms.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ladário; dos Santos, Paulo Acioly Marques

    2008-08-01

    An easy procedure for recovering obliterated firearms serial numbers, which are laser engraved is presented in this case report. For these serial numbers, the traditional recovering method using acid etching generally fails, once marking the serial number does not necessarily imply a deep permanent deformation of the crystalline array. The standard required mirror-like finish of the surface commonly can destroy any evidence of the original serial number, i.e., can destroy the heat affected zone (HAZ) of only few micra, if it is still present. It is shown in this report that relief polishing and reflected light stereomicroscopy can, in certain cases, successfully reveal obliterated serial numbers, originally marked by laser. The use of this procedure for recovering this type of obliterated serial number is illustrated and discussed with an example we have dealt with. PMID:18662602

  5. Desynchronization in diluted neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Zillmer, Ruediger; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro

    2006-09-15

    The dynamical behavior of a weakly diluted fully inhibitory network of pulse-coupled spiking neurons is investigated. Upon increasing the coupling strength, a transition from regular to stochasticlike regime is observed. In the weak-coupling phase, a periodic dynamics is rapidly approached, with all neurons firing with the same rate and mutually phase locked. The strong-coupling phase is characterized by an irregular pattern, even though the maximum Lyapunov exponent is negative. The paradox is solved by drawing an analogy with the phenomenon of 'stable chaos', i.e., by observing that the stochasticlike behavior is 'limited' to an exponentially long (with the system size) transient. Remarkably, the transient dynamics turns out to be stationary.

  6. Residual Resistivity of Dilute Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    The residual resistivity for 156 dilute alloys of 19 hosts of different groups of the periodic table has been studied on the basis of the single parametric model potential formalism. Ashcroft's empty core model (EMC) potential is explored for the first time with five different local field correction functions, viz, Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F), and Sarkar et al. (S) to investigate the effect of the exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. The comparison of the presently computed outcomes with the available theoretical and experimental data is highly encouraging. The investigation of residual resistivity is found to be quite sensitive to the selection of local field correction function, showing a significant variation with the change in the function.

  7. Band anticrossing in dilute nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, W.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.

    2003-12-23

    Alloying III-V compounds with small amounts of nitrogen leads to dramatic reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy in the resulting dilute nitride alloys. The effect originates from an anti-crossing interaction between the extended conduction-band states and localized N states. The interaction splits the conduction band into two nonparabolic subbands. The downward shift of the lower conduction subband edge is responsible for the N-induced reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy. The changes in the conduction band structure result in significant increase in electron effective mass and decrease in the electron mobility, and lead to a large enhance of the maximum doping level in GaInNAs doped with group VI donors. In addition, a striking asymmetry in the electrical activation of group IV and group VI donors can be attributed to mutual passivation process through formation of the nearest neighbor group-IV donor nitrogen pairs.

  8. XAFS in dilute magnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhihu; Yan, Wensheng; Yao, Tao; Liu, Qinghua; Xie, Yi; Wei, Shiqiang

    2013-10-14

    X-Ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy has experienced a rapid development in the last four decades and has proved to be a powerful structure characterization technique in the study of local environments in condensed matter. In this article, we first introduce the XAFS basic principles including theory, data analysis and experiment in some detail. Then we attempt to make a review on the applications of XAFS to the study of atomic and electronic structure in dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) systems. The power of XAFS in characterizing this interesting material system, such as determining the occupation sites and distribution of the dopants, detecting the presence of metal clusters or secondary phases, as well as identifying the defect types and dopant valence, will be illuminated by selected examples. This review should be of interest both to newcomers in the DMS field and to an interdisciplinary community of researchers working in synthesis, characterization and utilization of DMS materials. PMID:23884341

  9. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    PubMed

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario. PMID:11783573

  10. Negative Priming Under Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2012-01-01

    Negative priming (NP) was examined under a new paradigm wherein a target and distractors were temporally separated using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). The results from the two experiments revealed that (a) NP was robust under RSVP, such that the responses to a target were slower when the target served as a distractor in a previous trial than when it did not; (b) NP was found regardless of whether the distractors appeared before or after the targets; and (c) NP was stronger when the distractor was more distinctive. These findings are generally similar to those on NP in the spatial search task. The implications for the processes causing NP under RSVP are discussed in the current paper. PMID:22629351

  11. Serial murder by children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C

    2004-01-01

    Six cases of serial murder by children and adolescents spanning the past 150 years are presented. The available literature pertaining to this area is reviewed. Each of these six offenders committed sexually homicidal behavior as demonstrated by their expression of erotic interest or engagement in overt sexual behavior at the crime scenes. From a DSM-IV-TR perspective they all exhibited signs of sexual sadism, and their crime characteristics reflected behavior of a more predatory than affective nature. Hands on methods of killing were preferred, i.e., cutting, stabbing, or strangulation. These crimes are extremely rare. Case reports in this area are encouraged to advance our knowledge of these youths. PMID:15211557

  12. Data Exploration Toolkit for serial diffraction experiments

    PubMed Central

    Zeldin, Oliver B.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Zhou, Qiangjun; Zhao, Minglei; Weis, William I.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast diffraction at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has the potential to yield new insights into important biological systems that produce radiation-sensitive crystals. An unavoidable feature of the ‘diffraction before destruction’ nature of these experiments is that images are obtained from many distinct crystals and/or different regions of the same crystal. Combined with other sources of XFEL shot-to-shot variation, this introduces significant heterogeneity into the diffraction data, complicating processing and interpretation. To enable researchers to get the most from their collected data, a toolkit is presented that provides insights into the quality of, and the variation present in, serial crystallography data sets. These tools operate on the unmerged, partial intensity integration results from many individual crystals, and can be used on two levels: firstly to guide the experimental strategy during data collection, and secondly to help users make informed choices during data processing. PMID:25664746

  13. Serial segment method for measuring remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magdaleno, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    For tracking tasks where a sum of sine waves forcing function is used it is often difficult and/or expensive to obtain the pilot's remnant in the vicinity of the sine waves. For the case where each sine wave has at least four times an integer number of cycle per run length, this paper illustrates the serial segments method for measuring remnant power spectral density in a frequency band centered on each sine wave. This method can be implemented on digital, hybrid, or analog Fourier coefficient analyzers, and is particularly advantageous on the latter since properties of Fourier coefficients are exploited to yield both a remnant measure and an improved estimate of the correlated component.

  14. Data Exploration Toolkit for serial diffraction experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zeldin, Oliver B.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Zhou, Qiangjun; Zhao, Minglei; Weis, William I.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2015-01-23

    Ultrafast diffraction at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has the potential to yield new insights into important biological systems that produce radiation-sensitive crystals. An unavoidable feature of the 'diffraction before destruction' nature of these experiments is that images are obtained from many distinct crystals and/or different regions of the same crystal. Combined with other sources of XFEL shot-to-shot variation, this introduces significant heterogeneity into the diffraction data, complicating processing and interpretation. To enable researchers to get the most from their collected data, a toolkit is presented that provides insights into the quality of, and the variation present in, serial crystallography datamore » sets. These tools operate on the unmerged, partial intensity integration results from many individual crystals, and can be used on two levels: firstly to guide the experimental strategy during data collection, and secondly to help users make informed choices during data processing.« less

  15. The ring phenomenon of diluted blood droplets.

    PubMed

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Schlote, J; Wagner, C; Fiscina, J; Kettner, M

    2016-05-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis is occasionally required in practical forensic casework. Misinterpretations may occur in cases in which diluted bloodstains are formed either within the course of the crime or during cleaning attempts after the original crime. The resulting pale or diluted aspect of the bloodstains may also be produced by passive serum separation. To differentiate between diluted and non-diluted stains and the artifacts of pure serum separation, dripping experiments were performed using droplets of multiple sizes and dilutions dripped onto common indoor and fabric surfaces. In addition, pools of blood of different volumes were applied to solid surfaces with different inclinations to determine the conditions and properties of serum separation. This study yielded morphological characteristics that enable differentiation between stains of diluted and non-diluted blood: a prominent ring phenomenon indicates dilution with water. To elucidate the underlying physical mechanism of particle distribution within a blood stain, photomicrographs were taken during the drying process. The so-called contact line pinning effect was identified as the formation mechanism of this ring phenomenon. Serum separation was highly dependent on the applied blood volume, the ambient temperature, the time elapsed since the initial deposition, and the degree of floor inclination. PMID:26718842

  16. DAVINCI a Dilute Aperture Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The motivation for DAVINCI was originally to make use of the technology developed for space interferometers like SIM to build a coronagraph from four 1.1m telescopes that was dramatically lower in cost than a 4 5m filled aperture offaxis coronagraph. Our initial studies through team X have shown this cost savings to be real. But a more careful analysis showed that DAVINCI would have an inner working angle of 35mas a factor of 2 smaller than a 2 lambda/D 4 meter coronagraph or 70m external occulter, resulting in a 10X increase in the number of potential Earth-Clone targets. DAVINCI uses a nulling interferometer as a coronagraph, a nulling interferometer is one the few coronagraph architectures that are compatible with segmented and dilute aperture telescopes. Combined with a post coronagraph wavefront sensor several ultra-demanding tolerances of conventional coronagraphs can be relaxed by factors of 100. The post coronagraph wavefront sensor is also much less affected by local and exozodi background than wavefront sensors that use the science camera as the wavefront sensor. The post coronagraph interferometer is also used on ground based extreme AO coronagraphs, GPI, and P1640.

