Science.gov

Sample records for two-way active avoidance

  1. The Role of Amygdala Nuclei in the Expression of Auditory Signaled Two-Way Active Avoidance in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, June-Seek; Cain, Christopher K.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Using a two-way signaled active avoidance (2-AA) learning procedure, where rats were trained in a shuttle box to avoid a footshock signaled by an auditory stimulus, we tested the contributions of the lateral (LA), basal (B), and central (CE) nuclei of the amygdala to the expression of instrumental active avoidance conditioned responses (CRs).…

  2. The Role of Amygdala Nuclei in the Expression of Auditory Signaled Two-Way Active Avoidance in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, June-Seek; Cain, Christopher K.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Using a two-way signaled active avoidance (2-AA) learning procedure, where rats were trained in a shuttle box to avoid a footshock signaled by an auditory stimulus, we tested the contributions of the lateral (LA), basal (B), and central (CE) nuclei of the amygdala to the expression of instrumental active avoidance conditioned responses (CRs).

  3. Hippocampus and two-way active avoidance conditioning: Contrasting effects of cytotoxic lesion and temporary inactivation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Bast, Tobias; Wang, Yu-Cong; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-12-01

    Hippocampal lesions tend to facilitate two-way active avoidance (2WAA) conditioning, where rats learn to cross to the opposite side of a conditioning chamber to avoid a tone-signaled footshock. This classical finding has been suggested to reflect that hippocampus-dependent place/context memory inhibits 2WAA (a crossing response to the opposite side is inhibited by the memory that this is the place where a shock was received on the previous trial). However, more recent research suggests other aspects of hippocampal function that may support 2WAA learning. More specifically, the ventral hippocampus has been shown to contribute to behavioral responses to aversive stimuli and to positively modulate the meso-accumbens dopamine system, whose activation has been implicated in 2WAA learning. Permanent hippocampal lesions may not reveal these contributions because, following complete and permanent loss of hippocampal output, other brain regions may mediate these processes or because deficits could be masked by lesion-induced extra-hippocampal changes, including an upregulation of accumbal dopamine transmission. Here, we re-examined the hippocampal role in 2WAA learning in Wistar rats, using permanent NMDA-induced neurotoxic lesions and temporary functional inhibition by muscimol or tetrodotoxin (TTX) infusion. Complete hippocampal lesions tended to facilitate 2WAA learning, whereas ventral (VH) or dorsal hippocampal (DH) lesions had no effect. In contrast, VH or DH muscimol or TTX infusions impaired 2WAA learning. Ventral infusions caused an immediate impairment, whereas after dorsal infusions rats showed intact 2WAA learning for 40-50 min, before a marked deficit emerged. These data show that functional inhibition of ventral hippocampus disrupts 2WAA learning, while the delayed impairment following dorsal infusions may reflect the time required for drug diffusion to ventral hippocampus. Overall, using temporary functional inhibition, our study shows that the ventral hippocampus contributes to 2WAA learning. Permanent lesions may not reveal these contributions due to functional compensation and extra-hippocampal lesion effects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25926084

  4. Effect of perinatal lead exposure on rat behaviour in open-field and two-way avoidance tasks.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A L; Rocha, J B; Mello, C F; Souza, D O

    1996-09-01

    In view of conflicting results in literature concerning lead exposure associated with behavioural alterations, this study investigated behaviour in the open-field and shuttle avoidance, for as well as tissue lead burdens of pre- and postnatally lead-exposed rats. Rats were exposed to the metal from conception to weaning by giving the dams 0.5, 2.0 or 4.0 mM lead acetate in drinking water. This regimen did not affect body weight gain of dams or offspring development and had no effect on cerebral weights nor on haematological parameters of 23-day-old rats. In 1-day-old rats, lead accumulated in the blood but not in the brain, whereas both in 23-day-old rats and in dams lead accumulated in blood, kidney and cerebral cortex. In the open-field, lead-exposed groups showed higher locomotor activity in the test session as compared to controls and did not show any decrease in rearing responses in the test, indicating less habituation. Lead-treated rats subjected to a shuttle avoidance task showed no significant increase in avoidance responses between sessions as compared to control, indicating less retention. Moreover, only the control group presented a significant reduction of the footshock escape latency along testing session, suggesting a lead effect on footshock escape acquisition. In the shuttle box, intertrial crossing responses were not affected by lead treatment. The behavioural alterations occurred in animals with blood lead levels in the range 11-50.6 micrograms/dl. PMID:8884874

  5. Association between prepulse inhibition of the startle response and latent inhibition of two-way avoidance acquisition: A study with heterogeneous NIH-HS rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Ana; Esnal, Aitor; Río-Álamos, Cristóbal; Oliveras, Ignasi; Cañete, Toni; Blázquez, Gloria; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the first evaluation of the associations between responses in two paradigms related to schizophrenia in the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock. NIH-HS rats are a stock of genetically heterogeneous animals that have been derived from eight different inbred strains. A rotational breeding schedule has been followed for more than eighty generations, leading to a high level of genetic recombination that makes the NIH-HS rats a unique tool for studying the genetic basis of (biological, behavioral, disease-related) complex traits. Previous work has dealt with the characterization of coping styles, cognitive and anxiety/fear-related profiles of NIH-HS rats. In the present study we have completed their characterization in two behavioral models, prepulse inhibition (PPI) and latent inhibition (LI) of the two-way active avoidance response, that appear to be related to schizophrenia or to schizophrenia-relevant symptoms. We have found that these rats display PPI for each of the four prepulse intensities tested, allowing their stratification in high, medium and low PPI subgroups. When testing these three subgroups for LI of two-way active avoidance acquisition it has been observed that the LowPPI and MediumPPI subgroups present impaired LI, which, along with the fact that the HighPPI group presents significant LI, allows us to hypothesize that responses in these two paradigms are somehow related and that selection of NIH-HS rats for Low vs HighPPI could make a promising animal model for the study of clusters of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:26700617

  6. Bidirectional Active Learning: A Two-Way Exploration Into Unlabeled and Labeled Data Set.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Shupeng; Yun, Xiaochun

    2015-12-01

    In practical machine learning applications, human instruction is indispensable for model construction. To utilize the precious labeling effort effectively, active learning queries the user with selective sampling in an interactive way. Traditional active learning techniques merely focus on the unlabeled data set under a unidirectional exploration framework and suffer from model deterioration in the presence of noise. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel bidirectional active learning algorithm that explores into both unlabeled and labeled data sets simultaneously in a two-way process. For the acquisition of new knowledge, forward learning queries the most informative instances from unlabeled data set. For the introspection of learned knowledge, backward learning detects the most suspiciously unreliable instances within the labeled data set. Under the two-way exploration framework, the generalization ability of the learning model can be greatly improved, which is demonstrated by the encouraging experimental results. PMID:25730833

  7. Neonatal handling decreases unconditioned anxiety, conditioned fear, and improves two-way avoidance acquisition: a study with the inbred Roman high (RHA-I)- and low-avoidance (RLA-I) rats of both sexes

    PubMed Central

    Ro-?lamos, Cristbal; Oliveras, Ignasi; Caete, Toni; Blzquez, Gloria; Martnez-Membrives, Esther; Tobea, Adolf; Fernndez-Teruel, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the long-lasting effects of neonatal handling (NH; administered during the first 21 days of life) on unlearned and learned anxiety-related responses in inbred Roman High- (RHA-I) and Low-avoidance (RLA-I) rats. To this aim, untreated and neonatally-handled RHA-I and RLA-I rats of both sexes were tested in the following tests/tasks: a novel object exploration (NOE) test, the elevated zero maze (ZM) test, a baseline acoustic startle (BAS) test, a context-conditioned fear (CCF) test and the acquisition of two-way activeshuttle boxavoidance (SHAV). RLA-I rats showed higher unconditioned (novel object exploration test -NOE-, elevated zero maze test -ZM-, BAS), and conditioned (CCF, SHAV) anxiety. NH increased exploration of the novel object in the NOE test as well as exploration of the open sections of the ZM test in both rat strains and sexes, although the effects were relatively more marked in the (high anxious) RLA-I strain and in females. NH did not affect BAS, but reduced CCF in both strains and sexes, and improved shuttle box avoidance acquisition especially in RLA-I (and particularly in females) and in female RHA-I rats. These are completely novel findings, which indicate that even some genetically-based anxiety/fear-related phenotypes can be significantly modulated by previous environmental experiences such as the NH manipulation. PMID:26217201

  8. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Hannan, Mike; Srinivasan, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Present day robotic missions to other planets require precise, a priori knowledge of the terrain to pre-determine a landing spot that is safe. Landing sites can be miles from the mission objective, or, mission objectives may be tailored to suit landing sites. Future robotic exploration missions should be capable of autonomously identifying a safe landing target within a specified target area selected by mission requirements. Such autonomous landing sites must (1) 'see' the surface, (2) identify a target, and (3) land the vehicle. Recent advances in radar technology have resulted in small, lightweight, low power radars that are used for collision avoidance and cruise control systems in automobiles. Such radar systems can be adapted for use as active hazard avoidance systems for planetary landers. The focus of this CIF proposal is to leverage earlier work on collision avoidance systems for MSFC's Mighty Eagle lander and evaluate the use of automotive radar systems for collision avoidance in planetary landers.

  9. Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ricardo; Caspari, Elizabeth; Ordemann, Anke; Moss, Frank

    2004-03-01

    The theory of Active Brownian Particles [1] is used to explain the motions of biological agents in central potentials, for example, the zooplankton Daphnia in light fields [2]. Two canonical motions are of interest: The first is a set of symmetric limit cycles in 2-D space wherein on average equal numbers of agents circle in opposite directions. The second motion occurs when the symmetry of the first is broken. Two symmetry breaking mechanisms have been suggested: velocity alignment and avoidance. Here we investigate the statistics of avoidance events between pairs of Daphnia. [1] U. Erdmann, W. Ebeling, L. Schimansky-Geier and F. Schweitzer, Brownian particles far from equilibrium. Eur. Phys. J. B 15, 105-113 (2000) [2] A. Ordemann, G. Balazsi and F. Moss, ``Pattern formation and stochastic motion of the zooplankton Daphnia in a light field'' Physica A, 325, 260-266 (2003).

  10. Differential effects of bupropion on acquisition and performance of an active avoidance task in male mice.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M C; Redolat, R; Carrasco, M C

    2016-03-01

    Bupropion is an antidepressant drug that is known to aid smoking cessation, although little experimental evidence exists about its actions on active avoidance learning tasks. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of this drug on two-way active avoidance conditioning. In this study, NMRI mice received bupropion (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) or saline before a daily training session (learning phase, days 1-4) in the active avoidance task. Performance was evaluated on the fifth day (retention phase): in each bupropion-treated group half of the mice continued with the same dose of bupropion, and the other half received saline. Among the vehicle-treated mice, different sub-groups were challenged with different doses of bupropion. Results indicated that mice treated with 10 and 20mg/kg bupropion exhibited more number of avoidances during acquisition. The response latency confirmed this learning improvement, since this parameter decreased after bupropion administration. No differences between groups were observed in the retention phase. In conclusion, our data show that bupropion influences the learning process during active avoidance conditioning, suggesting that this drug can improve the control of emotional responses. PMID:26688488

  11. Approach-avoidance activation without anterior asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Uusberg, Andero; Uibo, Helen; Tiimus, Riti; Sarapuu, Helena; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Allik, Jri

    2014-01-01

    Occasionally, the expected effects of approach-avoidance motivation on anterior EEG alpha asymmetry fail to emerge, particularly in studies using affective picture stimuli. These null findings have been explained by insufficient motivational intensity of, and/or overshadowing interindividual variability within the responses to emotional pictures. These explanations were systematically tested using data from 70 students watching 5 types of affective pictures ranging from very pleasant to unpleasant. The stimulus categories reliably modulated self-reports as well as the amplitude of late positive potential, an ERP component reflecting orienting toward motivationally significant stimuli. The stimuli did not, however, induce expected asymmetry effects either for the sample or individual participants. Even while systematic stimulus-dependent individual differences emerged in self-reports as well as LPP amplitudes, the asymmetry variability was dominated by stimulus-independent interindividual variability. Taken together with previous findings, these results suggest that under some circumstances anterior asymmetry may not be an inevitable consequence of core affect. Instead, state asymmetry shifts may be overpowered by stable trait asymmetry differences and/or stimulus-independent yet situation-dependent interindividual variability, possibly caused by processes such as emotion regulation or anxious apprehension. PMID:24653710

  12. Two-Way Bilingual Program Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baecher, Richard E.; Coletti, Charles D.

    The two-way bilingual education program in Port Chester, New York, in which both native English-speaking and limited-English-proficient native Spanish-speaking students are given instruction in both languages, is described and its outcomes evaluated. Data on the performance of language-minority and language-majority students, gathered from

  13. Technology transfer, a two-way street

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Technology transfer through the Pollution Prevention & Control Conferences, which have been cosponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and by the professional societies of industry, greatly improved the environmental projects of the Department of Energy at Savannah River Site (SRS) in the mid-1980`s. Those technologies, used in the liquid effluent treatment of the metal finishing liquid effluents from aluminum cleaning and nickel plating of fuel and targets for the nuclear production reactors, have been enhanced by the research and development of SRS engineers and scientists. The technology transfer has now become a two-way street to the benefit of our Nation`s environment as these enhancements are being adopted in the metal finishing industry. These success stories are examples of the achievements anticipated in the 1990`s as technology development in the federal facilities is shared with commercial industry.

  14. Improving Active and Passive Avoidance Memories Deficits Due to Permanent Cerebral Ischemia by Pomegranate Seed Extract in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarkaki, Alireza; Rezaiei, Moslem; Gharib naseri, MohammadKazem; Rafieirad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two weeks oral administration of pomegranate seed extract (PGSE) on active and passive avoidance memories after permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2CCAO) to induce permanent cerebral ischemia in adult female rats. Methods: Seventy adult female Wistar rats (250 20 g) were used. Animals were divided randomly into seven groups with 10 in each: 1) Sham-operated; 2) Ischemic; 36) Ischemic received PGSE (100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/2mL/kg, orally) for 14 days; 7) Ischemic received vehicle. In order to create 2CCAO, carotid arteries were ligatured and then cut bilaterally. Active and passive avoidance task were measured using criterion condition responses (CCRs) in Y-maze and step-through latency (STL) in two-way shuttle box in all female rats. Results: Both active and passive avoidance memories were significantly impaired in rats after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (CHI) (P < 0.001). PGSE treatment significantly improved passive and active memory impairments with 2CCAO (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001). No toxicity was observed even with high-dose PGSE consumption (800 mg/kg, for 14 days). Conclusion: PGSE exhibits therapeutic potential for avoidance memories, which is most likely related at least in part to its antioxidative and free radical scavenging actions. PMID:23983574

  15. Two-Way Immersion: A Key to Global Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of two-way immersion education to provide students with opportunities to understand and appreciate other countries and cultures. The main features of two-way immersion education are bilingual language instruction, cross-cultural understanding, and international exchanges. Includes case study of two-way immersion at the Alicia

  16. [Behavioral effects of propentofylline (HWA 285) on ambulatory activity, discrete avoidance response and passive avoidance response in mice].

    PubMed

    Kuribara, H; Tadokoro, S; Haraguchi, H

    1986-05-01

    Behavioral effects of propentofylline (HWA 285) were investigated by means of ambulatory activity, discrete lever-press avoidance and step-through type passive avoidance response in mice. Single administration of HWA 285 produced no marked change in the bodily condition and also produced no changes in ambulatory activity at 1.25-20 mg/kg, s.c.; the discrete avoidance response at 2.5-40 mg/kg, s.c.; and the passive avoidance response at 10-30 mg/kg, s.c. However, 5-20 mg/kg of HWA 285 attenuated the ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine (2 mg/kg, s.c.) and scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). HWA 285 tended to attenuate the avoidance-suppressing effect of chlorpromazine (2 mg/kg, s.c.) and physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) at 2.5 mg/kg, while it enhanced the effect of chlorpromazine at 10-40 mg/kg. The mice treated with HWA 285 (10-30 mg/kg) at 30 min before or immediately after the acquisition trial did not show a marked change in the passive avoidance response when the retention trial was done 24 hr after the acquisition trial. The treatment with scopolamine (2 mg/kg, s.c.) at 30 min before the acquisition trial suppressed the passive avoidance response, eliciting a marked shortening of the step-through latency and decrease in % of mice to the 300 sec criterion of latency. The effect of scopolamine was attenuated by combined administration of HWA 285 (30 mg/kg) and treatment with HWA 285 (30 mg/kg) after the end of the acquisition trial. The present results suggest that HWA 285 demonstrates complex behavioral effects which vary dependently on the doses and types of behaviors. PMID:3732965

  17. Persistent active avoidance correlates with activity in prelimbic cortex and ventral striatum

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Rivera, Christian; Roman-Ortiz, Ciorana; Montesinos-Cartagena, Marlian; Quirk, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent avoidance is a prominent symptom of anxiety disorders and is often resistant to extinction-based therapies. Little is known about the circuitry mediating persistent avoidance. Using a recently described platform-mediated active avoidance task, we assessed activity in several structures with c-Fos immuno-labeling. In Task 1, rats were conditioned to avoid a tone-signaled shock by moving to a safe platform, and then were extinguished over two days. One day later, failure to retrieve extinction correlated with increased activity in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL), ventral striatum (VS), and basal amygdala (BA), and decreased activity in infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL), consistent with pharmacological inactivation studies. In Task 2, the platform was removed during extinction training and fear (suppression of bar pressing) was extinguished to criterion over 35 days. The platform was then returned in a post-extinction test. Under these conditions, avoidance levels were equivalent to Experiment 1 and correlated with increased activity in PL and VS, but there was no correlation with activity in IL or BA. Thus, persistent avoidance can occur independently of deficits in fear extinction and its associated structures. PMID:26236209

  18. 33 CFR 157.136 - Two-way voice communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Two-way voice communications. 157....136 Two-way voice communications. Each tank vessel having a COW system under 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) must have a means that enables two-way voice communications between the...

  19. 33 CFR 157.136 - Two-way voice communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Two-way voice communications. 157....136 Two-way voice communications. Each tank vessel having a COW system under 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) must have a means that enables two-way voice communications between the...

  20. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary-school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Transitional Programs of Instruction, while majority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Mainstream monolingual classrooms. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs may enhance reading and math skills in both minority-language and majority-language elementary-school children. PMID:24277993

  1. Two-Way Bilingual Education and Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke-Garza, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Two-way bilingual immersion (TWBI) programs have demonstrated great success in improving Latino English learners' educational outcomes. Nevertheless, TWBI classrooms are not immune to the greater power dynamics and influences of United States society. This Participatory Action Research study brought together eight two-way bilingual immersion…

  2. Two-way MANCOVA: An application to public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. R.; Carolino, E.; Oliveira, T.; Bicho, M.

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work is to use the MANCOVA model to study the influence of the phenotype of an enzyme - Acid phosphatase - and a genetic factor - Haptoglobin genotype - on two dependent variables - Activity of Acid Phosphatase (ACP1) and the Body Mass Index (BMI). Therefore it's used a general linear model, namely a multivariate analysis of covariance (Two-way MANCOVA). The covariate is the age of the subject. This covariate works as control variable for the independent factors, serving to reduce the error term in the model. The main results showed that only the ACP1 phenotype has a significant effect on the activity of ACP1 and the covariate has a significant effect in both dependent variables. The univariate analysis showed that ACP1 phenotype accounts for about 12.5% of the variability in the activity of ACP1. In respect to this covariate it can be seen that accounts for about 4.6% of the variability in the activity of ACP1 and 37.3% in the BMI.

  3. Hierarchical Brain Networks Active in Approach and Avoidance Goal Pursuit

    PubMed Central

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Effective approach/avoidance goal pursuit is critical for attaining long-term health and well-being. Research on the neural correlates of key goal-pursuit processes (e.g., motivation) has long been of interest, with lateralization in prefrontal cortex being a particularly fruitful target of investigation. However, this literature has often been limited by a lack of spatial specificity and has not delineated the precise aspects of approach/avoidance motivation involved. Additionally, the relationships among brain regions (i.e., network connectivity) vital to goal-pursuit remain largely unexplored. Specificity in location, process, and network relationship is vital for moving beyond gross characterizations of function and identifying the precise cortical mechanisms involved in motivation. The present paper integrates research using more spatially specific methodologies (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging) with the rich psychological literature on approach/avoidance to propose an integrative network model that takes advantage of the strengths of each of these literatures. PMID:23785328

  4. Operational issues in a two-way HFC environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mends-Cole, Alex

    1995-11-01

    The push to reduce system operating cost and increase performance in a traditional cable television tree-and-branch architecture has led system designers to pursue the hybrid fiber- coaxial (HFC) architecture as a viable solution. This solution, which joins the photonic world with radio frequency (rf) transmission, yields favorable results with respect to transporting analog video services. As a result, system operating enhancements such as improved carrier- to-noise ratios, improved carrier-to-distortion measurements, and fewer active components in cascade are possible. In addition, an enabling platform for the deployment of other two-way interactive services, facilitating duplex transmission, is successfully accomplished. In order to realize this network, there are some acute operational issues that need to be addressed. The picture quality problems of the past have been minimized. However, the thought of transporting telephony and other digitally formatted signals gives rise to other technical operating concerns. The adverse effects of impulse noise and ingress in the down and upstream paths of the HFC plant on digital signals and ancillary data services are described in this paper. Experimental data shows how these impairments affect network reliability from a technical operational context.

  5. Follicular DEAs for two-way tactile communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoop, Lars E.; Rossiter, Jonathan; Assaf, Tareq

    2015-04-01

    Follicular structures in skin combine sensing and actuation in a soft and compliant continuous surface. We have developed a tactile display device inspired by this structure, using a Dielectric Elastomer Actuator (DEA). DEAs allow for combined sensing and actuation, making possible two-way tactile communication between the user and the device. The device can obtain tactile information about the environment, or a user touching it, and it can also present tactile information to the user. We characterise the sensing properties of the tactile display device, and perform classification of tactile stimuli. We demonstrate two-way tactile interaction between a user and the device.

  6. Two-Way Immersion Bilingual Programs in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Galloway, Martha; Irby, Beverly J.; Rodriguez, Linda; Gomez, Leo

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes the results from the first statewide study of two-way immersion (TWI) programs for English language learners. The survey was conducted electronically with 304 Texas bilingual/English as a Second Language directors in districts that serve English language learners. Data are reported for the following research question: What

  7. Interactive Television, Prospects for Two-Way Services on Cable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Walter S.

    The technology of cable television is advancing rapidly. Of prime importance to cable television in the 1970s will be the development of two-way interactive communication services on cable systems. This report describes that development; the technical, economic, and regulatory forces that influence it; and the public policy issues that it raises.

  8. Fitting Additive Models to Unbalanced Two-Way Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Donald B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A time-saving and space-saving algorithm is presented for computing the sums of squares and estimated cell means under the additive model in a two-way analysis of variance or covariance with unequal numbers of observations in the cells. The procedure is illustrated. (Author/JKS)

  9. Lung Disease, Indigestion, and Two-Way Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; Callingham, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the responses of 115 school students to two problems based on information provided in two-way tables. In each case the question asks if one of the variables involved depends on the other. Contextual knowledge might suggest a dependent relationship in both but in one problem the data show independence while in the other the…

  10. 27. Interior view of unoccupied spaced looking towards two way ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Interior view of unoccupied spaced looking towards two way glass opening; showing recessed ceiling with cove lighting and exterior windows; near center and west side of west wing on main floor; view to southwest. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Group Administration & Secure Storage Building, 2372 Westover Avenue, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  11. Survey of Two-Way Cable Television Testbeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    Surveys of 10 two-way interactive cable experiments indicate that little is happening in this field. The location of the testbeds, the names and addresses of both the parent company and its local subsidiary are included in the survey together with a description of each project. A brief note on the subscriber's right to privacy concludes this short

  12. Two-Way Immersion Bilingual Programs in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Galloway, Martha; Irby, Beverly J.; Rodriguez, Linda; Gomez, Leo

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes the results from the first statewide study of two-way immersion (TWI) programs for English language learners. The survey was conducted electronically with 304 Texas bilingual/English as a Second Language directors in districts that serve English language learners. Data are reported for the following research question: What…

  13. Bayesian Full Rank Marginalization for Two-Way Contingency Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Tom; Novick, Melvin R.

    A general approach is proposed for modeling the structure of a two-way contingency table, and for drawing inferences about the marginal and interaction effects, cell parameters, and conditional probabilities. The prior distribution expresses uncertainty in a simple reduced model, in particular the independence model. The posterior estimates of the…

  14. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion (TWI) programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in TWI programs outperformed their peers

  15. Virtual Classrooms: Educational Opportunity through Two-Way Interactive Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Vicki M.; Christianson, J. Scott

    This book describes in non-technical language how a small school can greatly expand its course offerings by forming a two-way interactive television (I-TV) network with surrounding school districts. I-TV is the linkage of 3 to 10 school districts over fiber optic, coaxial cable, or dedicated copper telephone lines which enables participating

  16. Effects of oxiracetam-nicotine combinations on active and passive avoidance learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Sansone, M; Castellano, C; Battaglia, M; Ammassari-Teule, M

    1991-05-01

    Tested alone, in CD-1 mice, the nootropic drug oxiracetam (50 mg/kg) improved learning in a multitrial active avoidance task (shuttle-box), but did not affect one-trial passive avoidance acquisition. Nicotine, which was ineffective at the dose of 0.25 mg/kg, improved both active and passive avoidance at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg; 1 mg/kg nicotine still exerted facilitating effects on passive avoidance, but slightly depressed shuttle-box performance. Combinations of oxiracetam and nicotine improved passive avoidance more than either drug given separately. In the active avoidance task, a combination of oxiracetam with the lower dose of nicotine exerted improving effects never observed with nicotine alone, even at higher doses. The nootropic drug also prevented the slight depressant action exerted by 1 mg/kg nicotine. Thus, contrary to what was previously supposed, at least in mice subjected to shuttle-box avoidance training, nicotinic activation does not appear as the main neurochemical mechanism involved in the action of oxiracetam. Perhaps, oxiracetam and nicotine activate different types of cholinergic mechanisms, but it cannot be excluded that other neurotransmitters, particularly catecholamines, may be involved in the avoidance facilitating effects produced by nicotine and by combinations of the two drugs. PMID:1924503

  17. Antecedents of Approach-Avoidance Achievement Goal Adoption: An Analysis of Two Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Victoria; Spray, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between implicit theories of ability and competence perceptions to changes in approach-avoidance goal adoption in two specific activities in the curriculum. Four hundred and thirty pupils, aged 11-15 years, completed measures of approach-avoidance goals, perceived competence and implicit

  18. Graduated Exposure and Positive Reinforcement to Overcome Setting and Activity Avoidance in an Adolescent with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Luiselli, James K.; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when

  19. Antecedents of Approach-Avoidance Achievement Goal Adoption: An Analysis of Two Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Victoria; Spray, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between implicit theories of ability and competence perceptions to changes in approach-avoidance goal adoption in two specific activities in the curriculum. Four hundred and thirty pupils, aged 11-15 years, completed measures of approach-avoidance goals, perceived competence and implicit…

  20. Graduated Exposure and Positive Reinforcement to Overcome Setting and Activity Avoidance in an Adolescent with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Luiselli, James K.; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when…

  1. Individual differences in sensitivity to reward and punishment and neural activity during reward and avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hee; Yoon, HeungSik; Kim, Hackjin; Hamann, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    In this functional neuroimaging study, we investigated neural activations during the process of learning to gain monetary rewards and to avoid monetary loss, and how these activations are modulated by individual differences in reward and punishment sensitivity. Healthy young volunteers performed a reinforcement learning task where they chose one of two fractal stimuli associated with monetary gain (reward trials) or avoidance of monetary loss (avoidance trials). Trait sensitivity to reward and punishment was assessed using the behavioral inhibition/activation scales (BIS/BAS). Functional neuroimaging results showed activation of the striatum during the anticipation and reception periods of reward trials. During avoidance trials, activation of the dorsal striatum and prefrontal regions was found. As expected, individual differences in reward sensitivity were positively associated with activation in the left and right ventral striatum during reward reception. Individual differences in sensitivity to punishment were negatively associated with activation in the left dorsal striatum during avoidance anticipation and also with activation in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex during receiving monetary loss. These results suggest that learning to attain reward and learning to avoid loss are dependent on separable sets of neural regions whose activity is modulated by trait sensitivity to reward or punishment. PMID:25680989

  2. Method of preparing a two-way shape memory alloy

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Alfred D. (5383 Bancroft Ave., Oakland, CA 94601)

    1984-01-01

    A two-way shape memory alloy, a method of training a shape memory alloy, and a heat engine employing the two-way shape memory alloy to do external work during both heating and cooling phases. The alloy is heated under a first training stress to a temperature which is above the upper operating temperature of the alloy, then cooled to a cold temperature below the zero-force transition temperature of the alloy, then deformed while applying a second training stress which is greater in magnitude than the stress at which the alloy is to be operated, then heated back to the hot temperature, changing from the second training stress back to the first training stress.

  3. Two way time transfer results at NRL and USNO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galysh, Ivan J.; Landis, G. Paul

    1993-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed a two way time transfer modem system for the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). Two modems in conjunction with a pair of Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) and a communication satellite can achieve sub nanosecond time transfer. This performance is demonstrated by the results of testing at and between NRL and USNO. The modems use Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) methods to separate their signals through a single path in the satellite. Each modem transmitted a different Pseudo Random Noise (PRN) code and received the others PRN code. High precision time transfer is possible with two way methods because of reciprocity of many of the terms of the path and hardware delay between the two modems. The hardware description was given in a previous paper.

  4. Method of preparing a two-way shape memory alloy

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, A.D.

    1984-03-06

    A two-way shape memory alloy, a method of training a shape memory alloy, and a heat engine employing the two-way shape memory alloy to do external work during both heating and cooling phases are disclosed. The alloy is heated under a first training stress to a temperature which is above the upper operating temperature of the alloy, then cooled to a cold temperature below the zero-force transition temperature of the alloy, then deformed while applying a second training stress which is greater in magnitude than the stress at which the alloy is to be operated, then heated back to the hot temperature, changing from the second training stress back to the first training stress. 8 figs.

  5. Transfer as a Two-Way Process: Testing a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Rita; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory research is to test the model of training transfer as a two-way process. Design/methodology/approach: Based on self-report data gathered from 58 to 44 respondents in a field experiment, it is argued that there is not just learning in the context of training and not just application in the context of work.…

  6. Graduated exposure and positive reinforcement to overcome setting and activity avoidance in an adolescent with autism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Luiselli, James K; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when prompted to enter these areas. Using graduated exposure combined with positive reinforcement, he learned to enter these settings without resisting and eventually to participate in activities within the settings. This article discusses this intervention approach for reducing and eliminating avoidant behavior. PMID:22987915

  7. Anxiety, not anger, induces inflammatory activity: An avoidance/approach model of immune system activation.

    PubMed

    Moons, Wesley G; Shields, Grant S

    2015-08-01

    Psychological stressors reliably trigger systemic inflammatory activity as indexed by levels of proinflammatory cytokines. This experiment demonstrates that one's specific emotional reaction to a stressor may be a significant determinant of whether an inflammatory reaction occurs in response to that stressor. Based on extant correlational evidence and theory, a causal approach was used to determine whether an avoidant emotion (anxiety) triggers more inflammatory activity than an approach emotion (anger). In an experimental design (N = 40), a 3-way Emotion Condition Time Analyte interaction revealed that a writing-based anxiety induction, but not a writing-based anger induction, increased mean levels of interferon-? (IFN- ?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), but not interleukin-6 (IL-6) in oral mucous, F(2, 54) = 4.64, p = .01, ?p() = .15. Further, self-reported state anxiety predicted elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, all ?R() >.06, ps <.04, but self-reported state anger did not. These results constitute the first evidence to our knowledge that specific negative emotions can differentially cause inflammatory activity and support a theoretical model explaining these effects based on the avoidance or approach motivations associated with emotions. PMID:26053247

  8. Two-way behavior of a Nitinol torsion bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weiming

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the experimental study of a NiTi shape memory alloy bar with nominal diameter of 6.5 mm is presented. First, some torsion experiments, including torsion cycling at constant temperature and thermal cycling under constant torque, were carried out. In these test, the torque was applied in both positive and negative directions. Two-way memory behavior and some unique phenomena, such as kink and easy-training, were found and hence, a series of uniaxial tension test was performed in order to understand the observations. After presenting the experimental work, the reason behind these phenomena is discussed.

  9. Two-way laser link over interplanetary distance.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T; Sun, Xiaoli; Neumann, Gregory A; Cavanaugh, John F; McGarry, Jan F; Zagwodzki, Thomas W

    2006-01-01

    Here we report timed observations with subnanosecond precision of short laser pulses at a distance of nearly 24 million kilometers between the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) aboard the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft and the NASA Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO). Forty MLA downlink observations and 90 uplink observations were obtained during observing sessions on 27 and 31 May 2005. Precise standard ground timing allowed a solution for spacecraft range, range rate, and acceleration, as well as clock bias. This experiment established a new distance record for laser detection and accomplished a two-way laser link at an interplanetary distance. PMID:16400141

  10. Two-way communication promote value-added services

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This article reviews a number of developments in the efforts of electric utilities to establish two-way communications with their customers in order to develop products and services to fit each customer`s needs. In their efforts, utilities are facing an array of technology, including broadband, radio frequency, cellular, satellite, dial inbound, and power line carrier current. Individual efforts with each technology are noted. In many cases, the utilities are finding that existing cable and telephone companies are powerful allies in their efforts. Finding that their technology is marketable, the electric utilities are also diversifying horizontally and marketing their communications tools to other, both inside and outside of the utility industry.

  11. Altered activity of the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala during acquisition and extinction of an active avoidance task.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xilu; Beck, Kevin D; Myers, Catherine E; Servatius, Richard J; Pang, Kevin C H

    2015-01-01

    Altered medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala function is associated with anxiety-related disorders. While the mPFC-amygdala pathway has a clear role in fear conditioning, these structures are also involved in active avoidance. Given that avoidance perseveration represents a core symptom of anxiety disorders, the neural substrate of avoidance, especially its extinction, requires better understanding. The present study was designed to investigate the activity, particularly, inhibitory neuronal activity in mPFC and amygdala during acquisition and extinction of lever-press avoidance in rats. Neural activity was examined in the mPFC, intercalated cell clusters (ITCs) lateral (LA), basal (BA) and central (CeA) amygdala, at various time points during acquisition and extinction, using induction of the immediate early gene product, c-Fos. Neural activity was greater in the mPFC, LA, BA, and ITC during the extinction phase as compared to the acquisition phase. In contrast, the CeA was the only region that was more activated during acquisition than during extinction. Our results indicate inhibitory neurons are more activated during late phase of acquisition and extinction in the mPFC and LA, suggesting the dynamic involvement of inhibitory circuits in the development and extinction of avoidance response. Together, these data start to identify the key brain regions important in active avoidance behavior, areas that could be associated with avoidance perseveration in anxiety disorders. PMID:26441578

  12. Altered activity of the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala during acquisition and extinction of an active avoidance task

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Xilu; Beck, Kevin D.; Myers, Catherine E.; Servatius, Richard J.; Pang, Kevin C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Altered medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala function is associated with anxiety-related disorders. While the mPFC-amygdala pathway has a clear role in fear conditioning, these structures are also involved in active avoidance. Given that avoidance perseveration represents a core symptom of anxiety disorders, the neural substrate of avoidance, especially its extinction, requires better understanding. The present study was designed to investigate the activity, particularly, inhibitory neuronal activity in mPFC and amygdala during acquisition and extinction of lever-press avoidance in rats. Neural activity was examined in the mPFC, intercalated cell clusters (ITCs) lateral (LA), basal (BA) and central (CeA) amygdala, at various time points during acquisition and extinction, using induction of the immediate early gene product, c-Fos. Neural activity was greater in the mPFC, LA, BA, and ITC during the extinction phase as compared to the acquisition phase. In contrast, the CeA was the only region that was more activated during acquisition than during extinction. Our results indicate inhibitory neurons are more activated during late phase of acquisition and extinction in the mPFC and LA, suggesting the dynamic involvement of inhibitory circuits in the development and extinction of avoidance response. Together, these data start to identify the key brain regions important in active avoidance behavior, areas that could be associated with avoidance perseveration in anxiety disorders. PMID:26441578

  13. GTP avoidance in Tetrahymena thermophila requires tyrosine kinase activity, intracellular calcium, NOS, and guanylyl cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomew, Janine; Reichart, Johnathan; Mundy, Romie; Recktenwald, Jacquelyn; Keyser, Shannon; Riddle, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a chemorepellent in Tetrahymena thermophila that has been shown to stimulate cell division as well as ciliary reversal. Previous studies have proposed that GTP avoidance is linked to a receptor-mediated, calcium-based depolarization. However, the intracellular mechanisms involved in GTP avoidance have not been previously documented. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that GTP signals through a tyrosine kinase pathway in T. thermophila. Using behavioral assays, enzyme immunosorbent assays, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence, we present data that implicate a tyrosine kinase, phospholipase C, intracellular calcium, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and guanylyl cyclase in GTP signaling. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein eliminates GTP avoidance in Tetrahymena in behavioral assays. Similarly, pharmacological inhibitors of phospholipase C, NOS, and guanylyl cyclase all eliminated Tetrahymena avoidance to GTP. Immunofluorescence data shows evidence of tyrosine kinase activity in the cilia, suggesting that this enzyme activity could be directly involved in ciliary reversal. PMID:18368528

  14. Context-dependent activation of reduced autobiographical memory specificity as an avoidant coping style.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Hermans, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    According to the affect-regulation hypothesis (Williams et al., 2007), reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) or overgeneral memory (OGM) might be considered a cognitive avoidance strategy; that is, people learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. Based on this hypothesis, one would predict significant negative associations between AMS and avoidant coping. However, studies investigating this prediction have led to equivocal results. In the present study we tested a possible explanation for these contradictory findings. It was hypothesized that rAMS (in part) reflects an avoidant coping strategy, which might only become apparent under certain conditions, that is, conditions that signal the possibility of 'danger.' To test this hypothesis, we assessed AMS and behavioral avoidance but experimentally manipulated the instructions. In the neutral condition, two parallel versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were presented under neutral instructions. In the threat condition, the first AMT was presented under neutral instructions, while the second AMT was presented under 'threat instructions.' Results showed no significant correlations between avoidance and OGM under neutral conditions but significant and markedly stronger correlations under threat conditions, with more avoidance being associated with fewer specific and more categoric memories. In addition, high avoiders showed a stronger reduction in AMS in the threat condition as compared with the neutral condition, while low avoiders showed no such difference between conditions. The data confirm that OGM can be considered as part of a broader avoidant coping style. However, more importantly, they show that, at least in nonclinical individuals, the activation of this coping style may depend on the context. PMID:22142214

  15. A new cellular automaton model for urban two-way road networks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junqing; Cheng, Lin; Long, Jiancheng; Liu, Yuanlin

    2014-01-01

    A new cellular automaton (CA) model is proposed to simulate traffic dynamics in urban two-way road network systems. The NaSch rule is adopted to represent vehicle movements on road sections. Two novel rules are proposed to move the vehicles in intersection areas, and an additional rule is developed to avoid the "gridlock" phenomenon. Simulation results show that the network fundamental diagram is very similar to that of road traffic flow. We found that the randomization probability and the maximum vehicle speed have significant impact on network traffic mobility for free-flow state. Their effect may be weak when the network is congested. PMID:25435868

  16. A New Cellular Automaton Model for Urban Two-Way Road Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junqing; Cheng, Lin; Liu, Yuanlin

    2014-01-01

    A new cellular automaton (CA) model is proposed to simulate traffic dynamics in urban two-way road network systems. The NaSch rule is adopted to represent vehicle movements on road sections. Two novel rules are proposed to move the vehicles in intersection areas, and an additional rule is developed to avoid the gridlock phenomenon. Simulation results show that the network fundamental diagram is very similar to that of road traffic flow. We found that the randomization probability and the maximum vehicle speed have significant impact on network traffic mobility for free-flow state. Their effect may be weak when the network is congested. PMID:25435868

  17. Activation of adenosine A1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens impairs inhibitory avoidance memory.

    PubMed

    Normile, H J; Gaston, S; Johnson, G; Barraco, R A

    1994-09-01

    Potent and highly selective adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonists were bilaterally injected into the nucleus accumbens of mice 10 min prior to inhibitory avoidance training. Retention of the inhibitory avoidance response was assessed 24 h after training. Intra-ACB activation of A1 receptors, but not A2a receptor activation, significantly impaired the performance of mice during the subsequent retention test. Furthermore, the retention deficit produced by activation of A1 receptors was significantly attenuated by pretreating mice with a highly selective A1 receptor antagonist. These findings suggest that endogenous adenosine may modulate information processing in the ventral striatum via adenosine A1 receptors. PMID:7993306

  18. Quantum error correction assisted by two-way noisy communication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Sixia; Fan, Heng; Oh, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-shared non-local entanglement dramatically simplifies and improves the performance of quantum error correction via entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs). However, even considering the noise in quantum communication only, the non-local sharing of a perfectly entangled pair is technically impossible unless additional resources are consumed, such as entanglement distillation, which actually compromises the efficiency of the codes. Here we propose an error-correcting protocol assisted by two-way noisy communication that is more easily realisable: all quantum communication is subjected to general noise and all entanglement is created locally without additional resources consumed. In our protocol the pre-shared noisy entangled pairs are purified simultaneously by the decoding process. For demonstration, we first present an easier implementation of the well-known EAQECC [[4, 1, 3; 1

  19. Frequency stability requirements for two way range rate tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V.

    1975-01-01

    Accuracy limitations to two way range rate Doppler tracking due to master (reference) oscillator frequency instabilities are discussed. Theory is developed to treat both the effects of random and nonrandom oscillator instabilities. The nonrandom instabilities treated are drift, environmental effects, and coherent phase modulation. The effects of random instabilities on range rate accuracy are shown to be describable in terms of sigma y (2, T, tau). For the typical noise processes encountered in precision oscillators, range rate error is related to the more familiar sigma y (tau) and script L (f). Three examples are discussed to show how to determine range rate error from given sigma y (tau) or script L (f) curves, and approximations are developed to simplify the treatment of complex systems. An error analysis of range determined from rate data is also given.

  20. Multiantenna Relay Beamforming Design for QoS Discrimination in Two-Way Relay Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ke; Zhang, Yu; Li, Dandan; Zhong, Zhangdui

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the relay beamforming design for quality of service (QoS) discrimination in two-way relay networks. The purpose is to keep legitimate two-way relay users exchange their information via a helping multiantenna relay with QoS guarantee while avoiding the exchanged information overhearing by unauthorized receiver. To this end, we propose a physical layer method, where the relay beamforming is jointly designed with artificial noise (AN) which is used to interfere in the unauthorized user's reception. We formulate the joint beamforming and AN (BFA) design into an optimization problem such that the received signal-to-interference-ratio (SINR) at the two legitimate users is over a predefined QoS threshold while limiting the received SINR at the unauthorized user which is under a certain secure threshold. The objective of the optimization problem is to seek the optimal AN and beamforming vectors to minimize the total power consumed by the relay node. Since the optimization problem is nonconvex, we solve it by using semidefinite program (SDP) relaxation. For comparison, we also study the optimal relay beamforming without using AN (BFO) under the same QoS discrimination constraints. Simulation results show that both the proposed BFA and BFO can achieve the QoS discrimination of the two-way transmission. However, the proposed BFA yields significant power savings and lower infeasible rates compared with the BFO method. PMID:24391459

  1. Multiantenna relay beamforming design for QoS discrimination in two-way relay networks.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ke; Zhang, Yu; Li, Dandan; Chang, Chih-Yung; Zhong, Zhangdui

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the relay beamforming design for quality of service (QoS) discrimination in two-way relay networks. The purpose is to keep legitimate two-way relay users exchange their information via a helping multiantenna relay with QoS guarantee while avoiding the exchanged information overhearing by unauthorized receiver. To this end, we propose a physical layer method, where the relay beamforming is jointly designed with artificial noise (AN) which is used to interfere in the unauthorized user's reception. We formulate the joint beamforming and AN (BFA) design into an optimization problem such that the received signal-to-interference-ratio (SINR) at the two legitimate users is over a predefined QoS threshold while limiting the received SINR at the unauthorized user which is under a certain secure threshold. The objective of the optimization problem is to seek the optimal AN and beamforming vectors to minimize the total power consumed by the relay node. Since the optimization problem is nonconvex, we solve it by using semidefinite program (SDP) relaxation. For comparison, we also study the optimal relay beamforming without using AN (BFO) under the same QoS discrimination constraints. Simulation results show that both the proposed BFA and BFO can achieve the QoS discrimination of the two-way transmission. However, the proposed BFA yields significant power savings and lower infeasible rates compared with the BFO method. PMID:24391459

  2. Effects of oxiracetam, physostigmine, and their combination on active and passive avoidance learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Sansone, M; Castellano, C; Palazzesi, S; Battaglia, M; Ammassari-Teule, M

    1993-02-01

    The nootropic drug oxiracetam (50 and 100 mg/kg) had no effect on one-trial passive avoidance acquisition in CD-1 mice, while the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine improved passive avoidance performance at doses of 0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg given either pre- or posttraining. In a multitrial avoidance task (shuttle-box), a consistent tendency to better performance was displayed by mice receiving oxiracetam (50 and 100 mg/kg) or physostigmine (0.01 and 0.025 mg/kg, but not 0.05 mg/kg). Combinations of the two drugs never improved active or passive avoidance performance more than drugs given separately. This indicates no advantage in combining nootropics and anticholinesterase inhibitors to improve learning and memory. PMID:8446678

  3. Active avoidance requires a serial basal amygdala to nucleus accumbens shell circuit.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Franchesca; Moscarello, Justin M; LeDoux, Joseph E; Sears, Robert M

    2015-02-25

    Freezing is a species-typical defensive reaction to conditioned threats. While the neural circuitry of aversive Pavlovian behavior has been extensively studied, less is known about the circuitry underlying more active responses to danger. Here we show that the flow of information between the basal amygdala (BA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is necessary for signaled active avoidance behavior. Rats trained to avoid shock by shuttling during an auditory conditioned stimulus showed increased expression of the activity-dependent protein c-Fos in the NAcc, specifically the shell subregion (NAccSh). Silencing neural activity in the NAccSh, but not in the adjacent NAcc core, disrupted avoidance behavior. Disconnection of the BA and the NAccSh was just as effective at disrupting avoidance behavior as bilateral NAccSh inactivations, suggesting learned avoidance behavior requires an intact BA-NAccSh circuit. Together, these data highlight an essential role for the amygdalar projection to the ventral striatum in aversively motivated actions. PMID:25716846

  4. Two-Way Communication Using RFID Equipment and Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedry, Thomas; Archer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Equipment and techniques used in radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be extended, according to a proposal, to enable short-range, two-way communication between electronic products and host computers. In one example of a typical contemplated application, the purpose of the short-range radio communication would be to transfer image data from a user s digital still or video camera to the user s computer for recording and/or processing. The concept is also applicable to consumer electronic products other than digital cameras (for example, cellular telephones, portable computers, or motion sensors in alarm systems), and to a variety of industrial and scientific sensors and other devices that generate data. Until now, RFID has been used to exchange small amounts of mostly static information for identifying and tracking assets. Information pertaining to an asset (typically, an object in inventory to be tracked) is contained in miniature electronic circuitry in an RFID tag attached to the object. Conventional RFID equipment and techniques enable a host computer to read data from and, in some cases, to write data to, RFID tags, but they do not enable such additional functions as sending commands to, or retrieving possibly large quantities of dynamic data from, RFID-tagged devices. The proposal would enable such additional functions. The figure schematically depicts an implementation of the proposal for a sensory device (e.g., a digital camera) that includes circuitry that converts sensory information to digital data. In addition to the basic sensory device, there would be a controller and a memory that would store the sensor data and/or data from the controller. The device would also be equipped with a conventional RFID chipset and antenna, which would communicate with a host computer via an RFID reader. The controller would function partly as a communication interface, implementing two-way communication protocols at all levels (including RFID if needed) between the sensory device and the memory and between the host computer and the memory. The controller would perform power V

  5. Life-threatening event reduces subjective well-being through activating avoidance motivation: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Dina; Seger-Guttmann, Tali; Heller, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Drawing on the approach-avoidance theory, we have examined the role of avoidance motivation in explaining the negative effects of a life-threatening event on subjective well-being (SWB). Residents of the south of Israel were surveyed during heavy missile attacks in January 2009 (T1; n = 283), and again after 6 months (T2; n = 212) and 1 year (T3; n = 154). During the missile attacks, we also surveyed a group from the center of the country (T1; n = 102), not exposed to the attacks. The results indicate that avoidance motivation was activated by the life threat and further mediated its detrimental influence on SWB measures (positive/negative affects, anxiety, and subjective health). Moreover, within the southern sample, the drop in avoidance motivation over time mediated the parallel drop in SWB. In contrast to avoidance motivation, approach motivation remained stable over time and was related to positive emotions. The role of avoidance and approach motivations in life-threatening situations is further discussed. PMID:23046459

  6. Two-way packing model for ribonuclease T1 fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydock, Christopher; Sedarous, Salah S.; Prendergast, Franklyn G.; Felmlee, Teresa A.

    1994-08-01

    The fluorescence intensity decay of ribonuclease T1 is biexponential at neutral pH. The lifetimes in nsec and preexponential factors of the exponential components are 3.9 (81%) and 1.7 (19%). The mutations A22L, G23A, L26A, V67G, and V67D, which all neighbor tryptophan-59, have a fairly small effect on this biexponential decay. The lifetime of the long lived component varies from 3.7 to 4.2 nsec and the preexponential varies from 75% to 92%. The emission maximum varies from 319 to 328 nm and the acrylamide quenching rate constant varies from 2.0 to 4.0 x 108 M1s1 for these mutations. Minimum perturbation mapping simulations of the tryptophan-59 side chain in wild type ribonuclease T1 show that the (chi) 2 side chain dihedral angle may adopt either a perpendicular or an antiperpendicular conformation. These computational and spectroscopic results lead us to propose a two- way packing model for tryptophan-59. This model predicts the relative free energies of the perpendicular and antiperpendicular conformations and acrylamide interaction site to indole ring distances for the wild type and mutant ribonucleases.