  17. Retrospective Revaluation Effects Following Serial Compound Training and Target Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effting, Marieke; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

    2010-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, two experiments examined retrospective revaluation effects after serial compound training in a release from overshadowing design. In Experiment 1, serial X [right arrow] A+ training produced suppression to target A, which was enhanced when preceded by feature X, whereas X by itself elicited no suppression.…

  18. Effects of Serial Rehearsal Training on Memory Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Charley; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Half the subjects were trained to use a serial rehearsal strategy during target set storage and half were given no strategy training. The results indicate that the rate of memory search is IQ-related, and that serial rehearsal training facilitates memory search when rehearsal is covert. (Author/BW)

  19. Serial Magnetization Transfer Imaging in Acute Optic Neuritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, S. J.; Toosy, A. T.; Jones, S. J.; Altmann, D. R.; Miszkiel, K. A.; MacManus, D. G.; Barker, G. J.; Plant, G. T.; Thompson, A. J.; Miller, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    In serial studies of multiple sclerosis lesions, reductions in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) are thought to be due to demyelination and axonal loss, with later rises due to remyelination. This study followed serial changes in MTR in acute optic neuritis in combination with clinical and electrophysiological measurements to determine if the MTR…

  20. PDA Serials: Practical and Policy Issues for Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Personal Digital Assistant serials are not just a subset of electronic serials from an acquisitions/collection development point of view because of their total dependence on patron-owned technology. Even if viewed as a "free" resource there are issues of expense and effort involved in gathering, classifying, and providing access and awareness of…

  1. Serials Information on CD-ROM: A Reference Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Linda S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Ulrich's PLUS (a CD-ROM version of Ulrich's serials directories) and EBSCO's CD-ROM version of "The Serials Directory," and compares the two in terms of their use as reference tools. Areas discussed include database content, user aids, system features, search features, and a comparison of search results. Equipment requirements for both…

  2. Speech and Language Processing Mechanisms in Verbal Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Richard; Hulme, Charles

    2006-01-01

    We report two experiments examining the role of concreteness and word phonological neighborhood characteristics on immediate serial recall. In line with previous findings concreteness, word frequency, and larger neighborhood size are associated with better serial recall. Both concreteness and word neighborhood size were also positively associated…

  3. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    PubMed

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior. PMID:8988574

  4. Forgetting in Immediate Serial Recall: Decay, Temporal Distinctiveness, or Interference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively.…

  5. Indexing Serialized Fiction: May the Force Be with You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Melissa M.

    The adult novel offers indexers an unusual opportunity to create a serialized fiction index. This research paper involved designing and creating a Character Index, Thesaurus, Glossary, and Abstract (with descriptors) for 21 novels based on the "Star Wars" movies. The novels are an unusual example of serialized fiction featuring main characters,…

  6. Using a Text-Processing Language for Serial Record Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrey, James R.; Hardiman, Paul V.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the automation of the machine-readable library serials file at Golda Meir Library, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Highlights include purchase of the PERLINE/BOOKLINE system including a MARC interface module called MICA, five main aspects of the problem posed by the library serials conversion project, and use of the text-processing…

  7. Subject Access to Serial Publications in Toronto Bank Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Steven Blake

    1991-01-01

    A survey of five major bank libraries revealed three distinct levels of subject access to serial publications: manually based systems with no formal subject access; computer-aided systems in which the sorting capabilities of computerized serials management are utilized to generate printed lists arranged by subject; and online catalogs with subject…

  8. Nutritional assessment by isotope dilution analysis of body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Szeluga, D.J.; Stuart, R.K.; Utermohlen, V.; Santos, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The three components of body mass, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular fluid (ECF), and fat + extracellular solids (ECS: bone, tendon, etc) can be quantified using established isotope dilution techniques. With these techniques, total body water (TBW) and ECF are measured using 3H/sub 2/O and /sup 82/Bromine, respectively, as tracers. BCM is calculated from intracellular fluid (ICF) where ICF . TBW - ECF. Fat + ECS is estimated as: body weight - (BCM + ECF). TBW and ECF can be determined by either of two calculation methods, one requiring several timed plasma samples (extrapolation method) and one requiring a single plasma sample and a 4-h urine collection (urine-corrected method). The comparability of the two calculation methods was evaluated in 20 studies in 12 bone marrow transplant recipients. We found that for determination of TBW and ECF there was a very strong linear relationship (r2 greater than 0.98) between the calculation methods. Further comparisons (by t test, 2-sided) indicated that for the determination of ECF, the methods were not significantly (p greater than 0.90) different; however, TBW determined by the urine-corrected method was slightly (0.1 to 6%), but significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than that determined by the extrapolation method. Therefore, relative to the extrapolation method, the urine-corrected method ''over-estimates'' BCM and ''under-estimates'' fat + ECS since determination of these compartment sizes depends on measurement of TBW. We currently use serial isotope dilution studies to monitor the body composition changes of patients receiving therapeutic nutritional support.

  9. Color-dilution alopecia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Kang, Kyung Il; Sohn, Hyun Joo; Woo, Gye Hyeong; Jean, Young Hwa; Hwang, Eui Kyung

    2005-09-01

    Color-dilution alopecia is a relatively uncommon hereditary skin disease seen in "Blue" and other color-diluted dogs. This syndrome is associated with a color-dilution gene. The initial clinical signs are the gradual onset of a dry, dull and poor hair coat quality. Hair shafts and hair regrowth are poor, and follicular papules may develop and progress to frank comedones. Hair loss and comedo formation are usually most severe on the trunk, especially color-diluted area on the skin. Six cases of color-dilution alopecia are reported in 3 months to 10 years old dogs. The breeds of dogs are blue Doberman Pinscher, Miniature Pinscher, Dachshund, and Schnauzer. Grossly, extensive partial hair loss was seen on the skin. Histopathologically, the epidermis is relatively normal but may be hyperplastic. Hair follicles are characterized by atrophy and distortion. Heavily clumped melanin is present in the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles. PMID:16131833

  10. Thermally-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations from a 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer to a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin

    2016-07-28

    In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs. PMID:27356177

  11. Serials Positions in U. S. Academic Libraries, 1980-1988: A Survey of Position Announcements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Carolyn J.; Mering, Margaret V.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses serials-related functions in academic research libraries, considers the operation of a separate serials department versus integration of serials functions within a general technical services department, and describes an analysis of advertisements for serials positions that was conducted to determine the need for serials specialists and…

  12. Conversion of the Minnesota Union List of Serials (MULS) To National Serials Data Program (NSDP) Requirements: A Proposal. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosch, Audrey N., Comp.