  7. Diabetes and Hepatitis C: A Two-Way Association

    PubMed Central

    Hammerstad, Sara Salehi; Grock, Shira Frankel; Lee, Hanna J.; Hasham, Alia; Sundaram, Nina; Tomer, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and hepatitis C infection are both prevalent diseases worldwide, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Most studies, but not all, have shown that patients with chronic hepatitis C are more prone to develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to healthy controls, as well as when compared to patients with other liver diseases, including hepatitis B. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have revealed that patients with T2D may also be at higher risk for worse outcomes of their hepatitis C infection, including reduced rate of sustained virological response, progression to fibrosis and cirrhosis, and higher risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, hepatitis C infection and mainly its treatment, interferon α, can trigger the development of type 1 diabetes. In this review, we discuss the existing data on this two-way association between diabetes and hepatitis C infection with emphasis on possible mechanisms. It remains to be determined whether the new curative therapies for chronic hepatitis C will improve outcomes in diabetic hepatitis C patients, and conversely whether treatment with Metformin will reduce complications from hepatitis C virus infection. We propose an algorithm for diabetes screening and follow-up in hepatitis C patients. PMID:26441826

  8. Two-way satellite time transfer: Overview and recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, Gerrit

    1994-01-01

    The experiment using small earth stations for transatlantic two-way satellite time transfer between the USA and Germany has had its 10th anniversary this year. Pseudo-random noise coded time signals were phase modulated and demodulated at each station using a modem. Recently, during the last two weeks of Aug. 1993, six European time laboratories have used the INTELSAT 307E satellite for line-up tests and preliminary time transfer sessions using the same type of MITREX modem. The need for a uniform format for the exchange of data was felt heavily after these sessions. This problem was foreseen and addressed in international working parties. During Apr. 1993, in Task Group 7/2 of the ITU Radiocommunication Sector, a very intense discussion has taken place about what procedure should be recommended for TWSTFT and what items the header and data lines of the resulting data fields should contain. A difficulty is that two different methods of calibration of the earth station delays exist which result in different sets of delay data to be exchanged. Further study and discussions are necessary. Also, a meeting of the CCDS Working Group on TWSTFT addressed this in Oct. 1993. The outcome of the discussions and the prospect for future developments are presented.

  9. Coupled two-way clustering analysis of gene microarray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getz, Gad; Levine, Erel; Domany, Eytan

    2000-10-01

    We present a coupled two-way clustering approach to gene microarray data analysis. The main idea is to identify subsets of the genes and samples, such that when one of these is used to cluster the other, stable and significant partitions emerge. The search for such subsets is a computationally complex task. We present an algorithm, based on iterative clustering, that performs such a search. This analysis is especially suitable for gene microarray data, where the contributions of a variety of biological mechanisms to the gene expression levels are entangled in a large body of experimental data. The method was applied to two gene microarray data sets, on colon cancer and leukemia. By identifying relevant subsets of the data and focusing on them we were able to discover partitions and correlations that were masked and hidden when the full dataset was used in the analysis. Some of these partitions have clear biological interpretation; others can serve to identify possible directions for future research.

  10. Comparative analysis of one- and two-way planetary laser ranging concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirkx, D.; Noomen, R.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; Bauer, S.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.

    2015-11-01

    Laser ranging is an emerging technology for tracking interplanetary missions, offering both range accuracy and precision at the level of several millimeters. The ground segment uses existing Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology, whereas the space segment requires an active system for either one- or two-way ranging. We numerically investigate the performance of one- and two-way active planetary laser ranging systems to quantify the difference in science return from missions employing this technology. In doing so, we assess the added value of the more complicated two-way system compared to its one-way counterpart. We simulate range measurement errors for both types of systems, using clock error time histories generated from Allan variance profiles. We use two test cases: a lunar polar orbiter and a Phobos lander. In the Phobos lander simulations, we include the estimation of Phobos librations and C bar 2 , 2 gravity field coefficient. For the lunar orbiter, we include an empirical force-error model in our truth model. We include the estimation of clock parameters over a variety of arc lengths for one-way range data analysis and use a variety of state arc durations for the lunar orbiter simulations. For the lunar orbiter, performance of the one- and two-way system is similar for sufficiently short clock arcs. This indicates that dynamical-model error, not clock noise, is the dominant source of estimation uncertainty. However, correlations between the clock and state parameters cause an exchange between clock and state signal for the one-way system, making these results less robust. The results for the Phobos lander show superior estimation accuracy of the two-way system. However, knowledge of Phobos' interior mass distribution from both the one- or two-way system would currently be limited to the same level by inaccuracies in our knowledge of Phobos' volume. Both the lunar orbiter and Phobos lander simulations show that the use of two-way planetary laser ranging should be accompanied by improvements in associated measurements and models to allow this data type to be exploited to its full potential.

  11. [Effects of buflomedil on ambulatory activity and discrete avoidance responses in mice].

    PubMed

    Kuribara, H; Tadokoro, S

    1988-02-01

    Behavioral effects of buflomedil, 4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)-1-butanone hydrochloride, a vasoactive drug, were investigated by means of ambulatory activity and the discrete lever-press and shuttle avoidance responses in mice. Single administration of buflomedil (1,3,10,30 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) produced no marked change in the ambulatory activity and the discrete lever-press avoidance response. However, the ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine (2 mg/kg, s.c.) was suppressed by 30 mg/kg of buflomedil. The avoidance-suppressing effect of chlorpromazine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) was enhanced by 3 approximately 100 mg/kg of buflomedil, but the avoidance-suppressing effect of physostigmine (0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) was not modified by the same doses of buflomedil. On the other hand, the acquisition of the discrete shuttle avoidance response was not affected markedly by buflomedil 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) when the drug was administered immediately before the start of training. The present results suggest that buflomedil shows a central suppressing effect, probably through catecholaminergic neuronal systems, and that the effect is detectable only by the combined administration with typical psychoactive drugs. PMID:3371794

  12. The effect of sodium metabisulphite on active avoidance performance in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Ozlem; Hacioglu, Gulay; Savcioglu, Feyza; Kucukatay, Vural; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Agar, Aysel

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypercholesterolemia and sulphite on active avoidance learning. Male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups as follows: Control (C), Sulphite (S), Vitamin E (E), Sulphite + Vitamin E (SE), Hypercholesterolemia (H), Hypercholesterolemia + Sulphite (HS), Hypercholesterolemia + Vitamin E (HE), and Hypercholesterolemia + Sulphite + Vitamin E (HSE). At the end of the experimental period, the serum cholesterol level (mean SD) was significantly higher in H group (111.5 11.11 mg dL(-1) ) as compared to C group (63.5 4.9 mg dL(-1) ). Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were increased in HS group as compared to C, H, and S groups. Vitamin E reduced TBARS levels in HSE group compared with HS group. Active avoidance results indicated that hypercholesterolemia was associated with learning impairment. Our data clearly revealed that the combination of hypercholesterolemia and sulphite results in exaggerated impairment of active avoidance. Vitamin E improved active avoidance in HSE group compared with HS group. Therefore, the synergistic effect of hypercholesterolemia and sulphite may be associated with a considerable health risk. PMID:20882594

  13. Mindfulness, Physical Activity and Avoidance of Secondhand Smoke: A Study of College Students in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Shi, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To better understand the documented link between mindfulness and longevity, we examine the association between mindfulness and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke (SHS), as well as the association between mindfulness and physical activity. Method: In Shanghai University of Finance and Economics (SUFE) we surveyed a convenience sample of 1516 college freshmen. We measured mindfulness, weekly physical activity, and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke, along with demographic and behavioral covariates. We used a multilevel logistic regression to test the association between mindfulness and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke, and used a Tobit regression model to test the association between mindfulness and metabolic equivalent hours per week. In both models the home province of the student respondent was used as the cluster variable, and demographic and behavioral covariates, such as age, gender, smoking history, household registration status (urban vs. rural), the perceived smog frequency in their home towns, and the asthma diagnosis. Results: The logistic regression of consciously avoiding SHS shows that a higher level of mindfulness was associated with an increase in the odds ratio of conscious SHS avoidance (logged odds: 0.22, standard error: 0.07, p < 0.01). The Tobit regression shows that a higher level of mindfulness was associated with more metabolic equivalent hours per week (Tobit coefficient: 4.09, standard error: 1.13, p < 0.001). Discussion: This study is an innovative attempt to study the behavioral issue of secondhand smoke from the perspective of the potential victim, rather than the active smoker. The observed associational patterns here are consistent with previous findings that mindfulness is associated with healthier behaviors in obesity prevention and substance use. Research designs with interventions are needed to test the causal link between mindfulness and these healthy behaviors. PMID:26308029

  14. Effect of width and boundary conditions on meeting maneuvers on two-way separated cycle tracks.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alfredo; Gomez, Fernando Agustin; Llorca, Carlos; Angel-Domenech, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Cycle track design guidelines are rarely based on scientific studies. In the case of off-road two-way cycle tracks, a minimum width must facilitate both passing and meeting maneuvers, being meeting maneuvers the most frequent. This study developed a methodology to observe meeting maneuvers using an instrumented bicycle, equipped with video cameras, a GPS tracker, laser rangefinders and speed sensors. This bicycle collected data on six two-way cycle tracks ranging 1.3-2.15m width delimitated by different boundary conditions. The meeting maneuvers between the instrumented bicycle and every oncoming bicycle were characterized by the meeting clearance between the two bicycles, the speed of opposing bicycle and the reaction of the opposing rider: change in trajectory, stop pedaling or braking. The results showed that meeting clearance increased with the cycle track width and decreased if the cycle track had lateral obstacles, especially if they were higher than the bicycle handlebar. The speed of opposing bicycle shown the same tendency, although were more disperse. Opposing cyclists performed more reaction maneuvers on narrower cycle tracks and on cycle tracks with lateral obstacles to the handlebar height. Conclusions suggested avoiding cycle tracks narrower than 1.6m, as they present lower meeting clearances, lower bicycle speeds and frequent reaction maneuvers. PMID:25779982

  15. An investigation of two-way text messaging use with deaf students at the secondary level.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, C Tane; Mayer, Connie; Farrelly, Shona

    2006-01-01

    Deaf and hard-of-hearing students are often delayed in developing their independent living skills because of parental restrictions on activities outside the home due to worries about their child's inability to communicate, their whereabouts, and their general safety. Recent accounts of the use of two-way text messagers suggests that, like electronic mail, distance communication problems that have long plagued deaf people may be ameliorated--by the use of such technology (M. R. Power & D. Power, 2004; S. S. Rhone & Cox News Service, 2002). This project was designed as an initial foray into investigating the use of two-way text messaging technology as a way of increasing the independence of deaf adolescents and reducing their parents' anxiety about their safety and responsibility. All the deaf and hard-of-hearing students in the deaf and hard-of-hearing programs at two urban high schools (ages 13-19), the staff of the deaf departments at these two schools, and the parents/guardians of the students participated in this study. Preuse surveys, postuse surveys, and monthly statistics on the number of times each pager was used enabled us to chart how often the participants used the technology. The data were used to identify concerns that parents have about student independence and safety, the extent to which deaf students engage in independent activities, and expectations surrounding how two-way text messaging use might increase independence and literacy skills. The data collected on this project to date confirm that two-way text messaging technology is indeed useful for deaf adolescents and helps alleviate some of the concerns that have kept them from developing independence as quickly or readily as their hearing peers. The potential policy implications for this research are discussed. PMID:16237186

  16. Active resistive wall mode and plasma rotation control for disruption avoidance in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, S. A.; Berkery, J. W.; Bialek, J. M.; Park, Y. S.; Bell, R. E.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Goumiri, I.

    2013-10-01

    NSTX has produced high beta plasmas at levels needed for future ST devices. Research turns to understanding how the disruption probability due to global MHD and resistive wall modes (RWM) can be reduced to very low levels. Analysis of present data supports a multi-layered approach including rotation and current profile control for instability avoidance, and active mode control. Experiments using MHD spectroscopy show a decrease in measured n = 1 mode stability as the marginal point is approached, with stability increasing when ?N/li >10. Experimental results are consistent with the theory that stabilizing kinetic effects can be enhanced at lower collisionality, ?, and that instability can be avoided by steering the rotation profile toward ion precession drift resonance. The database of plasmas using neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) to alter the rotation profile is further analyzed to understand the dependence on key parameters, including ?, for use in active instability avoidance. Results from the active RWM state-space controller used in plasmas exceeding ?N = 6.4 and ?N /li = 13 are analyzed to determine improvements based on 3D effects. VALEN-3D analysis shows that RWM control is possible near the ideal with-wall stability limit with a planned internal control coil upgrade and proper sensor positioning. Supported by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER54524.

  17. Physical activity in patients with venous leg ulcer – between engagement and avoidance. A patient perspective

    PubMed Central

    Biguet, Gabriele; Elfving, Britt

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify and describe the qualitative variations in how physical activity is perceived and understood by individuals with current or previous venous leg ulcer. Design: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Method: Twenty-two individuals aged 60–85 years were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by three researchers using a phenomenographic research approach. A set of categories of descriptions and their internal relationships were constructed based on the essential features of the variation in patients’ perceptions of physical activity. Results: Four categories of descriptions were identified: (i) ‘self-management’, (ii) ‘instructions and support’, (iii) ‘fear of injury’ and (iv) ‘a wish to stay normal’. The categories could be interpreted by a two-dimensional construct: (1) perception of venous leg ulcer as a chronic or acute condition and (2) engagement or avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. Chronicity and behaviour combined together formed a 2 × 2 square housing the four qualitatively different categories. Irrespective of category, the participants reported that information given by caregivers regarding leg ulcer and physical activity was insufficient or contradictory. Written information or exercise programmes were not obtained regularly and not at all in primary care. Conclusion: A dichotomous view emerged from participants’ experiences of physical activity based on (1) perception of venous leg ulcer as a chronic or acute condition and (2) engagement or avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. PMID:21148268

  18. Hooked: The Two Way Seduction of Working with Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sally

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses strategies for differentiating the curriculum for gifted students by using a creative approach to language teaching. It provides suggestions for co-operative and creative classroom language activities, including making a syllable pie, starting a dictionary of sub-cult words, cryptic crosswords, poetry, and tracing language

  19. Language Universals and Misidentification: A Two-Way Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris; Lennertz, Tracy; Balaban, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Certain ill-formed phonological structures are systematically under-represented across languages and misidentified by human listeners. It is currently unclear whether this results from grammatical phonological knowledge that actively recodes ill-formed structures, or from difficulty with their phonetic encoding. To examine this question, we gauge

  20. Two ways fungal spores can affect cotton color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a long time, we have observed that cotton can undergo color change when moisture conditions of the cotton sample would not be expected to support bacterial activity which normally requires free water. Several fungi can grow under low moisture pressures. It has been speculated that the spores p...

  1. Two-Way Radio in Schools (or, The Loneliness of the Long Distance Learner). An Evaluation of a High Frequency Short Wave, Two-Way Radio Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conboy, Ian

    The Country Education Project in Victoria, Australia, tested the use of two-way radios to bring educational resources to isolated children studying correspondence courses in small rural high schools and to increase interaction among rural schools. Eight rural Victoria schools and the Secondary Correspondence School in Melbourne used two-way

  2. Two-way communication and analysis program on LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Community workshops, field visits, telephone surveys, and other research reveals that professionals at the substate level are interested in and open to consideration of LANDSAT as a planning and resource management tool, but are at the same time skeptical about some of the inherent problems with LANDSAT such as cost, resolution, frequency of coverage, and data continuity. The principal requirements for increasing the utilization of LANDSAT by potential substate users were identified and documented. Without a committment from the Federal Government for increased substrate utilization and the availability of trained professionals to meet the needs of a largely new user community, substrate activity is likely to remain at a minimum. Well conceived and well executed demonstration projects could play a critical role is shaping the technology's ability to be more sensitive to substate user needs and interests as well as validating the effectiveness of this data to a skeptical audience.

  3. Petrographic evidence shows that pottery exchange between the Olmec and their neighbors was two-way

    PubMed Central

    Stoltman, James B.; Marcus, Joyce; Flannery, Kent V.; Burton, James H.; Moyle, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    Petrographic thin sections of pottery from five Formative Mexican archaeological sites show that exchanges of vessels between highland and lowland chiefly centers were reciprocal, or two-way. These analyses contradict recent claims that the Gulf Coast was the sole source of pottery carved with iconographic motifs. Those claims were based on neutron activation, which, by relying on chemical elements rather than actual minerals, has important limitations in its ability to identify nonlocal pottery from within large data sets. Petrography shows that the ceramics in question (and hence their carved motifs) have multiple origins and were widely traded. PMID:16061796

  4. 47 CFR 22.561 - Channels for one-way or two-way mobile operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels for one-way or two-way mobile... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service One-Way Or Two-Way Mobile Operation § 22.561 Channels for one-way or two-way mobile operation. The following channels are...

  5. 47 CFR 22.561 - Channels for one-way or two-way mobile operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for one-way or two-way mobile... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service One-Way Or Two-Way Mobile Operation § 22.561 Channels for one-way or two-way mobile operation. The following channels are...

  6. 47 CFR 22.561 - Channels for one-way or two-way mobile operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channels for one-way or two-way mobile... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service One-Way Or Two-Way Mobile Operation 22.561 Channels for one-way or two-way mobile operation. The following channels are...

  7. 47 CFR 22.561 - Channels for one-way or two-way mobile operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channels for one-way or two-way mobile... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service One-Way Or Two-Way Mobile Operation 22.561 Channels for one-way or two-way mobile operation. The following channels are...

  8. 47 CFR 22.561 - Channels for one-way or two-way mobile operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channels for one-way or two-way mobile... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service One-Way Or Two-Way Mobile Operation 22.561 Channels for one-way or two-way mobile operation. The following channels are...

  9. Profiles in Two-Way Immersion Education. Language in Education: Theory and Practice 89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Donna; And Others

    This monograph discusses issues in the design and implementation of two-way immersion, or two-way bilingual education programs, and describes three exemplary programs. An introductory section examines briefly the rationale for two-way immersion and the extent of its use in the United States. Three school program profiles follow: (1) Francis Scott

  10. 14 CFR 91.185 - IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false IFR operations: Two-way radio... RULES Flight Rules Instrument Flight Rules § 91.185 IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each pilot who has two-way radio...

  11. 14 CFR 91.185 - IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IFR operations: Two-way radio... RULES Flight Rules Instrument Flight Rules § 91.185 IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each pilot who has two-way radio...

  12. 14 CFR 91.185 - IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IFR operations: Two-way radio... RULES Flight Rules Instrument Flight Rules § 91.185 IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each pilot who has two-way radio...

  13. 14 CFR 91.185 - IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IFR operations: Two-way radio... RULES Flight Rules Instrument Flight Rules § 91.185 IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each pilot who has two-way radio...

  14. 14 CFR 91.185 - IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IFR operations: Two-way radio... RULES Flight Rules Instrument Flight Rules § 91.185 IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each pilot who has two-way radio...

  15. Requirement of Dopamine Signaling in the Amygdala and Striatum for Learning and Maintenance of a Conditioned Avoidance Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvas, Martin; Fadok, Jonathan P.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Two-way active avoidance (2WAA) involves learning Pavlovian (association of a sound cue with a foot shock) and instrumental (shock avoidance) contingencies. To identify regions where dopamine (DA) is involved in mediating 2WAA, we restored DA signaling in specific brain areas of dopamine-deficient (DD) mice by local reactivation of conditionally

  16. Requirement of Dopamine Signaling in the Amygdala and Striatum for Learning and Maintenance of a Conditioned Avoidance Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvas, Martin; Fadok, Jonathan P.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Two-way active avoidance (2WAA) involves learning Pavlovian (association of a sound cue with a foot shock) and instrumental (shock avoidance) contingencies. To identify regions where dopamine (DA) is involved in mediating 2WAA, we restored DA signaling in specific brain areas of dopamine-deficient (DD) mice by local reactivation of conditionally…

  17. Two-way Shape Memory Effect of NiTi under Compressive Loading Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Young Ik; Lee, Jung Ju

    In this study, the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) of a Ni-54.5 at.% Ti alloy was investigated experimentally to develop a NiTi linear actuator. The two-way shape memory effect was induced through a compressive shape memory cycle composed of four steps: (1) loading to maximum deformation; (2) unloading; (3) heating; (4) and cooling. Six types of specimens (one solid cylindrical and five tubular) were used to obtain the twoway shape memory strain and two-way recovery stress and to evaluate the actuating capacity. The two-way actuating strain showed a convergent tendency after several training cycles for the same maximum deformation. A maximum value of the two-way strain was obtained for 7% of maximum deformation, independently of the geometry of the tubular specimens. The two-way strains obtained by the shape memory cycles and two-way recovery stress linearly increase as a function of the maximum deformation and the two-way strain, respectively, and the geometry of specimen affects the two-way recovery stress. Although the results show that sufficient recovery stress can be generated by either the two-way shape memory process or by the one-way shape memory process, the two-way shape memory process can be applied more conveniently to actuating applications.

  18. Remote Maneuver of Space Debris Using Photon Pressure for Active Collision Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.

    2014-09-01

    The Space Environment Research Corporation (SERC) is a consortium of companies and research institutions that have joined together to pursue research and development of technologies and capabilities that will help to preserve the orbital space environment. The consortium includes, Electro Optics Systems (Australia), Lockheed Martin Australia, Optus Satellite Systems (Australia), The Australian national University, RMIT University, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT, Japan) as well as affiliates from NASA Ames and ESA. SERC is also the recipient of and Australian Government Cooperative Research Centre grant. SERC will pursue a wide ranging research program including technologies to improve tracking capability and capacity, orbit determination and propagation algorithms, conjunction analysis and collision avoidance. All of these technologies will contribute to the flagship program to demonstrate active collision avoidance using photon pressure to provide remote maneuver of space debris. This project joins of the proposed NASA Lightforce concept with infrastructure and capabilities provided by SERC. This paper will describe the proposed research and development program to provide an on-orbit demonstration within the next five years for remote maneuver of space debris.

  19. Behavioral effects of cocoa and its main active compound theobromine: evaluation by ambulatory activity and discrete avoidance in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuribara, H; Tadokoro, S

    1992-04-01

    Effects of cocoa and its main CNS active constituent methylxanthine theobromine as well as caffeine were evaluated by ambulatory activity, and discrete lever-press and shuttle avoidance in mice. Cocoa (1 g/kg p.o.) and theobromine (10 mg/kg p.o.) significantly increased ambulatory activity. However, the other doses of cocoa and theobromine had no effect on the ambulatory activity. Caffeine increased ambulatory activity with the maximum action at 30 mg/kg p.o. Furthermore, cocoa (0.1, 0.3 and 1 g/kg), theobromine (3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) and caffeine (3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) enhanced the ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine (2 mg/kg s.c.). The ambulation-increasing effect of cocaine (20 mg/kg s.c.) was also enhanced by cocoa (1 g/kg), theobromine (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) and caffeine (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg). On the other hand, comparatively higher doses of theobromine and caffeine disrupted the well established avoidance response. Thus, the avoidance rate was significantly decreased by theobromine (100 mg/kg and more) and caffeine (30 mg/kg and more) under the lever-press situation, and by theobromine (100 mg/kg and more) and caffeine (100 mg/kg) under the shuttle situation. These dose effect relationships revealed that cocoa contains about 1% theobromine. The present results indicate that we may receive the CNS action of theobromine through consumption of theobromine-containing foodstuffs or beverages in our every day life. PMID:1586288

  20. Active faults crossing trunk pipeline routes: some important steps to avoid the disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besstrashnov, Vladimir; Strom, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Trunk pipelines that pass through tectonically active areas connecting oil and gas reservoirs with terminals and refineries cross active faults that can produce large earthquakes. Besides strong motion affecting vast areas, these earthquakes are often associated with surface faulting that provides additional hazard to pipelines. To avoid significant economic losses and environmental pollution, pipelines should be designed to sustain both effects (shaking and direct rupturing) without pipe damage and spill. Special studies aimed to provide necessary input data for the designers should be performed in the course of engineering survey. However, our experience on conducting and review of such studies for several oil and gas trunk pipelines in Russia show urgent need of more strict definition of basic conceptions and approaches used for identification and localization of these potentially hazardous tectonic features. Identification of active faults (fault zones) considered as causative faults - sources of strong motion caused by seismic waves that affect dozens kilometers of pipeline route can be done by use of both direct and indirect evidence of Late Pleistocene - Holocene activity of faults and fault zones. Since strong motion parameters can be considered as constant within the near-field zone, which width in case of large earthquake is up to dozens kilometers, accuracy of active fault location is not so critical and ±1-2 km precision provided by use of indirect evidence is acceptable. In contrast, if one have to identify and characterize zones of potential surface rupturing that require special design of the endangered pipeline section, only direct evidence of such activity can provide reliable input data for crossing design with relevant accuracy of fault location, amount and direction of displacement. Only traces of surface faults displacing Late Pleistocene - Holocene sediments and/or geomorphic features are considered as direct evidence of fault activity. Just these data allow selection of really hazardous features that require special measures to ensure pipeline safety among numerous faults that cross pipeline routes hundreds to thousands kilometers long.

  1. Meaning Making and Translanguaging in a Two-Way Dual-Language Program on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquinca, Alberto; Araujo, Blanca; de la Piedra, Mara Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes meaning-making practices in a two-way dual-language (TWDL) program on the U.S.-Mexico border among "transfronterizo" and Mexican-origin youth. In the article, we show that emergent bilingual learners and their teacher participate in activities that mediate understanding of science content knowledge. We show how the

  2. Escape from harm: linking affective vision and motor responses during active avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    When organisms confront unpleasant objects in their natural environments, they engage in behaviors that allow them to avoid aversive outcomes. Here, we linked visual processing of threat to its behavioral consequences by including a motor response that terminated exposure to an aversive event. Dense-array steady-state visual evoked potentials were recorded in response to conditioned threat and safety signals viewed in active or passive behavioral contexts. The amplitude of neuronal responses in visual cortex increased additively, as a function of emotional value and action relevance. The gain in local cortical population activity for threat relative to safety cues persisted when aversive reinforcement was behaviorally terminated, suggesting a lingering emotionally based response amplification within the visual system. Distinct patterns of long-range neural synchrony emerged between the visual cortex and extravisual regions. Increased coupling between visual and higher-order structures was observed specifically during active perception of threat, consistent with a reorganization of neuronal populations involved in linking sensory processing to action preparation. PMID:24493849

  3. The Risk Avoidance Partnership: Training Active Drug Users as Peer Health Advocates

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Mosack, Katie E.; Convey, Mark; Martinez, Maria; Clair, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Efforts have expanded to create AIDS prevention programs for drug users that consider the social context and interpersonal relationships within which risky practices take place. The Risk Avoidance Partnership (RAP) project is designed to train active drug users as Peer/Public Health Advocates (PHAs) to bring a structured, peer-led intervention into the sites where they and their drug-using social networks use illicit drugs. The RAP Peer Health Advocacy training curriculum and peer-led intervention promote harm reduction among drug users and support drug-user organization to reduce infectious disease and other harm in the context of injection drug use, crack cocaine use, and sexual activity. Initial findings suggest that RAP PHAs perceive a significant positive role change in themselves while conducting health advocacy work, and willingly and successfully carry the peer-led intervention into locations of high-risk drug activity to deliver it to their peers even in the absence of project staff support. PMID:19337568

  4. Calorimetric investigation of a Cu-Zn-Al alloy with two way shape memory

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, H.; Tan, S.

    1995-09-01

    One way an two way shape memory alloy of Cu-21%zn-6%Al (wt%) were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The profile of endothermic and exothermic peaks of one way shape memory alloy are different from those of two way shape memory alloy. The former show smooth peaks while the other show bumpy peaks. Besides, the heat of martensitic transformation of two way shape memory alloy is about 25% less than that of one way shape memory alloy.

  5. Heterogeneity in signaled active avoidance learning: substantive and methodological relevance of diversity in instrumental defensive responses to threat cues

    PubMed Central

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Moscarello, Justin; Blessing, Esther M.; Klein, JoAnna; Cain, Christopher K.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals exposed to traumatic stressors follow divergent patterns including resilience and chronic stress. However, researchers utilizing animal models that examine learned or instrumental threat responses thought to have translational relevance for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and resilience typically use central tendency statistics that assume population homogeneity. This approach potentially overlooks fundamental differences that can explain human diversity in response to traumatic stressors. The current study tests this assumption by identifying and replicating common heterogeneous patterns of response to signaled active avoidance (AA) training. In this paradigm, rats are trained to prevent an aversive outcome (shock) by performing a learned instrumental behavior (shuttling between chambers) during the presentation of a conditioned threat cue (tone). We test the hypothesis that heterogeneous trajectories of threat avoidance provide more accurate model fit compared to a single mean trajectory in two separate studies. Study 1 conducted 3 days of signaled AA training (n = 81 animals) and study 2 conducted 5 days of training (n = 186 animals). We found that four trajectories in both samples provided the strongest model fit. Identified populations included animals that acquired and retained avoidance behavior on the first day (Rapid Avoiders: 22 and 25%); those who never successfully acquired avoidance (Non-Avoiders; 20 and 16%); a modal class who acquired avoidance over 3 days (Modal Avoiders; 37 and 50%); and a population who demonstrated a slow pattern of avoidance, failed to fully acquire avoidance in study 1 and did acquire avoidance on days 4 and 5 in study 2 (Slow Avoiders; 22.0 and 9%). With the exception of the Slow Avoiders in Study 1, populations that acquired demonstrated rapid step-like increases leading to asymptotic levels of avoidance. These findings indicate that avoidance responses are heterogeneous in a way that may be informative for understanding both resilience and PTSD as well as the nature of instrumental behavior acquisition. Characterizing heterogeneous populations based on their response to threat cues would increase the accuracy and translatability of such models and potentially lead to new discoveries that explain diversity in instrumental defensive responses. PMID:25309354

  6. Mutual research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study of two-way partnerships in public health research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Capacity building has been employed in international health and development sectors to describe the process of experts from more resourced countries training people in less resourced countries. Hence the concept has an implicit power imbalance based on expert knowledge. In 2011, a health research strengthening workshop was undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands to further strengthen research skills of the Hospital and College of Nursing staff and East Kwaio community leaders through partnering in practical research projects. The workshop was based on participatory research frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies, which sought to challenge historical power imbalances and inequities. Our research question was, Is research capacity strengthening a two-way process? Methods In this qualitative study, five Solomon Islanders and five Australians each responded to four open-ended questions about their experience of the research capacity strengthening workshop and activities: five chose face to face interview, five chose to provide written responses. Written responses and interview transcripts were inductively analysed in NVivo 9. Results Six major themes emerged. These were: Respectful relationships; Increased knowledge and experience with research process; Participation at all stages in the research process; Contribution to public health action; Support and sustain research opportunities; and Managing challenges of capacity strengthening. All researchers identified benefits for themselves, their institution and/or community, regardless of their role or country of origin, indicating that the capacity strengthening had been a two-way process. Conclusions The flexible and responsive process we used to strengthen research capacity was identified as mutually beneficial. Using community-based participatory frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies is assisting to redress historical power imbalances and inequities and is helping to sustain the initial steps taken to establish a local research agenda at Atoifi Hospital. It is our experience that embedding mutuality throughout the research capacity strengthening process has had great benefit and may also benefit researchers from more resourced and less resourced countries wanting to partner in research capacity strengthening activities. PMID:23249439

  7. 33 CFR 167.173 - Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic Route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic Route. 167.173 Section 167.173 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.173 Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way...

  8. An Experimental Two-Way Video Teletraining System: Design, Development and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Henry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the design, development, and evaluation of an experimental two-way video teletraining (VTT) system by the Navy that consisted of two classrooms linked by a land line to enable two-way audio/video communication. Trends in communication and computer technology for training are described, and a cost analysis is included. (12 references)…

  9. An Experimental Two-Way Video Teletraining System: Design, Development and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Henry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the design, development, and evaluation of an experimental two-way video teletraining (VTT) system by the Navy that consisted of two classrooms linked by a land line to enable two-way audio/video communication. Trends in communication and computer technology for training are described, and a cost analysis is included. (12 references)

  10. 77 FR 58579 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Institution...-way global satellite communication devices, system and components thereof by reason of infringement of... after importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and...

  11. Functional brain activation during retrieval of visceral pain-conditioned passive avoidance in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Bradesi, Sylvie; Charles, Jonathan R; Pang, Raina D; Maarek, Jean-Michel I; Mayer, Emeran A; Holschneider, Daniel P

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed functional brain activation in rats during expectation of visceral pain. Male rats were trained in step-down passive avoidance (PA) for 2 days. Upon stepping down from a platform, conditioned animals received noxious colorectal distension delivered through a colorectal balloon, whereas the balloon in control rats remained uninflated. On day 3, PA behavior was assessed while [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine was infused intravenously, followed by immediate euthanasia. Regional cerebral blood flow-related tissue radioactivity (rCBF) was analyzed by statistical parametric mapping using 3-dimensional brains reconstructed from autoradiographic brain slice images. Associated with retrieved PA behavior, conditioned rats compared with control subjects showed increases in rCBF in sensory (anterior insula, somatosensory cortex), limbic/paralimbic regions (anterior cingulate, prelimbic cortex, amygdala), all regions previously reported to show activation during acute visceral pain. Increases in rCBF were also noted in the dorsal hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and caudate putamen, regions associated with retrieval of PA. Organization of the underlying brain network was further delineated by functional connectivity analysis. This revealed in conditioned rats a strongly and positively connected corticostriatal cluster (cingulate, prelimbic cortex, caudate putamen). The amygdala and cerebellar hemispheres formed another positively connected cluster, which was negatively connected with the corticostriatal cluster, suggesting corticolimbic modulation. Prelimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens, and anterior insula emerged in conditioned animals as hubs. Our results show that during retrieval of PA, brain areas implicated in PA expression as well as those implicated in acute visceral pain processing were recruited, in line with findings from human brain imaging studies on pain expectation. PMID:21944154

  12. Variability in emotional responsiveness and coping style during active avoidance as a window onto psychological vulnerability to stress.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Adam X; LaBar, Kevin S; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-05-01

    Individual differences in coping styles are associated with psychological vulnerability to stress. Recent animal research suggests that coping styles reflect trade-offs between proactive and reactive threat responses during active avoidance paradigms, with proactive responses associated with better stress tolerance. Based on these preclinical findings, we developed a novel instructed active avoidance paradigm to characterize patterns of proactive and reactive responses using behavioral, motoric, and autonomic measures in humans. Analyses revealed significant inter-individual variability not only in the magnitude of general emotional responsiveness but also the likelihood to specifically express proactive or reactive responses. In men but not women, individual differences in general emotional responsiveness were linked to increased trait anxiety while proactive coping style was linked to increased trait aggression. These patterns are consistent with preclinical findings and suggest that instructed active avoidance paradigms may be useful in assessing psychological vulnerability to stress using objective behavioral measures. PMID:26922874

  13. Behavioral evaluation of psycho-pharmacological and psychotoxic actions of methylxanthines by ambulatory activity and discrete avoidance in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuribara, H; Asahi, T; Tadokoro, S

    1992-05-01

    The behavioral effects of methylxanthines, caffeine, theophylline and theobromine, were compared by means of ambulatory activity and discrete lever-press avoidance response in mice. The single oral administration of 10-100 mg/kg of caffeine, 30-300 mg/kg of theophylline, and 10 mg/kg of theobromine significantly increased the mouse's ambulatory activity. However, 1000 mg/kg of theobromine decreased the activity. The ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine (2 mg/kg s.c.) was enhanced by coadministration with caffeine (3-100 mg/kg), theophylline (10-300 mg/kg), and theobromine (10-100 mg/kg). On the other hand, comparatively higher doses of caffeine (up to 30 mg/kg) slightly but significantly decreased the avoidance rate without eliciting any significant change in the response rate. Theobromine significantly decreased the response rate at higher than 300 mg/kg, and the avoidance rate at higher than 100 mg/kg. Furthermore, 1000 mg/kg of theobromine was much toxic for mice, i.e., half mice died within a few hr after the end of the 1-hr avoidance session. Theophylline did not produce any significant change in the avoidance response at the dose range of 3-300 mg/kg. These results may indicate the relative order of the centrally stimulant and/or behavioral toxic actions of methylxanthines in human. PMID:1507275

  14. Performance Improvement of Two-way Quantum Key Distribution by Using a Heralded Noiseless Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chenyang; Miao, Ruihang; Gong, Xinbao; Guo, Ying; He, Guangqiang

    2015-11-01

    We show the successful use of a heralded noiseless linear amplifier on the detection stage in the two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution to improve the performance. Due to the excess noise, the secret-key rate of the two-way protocol becomes negative for a certain distance of transmission. The use of a heralded noiseless linear amplifier increases this distance by the equivalent of 20 log10 g dB of losses, and it also helps the two-way protocol tolerate more excess noise.

  15. Active avoidance from a crude oil soluble fraction by an Andean paramo copepod.

    PubMed

    Arajo, Cristiano V M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, Jos P; Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Encalada, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2014-09-01

    Several oil spills due to ruptures in the pipeline oil systems have occurred at the Andean paramo. A sample of this crude oil was mixed with water from a nearby Andean lagoon and the toxicity of the soluble fraction was assessed through lethal and avoidance assays with a locally occurring copepod (Boeckella occidentalis intermedia). The integration of mortality and avoidance aimed at predicting the immediate decline of copepod populations facing an oil leakage. The 24-h median lethal PAH concentration was 42.7 (26.4-91.6) g L(-1). In the 12-h avoidance assay, 30% avoidance was recorded at the highest PAH concentration (19.4 g L(-1)). The mortality at this PAH concentration would be of 25% and, thus, the population immediate decline would be of 55%. The inclusion of non-forced exposure testing with the quantification of the avoidance response in environmental risk assessments is, therefore, supported due to underestimation of the lethal assays. PMID:24898412

  16. A model of two-way selection system for human behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Qin, Shujia; Han, Xiao-Pu; He, Zhe; Xie, Jia-Rong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Two-way selection is a common phenomenon in nature and society. It appears in the processes like choosing a mate between men and women, making contracts between job hunters and recruiters, and trading between buyers and sellers. In this paper, we propose a model of two-way selection system, and present its analytical solution for the expectation of successful matching total and the regular pattern that the matching rate trends toward an inverse proportion to either the ratio between the two sides or the ratio of the state total to the smaller group's people number. The proposed model is verified by empirical data of the matchmaking fairs. Results indicate that the model well predicts this typical real-world two-way selection behavior to the bounded error extent, thus it is helpful for understanding the dynamics mechanism of the real-world two-way selection system. PMID:24454687

  17. A Model of Two-Way Selection System for Human Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin; Qin, Shujia; Han, Xiao-Pu; He, Zhe; Xie, Jia-Rong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Two-way selection is a common phenomenon in nature and society. It appears in the processes like choosing a mate between men and women, making contracts between job hunters and recruiters, and trading between buyers and sellers. In this paper, we propose a model of two-way selection system, and present its analytical solution for the expectation of successful matching total and the regular pattern that the matching rate trends toward an inverse proportion to either the ratio between the two sides or the ratio of the state total to the smaller group's people number. The proposed model is verified by empirical data of the matchmaking fairs. Results indicate that the model well predicts this typical real-world two-way selection behavior to the bounded error extent, thus it is helpful for understanding the dynamics mechanism of the real-world two-way selection system. PMID:24454687

  18. Performance Analysis of Two-Way OFDM Relay Systems with Ordered Subcarrier Pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wendong; Wang, Kaihua; Cai, Yueming; Yang, Weiwei; Tu, Jia

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we first prove the optimality of ordered subcarrier pairing (OSP) in two-way orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) relay systems. The probability distribution function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is then derived for each subcarrier pair of the two-way links over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, we analyze the performance of the systems including outage probability, symbol error rate (SER) and capacity. Monte Carlo simulations validate our analysis.

  19. On the relative performance of one-way and two-way grid nesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lucas M.

    Most mesoscale models can be run with either one-way ("parasitic") or two-way ("interactive") grid nesting. This paper presents results from a linear 1D shallow-water model and from 3D simulations of a multicell thunderstorm and of trapped lee waves to determine whether the choice of nesting method can have a significant impact on the solution. In the shallow-water model, two-way nesting was found to be generally superior to one-way nesting. The increased reflection for longer-wavelength disturbances in the one-way case is due to a phase difference between the coarse- and nested-grid solutions at the nested-grid boundary that accumulates because of the difference in numerical phase speeds between the grids. Reflections for two-way nesting may be estimated from the difference in numerical group velocities between the coarse and nested grids, which only becomes large for waves that are poorly-resolved on the coarse grid. The only situation in which one-way nesting performs better than two-way is when very poorly-resolved waves strike the nest boundary; in these cases, using a filter on the coarse-grid values within the sponge zone of an otherwise conventional sponge boundary condition can greatly reduce the reflections caused by two-way nesting. The results were more equivocal for the 3D simulations. Two-way nesting clearly produced smaller precipitation errors than did one-way nesting in the multicell simulations, due to the lack of mismatch errors between the coarse- and nested-grid solutions in the two-way simulations. In the trapped lee-wave simulations, two-way nesting produced lower overall errors than did one-way nesting when a simple interpolation BC was used, but larger errors when the sponge BC was used.

  20. Graft-induced Recovery of Inhibitory Avoidance Conditioning in Striatal Lesioned Rats is Related to Choline Acetyltransferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pia, Ana Luisa; Ormsby, Christopher Edward; Miranda, Mara Isabel; Jimnez, Nicols; Tapia, Ricardo; Bermdez-Rattoni, Federico

    1994-01-01

    Four groups of male Wistar rats showing disrupted inhibitory avoidance conditioning due to striatal lesions received either striatal or ventral mesencephalic brain grafts. Two additional non-lesioned groups were used as controls. Half of the groups was retrained in an inhibitory avoidance task at fifteen days postgraft and the other half at sixty days postgraft. Those animals receiving striatal grafts significantly improved their ability to acquire the inhibitory avoidance task at fifteen and sixty days postgraft, as opposed to those receiving mesencephalic grafts, which did not show behavioral recovery. Choline acetyltransferase and glutamate decarboxylase activities, as well as dopamine content, were measured in the grafted tissue. Striatal grafts showed levels of choline acetyltransferase activity similar to the control group. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the choline acetyltransferase activity and the behavioral recovery. In contrast, both glutamate decarboxylase activity and dopamine levels were significantly lower in striatal and in mesencephalic grafts, as compared to the controls. These results show that striatal but not mesencephalic grafts can promote the restoration of the ability to acquire an inhibitory avoidance task even at early stages (15 days) of the development of the grafts. The results also suggest that acetylcholine plays an important role in behavioral recovery. PMID:7819369

  1. Can sequential parallel comparison design and two-way enriched design be useful in medical device clinical trials?

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Zhang, Zhiwei; Thompson, Laura; Yang, Ying; Kotz, Richard M; Fang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Sequential parallel comparison design (SPCD) was proposed for trials with high placebo response. In the first stage of SPCD subjects are randomized between placebo and active treatment. In the second stage placebo nonresponders are re-randomized between placebo and active treatment. Data from the population of "all comers" and the subpopulations of placebo nonresponders then combined to yield a single p-value for treatment comparison. Two-way enriched design (TED) is an extension of SPCD where active treatment responders are also re-randomized between placebo and active treatment in Stage 2. This article investigates the potential uses of SPCD and TED in medical device trials. PMID:26368863

  2. Two way assessment of other physical work demands while measuring the whole body vibration magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemessen, Ivo J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2008-03-01

    Direct observation, instead of using self-administered questionnaires might give more reliable and specific information about physical work demands at the workplace. This information is of use in a population already at risk of developing low back pain (LBP) due to whole body vibration (WBV) exposure. The aims of this study are to assess the WBV exposure in an exposed population and to assess other physical work demands in two ways, by direct observation and with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. We therefore assessed the WBV magnitude and 5 WBV-related physical work demands by using the PalmTrac system and a self-administered questionnaire in a group of drivers ( N=10). The main findings are 7 out of 10 drivers are exceeding the EU action value. About 50% of the drivers under-estimated the time 'bending', 60% the time 'walking+standing' and 60% over-estimated the time when 'lifting.' We concluded that 7 drivers from this group are at risk of developing LBP and substantial differences exists for the 5 physical work demands comparing the PalmTrac method with the questionnaire. Direct observational assessment in WBV measurements yields extra information. This is useful for preventive activities necessary as drivers are exceeding the EU action value.

  3. Fear of falling and activity avoidance in a national sample of older adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bertera, Elizabeth M; Bertera, Robert L

    2008-02-01

    This study assesses the relationship between fear of falling and avoidance of nine everyday activities critical to independence among community-dwelling older adults in the United States. Secondary data analysis was performed with National Survey of Self-Care and Aging interview data from 3474 respondents age 65 years or older. Falls were reported by 24 percent of respondents, fear of falling was reported by 22 percent of respondents, and both increased with age. Fear of falling was the most important factor in predicting activity avoidance among older adults; the number of falls experienced increases the impact that fear of falling has on activity avoidance. Other factors were as follows: needing help with activities of daily living and the number of prescriptions taken. Assessments of older individuals should include fear of falling and fall history. Reductions in fear of falling and increases in activity level could provide significant benefits by helping older adults to maintain functioning and the ability to live independently. PMID:18326450

  4. Temporal and spatial strategies in an active place avoidance task on Carousel: a study of effects of stability of arena rotation speed in rats

    PubMed Central

    Stuchlk, Ale

    2015-01-01

    The active place avoidance task is a dry-arena task used to assess spatial navigation and memory in rodents. In this task, a subject is put on a rotating circular arena and avoids an invisible sector that is stable in relation to the room. Rotation of the arena means that the subjects avoidance must be active, otherwise the subject will be moved in the to-be-avoided sector by the rotation of the arena and a slight electric shock will be administered. The present experiment explored the effect of variable arena rotation speed on the ability to avoid the to-be-avoided sector. Subjects in a group with variable arena rotation speed learned to avoid the sector with the same speed and attained the same avoidance ability as rats in a group with a stable arena rotation speed. Only a slight difference in preferred position within the room was found between the two groups. No difference was found between the two groups in the dark phase, where subjects could not use orientation cues in the room. Only one rat was able to learn the avoidance of the to-be-avoided sector in this phase. The results of the experiment suggest that idiothetic orientation and interval timing are not crucial for learning avoidance of the to-be-avoided sector. However, idiothetic orientation might be sufficient for avoiding the sector in the dark. PMID:26417540

  5. Two-way indent depth recovery in a NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yijun; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Grummon, David S.

    2006-03-01

    Controlled reversible changes in surface texture and topography are of interest to many applications, including information storage, optical communication devices, micro-fluidic instruments for drug delivery, and smart tribological surfaces for friction and wear control. Here, we demonstrate a method of inducing two-way reversible changes in an indentation made on the surface of a shape memory NiTi alloy. The two-way indent shape change is accomplished by thermomechanical training of spherical indents in NiTi shape memory alloy. After training, spherical indents exhibit two-way depth recovery: Shallow indent depth at high temperature and deep indent depth at low temperature. The reversible depth change is about 45% of the total indent depth and is stable over many cycles. The reversible depth change can have a wide range of engineering applications.

  6. Two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography against coherent attacks in direct reconciliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottaviani, Carlo; Mancini, Stefano; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    We consider a two-way quantum cryptographic protocol with coherent states assuming direct reconciliation. A detailed security analysis is performed considering a two-mode coherent attack, which represents the residual eavesdropping once the parties have reduced the general attack by applying symmetric random permutations. In this context we provide a general analytical expression for the key rate, discussing the impact of the residual two-mode correlations on the security of the scheme. In particular, we identify the optimal eavesdropping against two-way quantum communication, which is given by a two-mode coherent attack with symmetric and separable correlations.

  7. Unconditional security proof of a deterministic quantum key distribution with a two-way quantum channel

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Hua; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Ma Xiongfeng; Cai Qingyu

    2011-10-15

    In a deterministic quantum key distribution (DQKD) protocol with a two-way quantum channel, Bob sends a qubit to Alice who then encodes a key bit onto the qubit and sends it back to Bob. After measuring the returned qubit, Bob can obtain Alice's key bit immediately, without basis reconciliation. Since an eavesdropper may attack the qubits traveling on either the Bob-Alice channel or the Alice-Bob channel, the security analysis of DQKD protocol with a two-way quantum channel is complicated and its unconditional security has been controversial. This paper presents a security proof of a single-photon four-state DQKD protocol against general attacks.

  8. Active Power Rescheduling for Avoiding Voltage Collapse Using Modified Bare Bones Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, Rajesh; Purey, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    MW-generation rescheduling is being considered for voltage stability improvement under stressed operating condition. At times it can avoid voltage collapse. This paper describes an algorithm for determination of optimum MW-generation participation pattern for static voltage stability margin enhancement. The optimum search direction has been obtained by employing modified bare born particle swarm optimization technique. Optimum search direction is based on maximization of distance to point of collapse in generation space. Developed algorithm has been implemented on a standard 25 bus test system. Results obtained have been compared with those obtained using standard particle swarm optimization.

  9. The two-way relationship between ionospheric outflow and the ring current

    SciTech Connect

    Welling, Daniel T.; Jordanova, Vania Koleva; Glocer, Alex; Toth, Gabor; Liemohn, Michael W.; Weimer, Dan R.

    2015-06-01

    It is now well established that the ionosphere, because it acts as a significant source of plasma, plays a critical role in ring current dynamics. However, because the ring current deposits energy into the ionosphere, the inverse may also be true: the ring current can play a critical role in the dynamics of ionospheric outflow. This study uses a set of coupled, first-principles-based numerical models to test the dependence of ionospheric outflow on ring current-driven region 2 field-aligned currents (FACs). A moderate magnetospheric storm event is modeled with the Space Weather Modeling Framework using a global MHD code (Block Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US), a polar wind model (Polar Wind Outflow Model), and a bounce-averaged kinetic ring current model (ring current atmosphere interaction model with self-consistent magnetic field, RAM-SCB). Initially, each code is two-way coupled to all others except for RAM-SCB, which receives inputs from the other models but is not allowed to feed back pressure into the MHD model. The simulation is repeated with pressure coupling activated, which drives strong pressure gradients and region 2 FACs in BATS-R-US. It is found that the region 2 FACs increase heavy ion outflow by up to 6 times over the non-coupled results. The additional outflow further energizes the ring current, establishing an ionosphere-magnetosphere mass feedback loop. This study further demonstrates that ionospheric outflow is not merely a plasma source for the magnetosphere but an integral part in the nonlinear ionosphere-magnetosphere-ring current system.

  10. The two-way relationship between ionospheric outflow and the ring current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, D. T.; Jordanova, V. K.; Glocer, A.; Toth, G.; Liemohn, M. W.; Weimer, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    It is now well established that the ionosphere, because it acts as a significant source of plasma, plays a critical role in ring current dynamics. However, because the ring current deposits energy into the ionosphere, the inverse may also be true: the ring current can play a critical role in the dynamics of ionospheric outflow. This study uses a set of coupled, first-principles-based numerical models to test the dependence of ionospheric outflow on ring current-driven region 2 field-aligned currents (FACs). A moderate magnetospheric storm event is modeled with the Space Weather Modeling Framework using a global MHD code (Block Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US), a polar wind model (Polar Wind Outflow Model), and a bounce-averaged kinetic ring current model (ring current atmosphere interaction model with self-consistent magnetic field, RAM-SCB). Initially, each code is two-way coupled to all others except for RAM-SCB, which receives inputs from the other models but is not allowed to feed back pressure into the MHD model. The simulation is repeated with pressure coupling activated, which drives strong pressure gradients and region 2 FACs in BATS-R-US. It is found that the region 2 FACs increase heavy ion outflow by up to 6 times over the noncoupled results. The additional outflow further energizes the ring current, establishing an ionosphere-magnetosphere mass feedback loop. This study further demonstrates that ionospheric outflow is not merely a plasma source for the magnetosphere but an integral part in the nonlinear ionosphere-magnetosphere-ring current system.

  11. The two-way relationship between ionospheric outflow and the ring current

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Welling, Daniel T.; Jordanova, Vania Koleva; Glocer, Alex; Toth, Gabor; Liemohn, Michael W.; Weimer, Dan R.

    2015-06-01

    It is now well established that the ionosphere, because it acts as a significant source of plasma, plays a critical role in ring current dynamics. However, because the ring current deposits energy into the ionosphere, the inverse may also be true: the ring current can play a critical role in the dynamics of ionospheric outflow. This study uses a set of coupled, first-principles-based numerical models to test the dependence of ionospheric outflow on ring current-driven region 2 field-aligned currents (FACs). A moderate magnetospheric storm event is modeled with the Space Weather Modeling Framework using a global MHD code (Block Adaptivemore » Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US), a polar wind model (Polar Wind Outflow Model), and a bounce-averaged kinetic ring current model (ring current atmosphere interaction model with self-consistent magnetic field, RAM-SCB). Initially, each code is two-way coupled to all others except for RAM-SCB, which receives inputs from the other models but is not allowed to feed back pressure into the MHD model. The simulation is repeated with pressure coupling activated, which drives strong pressure gradients and region 2 FACs in BATS-R-US. It is found that the region 2 FACs increase heavy ion outflow by up to 6 times over the non-coupled results. The additional outflow further energizes the ring current, establishing an ionosphere-magnetosphere mass feedback loop. This study further demonstrates that ionospheric outflow is not merely a plasma source for the magnetosphere but an integral part in the nonlinear ionosphere-magnetosphere-ring current system.« less

  12. General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks.

  13. A Two Way Approach to Understanding: Issues in Global Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Rick, Comp.; Petrie, Jim, Comp.

    By focusing on issues, global education provides students with a better understanding of the country and the world in which they live. The issues approach stresses that global education is a two-way approach to understanding: it is both a way of teaching and a way of learning. This book provides resources for the teacher who has decided to teach

  14. Portable Wireless LAN Device and Two-way Radio Threat Assessment for Aircraft Navigation Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Smith, Laura J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2003-01-01

    Measurement processes, data and analysis are provided to address the concern for Wireless Local Area Network devices and two-way radios to cause electromagnetic interference to aircraft navigation radio systems. A radiated emission measurement process is developed and spurious radiated emissions from various devices are characterized using reverberation chambers. Spurious radiated emissions in aircraft radio frequency bands from several wireless network devices are compared with baseline emissions from standard computer laptops and personal digital assistants. In addition, spurious radiated emission data in aircraft radio frequency bands from seven pairs of two-way radios are provided, A description of the measurement process, device modes of operation and the measurement results are reported. Aircraft interference path loss measurements were conducted on four Boeing 747 and Boeing 737 aircraft for several aircraft radio systems. The measurement approach is described and the path loss results are compared with existing data from reference documents, standards, and NASA partnerships. In-band on-channel interference thresholds are compiled from an existing reference document. Using these data, a risk assessment is provided for interference from wireless network devices and two-way radios to aircraft systems, including Localizer, Glideslope, Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range, Microwave Landing System and Global Positioning System. The report compares the interference risks associated with emissions from wireless network devices and two-way radios against standard laptops and personal digital assistants. Existing receiver interference threshold references are identified as to require more data for better interference risk assessments.

  15. Two-Way Bilingual Education: Students Learning through Two Languages. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Donna; Montone, Chris; Carranza, Isolda; Lindholm, Kathryn; Proctor, Patrick

    The report presents results of a study of elementary and secondary school two-way bilingual immersion programs that focused on the program and contextual factors affecting student learning, student and teacher language use in the classroom, and teaching strategies used to promote target language use and increase language proficiency. The study

  16. General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks. PMID:26928053

  17. General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks. PMID:26928053

  18. Considerations for the Optimal Design of a Two-Way Interactive Distance Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Joe; Persichitte, Kay

    To make effective use of a two-way interactive distance education system, classroom design should be a primary consideration. A properly designed classroom will enhance content objectives and increase acceptance of this type of instructional delivery. This paper describes key considerations for optimal design. Construction considerations include

  19. The Florida Teletraining Project: Military Training via Two-Way Compressed Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramble, William J.; Martin, Barbara L.

    1995-01-01

    The Florida Teletraining Project tested the feasibility of using community colleges for training military personnel in the Reserve Components. Five interactive video courses were produced, delivered, and evaluated. The project demonstrated the potential of two-way video teletraining for military personnel. (AEF)

  20. Integration in Two-Way Immersion Education: Equalising Linguistic Benefits for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Ester; Howard, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    As bilingual enrichment programmes that integrate language majority and language minority students, two-way immersion (TWI) programmes have the potential to overcome the harmful effects of segregation and remedial education that are the frequent byproducts of educational programmes for native speakers of languages other than English.

  1. Two-way AIC: detection of differentially expressed genes from large scale microarray meta-dataset

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Detection of significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from DNA microarray datasets is a common routine task conducted in biomedical research. For the detection of DEGs, numerous methods are proposed. By such conventional methods, generally, DEGs are detected from one dataset consisting of group of control and treatment. However, some DEGs are easily to be detected in any experimental condition. For the detection of much experiment condition specific DEGs, each measurement value of gene expression levels should be compared in two dimensional ways, or both with other genes and other datasets simultaneously. For this purpose, we retrieve the gene expression data from public database as possible and construct "meta-dataset" which summarize expression change of all genes in various experimental condition. Herein, we propose "two-way AIC" (Akaike Information Criteria), method for simultaneous detection of significance genes and experiments on meta-dataset. Results As a case study of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we evaluate whether two-way AIC method can detect test data which is the experiment condition specific DEGs. Operon genes are used as test data. Compared with other commonly used statistical methods (t-rank/F-test, RankProducts and SAM), two-way AIC shows the highest specificity of detection of operon genes. Conclusions The two-way AIC performs high specificity for operon gene detection on the microarray meta-dataset. This method can also be applied to estimation of mutual gene interactions. PMID:23445621

  2. Rural Communities Communicating: The Emergence of Two-Way Interactive Video in Southwestern, Rural, Small Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael; And Others

    In three southwestern states, grassroots movements of citizens, educators, and local businesses developed and implemented two-way interactive television projects in their schools and communities. A descriptive multiple case study design was used to examine six project sites in New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma. Research questions were categorized in…

  3. Race, Power, and (In)equity within Two-Way Immersion Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin; Palmer, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Two-way immersion schools provide a promising model for service delivery to students who are English language learners. With the goals of bilingualism, academic excellence, and cross cultural appreciation, these schools are designed to build bridges across linguistically heterogeneous student bodies. Yet while empirical evidence demonstrates that

  4. A Mandarin/English Two-Way Immersion Program: Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M.; Fan, Lorraine; Xu, Xiaoqiu; Silva, Duarte

    2013-01-01

    A Mandarin/English two-way immersion elementary program is described from its inception and implementation through the fifth grade, the culminating year of the program. All students in all grades were assessed on their oral/listening, reading, and writing performance in Mandarin using program-created assessment measures. Fifth-grade students also

  5. Study on stress characteristics of Francis hydraulic turbine runner based on two-way FSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W. R.; Xiao, R. F.; Yang, W.; Liu, J.; Wang, F. J.

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, cracking phenomenon occurs in many large-sized turbines both nationally and internationally, which has threatened the stable operation of hydraulic turbines. Consequently, Stress characteristics calculation and analysis of a Francis hydraulic turbine runner by application of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) technology become significantly important. In order to introduce two-way coupling technology to hydraulic machinery, two-way FSI technology is applied in this article to calculate and analyze stress characteristics. Through coordinate system transformation, the continuity equations and Navier-Stokes equations in the Cartesian coordinates system are firstly transformed to ALE coordinates system. The fluid field control equations are then constructed and discrete equations can be obtained by using flow-condition-based interpolation (FBIC-C). The structure static mechanics equations used are established in rotation coordinate system, and modeled with the finite method. Two-way coupling is computed by using iteration method. The fluid equations and structure equations are iterated until coupling coefficients converge. According to structure result, the maximum stress, displacement as well as its location can be found. As a result, the most easily wear position can be discovered which provides valuable basis for optimized design and stable operation of Francis hydraulic turbines. After comparing the results with that of one-way coupling, it is discovered that displacements is the key factors which affects the results of one-way and two-way coupling.

  6. Assessment of the two-way Coupled WRF-CMAQ Model with Observations from the CARES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main goal of this assessment is to evaluate the improved aerosol component of two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ model particularly in representing aerosol physical and optical properties by utilizing observations from the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in May...

  7. 47 CFR 22.589 - One-way or two-way application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....589 One-way or two-way application requirements. In addition to information required by subparts B and... applicable supplementary information described in this section. (a) Interference exhibit. Except as provided... exceeds 76.4 kilometers (47.5 miles); and identify each protected Basic Exchange Telephone Radio...

  8. 47 CFR 22.589 - One-way or two-way application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....589 One-way or two-way application requirements. In addition to information required by subparts B and... applicable supplementary information described in this section. (a) Interference exhibit. Except as provided... exceeds 76.4 kilometers (47.5 miles); and identify each protected Basic Exchange Telephone Radio...

  9. 47 CFR 22.589 - One-way or two-way application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....589 One-way or two-way application requirements. In addition to information required by subparts B and... applicable supplementary information described in this section. (a) Interference exhibit. Except as provided... exceeds 76.4 kilometers (47.5 miles); and identify each protected Basic Exchange Telephone Radio...

  10. 47 CFR 22.589 - One-way or two-way application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....589 One-way or two-way application requirements. In addition to information required by subparts B and... applicable supplementary information described in this section. (a) Interference exhibit. Except as provided... exceeds 76.4 kilometers (47.5 miles); and identify each protected Basic Exchange Telephone Radio...

  11. 47 CFR 22.589 - One-way or two-way application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....589 One-way or two-way application requirements. In addition to information required by subparts B and... applicable supplementary information described in this section. (a) Interference exhibit. Except as provided... exceeds 76.4 kilometers (47.5 miles); and identify each protected Basic Exchange Telephone Radio...

  12. Language Choice & Language Power: Children's Use of Korean & English in a Two-Way Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the phenomenon of children's language choice and language use in a Korean-English two-way immersion (TWI) program. She does so by drawing on situations in which the children spoke of the principles guiding their choice of languages, and instances in which they voluntarily adopted Korean as the means of…

  13. A level set two-way wave equation approach for Eulerian interface tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Henri

    2014-02-01

    We present a new approach to perform Eulerian level set interface tracking. It consists in advecting the level set function using a second-order two-way wave equation instead of the standard one-way wave advection equation. The resulting numerical schemes are simple to implement, more stable, and significantly less prone to dissipation errors than popular (e.g., WENO) discretizations of the one-way advection equation of higher order, in particular for long advection times. While both the two-way wave advection and the associated numerical schemes were derived previously, these approaches have never been combined with level set advection. Since the level set function to advect is smooth by construction, this ensures the stability of the solution when using the two-way advection equation discretized using centered finite difference schemes. Our numerical tests show that the two-way wave equation approach yields more accurate results than the standard one-way wave equation for the level set advection, at a considerably smaller computational cost.

  14. Languages across Borders: Social Network Development in an Adolescent Two-Way Dual-Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibler, Amanda K.; Atteberry, Allison; Hardigree, Christine N.; Salerno, April S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Two-way dual-language programs have become an increasingly popular educational model in the United States for language minority and majority speakers, with a small but growing number of programs at the high school level. Little is known, however, about how adolescents' social networks develop in the contexts of these programs.…

  15. A Systematic Approach to Training Faculty To Teach via a Two-Way Interactive Television System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Karen Jarrett

    This paper addresses a systematic approach to training faculty to teach via two-way interactive television (ITV). The following ten training modules are presented: (1) Introduction to the ITV System, including terminology and ITV history/development; (2) Making ITV Work for You, including syllabus construction, ITV equipment, and

  16. An Administrative Perspective of a Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armendariz, Abe Lujan; Armendariz, Emma J.

    2002-01-01

    In this interview, a female Hispanic principal discusses the challenges, resources, and support involved in implementing a two-way bilingual immersion model in a Hispanic community in Albuquerque (New Mexico). Program success resulted primarily from supportive parents, faculty, and superintendent and the principal's leadership style, which is…

  17. Languages across Borders: Social Network Development in an Adolescent Two-Way Dual-Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibler, Amanda K.; Atteberry, Allison; Hardigree, Christine N.; Salerno, April S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Two-way dual-language programs have become an increasingly popular educational model in the United States for language minority and majority speakers, with a small but growing number of programs at the high school level. Little is known, however, about how adolescents' social networks develop in the contexts of these programs.

  18. Language Choice & Language Power: Children's Use of Korean & English in a Two-Way Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the phenomenon of children's language choice and language use in a Korean-English two-way immersion (TWI) program. She does so by drawing on situations in which the children spoke of the principles guiding their choice of languages, and instances in which they voluntarily adopted Korean as the means of

  19. Two-way shape memory effect induced by repetitive compressive loading cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Yoo, Young-Ik; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2009-09-01

    The NiTi alloy can be trained by repetitive loading or heating cycles. As a result of the training, a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) can be induced. Considerable research has been reported regarding the TWSME trained by tensile loading. However, the TWSME trained by compressive loading has not been investigated nearly as much. In this paper, the TWSME is induced by compressive loading cycles and the two-way shape memory strain is evaluated by using two types of specimen: a solid cylinder type and a tube type. The TWSME trained by compressive loading is different from that trained by tensile loading owing to the severe tension/compression asymmetry as described in previous research. After repetitive compressive loading cycles, strain variation upon cooling is observed, and this result proves that the TWSME is induced by compressive loading cycles. By performing compressive loading cycles, plastic deformation in NiTi alloy occurs more than for tensile loading cycles, which brings about the appearance of TWSME. It can be said that the TWSME is induced by compressive loading cycles more easily. The two-way shape memory strain increases linearly as the maximum strain of compressive loading cycles increases, regardless of the shape and the size of the NiTi alloy; this two-way shape memory strain then shows a tendency towards saturation after some repeated cycles.

  20. The Promise and Potential of Two-Way Immersion in Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraga, Luis R.

    2016-01-01

    Two-Way Immersion (TWI) is a method of instruction designed to facilitate the learning of a second language by non-native speakers. Unlike traditional methods of teaching a second language, TWI is grounded in the equal presence, respect, and value of the two languages and their related cultures. Moreover, the goal of TWI is the building of…

  1. 78 FR 31576 - Enforcement Proceeding; Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... a complaint filed on behalf of BriarTek IP, Inc. (``BriarTek'') of Alexandria, Virginia. 77 FR 58579... COMMISSION Enforcement Proceeding; Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and... available for inspection during official business hours (8:45 a.m. to 5:15 p.m.) in the Office of...

  2. Soundings of Titan's atmosphere by Cassini using the two-way radio occultation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinder, Paul J.; Flasar, F. Michael; Marouf, Essam; French, Richard; Anabtawi, Aseel; Barbinis, Elias

    2015-11-01

    In December 2011 the Ultra Stable Oscillator aboard Cassini failed, and all subsequent radio occultations have been done using the two-way technique. The two-way technique uses a highly stable frequency reference on the ground rather than the on board USO. A pure X band tone is transmitted to the spacecraft, and that uplink signal as Cassini receives it is used as the frequency reference for the three returned S, X, and Ka band tones transmitted by the spacecraft. On May 17 and June 18 of 2014 two occultations of Cassini by Titan occured, during targeted Titan encounters T101 and T102, and were done using the two-way technique for the first time for Titan occultations. We present the four soundings of Titan's atmosphere obtained from the resulting data using the two way numerical inversion technique described in Schinder et al., Radio Science 50, 712. The ingress occultation on T101 occured at 66 N latitude and egress is at 46 S. On T102, ingress occured at 63 N and 66 S latitude. We will also place these results in context with the earlier Titan occultations (Schinder et al., Icarus 215, 460; Schinder et al., Icarus 221, 1020) done in one way mode.

  3. Two-Way Tables: Issues at the Heart of Statistics and Probability for Students and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; Callingham, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Some problems exist at the intersection of statistics and probability, creating a dilemma in relation to the best approach to assist student understanding. Such is the case with problems presented in two-way tables representing conditional information. The difficulty can be confounded if the context within which the problem is set is one where

  4. Micromechanics-based modeling of two-way memory effect of a single crystalline shape-memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Goo, B.C.; Lexcellent, C.

    1997-02-01

    A micromechanics-based Helmholtz free energy is obtained. Then, in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics, a kinetic relationship, a martensitic nucleation criterion and the reorientation criterion of martensitic variants are obtained. These relationships are valid for a three-dimensional proportional or non-proportional mechanical loading or a combination of mechanical and thermal loading. The two-way memory effect is simulated and compared quantitatively with experimental results. This simulation is based on the assumption that mechanical dissipation of active variants decreases during cycling (training).

  5. Are fear-avoidance beliefs in low back pain patients a risk factor for low physical activity or vice versa? A cross-lagged panel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Corinna; Lehr, Dirk; Chenot, Jean-François; Keller, Stefan; Luckmann, Judith; Basler, Heinz-Dieter; Baum, Erika; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Pfingsten, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jan; Kochen, Michael M.; Becker, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The assumption that low back pain (LBP) patients suffer from “disuse” as a consequence of high fear-avoidance beliefs is currently under debate. A secondary analysis served to investigate whether fear-avoidance beliefs are associated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with the physical activity level (PAL) in LBP patients. Methods: A total of 787 individuals (57% acute and 43% chronic LBP) were followed up over a period of one year with measurements of fear-avoidance beliefs and physical activity level. Fear-avoidance beliefs concerning physical activity were measured by the physical-activity subscale of the FABQ (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire), the physical activity level was assessed in weighted metabolic equivalents (MET) hours/week with a German self-report questionnaire. Data were investigated by structural equation modelling in a cross-lagged panel design for the whole sample and separately for acute and chronic LBP. Results: The acute and chronic sub sample increased their total physical activity level significantly after one year. The structural equation modelling results did not support the disuse-aspect inherent in the fear-avoidance belief model. Cross-lagged path coefficients were low (.04 and .05 respectively) and, therefore, did not allow to predict final physical activity by initial fear-avoidance beliefs or vice versa. Discussion: Consequently, due to missing links between fear-avoidance beliefs and physical activity in a longitudinal design, the assumptions of the fear-avoidance belief model have to be questioned. These findings are in line with other investigations published recently. Most probably, “fear-avoidance belief” represents a cognitive scheme that does not limit activity per se, but only is directed to the avoidance of specific movements. PMID:19742047

  6. Tailored One-Way and Two-Way Shape Memory Capabilities of Poly(?-Caprolactone)-Based Systems for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandini, Stefano; Ricc, Theonis; Borboni, Alberto; Bodini, Ileana; Vetturi, David; Cambiaghi, Danilo; Toselli, Maurizio; Paderni, Katia; Messori, Massimo; Pilati, Francesco; Chiellini, Federica; Bartoli, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the shape memory capabilities of semicrystalline networks, focusing the attention on poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) systems, a class of materials that allows to satisfy important requirements for their applications as biomedical devices, such as the good biocompatibility, the fast recovery of large "temporary" shape configurations, and the easy tailoring of the transformation temperatures. The materials were prepared with various crosslink densities and crosslinking methodologies; in particular, beside a thermal crosslinking based on reactive methacrylic end groups, a novel type of covalently crosslinked semicrystalline systems was prepared by a sol-gel approach from alkoxysilane-terminated PCL precursors, so as to avoid potentially toxic additives typically used for free-radical thermal curing. The materials were subjected to biological tests, to study their ability in sustaining cell adhesion and proliferation, and to thermal characterizations, to evaluate the possibility to tailor their melting and crystallization temperatures. The one-way shape memory (i.e., the possibility to set the material in a given configuration and to recover its pristine shape) and the two-way shape memory response (i.e., the triggered change between two distinguished shapes on the application of an on-off stimulus) were studied by applying optimized thermo-mechanical cyclic histories. The ability to fix the applied shape and to recover the original one on the application of heating (i.e., the one-way effect) was evaluated on tensile bars; further, to investigate a potential application as self-expandable stents, isothermal shape memory experiments were carried out also on tubular specimens, previously folded in a temporary compact configuration. The two-way response was studied through the application of a constant load and of a heating/cooling cycle from above melting to below the crystallization temperature, leading to a reversible elongation/contraction effect, involving maximum strain changes up to about 80%, whose extent may be controlled through the crosslink density.

  7. Engager and Avoider Behaviour in Types of Activities Performed by Out-of-Class Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Louisa; Kember, David

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the out-of-class learning activities undertaken, at the students' volition, by groups of students. Data were gathered through 57 individual and 15 focus group interviews with university students in Hong Kong. Group activities reported included: copying, sharing material, consulting peers, consulting teachers, studying and

  8. Post-traumatic stress avoidance is attenuated by corticosterone and associated with brain levels of steroid receptor co-activator-1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Annie M; Farooq, Muhammad A; Edwards, Scott; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) avoid trauma-related stimuli and exhibit blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation at the time of stress. Our rodent model of stress mimics the avoidance symptom cluster of PTSD. Rats are classified as "Avoiders" or "Non-Avoiders" post-stress based on the avoidance of a predator-odor paired context. Previously, we found Avoiders exhibit an attenuated HPA stress response to predator odor. We hypothesized that corticosterone administration before stress would reduce the magnitude and incidence of stress-paired context avoidance. Furthermore, we also predicted that Avoiders would exhibit altered expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling machinery elements, including steroid receptor co-activator (SRC)-1. Male Wistar rats (n = 16) were pretreated with corticosterone (25 mg/kg) or saline and exposed to predator-odor stress paired with a context and tested for avoidance 24 h later. A second group of corticosterone-naïve rats (n = 24) were stressed (or not), indexed for avoidance 24 h later, and killed 48 h post-odor exposure to measure phosphorylated GR, FKBP51 and SRC-1 levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central amygdala (CeA) and ventral hippocampus (VH), all brain sites that highly express GRs and regulate HPA function. Corticosterone pretreatment reduced the magnitude and incidence of avoidance. In Avoiders, predator-odor exposure led to lower SRC-1 expression in the PVN and CeA, and higher SRC-1 expression in the VH. SRC-1 expression in PVN, CeA and VH was predicted by prior avoidance behavior. Hence, a blunted HPA stress response may contribute to stress-induced neuroadaptations in central SRC-1 levels and behavioral dysfunction in Avoider rats. PMID:26482332

  9. 49 CFR 232.405 - Design and performance standards for two-way end-of-train devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and performance standards for two-way end... Design and performance standards for two-way end-of-train devices. Two-way end-of-train devices shall be... and perform with the following features: (a) An emergency brake application command from the...

  10. An experimental study of the two-way shape memory effect in a NiTi tubular actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Young Ik; Lee, Jung Ju; Lee, Chang Ho; Lim, Jae Hyuk

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) in a Ti-54.5 Ni(wt%) alloy was investigated experimentally to develop a NiTi linear actuator. The two-way shape memory effect was induced through a compressive shape memory cycle comprising four steps: (1) loading to maximum deformation; (2) unloading (3) heating and (4) cooling. Six types of specimen (one solid cylindrical and five tubular) were used to obtain the two-way shape memory strain and two-way recovery stress and to evaluate the actuating capacity. The two-way actuating strain showed a saturated tendency after several training cycles for the same maximum deformation. A maximum value of the two-way strain was obtained for 7% of maximum deformation, independently of the geometry of the tubular specimens. The two-way strains obtained by the shape memory cycles and two-way recovery stress linearly increase as a function of the maximum deformation and the two-way strain, respectively, and the geometry of specimen affects the two-way recovery stress. Although the results show that sufficient recovery stress can be generated by either the two-way shape memory process or by the one-way shape memory process, the two-way shape memory process can be applied more conveniently to actuating applications.

  11. Decoy-state quantum key distribution with two-way classical postprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xiongfeng; Fung, C.-H.F.; Chen Kai; Lo, H.-K.; Dupuis, Frederic; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2006-09-15

    Decoy states have recently been proposed as a useful method for substantially improving the performance of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols when a coherent-state source is used. Previously, data postprocessing schemes based on one-way classical communications were considered for use with decoy states. In this paper, we develop two data postprocessing schemes for the decoy-state method using two-way classical communications. Our numerical simulation (using parameters from a specific QKD experiment as an example) results show that our scheme is able to extend the maximal secure distance from 142 km (using only one-way classical communications with decoy states) to 181 km. The second scheme is able to achieve a 10% greater key generation rate in the whole regime of distances. We conclude that decoy-state QKD with two-way classical postprocessing is of practical interest.

  12. Two-way and three-way negativities of three-qubit entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S. Shelly; Sharma, N. K.

    2007-07-15

    We propose to quantify three-qubit entanglement using global negativity along with K-way negativities, where K=2 and 3. The principle underlying the definition of K-way negativity for pure and mixed states of N subsystems is a positive partial transpose sufficient condition. However, K-way partial transpose with respect to a subsystem is defined so as to shift the focus to K-way coherences instead of K subsystems of the composite system. A quantum state of a three-qubit system is characterized by the coherences measured by global, two-way, and three-way negativities. For a canonical state of three-qubit system, entanglement measures for genuine tripartite entanglement, W-like entanglement, and bipartite entanglement can be related to two-way and three-way negativities.

  13. High-order Two-way Artificial Boundary Conditions for Nonlinear Wave Propagation with Backscattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fibich, Gadi; Tsynkov, Semyon

    2000-01-01

    When solving linear scattering problems, one typically first solves for the impinging wave in the absence of obstacles. Then, by linear superposition, the original problem is reduced to one that involves only the scattered waves driven by the values of the impinging field at the surface of the obstacles. In addition, when the original domain is unbounded, special artificial boundary conditions (ABCs) that would guarantee the reflectionless propagation of waves have to be set at the outer boundary of the finite computational domain. The situation becomes conceptually different when the propagation equation is nonlinear. In this case the impinging and scattered waves can no longer be separated, and the problem has to be solved in its entirety. In particular, the boundary on which the incoming field values are prescribed, should transmit the given incoming waves in one direction and simultaneously be transparent to all the outgoing waves that travel in the opposite direction. We call this type of boundary conditions two-way ABCs. In the paper, we construct the two-way ABCs for the nonlinear Helmholtz equation that models the laser beam propagation in a medium with nonlinear index of refraction. In this case, the forward propagation is accompanied by backscattering, i.e., generation of waves in the direction opposite to that of the incoming signal. Our two-way ABCs generate no reflection of the backscattered waves and at the same time impose the correct values of the incoming wave. The ABCs are obtained for a fourth-order accurate discretization to the Helmholtz operator; the fourth-order grid convergence is corroborated experimentally by solving linear model problems. We also present solutions in the nonlinear case using the two-way ABC which, unlike the traditional Dirichlet boundary condition, allows for direct calculation of the magnitude of backscattering.

  14. Towards an explanation of age-related difficulties in crossing a two-way street.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurlie; Lay, Tristan Le; Vienne, Fabrice; Dang, Nguyen-Thong; Beaudoin, Alexandra Perrot; Do, Manh Cuong

    2015-12-01

    Crossing a two-way street is a complex task that involves visual, cognitive and motor abilities, all of which are known to decline with ageing. In particular, older pedestrians may experience difficulties when crossing two-way streets because of incorrect gap acceptance choices and impossible or unperceived evasive actions. To understand the overrepresentation of older pedestrians in crash statistics, several experimental studies have sought to identify traffic-related factors as well as those related to the abilities of the individuals themselves. However, none of these studies has required participants to actually walk across an experimental two-way street with curbs, which is a particularly challenging situation for older pedestrians. To fill this research gap, a quasi-experiment was conducted in a simulator including a total of 58 healthy aged participants (25 younger-old [age 60-72] and 33 older-old [age 72-92]) and 25 young adults (aged 18-25 years). Participants carried out a street-crossing task in a simulated two-way traffic environment; curbs were present on both sides of the experimental street. Participants also undertook a battery of tests to assess their visual and cognitive abilities. In addition, during the experiment, the participants' gait parameters were recorded. In line with earlier findings, the older-old group of participants made a higher number of decisions that led to collisions with approaching cars compared with the other groups. The two groups of older participants experienced specific difficulties when vehicles were in the far lane or when they approached rapidly. A regression analysis identified visual acuity, speed of processing (assessed using the UFOV() test), and step length as significant predictors of collisions. Our results have implications for understanding the difficulties experienced by older pedestrians and allow to draw up several recommendations for improving their safety. PMID:26476193

  15. A two-way nested coupled tide-surge model for the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Zhou; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Shang, Shao-Ping; Chen, De-Wen; Chai, Fei

    2007-06-01

    A two-way nested coupled tide-surge prediction model was established and applied in the Taiwan Strait and adjacent sea area in this study. This two-dimensional (2D) model had a fine horizontal resolution and took into account the interaction between storm surges and astronomical tides, which made it suitable for depicting the complicated physical properties of storm surges in the Taiwan Strait. A two-way nesting technique and an open boundary condition developed from Flather's radiation condition and Red and Smedstad's local mode idea, were successfully implemented in the model. A simulation experiment showed that the open boundary condition could be used in the coupled tide-surge model and that the performance of the two-way nested model was slightly superior in accuracy to that of the one-way nested one. The fluctuations of storm surge residuals with tidal period at Sansha and Pingtan tide stations during the period of typhoon Dan in 1999 were well reproduced by the model, with the coupling effect between storm surges and tides indicating that the effect of astronomical tides upon typhoon surges should be considered in a storm-surge prediction model for the Taiwan Strait. The forecast experiment during typhoon Talim in 2005 showed that the storm surge prediction outputs by the model were better in the early 20 h of the forecast period of each model run than those in the later period due to the prediction accuracy of the typhoon track, maximum winds, and central air pressures.

  16. Damage Assessment of Two-Way Bending RC Slabs Subjected to Blast Loadings

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Haokai; Wu, Guiying

    2014-01-01

    Terrorist attacks on vulnerable structures and their individual structural members may cause considerable damage and loss of life. However, the research work on response and damage analysis of single structural components, for example, a slab to blast loadings, is limited in the literature and this is necessary for assessing its vulnerability. This study investigates the blast response and damage assessment of a two-way bending reinforced concrete (RC) slab subjected to blast loadings. Numerical modeling and analysis are carried out using the commercial finite element code LS-DYNA 971. A damage assessment criterion for the two-way bending RC slab is defined based on the original and residual uniformly distributed load-carrying capacity. Parametric studies are carried out to investigate the effects of explosive weight and explosive position on the damage mode of the two-way RC slab. Some design parameters, such as the boundary conditions and the negative reinforcement steel bar length, are also discussed. The illustrated results show that the proposed criterion can apply to all failure modes. The damage assessment results are more accurate than the ones due to the conventional deformation criterion. PMID:25121134

  17. Flexible rods with embedded two-way shape memory alloy fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Blonk, B.J. de; Bo, Z.; Lagoudas, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wires are trained to exhibit the two-way shape memory effect and are embedded off the center axis of cylindrical rubber rods. Each rod contains two wires which are located above and below the rod centerline so as to cause deflection of the rod in the vertical plane upon actuation of the wires by electrical resistance heating. Two-way training of an SMA wire causes a hysteretic strain-temperature response at zero stress. A trained wire thus provides the advantage of returning to its original length when cooled back to the martensitic phase. Experimental measurements of the trained SMA wires produce the constants for the modelling of the two-way actuator, including the martensite and austenite transition temperatures as a function of stress. The mechanical response of the rods is calculated using a linearized rod theory, which is shown to be a reasonable approximation of the nonlinear rod theory for small SMA actuation strains. The constitutive behavior of the SMA actuator wires is calculated by using a unified model for cyclic loading of SMA material, which is reduced for trained SMA wires, and the specific hardening behavior is described by the cosine rule proposed by Liang and Rogers. The results of the modelling are correlated with the deflection and temperature results obtained experimentally.

  18. Damage assessment of two-way bending RC slabs subjected to blast loadings.

    PubMed

    Jia, Haokai; Yu, Ling; Wu, Guiying

    2014-01-01

    Terrorist attacks on vulnerable structures and their individual structural members may cause considerable damage and loss of life. However, the research work on response and damage analysis of single structural components, for example, a slab to blast loadings, is limited in the literature and this is necessary for assessing its vulnerability. This study investigates the blast response and damage assessment of a two-way bending reinforced concrete (RC) slab subjected to blast loadings. Numerical modeling and analysis are carried out using the commercial finite element code LS-DYNA 971. A damage assessment criterion for the two-way bending RC slab is defined based on the original and residual uniformly distributed load-carrying capacity. Parametric studies are carried out to investigate the effects of explosive weight and explosive position on the damage mode of the two-way RC slab. Some design parameters, such as the boundary conditions and the negative reinforcement steel bar length, are also discussed. The illustrated results show that the proposed criterion can apply to all failure modes. The damage assessment results are more accurate than the ones due to the conventional deformation criterion. PMID:25121134

  19. Investigation of pedestrian crashes on two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tulu, Getu Segni; Washington, Simon; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Understanding pedestrian crash causes and contributing factors in developing countries is critically important as they account for about 55% of all traffic crashes. Not surprisingly, considerable attention in the literature has been paid to road traffic crash prediction models and methodologies in developing countries of late. Despite this interest, there are significant challenges confronting safety managers in developing countries. For example, in spite of the prominence of pedestrian crashes occurring on two-way two-lane rural roads, it has proven difficult to develop pedestrian crash prediction models due to a lack of both traffic and pedestrian exposure data. This general lack of available data has further hampered identification of pedestrian crash causes and subsequent estimation of pedestrian safety performance functions. The challenges are similar across developing nations, where little is known about the relationship between pedestrian crashes, traffic flow, and road environment variables on rural two-way roads, and where unique predictor variables may be needed to capture the unique crash risk circumstances. This paper describes pedestrian crash safety performance functions for two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia as a function of traffic flow, pedestrian flows, and road geometry characteristics. In particular, random parameter negative binomial model was used to investigate pedestrian crashes. The models and their interpretations make important contributions to road crash analysis and prevention in developing countries. They also assist in the identification of the contributing factors to pedestrian crashes, with the intent to identify potential design and operational improvements. PMID:25770907

  20. Habituation of dairy heifers to milking routine-Effects on human avoidance distance, behavior, and cardiac activity during milking.

    PubMed

    Kutzer, T; Steilen, M; Gygax, L; Wechsler, B

    2015-08-01

    The onset of lactation marks a significant turning point in a heifer's life, and prior experience with the milking routine could have positive effects on animal welfare and productivity. The objectives of this multifarm (n=5) study were to investigate (1) whether prelactation training sessions affected behavior during milking, cardiac activity, human avoidance distance, and milk yield, and (2) whether these responses would be modified by the heifer's initial level of fear of humans. Trained heifers (TH, n=30) experienced the routine in the milking parlor on at least 10 d prepartum, whereas untrained heifers (UH, n=29) entered the parlor for the first time after calving. Behavior and cardiac activity were recorded on d 1 and 7 after calving, and an avoidance test was carried out on the day of integration into the dairy herd as well as on d 1, 7, and 28 postpartum. Each animal's initial level of fear of humans was classified as high or low based on the first human avoidance distance measured toward an unknown person. Results showed that TH showed less stepping and kicking during the udder preparation phase in the parlor and UH had higher probabilities to put their ears flat on the head, clamp their tail between the hind legs, and have their eyes wide open throughout the different phases in the milking parlor. Heart rate decreased from d 1 to 7, increased from before to during and to after milking and was slightly elevated in TH compared with UH. Milk yield did not differ between TH and UH. Human avoidance distance was not influenced by training, but distance decreased in heifers with a high initial level of fear of humans across repetitions of the test, whereas heifers with a low initial level of fear of humans had generally short avoidance distances. However, initial level of fear of humans neither determined behavior and heart rate during milking nor milk yield of TH and UH. The results indicate that the training regimen applied in the present study habituated heifers, to some extent, to the milking routine. PMID:26051316

  1. [Influence of chronic melipramine administration abolition on locomotion and defensive conditioned reflexes in passive and active avoidance in rats].

    PubMed

    Orlova, N V; Folomkina, A A; Koshtoiants, O Kh; Bazian, A S

    2005-01-01

    The chronic (21 days duration) administration of tricyclic antidepressant melipramine of Wistar rats strain (15 mg/kg daily, intraperitoneally) evoked weight loss of animals. The 7 days after melipramine abolition its sedative effect was observed in the "open field" test by decrease of locomotion and the number of boles. The 7 and 14 days after melipramine abolition the difference between control and melipramine treated animals in passive and active avoidance learning and memory not found. The experimental results comparison with the literature data show, that chronic melipramine administration of intact animals evokes a sedative state. This conclusion does not contradict to idea of punishment function of brain serotoninergic system. PMID:15828425

  2. Molecular pathways activation in coronary artery bypass surgery: which role for pump avoidance?

    PubMed

    Parolari, Alessandro; Poggio, Paolo; Myasoedova, Veronika; Songia, Paola; Pilozzi, Alberto; Alamanni, Francesco; Tremoli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we review current knowledge regarding molecular pathways activation and their possible mechanisms in the perioperative period of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). We also highlight the role of off-pump CABG as a possible way to better understand these biological changes.We show that, after both on-pump and off-pump CABG, there is a marked and protracted activation of several molecular pathways indicating increased inflammatory status, haemostasis activation, as well as increased oxidative stress and unfavourable endothelial milieu. These changes persist for days and even weeks after surgery. Interestingly, a relatively limited number of these pathways show a more pronounced activation in case of cardiopulmonary bypass use, and these markers are mainly associated with oxidative stress activation; on the contrary, the vast majority of the pathways has a similar course both in on and off-pump procedures. Surgical stress accounts for more protracted and marked molecular pathway perturbations overall, being the effect of cardiopulmonary, if any, limited to the very early hours after surgery. The near future of the translational research in coronary bypass surgery is to develop therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing this response, that is largely unrelated to cardiopulmonary bypass use, in order to reduce perioperative complications and to speed up patients' recovery. PMID:26418473

  3. Detecting short-term responses to weekend recreation activity: desert bighorn sheep avoidance of hiking trails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longshore, Kathleen; Lowrey, Chris; Thompson, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    To study potential effects of recreation activity on habitat use of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), we placed Global Positioning System collars on 10 female bighorn sheep within the Wonderland of Rocks–Queen Mountain region of Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), California, USA, from 2002 to 2004. Recreation use was highest from March to April and during weekends throughout the year. Daily use of recreation trails was highest during midday. By comparing habitat use (slope, ruggedness, distance to water, and distance to recreation trails) of female bighorn sheep on weekdays versus weekends, we were able to detect short-term shifts in behavior in response to recreation. In a logistic regression of bighorn sheep locations versus random locations for March and April, female locations at midday (1200 hours) were significantly more distant from recreation trails on weekends compared with weekdays. Our results indicate that within this region of JOTR, moderate to high levels of human recreation activity may temporarily exclude bighorn females from their preferred habitat. However, the relative proximity of females to recreation trails during the weekdays before and after such habitat shifts indicates that these anthropogenic impacts were short-lived. Our results have implications for management of wildlife on public lands where the co-existence of wildlife and recreational use is a major goal.

  4. Role of B19' martensite deformation in stabilizing two-way shape memory behavior in NiTi

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Benafan, O.; Padula, S. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Sisneros, T. A.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2012-11-01

    Deformation of a B19' martensitic, polycrystallineNi49.9Ti50.1 (at. %) shape memoryalloy and its influence on the magnitude and stability of the ensuing two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) was investigated by combined ex situ mechanical experimentation and in situneutron diffraction measurements at stress and temperature. The microstructural changes (texture, lattice strains, and phase fractions) during room-temperature deformation and subsequent thermal cycling were captured and compared to the bulk macroscopic response of the alloy. With increasing uniaxial strain, it was observed that B19' martensite deformed by reorientation and detwinning with preferred selection of the (1¯50)M and (010)M variants, (201¯)B19' deformation twinning, and dislocationmore » activity. These mechanisms were indicated by changes in bulk texture from the neutron diffraction measurements. Partial reversibility of the reoriented variants and deformation twins was also captured upon load removal and thermal cycling, which after isothermal deformation to strains between 6% and 22% resulted in a strong TWSME. Consequently, TWSME functional parameters including TWSME strain, strain reduction, and transformation temperatures were characterized and it was found that prior martensite deformation to 14% strain provided the optimum condition for the TWSME, resulting in a stable two-way shape memory strain of 2.2%. Thus, isothermal deformation of martensite was found to be a quick and efficient method for creating a strong and stable TWSME in Ni₄₉.₉Ti₅₀.₁.« less

  5. A two-way nesting procedure for the WAM model: Application to the Spanish Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M.; Carretero, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The performance of a standard one-way nesting procedure for a regional application of a third generation wave model is investigated. It is found that this nesting procedure is not applicable when the resolution has to be enhanced drastically, unless intermediate grids are placed between the coarse and the fine grids. This solution, in turn, requires an excess of computing resources. A two-way nesting procedure is developed and implemented in the model. Advantages and disadvantages of both systems are discussed. The model output is compared with observed data and the results are shown.

  6. A two-way nesting procedure for the WAM model: Application to the Spanish coast

    SciTech Connect

    Lahoz, M.G.; Albiach, J.C.C.

    1997-02-01

    The performance of the standard one-way nesting procedure for a regional application of a third-generation wave model is investigated. It is found that this nesting procedure is not applicable when the resolution has to be enhanced drastically, unless intermediate grids are placed between the coarse and the fine grid areas. This solution, in turn, requires an excess of computing resources. A two-way nesting procedure is developed and implemented in the model. Advantages and disadvantages of both systems are discussed. The model output for a test case is compared with observed data and the results are discussed in the paper.

  7. Shade Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Casal, Jorge J.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of neighboring vegetation modifies the light environment experienced by plants, generating signals that are perceived by phytochromes and cryptochromes. These signals cause large changes in plant body form and function, including enhanced growth of the hypocotyl and petioles, a more erect position of the leaves and early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, these so-called shade-avoidance responses tend to reduce the degree of current or future shade by neighbors. Shade light signals increase the abundance of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5 proteins, promote the synthesis and redirection of auxin, favor the degradation of DELLA proteins and increase the expression of auxin, gibberellins and brassinosteroid-promoted genes, among other events downstream the photoreceptors. Selectively disrupting these events by genetic or pharmacological approaches affects shade-avoidance responses with an intensity that depends on the developmental context and the environment. Shade-avoidance responses provide a model to investigate the signaling networks used by plants to take advantage of the cues provided by the environment to adjust to the challenges imposed by the environment itself. PMID:22582029

  8. Two-way time transfer via optical fiber providing subpicosecond precision and high temperature stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodet, Jan; Pánek, Petr; Procházka, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    We are reporting on analysis, design, construction, and key parameters of the device for a two-way time transfer via an optical fiber. The dominant source of errors in the two-way optical time transfer (TWOTT) via relatively short optical fibers is the temperature dependence of internal delays within the terminal units. We have performed an analysis of the influence of the internal delays and their temperature dependence on the TWOTT process considering two different configurations of the terminals with the feedback coupling in optical and electrical domains. The achieved results have been used for the optimal design of a TWOTT system implementing standard small form-factor pluggable optical transceivers. The operational tests of this new TWOTT system confirmed the precision of the time transfer on the subpicosecond level, the time transfer stability characterized by TDEV better than 60 fs for averaging intervals from 100 s to 10 000 s, and the temperature stability better than 100 fs K‑1.

  9. Turbulent phase noise on asymmetric two-way ground-satellite coherent optical links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Clélia; Conan, Jean-Marc; Wolf, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Bidirectional ground-satellite laser links suffer from turbulence-induced scintillation and phase distortion. We study how turbulence impacts on coherent detection capacity and on the associated phase noise that restricts clock transfer precision. We evaluate the capacity to obtain a two-way cancellation of atmospheric effects despite the asymmetry between up and down link that limits the link reciprocity. For ground-satellite links, the asymmetry is induced by point-ahead angle and possibly the use, for the ground terminal, of different transceiver diameters, in reception and emission. The quantitative analysis is obtained thanks to refined end-to-end simulations under realistic turbulence and wind conditions as well as satellite cinematic. Simulations make use of the reciprocity principle to estimate both down and up link performance from wave-optics propagation of descending plane waves. These temporally resolved simulations allow characterising the coherent detection in terms of time series of heterodyne efficiency for different system parameters. We show Tip/Tilt correction on ground is mandatory at reception for the down link and as a pre-compensation of the up link. Good correlation between up and down phase noise is obtained even with asymmetric apertures of the ground transceiver and in spite of pointing ahead angle. The reduction to less than 1 rad2 of the two-way differential phase noise is very promising for clock transfer.

  10. Origin of the two-way memory effect in NiTi shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Manach, P.Y.; Favier, D. )

    1993-06-01

    It is now well-known that the two-way memory effect (TWME) of shape memory alloys is obtained after a thermomechanical cycling called training. Although this point is well-admitted, many controversies still subsist on the physical origin of this two-memory effect. The explanations of the development of the TWME which are often given are either the presence after training of a low proportion of local stabilized martensite in the parent phase or the presence after training of an internal stress field in the material. Recently, in a systematic study of the two-way memory effect obtained by thermomechanical training cycles under homogeneous tensile constant load, Stalmans et. al. disproved these two previous explanations. Following the study, the most important effect of the dislocation arrays which are introduced during the training is not to develop internal stresses but rather to give rise to a microstructural anisotropy inducing a thermodynamic anisotropy. It means that after training, the crystallographically equivalent martensite variants are no more thermodynamically equivalent. The present paper describes some experimental results obtained by the homogeneous simple shear training of a NiTi shape memory alloy. The experiments have been specifically designed to give new comprehension elements on the existence and the nature of the thermodynamic anisotropy developed during training.

  11. Two-way shape memory effect developed by martensite deformation in NiTi

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Van Humbeeck, J.

    1998-12-11

    The effect of tensile deformation in the martensitic state on the transformation behavior of a polycrystalline near-equiatomic NiTi alloy was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal mechanical analysis. The experimental results indicated that the process of martensite reorientation proceeded in a Lueders manner over a stress plateau and continued into the next stage of uniform deformation with an increasing stress. The transition of the martensite reorientation process from a localized manner to a uniform manner during tensile deformation of a polycrystalline matrix is yet to be explained. The results also demonstrated that the reorientation deformation was effective in developing a two-way memory effect. The maximum two-way memory effect developed was comparable in magnitude to that developed by conventional training procedures in similar alloys. The deformation also caused a thermal stabilization to the deformed martensite. The stabilization effect was a one-time effect, which vanished once the deformed martensite reverted back to austenite on heating.

  12. Passive Faraday-mirror attack in a practical two-way quantum-key-distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Shihai; Jiang Musheng; Liang Linmei

    2011-06-15

    The Faraday mirror (FM) plays a very important role in maintaining the stability of two-way plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. However, the practical FM is imperfect, which will not only introduce an additional quantum bit error rate (QBER) but also leave a loophole for Eve to spy the secret key. In this paper we propose a passive Faraday mirror attack in two-way QKD system based on the imperfection of FM. Our analysis shows that if the FM is imperfect, the dimension of Hilbert space spanned by the four states sent by Alice is three instead of two. Thus Eve can distinguish these states with a set of Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) operators belonging to three-dimension space, which will reduce the QBER induced by her attack. Furthermore, a relationship between the degree of the imperfection of FM and the transmittance of the practical QKD system is obtained. The results show that the probability that Eve loads her attack successfully depends on the degree of the imperfection of FM rapidly, but the QBER induced by Eve's attack changes slightly with the degree of the FM imperfection.

  13. Passive Faraday-mirror attack in a practical two-way quantum-key-distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2011-06-01

    The Faraday mirror (FM) plays a very important role in maintaining the stability of two-way plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. However, the practical FM is imperfect, which will not only introduce an additional quantum bit error rate (QBER) but also leave a loophole for Eve to spy the secret key. In this paper we propose a passive Faraday mirror attack in two-way QKD system based on the imperfection of FM. Our analysis shows that if the FM is imperfect, the dimension of Hilbert space spanned by the four states sent by Alice is three instead of two. Thus Eve can distinguish these states with a set of Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) operators belonging to three-dimension space, which will reduce the QBER induced by her attack. Furthermore, a relationship between the degree of the imperfection of FM and the transmittance of the practical QKD system is obtained. The results show that the probability that Eve loads her attack successfully depends on the degree of the imperfection of FM rapidly, but the QBER induced by Eves attack changes slightly with the degree of the FM imperfection.

  14. [Receptor elements for biosensors in two ways of methylotrophic yeast immobilization].