    The methodologies and costs of converting the Minnesota Union List of Serials (MULS) to the National Serials Data Program (NSDP) requirements are outlined in this document. The conversion is considered under four logical areas: 1) providing quantitative estimates of the amount of computer analysis and programing manpower required to perform a…

  13. Impact of recycling stillage on conversion of dilute sulfuric acid pretreated corn stover to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Mohagheghi, Ali; Schell, Daniel J

    2010-04-01

    Both the current corn starch to ethanol industry and the emerging lignocellulosic biofuels industry view recycling of spent fermentation broth or stillage as a method to reduce fresh water use. The objective of this study was to understand the impact of recycling stillage on conversion of corn stover to ethanol. Sugars in a dilute-acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate were fermented to ethanol by the glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria Zymomonas mobilis 8b. Three serial fermentations were performed at two different initial sugar concentrations using either 10% or 25% of the stillage as makeup water for the next fermentation in the series. Serial fermentations were performed to achieve near steady state concentration of inhibitors and other compounds in the corn stover hydrolysate. Little impact on ethanol yields was seen at sugar concentrations equivalent to pretreated corn stover slurry at 15% (w/w) with 10% recycle of the stillage. However, ethanol yields became progressively poorer as the sugar concentration increased and fraction of the stillage recycled increased. At an equivalent corn stover slurry concentration of 20% with 25% recycled stillage the ethanol yield was only 5%. For this microorganism with dilute-acid pretreated corn stover, recycling a large fraction of the stillage had a significant negative impact on fermentation performance. Although this finding is of concern for biochemical-based lignocellulose conversion processes, other microorganism/pretreatment technology combinations will likely perform differently. PMID:19998277

  14. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters) of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified. PMID:26257946

  15. Graphene-based microfluidics for serial crystallography.

    PubMed

    Sui, Shuo; Wang, Yuxi; Kolewe, Kristopher W; Srajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Schiffman, Jessica D; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Perry, Sarah L

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidic strategies to enable the growth and subsequent serial crystallographic analysis of micro-crystals have the potential to facilitate both structural characterization and dynamic structural studies of protein targets that have been resistant to single-crystal strategies. However, adapting microfluidic crystallization platforms for micro-crystallography requires a dramatic decrease in the overall device thickness. We report a robust strategy for the straightforward incorporation of single-layer graphene into ultra-thin microfluidic devices. This architecture allows for a total material thickness of only ∼1 μm, facilitating on-chip X-ray diffraction analysis while creating a sample environment that is stable against significant water loss over several weeks. We demonstrate excellent signal-to-noise in our X-ray diffraction measurements using a 1.5 μs polychromatic X-ray exposure, and validate our approach via on-chip structure determination using hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) as a model system. Although this work is focused on the use of graphene for protein crystallography, we anticipate that this technology should find utility in a wide range of both X-ray and other lab on a chip applications. PMID:27241728

  16. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Crosette, D.B.

    1994-07-19

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination. 9 figs.

  17. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Crosette, Dario B.

    1994-01-01

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination.

  18. Serial Endosymbiotic Theory (set): the biosemiotic update.

    PubMed

    Witzany, Günther

    2006-01-01

    The Serial Endosymbiotic Theory explains the origin of nucleated eukaryotic cells by a merging of archaebacterial and eubacterial cells. The paradigmatic change is that the driving force behind evolution is not ramification but merging. Lynn Margulis describes the symbiogenetic processes in the language of mechanistic biology in such terms as "merging", "fusion", and "incorporation". Biosemiotics argues that all cell-cell interactions are (rule-governed) sign-mediated interactions, i.e., communication processes. As the description of plant communication demonstrates, the biosemiotic approach is not limited to the level of molecular biology, but is also helpful in examining all sign-mediated interactions between organisms on the phenotypic level. If biosemiotics also uses the notions of "language" and "communication" to describe non-human sign-mediated interactions, then the underlying scientific justification of such usage should be critically considered. Therefore, I summarize the history of this discussion held between 1920 and 1980 and present its result, the pragmatic turn. PMID:16988903

  19. Serial femtosecond crystallography: the first five years

    PubMed Central

    Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-01-01

    Protein crystallography using synchrotron radiation sources has had a tremendous impact on biology, having yielded the structures of thousands of proteins and given detailed insight into their mechanisms. However, the technique is limited by the requirement for macroscopic crystals, which can be difficult to obtain, as well as by the often severe radiation damage caused in diffraction experiments, in particular when using tiny crystals. To slow radiation damage, data collection is typically performed at cryogenic temperatures. With the advent of free-electron lasers (FELs) capable of delivering extremely intense femtosecond X-ray pulses, this situation appears to be remedied, allowing the structure determination of undamaged macromolecules using either macroscopic or microscopic crystals. The latter are exposed to the FEL beam in random orientations and their diffraction data are collected at cryogenic or room temperature in a serial fashion, since each crystal is destroyed upon a single exposure. The new approaches required for crystal growth and delivery, and for diffraction data analysis, including de novo phasing, are reviewed. The opportunities and challenges of SFX are described, including applications such as time-resolved measurements and the analysis of radiation damage-prone systems. PMID:25866661

  20. Structural Variations in β-(BDA-TTP)2FeCl4 at Low Temperature and under Pressure: Charge-Ordered State with a Two-Fold Crystal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasamori, Kota; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Kodama, Takeshi; Fujita, Wataru; Kikuchi, Koichi; Yamada, Jun-ichi

    2013-05-01

    The pressure-induced organic superconductor β-(BDA-TTP)2FeCl4 [BDA-TTP = 2,5-bis(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene], which shows a metal--insulator (MI) transition at TMI = 113 K under ambient pressure, has been found by X-ray study to have a two-fold crystal structure along the c-axis in the insulating state at 10 K. In the donor layer, there are four independent BDA-TTP molecules, which are divided into two charge-poor ones and two charge-rich ones on the basis of the folding dihedral angles around the intramolecular sulfur-to-sulfur axes of two outer dithiane rings in BDA-TTP. The charge separation leads to the formation of two types of dimers: a dimer consisting of two charge-poor donors and a dimer consisting of two charge-rich ones. The tight-binding band calculation revealed a band gap of 5.3 meV in the energy dispersion. The MI transition can be therefore accounted for by the charge separation. In addition, we investigated the crystal and electronic structures of β-(BDA-TTP)2FeCl4 at different pressures up to 21 kbar, and found that the application of pressures causes variations in both the conformation of donor molecule and the donor arrangement, which are responsible for almost uniform interaction in the donor stacking and for an increase in bandwidth (W). As a result, the suppression of MI transition and subsequent occurrence of superconductivity in β-(BDA-TTP)2FeCl4 would be observed with increasing pressure.

  1. Charge-coupled-device parallel-to-serial converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, John R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A CCD parallel-to-serial converter comprising two successions of charge transfer stages, recurrently side-loaded with respective ones of parallelly supplied charge packets, then serially unloaded by time-interleaved respective shift register operations. The charge packets converted to time-division-multiplexed serial form are supplied to a shared electrometer, and the electrometer response is de-multiplexed. Preferably, shift register operations are carried forward concurrently at the same rate, but with the final charge transfer stages clocked in phases staggered in time.

  2. Serial forced displacement in American cities, 1916-2010.

    PubMed

    Fullilove, Mindy Thompson; Wallace, Rodrick

    2011-06-01

    Serial forced displacement has been defined as the repetitive, coercive upheaval of groups. In this essay, we examine the history of serial forced displacement in American cities due to federal, state, and local government policies. We propose that serial forced displacement sets up a dynamic process that includes an increase in interpersonal and structural violence, an inability to react in a timely fashion to patterns of threat or opportunity, and a cycle of fragmentation as a result of the first two. We present the history of the policies as they affected one urban neighborhood, Pittsburgh's Hill District. We conclude by examining ways in which this problematic process might be addressed. PMID:21607786

  3. Automatic registration of serial mammary gland sections

    SciTech Connect

    Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos

    2004-04-13

    We present two new methods for automatic registration of microscope images of consecutive tissue sections. They represent two possibilities for the first step in the 3-D reconstruction of histological structures from serially sectioned tissue blocks. The goal is to accurately align the sections in order to place every relevant shape contained in each image in front of its corresponding shape in the following section before detecting the structures of interest and rendering them in 3D. This is accomplished by finding the best rigid body transformation (translation and rotation) of the image being registered by maximizing a matching function based on the image content correlation. The first method makes use of the entire image information, whereas the second one uses only the information located at specific sites, as determined by the segmentation of the most relevant tissue structures. To reduce computing time, we use a multiresolution pyramidal approach that reaches the best registration transformation in increasing resolution steps. In each step, a subsampled version of the images is used. Both methods rely on a binary image which is a thresholded version of the Sobel gradients of the image (first method) or a set of boundaries manually or automatically obtained that define important histological structures of the sections. Then distance-transform of the binary image is computed. A proximity function is then calculated between the distance image of the image being registered and that of the reference image. The transformation providing a maximum of the proximity function is then used as the starting point of the following step. This is iterated until the registration error lies below a minimum value.