    PubMed

    Zaĭtsev, M G; Arliapov, V A; Alferov, V A; Reshetilov, A N

    2012-01-01

    Receptor elements for biosensors based on Hansenula polymorpha NCYC 495 In yeast cells for ethanol assay were developed using two ways of cell immobilization, i.e., physical adsorption on a glass fiber membrane and covalent binding on a modified nitrocellulose membrane. The linear diapason of ethanol assays for a biosensor based on yeast cells adsorbed on glass fiber was 0.05-1.18; for a biosensor based on yeasts immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane, 0.2-1.53 mM. Receptor elements based on sorbed cells possessed 2.5 times higher long-term stability. The time response was 1.5 times less for cells immobilized using DEAE-dextran and benzochinone. The results of ethyl alcohol assays using biosensors based on cells immobilized via adsorption and covalent binding, as well as using the standard areometric method, had high correlation coefficients (0.998 and 0.997, respectively, for the two ways of immobilization). The results indicate the possibility to consider the described models of receptor elements for biosensors as prototypes for experimental samples for practical use. PMID:23101397

  15. Two-Way Partial Immersion Program, F. S. Key Elementary School. Units of Study--Grades 1-4. Curriculum Guide, Units of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Vacano, Marcela; And Others

    The curriculum guide for a Spanish two-way partial immersion program in the Francis Scott Key Elementary School (Arlington, Virginia) is designed as a reference for parents and teachers. It presents information, instructional objectives, and activities in the form of integrated instructional units for grades K-4. Introductory sections outline: the

  16. Two-way memory effect (TWME) in NiTi-Pd high-temperature shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liangquan; Wu, Kuang-Hsi

    1994-05-01

    A preliminary investigation was made to study the possibility of training the newly developed TiNi-Pd high temperature shape memory alloys to posses the two-way memory effect, and characterize the various factors that affect the magnitude of the two-way memory effect. The experimental results show that all the newly developed alloys can demonstrate the two-way memory effect, even though the transformation temperature of the alloy reaches 280 degree(s)C. The permanent strain and phase transformation temperature are two important parameters to determine the magnitude of the two-way memory effect.

  17. RelB activation in anti-inflammatory decidual endothelial cells: a master plan to avoid pregnancy failure?

    PubMed Central

    Masat, Elisa; Gasparini, Chiara; Agostinis, Chiara; Bossi, Fleur; Radillo, Oriano; De Seta, Francesco; Tamassia, Nicola; Cassatella, Marco A.; Bulla, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    It is known that excessive inflammation at fetal-maternal interface is a key contributor in a compromised pregnancy. Female genital tract is constantly in contact with microorganisms and several strategies must be adopted to avoid pregnancy failure. Decidual endothelial cells (DECs) lining decidual microvascular vessels are the first cells that interact with pro-inflammatory stimuli released into the environment by microorganisms derived from gestational tissues or systemic circulation. Here, we show that DECs are hypo-responsive to LPS stimulation in terms of IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL2 production. Our results demonstrate that DECs express low levels of TLR4 and are characterized by a strong constitutive activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway and a low responsiveness of the canonical pathway to LPS. In conclusion, DECs show a unique hypo-responsive phenotype to the pro-inflammatory stimulus LPS in order to control the inflammatory response at feto-maternal interface. PMID:26463648

  18. On thin gaps between rigid bodies two-way coupled to incompressible flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Linhai; Yu, Yue; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2015-07-01

    Two-way solid fluid coupling techniques typically calculate fluid pressure forces that in turn drive the solid motion. However, when solids are in close proximity (e.g.?touching or in contact), the fluid in the thin gap region between the solids is difficult to resolve with a background fluid grid. Although one might attempt to address this difficulty using an adaptive, body-fitted, or ALE fluid grid, the size of the fluid cells can shrink to zero as the bodies collide. The inability to apply pressure forces in a thin lubricated gap tends to make the solids stick together, since collision forces stop interpenetration but vanish when the solids are separating leaving the fluid pressure forces on the surface of the solid unbalanced in regard to the gap region. We address this problem by adding pressure degrees of freedom onto surfaces of rigid bodies, and subsequently using the resulting pressure forces to provide solid fluid coupling in the thin gap region. These pressure degrees of freedom readily resolve the tangential flow along the solid surface inside the gap and are two-way coupled to the pressure degrees of freedom on the grid allowing the fluid to freely flow into and out of the gap region. The two-way coupled system is formulated as a symmetric positive-definite matrix which is solved using the preconditioned conjugate gradient method. Additionally, we provide a mechanism for advecting tangential velocities on solid surfaces in the gap region by extending semi-Lagrangian advection onto a curved surface mesh where a codimension-one velocity field tangential to the surface is defined. We demonstrate the convergence of our method on a number of examples, such as underwater rigid body separation and collision in both two and three spatial dimensions where typical methods do not converge. Finally, we demonstrate that our method not only works for the aforementioned "wet" contact, but also works in conjunction with "dry" contact where there is no fluid in the gap between the solids.

  19. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo transportation systems (CTRV's) were also examined. The study provided detailed design and analysis of the performance, reliability, and operations of these concepts. The study analyzed these concepts as unique systems and also analyzed several combined CTRV/booster configurations as integrated launch systems (such as for launch abort analyses). Included in the set of CTRV concepts analyzed were the medium CTRV, the integral CTRV (in both a pressurized and unpressurized configuration), the winged CTRV, and an attached cargo carrier for the PLS system known as the PLS caboose.

  20. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo transportation systems (CTRV's) were also examined. The study provided detailed design and analysis of the performance, reliability, and operations of these concepts. The study analyzed these concepts as unique systems and also analyzed several combined CTRV/booster configurations as integrated launch systems (such as for launch abort analyses). Included in the set of CTRV concepts analyzed were the medium CTRV, the integral CTRV (in both a pressurized and unpressurized configuration), the winged CTRV, and an attached cargo carrier for the PLS system known as the PLS caboose.

  1. Particle stresses in dilute, polydisperse, two-way coupled turbulent flows.

    PubMed

    Richter, David H; Garcia, Omar; Astephen, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations are performed of turbulent planar Couette flow which are seeded with two-way coupled particles at low volume concentration. Based on an understanding of the development of particle stress (horizontal momentum carried vertically on average by the particle phase) in monodisperse systems at various particle Stokes numbers, several bidisperse and continuously polydisperse systems are simulated which are chosen to understand how flows containing blends of particle Stokes numbers can be effectively modeled in the dilute regime. Under noninteracting conditions, the particle stresses from particles with different inertia and different feedback stresses are shown to be linearly additive, providing a convenient method for effectively representing dispersed phase stress in polydisperse systems. While this is true, it is demonstrated that a single effective particle size is in general not sufficient at representing the entire mixture. PMID:26871159

  2. An upconversion nanoparticle with orthogonal emissions using dual NIR excitations for controlled two-way photoswitching.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jinping; Zhang, Yixiao; Pasquale, Nicholas; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2014-12-22

    Developing multicolor upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with the capability of regulating their emission wavelengths in the UV to visible range in response to external stimuli can offer more dynamic platforms for applications in high-resolution bioimaging, multicolor barcoding, and driving multiple important photochemical reactions, such as photoswitching. Here, we have rationally designed single-crystal core-shell-structured UCNPs which are capable of orthogonal UV and visible emissions in response to two distinct NIR excitations at 808 and 980?nm. The orthogonal excitation-emission properties of such UCNPs, as well as their ability to utilize low-power excitation, which attenuates any local heating from the lasers, endows the UCNPs with great potential for applications in materials and biological settings. As a proof of concept, the use of this UCNP for the efficient regulation of the two-way photoswitching of spiropyran by using dual wavelengths of NIR irradiation has been demonstrated. PMID:25349100

  3. Development of a Portable Two-Way Communication and Information Device for Deafblind People.

    PubMed

    Ozioko, Oliver; Hersh, Marion

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents research on the development of a wearable two-way communication and information device for deafblind people who use tactile communications methods, namely the British deafblind manual alphabet and/or Braille. The device has two components: a glove worn by the deafblind person and a handheld display with keypad to be used by their hearing and sighted communication partner. Users can send messages using pressure sensors embedded in the glove and receive them by means of vibration on the palm. The two components are linked by Bluetooth and the use of Bluetooth to communicate with computers, mobile phones and other Bluetooth enabled devices is being investigated. The design was informed by feedback obtained from a survey of deafblind people and interviews with staff in two organisations for deafblind people. Research and development of the device is still ongoing. PMID:26294522

  4. Symmetry breaking in optimal timing of traffic signals on an idealized two-way street

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaggio, Mark J.; Ottino-Lffler, Bertand J.; Hu, Peiguang; Abrams, Daniel M.

    2013-09-01

    Simple physical models based on fluid mechanics have long been used to understand the flow of vehicular traffic on freeways; analytically tractable models of flow on an urban grid, however, have not been as extensively explored. In an ideal world, traffic signals would be timed such that consecutive lights turned green just as vehicles arrived, eliminating the need to stop at each block. Unfortunately, this green-wave scenario is generally unworkable due to frustration imposed by competing demands of traffic moving in different directions. Until now this has typically been resolved by numerical simulation and optimization. Here, we develop a theory for the flow in an idealized system consisting of a long two-way road with periodic intersections. We show that optimal signal timing can be understood analytically and that there are counterintuitive asymmetric solutions to this signal coordination problem. We further explore how these theoretical solutions degrade as traffic conditions vary and automotive density increases.

  5. Two-way coupling of Presto v2.8 and CTH v8.1.

    SciTech Connect

    Bruner, Christopher William Stuteville; Bishop, Joseph E.; Crawford, David A.; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2008-07-01

    A loose two-way coupling of SNL's Presto v2.8 and CTH v8.1 analysis code has been developed to support the analysis of explosive loading of structures. Presto is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional explicit, transient dynamics code in the SIERRA mechanics suite for the analysis of structures subjected to impact-like loads. CTH is a hydro code for modeling complex multi-dimensional, multi-material problems that are characterized by large deformations and/or strong shocks. A fundamental assumption in this loose coupling is that the compliance of the structure modeled with Presto is significantly smaller than the compliance of the surrounding medium (e.g. air) modeled with CTH. A current limitation of the coupled code is that the interaction between CTH and thin structures modeled in Presto (e.g. shells) is not supported. Research is in progress to relax this thin-structure limitation.

  6. Assessing factorial invariance of two-way rating designs using three-way methods

    PubMed Central

    Kroonenberg, Pieter M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the factorial invariance of two-way rating designs such as ratings of concepts on several scales by different groups can be carried out with three-way models such as the Parafac and Tucker models. By their definitions these models are double-metric factorially invariant. The differences between these models lie in their handling of the links between the concept and scale spaces. These links may consist of unrestricted linking (Tucker2 model), invariant component covariances but variable variances per group and per component (Parafac model), zero covariances and variances different per group but not per component (Replicated Tucker3 model) and strict invariance (Component analysis on the average matrix). This hierarchy of invariant models, and the procedures by which to evaluate the models against each other, is illustrated in some detail with an international data set from attachment theory. PMID:25620936

  7. Particle stresses in dilute, polydisperse, two-way coupled turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, David H.; Garcia, Omar; Astephen, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations are performed of turbulent planar Couette flow which are seeded with two-way coupled particles at low volume concentration. Based on an understanding of the development of particle stress (horizontal momentum carried vertically on average by the particle phase) in monodisperse systems at various particle Stokes numbers, several bidisperse and continuously polydisperse systems are simulated which are chosen to understand how flows containing blends of particle Stokes numbers can be effectively modeled in the dilute regime. Under noninteracting conditions, the particle stresses from particles with different inertia and different feedback stresses are shown to be linearly additive, providing a convenient method for effectively representing dispersed phase stress in polydisperse systems. While this is true, it is demonstrated that a single effective particle size is in general not sufficient at representing the entire mixture.

  8. Two-way coupling between Vesuvius eruptions and southern Apennine earthquakes, Italy, by elastic stress transfer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nostro, C.; Stein, R.S.; Cocco, M.; Belardinelli, M.E.; Marzocchi, W.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 1000 years, eruptions of Vesuvius have often been accompanied by large earthquakes in the Apennines 50-60 km to the northeast. Statistical investigations had shown that earthquakes often preceded eruptions, typically by less than a decade, but did not provide a physical explanation for the correlation. Here, we explore elastic stress interaction between earthquakes and eruptions under the hypothesis that small stress changes can promote events when the Apennine normal faults and the Vesuvius magma body are close to failure. We show that earthquakes can promote eruptions by compressing the magma body at depth and opening suitably oriented near-surface conduits. Voiding the magma body in turns brings these same normal faults closer to Coulomb failure, promoting earthquakes. Such a coupling is strongest if the magma reservoir is a dike oriented normal to the regional extension axis, parallel to the Apennines, and the near-surface conduits and fissures are oriented normal to the Apennines. This preferred orientation suggests that the eruptions issuing from such fissures should be most closely linked in time to Apennine earthquakes. Large Apennine earthquakes since 1400 are calculated to have transferred more stress to Vesuvius than all but the largest eruptions have transferred to Apennine faults, which may explain why earthquakes more commonly lead than follow eruptions. A two-way coupling may thus link earthquakes and Vesuvius eruptions along a 100-km-long set of faults. We test the statistical significance of the earthquake-eruption correlation in the two-way coupling zone, and find a correlation significant at the 95% confidence level.

  9. The Impact of Two-Way Dual-Immersion Programs on Initially English-Dominant Latino Students' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Forty initially English-dominant Latino students in four 90:10 Spanish two-way dual-immersion programs and 62 of their peers in mainstream English programs were studied to find out if their attitudes toward Spanish and Spanish-dominant individuals differ. Significant differences were found on many variables, with two-way dual-immersion students

  10. The Impact of Two-Way Dual-Immersion Programs on Initially English-Dominant Latino Students' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Forty initially English-dominant Latino students in four 90:10 Spanish two-way dual-immersion programs and 62 of their peers in mainstream English programs were studied to find out if their attitudes toward Spanish and Spanish-dominant individuals differ. Significant differences were found on many variables, with two-way dual-immersion students…

  11. Building and Destroying Students' "Academic Identities": The Power of Discourse in a Two-Way Immersion Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Deborah K.

    2008-01-01

    Two-way immersion is a model for bilingual education designed to help language-minority students develop additive bilingualism while at the same time offering language-majority students a chance to learn a second language. There is a great deal of rhetoric around two-way immersion that claims these programs aim to improve overall equity among

  12. 78 FR 21629 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof Issuance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    .... of Alexandria, Virginia. 77 FR 58579-80. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 of the... COMMISSION Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof Issuance of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain two-way global...

  13. Climate Change Impact on Future Air Quality in Europe: a Two-Way Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, K. V.; Giannakopoulos, C. A.; Tombrou, M.

    2010-12-01

    It has become widely recognized that climate change could affect air pollution concentrations, through the assumption that air quality is strongly dependent on meteorological conditions and therefore sensitive to climate change. Changes in climate affect air quality by perturbing ventilation rates (wind speed, mixing depth, convection, frontal passages) precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, chemical production and loss rates, natural emissions, and background concentrations. This study describes a two way approach to examine the synergistic effects of climate change on air quality. Firstly, we study the development, evaluation and application of an empirical-statistical model based on the concept that temperature is a capable predictor for the ozone concentrations. More specifically, the model is used to investigate the potential impact of increasing future temperatures due to climate change on ozone exceedance days in Europe. In our study we have used available gridded daily maximum temperatures and hourly ozone observations from different non-urban stations within the aforementioned area as well as daily maximum temperatures for two different future time periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 from the RACMO2 regional climate model with a horizontal resolution of 25 x 25km, based on the IPCC SRES A1B scenario. Statistically significant correlations between daily maximum temperatures and maximum 8-h average ozone concentrations are determined. Subsequently, calculated probability distributions of maximum 8-h average ozone concentration with daily maximum temperature are applied in two ways: firstly, to evaluate the performance of the empirical-statistical model and secondly to provide estimates of the future ozone exceedance days for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. The evaluation analysis reveals that the empirical-statistical model exhibits skill in capturing temporal patterns of ozone probability distributions with temperature and therefore it can be used as a quick indicator of ozone sensitivity to climate change. For the second approach we conducted simulations with the global chemical transport model GEOS-CHEM driven from the GISS - 3 general circulation model in order to isolate the effect of potentially increasing temperatures due to climate change on future ozone exceedance days for two cases: (a) 2000 climate and emissions (b) 2050 climate following the IPCC SRES A1B scenario and 2000 anthropogenic emissions of ozone and aerosols precursors. The comparison between the two approaches indicate that the potential increase of daily maximum temperatures for the 2050 period may imply changes that could lead to an increase of ozone exccedance days due to favorable ozone pollution conditions such as increase in stagnation and biogenic emissions and faster chemical reactions rates. Differences in magnitude and in regionality are attributed to the different horizontal resolution of each approach.

  14. Two way Interactions Between Criteria Air Pollutants and Meteorology Over Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrapu, P.; Cheng, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Beig, G.; Spak, S.; Sahu, S. K.; Decker, M.; Schultz, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Deteriorating air quality is one of the major problems faced worldwide in the past few decades. The world's most polluted megacities are located in Asia highlighting the urgent need for efforts to improve the air quality including that of New Delhi (India). There is also keen interest in understanding the interactions between air pollution and meteorology/climate in order to identify opportunities for using air pollution reductions to also reduce short term climate forcing. The Weather Research Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) allows the air quality forecast models to fully couple the meteorology with chemical constituents within the unified modeling system online that allows the two-way interactions. In this study we use the WRF-Chem model to simulate atmospheric processes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales using newly developed high resolution emission inventories. The study analyzes air quality and meteorological interactions in Delhi during the months of September and October. We also analyze the spatial patterns of Black Carbon (BC), CO, SO2, NO2, and O3 over Delhi as well as the contributions from specific source sectors (Transportation, Power, Industrial, and Domestic). The model results are evaluated using air quality observations obtained during the CWG period. Preliminary analysis indicates that model is able to reproduce the observed feature quite well and that the contributions from various sources are very well identified which are likely to provide key input into the development of pollution reduction strategies.

  15. International two-way satellite time transfers using INTELSAT space segment and small Earth stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veenstra, Lester B.

    1990-01-01

    The satellite operated by the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) provides new and unique capabilities for the coordinates of international time scales on a world wide basis using the two-way technique. A network of coordinated clocks using small earth stations collocated with the scales is possible. Antennas as small as 1.8 m at K-band and 3 m at C-band transmitting powers of less than 1 W will provide signals with time jitters of less than 1 ns existing spread spectrum modems. One way time broadcasting is also possible, under the INTELSAT INTELNET system, possibly using existing international data distribution (press and financial) systems that are already operating spread spectrum systems. The technical details of the satellite and requirements on satellite earth stations are given. The resources required for a regular operational international time transfer service are analyzed with respect to the existing international digital service offerings of the INTELSAT Business Service (IBS) and INTELNET. Coverage areas, typical link budgets, and a summary of previous domestic and international work using this technique are provided. Administrative procedures for gaining access to the space segment are outlined. Contact information for local INTELSAT signatories is listed.

  16. Practical security analysis of two-way quantum-key-distribution protocols based on nonorthogonal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henao, C. Ivan; Serra, Roberto M.

    2015-11-01

    Within the broad research scenario of quantum secure communication, two-way quantum key distribution (TWQKD) is a relatively new proposal for sharing secret keys that is not yet fully explored. We analyze the security of TWQKD schemes that use qubits prepared in nonorthogonal states to transmit the key. Investigating protocols that employ an arbitrary number of bases for the channel preparation, we show, in particular, that the security of the LM05 protocol cannot be improved by the use of more than two preparation bases. We also provide an alternative proof of unconditional security for a deterministic TWQKD protocol recently proposed in Beaudry et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 062302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.062302. In addition, we introduce a deterministic protocol named "TWQKD six-state" and compute an analytical lower bound (which can be tightened) for the maximum amount of information that an eavesdropper could extract in this case. An interesting advantage of our approach to the security analysis of TWQKD is the great simplicity and transparency of the derivations.

  17. On the mechanism of two way shape memory effect obtained by stabilized stress induced martensite

    SciTech Connect

    Guilemany, J.M.; Fernandez, J. . Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Metalurgia)

    1994-02-01

    Two way shape memory effect (TWME) can be obtained by suitable thermomechanical processing which involve repetitive training routines. J. Perkins found that TWME take place as a result of a macroscopic non-uniform residual stress field, concluding that plastic deformation was necessary to get TWME. K. Enami et al found that complex dislocations arrays are generated by thermomechanical cycling during the training procedure. TWME results obtained by the above training methods are not as good as would be expected, because during the thermal cycles, above and below A[sub f] and M[sub f] respectively, new dislocations are generated which interact with the dislocations that control TWME so giving a loss of TWME. A different training method has been developed by J.M. Guilemany et al based on the stabilization of stress induced martensite variants (SSIM). This method has been derived from the observation made by J. Perkins and R.O. Sponholz who found that retained (not stabilized) martensite acts as a nucleation site of thermal martensite. Thus, during cooling the stabilized martensite would grow or influence the nucleation and growth of the thermal martensite giving TWME. The effect of training temperature, time and stress on TWME obtained by SSIM has been studied.

  18. Two-way self-consistent coupling of HEIDI in SWMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, R.; Liemohn, M. W.; Toth, G.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present results from the two-way coupling between the kinetic Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) model and the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). HEIDI solves the time dependent, gyration and bounced averaged kinetic equation for the phase space density of different ring current species and computes full pitch angle distributions for all local times and radial distances. This model was generalized to accommodate an arbitrary magnetic field and, through the coupling with SWMF, it obtains the magnetic field description along with the plasma distribution at the model boundaries from the Block Adaptive Tree Solar Wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model within the SWMF. Electric field self-consistency is assured by the passing of convection potentials from the Ridley Ionosphere Model (RIM) within SWMF. Our study tests the various levels of coupling between the 3 models, highlighting the roles that the magnetic field, plasma sheet conditions and the cross polar cap potential play in the formation and evolution of the ring current. The results of the self-consistent coupling between HEIDI, BATSRUS and RIM during disturbed conditions emphasize the importance of a kinetic self-consistent approach to the description of the geospace.

  19. Three-Dimensional Vortex Methods for Particle-Laden Flows with Two-Way Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, J. H.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2001-02-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional viscous vortex method for the simulation of particulate flows with two-way coupling. The flow is computed using Lagrangian vortex elements advected with the local velocity, while their strength is modified to account for viscous diffusion, vortex stretching, and generating vorticity induced by the particles. The solid particles move according to viscous drag and gravity, creating vorticity, which is discretised using vortex elements. This method adaptively tracks the evolution of the vorticity field and the generation of new computational elements to account for the vorticity source term. A key aspect of the present scheme is the re-meshing of the computational elements to adaptively accommodate the production of vorticity induced by the solid particles, and to ensure sufficient support for the proper resolution of the diffusion equation. High-order moment-conserving formulas are implemented to maintain the adaptive character of the method while they remain local to minimize the computational cost. These formulas are also implemented in the particle-mesh interpolation of the field and particle quantities in the context of a Vortex-in-Cell algorithm. The method is validated against the results of a related finite-difference study for an axisymmetric swirling flow with particles. The method is then applied to the study of a three-dimensional particle blob falling under the effect of gravity. It is shown that drastically different behaviours are found depending on the presence of an initial vorticity field.

  20. Two-way traffic of glycoside hydrolase family 18 processive chitinases on crystalline chitin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Uchiyama, Taku; Sugimoto, Hayuki; Wada, Masahisa; Suzuki, Kazushi; Sakuda, Shohei; Ando, Toshio; Watanabe, Takeshi; Samejima, Masahiro

    2014-06-01

    Processivity refers to the ability of synthesizing, modifying and degrading enzymes to catalyse multiple successive cycles of reaction with polymeric substrates without disengaging from the substrates. Since biomass polysaccharides, such as chitin and cellulose, often form recalcitrant crystalline regions, their degradation is highly dependent on the processivity of degrading enzymes. Here we employ high-speed atomic force microscopy to directly visualize the movement of two processive glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases (ChiA and ChiB) from the chitinolytic bacterium Serratia marcescens on crystalline ?-chitin. The half-life of processive movement and the velocity of ChiA are larger than those of ChiB, suggesting that asymmetric subsite architecture determines both the direction and the magnitude of processive degradation of crystalline polysaccharides. The directions of processive movements of ChiA and ChiB are observed to be opposite. The molecular mechanism of the two-way traffic is discussed, including a comparison with the processive cellobiohydrolases of the cellulolytic system.

  1. Two-way Interaction of Lagrangian Bubble Dynamics and Eulerian Mixture Flow Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin-Keun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Chahine, Georges

    2007-11-01

    Although under simple flow conditions a well dispersed bubble cloud in a liquid can be modeled with an Eulerian continuum model, the fine scale interactions between the two phases, the potential non-uniformities and high bubble concentrations in stiff gradient regions of complex flows can only be represented by more detailed numerical models such as Lagrangian tracking of individual bubbles. To meet both needs of describing individual bubbles and of including the collective effects in the two-phase continuum, we have developed a method coupling in a two-way fashion the two approaches. The bubble dynamics and tracking scheme is based on extensive studies on bubble dynamics and interactions at Dynaflow and is based on a Surface Averaged Pressure spherical model using a modified incompressible Rayleigh-Plesset equation or a modified compressible Gilmore equation. The bubbles presence in the Eulerian flow field is considered through a variable medium density formulation resulting from the instantaneous bubble population distribution in the field. The developed method is applicable to many practical flows in pipes, jets, pumps, propellers, ships, and the ocean. We present the method and its application to waterjet thrust augmentation by bubble injection.

  2. Improved signal detection for two-way wireless relaying networks under imperfect time synchronisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O El Astal, Mohammed Taha; Olivier, Jan Corné

    2014-12-01

    Most research on two-way wireless relaying networks (TWRNs) assumes perfect time synchronisation between the terminals and among the relays. This is, however, difficult to accomplish as the terminals and relays are randomly located. The lack of synchronisation causes inter-symbol interference which introduces a serious impairment and negatively impacts the network's performance. In this article, an enhanced interference cancellation (EIC)-based detector is proposed to mitigate the experienced performance degradation while maintaining low complexity. It uses an innovative iterative approach and also benefits of interference components of currently detected symbols using a modified maximum likelihood (ML) scheme. As a result, it shows significant performance improvement compared to the conventional detector under different conditions of imperfect synchronisation. In addition, two existing interference cancellation detectors that are originally proposed for one-way WRNs are extended to TWRNs, even though the timing error among the terminals is a unique issue for TWRNs and never occurs in one-way networks. Unlike the existing literature, the proposed detectors apply to networks with an arbitrary number of multiple-antenna relays. Numerical simulation is provided in terms of bit error rate, to show the improvement in performance when compared to the conventional detector. Moreover, it is shown that the EIC detector outperforms the extended detectors and provides 3 to 4 dB gain under moderate condition of imperfect synchronisation.

  3. Two-way actuation behavior of shape memory polymer/elastomer core/shell composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Jeong-Min; Yu, Woong-Ryeol; Youk, Ji Ho; Ryu, Hee Wook

    2012-03-01

    Semi-crystalline shape memory polymers (SMPs) show net two-way shape memory (2W-SM) behavior under constant stresses by the recoverable creep strain upon heating and stress-induced crystallization under the application of creep stress upon cooling. The applied constant stress is the key factor in this 2W-SM behavior. A core/shell structure is manufactured for the purpose of imparting a constant stress upon SMPs. An SMP in film or fiber form is dipped into a solution of an elastomer, photoinitiator, and curing agent and then dried out. After this dip coating process is repeatedly carried out, the SMP/elastomer core/shell composite is deformed into a temporary shape after being heated up above the transition temperature of the SMP. Under constant strain conditions, the composite is cooled down, after which the shell elastomer is cured using ultraviolet light. Then, the SMP/elastomer core/shell composite extends and contracts upon cooling and heating, respectively, without any external load. This cyclic deformation behavior is characterized, demonstrating that the current method offers a simple macroscopic processing technique to manufacture 2W-SM polymer composites.

  4. Thermomechanical behavior of a two-way shape memory composite actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qi; Westbrook, Kristofer K.; Mather, Patrick T.; Dunn, Martin L.; Qi, H. Jerry

    2013-05-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of smart materials that can fix a temporary shape and recover to their permanent (original) shape in response to an environmental stimulus such as heat, electricity, or irradiation, among others. Most SMPs developed in the past can only demonstrate the so-called one-way shape memory effect; i.e., one programming step can only yield one shape memory cycle. Recently, one of the authors (Mather) developed a SMP that exhibits both one-way shape memory (1W-SM) and two-way shape memory (2W-SM) effects (with the assistance of an external load). This SMP was further used to develop a free-standing composite actuator with a nonlinear reversible actuation under thermal cycling. In this paper, a theoretical model for the PCO SMP based composite actuator was developed to investigate its thermomechanical behavior and the mechanisms for the observed phenomena during the actuation cycles, and to provide insight into how to improve the design.

  5. Two way fluid structure interaction analysis of a valveless micropump by CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C?lim?nescu, Ioan; Dumitrache, Constantin L.; Grigorescu, Lucian

    2015-02-01

    In the microfluid control system, a valve-less micropump is a necessary component. It has the ability to pump a wide variety of fluids automatically and accurately on a micro scale. The dynamic characteristics of a valve-less micropump influence the performance of the microfluid control system. Consequently, it is of great importance to be able to accurately predict the dynamic characteristics of micropumps for appropriate design and usage of the microfluid control system. In this paper, we describe a corrugated diaphragm valveless micropump approached from the Computational Fluid Dynamics point of view in which the Fluid Structure Interaction is based on the Two Way principle, meaning that the diaphragm is moving and the fluid (water like fluid) is sucked from the inlet and pushed back to the outlet using the nozzle effect. The technical solution of micropumps without valves is a very clever idea to replace the custom valves with nozzles, with the same effect but virtually without any components beside the inlet and the outlet nozzles. The paperwork is demonstrating via a complex simulation involving the structural-fluid interaction the nozzle effects and the functioning of this kind of micropumps.

  6. Granular Computing Approach to Two-Way Learning Based on Formal Concept Analysis in Fuzzy Datasets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weihua; Li, Wentao

    2016-02-01

    The main task of granular computing (GrC) is about representing, constructing, and processing information granules. Information granules are formalized in many different approaches. Different formal approaches emphasize the same fundamental facet in different ways. In this paper, we propose a novel GrC method of machine learning by using formal concept description of information granules. Based on information granules, the model and mechanism of two-way learning system is constructed in fuzzy datasets. It is addressed about how to train arbitrary fuzzy information granules to become necessary, sufficient, and necessary and sufficient fuzzy information granules. Moreover, an algorithm of the presented approach is established, and the complexity of the algorithm is analyzed carefully. Finally, to interpret and help understand the theories and algorithm, a real-life case study is considered and experimental evaluation is performed by five datasets from the University of California-Irvine, which is valuable for applying these theories to deal with practical issues. PMID:25347892

  7. New Class of Model Equations for Two-way Propagation of Capillary-Gravity Water Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Ranjan; Daripa, Prabir

    1999-11-01

    Mathematical properties of a new class of model equations that describe two-way propagation of small amplitude long capillary-gravity waves on the surface of water are studied. From these equations, appropriate equations to model solitary waves in two cases, namely (I) when the Bond number ? and the amplitude parameter ? satisfies ? << (1/3-?) <= 1/3,and (II) when (1/3-?)=O(?), are derived under appropriate scaling. The case I leads to the usual fourth-order (classical) Boussinesq equation with modified coefficient at fourth-order dispersive term as a function of ? which vanishes at ?=1/3. This emphasizes the need of a rescaling of variables as ? \\uparrow 1/3 (case II) which leads to a sixth-order (singularly perturbed) Boussinesq equation. In fact, this equation was originally introduced by Daripa and Hua ( Appl. Math. Comput. 101, 1999, 159--207) as a regularization of the illposed classical Boussinesq equation in their numerical study. Using the technique of asymptotics beyond all orders as well as the method of Fourier transform, we obtain the non-local solitary wave solutions of the regularized sixth-order Boussinesq equation and provide an estimate of the exponentially small amplitude of the fast oscillations which persists far from the core of the classical solitary waves. Besides, we also obtain the local solitary wave solutions of some of these lower-order Boussinesq equations and Boussinesq systems.

  8. Untangling the two-way signalling route from synapses to the nucleus, and from the nucleus back to the synapses.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Mio; Fujii, Hajime; Kim, Ryang; Kawashima, Takashi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Bito, Haruhiko

    2014-01-01

    During learning and memory, it has been suggested that the coordinated electrical activity of hippocampal neurons translates information about the external environment into internal neuronal representations, which then are stored initially within the hippocampus and subsequently into other areas of the brain. A widely held hypothesis posits that synaptic plasticity is a key feature that critically modulates the triggering and the maintenance of such representations, some of which are thought to persist over time as traces or tags. However, the molecular and cell biological basis for these traces and tags has remained elusive. Here, we review recent findings that help clarify some of the molecular and cellular mechanisms critical for these events, by untangling a two-way signalling crosstalk route between the synapses and the neuronal soma. In particular, a detailed interrogation of the soma-to-synapse delivery of immediate early gene product Arc/Arg3.1, whose induction is triggered by heightened synaptic activity in many brain areas, teases apart an unsuspected 'inverse' synaptic tagging mechanism that likely contributes to maintaining the contrast of synaptic weight between strengthened and weak synapses within an active ensemble. PMID:24298152

  9. Ka-Band Waveguide Two-Way Hybrid Combiner for MMIC Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Chevalier, Christine T.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Freeman, Jon C.

    2010-01-01

    The design, simulation, and characterization of a novel Ka-band (32.05 0.25 GHz) rectangular waveguide two-way branch-line hybrid unequal power combiner (with port impedances matched to that of a standard WR-28 waveguide) has been created to combine input signals, which are in phase and with an amplitude ratio of two. The measured return loss and isolation of the branch-line hybrid are better than 22 and 27 dB, respectively. The measured combining efficiency is 92.9 percent at the center frequency of 32.05 GHz. This circuit is efficacious in combining the unequal output power from two Ka-band GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (pHEMT) monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) with high efficiency. The component parts include the branch-line hybrid-based power combiner and the MMIC-based PAs. A two-way branch-line hybrid is a four-port device with all ports matched; power entering port 1 is divided in phase, and into the ratio 2:1 between ports 3 and 4. No power is coupled to port 2. MMICs are a type of integrated circuit fabricated on GaAs that operates at microwave frequencies, and performs the function of signal amplification. The power combiner is designed to operate over the frequency band of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz, which is NASA's deep space frequency band. The power combiner would have an output return loss better than 20 dB. Isolation between the output port and the isolated port is greater than 25 dB. Isolation between the two input ports is greater than 25 dB. The combining efficiency would be greater than 90 percent when the ratio of the two input power levels is two. The power combiner is machined from aluminum with E-plane split-block arrangement, and has excellent reliability. The flexibility of this design allows the combiner to be customized for combining the power from MMIC PAs with an arbitrary power output ratio. In addition, it allows combining a low-power GaAs MMIC with a high-power GaN MMIC. The arbitrary port impedance allows matching the output impedance of the MMIC PA directly to the waveguide impedance without transitioning first into a transmission line with characteristic impedance of 50 ohms. Thus, by eliminating the losses associated with a transition, the overall SSPA efficiency is enhanced. For reducing the cost and weight when required in very large quantities, such as in the beam-forming networks of phased-array antenna systems, the combiner can be manufactured using metal-plated plastic. Two hybrid unequal power combiners can be cascaded to realize a non-binary combiner (for e.g., a three-way) and can be synergistically optimized for low VSWR (voltage standing wave ratio), low insertion loss, high isolation, and wide bandwidth using commercial off-the-shelf electromagnetic software design tools.

  10. The two-way time synchronization system via a satellite voice channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heng-Qiu, Zheng; Ren-Huan, Zhang; Yong-Hui, HU

    1994-01-01

    A newly developed two-way time synchronization system is described in this paper. The system uses one voice channel at a SCPC satellite digital communication earth station, whose bandwidth is only 45 kHz, thus saving satellite resources greatly. The system is composed of one master station and one or several, up to sixty-two, secondary stations. The master and secondary stations are equipped with the same equipment, including a set of timing equipment, a synthetic data terminal for time synchronizing, and a interface unit between the data terminal and the satellite earth station. The synthetic data terminal for time synchronization also has an IRIG-B code generator and a translator. The data terminal of master station is the key part of whole system. The system synchronization process is full automatic, which is controlled by the master station. Employing an autoscanning technique and conversational mode, the system accomplishes the following tasks: linking up liaison with each secondary station in turn, establishing a coarse time synchronization, calibrating date (years, months, days) and time of day (hours, minutes, seconds), precisely measuring the time difference between local station and the opposite station, exchanging measurement data, statistically processing the data, rejecting error terms, printing the data, calculating the clock difference and correcting the phase, thus realizing real-time synchronization from one point to multiple points. We also designed an adaptive phase circuit to eliminate the phase ambiguity of the PSK demodulator. The experiments have shown that the time synchronization accuracy is better than 2 mu S. The system has been put into regular operation.

  11. Dynamic stress analysis of sewage centrifugal pump impeller based on two-way coupling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Ji; Yuan, Shouqi; Yuan, Jianping

    2014-03-01

    Current research on the operational reliability of centrifugal pumps has mainly focused on hydrodynamic instability. However, the interaction between the fluid and structure has not been sufficiently considered; this interaction can cause vibration and dynamic stress, which can affect the reliability. In this study, the dynamic stresses in a single-blade centrifugal pump impeller are analysed under different operating conditions; the two-way coupling method is used to calculate the fluid-structure interaction. Three-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the SST k-? turbulence model for the fluid in the whole flow passage, while transient structure dynamic analysis is used with the finite element method for the structure side. The dynamic stresses in the rotor system are computed according to the fourth strength theory. The stress results show that the highest stress is near the loose bearing and that the equivalent stress increases with the flow rate because the dynamic stresses are closely related to the pressure load. The stress distributions on the blade pressure side, suction side, leading edge, and trailing edge are each analysed for different flow rates; the highest stress distribution is found on the pressure side. On the blade pressure side, a relatively large stress is found near the trailing edge and hub side. Based on these results, a stress distribution prediction method is proposed for centrifugal pumps, which considers the interaction between the fluid and structure. The method can be used to check the dynamic stress at different flow rates when optimising the pump design to increase the pump reliability.

  12. Two-way shape memory NiTi sputter-deposited film fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, Edi; Kwok, Chee Y.; Lovell, N.

    2001-11-01

    This paper describes work on two-way shape memory (TWSM) training of 52at.% Ti--48at.% Ni thin films. The amount of recoverable strain of shape memory alloys (SMA) with TWSM is about 2%. With TWSM, NiTi films will remember different high-temperature and low-temperature shapes. These shapes may be cycled fairly reproducibly by simply changing the temperature. In this work, NiTi films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering from an NiTi target with atomic composition of 56at.% Ti--44at.% Ni. The atomic composition of the sputtered films was determined to be 52at.% Ti--48.0at.% Ni by electron microprobe. Solution treatment of the as-deposited films was required to crystallize and memorize a high-temperature shape, followed by age treatment to increase the transformation temperatures to above room temperature. The crystal structure of the solution-treated films was determined to be B2. The transformation temperatures of the age-treated films were determined by differential scanning calorimeter to be 311 K (A*) and 307 K (R*). TWSM training was carried out by over deforming the specimen while in the R-phase. Below Rf, a load was applied to the specimen beyond the usual strain limit for completely recoverable shape memory. Then, the load was removed prior to the next heating step, upon which the reverse transformation occurred under zero stress. With similar loads and temperatures, the procedure was then repeated. This paper will present details of the fabrication techniques, measurement results and its application.

  13. Examining Interior Grid Nudging Techniques Using Two-Way Nesting in the WRF Model for Regional Climate Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates interior nudging techniques using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for regional climate modeling over the conterminous United States (CONUS) using a two-way nested configuration. NCEP–Department of Energy Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Pro...

  14. Examining Interior Grid Nudging Techniques Using Two-Way Nesting in the WRF Model for Regional Climate Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates interior nudging techniques using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for regional climate modeling over the conterminous United States (CONUS) using a two-way nested configuration. NCEPDepartment of Energy Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Pro...

  15. Calorimetric analysis of the two way memory effect in a NiTi alloy -- Experiments and calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.P. da

    1999-04-23

    In addition to the well known one-way memory effect in heating, some shape memory alloys may also exhibit a shape recovery upon cooling, i.e. they show the two-way memory effect (TWME). This is not an inherent property of such alloys, and to obtain it, the alloy must be trained. Besides the two-way memory effect, the training processes can also cause changes such as a shift of the transformation temperatures. In this work a calorimetric investigation of a one-way and two-way NiTi memory alloy is presented. The heat flow was measured by use of a Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The differences in the temperatures and enthalpy of transformations between one-way and two-way memory samples are presented, compared and discussed. A mathematical prediction of the heat and temperatures of transformation is presented.

  16. Velocity model construction, uncertainty evaluation, and two-way travel time to sediment thickness conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Shimeld, J.; Dickie, K.; Dehler, S. A.; Desroches, K.

    2013-12-01

    Sediment thickness determinations play a key role in positioning the most seaward fixed points of the outer limits of continental shelves for coastal states. Seismic reflection surveying is an invaluable technique for estimating the sediment thickness required for the positioning. However, such seismic reflection surveying records the two way travel time (twtt) of vertically incident seismic waves. An accurate seismic velocity model is required for the conversion between twtt and sediment thickness. In this approach, a velocity model is constructed, its uncertainty is evaluated, and twtt is converted to sediment thickness. All of these procedures are programmed for batch and script processing. First, a slowness (the inverse of velocity) function, which is based on the solid sediment compaction theory, is selected and it is fitted using all available velocity observations using the reduced major axis (RMA) method, which can minimize errors from both velocity and depth observations. Second, the velocity uncertainty is estimated using a bootstrapping method by simulating a non-replace re-sampling procedure; thus it is also used in the estimation of sediment thickness uncertainty that is caused by velocity model errors. Moreover, with the constructed velocity model, conversion from sediment depth to twtt is resolved analytically and the conversion from twtt to depth is completed by solving a nonlinear equation with Newton iteration method, having approved convergence efficiency and a predefined accuracy (0.1 m). Finally, all these processes have been implemented in C# and JavaScript for integration with GeoFrame file format (seismic horizon interpretation) or embedded in any document with power batch processing and flexible verification facilities. As an example, publicly available velocity observations in the Labrador Sea region are used in the construction of a velocity model and the evaluation of velocity and sediment thickness uncertainty. The conversion between twtt and sediment thickness, based on the constructed velocity model, is derived and their excellent performance is demonstrated by simulating and comparing with published velocity models in the deep water region of the global oceans.

  17. Two Way Coupling RAM-SCB to the Space Weather Modeling Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, D. T.; Jordanova, V. K.; Zaharia, S. G.; Toth, G.

    2010-12-01

    The Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistently calculated 3D Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) has been used to successfully study inner magnetosphere dynamics during different solar wind and magnetosphere conditions. Recently, one way coupling of RAM-SCB with the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) has been achieved to replace all data or empirical inputs with those obtained through first-principles-based codes: magnetic field and plasma flux outer boundary conditions are provided by the Block Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) MHD code, convection electric field is provided by the Ridley Ionosphere Model (RIM), and ion composition is provided by the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM) combined with a multi-species MHD approach. These advances, though creating a powerful inner magnetosphere virtual laboratory, neglect the important mechanisms through which the ring current feeds back into the whole system, primarily the stretching of the magnetic field lines and shielding of the convection electric field through strong region two Field Aligned Currents (FACs). In turn, changing the magnetosphere in this way changes the evolution of the ring current. To address this shortcoming, the coupling has been expanded to include feedback from RAM-SCB to the other coupled codes: region two FACs are returned to the RIM while total plasma pressure is used to nudge the MHD solution towards the RAM-SCB values. The impacts of the two way coupling are evaluated on three levels: the global magnetospheric level, focusing on the impact on the ionosphere and the shape of the magnetosphere, the regional level, examining the impact on the development of the ring current in terms of energy density, anisotropy, and plasma distribution, and the local level to compare the new results to in-situ measurements of magnetic and electric field and plasma. The results will also be compared to past simulations using the one way coupling and no coupling whatsoever. This work is the first to fully couple an anisotropic kinetic ring current code with a self-consistently calculated magnetic field to a set of global models.

  18. A Lagrangian vorticity method for two-phase particulate flows with two-way coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongbo

    1998-11-01

    A Lagrangian vorticity-based method for simulating two- way interaction in a two-phase flow with heavy particles is developed in this dissertation. The flow is computed by solving the vorticity transport equation, including the particle-induced vorticity source, and the mass conservation equation for particle concentration on separate sets of fluid and particle control points, respectively. The fluid control points are advected with the local fluid velocity, plus a diffusion velocity for viscous problems to account for the spread of the vorticity support via diffusion. The particle control points are advected by solution of the particle momentum equation. Novel features of the numerical method include the scheme for calculation of the particle-induced vorticity source using a 'moving-least square' differentiation scheme across the two sets of control points and the ability to absorb the vorticity generated by particle forces through an adaptive scheme for generation of new fluid control points. Test calculations with a vortex patch filled with particles show that the numerical results compare well with the results obtained both by a traditional finite-difference method and by an asymptotic approximation valid for small Stokes numbers. The numerical method is employed to study the wakes of particle clouds falling under gravity and the interaction between the wake and nearby vortex structures. By scaling the fluid and particle velocity fields with the particle terminal velocity, the wake is found to depend on two dimensionless parameters: the Stokes number St and the maximum initial particle concentration of the particle cloud c max. Results show that the wake of an isolated particle cloud consists of two vortex sheets with opposite sign vorticity. The wake strength is found to vary with the falling distance and is principally dependent on c max/St. Interaction between multiple particle clouds principally occurs when the area swept out by one cloud intersects with the wake of another cloud. When a vortex patch is present in the path of the falling particle cloud, the resulting flow depends on the ratio ?v/?w of the initial vortex strength to the strength of the particle cloud wake.

  19. Two way coupling RAM-SCB to the space weather modeling framework

    SciTech Connect

    Welling, Daniel T; Jordanova, Vania K; Zaharia, Sorin G; Toth, Gabor

    2010-12-03

    The Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistently calculated 3D Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) has been used to successfully study inner magnetosphere dynamics during different solar wind and magnetosphere conditions. Recently, one way coupling of RAM-SCB with the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) has been achieved to replace all data or empirical inputs with those obtained through first-principles-based codes: magnetic field and plasma flux outer boundary conditions are provided by the Block Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) MHO code, convection electric field is provided by the Ridley Ionosphere Model (RIM), and ion composition is provided by the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM) combined with a multi-species MHO approach. These advances, though creating a powerful inner magnetosphere virtual laboratory, neglect the important mechanisms through which the ring current feeds back into the whole system, primarily the stretching of the magnetic field lines and shielding of the convection electric field through strong region two Field Aligned Currents (FACs). In turn, changing the magnetosphere in this way changes the evolution of the ring current. To address this shortcoming, the coupling has been expanded to include feedback from RAM-SCB to the other coupled codes: region two FACs are returned to the RIM while total plasma pressure is used to nudge the MHO solution towards the RAMSCB values. The impacts of the two way coupling are evaluated on three levels: the global magnetospheric level, focusing on the impact on the ionosphere and the shape of the magnetosphere, the regional level, examining the impact on the development of the ring current in terms of energy density, anisotropy, and plasma distribution, and the local level to compare the new results to in-situ measurements of magnetic and electric field and plasma. The results will also be compared to past simulations using the one way coupling and no coupling whatsoever. This work is the first to fully couple an anisotropic kinetic ring current code with a selfconsistently calculated magnetic field to a set of global models.

  20. A two-way street: bridging implementation science and cultural adaptations of mental health treatments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Racial and ethnic disparities in the United States exist along the entire continuum of mental health care, from access and use of services to the quality and outcomes of care. Efforts to address these inequities in mental health care have focused on adapting evidence-based treatments to clients’ diverse cultural backgrounds. Yet, like many evidence-based treatments, culturally adapted interventions remain largely unused in usual care settings. We propose that a viable avenue to address this critical question is to create a dialogue between the fields of implementation science and cultural adaptation. In this paper, we discuss how integrating these two fields can make significant contributions to reducing racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care. Discussion The use of cultural adaptation models in implementation science can deepen the explicit attention to culture, particularly at the client and provider levels, in implementation studies making evidence-based treatments more responsive to the needs and preferences of diverse populations. The integration of both fields can help clarify and specify what to adapt in order to achieve optimal balance between adaptation and fidelity, and address important implementation outcomes (e.g., acceptability, appropriateness). A dialogue between both fields can help clarify the knowledge, skills and roles of who should facilitate the process of implementation, particularly when cultural adaptations are needed. The ecological perspective of implementation science provides an expanded lens to examine how contextual factors impact how treatments (adapted or not) are ultimately used and sustained in usual care settings. Integrating both fields can also help specify when in the implementation process adaptations may be considered in order to enhance the adoption and sustainability of evidence-based treatments. Summary Implementation science and cultural adaptation bring valuable insights and methods to how and to what extent treatments and/or context should be customized to enhance the implementation of evidence-based treatments across settings and populations. Developing a two-way street between these two fields can provide a better avenue for moving the best available treatments into practice and for helping to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care. PMID:23958445

  1. Atlantic cod actively avoid CO2 and predator odour, even after long-term CO2 exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The rising atmospheric CO2 level is continuously driving the dissolution of more CO2 into the oceans, and some emission scenarios project that the surface waters may reach 1000 μatm by the end of the century. It is not known if fish can detect moderately elevated CO2 levels, and if they avoid areas with high CO2. If so, avoidance behaviour to water with high CO2 could affect movement patterns and migrations of fish in the future. It is also being increasingly recognized that fish behaviour can be altered by exposure to CO2. Therefore this study investigated how long-term exposure to elevated pCO2 affects predator avoidance and CO2 avoidance in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The fish were exposed to control water or CO2-enriched water (1000 μatm) for six weeks before being subjected to tests of behaviour. Results Despite long term exposure to elevated pCO2 the cod still strongly avoided the smell of a predator. These data are surprising because several coral reef fish have demonstrated reversal of olfactory responses after CO2 exposure, turning avoidance of predator cues into preference for predator cues. Fish from both treatment groups also demonstrated strong avoidance of CO2 when presented with the choice of control or CO2-acidified water, indicating that habituation to the CO2 sensory stimuli is negligible. Conclusions As Atlantic cod maintained normal behavioural responses to olfactory cues, they may be tolerant to CO2-induced behavioural changes. The results also suggest that despite the long-term exposure to CO2-acidified water, the fish still preferred the control water over CO2-acidified water. Therefore, in the future, fish may alter their movements and migrations in search of waters with a lower CO2 content. PMID:24373523

  2. Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 10-21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercy, Anthony; Stefani, Fabio; Lopez, Olivier; Chardonnet, Christian; Pottie, Paul-Eric; Amy-Klein, Anne

    2014-12-01

    By using two-way frequency transfer, we implement a real-time frequency comparison over a uni-directional telecommunication network of 100 km using a pair of parallel fibers with simultaneous digital data transfer. The relative frequency stability is 10-15 at 1-s integration time and reaches 2 10-17 at 40 000 s, three orders of magnitude below the one-way fiber instability. We also demonstrate ultrahigh-resolution comparison of optical frequencies with a bidirectional scheme using a single fiber. We show that the relative stability at 1-s integration time is 7 10-18 and scales down to 5 10-21 . The same level of performance is reached when an optical link is implemented with an active compensation of the fiber noise. The fractional uncertainty of the frequency comparisons was evaluated for the best case to 2 10-20 . These results open the way to accurate and high-resolution frequency comparison of optical clocks over intercontinental fiber networks.

  3. Absence of Warm-Up during Active Avoidance Learning in a Rat Model of Anxiety Vulnerability: Insights from Computational Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Catherine E.; Smith, Ian M.; Servatius, Richard J.; Beck, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Avoidance behaviors, in which a learned response causes omission of an upcoming punisher, are a core feature of many psychiatric disorders. While reinforcement learning (RL) models have been widely used to study the development of appetitive behaviors, less attention has been paid to avoidance. Here, we present a RL model of lever-press avoidance learning in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and in the inbred Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, which has been proposed as a model of anxiety vulnerability. We focus on warm-up, transiently decreased avoidance responding at the start of a testing session, which is shown by SD but not WKY rats. We first show that a RL model can correctly simulate key aspects of acquisition, extinction, and warm-up in SD rats; we then show that WKY behavior can be simulated by altering three model parameters, which respectively govern the tendency to explore new behaviors vs. exploit previously reinforced ones, the tendency to repeat previous behaviors regardless of reinforcement, and the learning rate for predicting future outcomes. This suggests that several, dissociable mechanisms may contribute independently to strain differences in behavior. The model predicts that, if the standard inter-session interval is shortened from 48 to 24?h, SD rats (but not WKY) will continue to show warm-up; we confirm this prediction in an empirical study with SD and WKY rats. The model further predicts that SD rats will continue to show warm-up with inter-session intervals as short as a few minutes, while WKY rats will not show warm-up, even with inter-session intervals as long as a month. Together, the modeling and empirical data indicate that strain differences in warm-up are qualitative rather than just the result of differential sensitivity to task variables. Understanding the mechanisms that govern expression of warm-up behavior in avoidance may lead to better understanding of pathological avoidance, and potential pathways to modify these processes. PMID:25183956

  4. High-Efficiency Ka-Band Waveguide Two-Way Asymmetric Power Combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, E. G.; Simons, R. N.; Freeman, J. C.; Chevalier, C. T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is planning a number of Space Exploration, Earth Observation and Space Science missions where Ka-band solid-state power amplifiers (SSPAs) could have a role. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) based SSPAs with output powers on the order of 10 W at Ka-band frequencies would be adequate to satisfy the data transmission rate requirements at the distances involved. MMICs are a type of integrated circuit fabricated on a GaAs wafer, which operates at micro wave frequencies and performs the function of signal amplification. The highest power Ka-band (31.8 to 32.3 GHz) SSPA to have flown in space had an output power of 2.6 W with an overall efficiency of 14.3 percent. This SSPA was built around discrete GaAs pHEMT (high electron mobility transistor) devices and flew aboard the Deep Space One spacecraft. State-of-the-art GaAs pHEMT-based MMIC power amplifiers (PAs) can deliver RF power at Ka-band frequencies anywhere from 3 W with a power added efficiency (PAE) of 32 percent to 6 W with a PAE of 26 percent. However, to achieve power levels higher than 6 W, the output of several MMIC PAs would need to be combined using a high-efficiency power combiner. Conventional binary waveguide power combiners, based on short-slot and magic-T circuits, require MMIC PAs with identical amplitude and phase characteristics for high combining efficiency. However, due to manufacturing process variations, the output powers of the MMIC PAs tend to be unequal, and hence the need to develop unequal power combiners. A two-way asymmetric magic-T based power combiner for MMIC power amplifiers, which can take in unequal inputs, has been successfully designed, fabricated, and characterized over NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) frequency range of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz. The figure is a transparent view of the a sym - metric combiner that shows the 4-port configuration and the internal structure. The rod, post, and iris are positioned by design to achieve the desired asymmetric power ratio, phase equality, and port isolation. Although the combiner was designed for an input power ratio of 2:1, it can be custom-designed for any arbitrary power ratio and frequency range. The manufactured prototype combiner was precision machined from aluminum and is less than 2 in.3 (32.8 cm3). Previously investigated rectangular waveguide unequal power combiners were based on shunt/series coupling slots, E-plane septums, or H-plane T-junctions. All the prior art unequal power combiners operated at or below X-band (10 GHz) frequencies and were primarily used in the feed network of antenna arrays. The only reported asymmetric magic-T was developed as a 2:1 power divider for operation at a much lower frequency, around 500 MHz. The measured power ratio when tested as a power divider was very close to 2 and the phase balance was within 2.6, resulting in near ideal performance. When tested as a combiner using two MMIC SSPAs with a 2:1 power output ratio, an efficiency greater than 90 percent was demonstrated over the 500 MHz DSN frequency range. The return loss at the combiner output port (1) was greater than 18 dB and the input port (2 and 3) isolation was greater than 22 dB. The results show the asymmetric combiner to be a good candidate for high-efficiency power combining of two or more SSPAs needed to achieve the 6 to 10 W required by space communications systems of future NASA missions.

  5. Surface Reflection Phase in Two Way Acoustic Signal in Oceanic Crustal Deformation Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, R.; Tadokoro, K.; Watanabe, T.; Nagai, S.; Okuda, T.

    2011-12-01

    We are developing a geodetic method of monitoring crustal deformation under the ocean using kinematic GPS and acoustic ranging. The measurements are done by measuring two way traveltime of supersonic signal between a vessel, whose position is precisely determined by kinematic GPS, and transponders array (benchmark) on the ocean bottom. The goal of our research is to achieve sub-centimeter accuracy in measuring position of the benchmark by a very short-time measurement like 10 hours. In this study, we focused the under-water acoustic part of the system to improve data acquisition rate and then number of observation equations to solve the position of the benchmark with better accuracy. The measurements have started in Suruga Bay in 2003 and in Kumano Basin in 2004, which have been repeated a few times in a year. The accuracy of the benchmark positioning depends on the quality and quantity of the acoustic signal data. We are using M-sequence signal because of its robustness against ambient noises (The signal length is 14.322ms, Carrier frequency is 12.987kHz). We calculate cross-correlation between emitted and received signal and then accept the signal with cross correlation coefficient higher than a threshold. However, we often failed to achieve well correlated signals and then obtain very few traveltime data through one cruise. Sometimes in the cruise of good condition, 70 % of acoustic data have correlation coefficient above 0.7, on the other hand, only 10 % of all the data have correlation coefficient of 0.7 in bad condition cruise. We found that increase of ambient noise and contamination of later phase resembling to the main signal occurs independently each other. The ambient noise should be due to screw noise of the vessel because the noise grew up when sailing against the wind and current. On the other hand the later phases have following features: 1. Arrive in between 1 and 2 ms after the main signal arrival 2. The cross-correlation coefficient sometimes higher than that of the main signal. The vale is 0.5 at a maximum. 3. They appear more often when the benchmark located in the left side of the vessel where onboard transducer is equipped. 4. Observed more clearly in calm condition The later phases should be the signals reflected by the surface judged from the latter two features. We manually corrected the miss reading of this reflecting phase on the basis of the amplitude of the first arrival. The data acquisition rate increased from 30 % to 70 % at the maximum. In this study we manually picked up the first arrival because of high error rate of automatic pickup algorithm. Both improvement of automatically picking algorithm and hard reduction of reflection phase should be important in the first place.

  6. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  7. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned

  8. Two-Way Integration of WRF and CCSM for Regional Climate Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wuyin; Zhang, Minghua; He, Juanxiong; Jiao, Xiangmin; Chen, Ying; Colle, Brian; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Liu, Ping; Khairoutdinov, Marat; Leung, Ruby

    2013-07-12

    Under the support of the DOE award DE-SC0004670, we have successfully developed an integrated climate modeling system by nesting Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model within the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and the ensuing new generation Community Earth System Model (CESM). The integrated WRF/CESM system is intended as one method of global climate modeling with regional simulation capabilities. It allows interactive dynamical regional downscaling in the computational flow of present or future global climate simulations. This capability substantially simplifies the process of dynamical downscaling by avoiding massive intermediate model outputs at high frequency that are typically required for offline regional downscaling. The inline coupling also has the advantage of higher temporal resolution for the interaction between regional and global model components. With the aid of the inline coupling, a capability has also been developed to ingest other global climate simulations (by CESM or other models), which otherwise may not have necessary intermediate outputs for regional downscaling, to realize their embedded regional details. It is accomplished by relaxing the global atmospheric state of the integrated model to that of the source simulations with an appropriate time scale. This capability has the potential to open a new venue for ensemble regional climate simulations using a single modeling system. Furthermore, this new modeling system provides an effective modeling framework for the studies of physical and dynamical feedbacks of regional weather phenomena to the large scale circulation. The projected uses of this capability include the research of up-scaling effect of regional weather system, and its use as an alternative physical representation of sub-scale processes in coarser-resolution climate models.

  9. About the wave-current interactions: a framework for the use of the two-way mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennis, A.; Dumas, F.; Ardhuin, F.

    2012-12-01

    An important goal for the future is to simulate coastal circulation with the greatest accuracy and lowest computational cost, in particular to study marine submersion, the dispersion of pollutants and sediment transport. For all of these fields of application, wave-current interactions play an important role. We propose to define a framework for the use of the three-dimensional numerical wave-current model because of its combination with sediment transport and biological models, which increase computational time. The importance of the feedback of the flow on the waves is particularly investigated in the context of idealized (Yu et Slinn, 2003) and realistic (Bruneau et al, 2009) barred beaches. The fully coupled model MARS3D-WAVEWATCH III (Bennis et al, 2011) based on the vortex force formalism is used. The differences between the one-way and two-way modes with horizontal resolution are highlighted. First, the results obtained by Weir et al (2011), for the barotropic mode and for finer resolution, are found, which validates our modelization. Next, we show that (a) from coarser to finer meshes, the differences between the two modes are greatly increased, in particular by a factor of two on the magnitude of the rip current; (b) the vertical structure of the rip current and the momentum balance is also affected by the feedback, with a decrease in the vertical shear of the rip current when the feedback is activated. We conclude that the one-way mode is sufficient with the coarse mesh and a classification defining the framework for the use of the numerical wave-current model is established with the computing time for each situation. In the future, we will work on taking into account the feedback effects in the one-way mode using inverse methods in order to further decrease computational time

  10. “Assessment of the two-way Coupled WRF-CMAQ Model with Observations from the CARES”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main goal of this assessment is to evaluate the improved aerosol component of two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ model particularly in representing aerosol physical and optical properties by utilizing observations from the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in May...

  11. 21 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Elements To Be Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements To Be Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System E Appendix E to Subpart A of Part 26 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY...

  12. A Latent Class Multidimensional Scaling Model for Two-Way One-Mode Continuous Rating Dissimilarity Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, J. Fernando; Macias, Rodrigo; Heiser, Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a cluster-MDS model for two-way one-mode continuous rating dissimilarity data. The model aims at partitioning the objects into classes and simultaneously representing the cluster centers in a low-dimensional space. Under the normal distribution assumption, a latent class model is developed in terms of the set of

  13. Teacher and Student Language Practices and Ideologies in a Third-Grade Two-Way Dual Language Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Kathryn I.; Palmer, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth exploration of the language ecologies of two classrooms attempting to implement a two-way dual language (TWDL) program and its mediating conditions. Drawing on ethnographic methods and a sociocultural understanding of language, we examined both teachers' and students' language ideologies and language practices,…

  14. Two-way deterministic quantum key distribution against passive detector side channel attacks in the forward line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hua

    2015-10-01

    In the four-state two-way deterministic quantum key distribution (DQKD) protocol, Bob prepares a qubit randomly in one of four states and sends it to Alice. Alice encodes her key bit on the arrival qubit and returns it to Bob who measures the redux qubit to decode Alice's key bit in a deterministic manner, without basis reconciliation. The unconditional security of the final key of this protocol has been proven in the ideal-device settings. Recently, it has been proven that two-way DQKD protocol is immune to all detector side channel attacks in the backward line A-to-B. In this paper, we study the security of two-way DQKD against passive detector side channel attacks in the forward line B-to-A. In a passive detector side channel attack, the eavesdropper Eve does not disturb quantum state of travel photon but utilizes the efficiency mismatch of two single-photon detectors to estimate the value of key bits, such as the time-shift attack. We prove that two-way DQKD is immune against all passive detector side channel attacks in the forward line B-to-A, although such attacks are efficient on BB84 protocol.

  15. Effects of a Peer-Mediated Program on Reading Skill Acquisition for Two-Way Bilingual First-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoon, Mary Beth; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Cihak, David; King, Amber; Avalos, Annalise

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a supplemental peer-mediated reading program on reading achievement of first graders (N = 76) in a two-way bilingual immersion (TWBI) program. Nearly 80% of students were Hispanic; of these, 24 were identified as English language learners (ELLs). Classrooms were randomly assigned to…

  16. Effects of a Two-Way Bilingual Program on the Literacy Development of Students in Kindergarten and First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria G.; Tashakkori, Abbas

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the short-term effects of a two-way bilingual education program on the literacy development of students in kindergarten and first grade. This study compared the literacy development of two groups of children who received different proportions of instruction in English and Spanish. Both the experimental and control groups

  17. A Latent Class Multidimensional Scaling Model for Two-Way One-Mode Continuous Rating Dissimilarity Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, J. Fernando; Macias, Rodrigo; Heiser, Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a cluster-MDS model for two-way one-mode continuous rating dissimilarity data. The model aims at partitioning the objects into classes and simultaneously representing the cluster centers in a low-dimensional space. Under the normal distribution assumption, a latent class model is developed in terms of the set of…

  18. Teacher and Student Language Practices and Ideologies in a Third-Grade Two-Way Dual Language Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Kathryn I.; Palmer, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth exploration of the language ecologies of two classrooms attempting to implement a two-way dual language (TWDL) program and its mediating conditions. Drawing on ethnographic methods and a sociocultural understanding of language, we examined both teachers' and students' language ideologies and language practices,

  19. English and Spanish "Para Un Futuro"--Or Just English? Immigrant Family Perspectives on Two-Way Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Lisa Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article considers immigrants' perspectives on language immersion education. Data are drawn from a longitudinal research project that examined one suburban school district's construction of a two-way immersion (TWI), bilingual education policy. Analyses focus on 18 months of participant observation with six Mexican immigrant families who had

  20. Perceived Impact of Two-Way Dual Immersion Programs on Latino Students' Relationships in Their Families and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Nicholas C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how participation of Latino students in two-way dual immersion versus mainstream programs might have impacted students' relationships with Spanish-speaking adults, thus affecting contexts for students to develop resiliency. Participants were parents of 90 fifth- and sixth-grade students (initially English proficient [EP] as

  1. 21 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Elements To Be Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elements To Be Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System E Appendix E to Subpart A of Part 26 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Good Manufacturing Practices Pt. 26, Subpt. A, App. E Appendix E to Subpart A of Part 26—Elements To...

  2. Effects of a Peer-Mediated Program on Reading Skill Acquisition for Two-Way Bilingual First-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoon, Mary Beth; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Cihak, David; King, Amber; Avalos, Annalise

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a supplemental peer-mediated reading program on reading achievement of first graders (N = 76) in a two-way bilingual immersion (TWBI) program. Nearly 80% of students were Hispanic; of these, 24 were identified as English language learners (ELLs). Classrooms were randomly assigned to

  3. Home Language and Literacy Practices of Parents at One Spanish-English Two-Way Immersion Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinauer, Erika; Whiting, Erin Feinauer

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how parents in one Spanish-English two-way immersion (TWI) charter school report their participation in various home language and literacy practices. Parent groups, based on a cluster analysis, highlight the heterogeneity of Latino parents at the school while acknowledging the commonalities as well. Four parent groups emerged

  4. Taking a Closer Look at Latino Parents at One Spanish-English Two-Way Immersion Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Erin; Feinauer, Erika; VanDerwerken, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Scholars who work with Latino/as in the USA have long been calling for a more nuanced understanding of the heterogeneity of the US-based Latino population. Two-way Immersion (TWI) bilingual education programmes are an interesting context in which to examine the Latino parent communities in the USA. Overall, the language enrichment nature of TWI

  5. Two-Way Interactive Television for Distance Learning: A Primer. An ITTE Technology Leadership Network Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Karen; Kitchen, Will

    Two-way interactive television (ITV) can broaden the variety of instructional programs available to students, ease the logistical problems of teacher inservice, provide new services to community members, and sometimes be a magnet for the collaboration of business and education. This special report, third in a series, examines the technology,…

  6. A comparison of methods for the training of NiTi two-way shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H. Y.; Abel, E. W.

    2007-12-01

    The creation of an effective two-way shape memory alloy (TWSMA) requires appropriate heat treatment and optimal training considerations. In particular, the training method used plays a key role. This work investigates different training methods for producing NiTi TWSMA wires with the hot shape of an arc and the cold shape of a straight line. These methods are shape memory cycling, constrained cycling of deformed martensite, pseudoelastic cycling and combined shape memory and pseudoelastic cycling. In order to give a meaningful evaluation of their performance that is relevant to training TWSMA for practical applications, these training methods are assessed in terms of maximum two-way strain, changes in the original hot shape together with the transformation temperatures after the training process, and the effective production of the cold shape. It was found that only the combined shape memory and pseudoelastic cycling provides an effective training method for creating NiTi TWSMA with a non-uniaxial two-way shape change. The undesirable side effects of training are that the NiTi TWSMA wire loses partial memory of the original hot shape and its transformation temperatures shift to lower values. There also exists an optimal number of training cycles, and possibly an optimal training load for obtaining the best cold shape memory and the greatest two-way recoverable strain. These findings give future directions to advance the training technology for TWSMA.

  7. 77 FR 51045 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc.gov , and will be available for inspection during official business... submissions must be filed no later than by close of business, eight calendar days after the date of... COMMISSION Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice...

  8. A comparison of the Quade and Friedman tests to the unbalanced two-way analysis of variance with biomedical data.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R A

    1988-01-01

    The analysis of unbalanced two-way analysis of variance model using a parametric ANOVA (F-test) is compared to two nonparametric tests (extensions of the Quade and Friedman tests). Results from a Turbo Pascal program written for MS-DOS microcomputers are given for a biomedical experiment using ultrasound data to calibrate heart valve measurements. PMID:3060311

  9. Actin polymerization or myosin contraction: two ways to build up cortical tension for symmetry breaking

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Kevin; Lemire, Jol; Faqir, Fahima; Manzi, John; Blanchoin, Laurent; Plastino, Julie; Betz, Timo; Sykes, Ccile

    2013-01-01

    Cells use complex biochemical pathways to drive shape changes for polarization and movement. One of these pathways is the self-assembly of actin filaments and myosin motors that together produce the forces and tensions that drive cell shape changes. Whereas the role of actin and myosin motors in cell polarization is clear, the exact mechanism of how the cortex, a thin shell of actin that is underneath the plasma membrane, can drive cell shape changes is still an open question. Here, we address this issue using biomimetic systems: the actin cortex is reconstituted on liposome membranes, in an outside geometry. The actin shell is either grown from an activator of actin polymerization immobilized at the membrane by a biotinstreptavidin link, or built by simple adsorption of biotinylated actin filaments to the membrane, in the presence or absence of myosin motors. We show that tension in the actin network can be induced either by active actin polymerization on the membrane via the Arp2/3 complex or by myosin II filament pulling activity. Symmetry breaking and spontaneous polarization occur above a critical tension that opens up a crack in the actin shell. We show that this critical tension is reached by growing branched networks, nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex, in a concentration window of capping protein that limits actin filament growth and by a sufficient number of motors that pull on actin filaments. Our study provides the groundwork to understanding the physical mechanisms at work during polarization prior to cell shape modifications. PMID:24062578

  10. Avoidable waste management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  11. [?-, ?-Modulation of the Ventral Tegmental Area Fast-Gamma Activity in the Course of Performance of Conditioned Avoidance Reflex in Rat].

    PubMed

    Serkov, A N; Maiorov, V I

    2015-01-01

    The prestimulus expectation period of conditioned avoidance reflex features synchronized ?-rhythm (1-4 Hz) in the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and synchronized ?-rhythm (6-8 Hz) in the above-mentioned structures and the hippocampus. According to "Granger causality" ?- and ?-rhythms flow (are predictors) in the direction from the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus to the VTA. Performance of conditioned avoidance reflex was marked by ?-rhythm elimination simultaneously with generation of high-frequency (8-11 Hz) synchronized ?-rhythm. ?-rhythm was shifted from the pre- to poststimulus period and prefrontal cortex--VTA ?-synchrony was eliminated in the cases of mistaken reaction withdrawal, Pavlovian fear conditioning scheme, conditioned signal presentation in the safe chamber part. The phase of ?-, ?-rhythm modulates the amplitude of VTA fast (70-160 Hz) ?-activity envelope, VTA/cortex and VTA/hippocampus ?-phase synchronization and phase lag indexes, and frequency of simultaneously recorded VTA neuronal activity. PMID:26281234

  12. Immune Interactions with Pathogenic and Commensal Fungi: A Two-Way Street.

    PubMed

    Underhill, David M; Pearlman, Eric

    2015-11-17

    We are exposed to a wide spectrum of fungi including innocuous environmental organisms, opportunistic pathogens, commensal organisms, and fungi that can actively and explicitly cause disease. Much less is understood about effective host immunity to fungi than is generally known about immunity to bacterial and viral pathogens. Innate and adaptive arms of the immune system are required for effective host defense against Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and others, with specific elements of the host response regulating specific types of fungal infections (e.g., mucocutaneous versus systemic). Here we will review themes and controversies that are currently shaping investigation of antifungal immunity (primarily to Candida and Aspergillus) and will also examine the emerging field of the role of fungi in the gut microbiome. PMID:26588778

  13. Dizocilpine (MK-801) impairs learning in the active place avoidance task but has no effect on the performance during task/context alternation.

    PubMed

    Vojtechova, Iveta; Petrasek, Tomas; Hatalova, Hana; Pistikova, Adela; Vales, Karel; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-05-15

    The prevention of engram interference, pattern separation, flexibility, cognitive coordination and spatial navigation are usually studied separately at the behavioral level. Impairment in executive functions is often observed in patients suffering from schizophrenia. We have designed a protocol for assessing these functions all together as behavioral separation. This protocol is based on alternated or sequential training in two tasks testing different hippocampal functions (the Morris water maze and active place avoidance), and alternated or sequential training in two similar environments of the active place avoidance task. In Experiment 1, we tested, in adult rats, whether the performance in two different spatial tasks was affected by their order in sequential learning, or by their day-to-day alternation. In Experiment 2, rats learned to solve the active place avoidance task in two environments either alternately or sequentially. We found that rats are able to acquire both tasks and to discriminate both similar contexts without obvious problems regardless of the order or the alternation. We used two groups of rats, controls and a rat model of psychosis induced by a subchronic intraperitoneal application of 0.08mg/kg of dizocilpine (MK-801), a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors. Dizocilpine had no selective effect on parallel/sequential learning of tasks/contexts. However, it caused hyperlocomotion and a significant deficit in learning in the active place avoidance task regardless of the task alternation. Cognitive coordination tested by this task is probably more sensitive to dizocilpine than spatial orientation because no hyperactivity or learning impairment was observed in the Morris water maze. PMID:26970577

  14. Two-way communication with neural networks in vivo using focused light

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nathan R.; Schummers, James; Runyan, Caroline A.; Yan, Sherry; Chen, Robert F.; Deng, Yuting; Sur, Mriganka

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal networks process information in a distributed, spatially heterogeneous fashion that transcends the layout of electrodes. In contrast, directed and steerable light offers the potential to engage specific cells on demand. We present a unified framework for adapting microscopes to use light for simultaneous in vivo stimulation and recording of cells at fine spatiotemporal resolutions. We utilize straightforward optics to lock onto networks in vivo, steer light to activate circuit elements, and simultaneously record from other cells. We then actualize this “free” augmentation on both an “open” two-photon microscope, and a leading commercial one. Following this protocol, setup of the system takes a few days and the result is a non-invasive interface to brain dynamics based on directed light, at a network resolution that was not previously possible and which will further improve with the rapid advance in development of optical reporters and effectors. This protocol is for physiologists who are competent with computers and wish to extend hardware and software to interface more fluidly with neuronal networks. PMID:23702834

  15. Design considerations for computationally constrained two-way real-time video communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bivolarski, Lazar M.; Saunders, Steven E.; Ralston, John D.

    2009-08-01

    Today's video codecs have evolved primarily to meet the requirements of the motion picture and broadcast industries, where high-complexity studio encoding can be utilized to create highly-compressed master copies that are then broadcast one-way for playback using less-expensive, lower-complexity consumer devices for decoding and playback. Related standards activities have largely ignored the computational complexity and bandwidth constraints of wireless or Internet based real-time video communications using devices such as cell phones or webcams. Telecommunications industry efforts to develop and standardize video codecs for applications such as video telephony and video conferencing have not yielded image size, quality, and frame-rate performance that match today's consumer expectations and market requirements for Internet and mobile video services. This paper reviews the constraints and the corresponding video codec requirements imposed by real-time, 2-way mobile video applications. Several promising elements of a new mobile video codec architecture are identified, and more comprehensive computational complexity metrics and video quality metrics are proposed in order to support the design, testing, and standardization of these new mobile video codecs.

  16. Differentiations of Enantiomers via Their Diastereomeric Association ComplexesThere Are Two Ways of Shaking Hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannschreck, Albrecht; Kiesswetter, Roland

    2005-07-01

    The intermolecular interactions of one enantiomer with a chiral auxiliary molecule and the interactions of the other enantiomer with the auxiliary are considered. Different functions of the latter give rise to the following well-known aspects of organic stereochemistry that are characterized in the present article: (i) preparative separation of enantiomers via crystallization of diastereomeric salts; (ii) analysis of enantiomers by NMR spectroscopy; (iii) separation of enantiomers by chromatography; (iv) biological activities of enantiomers; and (v) reactivities of enantiomers in enzymatic resolution. The common basis of these aspects is the formation of two diastereomeric association complexes that may differ with respect to their physical and chemical properties. The following practical applications of this phenomenon are briefly described: the small- and large-scale preparation of the enantiomers of organic compounds; the analysis of chiral nonracemic mixtures by chromatography and by NMR spectroscopy; and the growing use of drugs in the form of one of the enantiomers. It is proposed to emphasize the similarity of the association-based differentiations. This goal can be attained by giving a corresponding lecture in the second or third year of university chemistry.

  17. Development of high temperature two-way shape memory alloys. Final report, 1 October 1991-31 March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.H.

    1995-10-17

    This report concludes a nearly 4-year study of Shape Memory Alloys and development of new high temperature two-way shape memory alloys. New alloys were characterized in terms of their phase transformation temperatures, shape memory effect and mechanical properties. The work encompassed investigations of smart structures including NiTi-aluminum metal-metal composite materials. Development of high temperature SMAs extend use of applications to areas in which they are most needed, i.e., in defense and industrial fields that employ shape controlling and vibration depression in high temperature environments. Most of the research focused on the Ti and Ni Mn-Ti systems, and investigation and training of NiTi-Fd, NiTi-Hf and NiTi--Zr two-way shape memory alloys.

  18. Two-Way Text Messaging Solves Key Socialization Issues for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Teens and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akamatsu, C. Tane; Mayer, Connie; Farrelly, Shona

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a pilot project that examined the use of a two-way text messenger for deaf and hard of hearing teens and their parents. The study took place at two large inner-city public high schools and in grade 8 of their feeder school. The vast majority of the students in the study had severe to profound congenital hearing loss and were

  19. Ocean Dynamics Simulation during an Extreme Bora Event using a Two-Way Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licer, Matjaz; Smerkol, Peter; Fettich, Anja; Ravdas, Michalis; Papapostolou, Alexandros; Mantziafou, Anneta; Cedilnik, Jure; Strajnar, Benedikt; Jeromel, Maja; Pristov, Neva; Jerman, Jure; Petan, Saso; Malacic, Vlado; Sofianos, Sarantis

    2015-04-01

    The response of the Adriatic Sea to cold north-easterly Bora wind forcing has been modelled numerous times, but usually using one-way coupling techniques. One of the most significant events of the kind took place in February 2012, when hurricane force Bora was blowing over the Northern Adriatic almost continuously for over three weeks, causing extreme air-sea interactions leading to severe water cooling (below 4 degrees Celsius) and extensive dense water formation (with density anomalies above 30.5 kg/m3). The intensity of the atmosphere-ocean interactions during such conditions calls for a two-way atmosphere-ocean coupling approach. We compare the performances of a) fully two-way coupled atmosphere-ocean modelling system and b) one way coupled ocean model (forced by the atmospheric model hourly output) to the available in-situ measurements (coastal buoy, CTD). The models used were ALADIN (4.4 km resolution) on the atmospheric side and POM (1/30 1/30 resolution) on the ocean side. The atmosphere-ocean coupling was implemented using the OASIS3-MCT model coupling toolkit. We show that the atmosphere-ocean two-way coupling significantly improves the simulated temperature and density response of the ocean since it represents short-termed transient features much better than the offline version of the ocean model.

  20. Two Ways to Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    One popular approach to teacher leadership is to identify certain teachers as particularly successful, then have others learn from them. Collaborative leadership, in contrast, looks at leadership as a quality that anyone can have. In this model, the goal is not to figure out who is best. Instead, teachers share their unique talents and interests…

  1. Disclosure Two Ways.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Erin B

    2015-01-01

    This article is an initial attempt to compare the pre-abortion disclosure mandates that have proliferated in the two decades since the Court decided Planned Parenthood v. Casey with laws that, in the context of assisted reproduction and reproductive health, require specific disclosures beyond a state's baseline informed consent requirements. While some scholars have characterized pre-abortion disclosure laws as sui generis, they share some important common features with disclosure mandates in the context of oocyte donation and other reproductive health procedures. This article suggests that in critiquing pre-abortion disclosure mandates, scholars and advocates should be careful to differentiate the use of disclosure laws in general from uses where the government interest conveys a moral preference against a particular procedure. PMID:26242945

  2. "Two-Way Street"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mabel

    1975-01-01

    The development of adult programs of family life education in Ohio from the 1930s to the present is recounted. Approximately half the article describes a series of 12 half-hour television programs which present family life education in a soap opera format, and the research from which it was developed. (AJ)

  3. Pyrazine analogs are active components of wolf urine that induce avoidance and fear-related behaviors in deer.

    PubMed

    Osada, Kazumi; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that a cocktail of pyrazine analogs, identified in wolf urine, induced avoidance and fear behaviors in mice. The effects of the pyrazine cocktail on Hokkaido deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) were investigated in field bioassays at a deer park in Hokkaido, Japan. A set of feeding bioassay trials tested the effects of the pyrazine cocktail odor on the behavior of the deer located around a feeding area in August and September 2013. This odor effectively suppressed the approach of the deer to the feeding area. In addition, the pyrazine cocktail odor provoked fear-related behaviors, such as "tail-flag", "flight" and "jump" actions, of the deer around the feeding area. This study is the first experimental demonstration that the pyrazine analogs in wolf urine have robust and continual fearful aversive effects on ungulates as well as mice. The pyrazine cocktail might be suitable for a chemical repellent that could limit damage to forests and agricultural crops by wild ungulates. PMID:25177281

  4. Pyrazine analogs are active components of wolf urine that induce avoidance and fear-related behaviors in deer

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Kazumi; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that a cocktail of pyrazine analogs, identified in wolf urine, induced avoidance and fear behaviors in mice. The effects of the pyrazine cocktail on Hokkaido deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) were investigated in field bioassays at a deer park in Hokkaido, Japan. A set of feeding bioassay trials tested the effects of the pyrazine cocktail odor on the behavior of the deer located around a feeding area in August and September 2013. This odor effectively suppressed the approach of the deer to the feeding area. In addition, the pyrazine cocktail odor provoked fear-related behaviors, such as “tail-flag”, “flight” and “jump” actions, of the deer around the feeding area. This study is the first experimental demonstration that the pyrazine analogs in wolf urine have robust and continual fearful aversive effects on ungulates as well as mice. The pyrazine cocktail might be suitable for a chemical repellent that could limit damage to forests and agricultural crops by wild ungulates. PMID:25177281

  5. Improved simulation of tropospheric ozone by a global-multi-regional two-way coupling model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; Chen, Jinxuan; Hu, Lu

    2016-02-01

    Small-scale nonlinear chemical and physical processes over pollution source regions affect the tropospheric ozone (O3), but these processes are not captured by current global chemical transport models (CTMs) and chemistry-climate models that are limited by coarse horizontal resolutions (100-500 km, typically 200 km). These models tend to contain large (and mostly positive) tropospheric O3 biases in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we use the recently built two-way coupling system of the GEOS-Chem CTM to simulate the regional and global tropospheric O3 in 2009. The system couples the global model (at 2.5° long. × 2° lat.) and its three nested models (at 0.667° long. × 0.5° lat.) covering Asia, North America and Europe, respectively. Specifically, the nested models take lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) from the global model, better capture small-scale processes and feed back to modify the global model simulation within the nested domains, with a subsequent effect on their LBCs. Compared to the global model alone, the two-way coupled system better simulates the tropospheric O3 both within and outside the nested domains, as found by evaluation against a suite of ground (1420 sites from the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG), the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division (GMD), the Chemical Coordination Centre of European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), and the United States Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System (AQS)), aircraft (the High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) and Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In- Service Aircraft (MOZAIC)) and satellite measurements (two Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products). The two-way coupled simulation enhances the correlation in day-to-day variation of afternoon mean surface O3 with the ground measurements from 0.53 to 0.68, and it reduces the mean model bias from 10.8 to 6.7 ppb. Regionally, the coupled system reduces the bias by 4.6 ppb over Europe, 3.9 ppb over North America and 3.1 ppb over other regions. The two-way coupling brings O3 vertical profiles much closer to the HIPPO (for remote areas) and MOZAIC (for polluted regions) data, reducing the tropospheric (0-9 km) mean bias by 3-10 ppb at most MOZAIC sites and by 5.3 ppb for HIPPO profiles. The two-way coupled simulation also reduces the global tropospheric column ozone by 3.0 DU (9.5 %, annual mean), bringing them closer to the OMI data in all seasons. Additionally, the two-way coupled simulation also reduces the global tropospheric mean hydroxyl radical by 5 % with improved estimates of methyl chloroform and methane lifetimes. Simulation improvements are more significant in the Northern Hemisphere, and are mainly driven by improved representation of spatial inhomogeneity in chemistry/emissions. Within the nested domains, the two-way coupled simulation reduces surface ozone biases relative to typical GEOS-Chem one-way nested simulations, due to much improved LBCs. The bias reduction is 1-7 times the bias reduction from the global to the one-way nested simulation. Improving model representations of small-scale processes is important for understanding the global and regional tropospheric chemistry.

  6. Modelling two-way interactions between atmospheric pollution and weather using high-resolution GEM-MACH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, Paul; Gong, Wanmin; Pabla, Balbir; Cheung, Philip; Milbrandt, Jason; Gravel, Sylvie; Moran, Michael; Gilbert, Samuel; Zhang, Junhua; Zheng, Qiong

    2013-04-01

    The Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model is the source of the Canadian government's operational numerical weather forecast guidance, and GEM-MACH is the Canadian operational air-quality forecast model. GEM-MACH comprises GEM and the 'Modelling Air-quality and Chemistry' module, a gas-phase, aqueous-phase and aerosol chemistry and microphysics subroutine package called from within GEM's physics module. The present operational GEM-MACH model is "on-line" (both chemistry and meteorology are part of the same modelling structure) but is not fully coupled (weather variables are provided as inputs to the chemistry, but the chemical variables are not used to modify the weather). In this work, we describe modifications made to GEM-MACH as part of the 2nd phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative, in order to bring the model to a fully coupled status and present the results of initial tests comparing uncoupled and coupled versions of the model to observations for a high-resolution forecasting system. Changes to GEM's cloud microphysics and radiative transfer packages were carried out to allow two-way coupling. The cloud microphysics package used here is the Milbrandt-Yau 2-moment (MY2) bulk microphysics scheme, which solves prognostic equations for the total droplet number concentration and the mass mixing ratios of six hydrometeor categories. Here, we have replaced the original cloud condensation nucleation parameterization of MY2 (empirically relating supersaturation and CCN number) with the aerosol activation scheme of Abdul-Razzak and Ghan (2002). The latter scheme makes use of the particle size and speciation distribution of GEM-MACH's chemistry code as well as meteorological inputs to predict the number of aerosol particles activated to form cloud droplets, which is then used in the MY2 microphysics. The radiative transfer routines of GEM assume a default constant concentration aerosol profile between the surface and 1500m, and a single set of optical properties for extinction, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor. Ozone in GEM is taken from a default 2D (latitude-height) monthly climatology. We have replaced the ozone below the model top with the ozone calculated from GEM-MACH's chemistry, and the default optical parameters associated with particulate matter have been replaced by those calculated with a Mie scattering algorithm. These changes were found to have a significant local impact on both weather and air-quality predictions for short-term test runs of 24 hours duration. In that particular case, the maximum number concentration of cloud droplets decreased by an order of magnitude, while the number of raindrops increased by an order of magnitude and changed in spatial distribution, but surface rainfall was found to decrease. The differences in meteorology had a profound effect on local pollutant plume concentrations at specific locations and times. We compare results over a longer time period, using two parallel forecast systems, one with feedbacks between meteorology and chemistry, one without. Both nest GEM-MACH from a North American domain (10 km horizontal grid spacing) to a 1535 x 1360 km, 2.5 km domain. These systems will be evaluated against monitoring networks within the high resolution domain.

  7. The activation and blockage of CRF type 2 receptors of the medial amygdala alter elevated T-maze inhibitory avoidance, an anxiety-related response.

    PubMed

    Alves, Stephanie W E; Portela, Natasha C; Silva, Mariana S; Céspedes, Isabel C; Bittencourt, Jackson C; Viana, Milena B

    2016-05-15

    Previous results show that the activation of CRF type 1 (CRFR1) receptors of the medial amygdala (MeA) induces anxiogenic-like effects. The present study investigates the role played by medial amygdala CRF type 2 receptors (CRFR2) in the modulation of anxiety and panic-related responses. Male Wistar rats were administered into the MeA with the CRFR2 agonist urocortin 2 (0.5 e 1.0μg/0.2μl, experiment 1) or with the CRFR2 antagonist astressin 2-B (60ng/0.2μl, experiment 2) and 10min later tested in the elevated T-maze (ETM) for inhibitory avoidance and escape measurements. In clinical terms, these responses have been respectively related to generalized anxiety and panic disorder. In a third experiment, the effects of the combined treatment with urocortin 2 (1.0μg/0.2μl) and a sub-effective dose of astressin 2-B (30ng/0.2μl) were also investigated. All animals were tested in an open field, immediately after the ETM, for locomotor activity assessment. Results showed that urocortin 2, in the highest dose administered (1.0μg/0.2μl), facilitated ETM avoidance, an anxiogenic-like effect. Astressin 2-B, also in the highest dose (60ng/0.2μl), significantly decreased avoidance latencies, an anxiolytic-like effect. The lower dose of astressin 2-B (30ng/0.2μl) did not induce anxiolytic-like effects but was able to counteract the anxiogenic-like effects of urocortin 2. None of the compounds administered altered escape responses or locomotor activity measurements. These results suggest that CRFR2 in the medial amygdala, as CRFR1, selectively modulate an anxiety-related response. PMID:26965566

  8. Improved simulation of tropospheric ozone by a global-multi-regional two-way coupling model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.-Y.; Lin, J.-T.; Chen, J.; Hu, L.

    2015-09-01

    Small-scale nonlinear chemical and physical processes over pollution source regions affect the global ozone (O3) chemistry, but these processes are not captured by current global chemical transport models (CTMs) and chemistry-climate models that are limited by coarse horizontal resolutions (100-500 km, typically 200 km). These models tend to contain large (and mostly positive) tropospheric O3 biases in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we use a recently built two-way coupling system of the GEOS-Chem CTM to simulate the global tropospheric O3 in 2009. The system couples the global model (at 2.5° long. × 2° lat.) and its three nested models (at 0.667° long. × 0.5° lat.) covering Asia, North America and Europe, respectively. Benefiting from the high resolution, the nested models better capture small-scale processes than the global model alone. In the coupling system, the nested models provide results to modify the global model simulation within respective nested domains while taking the lateral boundary conditions from the global model. Due to the "coupling" effects, the two-way system significantly improves the tropospheric O3 simulation upon the global model alone, as found by comparisons with a suite of ground (1420 sites from WDCGG, GMD, EMEP, and AQS), aircraft (HIPPO and MOZAIC), and satellite measurements (two OMI products). Compared to the global model alone, the two-way coupled simulation enhances the correlation in day-to-day variation of afternoon mean O3 with the ground measurements from 0.53 to 0.68, and it reduces the mean model bias from 10.8 to 6.7 ppb in annual average afternoon O3. Regionally, the coupled model reduces the bias by 4.6 ppb over Europe, 3.9 ppb over North America, and 3.1 ppb over other regions. The two-way coupling brings O3 vertical profiles much closer to the HIPPO (for remote areas) and MOZAIC (for polluted regions) data, reducing the tropospheric (0-9 km) mean bias by 3-10 ppb at most MOZAIC sites and by 5.3 ppb for HIPPO profiles. The two-way coupled simulation also reduces the global tropospheric column ozone by 3.0 DU (9.5 %, annual mean), bringing them closer to the OMI data in all seasons. Simulation improvements are more significant in the northern hemisphere, and are primarily a result of improved representation of urban-rural contrast and other small-scale processes. The two-way coupled simulation also reduces the global tropospheric mean hydroxyl radical by 5 % with enhancements by 5 % in the lifetimes of methyl chloroform (from 5.58 to 5.87 yr) and methane (from 9.63 to 10.12 yr), bringing them closer to observation-based estimates. Improving model representations of small-scale processes are a critical step forward to understanding the global tropospheric chemistry.

  9. Escherichia coli avoids high dissolved oxygen stress by activation of SoxRS and manganese-superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were reported to cause oxidative stress to E. coli cells associated with reduced or inhibited growth. The high ROS concentrations described in these reports were generated by exposing the bacteria to H2O2 and superoxide-generating chemicals which are non-physiological growth conditions. However, the effect of molecular oxygen on oxidative stress response has not been evaluated. Since the use of oxygen-enriched air is a common strategy to support high density growth of E. coli, it was important to investigate the effect of high dissolved oxygen concentrations on the physiology and growth of E. coli and the way it responds to oxidative stress. Results To determine the effect of elevated oxygen concentrations on the growth characteristics, specific gene expression and enzyme activity in E. coli, the parental and SOD-deficient strain were evaluated when the dissolved oxygen (dO2) level was increased from 30% to 300%. No significant differences in the growth parameters were observed in the parental strain except for a temporary decrease of the respiration and acetate accumulation profile. By performing transcriptional analysis, it was determined that the parental strain responded to the oxidative stress by activating the SoxRS regulon. However, following the dO2 switch, the SOD-deficient strain activated both the SoxRS and OxyR regulons but it was unable to resume its initial growth rate. Conclusion The transcriptional analysis and enzyme activity results indicated that when E. coli is exposed to dO2 shift, the superoxide stress regulator SoxRS is activated and causes the stimulation of the superoxide dismutase system. This enables the E. coli to protect itself from the poisoning effects of oxygen. The OxyR protecting system was not activated, indicating that H2O2 did not increase to stressing levels. PMID:23497217

  10. A two-way coupled mode formalism that satisfies energy conservation for impedance boundaries in underwater acoustics.

    PubMed

    Stotts, Steven A; Koch, Robert A

    2015-11-01

    This paper shows that energy conservation and the derivation of the two-way coupled mode range equations can be extended in three dimensions to complex mode functions and eigenvalues. Furthermore, the energy in the coupled mode formulation is conserved for finite thickness fluid ocean waveguides with a penetrable bottom boundary beneath any range dependence. The derivations rely on completeness and a modified orthonormality statement. The mode coupling coefficients are specified solely and explicitly by the waveguide range dependence. The statement of energy conservation is applied to a numerical coupled mode calculation. PMID:26627810

  11. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO. Program cost estimates document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes Rockwell International's cost analysis results of manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to low earth orbit during the basic and option 1 period of performance for contract NAS8-39207, advanced transportation system studies. Vehicles analyzed include the space shuttle, personnel launch system (PLS) with advanced launch system (ALS) and national launch system (NLS) boosters, foreign launch vehicles, NLS-2 derived launch vehicles, liquid rocket booster (LRB) derived launch vehicle, and cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV).

  12. Error tolerance of two-basis quantum-key-distribution protocols using qudits and two-way classical communication

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Ranade, Kedar S.; Alber, Gernot

    2006-03-15

    We investigate the error tolerance of quantum cryptographic protocols using d-level systems. In particular, we focus on prepare-and-measure schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases and a key-distillation procedure with two-way classical communication. For arbitrary quantum channels, we obtain a sufficient condition for secret-key distillation which, in the case of isotropic quantum channels, yields an analytic expression for the maximally tolerable error rate of the cryptographic protocols under consideration. The difference between the tolerable error rate and its theoretical upper bound tends slowly to zero for sufficiently large dimensions of the information carriers.

  13. Avoiding Infusion Confusion 4th through 6th Grades. A Practical Handbook for Infusing Environmental Activities into Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Harvey; And Others

    To some educators, infusing environmental education into different subject areas at different levels may seem like an insurmountable task. This handbook was developed to take the guesswork out of this process and alleviate the fear and confusion that may result. It was designed to assist with infusing knowledge and attitude activities into the

  14. Avoiding Infusion Confusion Kindergarten through 3rd Grade. A Practical Handbook for Infusing Environmental Activities into Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Harvey; And Others

    To some educators, infusing environmental education into different subject areas at different levels may seem like an insurmountable task. This handbook was developed to take the guesswork out of this process and alleviate the fear and confusion that may result. It was designed to assist with infusing awareness and attitude activities into the

  15. Avoiding Infusion Confusion 7th through 9th Grades. A Practical Handbook for Infusing Environmental Activities into Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Harvey; And Others

    To some educators, infusing environmental education into different subject areas at different levels may seem like an insurmountable task. This handbook was developed to take the guesswork out of this process and alleviate the fear and confusion that may result. It was designed to assist with infusing knowledge, skill and attitude activities into…

  16. Influence of compressive load conditions and thickness on the two-way shape memory behavior in tube-shaped NiTi alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Young Ik; Shin, Dong Kil; Lee, Chang Ho; Lee, Jung Ju

    2012-10-01

    The two-way shape memory behavior of Ni55Ti45 was investigated to develop a tube-shaped NiTi actuator which could generate a large amount of force. The two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) was induced by thermal cycling under various amounts of constant compressive stress. Six specimens with the same outer diameter and different thickness were used to apply the TWSME to an actuator. A fast saturation tendency of the recovery strain was shown through training at each level of constant stress, after which the two-way shape memory strain was quantitatively measured during thermal cycling for each level of applied stress. From the results, the maximum two-way strain value was obtained after training at a constant level of stress and then decreased thereafter. In addition, the two-way strain was found to depend on the thickness of the tube-shaped specimen. All specimens could be divided into two groups depending on the rate of increase in the two-way strain. After two-way strain was obtained, the two-way recovery stress was measured to verify the performance of the sample as an actuator. The results showed that the two-way recovery stress behavior was similar to the two-way strain; if the optimal thickness of the specimen and the stress applied for training are used for the development of the TWSME, tube-shaped NiTi using the TWSME can replace one-way shape memory alloys.

  17. Brucella abortus Uses a Stealthy Strategy to Avoid Activation of the Innate Immune System during the Onset of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Weiss, David S.; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Rucavado, Alexandra; Moriyón, Ignacio; Moreno, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Background To unravel the strategy by which Brucella abortus establishes chronic infections, we explored its early interaction with innate immunity. Methodology/Principal Findings Brucella did not induce proinflammatory responses as demonstrated by the absence of leukocyte recruitment, humoral or cellular blood changes in mice. Brucella hampered neutrophil (PMN) function and PMN depletion did not influence the course of infection. Brucella barely induced proinflammatory cytokines and consumed complement, and was strongly resistant to bactericidal peptides, PMN extracts and serum. Brucella LPS (BrLPS), NH-polysaccharides, cyclic glucans, outer membrane fragments or disrupted bacterial cells displayed low biological activity in mice and cells. The lack of proinflammatory responses was not due to conspicuous inhibitory mechanisms mediated by the invading Brucella or its products. When activated 24 h post-infection macrophages did not kill Brucella, indicating that the replication niche was not fusiogenic with lysosomes. Brucella intracellular replication did not interrupt the cell cycle or caused cytotoxicity in WT, TLR4 and TLR2 knockout cells. TNF-α-induction was TLR4- and TLR2-dependent for live but not for killed B. abortus. However, intracellular replication in TLR4, TLR2 and TLR4/2 knockout cells was not altered and the infection course and anti-Brucella immunity development upon BrLPS injection was unaffected in TLR4 mutant mice. Conclusion/Significance We propose that Brucella has developed a stealth strategy through PAMPs reduction, modification and hiding, ensuring by this manner low stimulatory activity and toxicity for cells. This strategy allows Brucella to reach its replication niche before activation of antimicrobial mechanisms by adaptive immunity. This model is consistent with clinical profiles observed in humans and natural hosts at the onset of infection and could be valid for those intracellular pathogens phylogenetically related to Brucella that also cause long lasting infections. PMID:17637846

  18. Development and clinical research of the He-Ne laser medical instrument with quasi-single beam in two ways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuehui; Zhang, Zhong; Chen, Peishan

    1996-09-01

    Much research has been made into low-powered He-Ne laser radiating treatment. Our He-Ne laser treating instrument can transmit double beams in two ways, which is quite different from the old-typed He-Ne laser instrument having one single beam in one way. The power of 250mm-laser totals 2.8mw-3. 5mw, nearing the theoretical value. The invention not only increases the laser radiating power, with convenient treatment of patients, but also eliminates the technical prejudice against radiating beams in one way. Since 1994, three two-way He-Ne laser instruments have been used in the clinical experiments on the ophthalmology in Dalian Railway Hospital. After concentrated treatment of the period of 3 winter and 3 summer vacations, 951 near-sighted eyes in 679 cases of near-sightedness of teenagers were treated. The recent total efficiency is 94.4 percent. The efficiency investigated after half a year is up to 60 percent.