  4. Quantification of serial tumor glucose metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hsiao-Ming; Hoh, C.K.; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Yao, Wei-Jen

    1996-03-01

    We developed a method to improve the quantitative precision of FDG-PET scans in cancer patients. The total-lesion evaluation method generates a correlation coefficient (r) constrained Patlak parametric image of the lesion together with three calculated glucose metabolic indices: (a) the total-lesion metabolic index ({open_quotes}K{sub T-tie}{close_quotes}, ml/min/lesion); (b) the total-lesion voxel index ({open_quotes}V{sub T-tie}{close_quotes}, voxels/lesion); and (c) the global average metabolic index ({open_quotes}K{sub V-tie}{close_quotes}, ml/min/voxel). The glucose metabolic indices obtained from conventional region of interest (ROI) and multiplane evaluation were used as standards to evaluate the accuracy of the total-lesion evaluation method. Computer simulations and four patients with metastatic melanoma before and after chemotherapy were studied. Computer simulations showed that the total-lesion evaluation method has improved precision (%s.d. <0.6%) and accuracy ({approximately}10% error) compared with the conventional ROI method (%S.d. {approximately}5%; {approximately}25% error). The K{sub T-tie} and V{sub T-tie} indices from human FDG-PET studies using the total-lesion evaluation method showed excellent correlations with the corresponding values obtained from the conventional ROI methods and multiplane evaluation (r{approximately}1.0) and CT lesion volume measurements. This method is a simple but reliable way to quantitatively monitor tumor FDG uptake. The method has several advantages over the conventional ROI method: (a) less sensitive to the ROI definition, (b) no need for image registration of serial scan data and (c) includes tumor volume changes in the global tumor metabolism. 18 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Gluconeogenesis from labeled carbon: estimating isotope dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, J.K.

    1986-03-01

    To estimate the rate of gluconeogenesis from steady-state incorporation of labeled 3-carbon precursors into glucose, isotope dilution must be considered so that the rate of labeling of glucose can be quantitatively converted to the rate of gluconeogenesis. An expression for the value of this isotope dilution can be derived using mathematical techniques and a model of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The present investigation employs a more complex model than that used in previous studies. This model includes the following pathways that may affect the correction for isotope dilution: 1) flux of 3-carbon precursor to the oxaloacetate pool via acetyl-CoA and the TCA cycle; 2) flux of 4- or 5-carbon compounds into the TCA cycle; 3) reversible flux between oxaloacetate (OAA) and pyruvate and between OAA and fumarate; 4) incomplete equilibrium between OAA pools; and 5) isotope dilution of 3-carbon tracers between the experimentally measured pool and the precursor for the TCA-cycle OAA pool. Experimental tests are outlined which investigators can use to determine whether these pathways are significant in a specific steady-state system. The study indicated that flux through these five pathways can significantly affect the correction for isotope dilution. To correct for the effects of these pathways an alternative method for calculating isotope dilution is proposed using citrate to relate the specific activities of acetyl-CoA and OAA.

  6. Minimal Coital Dilution in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Jenness, Samuel M.; Biney, Adriana A. E.; Ampofo, William Kwabena; Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo; Cassels, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Coital dilution, the reduction in the coital frequency per partner when an additional ongoing partner is added, may reduce the transmission potential of partnership concurrency for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Empirical estimates of dilution, especially dilution of sexual acts unprotected by condoms, are needed to inform prevention research. Methods Sexually active adults in Accra, Ghana were recruited in a multi-stage household probability sample. Degree (number of ongoing partners), total acts, and unprotected acts were measured retrospectively for each month in the past year through an event-history calendar. Random effects negative binomial models estimated the association between degree and coital frequency. Results Compared to person-months with a single partner (monogamy), 2.06 times as many total acts and 1.94 times as many unprotected acts occurred in months with 2 partners. In months with 3 partners, 2.90 times as many total acts and 2.39 times as many unprotected acts occurred compared to monogamous months. Total acts but not unprotected acts also declined with partnership duration. Conclusions No dilution was observed for total acts with up to three concurrent partners, but a small amount of dilution was observed for unprotected acts for months with multiple concurrencies. This suggests moderate selective condom use in months with multiple concurrencies. The implications of the observed dilution for future HIV transmission must be investigated with mathematical models. PMID:25622062

  7. Fast Grasp Contact Computation for a Serial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jianying (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system includes a controller and a serial robot having links that are interconnected by a joint, wherein the robot can grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object in response to a commanded grasp pose. The controller receives input information, including the commanded grasp pose, a first set of information describing the kinematics of the robot, and a second set of information describing the position of the object to be grasped. The controller also calculates, in a two-dimensional (2D) plane, a set of contact points between the serial robot and a surface of the 3D object needed for the serial robot to achieve the commanded grasp pose. A required joint angle is then calculated in the 2D plane between the pair of links using the set of contact points. A control action is then executed with respect to the motion of the serial robot using the required joint angle.

  8. Serial and parallel computation of Kane's equations for multibody dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of the efficiency of algorithms resulting from Kane's Equation for serial and parallel computation of mass matrix is examined. The algorithms resulting from Kane's equation and Modified Kane's equations are detailed. An analysis was made of two classes of algorithms for computation of mass matrix: the Newton-Euler based algorithms and the Composite rigid body algorithms. An analysis was also made of the efficiency of different algorithms for serial and parallel computations. Conclusions are drawn and presented.

  9. Three more semantic serial position functions and a SIMPLE explanation.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2013-05-01

    There are innumerable demonstrations of serial position functions-with characteristic primacy and recency effects-in episodic tasks, but there are only a handful of such demonstrations in semantic memory tasks, and those demonstrations have used only two types of stimuli. Here, we provide three more examples of serial position functions when recalling from semantic memory. Participants were asked to reconstruct the order of (1) two cartoon theme song lyrics, (2) the seven Harry Potter books, and (3) two sets of movies, and all three demonstrations yielded conventional-looking serial position functions with primacy and recency effects. The data were well-fit by SIMPLE, a local distinctiveness model of memory that was originally designed to account for serial position effects in short- and long-term episodic memory. According to SIMPLE, serial position functions in both episodic and semantic memory tasks arise from the same type of processing: Items that are more separated from their close neighbors in psychological space at the time of recall will be better remembered. We argue that currently available evidence suggests that serial position functions observed when recalling items that are presumably in semantic memory arise because of the same processes as those observed when recalling items that are presumably in episodic memory. PMID:23263860

  10. Material specific serial memory deficit in adolescent dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Holmes, D R; McKeever, W F

    1979-03-01

    The present experiment was concerned with an assessment of possible serial, as opposed to general, memory deficit in dyslexia. Previous studies had consistently confounded general and serial memory assessments. Fifteen specifically dyslexic adolescents and 15 normal-reading controls were administered four separate memory tasks. In the general memory for verbal material task they were shown 20 words, each for three seconds, and were then given a deck of 40 word cards and required to pick out the 20 words just seen. In the serial memory version of the verbal task they were again shown 20 words and subsequently required to reproduce the order in which they had been shown. Two comparable (general and serial) procedures were also administered using faces as the to-be-remembered materials. Results showed comparable performances of the dyslexics and controls on both versions of the face memory task and on the general memory version of the words task. On the serial reproduction version of the verbal task, however, dyslexics were found to be significantly impaired relative to controls. Thus, adolescent dyslexics appear to have a memory impairment which is specific for both type of material (verbal) and type of memory (serial). The results are compatible with Orton's (1937) speculation regarding "sequecing" and "memory" in dyslexia and with the view that the defect resides within the neuropsychological processes of the language-dominant hemisphere. PMID:446046

  11. The Assessment of Experimental Methods of Serial Number Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argo, Mackenzie

    Serial number restoration is a common and successful process of revealing obliterated serial numbers on firearms. In a crime laboratory setting, obliterated serial numbers are commonly processed in order to tie a person to a crime scene or provide an investigative lead for officers. Currently serial numbers are restored using a chemical etchant method that can eat away at the metal on the firearm even after the examination is complete. It can also take several hours to complete and only provide an examiner with a partial number. There are other nondestructive options however little to no literature is available. The purpose of this study is to discover new methods for nondestructive serial number restoration and to compare them to the traditional chemical method used. Metal bars of premeasured obliteration depths and different compositions were examined using three proposed experimental methods: near infrared imaging, cold frost, and scanning acoustic microscopy. Results did not indicate significant difference in the median number of visible digits recovered for each of the three proposed methods compared to the traditional chemical method. There were significant results in the median number of composition utilized and depth of obliteration. This indicates that different firearm compositions and depth of obliteration has an effect on serial number restoration.