  19. Joint terminals and relay optimization for two-way power line information exchange systems with QoS constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaolin; Rong, Yue

    2015-12-01

    The quality-of-service (QoS) criteria (measured in terms of the minimum capacity requirement in this paper) are very important to practical indoor power line communication (PLC) applications as they greatly affect the user experience. With a two-way multicarrier relay configuration, in this paper we investigate the joint terminals and relay power optimization for the indoor broadband PLC environment, where the relay node works in the amplify-and-forward (AF) mode. As the QoS-constrained power allocation problem is highly non-convex, the globally optimal solution is computationally intractable to obtain. To overcome this challenge, we propose an alternating optimization (AO) method to decompose this problem into three convex/quasi-convex sub-problems. Simulation results demonstrate the fast convergence of the proposed algorithm under practical PLC channel conditions. Compared with the conventional bidirectional direct transmission (BDT) system, the relay-assisted two-way information exchange (R2WX) scheme can meet the same QoS requirement with less total power consumption.

  20. Survey of the Influence of the Width of Urban Branch Roads on the Meeting of Two-Way Vehicle Flows.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun; Zhao, Yunan; Pan, Shuangli; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Branch roads, which are densely distributed in cities, allow for the flow of local traffic and provide connections between the city and outlying areas. Branch roads are typically narrow, and two-way traffic flows on branch roads are thus affected when vehicles traveling in opposite directions meet. This study investigates the changes in the velocities of vehicles when they meet on two-way branch roads. Various widths of branch roads were selected, and their influence on traffic flows was investigated via a video survey. The results show that, depending on the average vehicle velocity, branch roads require different widths to prevent a large decrease in velocity when vehicles meet. When the velocity on a branch road is not high (e.g., the average velocity without meeting is approximately 6 m/s), appropriately increasing the road width will notably increase the meeting velocity. However, when the velocity is high (e.g., the average velocity without meeting is greater than 10 m/s), there is a large decrease in velocity when meeting even if the road surface is wide (6.5 m). This study provides a basis for selecting the width of urban branch roads and the simulation of bidirectional traffic on such roads. PMID:26881427

  1. Two-way shape memory effect of a Ti rich NiTi alloy: experimental measurements and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falvo, A.; Furgiuele, F.; Maletta, C.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) of a Ni-51 at.% Ti alloy is investigated and a numerical model is developed, which allows real time simulations of its hysteretic behaviour strain versus temperature. The two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) was induced through a proper thermo-mechanical training, carried out at an increasing number of training cycles and for two values of training deformation. The TWSME was measured under different applied stresses and the hysteretic behaviour in the strain-temperature response was recorded. In order to evaluate the thermal stability of the hysteresis loops the material was subjected to many cycles, by repeated heating and cooling, between Af (austenite finish temperature) and Mf (martensite finish temperature). The numerical method is based on a phenomenological approach and was developed in a Matlab function, which calculates the model parameters from a set of experimental data, and a Simulink model, which is efficient enough for use in real time applications. The accuracy of the proposed model was analysed through systematic comparisons between experimental measurements and numerical predictions.

  2. Design and implementation of a two-way real-time communication system for audio over CATV networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Choong Sang; Oh, Yoo Rhee; Lee, Young Han; Kim, Hong Kook

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we design and implement a two-way real-time communication system for audio over cable television (CATV) networks to provide an audio-based interaction between the CATV broadcasting station and CATV subscribers. The two-way real-time communication system consists of a real-time audio encoding/decoding module, a payload formatter based on a transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP), and a cable network. At the broadcasting station, audio signals from a microphone are encoded by an audio codec that is implemented using a digital signal processor (DSP), where the MPEG-2 Layer II audio codec is used for the audio codec and TMS320C6416 is used for a DSP. Next, a payload formatter constructs a TCP/IP packet from an audio bitstream for transmission to a cable modem. Another payload formatter at the subscriber unpacks the TCP/IP packet decoded from the cable modem into audio bitstream. This bitstream is decoded by the MPEG-2 Layer II audio decoder. Finally the decoded audio signals are played out to the speaker. We confirmed that the system worked in real-time, with a measured delay of around 150 ms including the algorithmic and processing time delays.

  3. Survey of the Influence of the Width of Urban Branch Roads on the Meeting of Two-Way Vehicle Flows

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun; Zhao, Yunan; Pan, Shuangli; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Branch roads, which are densely distributed in cities, allow for the flow of local traffic and provide connections between the city and outlying areas. Branch roads are typically narrow, and two-way traffic flows on branch roads are thus affected when vehicles traveling in opposite directions meet. This study investigates the changes in the velocities of vehicles when they meet on two-way branch roads. Various widths of branch roads were selected, and their influence on traffic flows was investigated via a video survey. The results show that, depending on the average vehicle velocity, branch roads require different widths to prevent a large decrease in velocity when vehicles meet. When the velocity on a branch road is not high (e.g., the average velocity without meeting is approximately 6 m/s), appropriately increasing the road width will notably increase the meeting velocity. However, when the velocity is high (e.g., the average velocity without meeting is greater than 10 m/s), there is a large decrease in velocity when meeting even if the road surface is wide (6.5 m). This study provides a basis for selecting the width of urban branch roads and the simulation of bidirectional traffic on such roads. PMID:26881427

  4. Superradiant decay and dipole-dipole interaction of distant atoms in a two-way cascaded cavity QED system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeb, Steffen; Noh, Changsuk; Parkins, A. S.; Carmichael, H. J.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate a two-way cascaded cavity QED system consisting of microtoroidal resonators coupled through an optical fiber. Each microtoroidal cavity supports two counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes coupled to single atoms through their evanescent fields. We focus on a pair of atom-microtoroid systems and compute the spectrum of spontaneous emission into the fiber with one atom initially excited. Explicit results are presented for strong-coupling and bad-cavity regimes, where the latter allows the effective atom-atom interaction to be controlled through the atom-cavity coupling and detuning: the atoms exhibit either collective spontaneous emission with no dipole-dipole interaction or a (coherent) dipole-dipole interaction and independent (single-atom) emission. This capacity for switching the character of the interaction is a feature of bidirectional coupling and connects our two-way cascaded system to work on one-dimensional waveguides. Building upon our bad-cavity results, we generalize to many atom-microtoroid systems coupled through an optical fiber.

  5. Avoiding Loss of Catalytic Activity of Pd Nanoparticles Partially Embedded in Nanoditches in SiC Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Nanoditches from selective etching of periodically twinned SiC nanowires were employed to hinder the migration and coalescence of Pd nanoparticles supported on the nanowires, and thus to improve their catalytic stability for total combustion of methane. The results show that the etched Pd/SiC catalyst can keep the methane conversion of almost 100% while the unetched one has an obvious decline in the catalytic activity from 100 to 82% after ten repeated reaction cycles. The excellent catalytic stability originates from the limitation of the nanoditches to the migration and growth of Pd nanoparticles. PMID:20672116

  6. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... help avoid getting and passing on the flu. Influenza (Seasonal) The flu is a contagious respiratory illness ...

  7. Development of a Detailed Stress Map of Oklahoma for Avoidance of Potentially Active Faults When Siting Wastewater Injection Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, R. C., II; Zoback, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    We report progress on a project to create a detailed map of in situ stress orientations and relative magnitudes throughout the state of Oklahoma. It is well known that the past 5 years has seen a remarkable increase in seismicity in much of the state, potentially related to waste water injection. The purpose of this project is to attempt to utilize detailed knowledge of the stress field to identify which pre-existing faults could be potentially active in response to injection-related pore pressure increases. Over 50 new stress orientations have been obtained, principally utilizing wellbore image data provided by the oil and gas industry. These data reveal a very uniform ENE direction of maximum compressive stress through much of the state. As earthquake focal plane mechanisms indicate strike-slip faulting, the stress orientation data indicate which pre-existing faults are potentially active. The data are consistent with slip on the near-vertical, NE-trending fault associated with at least one of the M 5+ earthquakes in the Prague, OK sequence in 2011. If successful, it would demonstrate that combining detailed information about pre-existing faults and the current stress field could be used to guide the siting of injection wells so as to decrease the potential for injection-related seismicity.

  8. Effects of activation and blockade of dopamine receptors on the extinction of a passive avoidance reaction in mice with a depressive-like state.

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Zinov'eva, D V

    2010-01-01

    Learning and extinction of a conditioned passive avoidance reaction resulting from neuropharmacological actions on dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors were demonstrated to be specific in intact mice and in mice with a depressive-like state. Learning was degraded only after administration of the D(2) receptor antagonist sulpiride and was independent of the initial functional state of the mice. In intact mice, activation of D(2) receptors with quinpirole led to a deficit of extinction, consisting of a reduction in the ability to acquire new inhibitory learning in conditions associated with the disappearance of the expected punishment. In mice with the "behavioral despair" reaction, characterized by delayed extinction, activation of D(1) receptors with SKF38393 normalized this process, while the D(2) agonist was ineffective. A positive effect consisting of accelerated extinction of the memory of fear of the dark ("dangerous") sector of the experimental chamber was also seen on blockade of both types of dopamine receptor. PMID:20012492

  9. [Effects of activation and blockade of dopamine receptors on extinction of passive avoidance response in mice with depressive-like state].

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Zinov'eva, D V

    2008-01-01

    Selectivity of training and extinction of passive avoidance response caused by pharmacological influences on D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in intact mice and mice in depressive-like state was shown. Training was impaired only by administration of D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride and did not depend on the initial functional condition of mice. In intact mice, activation of D2 receptors by quinpirole evoked deficiency of extinction, i.e., impairment of the capability of new inhibitory training under conditions of disappearance of the expected punishment. In mice with reaction of "behavioral despair" characterized by a delay of extinction, activation of D1 receptors by SKF38393 normalized this process (as distinct from the inefficiency of D2 agonist). The positive effect of acceleration of fear memory extinction was revealed also under conditions of blockade of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. PMID:19004320

  10. Two-way coupled simulation of global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and its multiple nested models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.; Lin, J.; Kuang, Y.; Yang, D.

    2013-12-01

    Global chemical transport models (CTMs) are a key tool to study the impacts of regional pollution on the global environment. Global models, however, are limited by their relatively coarse resolution and cannot capture small-scale nonlinear chemical and physical processes in the pollution source regions. Here we develop a two-way coupling capability of the global GEOS-Chem CTM (at 2.5 lon x 2 lat) and its three nested models (at 0.667 lon x 0.5 lat) covering Asia, North America and Europe, in an attempt to better represent the nonlinear processes in these major pollution source regions. In the coupled modeling framework, the global model provides lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) to the nested models every three hours, while the nested models feedback high-resolution results to the global model at the same time step. Our initial results show that, after a six-month spin-up, the two-way coupled simulation produces higher concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) than the global model by up to 30 ppb over various pollution source and downwind regions in January 2009. The coupled model also produces higher CO than the nested models (i.e., with no feedbacks to the global simulation) by 5-25 ppb over the three nested domains, as a consequence of the global transport of CO that affects the LBCs of the nested models. Further comparisons with the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) show a significant improvement by the coupled model on the vertical profiles of CO over the Pacific Ocean. Compared to the global model, the coupled model increases the simulated CO concentrations by 15-25 ppb averaged over the tropospheric vertical profiles sampled at the HIPPO measurement time and locations. The coupled model also reduces the mean normalized bias with respect to HIPPO by 11.2% and enhances the correlation with the HIPPO data by 0.56. The increase in simulated CO concentrations are roughly equivalent to an enhancement of total CO emissions in the global model by up to 10-20% in winter, 30-40% in summer, and ~25% for annual average. Thus the two-way coupling capability of the CTMs is crucial for studying regional pollution and their global environmental impacts.

  11. Automated delay measurement system for an Earth station for Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, Gerrit; Polderman, Michel C.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of the difference of the transmit and receive delays of the signals in a Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) Earth station is crucial for its nanosecond time transfer capability. Also, the monitoring of the change of this delay difference with time, temperature, humidity, or barometric pressure is important for improving the TWSTFT capabilities. An automated system for this purpose has been developed from the initial design at NMi-VSL. It calibrates separately the transmit and receive delays in cables, amplifiers, upconverters and downconverters, and antenna feeds. The obtained results can be applied as corrections to the TWSTFT measurement when, before and after a measurement session, a calibration session is performed. Preliminary results obtained at NMi-VSL will be shown. Also, if available, the results of a manual version of the system that is planned to be circulated in Sept. 1994 together with a USNO portable station on a calibration trip to European TWSTFT Earth stations.

  12. STUDY ON THE ESTIMATION OF SPEED-FLOW RELATIONSHIPS FOR DIVIDED TWO-WAY TWO-LANE EXPRESSWAY SECTIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsumi, Taisuke; Hamaoka, Hidekatsu; Nakamura, Hideki

    A divided two-way two-lane (TWTL) expressway crosssection was defined in the most recent update of Road Structure Ordinance in 2003. This novel structure is expected to contribute to saving building cost of rural expressways particularly with low traffic demands. However, since its speed performance is remained unclear, the expected target speed may not be realized under some road traffic conditions. This paper therefore aims to analyze impacts of various conditions on speed-flow relationships of the divided TWTL expressway sections by using vehicle detector data, towards implementing the performance-oriented planning and design policy. After extensive analyses on several influencing factors that affect speed performance such as heavy vehicle ratio and precipitation, speed-flow relationships under different conditions are finally formulated. By using the proposed formulae, speed performance of the TWTL expressway sections can be verified at the planning and design stage of highways.

  13. A STUDY ON IMPLEMENTATION POLICY OF AUXILIARY PASSING LANE ON TWO-WAY TWO-LANE HIGHWAYS CONSIDERING FOLLOWER DENSITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hideki; Kobayashi, Masato; Catbagan, Jerome L.

    In this paper, a methodology to evaluate impacts of implementing auxiliary passing lanes on the qulity of service of two-way two-lane (TWTL) highways is developed, by adopting follower density as a measure of effectiveness. It aims to quantitatively esti mate the performance of traffic flows to be realized dependent on the passing lane length and its spacing and to provide suggestions as a design guide. Relationships between passing lane length, one-lane section length and follower density are formulated by modeling the simulation results based on traffic fl ow surveys. And possible combinations of minimum required passing lane length and its spacing required for achieving the target performance are indicated. Furthermore, the expected qulity of service of traffic flow under seve ral typical design policies of 2+1 lane highways are evaluated by applying this concept.

  14. Training and stability of the intrinsic two-way shape memory effect in Ni-Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Scherngell, H.; Kneissl, A.C.

    1998-06-12

    In recent years the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) in Shape Memory Alloys has become a subject of considerable interest due to its ability to generate spontaneous reversible changes of shape during thermal cycling. Trained elements are frequently used as actuators, where they are subjected to several motion cycles. From the application point of view, the functional stability during repeated employment is therefore of considerable importance. So far, the results published on this aspect are rather limited, especially concerning NiTi based alloys. It was therefore the aim of this work to study the influence of training parameters on the degradation characteristics of the intrinsic TWSME for a specific thermomechanical training procedure.

  15. Use of 64 kbits/s digital channel for image transmission: Using low scan two-way video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahko, K.; Hongyan, L.; Kley, M.; Peuhkuri, M.; Rahko, M.

    1993-09-01

    At the seminar 'Competition in Telecommunications in Finland' on September 3rd, 1993, a test of two-way transferring an image by using 64 kbits/s digital channel was carried out. With the help of the Helsinki Telephone Company, a portrait was transferred to the lecture hall by using Vistacom Videophones, Nokia and Siemens ISDN exchange, as well as Nokia's and Siemens' user terminal equipment. It was shown on a screen through a video projector, so all visitors could see it. For human factors in telecommunications studies, every attendee was asked to give comments about the transferring quality. The report presents the results of the survey and a brief assessment of the technology.

  16. Managing the Risk of Triggered Seismicity: Can We Identify (and Avoid) Potentially Active Faults? - A Practical Case Study in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M. D.; Alt, R. C., II; Walsh, F. R.; Walters, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that throughout the central and eastern U.S. there has been a marked increase in seismicity since 2009, at least some of which appears to increased wastewater injection. No area has seen a greater increase in seismicity than Oklahoma. In this paper, we utilize newly available information on in situ stress orientation and relative magnitudes, the distribution of high volume injection wells and knowledge of the intervals used for waste water disposal to identify the factors potentially contributing to the occurrence of triggered seismicity. While there are a number of sites where in situ stress data has been successfully used to identify potentially active faults, we are investigating whether this methodology can be implemented throughout a state utilizing the types of information frequently available in areas of oil and gas development. As an initial test of this concept, we have been compiling stress orientation data from wells throughout Oklahoma provided by private industry. Over fifty new high quality data points, principally drilling-induced tensile fractures observed in image logs, result in a greatly improved understanding of the stress field in much of the state. A relatively uniform ENE direction of maximum compressive stress is observed, although stress orientations (and possibly relative stress magnitudes) differ in the southern and southwestern parts of the state. The proposed methodology can be tested in the area of the NE-trending fault that produced the M 5+ earthquakes in the Prague, OK sequence in 2011, and the Meers fault in southwestern OK, that produced a M~7 reverse faulting earthquake about 1100 years ago. This methodology can also be used to essentially rule out slip on other major faults in the area, such as the ~N-S trending Nemaha fault system. Additional factors leading to the occurrence of relatively large triggered earthquakes in Oklahoma are 1) the overall increase in injection volumes throughout the state in recent years (especially in some particular areas) 2) the injection of waste water in a geologic formation laying directly above crystalline basement rocks and 3) the widespread distribution of injection wells.

  17. Comparison of hydro-environmental impacts for ebb-only and two-way generation for a Severn Barrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, Reza; Falconer, Roger A.; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina

    2014-10-01

    Marine renewable energy is playing an increasing significant role in many parts of the world, mainly due to a rise in the awareness of climate change, and its detrimental effects, and the increasing cost of natural resources. The Severn Estuary, located between South West England and South Wales, has a tidal range of up to 14 m which makes it the second highest tidal range in the world. There are a number of barrage proposals amongst various marine renewable energy schemes proposed to be built in the estuary. The Cardiff-Weston STPG (Severn Tidal Power Group) Barrage, which would be one of the world's largest tidal renewable energy schemes if built, is one of the most publicised schemes to-date. This barrage would generate about 17 TWh/annum of power, which is approximately 5% of the UK's electricity consumption, whilst causing significant hydro-environmental and ecological impact on the estuary. This study mainly focuses on investigating the hydro-environmental impacts of the STPG barrage for the option of two-way generation, and compares this with the commonly investigated option of ebb-only generation. The impacts of the barrage were modelled by implementing a linked 1-D/2-D hydro-environmental model, with the capability of modelling several key environmental processes. The model predictions show that the hydro-environmental impacts of the barrage on the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel, such as changes in the maximum velocity and reduction in suspended sediment and bacteria levels, were less significant for the two-way generation scheme when compared with the corresponding impacts for ebb-only generation.

  18. PWZ-029, a compound with moderate inverse agonist functional selectivity at GABA(A) receptors containing alpha5 subunits, improves passive, but not active, avoidance learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Savi?, Miroslav M; Clayton, Terry; Furtmller, Roman; Gavrilovi?, Ivana; Samardzi?, Janko; Savi?, Snezana; Huck, Sigismund; Sieghart, Werner; Cook, James M

    2008-05-01

    Benzodiazepine (BZ) site ligands affect vigilance, anxiety, memory processes, muscle tone and epileptogenic propensity through modulation of neurotransmission at GABA(A) receptors containing alpha1, alpha2, alpha3 or alpha5 subunits, and may have numerous experimental and clinical applications. The ability of non-selective BZ site inverse agonists to enhance cognition, documented in animal models and human studies, is clinically not feasible due to potentially unacceptable psychomotor effects. Most investigations to date have proposed the alpha1 and/or alpha5 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors as comprising the memory-modulating population of these receptors. The novel ligand PWZ-029, which we synthesized and characterized electrophysiologically, possesses in vitro binding selectivity and moderate inverse agonist functional selectivity at alpha5-containing GABA(A) receptors. This ligand has also been examined in rats in the passive and active avoidance, spontaneous locomotor activity, elevated plus maze and grip strength tests, primarily predictive of the effects on the memory acquisition, basal locomotor activity, anxiety level and muscle tone, respectively. The improvement of task learning was detected at the dose of 5 mg/kg in the passive, but not active avoidance test. The inverse agonist PWZ-029 had no effect on anxiety or muscle tone, whereas at higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) it decreased locomotor activity. This effect was antagonized by flumazenil and also by the lower (but not the higher) dose of an agonist (SH-053-R-CH3-2'F) selective for GABA(A) receptors containing the alpha5 subunit. The hypolocomotor effect of PWZ-029 was not antagonized by the antagonist ss-CCt exhibiting a preferential affinity for alpha1-subunit-containing receptors. These data suggest that moderate negative modulation at GABA(A) receptors containing the alpha5 subunit is a sufficient condition for eliciting enhanced encoding/consolidation of declarative memory, while the influence of higher doses of modulators at these receptors on motor activity shows an intricate pattern whose relevance and mechanism await to be defined. PMID:18394590

  19. 49 CFR 232.407 - Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices; prohibition on purchase of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... after January 2, 1998 shall be a two-way end-of-train device meeting the design and performance... employee in the caboose and the engineer on the head end of the train establish and maintain two-way voice... performance requirements contained in § 232.405 or a device using an alternative technology to perform...

  20. Two-way hydro-mechanical coupling is required not to underestimate fault fluid flow in numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillner, Elena; Nakaten, Benjamin; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Pressure elevation in saturated porous media induced by any kind of fluid injection into a reservoir generally triggers pore volume changes in the host rocks and/or adjacent fault zones due to volumetric strain increments. Consequently, the hydraulic conductivity of faults can increase by several orders of magnitude, and thus allows for unwanted upward migration of fluids accompanied by environmental impacts in shallower aquifers. Interaction between hydraulic and mechanical processes is significant in this context. Hence, coupled hydro-mechanical simulations were applied in the present study to assess the impact of saline aquifer utilization on the recent stress state and fluid flow at a prospective German onshore carbon dioxide storage site, in particular with regard to present fault zones. The location of interest is a Mesozoic anticline structure, approximately 80 km southeast of the German capital Berlin [1, 2]. A Lower Triassic saline sandstone aquifer, the Detfurth Formation located at a depth of about 1,080 m, was chosen as storage horizon for 34 Mt CO2, injected within 20 years. Four major regional fault zones consisting of individual faults with different dip angles and directions are located at a distance of minimum 5 km and maximum 45 km from the injection location at the anticline top. The storage formation is overlain by several cap rocks from the Triassic to Tertiary with thicknesses varying between 50 m and 520 m. The Upper Tertiary Rupelian clay forms the main regional barrier separating salt water bearing aquifers from Tertiary and Quaternary freshwater reservoirs. However, glacial erosion resulted in thinning or a complete absence of the Rupelian clay in some areas that meet parts of the fault zones. The structural geological model applied for coupled hydro-mechanical simulations has an extent of 70 km x 100 km and extends from 5,000 m depth up to the ground surface. Multi-phase flow simulations were carried out using the scientific code TOUGH2-MP and coupled to the hydro-mechanical simulator FLAC3D through hydraulic property changes as a function of volumetric strain increments. Numerical simulations are based on one-way and two-way coupling procedures. The one-way coupling considers pore pressure calculated by the multiphase flow as input to the hydro-mechanical simulator without any feedback. The two-way coupling procedure includes a feedback from the hydro-mechanical simulator to the multiphase flow simulator using the parameters porosity and permeability accompanied by a capillary pressure correction. Results of the comparison of both coupling procedures outlines that a two-way coupling is required when fault fluid flow is assessed by numerical simulations, since hydraulic flow properties may change by several orders of magnitudes inducing significant migration pathways at faults under given conditions. Hence, in such cases one-way coupling tends to underestimate fault fluid flow. [1] Tillner E, Kempka T, Nakaten B, Kühn M. Brine migration through fault zones: 3D numerical simulations for a prospective CO2 storage site in Northeast Germany. Int J Greenh Gas Con 2013; 19: 689-703. doi: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.03.012. [2] Röhmann L, Tillner E, Magri F, Kühn M, Kempka T. Fault Reactivation and Ground Surface Uplift Assessment at a Prospective German CO2 Storage Site. Energy Procedia 2013; 40: 437-446. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2013.08.050.

  1. Downward Wave Coupling Changes in Response to Future Climate Change, Two Way Atmosphere/Ocean Coupling and QBO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellyanto Lubis, Sandro; Matthes, Katja; Harnik, Nili; Omrani, Nour-Eddine

    2014-05-01

    Wave reflection in the stratosphere can impact the troposphere via a well-defined, high latitude meridional waveguide that is bounded above by a vertical reflecting surface. Such wave reflection is known as downward wave coupling (DWC). Recent studies have shown that stratospheric ozone affects DWC, affecting wave propagation and subsequent wave-mean flow interaction in the Southern Hemisphere. However the factors controlling DWC in the Northern Hemisphere are still unclear. There is new evidence that the frequency of Major Stratospheric Warming (MSW) is significantly influenced by the QBO and two-way ocean/ atmosphere interaction. However the resulting impact on DWC has thus far not been investigated. Here we examine the impact of future climate change, two way atmosphere/ ocean coupling, and the QBO on wave geometry and DWC using different CESM-WACCM model experiments. A transient simulation of present and future climate (1955-2099), with green house gases (GHG) and ozone depleting substances (ODS) following the RCP 8.5 scenario, shows the largest reduction in the DWC over last few decades of the simulation. This reduction is associated with an absence of the vertical reflecting surface and statistically insignificant downward wave reflection. Comparison to an experiment with GHG/ODS fixed at 1960s levels, shows no indication of DWC-changes. The lack of a DWC response is associated with insignificant changes of the background wind states, whose vertical structure directly impacts the DWC. The comparison of this experiment with simulations with and without QBO nudging shows that the QBO strengthens the DWC. This can be explained by the fact that our nonQBO simulation has a permanent, strong QBO-like east phase, which dampens the DWC. Comparison of experiments with dynamically-coupled and fixed SSTs shows that the background zonal wind is strengthened significantly when the ocean/atmosphere interaction is removed. However, no apparent strengthening of DWC is seen in association with SST-coupling, which suggests that the vertical wind shear does not entirely explain the DWC differences.

  2. Investigation of the two-way shape memory effect in [001]-oriented Co35Ni35Al30 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftifeeva, Anna; Panchenko, Elena; Chumlyakov, Yuriy; Maier, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a study of the two-way shape memory effect (the TWSME) for the quenched and aged at 673 K for 0.5 h [001]-oriented Co35Ni35Al30 single crystals in compression was carried out. In the quenched CoNiAl crystals, the TWSME with a reversible strain of (-3.1 ± 0.3) % was induced by training procedure in the superelasticity temperature range. The physical reason of the TWSME is the creation of internal stress fields due to the formation of dislocations next to γ-phase particles, and an interface between the B2-matrix and the γ-phase in the quenched crystals. It was experimentally shown that aging at 673 K for 0.5 h under a compressive stress of 100 MPa along the [110] direction creates the conditions necessary for observing the TWSME, without additional training with a reversible strain of (+2.2 ± 0.3) %. The conditions for observing the TWSME are determined by the action of the internal stress fields of 25 MPa created by the oriented arrangement of the dispersed particles in the stress-assisted aged crystals. The TWSME is not observed in the stress-free aged crystals with non-oriented precipitation of particles, both before and after training.

  3. Two-way self-consistent simulation of the inner magnetosphere driven by realistic electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Raluca; Liemohn, Michael; Toth, Gabor

    2014-05-01

    The geomagnetic storm of August 6, 2011 is examined using the two-way self consistent coupling between the kinetic Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) model, the Block Adaptive Tree Solar Wind Roes-Type Scheme (BATS-R-US) MHD model and the Ridley Ionospheric Model (RIM) through the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). HEIDI solves the time dependent, gyration and bounce-averaged kinetic equation for the phase space density of different ring current species and computes full pitch angle distributions for all local times and radial distances. This model was generalized to accommodate arbitrary magnetic fields and through the coupling with the SWMF it obtains magnetic field description along with plasma distribution at the model boundaries from the BATS-R-US model within the SWMF. Electric field self-consistency is assured by the passing of convection potentials from the Ridley Ionosphere Model (RIM) within SWMF. Our study tests the various levels of coupling between the three models, highlighting the role the magnetic field, plasma sheet conditions and the cross polar cap potential play in the formation and evolution of the ring current. We use the results of the coupled HEIDI, BATSRUS and RIM models during disturbed conditions to study the importance of a kinetic self-consistent approach to the description of geospace.

  4. Assessing Fan Flutter Stability in Presence of Inlet Distortion Using One-Way and Two-Way Coupled Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns regarding noise, propulsive efficiency, and fuel burn are inspiring aircraft designs wherein the propulsive turbomachines are partially (or fully) embedded within the airframe; such designs present serious concerns with regard to aerodynamic and aeromechanic performance of the compression system in response to inlet distortion. Previously, a preliminary design of a forward-swept high-speed fan exhibited flutter concerns in clean-inlet flows, and the present author then studied this fan further in the presence of off-design distorted in-flows. Continuing this research, a three-dimensional, unsteady, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is again applied to analyze and corroborate fan performance with clean inlet flow and now with a simplified, sinusoidal distortion of total pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane. This code, already validated in its application to assess aerodynamic damping of vibrating blades at various flow conditions using a one-way coupled energy-exchange approach, is modified to include a two-way coupled timemarching aeroelastic simulation capability. The two coupling methods are compared in their evaluation of flutter stability in the presence of distorted in-flows.

  5. Determination of turbine runner dynamic behaviour under operating condition by a two-way staggered fluid-structureinteraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dompierre, F.; Sabourin, M.

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the application of the two-way fluid-structure interaction method introduced by ANSYS to calculate the dynamic behaviour of a Francis turbine runner under operating condition. This time-dependant calculation directly takes into account characteristics of the flow and particularly the pressure fluctuations caused by the rotor-stator interaction. This formulation allows the calculation of the damping forces of the whole system implicitly. Thereafter, the calculated dynamic stress can be used for a fatigue analysis. A verification of the mechanical and fluid simulations used as input for the fluid-structure interaction calculation is first performed. Subsequently, a connection of these two independent simulations is made. A validation according to the hydraulic conditions is made with the measurements from the scale model testing. Afterwards, the static displacement of the runner under the hydraulic load is compared with the results of a classical static analysis for verification purposes. Finally, the natural frequencies deduced by the post-processing of the dynamic portion of the runner displacement with respect to time are compared with the natural frequencies obtained from a classical acoustic modal analysis. All comparisons show a good agreement with experimental data or results obtained with conventional methods.

  6. Pharmacokinetic interaction between etravirine or rilpivirine and telaprevir in healthy volunteers: A randomized, two-way crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Thomas N; Leopold, Lorant; Nijs, Steven; Vandevoorde, Ann; Crauwels, Herta M; Bertelsen, Kirk M; Stevens, Marita; Witek, James; van Delft, Yvon; Tomaka, Frank; Hoetelmans, Richard M W

    2014-05-01

    Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) may require treatment with an HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), for example, rilpivirine or etravirine, and an HCV direct-acting antiviral drug such as telaprevir. In a two-panel, two-way, crossover study, healthy volunteers were randomized to receive etravirine 200?mg twice daily??telaprevir 750?mg every 8?hours or rilpivirine 25?mg once daily??telaprevir 750?mg every 8?hours. Pharmacokinetic assessments were conducted for each drug at steady-state when given alone and when coadministered; statistical analyses were least-square means with 90% confidence intervals. Telaprevir minimum plasma concentration (Cmin), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) decreased 25%, 10%, and 16%, respectively, when coadministered with etravirine and 11%, 3%, and 5%, respectively, when coadministered with rilpivirine. Telaprevir did not affect etravirine pharmacokinetics, but increased rilpivirine Cmin, Cmax, and AUC by 93%, 49%, and 78%, respectively. Both combinations were generally well tolerated. The small decrease in telaprevir exposure when coadministered with etravirine is unlikely to be clinically relevant. The interaction between telaprevir and rilpivirine is not likely to be clinically relevant under most circumstances. No dose adjustments are deemed necessary when they are coadministered. PMID:25975423

  7. Assessing Fan Flutter Stability in the Presence of Inlet Distortion Using One-way and Two-way Coupled Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns regarding noise, propulsive efficiency, and fuel burn are inspiring aircraft designs wherein the propulsive turbomachines are partially (or fully) embedded within the airframe; such designs present serious concerns with regard to aerodynamic and aeromechanic performance of the compression system in response to inlet distortion. Previously, a preliminary design of a forward-swept high-speed fan exhibited flutter concerns in cleaninlet flows, and the present author then studied this fan further in the presence of off-design distorted in-flows. Continuing this research, a three-dimensional, unsteady, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is again applied to analyze and corroborate fan performance with clean inlet flow and now with a simplified, sinusoidal distortion of total pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane. This code, already validated in its application to assess aerodynamic damping of vibrating blades at various flow conditions using a one-way coupled energy-exchange approach, is modified to include a two-way coupled time-marching aeroelastic simulation capability. The two coupling methods are compared in their evaluation of flutter stability in the presence of distorted in-flows.

  8. A six-grid, two-way coupled Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic ocean model: results and interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, David E.; Tseng, Yu-Heng; Medina, Raul

    2005-11-01

    A multiple-grid, two-way coupled Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic (MEDiNA) Ocean model is presented. The model uses six grids with resolution varying from 1/24^o in the Strait of Gibraltar to 1/4^o in the central North Atlantic Ocean. The flexible multiple-grid coupling approach produces nearly seamless flow patterns across the nested boundaries and facilitates realistic modeling of multi-scale processes that couple deep ocean and coastal dynamics. The method is efficient and provides high resolution where it is needed most. The shortcircuited Arctic Ocean is parameterized by: an artificial continental shelf along the northern and northeastern boundary; restoring to climatology at high latitudes; nudging the total longitudinal volume flow north of Iceland toward a specified value; and a specified freshwater source along the northern boundary. The open equatorial boundary condition includes a slow nudging toward a quasi-Neummann condition. Results from all six grids are shown, including the Gulf of Mexico Loop Current with big warm-core eddy shedding and realistic Gulf Stream meanders that pinch off cold/warm-core eddies. These results compare well with observation and show significant advantages of our multiple-grid approach in modeling multi-scale ocean dynamics.

  9. Modelling of chemical fractionation patterns of metals in soils by two-way and three-way principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Pardo, R; Vega, M; Debn, L; Cazurro, C; Carretero, C

    2008-01-01

    The 'pseudo-total' contents and the chemical fractionation pattern of eight toxic elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) have been determined in 12 soil samples collected around a coal-fuelled power plant (Velilla del Ro Carrin, Spain) by using, respectively, the US-EPA 3051 norm and the modified BCR (SM&T) chemical fractionation procedure. The 'pseudo-total' dataset has been analyzed by classical two-way principal component analysis (PCA) finding a PC accounting for the metal 'pollution' of the area. On the other hand, the three-dimensional (samples x metals x fractions) X array obtained after application of the modified BCR SM&T procedure, has been studied by matrix augmentation (MA-PCA) and three-way principal component analysis (3-PCA) using PARAFAC and TUCKER3 models. Whereas both MA-PCA and PARAFAC originated two-factor models biased towards the different chemical fractionation of the samples, the best TUCKER3 model [1, 2, 2] takes into account simultaneously both the 'pseudo-total' contents and the chemical fractionation of the soil samples. Therefore, the TUCKER3 originated a better representation of the global environmental impact caused by the power plant, and the plotting of the soil samples loadings, A1, in the physical space allowed to locate the most potentially hazardous areas. PMID:18068767

  10. A two-way enriched clinical trial design: combining advantages of placebo lead-in and randomized withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Tamura, Roy N

    2015-12-01

    A new clinical trial design, designated the two-way enriched design (TED), is introduced, which augments the standard randomized placebo-controlled trial with second-stage enrichment designs in placebo non-responders and drug responders. The trial is run in two stages. In the first stage, patients are randomized between drug and placebo. In the second stage, placebo non-responders are re-randomized between drug and placebo and drug responders are re-randomized between drug and placebo. All first-stage data, and second-stage data from first-stage placebo non-responders and first-stage drug responders, are utilized in the efficacy analysis. The authors developed one, two and three degrees of freedom score tests for treatment effect in the TED and give formulae for asymptotic power and for sample size computations. The authors compute the optimal allocation ratio between drug and placebo in the first stage for the TED and compare the operating characteristics of the design to the standard parallel clinical trial, placebo lead-in and randomized withdrawal designs. Two motivating examples from different disease areas are presented to illustrate the possible design considerations. PMID:22143405

  11. Experimental and numerical analysis of pre-compressed masonry walls in two-way-bending with second order effects

    SciTech Connect

    Milani, Gabriele; Olivito, Renato S.; Tralli, Antonio

    2014-10-06

    The buckling behavior of slender unreinforced masonry (URM) walls subjected to axial compression and out-of-plane lateral loads is investigated through a combined experimental and numerical homogenizedapproach. After a preliminary analysis performed on a unit cell meshed by means of elastic FEs and non-linear interfaces, macroscopic moment-curvature diagrams so obtained are implemented at a structural level, discretizing masonry by means of rigid triangular elements and non-linear interfaces. The non-linear incremental response of the structure is accounted for a specific quadratic programming routine. In parallel, a wide experimental campaign is conducted on walls in two way bending, with the double aim of both validating the numerical model and investigating the behavior of walls that may not be reduced to simple cantilevers or simply supported beams. Panels investigated are dry-joint in scale square walls simply supported at the base and on a vertical edge, exhibiting the classical Rondelet’s mechanism. The results obtained are compared with those provided by the numerical model.

  12. Towards large-eddy simulation of multiphase flows using two-way coupled, Euler-Lagrangian methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Wyatt; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2013-11-01

    Two-way coupled Euler-Lagrangian methods are sensitive to the size of the particle with respect to the Eulerian grid. We develop an interpolation methodology that addresses this issue for unstructured grids. The carrier fluid is solved using large-eddy simulation (LES) including finite size effects and force coupling from the Lagrangian particles. The Lagrangian particle motion is solved using equations relating the motion of the carrier fluid to forces on each discrete particle. Interpolation of Lagrangian quantities to Eulerian quantities is performed using interpolation kernels dependent on particle size that are volume averaged over control volumes. This interpolation technique is compared to other interpolation methods over several canonical flow cases. It is found from these comparisons that the developed interpolation technique is capable of producing more accurate results. Results are shown for both bubbles and solid particles. Simulations of a single sphere rising in an inclined channel under conditions similar to an experiment conducted by Lomholt et al. [Int. J. Multiphase Flow (2002) 28:225-246] are performed. Good agreement is found between the experimental and simulated particle trajectories and velocity profiles.

  13. Avoiding Statistical Mistakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Nora

    2007-01-01

    Avoiding statistical mistakes is important for educators at all levels. Basic concepts will help you to avoid making mistakes using statistics and to look at data with a critical eye. Statistical data is used at educational institutions for many purposes. It can be used to support budget requests, changes in educational philosophy, changes to

  14. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p < 0.05). Values ≤50(th) percentile (age ≥81 years, BMI ≥26.7 kg/m(2), aerobic endurance ≤367.6 meters, and physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults. PMID:26083134

  15. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    PubMed

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams. PMID:22196966

  16. Two-way coupling of a global Hall magnetohydrodynamics model with a local implicit particle-in-cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daldorff, Lars K. S.; Tth, Gbor; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Lapenta, Giovanni; Amaya, Jorge; Markidis, Stefano; Brackbill, Jeremiah U.

    2014-07-01

    Computational models based on a fluid description of the plasma, such as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and extended magnetohydrodynamic (XMHD) codes are highly efficient, but they miss the kinetic effects due to the assumptions of small gyro radius, charge neutrality, and Maxwellian thermal velocity distribution. Kinetic codes can properly take into account the kinetic effects, but they are orders of magnitude more expensive than the fluid codes due to the increased degrees of freedom. If the fluid description is acceptable in a large fraction of the computational domain, it makes sense to confine the kinetic model to the regions where kinetic effects are important. This coupled approach can be much more efficient than a pure kinetic model. The speed up is approximately the volume ratio of the full domain relative to the kinetic regions assuming that the kinetic code uses a uniform grid. This idea has been advocated by [1] but their coupling was limited to one dimension and they employed drastically different grid resolutions in the fluid and kinetic models. We describe a fully two-dimensional two-way coupling of a Hall MHD model BATS-R-US with an implicit Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model iPIC3D. The coupling can be performed with identical grid resolutions and time steps. We call this coupled computational plasma model MHD-EPIC (MHD with Embedded PIC regions). Our verification tests show that MHD-EPIC works accurately and robustly. We show a two-dimensional magnetosphere simulation as an illustration of the potential future applications of MHD-EPIC.

  17. 49 CFR 232.407 - Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices; prohibition on purchase of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train...-TRAIN DEVICES End-of-Train Devices § 232.407 Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices... end-of-train devices. (1) Heavy grade means: (i) For a train operating with 4,000 trailing tons...

  18. 49 CFR 232.407 - Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices; prohibition on purchase of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train...-TRAIN DEVICES End-of-Train Devices § 232.407 Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices... end-of-train devices. (1) Heavy grade means: (i) For a train operating with 4,000 trailing tons...

  19. 49 CFR 232.407 - Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices; prohibition on purchase of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train...-TRAIN DEVICES End-of-Train Devices § 232.407 Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices... end-of-train devices. (1) Heavy grade means: (i) For a train operating with 4,000 trailing tons...

  20. 49 CFR 232.407 - Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices; prohibition on purchase of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train...-TRAIN DEVICES End-of-Train Devices § 232.407 Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices... end-of-train devices. (1) Heavy grade means: (i) For a train operating with 4,000 trailing tons...

  1. EtOH self-administration on shuttle box avoidance learning and extinction in rats.

    PubMed

    Pallars, M A; Nadal, R A; Hernndez-Torres, M; Ferr, N A

    1997-01-01

    The effects of ethanol on the acquisition and extinction of the two-way active avoidance response were examined in adult, male Wistar rats from two treatment groups, oral self-administration of alcohol solution (10% v/v ethanol and 3% w/v glucose in distilled water) and oral self-administration of control solution (3% w/v glucose in distilled water). Alcohol or control solutions were available 1 h per day during 15 days simultaneously with food, with free water for the rest of the day. Blood was drawn in the last day of this phase to evaluate blood ethanol levels (BEL). After this period, rats were tested in a two-bottle paradigm for 1 h per day and placed in a shuttle box immediately afterwards. This phase went lasted for 10 days. Subjects were trained to avoid an electric foot shock in the first 5 days (15 trials per day). Following this, half of the subjects were tested in an "easy extinction with punishment" (EEP) and the other half in a "difficult extinction with punishment" (DEP) of the avoidance response for the last 5 days. Alcohol accelerates the avoidance responding acquisition, and no significant effects of alcohol were seen in the extinction phase. Data are discussed in terms of the specificity of the effects of alcohol on learning. PMID:9305467

  2. Avoided Crossing and Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.

    2013-12-01

    We examine avoided crossing of stellar pulsations in the nonlinear regime, where synchronization may occur, based on a simple model of weakly coupled van der Pol oscillators with close frequencies. For this simple case, avoided crossing is unaffected in the sense that there is a frequency difference between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes, but as a result of synchronization, unlike the linear oscillations case, the system can vibrate in only one of the modes.

  3. Operational Collision Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will describe the early days of the EOS Aqua and Aura operational collision avoidance process. It will highlight EOS debris avoidance maneuvers, EOS high interest event statistic and A-Train systematic conjunctions and conclude with future challenges. This is related to earlier e-DAA (tracking number 21692) that an abstract was submitted to a different conference. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager has reviewed and approved this presentation on May 6, 2015

  4. A hybrid surface layer parameterization scheme for the two-way fully coupled atmosphere-ocean wave system WEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsafados, Petros; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Varlas, George; Korres, Gerasimos

    2015-04-01

    The two-way fully coupled atmosphere-ocean wave system WEW has been recently developed in order to study the factors that contribute to the air-sea interaction processes and feedbacks. The coupled system consists of two components: the atmospheric component which is based on the Workstation Eta non-hydrostatic limited area model and the ocean-wave component which is based on the fourth generation OpenMP (OMP) version of the WAM model. The WEW has been already evaluated in a number of high-impact weather and sea state events where generally a more realistic representation of the momentum exchanges in the ocean wind-wave system has been shown However, the new developed wind-wave parameterization scheme reduces both the near surface wind speed and the significant wave height as a response to the increased aerodynamic drag considered by the atmospheric model over rough sea surfaces. Such behavior is mainly attributed to the surface layer parameterization scheme of the atmospheric component which is based on the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) scheme. It is noted that this scheme has been adjusted to support independent atmospheric simulations. Therefore, we proceed to develop a new hybrid surface layer parameterization based on the MYJ and the Janssen schemes that operate in the atmospheric and ocean wave components of the WEW, respectively. In this case the roughness length depends on the wave age instead of the Charnock parameter following the formulation proposed by Vickers and Mahrt. The spatial variability of the wave age is estimated at each ocean wave component time step and it is directly provided to the MYJ scheme. The parameterization of the viscous sublayer and the universal functions for the estimation of the near surface wind speed have been also revised accordingly. In this study, a test version of the new hybrid scheme of WEW has been statistically evaluated against a number of buoys and satellite retrievals over the Mediterranean Sea in a case study of high-impact weather and sea state event. The implementation of the new scheme reduces the underestimation and the root mean squared error for both the near surface wind speed and the significant wave height.

  5. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be important for cognitive behavioral control necessary for complex APA learning. PMID:23505432

  6. Zaprinast and Rolipram Enhances Spatial and Emotional Memory in the Elevated Plus Maze and Passive Avoidance Tests and Diminishes Exploratory Activity in Naive Mice

    PubMed Central

    Akar, Furuzan; Mutlu, Oguz; Celikyurt, Ipek Komsuoglu; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk; Bektas, Emine; Tanyeri, Pelin

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors in the central nervous system have been shown to stimulate neuronal functions and increase neurogenesis in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Material/Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of zaprinast, a PDE5 inhibitor, and rolipram, a PDE4 inhibitor, on learning and memory in elevated plus maze (EPM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests in naive mice. Male Balb-c mice received short-term treatment with zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) before the acquisition trial of the EPM and PA tests. The exploratory activity of the animals was also investigated in the Hughes box test. Results Both zaprinast (10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased second-day latency compared to the control group in the EPM test, while only rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly increased second-day latency in the PA test. Both zaprinast (10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased the number of entries to new areas and time spent in new areas in the Hughes box test. Conclusions Our study revealed that both zaprinast and rolipram enhanced spatial memory in EPM, while rolipram seemed to have more emotional memory-enhancing effects in the PA test compared to zaprinast. Both zaprinast and rolipram diminished exploratory activity in the Hughes box test, which can be attributed to the drugs anxiogenic effects. PMID:25057848

  7. Exploring the inertial effects of fast moving bubbles using the two-way coupled OpenGGCM and the Rice Convection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B.; Toffoletto, F.; Wolf, R. A.; Raeder, J.

    2010-12-01

    During geomagnetic active times, depleted flux tubes (bubbles) that have a lower entropy parameter PV5/3 than their surroundings are believed to be injected into the inner magnetosphere [e.g. Wolf et al., 2009; Zhang e. al., 2009] and play a crucial role in Ring Current injection. Accurately representing the dynamics of these bubbles is important to understanding plasma transport from tail to inner magnetosphere. In previous bubble studies using the Rice Convection Model (RCM), the inertial effect resulting from the fast flows was not well-represented. In this study, we report initial results using the two-way coupled OpenGGCM/RCM where inertial effects in the RCM are modeled. This new approach uses a direct integration method to compute the Birkeland currents from the MHD code, rather than the Vasyliunas equation, and the nudging procedure used to update the OpenGGCM from the RCM has been modified to enforce conservation of entropy in each flux tube. The results from this new code will be compared to runs using the coupled code that neglects inertial effects in the RCM calculation.

  8. Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on-line. The optimal avoidance trajectory is implemented as a receding-horizon model predictive control law. Therefore, at each time step, the optimal avoidance trajectory is found and the first time step of its acceleration is applied. At the next time step of the control computer, the problem is re-solved and the new first time step is again applied. This continual updating allows the RCA algorithm to adapt to a colliding spacecraft that is making erratic course changes.

  9. Collision Avoidance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Ames Research Center teamed with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to study human performance factors associated with the use of the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance system (TCAS II) in an operational environment. TCAS is designed to alert pilots of the presence of other aircraft in their vicinity, to identify and track those who could be a threat, and to recommend action to avoid a collision. Ames conducted three laboratory experiments. The first showed that pilots were able to use the TCAS II correctly in the allowable time. The second tested pilots' response to changes in the avoidance advisories, and the third examined pilots' reactions to alternative displays. After a 1989 congressional mandate, the FAA ruled that TCAS would be required on all passenger carrying aircraft (to be phased in completely by 1995).

  10. Hippocampal-dependent memory in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task: The role of spatial cues and CA1 activity.

    PubMed

    Leão, Anderson H F F; Medeiros, André M; Apolinário, Gênedy K S; Cabral, Alícia; Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Barbosa, Flávio F; Silva, Regina H

    2016-05-01

    The plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PMDAT) has been used to investigate interactions between aversive memory and an anxiety-like response in rodents. Suitable performance in this task depends on the activity of the basolateral amygdala, similar to other aversive-based memory tasks. However, the role of spatial cues and hippocampal-dependent learning in the performance of PMDAT remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of proximal and distal cues in the retrieval of this task. Animals tested under misplaced proximal cues had diminished performance, and animals tested under both misplaced proximal cues and absent distal cues could not discriminate the aversive arm. We also assessed the role of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) in this aversive memory task. Temporary bilateral inactivation of dorsal CA1 was conducted with muscimol (0.05μg, 0.1μg, and 0.2μg) prior to the training session. While the acquisition of the task was not altered, muscimol impaired the performance in the test session and reduced the anxiety-like response in the training session. We also performed a spreading analysis of a fluorophore-conjugated muscimol to confirm selective inhibition of CA1. In conclusion, both distal and proximal cues are required to retrieve the task, with the latter being more relevant to spatial orientation. Dorsal CA1 activity is also required for aversive memory formation in this task, and interfered with the anxiety-like response as well. Importantly, both effects were detected by different parameters in the same paradigm, endorsing the previous findings of independent assessment of aversive memory and anxiety-like behavior in the PMDAT. Taken together, these findings suggest that the PMDAT probably requires an integration of multiple systems for memory formation, resembling an episodic-like memory rather than a pure conditioning behavior. Furthermore, the concomitant and independent assessment of emotionality and memory in rodents is relevant to elucidate how these memory systems interact during aversive memory formation. Thus, the PMDAT can be useful for studying hippocampal-dependent memory when it involves emotional content. PMID:26876135

  11. Pitcherpot: Avoiding Honeypot Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, Vinod K.; Bhatnagar, Pramod K.; Bhatnagar, Mitul

    This paper explores the various ways honeypots could be detected by the malicious attacker. This includes the different prevalent criteria and characteristics for honeypots generation & their weaknesses. Further this paper proposes a new way of implementation of a honeypot (Pitcher pots Systems) that effectively facilitate its identity avoidance and yet offers better ways to study the attacker.