  12. Cortical attractor network dynamics with diluted connectivity.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T; Webb, Tristan J

    2012-01-24

    The connectivity of the cerebral cortex is diluted, with the probability of excitatory connections between even nearby pyramidal cells rarely more than 0.1, and in the hippocampus 0.04. To investigate the extent to which this diluted connectivity affects the dynamics of attractor networks in the cerebral cortex, we simulated an integrate-and-fire attractor network taking decisions between competing inputs with diluted connectivity of 0.25 or 0.1, and with the same number of synaptic connections per neuron for the recurrent collateral synapses within an attractor population as for full connectivity. The results indicated that there was less spiking-related noise with the diluted connectivity in that the stability of the network when in the spontaneous state of firing increased, and the accuracy of the correct decisions increased. The decision times were a little slower with diluted than with complete connectivity. Given that the capacity of the network is set by the number of recurrent collateral synaptic connections per neuron, on which there is a biological limit, the findings indicate that the stability of cortical networks, and the accuracy of their correct decisions or memory recall operations, can be increased by utilizing diluted connectivity and correspondingly increasing the number of neurons in the network, with little impact on the speed of processing of the cortex. Thus diluted connectivity can decrease cortical spiking-related noise. In addition, we show that the Fano factor for the trial-to-trial variability of the neuronal firing decreases from the spontaneous firing state value when the attractor network makes a decision. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Neural Coding". PMID:21875702

  13. Declining ecosystem health and the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hussein; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Magnusson, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2016-01-01

    The "dilution effect" implies that where species vary in susceptibility to infection by a pathogen, higher diversity often leads to lower infection prevalence in hosts. For directly transmitted pathogens, non-host species may "dilute" infection directly (1) and indirectly (2). Competitors and predators may (1) alter host behavior to reduce pathogen transmission or (2) reduce host density. In a well-studied system, we tested the dilution of the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) by two competitors and a predator. Our study was based on long-term PUUV infection data (2003-2013) in northern Sweden. The field vole (Microtus agrestis) and the common shrew (Sorex araneus) are bank vole competitors and Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus) is a main predator of bank voles. Infection probability in bank voles decreased when common shrew density increased, suggesting that common shrews reduced PUUV transmission. Field voles suppressed bank vole density in meadows and clear-cuts and indirectly diluted PUUV infection. Further, Tengmalm's owl decline in 1980-2013 may have contributed to higher PUUV infection rates in bank voles in 2003-2013 compared to 1979-1986. Our study provides further evidence for dilution effect and suggests that owls may have an important role in reducing disease risk. PMID:27499001

  14. Impact of dilution on microbial community structure and functional potential: comparison of numerical simulations and batch culture experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, R. B.; Garland, J. L.; Bolster, C. H.; Mills, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    A series of microcosm experiments was performed using serial dilutions of a sewage microbial community to inoculate a set of batch cultures in sterile sewage. After inoculation, the dilution-defined communities were allowed to regrow for several days and a number of community attributes were measured in the regrown assemblages. Based upon a set of numerical simulations, community structure was expected to differ along the dilution gradient; the greatest differences in structure were anticipated between the undiluted-low-dilution communities and the communities regrown from the very dilute (more than 10(-4)) inocula. Furthermore, some differences were expected among the lower-dilution treatments (e.g., between undiluted and 10(-1)) depending upon the evenness of the original community. In general, each of the procedures used to examine the experimental community structures separated the communities into at least two, often three, distinct groups. The groupings were consistent with the simulated dilution of a mixture of organisms with a very uneven distribution. Significant differences in community structure were detected with genetic (amplified fragment length polymorphism and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism), physiological (community level physiological profiling), and culture-based (colony morphology on R2A agar) measurements. Along with differences in community structure, differences in community size (acridine orange direct counting), composition (ratio of sewage medium counts to R2A counts, monitoring of each colony morphology across the treatments), and metabolic redundancy (i.e., generalist versus specialist) were also observed, suggesting that the differences in structure and diversity of communities maintained in the same environment can be manifested as differences in community organization and function.

  15. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...

  20. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Collections and Services Division. Section: Serial Publications. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on serial publications presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Scenario for Microcomputer-Based Serials Cataloging from ISDS (International Serials Data System) Records--New Horizons for Serial Librarianship in the Developing Countries by the Availability of Adequate Hardware,…

  1. Hardware Implementation of Serially Concatenated PPM Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Barsoum, Maged; Cheng, Michael; Nakashima, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A prototype decoder for a serially concatenated pulse position modulation (SCPPM) code has been implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). At the time of this reporting, this is the first known hardware SCPPM decoder. The SCPPM coding scheme, conceived for free-space optical communications with both deep-space and terrestrial applications in mind, is an improvement of several dB over the conventional Reed-Solomon PPM scheme. The design of the FPGA SCPPM decoder is based on a turbo decoding algorithm that requires relatively low computational complexity while delivering error-rate performance within approximately 1 dB of channel capacity. The SCPPM encoder consists of an outer convolutional encoder, an interleaver, an accumulator, and an inner modulation encoder (more precisely, a mapping of bits to PPM symbols). Each code is describable by a trellis (a finite directed graph). The SCPPM decoder consists of an inner soft-in-soft-out (SISO) module, a de-interleaver, an outer SISO module, and an interleaver connected in a loop (see figure). Each SISO module applies the Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR) algorithm to compute a-posteriori bit log-likelihood ratios (LLRs) from apriori LLRs by traversing the code trellis in forward and backward directions. The SISO modules iteratively refine the LLRs by passing the estimates between one another much like the working of a turbine engine. Extrinsic information (the difference between the a-posteriori and a-priori LLRs) is exchanged rather than the a-posteriori LLRs to minimize undesired feedback. All computations are performed in the logarithmic domain, wherein multiplications are translated into additions, thereby reducing complexity and sensitivity to fixed-point implementation roundoff errors. To lower the required memory for storing channel likelihood data and the amounts of data transfer between the decoder and the receiver, one can discard the majority of channel likelihoods, using only the remainder in

  2. Spin dynamics in paramagnetic diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Van-Nham; Tran, Minh-Tien

    2015-10-01

    Microscopic properties of low-energy spin dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductor are addressed in a framework of the Kondo lattice model including random distribution of magnetic dopants. Based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we derive an explicit dependence of the spin diffusion coefficient on the single-particle Green function which is directly evaluated by dynamical mean-field theory. In the paramagnetic state, the magnetic scattering has been manifested to suppress spin diffusion. In agreement with other ferromagnet systems, we also point out that the spin diffusion in diluted magnetic semiconductors at small carrier concentration displays a monotonic 1 /T -like temperature dependence. By investigating the spin diffusion coefficient on a wide range of the model parameters, the obtained results have provided a significant scenario to understand the spin dynamics in the paramagnetic diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  3. Automatic dilution gaging of rapidly varying flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerk, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis showed that the discharges measured by dye-dilution techniques were generally within ± 10 percent of the discharges determined from ratings established by current-meter measurements. Larger differences were noted at the start of and on the rising limb of four hydrographs. Of the 20 storms monitored, dilution measurements on 17 were of acceptable accuracy. Peak discharges from the open-channel site ranged from 0 to 12 percent departures from the existing rating whereas the comparison of peak discharge at the storm sewer site ranged from 0 to 5 percent departures from the existing rating.

  4. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Choi, Heonjin; Lee, Sangkwon; He, Rongrui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Kuykendal, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  5. The relationship between serial sexual murder and autoerotic asphyxiation.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Bukhanovskiy, Alexandr; Justen, Elle; Morton, Robert J; Tilley, John; Adams, Kenneth; Vandagriff, Virgil L; Hazelwood, Robert R

    2008-04-01

    This case series documents and examines the association between autoerotic asphyxiation, sadomasochism, and serial sexual murderers. Autoerotic asphyxiation, along with other paraphilias found in this population, is reviewed. Five cases of serial sexual killers who engaged in autoerotic asphyxiation were identified worldwide: four from the United States and one from Russia. Case reports for each are provided. All (100%) were found to have sexual sadism in addition to autoerotic asphyxiation. Furthermore, two (40%) had bondage fetishism, and two (40%) had transvestic fetishism, consistent with these paraphilias co-occurring in those with autoerotic asphyxiation. Overall the group averaged 4.0 lifetime paraphilias. Some possible relationships were observed between the offenders' paraphilic orientation and their modus operandi, e.g., all of these serial killers strangled victims-suggesting an association between their sadistic and asphyxiative paraphilic interests. The overlap of seemingly polar opposite paraphilias in this sample--sexual sadism and autoerotic asphyxiation--is explored from a historical and clinical perspective. Multiple commonalities shared between these five offenders and serial sexual murderers in general are addressed. A primary limitation of this study is its small sample size and empirical basis; the results may not be generalizable beyond the sample. The findings from this study support the supposition that crime scene behaviors often reflect paraphilic disturbances in those who commit serial sexual homicides. PMID:17980531