  12. Avoiding the "M" Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of roundtable discussions by top business officers about how higher education can capitalize on strategic alliances. Describes how, by working with one another and with corporate partners, colleges and universities can avoid closing their doors or merging with stronger institutions. (EV)

  13. Plants to Avoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of poisonous plants is extremely important for home owners, gardeners, farmers, hunters, hikers, and the rest of the general public. Among the most important plants to avoid in the Delta Region are poison ivy, bull nettle, eastern black nightshade, Queen Anns lace, jimsonweed, and trumpe...

  14. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an

  15. AVOIDING MANUSCRIPT MISTAKES

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Writing a scientific manuscript can be a consuming, but rewarding task with a number of intrinsic and extrinsic benefits. The ability to write a scientific manuscript is typically not an emphasized component of most entry?level professional programs. The purpose of this overview is to provide authors with suggestions to improve manuscript quality and to provide mechanisms to avoid common manuscript mistakes that are often identified by journal reviewers and editors. PMID:23091784

  16. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin

    2014-06-01

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user-object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Simulation of the Indirect Radiative Forcing of Climate Due to Aerosols by the Two-Way Coupled WRF-CMAQ over the Eastern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, the shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF) and longwave cloud forcing (LWCF) are estimated with the newly developed two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ over the eastern United States. Preliminary indirect aerosol forcing has been successfully implemented in WRF-CMAQ. The comparisons...

  18. Code-Switching and Symbolic Power in a Second-Grade Two-Way Classroom: A Teacher's Motivation System Gone Awry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Deborah K.

    2009-01-01

    Code-switching is a natural part of being bilingual. Yet two-way immersion programs are known to insist upon separation of languages, discouraging both teachers and students from drawing on both linguistic codes at once. Drawing on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic power, I examine one second-grade classroom in which the teacher instituted a…

  19. Middle-Class English Speakers in a Two-Way Immersion Bilingual Classroom: "Everybody Should Be Listening to Jonathan Right Now..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Deborah K.

    2009-01-01

    Two-way bilingual immersion education, offered in a fast-growing number of primary schools in the United States, provides primary language maintenance to minority language speakers while simultaneously offering an enrichment "foreign" language immersion experience to English-speaking children in the same classroom, generally with the same teacher.…

  20. The Development of Writing Skills in an Italian-English Two-Way Immersion Program: Evidence from First through Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanari, Simona; Simn-Cereijido, Gabriela; Hartel, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the writing skills of students in grades 1 to 5 of an Italian-English two-way immersion program. Narrative writing samples were collected in both languages and scored for content, organization, grammar, mechanics, vocabulary, text length, and overall total score. The results show that writing skills improved as a function of

  1. The Development of Writing Skills in an Italian-English Two-Way Immersion Program: Evidence from First through Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanari, Simona; Simón-Cereijido, Gabriela; Hartel, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the writing skills of students in grades 1 to 5 of an Italian-English two-way immersion program. Narrative writing samples were collected in both languages and scored for content, organization, grammar, mechanics, vocabulary, text length, and overall total score. The results show that writing skills improved as a function of…

  2. Toward an Expanded Understanding of Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Education: Constructing Identity through a Critical, Additive Bilingual/Bicultural Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Sharon Adelman; Vallone, Trina Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This literature review will take a focused look at the three currently accepted theoretical foundations upon which two-way bilingual immersion programs are based. Through an examination of research on identity construction in childhood and adolescence, particularly as seen through a critical pedagogical lens, it proposes that there exists a fourth

  3. Reasons for Enrollment at a Spanish-English Two-Way Immersion Charter School among Highly Motivated Parents from a Diverse Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Erin F.; Feinauer, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This study builds on previous work to examine parent reasons for enrolling their children in a two-way immersion (TWI) charter school. This work goes beyond ethno linguistic background variables (language, ethnicity), to include other key variables such as education level, income, religion, household distance from school, and family structure.

  4. Differences in Achievement between Students Enrolled in a Transitional, Early Exit Bilingual Program and in a Dual Language: Two-Way Immersion Bilingual Program--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nascimento, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    The current pilot study compares the overall academic achievement in the area of language arts literacy among elementary bilingual students enrolled in either a Dual Language: Two-Way Immersion program or in an Early Exit, Transitional Bilingual program in a large urban public school district. By analyzing the results of curriculum based measures

  5. Aerosol indirect effect on the grid-scale clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ: model description, development, evaluation and regional analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study implemented first, second and glaciations aerosol indirect effects (AIE) on resolved clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system by including parameterizations for both cloud drop and ice number concentrations on the basis of CMAQ predicted aerosol distribu...

  6. A second anniversary operational review of the OmniTRACS(R): The first two-way mobile Ku-band satellite communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Irwin M.; Salmasi, Allen; Gilhousen, Klein S.; Weaver, Lindsay A., Jr.; Bernard, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    A novel two-way mobile satellite communications and vehicle position reporting system that is currently operational in the United States and Europe is described. The system characteristics and service operations are described in detail. Technical descriptions of the equipment and signal processing techniques are provided.

  7. A robust two-way switching control system for remote piloting and stabilization of low-cost quadrotor UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripamonti, Francesco; Resta, Ferruccio; Vivani, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present two control logics and an attitude estimator for UAV stabilization and remote piloting, that are as robust as possible to physical parameters variation and to other external disturbances. Moreover, they need to be implemented on low-cost micro-controllers, in order to be attractive for commercial drones. As an example, possible applications of the two switching control logics could be area surveillance and facial recognition by means of a camera mounted on the drone: the high computational speed logic is used to reach the target, when the high-stability one is activated, in order to complete the recognition tasks.

  8. The najd fault system revisited; a two-way strike-slip orogen in the saudi arabian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agar, R. A.

    The Najd strike-slip fault system extends over the northeastern Arabian Shield in a zone >1200 km in length and >300 km wide. Faults trend NW-SE with strike lengths >500 km but small sinistral displacements of <25 km. Cumulative displacement across the zone is >240 km. Najd faults were active in the late Proterozoic and post-date cratonization of the Shield. Associated secondary structures include grabens, thrust faults, folds and dike swarms. In the southwest of the Najd system, near Zalm, initial faulting was dextral and began earlier than formerly thought. Emplacement of a plutonic complex was controlled by Najd fractures of dextral geometry and displacements. The same fractures were active before and after deposition of a group of volcanosedimentary rocks in grabens orientated consistently with development in a dextral strike-slip regime. Graben deformation was controlled by sinistral motion along the same fractures responsible for graben development and also by younger fractures of sinistral geometry and displacement. Dike swarms in the area are also consistent with early dextral and later sinistral shear of Najd trend. Structures in the Zalm area occur throughout the Najd system and the consistent chronology of older dextral structures dislocated and deformed by younger sinistral faults suggests a reversal in the sense of motion of the Najd system as a whole.

  9. [Behavioral effects of NC-1100, 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-diphenylmethylpiperazinyl) ethanol dihydrochloride--on ambulatory activity, discrete lever-press response and shuttle avoidance response in mice].

    PubMed

    Kuribara, H; Tadokoro, S

    1989-04-01

    Single administration of NC-1100 (3, 10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.) produced no marked change in the ambulatory activity and discrete lever-press avoidance response. However, 100 mg/kg of this drug produced a toxic effect which was characterized by salivation, tremor, clonic convulsion, etc., but none of the mice died. NC-1100 enhanced the ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine (2 mg/kg, s.c.) at 3 and 10 mg/kg, while it failed to modify that of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). NC-1100, at 100 mg/kg, suppressed both the established discrete lever-press and shuttle avoidance responses, probably due to non-specific and toxic effects. When NC-1100 at 10 mg/kg was administered, the response rate increased only in the shuttle avoidance situation in which the avoidance established mice were used. Furthermore, when NC-1100 at 30 mg/kg was administered immediately before the start of the training session, the avoidance rate increased. However, there was no marked change in the avoidance rate in the 2nd training session which was conducted 24 hr after the 1st training session without the drug administration. Additionally, the response rate increased in the 1st and 2nd training sessions after 10 and 30 mg/kg of NC-1100. The present results suggest that NC-1100 may show a behavior-facilitating effect, although its effect is mild and different from that of typical central stimulants such as methamphetamine. PMID:2744654

  10. When threats foreign turn domestic: Two ways for distant realistic intergroup threats to carry over into local intolerance.

    PubMed

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    In times of economic downturn, perceived realistic intergroup threats (e.g., labour competition) often dominate political and media discourse. Although local outgroups (e.g., local immigrants) can be experienced as sources of realistic threats, we propose that such threats can also be perceived to be caused by distant outgroups (e.g., European Union members perceiving Greece to threaten their economies) and that such distant threats can carry over into local intolerance (e.g., increasing intolerance towards local immigrant groups). We predicted and found in two studies that perceived distant realistic threats carried over into local intolerance via two different pathways. First, direct reactions towards the distant outgroup can generalize to culturally similar local outgroups (the group-based association pathway). Secondly, Study 2 indicated that when the distant threat was attributed to stereotypical outgroup traits (e.g., being lazy), distant realistic threats activated local realistic threats, which subsequently influenced local intolerance (the threat-based association pathway). Taken together, our studies indicate that perceived realistic threats foreign can turn domestic, but in two different ways. PMID:25491910

  11. Obstacle-avoiding navigation system

    DOEpatents

    Borenstein, Johann; Koren, Yoram; Levine, Simon P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for guiding an autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicle through a field of operation having obstacles thereon to be avoided employs a memory for containing data which defines an array of grid cells which correspond to respective subfields in the field of operation of the vehicle. Each grid cell in the memory contains a value which is indicative of the likelihood, or probability, that an obstacle is present in the respectively associated subfield. The values in the grid cells are incremented individually in response to each scan of the subfields, and precomputation and use of a look-up table avoids complex trigonometric functions. A further array of grid cells is fixed with respect to the vehicle form a conceptual active window which overlies the incremented grid cells. Thus, when the cells in the active window overly grid cell having values which are indicative of the presence of obstacles, the value therein is used as a multiplier of the precomputed vectorial values. The resulting plurality of vectorial values are summed vectorially in one embodiment of the invention to produce a virtual composite repulsive vector which is then summed vectorially with a target-directed vector for producing a resultant vector for guiding the vehicle. In an alternative embodiment, a plurality of vectors surrounding the vehicle are computed, each having a value corresponding to obstacle density. In such an embodiment, target location information is used to select between alternative directions of travel having low associated obstacle densities.

  12. Architecture vision and technologies for post-NPOESS weather prediction system: two-way interactive observing and modeling: Part II. Use case scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Glenn J.; Kalb, Michael W.; Mahoney, Robert L.; Lutz, Robert; Mauk, Robin Y.; Seablom, Michael; Talabac, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    This is a companion paper to "Architecture Vision and Technologies for post-NPOESS Weather Prediction System: Two-way Interactive Observing and Modeling". Our recently completed two-year NASA-sponsored study on Advanced Weather Forecasting Technologies concluded that it may be possible in the future to significantly extend the skill range of model based weather forecasting via a direct real-time two-way feedback between computer forecast models and highly networked, intelligent observing systems (Sensor Webs). The study group developed a high-level Weather Architecture to describe the system (see the companion paper). This paper describes application of the proposed Weather Architecture to a particular weather scenario-the US east coast Blizzard of January 24 and 25, 2000. The objective of the scenario exercise was to help clarify thinking on the architecture functions in light of realistic, tractable (1 to 5 day) forecast situations, and infrastructure and technologies that might be reasonably projected for 2015.

  13. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  14. Highly specific role of hypocretin (orexin) neurons: differential activation as a function of diurnal phase, operant reinforcement versus operant avoidance and light level.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ronald; Wu, Ming-Fung; Barber, Grace; Ramanathan, Lalini; Siegel, Jerome M

    2011-10-26

    Hypocretin (Hcrt) cell loss is responsible for narcolepsy, but Hcrt's role in normal behavior is unclear. We found that Hcrt knock-out mice were unable to work for food or water reward during the light phase. However, they were unimpaired relative to wild-type (WT) mice when working for reward during the dark phase or when working to avoid shock in the light or dark phase. In WT mice, expression of Fos in Hcrt neurons occurs only in the light phase when working for positive reinforcement. Expression was seen throughout the mediolateral extent of the Hcrt field. Fos was not expressed when expected or unexpected unearned rewards were presented, when working to avoid negative reinforcement, or when given or expecting shock, even though these conditions elicit maximal electroencephalogram (EEG) arousal. Fos was not expressed in the light phase when light was removed. This may explain the lack of light-induced arousal in narcoleptics and its presence in normal individuals. This is the first demonstration of such specificity of arousal system function and has implications for understanding the motivational and circadian consequences of arousal system dysfunction. The current results also indicate that comparable and complementary specificities must exist in other arousal systems. PMID:22031892

  15. Highly specific role of hypocretin (orexin) neurons: differential activation as a function of diurnal phase, operant reinforcement vs. operant avoidance and light level

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Ronald; Wu, Ming-Fung; Barber, Grace; Ramanathan, Lalini; Siegel, Jerome M.

    2011-01-01

    Hypocretin (Hcrt) cell loss is responsible for narcolepsy, but Hcrt's role in normal behavior is unclear. We found that Hcrt KO mice were unable to work for food or water reward during the light phase. However, they were unimpaired relative to wild type (WT) mice when working for reward during the dark phase or when working to avoid shock in the light or dark phases. In WT, expression of Fos in Hcrt neurons occurs only in the light phase when working for positive reinforcement. Expression was seen throughout the medio-lateral extent of the Hcrt field. Fos was not expressed when expected or unexpected, unearned rewards were presented, when working to avoid negative reinforcement, or when given or expecting shock, even though these conditions elicit maximal electroencephalographic (EEG) arousal. Fos was not expressed in the light phase when light was removed. This may explain the lack of light induced arousal in narcoleptics and its presence in normal individuals. This is the first demonstration of such specificity of arousal system function and has implications for understanding the motivational and circadian consequences of arousal system dysfunction. The current results also indicate that comparable and complementary specificities must exist in other arousal systems. PMID:22031892

  16. Measuring Experiential Avoidance in Adults: The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Jonathan E.; Murrell, Amy R.

    2010-01-01

    To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was

  17. Two-Way Tether Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, George F.

    1994-01-01

    Safety-tether device enables crewmembers on spacecraft to retrieve crewmember drifting away from spacecraft. Alternatively, drifting crewmember who carries device uses it to grasp and return to spacecraft. Also used on Earth. For example, rescuer on vessel or pier uses it to retrieve and haul drowning or unconscious person to safety; drifting person or rescuer in water uses it to grasp and hold onto support.

  18. A Two-Way Spinoff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    A unusual technology transfer, involving sailboats and commercial wind energy systems, highlights space-related spinoffs for home, consumer, and recreational use. These include clothing for cooling athletes, high-intensity lighting, an advanced welding tool, and a water filter. (Author/JN)

  19. Modeling the ocean and atmosphere during an extreme bora event in northern Adriatic using one-way and two-way atmosphere-ocean coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ličer, M.; Smerkol, P.; Fettich, A.; Ravdas, M.; Papapostolou, A.; Mantziafou, A.; Strajnar, B.; Cedilnik, J.; Jeromel, M.; Jerman, J.; Petan, S.; Malačič, V.; Sofianos, S.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the performances of (a) a two-way coupled atmosphere-ocean modeling system and (b) one-way coupled ocean model (forced by the atmosphere model), as compared to the available in situ measurements during and after a strong Adriatic bora wind event in February 2012, which led to extreme air-sea interactions. The simulations span the period between January and March 2012. The models used were ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) (4.4 km resolution) on the atmosphere side and an Adriatic setup of Princeton ocean model (POM) (1°/30 × 1°/30 angular resolution) on the ocean side. The atmosphere-ocean coupling was implemented using the OASIS3-MCT model coupling toolkit. Two-way coupling ocean feedback to the atmosphere is limited to sea surface temperature. We have compared modeled atmosphere-ocean fluxes and sea temperatures from both setups to platform and CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) measurements from three locations in the northern Adriatic. We present objective verification of 2 m atmosphere temperature forecasts using mean bias and standard deviation of errors scores from 23 meteorological stations in the eastern part of Italy. We show that turbulent fluxes from both setups differ up to 20 % during the bora but not significantly before and after the event. When compared to observations, two-way coupling ocean temperatures exhibit a 4 times lower root mean square error (RMSE) than those from one-way coupled system. Two-way coupling improves sensible heat fluxes at all stations but does not improve latent heat loss. The spatial average of the two-way coupled atmosphere component is up to 0.3 °C colder than the one-way coupled setup, which is an improvement for prognostic lead times up to 20 h. Daily spatial average of the standard deviation of air temperature errors shows 0.15 °C improvement in the case of coupled system compared to the uncoupled. Coupled and uncoupled circulations in the northern Adriatic are predominantly wind-driven and show no significant mesoscale differences.

  20. Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing Page Content Article Body What is the best way to avoid infection after ear piercing? Ears may be pierced for cosmetic reasons ...

  1. Two-way effects between hydrogen bond and intramolecular resonance effect: an ab initio study on complexes of formamide and its derivatives with water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Hua; Huang, Ming-Bao; Duan, Yong; Wang, Zhi-Xiang

    2008-06-19

    Ab initio calculations up to MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/cc-pVTZ level, including natural charge population and natural resonance theory analyses, have been carried out to study the two-way effects between hydrogen bond (H-bond) and the intramolecular resonance effect by using the H-bonded complexes of formamide ( FAO) and its derivatives ( FAXs, X represents the heavy atoms in the substituent groups, CH 2, NH, SiH 2, PH, and S) with water as models. Unlike NH 3 and NH 2CH 3 which prefer being H-bond acceptors ( HA) to form H-bond with water, the amino groups in the six monomers, because of the resonance effect, prefer being H-bond donors ( HD) rather HA. Six monomers can all form HD complexes with water, and only two ( FAC and FASi) with the weakest resonance effect are able to form HA complexes with water. The HD H-bond and resonance effect enhance each other (positive two-way effects) whereas the HA H-bond and resonance effect weaken each other (negative two-way effects). The H-bond energies in the six HD complexes are nearly linearly correlated with the weights of the dipolar resonance in Pauling's model and the N-C bond lengths; the correlation coefficients are 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. The positive two-way effects also happens in FAO-water complex, in which the FAO CO group serves as HA ( HA co ). Interestingly, when the HD and HA co H-bonds are present in FAO H-bond complex simultaneously, the enhancements are much more significant, and the energies of the two types of H-bonds are much larger than those when only one type of H-bond is present, reflecting the cooperative effects. By using the knowledge to the two-way effects, we computationally designed a molecule ( FAO- BH 3 ) to increase H-bond energy. Because of the oxygen lone pair donation to the empty pi orbital of BH 3, FAO- BH 3 has a much stronger resonance effect than FAO. As a result, the H-bond energy (-5.55 kcal/mol) in HD H 2O ... FAO- BH 3 complex is much greater than the -3.30 kcal/mol in the HD H 2O...FAO complex. The two-way effects can be rationalized as follows: the resonance effect leads to intramolecular charge shifts in the monomers which facilitate or prevent the charge donation or acceptation of their H-bond partners. Therefore, the H-bonds are strengthened or weakened. In reverse, the charge donations or acceptations of their H-bond partners facilitate or prevent the intramolecular charge shifts in the monomer moieties, which enhance or weaken the resonance effect. The understanding to the two-way effects may be helpful in drug design and refinement by modulating the H-bond strength and in building empirical H-bond models to study large biological molecules. The study supports Pauling's resonance model. PMID:18503289

  2. Tropospheric carbon monoxide over the Pacific during HIPPO: two-way coupled simulation of GEOS-Chem and its multiple nested models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.-Y.; Lin, J.-T.; Kuang, Y.; Yang, D.; Zhang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Global chemical transport models (CTMs) are used extensively to study air pollution and transport at a global scale. These models are limited by coarse horizontal resolutions that do not allow for a detailed representation of small-scale nonlinear processes over the pollutant source regions. Here we couple the global GEOS-Chem CTM and its three high-resolution nested models to simulate the tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) over the Pacific Ocean during five High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) campaigns between 2009 and 2011. We develop a two-way coupler, the PeKing University CouPLer (PKUCPL), allowing for the exchange and interaction of chemical constituents between the global model (at 2.5 long. 2 lat.) and the three nested models (at 0.667 long. 0.5 lat.) covering Asia, North America, and Europe. The coupler obtains nested model results to modify the global model simulation within the respective nested domains, and simultaneously acquires global model results to provide lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the nested models. Compared to the global model alone, the two-way coupled simulation results in enhanced CO concentrations in the nested domains. Sensitivity tests suggest the enhancement to be a result of improved representation of the spatial distributions of CO, nitrogen oxides, and non-methane volatile organic compounds, the meteorological dependence of natural emissions, and other resolution-dependent processes. The relatively long lifetime of CO allows for the enhancement to be accumulated and carried across the globe. We found that the two-way coupled simulation increased the global tropospheric mean CO concentrations in 2009 by 10.4%, with a greater enhancement at 13.3% in the Northern Hemisphere. Coincidently, the global tropospheric mean hydroxyl radical (OH) was reduced by 4.2%, resulting in a 4.2% enhancement in the methyl chloroform lifetime (MCF; via reaction with tropospheric OH). The resulting CO and OH contents and MCF lifetime are closer to observation-based estimates. Both the global and the two-way coupled models capture the general spatiotemporal patterns of HIPPO CO over the Pacific. The two-way coupled simulation is much closer to HIPPO CO, with a mean bias of 1.1 ppb (1.4%) below 9 km compared to the bias at -7.2 ppb (-9.2%) for the global model alone. The improvement is most apparent over the North Pacific. Our test simulations show that the global model alone could resemble the two-way coupled simulation (especially below 4 km) by increasing its global CO emissions by 15% for HIPPO-1 and HIPPO-3, by 25% for HIPPO-2 and HIPPO-4, and by 35% for HIPPO-5. This has important implications for using the global model alone to constrain CO emissions. Thus, the two-way coupled simulation is a significantly improved model tool for studying the global impacts of air pollutants from major anthropogenic source regions.

  3. Tropospheric carbon monoxide over the Pacific during HIPPO: two-way coupled simulation of GEOS-Chem and its multiple nested models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.-Y.; Lin, J.-T.; Kuang, Y.; Yang, D.; Zhang, L.

    2014-07-01

    Global chemical transport models (CTMs) are used extensively to study air pollution and transport at a global scale. These models are limited by coarse horizontal resolutions, not allowing for detailed representation of small-scale nonlinear processes over the pollutant source regions. Here we couple the global GEOS-Chem CTM and its three high-resolution nested models to simulate the tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) over the Pacific Ocean during five HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) campaigns between 2009 and 2011. We develop a two-way coupler, PKUCPL, to integrate simulation results for chemical constituents from the global model (at 2.5 long. 2 lat.) and the three nested models (at 0.667 long. 0.5 lat.) covering Asia, North America and Europe, respectively. The coupler obtains nested model results to modify the global model simulation within the respective nested domains, and simultaneously acquires global model results to provide lateral boundary conditions for the nested models. Compared to the global model alone, the two-way coupled simulation results in enhanced CO concentrations in the nested domains. Sensitivity tests suggest the enhancement to be a result of improved representation of the spatial distributions of CO, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds, the meteorological dependence of natural emissions, and other resolution-dependent processes. The relatively long lifetime of CO allows for the enhancement to be accumulated and carried across the globe. We find that the two-way coupled simulation increases the global tropospheric mean CO concentrations in 2009 by 10.4%, with a greater enhancement at 13.3% in the Northern Hemisphere. Coincidently, the global tropospheric mean hydroxyl radical (OH) is reduced by 4.2% (as compared to the interannual variability of OH at 2.3%), resulting in a 4.2% enhancement in the methyl chloroform lifetime (MCF, via reaction with tropospheric OH). The resulting CO and OH contents and MCF lifetime are closer to observation-based estimates. Both the global and the two-way coupled models capture the general spatiotemporal patterns of HIPPO CO over the Pacific. The two-way coupled simulation is much closer to HIPPO CO, with a mean bias of 1.1 ppb (1.4%) below 9 km compared to the bias at -7.2 ppb (-9.2%) for the global model. The improvement is most apparent over the North Pacific. Our test simulations show that the global model could resemble the two-way coupled simulation (especially below 4 km) by increasing its global CO emissions by 15% for HIPPO-1 and HIPPO-3, by 25% for HIPPO-2 and HIPPO-4, and by 35% for HIPPO-5. This has important implications for using the global model to constrain CO emissions. Thus, the two-way coupled simulation is a significantly improved model tool to studying the global impacts of air pollutants from major anthropogenic source regions.

  4. Avoidance Strategies in Intimate Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belk, Sharyn S.; And Others

    Avoidance strategies involve the tactics and techniques people use when they don't wish to be influenced by others. To investigate the types of avoidance strategies men and women use to deal with an unwelcome persuasion attempt from an intimate partner, undergraduates wrote essays describing how they avoided such attempts. A 24-strategy coding

  5. Redundant Robot Can Avoid Obstacles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homayoun, Seraji; Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin

    1991-01-01

    Simple and direct control scheme enables redundant robot to avoid obstacles in workspace. In proposed scheme, called "configuration control", degrees of freedom used to configure robot to satisfy set of inequality constraints representing avoidance of obstacles, while simultaneously making end effector follow desired trajectory. Provides capability to avoid obstacles in dynamically varying environment where apriori planning of tasks not feasible.

  6. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  7. How to Avoid Choking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Reproduction Fitness Fitness Find out more Categories Sports and Performance Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition For Kids For ...

  8. The mysterious case of the public health guideline that is (almost) entirely ignored: call for a research agenda on the causes of the extreme avoidance of physical activity in obesity.

    PubMed

    Ekkekakis, P; Vazou, S; Bixby, W R; Georgiadis, E

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity and exercise guidelines for weight management call for at least 60 min of daily activity. However, these documents fail to acknowledge that almost no obese adults meet this target and that non-adherence and dropout are even higher among obese individuals than the general population. The reasons for this level of activity avoidance among obese individuals remain poorly understood, and there are no evidence-based methods for addressing the problem. Opinions among exercise scientists are polarized. Some advocate moderate intensity and long duration, whereas others call for high intensity and shorter duration. The latter approach attributes the inactivity and high dropout to limited discretionary time and the slow accrual of visible benefits. However, higher intensity has been associated with non-adherence and dropout, whereas longer duration has not. A conceptual model is then proposed, according to which obesity interacts with intensity, causing physical activity and exercise to be associated with reduced pleasure among obese individuals. We theorize that, in turn, repeated experiences of reduced pleasure lead to avoidance. On this basis, we call for a research agenda aimed at identifying the causes of activity-associated and exercise-associated displeasure in obesity and, by extension, the causes of the extreme physical inactivity among obese individuals. PMID:26806460

  9. Collision avoidance sensor skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to totally eliminate the possibility of a robot (or any mechanism for that matter) inducing a collision in space operations. We were particularly concerned that human beings were safe under all circumstances. This was apparently accomplished, and it is shown that GSFC has a system that is ready for space qualification and flight. However, it soon became apparent that much more could be accomplished with this technology. Payloads could be made invulnerable to collision avoidance and the blind spots behind them eliminated. This could be accomplished by a simple, non-imaging set of 'Capaciflector' sensors on each payload. It also is evident that this system could be used to align and dock the system with a wide margin of safety. Throughout, lighting problems could be ignored, and unexpected events and modeling errors taken in stride. At the same time, computational requirements would be reduced. This can be done in a simple, rugged, reliable manner that will not disturb the form factor of space systems. It will be practical for space applications. The lab experiments indicate we are well on the way to accomplishing this. Still, the research trail goes deeper. It now appears that the sensors can be extended to end effectors to provide precontact information and make robot docking (or any docking connection) very smooth, with minimal loads impacted back into the mating structures. This type of ability would be a major step forward in basic control techniques in space. There are, however, baseline and restructuring issues to be tackled. The payloads must get power and signals to them from the robot or from the astronaut servicing tool. This requires a standard electromechanical interface. Any of several could be used. The GSFC prototype shown in this presentation is a good one. Sensors with their attendant electronics must be added to the payloads, end effectors, and robot arms and integrated into the system.

  10. PETOOL: MATLAB-based one-way and two-way split-step parabolic equation tool for radiowave propagation over variable terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgun, Ozlem; Apaydin, Gökhan; Kuzuoglu, Mustafa; Sevgi, Levent

    2011-12-01

    A MATLAB-based one-way and two-way split-step parabolic equation software tool (PETOOL) has been developed with a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for the analysis and visualization of radio-wave propagation over variable terrain and through homogeneous and inhomogeneous atmosphere. The tool has a unique feature over existing one-way parabolic equation (PE)-based codes, because it utilizes the two-way split-step parabolic equation (SSPE) approach with wide-angle propagator, which is a recursive forward-backward algorithm to incorporate both forward and backward waves into the solution in the presence of variable terrain. First, the formulation of the classical one-way SSPE and the relatively-novel two-way SSPE is presented, with particular emphasis on their capabilities and the limitations. Next, the structure and the GUI capabilities of the PETOOL software tool are discussed in detail. The calibration of PETOOL is performed and demonstrated via analytical comparisons and/or representative canonical tests performed against the Geometric Optic (GO) + Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD). The tool can be used for research and/or educational purposes to investigate the effects of a variety of user-defined terrain and range-dependent refractivity profiles in electromagnetic wave propagation. Program summaryProgram title: PETOOL (Parabolic Equation Toolbox) Catalogue identifier: AEJS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 143 349 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 23 280 251 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MATLAB (MathWorks Inc.) 2010a. Partial Differential Toolbox and Curve Fitting Toolbox required Computer: PC Operating system: Windows XP and Vista Classification: 10 Nature of problem: Simulation of radio-wave propagation over variable terrain on the Earth's surface, and through homogeneous and inhomogeneous atmosphere. Solution method: The program implements one-way and two-way Split-Step Parabolic Equation (SSPE) algorithm, with wide-angle propagator. The SSPE is, in general, an initial-value problem starting from a reference range (typically from an antenna), and marching out in range by obtaining the field along the vertical direction at each range step, through the use of step-by-step Fourier transformations. The two-way algorithm incorporates the backward-propagating waves into the standard one-way SSPE by utilizing an iterative forward-backward scheme for modeling multipath effects over a staircase-approximated terrain. Unusual features: This is the first software package implementing a recursive forward-backward SSPE algorithm to account for the multipath effects during radio-wave propagation, and enabling the user to easily analyze and visualize the results of the two-way propagation with GUI capabilities. Running time: Problem dependent. Typically, it is about 1.5 ms (for conducting ground) and 4 ms (for lossy ground) per range step for a vertical field profile of vector length 1500, on Intel Core 2 Duo 1.6 GHz with 2 GB RAM under Windows Vista.

  11. Automated pipeline for classifying Aroclors in soil by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using modulo compressed two-way data objects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengliang; Harrington, Peter de B

    2013-12-15

    Seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) commercial mixtures, Aroclor 1016, 1221, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260, were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) combined with solid phase microextraction (SPME). Three pattern recognition methods: a fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and a fuzzy optimal associative memory (FOAM) were used to build classification models. Modulo compression was introduced for data preprocessing to extract the characteristic features and compress the data size. Baseline correction and data normalization were also applied prior to data processing. Four GC/MS data set configurations were constructed and used to evaluate the classifiers and data pretreatments including two-way modulo compressed, two-way data, one-way total ion current and one-way total mass spectrum. The results indicate that modulo compression and baseline correction methods significantly improved the performance of the classifiers which resulted in improved classification rates for FuRES, PLS-DA, and FOAM classifiers. By using two-way modulo compressed data sets, the average classification rates with FuRES, PLS-DA, and FOAM were 100±0%, 94.6±0.7%, and 96.1±0.6% for 100 bootstrapped Latin partitions of the Aroclor standards. The classifiers were validated by application to Aroclor samples extracted from soil with no parametric changes except that the calibration set of standards and validation set of soil samples were individually mean centered. The classification rates for the GC/MS modulo 35 compressed data obtained from the Aroclor soil samples with FOAM, FuRES, and PLS-DA were 100%, 96.4%, and 78.6%, respectively. Therefore, a chemometric pipeline for SPME-GC/MS data coupled with chemometric analysis was devised as a fast authentication method for different Aroclors in soil. PMID:24209371

  12. Modeling ocean response to an extreme Bora event in Northern Adriatic using one-way and two-way atmosphere-ocean coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ličer, M.; Smerkol, P.; Fettich, A.; Ravdas, M.; Papapostolou, A.; Mantziafou, A.; Strajnar, B.; Cedilnik, J.; Jeromel, M.; Jerman, J.; Petan, S.; Malačič, V.; Sofianos, S.

    2015-07-01

    We study the performances of (a) fully two-way coupled atmosphere-ocean modeling system and (b) one-way coupled ocean model (forced by the atmospheric model hourly output), as compared to the available in situ (mooring and CTD) measurements during and after an strong Bora wind event in February 2012, which led to extreme air-sea interactions and record breaking seawater cooling and dense water formation in Northern Adriatic. The simulations span the period between January and March 2012. The models used were ALADIN (4.4 km resolution) on the atmospheric side and Adriatic setup of POM (1°/30 × 1°/30 angular resolution) on the ocean side. The atmosphere-ocean coupling was implemented using the OASIS3-MCT model coupling toolkit. We show, using in situ seawater temperature measurements, that the two-way atmosphere-ocean coupling improves the ocean response to Bora because it captures transient Bora-induced cooling better than the one-way coupled version of the ocean model. We show that this difference stems mainly from an underestimation of air-sea temperature difference in one-way coupled system during the Bora episode, leading to an underestimation of sensible heat losses from the ocean in the one-way coupled system. We show these losses exhibit significant impact on baroclinic circulation on synoptic timescales. We use CTD observations in the Gulf of Trieste to show that when compared to the one-way setup, the two-way coupled system produces a similar estimation of salinities and density anomalies before the Bora episode, but a significantly better estimation of these quantities afterwards.

  13. Learning-associated activation of nuclear MAPK, CREB and Elk-1, along with Fos production, in the rat hippocampus after a one-trial avoidance learning: abolition by NMDA receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Cammarota, M; Bevilaqua, L R; Ardenghi, P; Paratcha, G; Levi de Stein, M; Izquierdo, I; Medina, J H

    2000-03-10

    It is widely accepted that the formation of long-term memory (LTM) requires neuronal gene expression, protein synthesis and the remodeling of synaptic contacts. From mollusk to mammals, the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway has been shown to play a pivotal role in the establishment of LTM. More recently, the MAPK cascade has been also involved in memory processing. Here, we provide evidence for the participation of hippocampal PKA/CREB and MAPK/Elk-1 pathways, via activation of NMDA receptors, in memory formation of a one-trial avoidance learning in rats. Learning of this task is associated with an activation of p44 and p42 MAPKs, CREB and Elk-1, along with an increase in the levels of the catalytic subunit of PKA and Fos protein in nuclear-enriched hippocampal fractions. These changes were blocked by the immediate posttraining intra-hippocampal infusion of APV, a selective blocker of glutamate NMDA receptors, which renders the animals amnesic for this task. Moreover, no changes were found in control-shocked animals. Thus, inhibitory avoidance training in the rat is associated with an increase in the protein product of an IEG, c-fos, which occurs concomitantly with the activation of nuclear MAPK, CREB and Elk-1. NMDA receptors appear to be a necessary upstream step for the activation of these intracellular cascades during learning. PMID:10719213

  14. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance. PMID:25931151

  15. Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk. PMID:18758277

  16. Neuroimaging the temporal dynamics of human avoidance to sustained threat.

    PubMed

    Schlund, Michael W; Hudgins, Caleb D; Magee, Sandy; Dymond, Simon

    2013-11-15

    Many forms of human psychopathology are characterized by sustained negative emotional responses to threat and chronic behavioral avoidance, implicating avoidance as a potential transdiagnostic factor. Evidence from both nonhuman neurophysiological and human neuroimaging studies suggests a distributed frontal-limbic-striatal brain network supports avoidance. However, our understanding of the temporal dynamics of the network to sustained threat that prompts sustained avoidance is limited. To address this issue, 17 adults were given extensive training on a modified free-operant avoidance task in which button pressing avoided money loss during a sustained threat period. Subsequently, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing the avoidance task. In our regions of interest, we observed phasic, rather than sustained, activation during sustained threat in dorsolateral and inferior frontal regions, anterior and dorsal cingulate, ventral striatum and regions associated with emotion, including the amygdala, insula, substantia nigra and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis complex. Moreover, trait levels of experiential avoidance were negatively correlated with insula, hippocampal and amygdala activation. These findings suggest knowledge that one can consistently avoid aversive outcomes is not associated with decreased threat-related responses and that individuals with greater experiential avoidance exhibit reduced reactivity to initial threat. Implications for understanding brain mechanisms supporting human avoidance and psychological theories of avoidance are discussed. PMID:24095880

  17. Obstacle avoidance sonar for submarines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugas, Albert C.; Webman, Kenneth M.

    2002-05-01

    The Advanced Mine Detection Sonar (AMDS) system was designed to operate in poor environments with high biological and/or shallow-water boundary conditions. It provides increased capability for active detection of volume, close-tethered, and bottom mines, as well as submarine and surface target active/passive detection for ASW and collision avoidance. It also provides bottom topography mapping capability for precise submarine navigation in uncharted littoral waters. It accomplishes this by using advanced processing techniques with extremely narrow beamwidths. The receive array consists of 36 modules arranged in a 15-ft-diameter semicircle at the bottom of the submarine sonar dome to form a chin-mounted array. Each module consists of 40 piezoelectric rubber elements. The modules provide the necessary signal conditioning to the element data prior to signal transmission (uplink) through the hull. The elements are amplified, filtered, converted to digital signals by an A/D converter, and multiplexed prior to uplink to the inboard receiver. Each module also has a downlink over which it receives synchronization and mode/gain control. Uplink and downlink transmission is done using fiberoptic telemetry. AMDS was installed on the USS Asheville. The high-frequency chin array for Virginia class submarines is based on the Asheville design.

  18. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs. PMID:26970365

  19. On the Causes of Avoidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Ho

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the cause of avoidance in learning negation in a Korean as a second-language (KSL) situation. Because Korean has two types of negatives--preverbal and postverbal--examination focused on whether students of KSL avoid a certain negative form, and if so, why. (Author/VWL)

  20. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions. PMID:15721046

  1. A novel error detection due to joint CRC aided denoise-and-forward network coding for two-way relay channels.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yulun; Yang, Longxiang

    2014-01-01

    In wireless two-way (TW) relay channels, denoise-and-forward (DNF) network coding (NC) is a promising technique to achieve spectral efficiency. However, unsuccessful detection at relay severely deteriorates the diversity gain, as well as end-to-end pairwise error probability (PEP). To handle this issue, a novel joint cyclic redundancy code (CRC) check method (JCRC) is proposed in this paper by exploiting the property of two NC combined CRC codewords. Firstly, the detection probability bounds of the proposed method are derived to prove its efficiency in evaluating the reliability of NC signals. On the basis of that, three JCRC aided TW DNF NC schemes are proposed, and the corresponding PEP performances are also derived. Numerical results reveal that JCRC aided TW DNF NC has similar PEP comparing with the separate CRC one, while the complexity is reduced to half. Besides, it demonstrates that the proposed schemes outperform the conventional one with log-likelihood ratio threshold. PMID:25247205

  2. A Novel Error Detection due to Joint CRC Aided Denoise-and-Forward Network Coding for Two-Way Relay Channels

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yulun; Yang, Longxiang

    2014-01-01

    In wireless two-way (TW) relay channels, denoise-and-forward (DNF) network coding (NC) is a promising technique to achieve spectral efficiency. However, unsuccessful detection at relay severely deteriorates the diversity gain, as well as end-to-end pairwise error probability (PEP). To handle this issue, a novel joint cyclic redundancy code (CRC) check method (JCRC) is proposed in this paper by exploiting the property of two NC combined CRC codewords. Firstly, the detection probability bounds of the proposed method are derived to prove its efficiency in evaluating the reliability of NC signals. On the basis of that, three JCRC aided TW DNF NC schemes are proposed, and the corresponding PEP performances are also derived. Numerical results reveal that JCRC aided TW DNF NC has similar PEP comparing with the separate CRC one, while the complexity is reduced to half. Besides, it demonstrates that the proposed schemes outperform the conventional one with log-likelihood ratio threshold. PMID:25247205

  3. Comparison of two way shape memory effect for a poly, bi and single crystal of a Cu-Zn-Al-Co alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Guilemany, J.M.; Fernandez, J.; Franch, R.

    1995-06-15

    The Two Way Shape Memory Effect (TWSME) is associated with the growth of particular martensite variants. This preferential growth can be obtained by several training routes, all of them based on thermomechanical cycling. A new concept of training has been developed for Cu-based alloys in recent years. The training method involves the stabilization of the stress induced martensite (SSIM) by a thermal treatment which depends on the ally composition. The obtained SSIM allows control of the nucleation and growth of particular martensite variants during subsequent thermal cycles, thus providing TWSME. The aim of the present work is to study the optimum TWSME that can be obtained in a Cu-Zn-Al-Co allow in relation to the influence of grain boundaries. This has been achieved by training poly-, bi- and single crystals of the same alloy.

  4. The impact of coastal phytoplankton blooms on ocean-atmosphere thermal energy exchange: Evidence from a two-way coupled numerical modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, Jason K.; Smith, Travis A.; Barron, Charlie N.; deRada, Sergio; Anderson, Stephanie C.; Gould, Richard W.; Arnone, Robert A.

    2012-12-01

    A set of sensitivity experiments are performed with a two-way coupled and nested ocean-atmosphere forecasting system in order to deconvolve how dense phytoplankton stocks in a coastal embayment may impact thermal energy exchange processes. Monterey Bay simulations parameterizing solar shortwave transparency in the surface ocean as an invariant oligotrophic oceanic water type estimate consistently colder sea surface temperature (SST) than simulations utilizing more realistic, spatially varying shortwave attenuation terms based on satellite estimates of surface algal pigment concentration. These SST differences lead to an ∼88% increase in the cumulative turbulent thermal energy transfer from the ocean to the atmosphere over the three month simulation period. The result is a warmer simulated atmospheric boundary layer with respective local air temperature differences approaching ∼2°C. This study suggests that the retention of shortwave solar flux by ocean flora may directly impact even short-term forecasts of coastal meteorological variables.

  5. Two-way effects of surfactants on Pickering emulsions stabilized by the self-assembled microcrystals of α-cyclodextrin and oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Li, Haiyan; Xiao, Qun; Wang, Liuyi; Wang, Manli; Lu, Xiaolong; York, Peter; Shi, Senlin; Zhang, Jiwen

    2014-07-21

    The influence of surfactants on the stability of cyclodextrin (CD) Pickering emulsions is not well understood. In this study, we report two-way effects of Tween 80 and soybean lecithin (PL) on the long term stability of Pickering emulsions stabilized by the self-assembled microcrystals of α-CD and medium chain triglycerides (MCT). The CD emulsions in the absence and presence of Tween 80 or PL at different concentrations were prepared and characterized by the droplet size, viscosity, contact angle, interfacial tension and residual emulsion values. After adding Tween 80 and PL, similar effects on the size distribution and contact angle were observed. However, changes of viscosity and interfacial tension were significantly different and two-way effects on the stability were found: (i) synergistic enhancement by Tween 80; (ii) inhibition at low and enhancement at high concentrations by PL. The stability enhancement of Tween 80 was due to the interfacial tension decrease caused by the interaction of Tween 80 with CD at the o/w interface at lower concentrations, and significant viscosity increase caused by the Tween 80-CD assembly in the continuous phase. For PL at low concentrations, the replacement of α-CD/MCT by α-CD/PL particles at the o/w interface was observed, leading to inhibitory effects. High concentrations of PL resulted in an extremely low interfacial tension and stable emulsion. In conclusion, the extensive inclusion of surfactants by CD leads to their unique effects on the stability of CD emulsions, for which the changes of viscosity and interfacial tension caused by host-guest interactions play important roles. PMID:24901107

  6. Two-Way Interpretation about Climate Change: Preliminary Results from a Study in Select Units of the United States National Park System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forist, B. E.; Knapp, D.

    2014-12-01

    Much interpretation in units of the National Park System, conducted by National Park Service (NPS) rangers and partners today is done in a didactic, lecture style. This "one-way" communication runs counter to research suggesting that long-term impacts of park interpretive experiences must be established through direct connections with the visitor. Previous research in interpretation has suggested that interpretive experiences utilizing a "two-way" dialogue approach are more successful at facilitating long-term memories than "one-way" approaches where visitors have few, if any, opportunities to ask questions, offer opinions, or share interests and experiences. Long-term memories are indicators of connections to places and resources. Global anthropogenic change poses critical threats to NPS sites, resources, and visitor experiences. As climate change plays an ever-expanding role in public, political, social, economic, and environmental discourse it stands to reason that park visitors may also be interested in engaging in this discourse. Indeed, NPS Director Jonathan Jarvis stated in the agency's Climate Change Action Plan 2012 - 2014 that, "We now know through social science conducted in parks that our visitors are looking to NPS staff for honest dialogue about this critical issue." Researchers from Indiana University will present preliminary findings from a multiple park study that assessed basic visitor knowledge and the impact of two-way interpretation related to climate change. Observations from park interpretive program addressing climate change will be presented. Basic visitor knowledge of climate change impacts in the select parks as well as immediate and long-term visitor recollections will be presented. Select units of the National Park System in this research included Cape Cod National Seashore, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Cascades National Park, Shenandoah National Park, and Zion National Park.

  7. Avoidance-related EEG asymmetry predicts circulating interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has linked avoidance-oriented motivational states to elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. According to one of many theories regarding the association between avoidance and cytokine levels, because the evolutionarily basic avoidance system may be activated when an organism is threatened or overwhelmed, an associated inflammatory response may be adaptive for dealing with potential injury in such threatening situations. To examine this hypothesis, we tested whether the neural correlate of avoidance motivation associates with baseline levels of the circulating pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Controlling for covariates, greater resting neural activity in the right frontal cortex relative to the left frontal cortex-the neural correlate of avoidance motivation-was associated with baseline IL-6. These results thus support the hypothesis that the avoidance motivational system may be closely linked to systemic inflammatory activity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26461246

  8. Glutamate metabolism in Bacillus subtilis: gene expression and enzyme activities evolved to avoid futile cycles and to allow rapid responses to perturbations of the system.

    PubMed

    Commichau, Fabian M; Gunka, Katrin; Landmann, Jens J; Stlke, Jrg

    2008-05-01

    Glutamate is a central metabolite in all organisms since it provides the link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. In Bacillus subtilis, glutamate is synthesized exclusively by the glutamate synthase, and it can be degraded by the glutamate dehydrogenase. In B. subtilis, the major glutamate dehydrogenase RocG is expressed only in the presence of arginine, and the bacteria are unable to utilize glutamate as the only carbon source. In addition to rocG, a second cryptic gene (gudB) encodes an inactive glutamate dehydrogenase. Mutations in rocG result in the rapid accumulation of gudB1 suppressor mutations that code for an active enzyme. In this work, we analyzed the physiological significance of this constellation of genes and enzymes involved in glutamate metabolism. We found that the weak expression of rocG in the absence of the inducer arginine is limiting for glutamate utilization. Moreover, we addressed the potential ability of the active glutamate dehydrogenases of B. subtilis to synthesize glutamate. Both RocG and GudB1 were unable to catalyze the anabolic reaction, most probably because of their very high K(m) values for ammonium. In contrast, the Escherichia coli glutamate dehydrogenase is able to produce glutamate even in the background of a B. subtilis cell. B. subtilis responds to any mutation that interferes with glutamate metabolism with the rapid accumulation of extragenic or intragenic suppressor mutations, bringing the glutamate supply into balance. Similarly, with the presence of a cryptic gene, the system can flexibly respond to changes in the external glutamate supply by the selection of mutations. PMID:18326565

  9. Postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance in guppies.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Evans, J P

    2014-12-01

    In many species, the negative fitness effects of inbreeding have facilitated the evolution of a wide range of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. Although avoidance mechanisms operating prior to mating are well documented, evidence for postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance remain scarce. Here, we examine the potential for paternity biases to favour unrelated males when their sperm compete for fertilizations though postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. To test this possibility, we used a series of artificial inseminations to deliver an equal number of sperm from a related (either full sibling or half sibling) and unrelated male to a female while statistically controlling for differences in sperm quality between rival ejaculates. In this way, we were able to focus exclusively on postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance and account for differences in sperm competitiveness between rival males. Under these carefully controlled conditions, we report a significant bias in paternity towards unrelated males, although this effect was only apparent when the related male was a full sibling. We also show that sperm competition generally favours males with highly viable sperm and thus that some variance in sperm competitiveness can be attributed to difference in sperm quality. Our findings for postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance are consistent with prior work on guppies, revealing that sperm competition success declines linearly with the level of relatedness, but also that such effects are only apparent at relatedness levels of full siblings or higher. These findings reveal that postcopulatory processes alone can facilitate inbreeding avoidance. PMID:25387854

  10. Converging evidence of social avoidant behavior in schizophrenia from two approach-avoidance tasks.

    PubMed

    de la Asuncion, Javier; Docx, Lise; Sabbe, Bernard; Morrens, Manuel; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2015-10-01

    Many people with schizophrenia suffer from social impairments characterized by active social avoidance, which is related to social phobia common in schizophrenia, while motivational impairments can also result in passive social withdrawal. Although social avoidance is frequently reported in this population, this is the first study to directly compare approach-avoidance tendencies in schizophrenia patients (N=37) and healthy controls (N=29). Participants performed two tasks: a computerized approach-avoidance task (AAT) to assess response tendencies toward images of happy and angry faces with direct or averted gaze and a one-to-one personal space test (PST) to gauge more naturalistic approach-avoidance behaviors toward a real person bearing a neutral expression. The AAT results showed that both groups showed faster avoidance responses to angry faces and faster approach responses to happy faces with a direct gaze. Happy faces with averted gaze, however, resulted in faster avoidance responses in the patient group only. On the PST, the patients approached the experimenter less than healthy controls did. This measure of interpersonal distance was positively related to positive symptom severity. Delusions of reference and increased sensitivity to social rejection may explain the patients' avoidance tendencies in response to pictures of happy faces with averted gaze and in the presence of an actual person. The current findings demonstrate the importance of others adopting positive and unambiguous attitudes when interacting with schizophrenia patients to minimize behavioral avoidance patterns, which is particularly relevant for relatives and clinicians whose interactions with the patients are crucial to facilitating treatment and promoting healthy social relationships. PMID:26343605

  11. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, John

    2006-07-18

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  12. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-nave) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337

  13. Neural systems underlying approach and avoidance in anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Robin L., Aupperle; Martin, P. Paulus

    2010-01-01

    Approach-avoidance conflict is an important psychological concept that has been used extensively to better understand cognition and emotion. This review focuses on neural systems involved in approach, avoidance, and conflict decision making, and how these systems overlap with implicated neural substrates of anxiety disorders. In particular, the role of amygdala, insula, ventral striatal, and prefrontal regions are discussed with respect to approach and avoidance behaviors. Three specific hypotheses underlying the dysfunction in anxiety disorders are proposed, including: (i) over-representation of avoidance valuation related to limbic overactivation; (ii) under- or over-representation of approach valuation related to attenuated or exaggerated striatal activation respectively; and (iii) insufficient integration and arbitration of approach and avoidance valuations related to attenuated orbitofrontal cortex activation. These dysfunctions can be examined experimentally using versions of existing decision-making paradigms, but may also require new translational and innovative approaches to probe approach-avoidance conflict and related neural systems in anxiety disorders. PMID:21319496

  14. The formation of the two-way shape memory effect in rapidly quenched TiNiCu alloy under laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelyakov, A. V.; Sitnikov, N. N.; Sheyfer, D. V.; Borodako, K. A.; Menushenkov, A. P.; Fominski, V. Yu

    2015-11-01

    The effect of pulsed laser radiation (λ = 248 nm, τ = 20 ns) on structural properties and shape memory behavior of the rapidly quenched Ti50Ni25Cu25 alloy ribbon was studied. The radiation energy density was varied from 2 to 20 mJ mm‑2. The samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, microhardness measurements and shape memory bending tests. It was ascertained that the action of the laser radiation leads to the formation of a structural composite material due to amorphization or martensite modification in the surface layer of the ribbon. Two methods are proposed which allow one to generate the pronounced two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) in a local area of the ribbon by using only a single pulse of the laser radiation. With increasing energy density of laser treatment, the magnitude of the reversible angular displacement with realization of the TWSME increases. The developed techniques can be used for the creation of various micromechanical devices.