  6. Serially heterotransplanted human prostate tumours as an experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Barcons, Lluis-A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Preclinical research on prostate cancer (PC) therapies uses several models to represent the human disease accurately. A common model uses patient prostate tumour biopsies to develop a cell line by serially passaging and subsequent implantation, in immunodeficient mice. An alternative model is direct implantation of patient prostate tumour biopsies into immunodeficient mice, followed by serial passage in vivo. The purpose of this review is to compile data from the more than 30 years of human PC serial heterotransplantation research. Serially heterotransplanted tumours are characterized by evaluating the histopathology of the resulting heterotransplants, including cellular differentiation, karyotype, marker expression, hormone sensitivity, cellular proliferation, metastatic potential and stromal and vascular components. These data are compared with the initial patient tumour specimen and, depending on available information, the patient’s clinical outcome was compared with the heterotransplanted tumour. The heterotansplant model is a more accurate preclinical model than older generation serially passaged or genetic models to investigate current and newly developed androgen-deprivation agents, antitumour compounds, anti-angiogenic drugs and positron emission tomography radiotracers, as well as new therapeutic regimens for the treatment of PC. PMID:19874422

  7. Dry Dilution Refrigerator with High Cooling Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, K.

    2008-03-01

    We present the construction concept and cooling capacity measurements of a 3,4He dilution refrigerator (DR), which was pre-cooled by a commercial pulse tube refrigerator (PTR). No cryogens are needed for the operation of this type of cryostat. The condensation of the helium mash was done in an integrated Joule-Thomson circuit, which was part of the dilution unit. The composition of the dilution unit was standard, but its components (still, heat exchangers, mixing chamber) were designed for high 3He flow. For thermometry, calibrated RuO chip resistance thermometers were available. In order to condense the mixture before an experiment, the fridge was operated like a Joule-Thomson liquefier with a relatively high inlet pressure (4 bar), where the liquid fraction of the circulating 3,4He mixture was accumulated in the dilution unit. The condensation took about 2 hours, and after 2 more hours of running, the temperature of the mixing chamber approached its minimum temperature of 10 mK. The maximum flow rate of the fridge was 1 mmol/s, and the refrigeration capacity of the mixing chamber was 700 μW at 100 mK. High cooling capacity, ease of operation and reliability distinguish this type of milli-Kelvin cooler.

  8. Declining ecosystem health and the dilution effect

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Hussein; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Magnusson, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2016-01-01

    The “dilution effect” implies that where species vary in susceptibility to infection by a pathogen, higher diversity often leads to lower infection prevalence in hosts. For directly transmitted pathogens, non-host species may “dilute” infection directly (1) and indirectly (2). Competitors and predators may (1) alter host behavior to reduce pathogen transmission or (2) reduce host density. In a well-studied system, we tested the dilution of the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) by two competitors and a predator. Our study was based on long-term PUUV infection data (2003–2013) in northern Sweden. The field vole (Microtus agrestis) and the common shrew (Sorex araneus) are bank vole competitors and Tengmalm’s owl (Aegolius funereus) is a main predator of bank voles. Infection probability in bank voles decreased when common shrew density increased, suggesting that common shrews reduced PUUV transmission. Field voles suppressed bank vole density in meadows and clear-cuts and indirectly diluted PUUV infection. Further, Tengmalm’s owl decline in 1980–2013 may have contributed to higher PUUV infection rates in bank voles in 2003–2013 compared to 1979–1986. Our study provides further evidence for dilution effect and suggests that owls may have an important role in reducing disease risk. PMID:27499001

  9. STABLE ISOTOPE DILUTION FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to determine if a proposed catalytic exchange procedure could be adapted to produce the labeled analog materials necessary for isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. It is related to a general evaluation of th...

  10. LAKE RESTORATION BY DILUTION: MOSES LAKE, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dilution water, low in macronutrients, was added to Moses Lake on three occasions in 1977 and once in 1978 during the spring-summer period. The addition resulted in reducing the annual average inflow concentration of phosphorus from about 130-140 micrograms/l to 100 micrograms/l....

  11. Phase Transition of Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. K.; Lee, S. J.; Yuldashev, S. U.; Ihm, G.; Kang, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    Three types of phase transitions in diluted magnetic semiconductor, first-order, second-order and mixed-order, are found in theory. Especially the mixed type transition shows two steps transition and novel specific heat property. Specific heat properties disclose a possible meta ferromagnetic phase confirmed by the experimental qualitative result.

  12. Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, I. A.

    2004-01-01

    On equilibrium properties of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid, Julius Thomsen has marked that the heat evolved on diluting liquid sulfuric acid with water is a continuous function of the water used, and excluded absolutely the acceptance of definite hydrates as existing in the solution. Information about thermochemical measurement, a discussion…

  13. Energy data base. Serial titles with ISSN listing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1984-03-01

    This issue of Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is the first revision of DOE/TIC-4579 to include the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for journals. The TIC journal authority was established to bring about conformity in citing the approximately 16,000 titles contained in this authority. It can prove to be a valuable tool in establishing the precise journal by ISSN and CODEN indication, especially for journals with the same title published in different locations. Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is comprised of two parts. Part 1 is an alphabetical listing by full title of the publication and also includes abbreviated title, CODEN, ISSN, coverage code, and country code. Part 2 is an ISSN-title correlation arranged in numeric order by ISSN and also includes the CODEN and full title.

  14. Towards time-resolved serial crystallography in a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Pawate, Ashtamurthy S.; Šrajer, Vukica; Schieferstein, Jeremy; Guha, Sudipto; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Schmidt, Marius; Ren, Zhong; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Perry, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Serial methods for crystallography have the potential to enable dynamic structural studies of protein targets that have been resistant to single-crystal strategies. The use of serial data-collection strategies can circumvent challenges associated with radiation damage and repeated reaction initiation. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for the serial time-resolved Laue diffraction analysis of macroscopic crystals of photoactive yellow protein (PYP). Reaction initiation was achieved via pulsed laser illumination, and the resultant electron-density difference maps clearly depict the expected pR1/pRE46Q and pR2/pRCW states at 10 µs and the pB1 intermediate at 1 ms. The strategies presented here have tremendous potential for extension to chemical triggering methods for reaction initiation and for extension to dynamic, multivariable analyses. PMID:26144226

  15. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-11-27

    Sulfur SAD phasing facilitates the structure determination of diverse native proteins using femtosecond X-rays from free-electron lasers via serial femtosecond crystallography. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  16. In situ serial Laue diffraction on a microfluidic crystallization device

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Sarah L.; Guha, Sudipto; Pawate, Ashtamurthy S.; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Srajer, Vukica; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ren, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in room-temperature diffraction has been prompted by the desire to observe structural dynamics of proteins as they function. Serial crystallography, an experimental strategy that aggregates small pieces of data from a large uniform pool of crystals, has been demonstrated at synchrotrons and X-ray free-electron lasers. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for serial Laue diffraction from macroscopic crystals and proposes that a collection of small slices of Laue data from many individual crystals is a realistic solution to the difficulties in dynamic studies of irreversible biochemical reactions. PMID:25484843

  17. Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ann C.; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L.; Leonard, Michael S.; Miller, Ram R.; Stimpson, Stephen A.; Turner, Scott M.; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T.; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Evans, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19–30 yr, 70–84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51–62 yr, 70–84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P < 0.0001), with less bias compared with lean body mass assessment by DXA, which overestimated muscle mass compared with MRI. The dilution of an oral D3-creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA. PMID:24764133

  18. FPGA based fast synchronous serial multi-wire links synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2013-10-01

    The paper debates synchronization method of multi-wire, serial link of constant latency, by means of pseudo-random numbers generators. The solution was designed for various families of FPGA circuits. There were debated synchronization algorithm and functional structure of parameterized transmitter and receiver modules. The modules were realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form.

  19. Building a Virtual National Serials Collection Using the MEADS System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Edward

    1998-01-01

    The Australian university system can fund the creation of a scholarly collection of serials for use by the nation by increasing the average expenditure on libraries from 5.1% to 5.3% of total university expenditure. Once the national collection has been built, virtual access can be provided using a Web-based model called MEADS (Monash Electronic…

  20. Document Retrieval Using a Serial Bit String Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Alan F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The experimental best match information retrieval system described is based on serial file organization. Documents and queries are characterized by fixed length bit strings (generated by automatic and manual methods) and character-by-character term match is preceeded by bit string search to eliminate documents which cannot satisfy query.…

  1. Regularization in Short-Term Memory for Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvinick, Matthew; Bylsma, Lauren M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that short-term memory for serial order can be influenced by background knowledge concerning regularities of sequential structure. Specifically, it has been shown that recall is superior for sequences that fit well with familiar sequencing constraints. The authors report a corresponding effect pertaining to serial…

  2. Serial Back-Plane Technologies in Advanced Avionics Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta

    2005-01-01

    Current back plane technologies such as VME, and current personal computer back planes such as PCI, are shared bus systems that can exhibit nondeterministic latencies. This means a card can take control of the bus and use resources indefinitely affecting the ability of other cards in the back plane to acquire the bus. This provides a real hit on the reliability of the system. Additionally, these parallel busses only have bandwidths in the 100s of megahertz range and EMI and noise effects get worse the higher the bandwidth goes. To provide scalable, fault-tolerant, advanced computing systems, more applicable to today s connected computing environment and to better meet the needs of future requirements for advanced space instruments and vehicles, serial back-plane technologies should be implemented in advanced avionics architectures. Serial backplane technologies eliminate the problem of one card getting the bus and never relinquishing it, or one minor problem on the backplane bringing the whole system down. Being serial instead of parallel improves the reliability by reducing many of the signal integrity issues associated with parallel back planes and thus significantly improves reliability. The increased speeds associated with a serial backplane are an added bonus.

  3. Serials Management by Microcomputer: The Potential of DBMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, J. Thomas; Burns, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes serials management at Philadelphia College of Textiles and Science library via a microcomputer, a file manager called PFS, and a relational database management system called dBase II. Check-in procedures, programing with dBase II, "static" and "active" databases, and claim procedures are discussed. Check-in forms are included. (EJS)

  4. Serial Mechanisms in Lexical Access: The Rank Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, W. S.; Forster, K. I.

    2004-01-01

    There is general agreement that the effect of frequency on lexical access time is roughly logarithmic, although little attention has been given to the reason for this. The authors argue that models of lexical access that incorporate a frequency-ordered serial comparison or verification procedure provide an account of this effect and predict that…

  5. Serials Pricing and the Role of the Electronic Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Paul; Gherman, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    This third in a series of articles on scholarly communications and serials prices focuses on the possible role of electronic journals. Highlights include the increase in scientific and scholarly productivity; price differentials between private and for-profit journals; publisher's costs and profits; copyright issues; and the role of libraries and…

  6. The Serial Effect on Internal and External Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherre, Maria Marta Pereira; Naro, Anthony J.

    1992-01-01

    A study of concord phenomena in Rio de Janeiro spoken Portuguese found that, in the serial context, the linguistic system is so highly constrained that external, and even internal, influences are blocked. Authors conclude that strong constraints should be identified and further studies undertaken to understand the interplay of the diverse forces…

  7. Guidelines for the Compilation of Union Catalogues of Serials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, London (England).

    Intended for use in countries planning the establishment of new union catalogs, as well as in countries with long established traditions of library resource sharing, this document provides guiding principles and outlines standard methods and practices for the compilation of union catalogs of serials. Following definitions of relevant terminology…

  8. When Temporal Isolation Benefits Memory for Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Nimmo, Lisa M.; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2008-01-01

    According to temporal distinctiveness models, items that are temporally isolated from their neighbors during list presentation are more distinct and thus should be recalled better. Contrary to that expectation of distinctiveness views, much recent evidence has shown that forward short-term serial recall is unaffected by temporal isolation. We…

  9. Altered serial position learning after frontal lobe lesion.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, P J; Grattan, L M

    1994-06-01

    The serial position function is a powerful and highly reliable feature of human learning, with well-described primacy and recency effects. We tested the hypothesis that frontal lobe lesions in patients would disrupt the serial position function since such patients are known to have disturbed temporal ordering, learning in the presence of interference, encoding and organizational approaches to learning. Performance was compared in patients with focal, acquired lesions of frontal and non-frontal cortices, using a standardized paradigm of verbal list learning. Results indicated a similar pattern of performance on first trial learning for the two groups. However, across learning trials, frontal lesion subjects failed to maintain significant primacy and recency effects. Non-frontal lesion subjects consistently showed the expected U-shaped serial position curve across all trials. Subjective organization in learning was particularly deficient in the dorsolateral frontal lesion subjects. We propose that serial position effects are qualitatively different after frontal lobe lesion, being transitory and prone to alteration by the cumulative effects of disturbed temporal-spatial processing across learning trials. PMID:8084427

  10. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  11. Prior-List Intrusions in Serial Recall Are Positional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osth, Adam F.; Dennis, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Henson (1996) provided a number of demonstrations of error patterns in serial recall that contradict chaining models. One such error pattern concerned when participants make intrusions from prior lists: Rather than originating from random positions in the prior list, intrusions tend to be recalled in the same position as their position in the…

  12. Analysis of aging in lager brewing yeast during serial repitching.

    PubMed

    Bühligen, Franziska; Lindner, Patrick; Fetzer, Ingo; Stahl, Frank; Scheper, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Susann

    2014-10-10

    Serial repitching of brewing yeast inoculates is an important economic factor in the brewing industry, as their propagation is time and resource intensive. Here, we investigated whether replicative aging and/or the population distribution status changed during serial repitching in three different breweries with the same brewing yeast strain but different abiotic backgrounds and repitching regimes with varying numbers of reuses. Next to bud scar numbers the DNA content of the Saccharomyces pastorianus HEBRU cells was analyzed. Gene expression patterns were investigated using low-density microarrays with genes for aging, stress, storage compound metabolism and cell cycle. Two breweries showed a stable rejuvenation rate during serial repitching. In a third brewery the fraction of virgin cells varied, which could be explained with differing wort aeration rates. Furthermore, the number of bud scars per cell and cell size correlated in all 3 breweries throughout all runs. Transcriptome analyses revealed that from the 6th run on, mainly for the cells positive gene expression could be seen, for example up-regulation of trehalose and glycogen metabolism genes. Additionally, the cells' settling in the cone was dependent on cell size, with the lowest and the uppermost cone layers showing the highest amount of dead cells. In general, cells do not progressively age during extended serial repitching. PMID:25026460

  13. Benchmarking Usage Statistics in Collection Management Decisions for Serials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Cory

    2009-01-01

    Usage statistics are an important metric for making decisions on serials. Although the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) Libraries have been collecting usage statistics, the statistics had not frequently been used to make decisions and had not been included in collection development policy. After undergoing a collection assessment, the…

  14. Effects of Serial and Concurrent Training on Acquisition and Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wunderlich, Kara L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Donaldson, Jeanne M.; Phillips, Cara L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a large body of research demonstrating that generalization to novel stimuli can be produced by training sufficient exemplars, the methods by which exemplars can be trained remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate 2 methods, serial and concurrent presentation of stimuli, to train sufficient exemplars. Five preschool…

  15. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  16. An Analysis of Sex Role Stereotyping in Daytime Television Serials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finz, Sherry D.; Waters, Judith

    The verbal behavior of the characters of three daytime serials was analyzed over a period of two weeks of continual viewing, and coded into 19 previously developed categories. It was found that despite the recent introduction of new and controversial subject matter into the plot lines of these programs, male and female characters were responding…

  17. Forensic sexology: paraphilic serial rape (biastophilia) and lust murder (erotophonophilia).

    PubMed

    Money, J

    1990-01-01

    Forensic sexology is not synonymous with either forensic psychiatry or forensic psychology. It is a specialty in its own right, and is needed in the courtroom. Paraphilic sex offenders on trial are misrepresented as being, by their own choice, psychopathic or sociopathic deviates. They are unable to explain their paraphilic criminality to either themselves or society. In a case of serial rape and serial lust murder here presented, the contributory causes are examined and differentiated as hereditary predisposition, hormonal functioning; pathological relationships, sexual abuse; and syndrome overlap with bipolar disorder, schizoid disorder, antisocial personality disorder, epilepsy, and multiple personality. The precipitating causes were differentiated as childhood head injuries, and adult head injury at age 20. Left impact trauma and sexological trauma were sequelae of the adult injury. The full range of diagnostic resources was not available for a prisoner on death row. Capital punishment has not prevented the reemergence in each new generation of serial rape and serial lust murder as an epidemiological, public health problem. Punishment is an ineffectual substitute for epidemiological research into cause, effect, and prevention. PMID:2327516

  18. Child serial murder-psychodynamics: closely watched shadows.

    PubMed

    Turco, R

    2001-01-01

    There is a malignant transformation in object relations resulting in an identification with an omnipotent and cruel object resulting in an identity transformation. If the tension, desperation, and dissociation increase, serial murder becomes spree murder. The presence of pathological narcissism and psychopathic tendencies are of diagnostic significance in understanding the murderer's personality functioning and motivation to kill. Meloy (1988) considered the degree of sadism and aggression combined with narcissistic qualities to reflect the "malignancy" of the psychopathic disturbance where gratification (of aggression) occurs in the service of narcissistic functioning--that is, cruelty toward others in the form of a triumphant victory over a rejecting object. Meloy also believes that dissociation is ubiquitious in the psychopath. The initial murder of the serial murderer may reflect a "new identity." The pathological object-relations of narcissism and the malignant narcissism are important diagnostic indicators in the personality functioning of serial killers and the occurrence of these phenomena is a significant factor in the formation of the personalities of serial killers, their inner motivations, and their pattern of commission. PMID:11685995

  19. Process to restore obliterated serial numbers on metal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.; Parker, B.; Chisum, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Metal smeared into grooves of serial numbers by grinding or filing can be cleaned out by process called cavitation. Ultrasonic vibrator generates very high frequency vibrations in water which create millions of microscopic bubbles. Cavitation bubbles impact metal surface at thousands of pounds per square inch pressure. Metal particles filling grooves are broken away.

  20. Serials Standards in Convergence: ISBD(S) Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Ingrid

    This paper provides an update on the revision process undertaken to produce a new, relevant, and useful ISBD(S) (International Standard Bibliographic Description) standard for describing serial publications in both print and electronic formats. Highlights include: the concept of "integrating resource," i.e., a bibliographic resource that is added…

  1. Union List of Serials in Pacific Island Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene G., Comp.; Yoshida, Patricia, Comp.

    This union list contains the serial holdings from Pacific Island libraries, including the University of the South Pacific Library (Fiji), the University of Guam Robert F. Kennedy Library, Guam Public Library, College of Micronesia-FSM Library, College of the Marshall Islands Library, Micronesian Seminar Library, Palau Community College Library,…

  2. Serial Learning in Rats: A Test of Three Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, E. J.; Miller, Ronald Mellado

    2004-01-01

    Findings obtained by providing rats with a single fixed series of events, A-B-C-..., often are equally compatible with three alternative serial learning interpretations: that the signal for items is (A) their position in the series (position view), (B) the prior item of the series (chaining view), and (C) one, two, or more prior items of the…

  3. Can serial rapists be distinguished from one-off rapists?

    PubMed

    Slater, Chelsea; Woodhams, Jessica; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    There are investigative advantages to being able to determine early in a police investigation whether a rape has been committed by a serial or a one-off rapist. Previous research has found some differences in the crime-scene behaviors of serial and one-off rapists; however, this research suffers from the limitation of utilizing a sample of rapes within which there was a mixture of victim-offender relationships. To address this limitation, this study sampled 38 serial (two or more convictions) and 50 one-off (one conviction) stranger rapists and compared their crime scene behavior across four domains (control, sex, escape and style behaviors). Serial and one-off rapists differed in some control and sexual behaviors, in particular, in the type of victim targeted, the offense locations, methods of control and the sexual acts forced upon the victim. However, the results did not indicate a striking difference in the offending behavior of the two groups. The implications of these findings for criminal investigations are discussed. PMID:24723507

  4. Phospohorus and calcium retention in serially harvested cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 3 serial harvest trials were utilized to calculate phosphorus and calcium retention in cattle. Trial 1 evaluated the effect of three rates of gain during a growing period followed by a common finishing diet utilizing British crossbred steers. Four steers were harvested from each treatmen...

  5. Whole-pattern fitting technique in serial femtosecond nanocrystallography

    PubMed Central

    Dilanian, Ruben A.; Williams, Sophie R.; Martin, Andrew V.; Streltsov, Victor A.; Quiney, Harry M.

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) has created new opportunities in the field of structural analysis of protein nanocrystals. The intensity and timescale characteristics of the X-ray free-electron laser sources used in SFX experiments necessitate the analysis of a large collection of individual crystals of variable shape and quality to ultimately solve a single, average crystal structure. Ensembles of crystals are commonly encountered in powder diffraction, but serial crystallography is different because each crystal is measured individually and can be oriented via indexing and merged into a three-dimensional data set, as is done for conventional crystallography data. In this way, serial femtosecond crystallography data lie in between conventional crystallography data and powder diffraction data, sharing features of both. The extremely small sizes of nanocrystals, as well as the possible imperfections of their crystallite structure, significantly affect the diffraction pattern and raise the question of how best to extract accurate structure-factor moduli from serial crystallography data. Here it is demonstrated that whole-pattern fitting techniques established for one-dimensional powder diffraction analysis can be feasibly extended to higher dimensions for the analysis of merged SFX diffraction data. It is shown that for very small crystals, whole-pattern fitting methods are more accurate than Monte Carlo integration methods that are currently used. PMID:27006776

  6. Problems of the National Library of Medicine Classification for Serials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sophanodorn, Kanchana

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the development of serial classification patterns from the National Library of Medicine scheme is followed by the enumeration of some of the difficulties encountered by medical libraries attempting to use the scheme. Solutions to the problems utilized by five large medical libraries are described in detail. (6 references)…

  7. Dilute nanoemulsions via separation of satellite droplets.

    PubMed

    Deen, Shad; Sajjadi, Shahriar

    2013-10-01

    A facile method is suggested for fabrication of dilute nanoemulsions. In a typical emulsification process, drops are usually accompanied by off-grade satellite droplets. The size of these satellite droplets ranges from hundreds of nanometers to above microns. Experiments were carried out to assess the possibility of separation of nanodrops from macroemulsions made via a conventional method in order to produce nanoemulsions. A low-power homogenizer was used to produce parent emulsions which were then injected from the bottom to a glass column containing water and allowed to cream. By monitoring drops remaining in the bottom of the column, it is clearly shown how progressively smaller they become with time yielding eventually dilute nanoemulsions. The average diameter of drops reduced to 100 nm when oil with high viscosity was used. The concentration of resulting nanoemulsions increased with increasing viscosity and ratio of the disperse phase of parent emulsions. PMID:23830283

  8. Dilution jet mixing program, supplementary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; White, C.

    1986-01-01

    The velocity and temperature distributions predicted by a 3-D numerical model and experimental measurements are compared. Empirical correlations for the jet velocity trajectory developed are presented. The measured velocity distributions for all test cases of phase through phase 3 are presented in the form of contour and oblique plots. quantification of the effects of the following on the jet mixing characteristics with a confined crossflow are: (1) orifice geometry momentum flux ratio and density ratio; (2) nonuniform mainstream temperature and velocity profiles upstream of dilution orifices; (3) cold versus hot jet injection; (4) cross-stream flow are a convergence as encountered in practical dilution zone geometries; (5) 2-D slot versus circular orifices; (6) discrete noncirculcer orifices; (7) single-sided versus opposed jets; (8) single row of jets.

  9. Kinetic model for dilute traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balouchi, Ashkan; Browne, Dana A.

    The flow of traffic represents a many-particle non-equilibrium problem with important practical consequences. Traffic behavior has been studied using a variety of approaches, including fluid dynamics models, Boltzmann equation, and recently cellular automata (CA). The CA model for traffic flow that Nagel and Schreckenberg (NS) introduced can successfully mimic many of the known features of the traffic flow. We show that in the dilute limit of the NS model, where vehicles exhibit free flow, cars show significant nearest neighbor correlation primarily via a short-range repulsion. introduce an approximate analytic model to describe this dilute limit. We show that the distribution of the distance between consecutive vehicles obeys a drift-diffusion equation. We compared this model with direct simulations. The steady state solution and relaxation of this model agrees well with direct simulations. We explore how this model breaks down as the transition to jams occurs.

  10. 3D magnetometer for a dilution refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchaikin, S.; Likhachev, A.; Cioata, F.; Perminov, I.; Sanghera, H.; Singh, I.; Spear, P.; Chavez, P.; Han, X.; Petroff, C.; Rich, C.

    2012-12-01

    In this report, we describe a development of a three dimensional system for measurements of magnetic field at a wide temperature range of 300K-4K. The system is based on 8 AMR sensors and allows for control of the magnetic environment in a dilution refrigerator during the cool down of a superconducting processor. With a low noise signal processing electronics and a special sensor saturation circuit, a magnetic induction resolution below of 1 nT was achieved.