  15. Identification of extratropical two-way troposphere-stratosphere mixing based on CARIBIC measurements of O3, CO, and ultrafine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Maiss, M.; Scharffe, D. H.; Crutzen, P. J.; Hermann, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Gsten, H.; Heinrich, G.; Fischer, H.; Cuijpers, J. W. M.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.

    2000-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of O3, CO, and ultrafine aerosol particles (UFP), conducted on board of a Boeing 767-ER passenger aircraft flying from Sri Lanka to Germany (project CARIBIC), are used to study two-way cross-tropopause mixing near a subtropical tropopause fold. On the equatorward side of the fold, downward mixing of stratospheric air into the upper troposphere is identified by enhanced concentrations of O3 and 14CO. Very high UFP number concentrations of up to 1.5104 cm-3 (STP) were encountered inside the poleward half of the fold. This accumulation of small particles is explained by recent extensive aerosol nucleation, most likely triggered by the mixing of stratospheric air with tropospheric air injected into the fold. Further, nine particle formation events were observed outside the fold which are attributed to isolated cells of deep convection and to rising air parcels under cyclonic conditions that mix with surrounding air. In the upper troposphere O3 and CO were found to be correlated with high ?O3/?CO ratios of 0.6 to 1.5. In the fold the correlation was strongly negative with ?O3/?CO; = -3.5; but the high CO mixing ratios of 100 ppb at O3 mixing ratios of 250 ppb point to earlier injection of tropospheric air, in agreement with the UFP measurements.

  16. Investigation of Bending Trainings, Transformation Temperatures, and Stability of Two-Way Shape Memory Effect in NiTi-Based Ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabi, K.; Bruncko, M.; Kneissl, A. C.

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses the application of rapid solidification by the melt-spinning method for the preparation of thin NiTi-based ribbons. Generally, the application of rapid solidification via melt-spinning can change the microstructure, improving the ductility and shape memory characteristics and lead to small-dimensioned samples. Several thousand thermal cycles were performed on the trained ribbons using bending deformation procedure, continuously observing the changes in the shape memory and transformation behaviors. These changes are due to the appearance of an intermediate phase which was stabilized probably by the accumulation of defects introduced by thermomechanical training. The influence of training and thermal cycling on characteristics of ribbons was studied by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The results displayed that bending training methods were useful in developing a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME). All samples show a shape memory effect immediately after processing without further heat treatment. The addition of copper in NiTi alloys was effective to narrow the transformation hysteresis. The W addition has improved the stability of the TWSME and mechanical properties. The TWSME of ribbons and its stability are well suited for important applications such as microsensors and microactuators.

  17. Preliminary Comparison of Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer and GPS Common-View Time Transfer During the INTELSAT Field Trial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John A.; Lewandowski, W.; DeYoung, James A.; Kirchner, Dieter; Hetzel, Peter; deJong, Gerrit; Soering, A.; Baumont, F.; Klepczynski, William; McKinley, Angela Davis; Parker, Thomas E.; Bartle, K. A.; Ressler, Hubert; Robnik, R.; Veenstra, L.

    1996-01-01

    For a decade and a half Global Positioning System (GPS) common-view time transfer has greatly served the needs of primary timing laboratories for regular intercomparisons of remote atomic clocks. However, GPS as a one-way technique has natural limits and may not meet all challenges of the comparison of the coming new generation of atomic clocks. Two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) is a promising technique which may successfully complement GPS. For two years, regular TWSTFT's have been performed between eight laboratories situated in both Europe and North America, using INTELSAT satellites. This has enabled an extensive direct comparison to be made between these two high performance time transfer methods. The performance of the TWSTFT and GPS common view methods are compared over a number of time-transfer links. These links use a variety of time-transfer hardware and atomic clocks and have baselines of substantially different lengths. The relative merits of the two time-transfer systems are discussed.

  18. Some Operational Aspects of the International Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) Experiment Using INTELSAT Satellites at 307 Degrees East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeYoung, J. A.; McKinley, A.; Davis, J. A.; Hetzel, P.; Bauch, A.

    1996-01-01

    Eight laboratories are participating in an international two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) experiment. Regular time and frequency transfers have been performed over a period of almost two years, including both European and transatlantic time transfers. The performance of the regular TWSTFT sessions over an extended period has demonstrated conclusively the usefulness of the TWSTFT method for routine international time and frequency comparisons. Regular measurements are performed three times per week resulting in a regular but unevenly spaced data set. A method is presented that allows an estimate of the values of delta (sub y)(gamma) to be formed from these data. In order to maximize efficient use of paid satellite time an investigation to determine the optimal length of a single TWSTFT session is presented. The optimal experiment length is determined by evaluating how long white phase modulation (PM) instabilities are the dominant noise source during the typical 300-second sampling times currently used. A detailed investigation of the frequency transfers realized via the transatlantic TWSTFT links UTC(USNO)-UTC(NPL), UTC(USNO)-UTC(PTB), and UTC(PTB)-UTC(NPL) is presented. The investigation focuses on the frequency instabilities realized, a three cornered hat resolution of the delta (sub y) (gamma) values, and a comparison of the transatlantic and inter-European determination of UTC(PTB)-UTC(NPL). Future directions of this TWSTFT experiment are outlined.

  19. Neural substrates of approach-avoidance conflict decision-making.

    PubMed

    Aupperle, Robin L; Melrose, Andrew J; Francisco, Alex; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B

    2015-02-01

    Animal approach-avoidance conflict paradigms have been used extensively to operationalize anxiety, quantify the effects of anxiolytic agents, and probe the neural basis of fear and anxiety. Results from human neuroimaging studies support that a frontal-striatal-amygdala neural circuitry is important for approach-avoidance learning. However, the neural basis of decision-making is much less clear in this context. Thus, we combined a recently developed human approach-avoidance paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural substrates underlying approach-avoidance conflict decision-making. Fifteen healthy adults completed the approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) paradigm during fMRI. Analyses of variance were used to compare conflict to nonconflict (avoid-threat and approach-reward) conditions and to compare level of reward points offered during the decision phase. Trial-by-trial amplitude modulation analyses were used to delineate brain areas underlying decision-making in the context of approach/avoidance behavior. Conflict trials as compared to the nonconflict trials elicited greater activation within bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and caudate, as well as right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Right caudate and lateral PFC activation was modulated by level of reward offered. Individuals who showed greater caudate activation exhibited less approach behavior. On a trial-by-trial basis, greater right lateral PFC activation related to less approach behavior. Taken together, results suggest that the degree of activation within prefrontal-striatal-insula circuitry determines the degree of approach versus avoidance decision-making. Moreover, the degree of caudate and lateral PFC activation related to individual differences in approach-avoidance decision-making. Therefore, the approach-avoidance conflict paradigm is ideally suited to probe anxiety-related processing differences during approach-avoidance decision-making. PMID:25224633

  20. Avoided cost standard under PURPA

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.J.; Holmlund, I.; Smith, S.A.; Williams, T.A.

    1983-04-01

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) (P.L. 95-617) was passed to encourage electricity conservation through a variety of regulatory and rate reforms. Information is provided on the controversy surrounding the avoided cost standard established under PURPA. Promulgated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC) in February 1980, the avoided cost standard sets a minimum rate for utilities purchasing power from a qualified facility (QF) at the utilities full avoided cost. Recent court cases have challenged this standard and FERC is currently appealing to the Supreme Court. The impact of these court cases may have little effect on the actual rates set by state Public Utility Commissions (PUCs), which can require rates higher than the minimums established by FERC, since many PUCs appear in favor of requiring full avoided costs. The arguments for and against requiring utilities to pay full avoided costs come down to balancing between incentives for QFs on the one hand and fairness to utilities and their non-QF customers on the other.

  1. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  2. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was

  3. A problem of collision avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, T. L.; Cliff, E. M.; Grantham, W. J.; Peng, W. Y.

    1972-01-01

    Collision avoidance between two vehicles of constant speed with limited turning radii, moving in a horizontal plane is investigated. Collision avoidance is viewed as a game by assuming that the operator of one vehicle has perfect knowledge of the state of the other, whereas the operator of the second vehicle is unaware of any impending danger. The situation envisioned is that of an encounter between a commercial aircraft and a small light aircraft. This worse case situation is examined to determine the conditions under which the commercial aircraft should execute a collision avoidance maneuver. Three different zones of vulnerability are defined and the boundaries, or barriers, between these zones are determined for a typical aircraft encounter. A discussion of the methods used to obtain the results as well as some of the salient features associated with the resultant barriers is included.

  4. Food Avoidance Diets for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeffrey F; Hammond, Margaret I; Nedorost, Susan T

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is relatively common in both children and adults, and its prevalence is increasing. Early exposure of food allergens onto skin with an impaired epidermal barrier predisposes to sensitization and prevents the development of oral tolerance. While immediate-type food allergies are well described, less is known about delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. This is due, in part, to limitations with current diagnostic testing for delayed-type food allergy, including atopy patch testing. We conducted a systematic review of food avoidance diets in delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. While beneficial in some clinical circumstances, avoidance diets should be used with caution in infants and children, as growth impairment and developmental delay may result. Ultimately, dermatitis is highly multifactorial and avoidance diets may not improve symptoms of delayed-type food allergy until combined with other targeted therapies, including restoring balance in the skin microbiome and re-establishing proper skin barrier function. PMID:26300528

  5. Two-way transfer of nitrogen between Dalbergia odorifera and its hemiparasite Santalum album is enhanced when the host is effectively nodulated and fixing nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Lu, J K; Kang, L H; Sprent, J I; Xu, D P; He, X H

    2013-05-01

    Nutrient translocation from a host plant is vital to the growth and survival of its root parasitic plant, but few studies have investigated whether a parasitic plant is also able to transfer nutrients to its host. The role of N2-fixation in nitrogen (N) transfer between 7-month-old Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen nodulated with Bradyrhizobium elkanii DG and its hemiparasite Santalum album Linn. was examined by external (15)N labeling in a pot study. Four paired treatments were used, with (15)N given to either host or hemiparasite and the host either nodulated or grown on combined N. N2-fixation supplied 41-44% of total N in D. odorifera. Biomass, N and (15)N contents were significantly greater in both nodulated D. odorifera and S. album grown with paired nodulated D. odorifera. Significantly higher total plant (15)N recovery was in N donor D. odorifera (68-72%) than in N donor S. album (42-44%), regardless of the nodulation status in D. odorifera. Nitrogen transfer to S. album was significantly greater (27.8-67.8 mg plant(-1)) than to D. odorifera (2.0-8.9 mg plant(-1)) and 2.4-4.5 times greater in the nodulated pair than in the non-nodulated pair. Irrespective of the nodulation status, S. album was always the N-sink plant. The amount of two-way N transfer was increased by the presence of effective nodules, resulting in a greater net N transfer (22.6 mg plant(-1)) from host D. odorifera to hemiparasite S. album. Our results may provide N management strategies for D. odorifera/S. album mixed plantations in the field. PMID:23604744

  6. From two way time to depth and pressure for interpretation of seismic velocities offshore: Methodology and examples from the Wallaby Plateau on the West Australian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, Alexey; Nelson, Gabriel

    2012-10-01

    The effect of water loading can account for sub-seafloor seismic P-wave velocity increases exceeding 1 km/s from shallow to deep water, but it is commonly ignored in offshore studies. Direct comparative analysis of interval velocity patterns between areas of significantly different water depths requires various water pressure related changes in velocity to be accounted for. This apparently simple task is not easy to implement in practical terms. One approach is to try to predict velocity increase at any given depth due to the pressure effect of water layer above, and then to reduce the observed interval velocity at that depth by subtraction of the predicted velocity increase. Interval velocities at different locations thus reduced can be compared and conclusions about rock lithology can subsequently be made. The application of water depth adjustments to seismic velocities, and the methods used to apply them, remain controversial. The presentation of velocity models as a function of pressure rather than two-way time, or depth, emerges as a possible solution. Analysis of appropriately adjusted seismic interval velocities from Geoscience Australia's 2008/09 seismic survey GA 310 in conjunction with seismic reflection interpretation provides new insights into the geology of the Wallaby Plateau, offshore of Western Australia. Seismically distinctive divergent dipping reflector sequences (DDRS), identified in the area, are similar in seismic character to seaward dipping reflector sequences (SDRS) of inferred volcanic composition. The water depth adjustment of seismic velocities analysed in our study reduces the distinction between SDRS, DDRS and sedimentary strata such that discrimination between volcanic and sedimentary strata in DDRS or SDRS is equivocal. A major uncertainty of this interpretation is caused by a lack of global reference velocity models of SDRS and DDRS.

  7. Simulation of the Indian Summer Monsoon Using Comprehensive Atmosphere-land Interactions, in the Absence of Two-way Air-sea Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Shin, D. W.; Cocke, Steven; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Community Land Model version 2 (CLM2) as a comprehensive land surface model and a simple land surface model (SLM) were coupled to an atmospheric climate model to investigate the role of land surface processes in the development and the persistence of the South Asian summer monsoon. Two-way air-sea interactions were not considered in order to identify the reproducibility of the monsoon evolution by the comprehensive land model, which includes more realistic vertical soil moisture structures, vegetation and 2-way atmosphere-land interactions at hourly intervals. In the monsoon development phase (May and June). comprehensive land-surface treatment improves the representation of atmospheric circulations and the resulting convergence/divergence through the improvements in differential heating patterns and surface energy fluxes. Coupling with CLM2 also improves the timing and spatial distribution of rainfall maxima, reducing the seasonal rainfall overestimation by approx.60 % (1.8 mm/d for SLM, 0.7 mm/dI for CLM2). As for the interannual variation of the simulated rainfall, correlation coefficients of the Indian seasonal rainfall with observation increased from 0.21 (SLM) to 0.45 (CLM2). However, in the mature monsoon phase (July to September), coupling with the CLM2 does not exhibit a clear improvement. In contrast to the development phase, latent heat flux is underestimated and sensible heat flux and surface temperature over India are markedly overestimated. In addition, the moisture fluxes do not correlate well with lower-level atmospheric convergence, yielding correlation coefficients and root mean square errors worse than those produced by coupling with the SLM. A more realistic representation of the surface temperature and energy fluxes is needed to achieve an improved simulation for the mature monsoon period.

  8. A collision avoidance system for a spaceplane manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciomachen, Anna; Magnani, Piergiovanni

    1989-01-01

    Part of the activity in the area of collision avoidance related to the Hermes spaceplane is reported. A collision avoidance software system which was defined, developed and implemented in this project is presented. It computes the intersection between the solids representing the arm, the payload, and the objects. It is feasible with respect to the resources available on board, considering its performance.

  9. Regulating Cognitive Control through Approach-Avoidance Motor Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Severine; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, the regulatory function of approach-avoidance cues in activating cognitive control processes was investigated. It was hypothesized that avoidance motor actions, relative to approach motor actions, increase the recruitment of cognitive resources, resulting in better performance on tasks that draw on these capacities. In Study 1,

  10. Neural substrates of approach-avoidance conflict decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Aupperle, Robin L.; Melrose, Andrew J.; Francisco, Alex; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

    2014-01-01

    Animal approach-avoidance conflict paradigms have been used extensively to operationalize anxiety, quantify the effects of anxiolytic agents, and probe the neural basis of fear and anxiety. Results from human neuroimaging studies support that a frontal-striatal-amygdala neural circuitry is important for approach-avoidance learning. However, the neural basis of decision-making is much less clear in this context. Thus, we combined a recently developed human approach-avoidance paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural substrates underlying approach-avoidance conflict decision-making. Fifteen healthy adults completed the approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) paradigm during fMRI. Analyses of variance were used to compare conflict to non-conflict (avoid-threat and approach-reward) conditions and to compare level of reward points offered during the decision phase. Trial-by-trial amplitude modulation analyses were used to delineate brain areas underlying decision-making in the context of approach/avoidance behavior. Conflict trials as compared to the non-conflict trials elicited greater activation within bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula, and caudate, as well as right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Right caudate and lateral PFC activation was modulated by level of reward offered. Individuals who showed greater caudate activation exhibited less approach behavior. On a trial-by-trial basis, greater right lateral PFC activation related to less approach behavior. Taken together, results suggest that the degree of activation within prefrontal-striatal-insula circuitry determines the degree of approach versus avoidance decision-making. Moreover, the degree of caudate and lateral PFC activation is related to individual differences in approach-avoidance decision-making. Therefore, the AAC paradigm is ideally suited to probe anxiety-related processing differences during approach-avoidance decision-making. PMID:25224633

  11. Pediatric mortality: an avoidable tragedy.

    PubMed

    Mounla, N A; Khudr, A A

    1989-01-01

    The article analyzes the causes of pediatric mortality. One thousand deaths secondary to medical diseases and conditions that occurred at the American University of Beirut Medical Center during 8 years are reviewed. Many deaths could have been avoided. Recommendations are made. PMID:2519328

  12. Biochar aging reduces earthworm avoidance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar, a black carbon substance produced by the pyrolysis of organic feedstocks, has been used in many soil improvement strategies ranging from nutrient addition to sequestration of C. Simple toxicity studies and laboratory preference/avoidance assays are recommended but results rarely reported. ...

  13. Glyphosate Use Predicts ADHD Hospital Discharges in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Net (HCUPnet): A Two-Way Fixed-Effects Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Keith R; Fluegge, Kyle R

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable international study on the etiology of rising mental disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in human populations. As glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide in the world, we sought to test the hypothesis that glyphosate use in agriculture may be a contributing environmental factor to the rise of ADHD in human populations. State estimates for glyphosate use and nitrogen fertilizer use were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). We queried the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project net (HCUPNET) for state-level hospitalization discharge data in all patients for all-listed ADHD from 2007 to 2010. We used rural-urban continuum codes from the USDA-Economic Research Service when exploring the effect of urbanization on the relationship between herbicide use and ADHD. Least squares dummy variable (LSDV) method and within method using two-way fixed effects was used to elucidate the relationship between glyphosate use and all-listed ADHD hospital discharges. We show that a one kilogram increase in glyphosate use, in particular, in one year significantly positively predicts state-level all-listed ADHD discharges, expressed as a percent of total mental disorders, the following year (coefficient = 5.54E-08, p<.01). A study on the effect of urbanization on the relationship between glyphosate and ADHD indicates that the relationship is marginally significantly positive after multiple comparison correction only in urban U.S. counties (p<.025). Furthermore, total glyphosate use is strongly positively associated with total farm use of nitrogen fertilizers from 1992 to 2006 (p<.001). We present evidence from the biomedical research literature of a plausible link among glyphosate, nitrogen dysbiosis and ADHD. Glyphosate use is a significant predictor of state hospitalizations for all-listed ADHD hospital discharges, with the effect concentrated in urban U.S. counties. This effect is seen even after controlling for individual state characteristics, strong correlations over time, and other significant associations with ADHD in the literature. We draw upon the econometric results to propose unique mechanisms, borrowing principles from soil and atmospheric sciences, for how glyphosate-based herbicides may be contributing to the rise of ADHD in all populations. PMID:26287729

  14. Aerosol Indirect Effect on the Grid-scale Clouds in the Two-way Coupled WRF-CMAQ: Model Description, Development, Evaluation and Regional Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shaocai; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Wong, David; Gilliam, R.; Alapaty, Kiran; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong

    2014-10-24

    This study implemented first, second and glaciations aerosol indirect effects (AIE) on resolved clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system by including parameterizations for both cloud drop and ice number concentrations on the basis of CMAQpredicted aerosol distributions and WRF meteorological conditions. The performance of the newly-developed WRF-CMAQ model, with alternate CAM and RRTMG radiation schemes, was evaluated with the observations from the CERES satellite and surface monitoring networks (AQS, IMPROVE, CASTNet, STN, and PRISM) over the continental U.S. (CONUS) (12-km resolution) and eastern Texas (4-km resolution) during August and September of 2006. The results at the AQS surface sites show that in August, the NMB values for PM2.5 over the eastern/western U.S (EUS/WUS) and western U.S. (WUS) are 5.3% (−0.1%) and 0.4% (-5.2%) for WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG), respectively. The evaluation of PM2.5 chemical composition reveals that in August, WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) consistently underestimated the observed SO4 2− by -23.0% (-27.7%), -12.5% (-18.9%) and -7.9% (-14.8%) over the EUS at the CASTNet, IMPROVE and STN sites, respectively. Both models (WRF-CMAQ/CAM, WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) overestimated the observed mean OC, EC and TC concentrations over the EUS in August at the IMPROVE sites. Both models generally underestimated the cloud field (SWCF) over the CONUS in August due to the fact that the AIE on the subgrid convective clouds was not considered when the model simulations were run at the 12 km resolution. This is in agreement with the fact that both models captured SWCF and LWCF very well for the 4-km simulation over the eastern Texas when all clouds were resolved by the finer domain. Both models generally overestimated the observed precipitation by more than 40% mainly because of significant overestimation in the southern part of the CONUS in August. The simulations of WRF-CMAQ/CAM and WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG show dramatic improvements for SWCF, LWCF, COD, cloud fractions and precipitation over the ocean relative to those of WRF default cases in August. The model performance in September is similar to that in August except for greater overestimation of PM2.5 due to the overestimations of SO4 2-, NH4 +, NO3 -, and TC over the EUS, less underestimation of clouds (SWCF) over the land areas due to about 10% lower SWCF values and less convective clouds in September.

  15. Glyphosate Use Predicts ADHD Hospital Discharges in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Net (HCUPnet): A Two-Way Fixed-Effects Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fluegge, Keith R.; Fluegge, Kyle R.

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable international study on the etiology of rising mental disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in human populations. As glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide in the world, we sought to test the hypothesis that glyphosate use in agriculture may be a contributing environmental factor to the rise of ADHD in human populations. State estimates for glyphosate use and nitrogen fertilizer use were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). We queried the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project net (HCUPNET) for state-level hospitalization discharge data in all patients for all-listed ADHD from 2007 to 2010. We used rural-urban continuum codes from the USDA-Economic Research Service when exploring the effect of urbanization on the relationship between herbicide use and ADHD. Least squares dummy variable (LSDV) method and within method using two-way fixed effects was used to elucidate the relationship between glyphosate use and all-listed ADHD hospital discharges. We show that a one kilogram increase in glyphosate use, in particular, in one year significantly positively predicts state-level all-listed ADHD discharges, expressed as a percent of total mental disorders, the following year (coefficient = 5.54E-08, p<.01). A study on the effect of urbanization on the relationship between glyphosate and ADHD indicates that the relationship is marginally significantly positive after multiple comparison correction only in urban U.S. counties (p<.025). Furthermore, total glyphosate use is strongly positively associated with total farm use of nitrogen fertilizers from 1992 to 2006 (p<.001). We present evidence from the biomedical research literature of a plausible link among glyphosate, nitrogen dysbiosis and ADHD. Glyphosate use is a significant predictor of state hospitalizations for all-listed ADHD hospital discharges, with the effect concentrated in urban U.S. counties. This effect is seen even after controlling for individual state characteristics, strong correlations over time, and other significant associations with ADHD in the literature. We draw upon the econometric results to propose unique mechanisms, borrowing principles from soil and atmospheric sciences, for how glyphosate-based herbicides may be contributing to the rise of ADHD in all populations. PMID:26287729

  16. Accessory cells with a veiled morphology and movement pattern generated from monocytes after avoidance of plastic adherence and of NADPH oxidase activation. A comparison with GM-CSF/IL-4-induced monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ruwhof, Cindy; Canning, Martha O; Grotenhuis, Kristel; de Wit, Harm J; Florencia, Zenovia Z; de Haan-Meulman, Meeny; Drexhage, Hemmo A

    2002-07-01

    Veiled cells (VC) present in afferent lymph transport antigen from the periphery to the draining lymph nodes. Although VC in lymph form a heterogeneous population, some of the cells clearly belong on morphological grounds to the Langerhans cell (LC)/ dendritic cell (DC) series. Here we show that culturing monocytes for 24 hrs while avoiding plastic adherence (polypropylene tubes) and avoiding the activation of NADPH oxidase (blocking agents) results in the generation of a population of veiled accessory cells. The generated VC were actively moving cells like lymph-borne VC in vivo. The monocyte (mo)-derived VC population existed of CD14(dim/-) and CD14(brighT) cells. Of these the CD14(dim/-) VC were as good in stimulating allogeneic T cell proliferation as immature DC (iDC) obtained after one week of adherent culture of monocytes in granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)/interleukin (IL)-4. This underscores the accessory cell function of the mo-derived CD14(dim/-) VC. Although the CD14(dim/-)VC had a modest expression of the DC-specific marker CD83 and were positive for S100, expression of the DC-specific markers CD1a, Langerin, DC-SIGN, and DC-LAMP were absent. This indicates that the here generated CD14(dim/-) VC can not be considered as classical LC/DC. It was also impossible to turn the CD14(dim/-) mo-derived VC population into typical DC by culture for one week in GM-CSF/IL-4 or LPS. In fact the cells died tinder such circumstances, gaining some macrophage characteristics before dying. The IL-12 production from mo-derived CD14(dim/-) VC was lower, whereas the production of IL-10 was higher as compared to iDC. Consequently the T cells that were stimulated by these mo-derived VC produced less IFN-gamma as compared with T cells stimulated by iDC. Our data indicate that it is possible to rapidly generate a population of CD14(dim/-) veiled accessory cells from monocytes. The marker pattern and cytokine production of these VC indicate that this population is not a classical DC population. The cells might earlier be related to the veiled macrophage-like cells also earlier described in afferent lymph. PMID:12182452

  17. Avoiding versus seeking: the relationship of information seeking to avoidance, blunting, coping, dissonance, and related concepts*

    PubMed Central

    Case, Donald O.; Andrews, James E.; Johnson, J. David; Allard, Suzanne L.

    2005-01-01

    Question: How have theorists and empirical researchers treated the human tendency to avoid discomforting information? Data Sources: A historical review (1890–2004) of theory literature in communication and information studies, coupled with searches of recent studies on uptake of genetic testing and on coping strategies of cancer patients, was performed. Study Selection: The authors' review of the recent literature included searches of the MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and CINAHL databases between 1992 and summer of 2004 and selective, manual searches of earlier literature. Search strategies included the following subject headings and key words: MeSH headings: Genetic Screening/psychology, Decision Making, Neoplasms/diagnosis/genetics/psychology; CINAHL headings: Genetic Screening, Genetic Counseling, Anxiety, Decision Making, Decision Making/Patient; additional key words: avoidance, worry, monitoring, blunting, cancer. The “Related Articles” function in MEDLINE was used to perform additional “citation pearl” searching. Main Results: The assumption that individuals actively seek information underlies much of psychological theory and communication practice, as well as most models of the information-seeking process. However, much research has also noted that sometimes people avoid information, if paying attention to it will cause mental discomfort or dissonance. Cancer information in general and genetic screening for cancer in particular are discussed as examples to illustrate this pattern. Conclusion: That some patients avoid knowledge of imminent disease makes avoidance behavior an important area for social and psychological research, particularly with regard to genetic testing. PMID:16059425

  18. Two-way coupled ice sheet-earth system simulations: Consequences of raising CO2 concentration for Greenland and the interacting climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodehacke, Christian; Vizcaino, Miren; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    The observed distinct warming in the Arctic and the northward flow of tropical water masses seem to trigger enhanced melting of the Greenland ice sheet, which adds more fresh water into the ambient ocean. A continuation of the observed accelerated melting during the last decade would stabilize the water column in the adjacent deep water formation sides. With our fully coupled ice sheet-earth system model we approach the questions if this weakens the formation of deep water masses and reduces the thermohaline driven meridional overturning circulation (MOC). We have performed idealized future projections to investigate the response of the interaction under raising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration with our two-way coupled ice sheet-earth system model system. We will present the building blocks of our fully coupled system, which includes a physical based calculation of the ice sheet's surface mass balance and ice sheet-ocean interaction; The ESM instead is subject to orographic changes and receives fresh water fluxes, for example. Since the behavior of an ice sheet in the near future is controlled by both the external forcing and by its initial conditions, we have performed Latin Hyper Cube (LHC) simulations with the ice sheet model over more than one glacial-interglacial cycle utilizing standard techniques to obtain a reasonable initial state. According to several quantities the best performing LHC member is exposed afterwards to boundary conditions determined from energy balance calculations again obtained from simulated forcing fields. Finally the fully coupled system is brought into a quasi-equilibrium under pre-industrial conditions before idealized scenarios have been started. In contrast to commonly used strategies, our coupled ice sheet inherits the memory of a glacial cycle simulations obtain exclusively from ESM fields. Furthermore we use a mass conserving scheme, do neither apply flux corrections nor utilize anomaly coupling. Under different CO2 forcing scenarios - for example, raising CO2 by 1%/year until four times the pre-industrial concentration (4xCO2) has reached, abrupt raise to 4xCO2 - the response of the coupled system is analyzed. For instance, an abrupt CO2 forcing leads to an immediate response of the Greenlandic ice sheet. The surface mass balance turns strongly negative within a couple of years, causing skyrocketing melting rates and sea level rise. The contribution of the ocean-ice sheet interaction decreases instead, because the ice sheets retreats from the coast and is therefore less susceptible to an eroding ocean. The additionally released fresh water and the heat both have to potential to stifle the MOC. However sensitivity experiments indicate that the additional fresh water has a negligible influence on the MOC with a time scale of a century or more in our model system. For the study we have used the current CMIP5 earth system model MPI-ESM that comprises the atmosphere model ECHAM6 (T63L47), the vegetation model JSBACH and the ocean biogeochemical model MPIOM / HAMOCC (GR15L40, nominal horizontal resolution of 1.5 with one pole over Greenland). The ESM is coupled to the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) covering Greenland, where PISM has a horizontal resolution 10 km.

  19. Aerosol indirect effect on the grid-scale clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ: model description, development, evaluation and regional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Mathur, R.; Pleim, J.; Wong, D.; Gilliam, R.; Alapaty, K.; Zhao, C.; Liu, X.

    2014-10-01

    This study implemented first, second and glaciation aerosol indirect effects (AIE) on resolved clouds in the two-way coupled Weather Research and Forecasting Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) modeling system by including parameterizations for both cloud drop and ice number concentrations on the basis of CMAQ-predicted aerosol distributions and WRF meteorological conditions. The performance of the newly developed WRF-CMAQ model, with alternate Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) and Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG) radiation schemes, was evaluated with observations from the Clouds and the See http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/. Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite and surface monitoring networks (AQS, IMPROVE, CASTNET, STN, and PRISM) over the continental US (CONUS) (12 km resolution) and eastern Texas (4 km resolution) during August and September of 2006. The results at the Air Quality System (AQS) surface sites show that in August, the normalized mean bias (NMB) values for PM2.5 over the eastern US (EUS) and the western US (WUS) are 5.3% (-0.1%) and 0.4% (-5.2%) for WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG), respectively. The evaluation of PM2.5 chemical composition reveals that in August, WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) consistently underestimated the observed SO42- by -23.0% (-27.7%), -12.5% (-18.9%) and -7.9% (-14.8%) over the EUS at the Clean Air Status Trends Network (CASTNET), Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciated Trends Network (STN) sites, respectively. Both configurations (WRF-CMAQ/CAM, WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) overestimated the observed mean organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and and total carbon (TC) concentrations over the EUS in August at the IMPROVE sites. Both configurations generally underestimated the cloud field (shortwave cloud forcing, SWCF) over the CONUS in August due to the fact that the AIE on the subgrid convective clouds was not considered when the model simulations were run at the 12 km resolution. This is in agreement with the fact that both configurations captured SWCF and longwave cloud forcing (LWCF) very well for the 4 km simulation over eastern Texas, when all clouds were resolved by the finer resolution domain. The simulations of WRF-CMAQ/CAM and WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG show dramatic improvements for SWCF, LWCF, cloud optical depth (COD), cloud fractions and precipitation over the ocean relative to those of WRF default cases in August. The model performance in September is similar to that in August, except for a greater overestimation of PM2.5 due to the overestimations of SO42-, NH4+, NO3-, and TC over the EUS, less underestimation of clouds (SWCF) over the land areas due to the lower SWCF values, and fewer convective clouds in September. This work shows that inclusion of indirect aerosol effect treatments in WRF-CMAQ represents a significant advancement and milestone in air quality modeling and the development of integrated emissions control strategies for air quality management and climate change mitigation.

  20. Avoidance responses of salmon and trout to air-supersaturated water

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.G.; Nebeker, A.V.; Baker, R.J.

    1980-11-01

    Coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch), sockeye (O. nerka), and chinook (O. tschawystcha) salmon smolts, and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) avoided air-supersaturated water when tested in a shallow round tank. Steelheads (S. gairdneri) did not consistently avoid the supersaturated water and died from gas bubble disease. The salmon and rainbow trout generally avoided 145 and 125% saturation but did not always avoid 115%. Territorial activity reduced avoidance by steelheads and rainbow trout.

  1. 3D two-way coupled TEHD analysis on the lubricating characteristics of thrust bearings in pump-turbine units by combining CFD and FEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Liming; Luo, Yongyao; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Xin

    2015-10-01

    The thermal elastic hydro dynamic (TEHD) lubrication analysis for the thrust bearing is usually conducted by combining Reynolds equation with finite element analysis (FEA). But it is still a problem to conduct the computation by combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and FEA which can simulate the TEHD more accurately. In this paper, by using both direct and separate coupled solutions together, steady TEHD lubrication considering the viscosity-temperature effect for a bidirectional thrust bearing in a pump-turbine unit is simulated combining a 3D CFD model for the oil film with a 3D FEA model for the pad and mirror plate. Cyclic symmetry condition is used in the oil film flow as more reasonable boundary conditions which avoids the oil temperature assumption at the leading and trailing edge. Deformations of the pad and mirror plate are predicted and discussed as well as the distributions of oil film thickness, pressure, temperature. The predicted temperature shows good agreement with measurements, while the pressure shows a reasonable distribution comparing with previous studies. Further analysis of the three-coupled-field reveals the reason of the high pressure and high temperature generated in the film. Finally, the influence of rotational speed of the mirror plate on the lubrication characteristics is illustrated which shows the thrust load should be balanced against the oil film temperature and pressure in optimized designs. This research proposes a thrust bearing computation method by combining CFD and FEA which can do the TEHD analysis more accurately.

  2. 3D Two-way coupled TEHD analysis on the lubricating characteristics of thrust bearings in pump-turbine units by combining CFD and FEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Liming; Luo, Yongyao; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The thermal elastic hydro dynamic (TEHD) lubrication analysis for the thrust bearing is usually conducted by combining Reynolds equation with finite element analysis (FEA). But it is still a problem to conduct the computation by combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and FEA which can simulate the TEHD more accurately. In this paper, by using both direct and separate coupled solutions together, steady TEHD lubrication considering the viscosity-temperature effect for a bidirectional thrust bearing in a pump-turbine unit is simulated combining a 3D CFD model for the oil film with a 3D FEA model for the pad and mirror plate. Cyclic symmetry condition is used in the oil film flow as more reasonable boundary conditions which avoids the oil temperature assumption at the leading and trailing edge. Deformations of the pad and mirror plate are predicted and discussed as well as the distributions of oil film thickness, pressure, temperature. The predicted temperature shows good agreement with measurements, while the pressure shows a reasonable distribution comparing with previous studies. Further analysis of the three-coupled-field reveals the reason of the high pressure and high temperature generated in the film. Finally, the influence of rotational speed of the mirror plate on the lubrication characteristics is illustrated which shows the thrust load should be balanced against the oil film temperature and pressure in optimized designs. This research proposes a thrust bearing computation method by combining CFD and FEA which can do the TEHD analysis more accurately.

  3. Drugdrug conditioning between citalopram and haloperidol or olanzapine in a conditioned avoidance response model: implications for polypharmacy in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sparkman, Nathan L.; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often have anxiety and depression, and thus are treated with multiple psychotherapeutic medications. This practice of polypharmacy increases the possibility for drugdrug interactions. However, the pharmacological and behavioral mechanisms underlying drugdrug interactions in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In the present study, we adopted a preclinical approach and examined a less known behavioral mechanism, drugdrug conditioning (DDC) between haloperidol (a typical antipsychotic) or olanzapine (atypical antipsychotic) and citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor). A rat two-way conditioned avoidance response paradigm was used to measure antipsychotic activity and determine how DDC may alter the antipsychotic efficacy in this model. Following acquisition of the avoidance response, rats were then randomly assigned to receive vehicle, citalopram (10.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, subcutaneously), olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg, subcutaneously), combined haloperidol with citalopram, or combined olanzapine with citalopram treatment for seven avoidance test sessions. In comparison with antipsychotic treatment alone, combined treatment with citalopram potentiated the antiavoidance effect of olanzapine or haloperidol (to a lesser extent) during the seven drug-test sessions. In addition, repeated pairing of citalopram with haloperidol or olanzapine caused citalopram to show a newly acquired avoidance-disruptive effect. This effect was context specific because citalopram paired with haloperidol or olanzapine outside the avoidance testing context (i.e. home cages) did not show such an effect. These findings indicate that concurrent antidepressant and antipsychotic treatments may engender a DDC process that follows the general Pavlovian associative conditioning principles. They also indicate that adjunctive citalopram treatment may enhance the antipsychotic efficacy of haloperidol and olanzapine in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:22903071

  4. Path Planning with obstacle avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, Donald M.

    1987-01-01

    The research report here summarizes a solution for two dimensional Path Planning with obstacle avoidance in a workspace with stationary obstacles. The solution finds the shortest path for the end effector of a manipulator arm. The program uses an overhead image of the robot work space and the starting and ending positions of the manipulator arm end effector to generate a search graph which is used to find the shortest path through the work area. The solution was originally implemented in VAX Pascal, but was later converted to VAX C.

  5. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  6. Risk avoidance: graphs versus numbers.

    PubMed

    Chua, Hannah Faye; Yates, J Frank; Shah, Priti

    2006-03-01

    There have long been speculations that graphical and numerical presentations of risk statistics differ in their impact on people's wilingness to pursue actions that could harm or even kill them. But research has been unclear about the processes whereby the pictorial character of graphical displays per se might affect those risky decisions or even whether such effects actually occur. In two studies, we demonstrate that the pictorial nature of a graphical risk display can, indeed, increase risk avoidance. This increase is associated with a heightened impression of the riskiness of less safe alternatives. The results suggest that this picture-driven, intensified sense of riskiness, in turn, rests on two kinds of mechanisms: one cognitive, the other affective. Cognitively, pictorial presentations impose weaker upper bounds on people's internal representations of the chances that riskier alternatives will bring about actual harm. Affectively, pictures ignite stronger, more aversive negative associations with riskier options and their outcomes. PMID:16752603

  7. Perforant pathway stimulation as a conditioned stimulus for active avoidance learning triggers BOLD responses in various target regions of the hippocampus: a combined fMRI and electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Angenstein, Frank; Krautwald, Karla; Wetzel, Wolfram; Scheich, Henning

    2013-07-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiology were combined to monitor blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in the entire rat brain and neuronal activities in the dentate gyrus during electrical stimulation of the right perforant pathway. In nave, medetomidine sedated animals, stimulation of the fiber bundle with 15 trains (i.e. 8 bursts of 20 pulses given with 10 ms intervals, one burst per second, pulse width 0.2 ms) generated significant BOLD responses in the right hippocampal formation and the left entorhinal cortex. The stimulation condition also caused changes in the synaptic efficacy of perforant pathway granular cell synapses that lasted for at least one day. Rerun of the same experiment one day later resulted in a significantly increased electrophysiological response in the dentate gyrus and an increase of the BOLD response in the entire hippocampal formation. Consequently, long-lasting changes in synaptic efficacy go along with changes in the generated BOLD response. Additional electrical stimulations of the perforant pathway in the awake animal between the two fMRI experiments caused in the second fMRI measurement an increased BOLD response in the hippocampal formation and an appearance of significant BOLD responses in target regions of the hippocampus, such as the septum, nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex/motor cortex (ACC/mPFC/MC) regions. Consequently, the efficacy of signal processing in and propagation through the hippocampus can be monitored by variations of the BOLD response in target regions of the hippocampus. Using the electrical perforant pathway stimulations as conditioned stimulus for an active avoidance task (shuttle box) caused a further spreading of the BOLD response in the hippocampus formation, septum and ACC/mPFC/MC but not in the NAcc. In addition, the magnitude of the BOLD response in the trained animals was further increased in the right and left hippocampus and the ACC/mPFC/MC region but not in the septum. These results demonstrate that in addition to general stimulus parameter the behavioral relevance of the stimulus controls the quality of the generated BOLD response. PMID:23507376

  8. NASA satellite helps airliners avoid ozone concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Results from a test to determine the effectiveness of satellite data for helping airlines avoid heavy concentrations of ozone are reported. Information from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, aboard the Nimbus-7 was transmitted, for use in meteorological forecast activities. The results show: (1) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer profile of total ozone in the atmosphere accurately represents upper air patterns and can be used to locate meteorological activity; (2) route forecasting of highly concentrated ozone is feasible; (3) five research aircraft flights were flown in jet stream regions located by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer to determine winds, temperatures, and air composition. It is shown that the jet stream is coincides with the area of highest total ozone gradient, and low total ozone amounts are found where tropospheric air has been carried along above the tropopause on the anticyclonic side of the subtropical jet stream.

  9. Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the following active ingredients can also help prevent mosquito bites. Higher percentages of active ingredient provide longer ... should I take to prevent bug bites? Prevent mosquito bites Prevent mosquito bites. Cover exposed skin by ...

  10. Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles KidsHealth > Parents > Nutrition & Fitness Center > Staying Fit > Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles Print A A A Text ...

  11. [Maternal death: an avoidable tragedy].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C E

    1992-01-01

    Although statistics show that maternal mortality has declined during this century, high levels persist in the developing world. There are 100 to 1000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in developing countries, compared to 7 to 15 deaths per 100,000 live births in developed countries. Most of these deaths in developing countries are avoidable by effective maternal care interventions. A book edited by Unicamp on maternal mortality has made an important contribution to the debate that has been going on in scientific circles and among planners and health professionals. The quality of data for analysis of maternal mortality is implicated also because of erroneous classification of maternal deaths as nonmaternal, imprecision in the death certification, and omission of the status of pregnancy associated with illegal abortion. The identification of these errors means that medical files, hospital registers, family interviews, and autopsies have to be consulted. Research carried out in Sao Paulo demonstrated that at the end of the 1980s the maternal mortality rate was in fact 99.5/100,000 live births, whereas original records showed only 44.5/100,000 live births. Even in the United States during 1980-85, 33% of maternal deaths were underreported. In England the level of underreporting amounted to 41% during 1970-72. The World Health Organization has encouraged the formation of committees to study the prevention of maternal mortality. Two such committees were started in the state of Sao Paulo with the objectives of making professionals aware of the importance of accurate death records; immediate notification of maternal deaths to the regional committee; means from the proper authorities for the correction of deficiencies detected; and continuous evaluation of maternal mortality rates. The committee of Marilia, in the interior of the state of Sao Paulo, demonstrated that 72% of maternal deaths during 1986-88 were avoidable by medical-obstetrical means, prenatal care, or social assistance. 61% of deaths were attributed to cesarean section, which indicates the major risk of surgical complications. PMID:12286240

  12. Conflict Avoidance in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsky, Allan E.; Wood, Lorinda

    2005-01-01

    This ethnographic study explores patterns of conflict avoidance among university students, professors, administrators and staff. Analysis of their narratives of conflict avoidance suggests that avoidance can be beneficial in some circumstances, depending upon personality issues, cost?benefit analysis, power imbalance, type of work, length of

  13. Termites eavesdrop to avoid competitors.

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Inta, Ra; Lai, Joseph C S; Prueger, Stefan; Foo, Nyuk Wei; Fu, Eugene Wei'en; Lenz, Michael

    2009-11-22

    Competition exclusion, when a single species dominates resources due to superior competitiveness, is seldom observed in nature. Termites compete for resources with deadly consequences, yet more than one species can be found feeding in the same wooden resource. This is especially surprising when drywood species, with colonies of a few hundred, are found cohabiting with subterranean species, with colonies of millions. Termites communicate vibro-acoustically and, as these signals can travel over long distances, they are vulnerable to eavesdropping. We investigated whether drywood termites could eavesdrop on vibration cues from subterranean species. We show, using choice experiments and recordings, that the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus can distinguish its own species from the dominant competitor in the environment, the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis. The drywood termite was attracted to its own vibration cues, but was repelled by those of the subterranean species. This response increased with decreasing wood size, corresponding with both increased risk and strength of the cue. The drywood termites appear to avoid confrontation by eavesdropping on the subterranean termites; these results provide further evidence that vibro-acoustic cues are important for termite sensory perception and communication. PMID:19710058

  14. Termites eavesdrop to avoid competitors

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Theodore A.; Inta, Ra; Lai, Joseph C. S.; Prueger, Stefan; Foo, Nyuk Wei; Fu, Eugene Wei'en; Lenz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Competition exclusion, when a single species dominates resources due to superior competitiveness, is seldom observed in nature. Termites compete for resources with deadly consequences, yet more than one species can be found feeding in the same wooden resource. This is especially surprising when drywood species, with colonies of a few hundred, are found cohabiting with subterranean species, with colonies of millions. Termites communicate vibro-acoustically and, as these signals can travel over long distances, they are vulnerable to eavesdropping. We investigated whether drywood termites could eavesdrop on vibration cues from subterranean species. We show, using choice experiments and recordings, that the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus can distinguish its own species from the dominant competitor in the environment, the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis. The drywood termite was attracted to its own vibration cues, but was repelled by those of the subterranean species. This response increased with decreasing wood size, corresponding with both increased risk and strength of the cue. The drywood termites appear to avoid confrontation by eavesdropping on the subterranean termites; these results provide further evidence that vibro-acoustic cues are important for termite sensory perception and communication. PMID:19710058

  15. FVIII inhibitors: pathogenesis and avoidance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inhibitory antibodies has been the focus of major scientific interest over the last decades, and several studies on underlying immune mechanisms and risk factors for formation of these antibodies have been performed with the aim of improving the ability to both predict and prevent their appearance. It seems clear that the decisive factors for the immune response to the deficient factor are multiple and involve components of both a constitutional and therapy-related nature. A scientific concern and obstacle for research in the area of hemophilia is the relatively small cohorts available for studies and the resulting risk of confounded and biased results. Careful interpretation of data is recommended to avoid treatment decisions based on a weak scientific platform. This review will summarize current concepts of the underlying immunological mechanisms and risk factors for development of inhibitory antibodies in patients with hemophilia A and discuss how these findings may be interpreted and influence our clinical management of patients. PMID:25712994

  16. Research Report: Variations on the Theme of Avoidance as Compensations during Unsuccessful Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damico, Jack S.; Abendroth, Kathleen J.; Nelson, Ryan L.; Lynch, Karen E.; Damico, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    This research report provides additional data, manifestations and discussion about avoidance strategies employed by a language-learning disabled student during reading activities. Rather than seeing avoidance as due to random distractions or oppositional behaviours, these data provide a rationale for viewing many types of avoidance as systematic

  17. Incautiously Optimistic: Positively-Valenced Cognitive Avoidance in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Mitchell, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians who conduct cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood have noted that their patients sometimes verbalize overly positive automatic thoughts and set overly optimistic goals. These cognitions are frequently related to failure to engage in compensatory behavioral strategies emphasized in CBT. In this paper, we offer a functional analysis of this problematic pattern, positively-valenced cognitive avoidance, and suggest methods for addressing it within CBT for adult ADHD. We propose that maladaptive positive cognitions function to relieve aversive emotions in the short-term and are therefore negatively reinforced but that, in the long-term, they are associated with decreased likelihood of active coping and increased patterns of behavioral avoidance. Drawing on techniques from Behavioral Activation (BA), we offer a case example to illustrate these concepts and describe step-by-step methods for clinicians to help patients recognize avoidant patterns and engage in more active coping. PMID:25908901

  18. ITI-Signals and Prelimbic Cortex Facilitate Avoidance Acquisition and Reduce Avoidance Latencies, Respectively, in Male WKY Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kevin D.; Jiao, Xilu; Smith, Ian M.; Myers, Catherine E.; Pang, Kevin C. H.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    As a model of anxiety disorder vulnerability, male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats acquire lever-press avoidance behavior more readily than outbred Sprague-Dawley rats, and their acquisition is enhanced by the presence of a discrete signal presented during the inter-trial intervals (ITIs), suggesting that it is perceived as a safety signal. A series of experiments were conducted to determine if this is the case. Additional experiments investigated if the avoidance facilitation relies upon processing through medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The results suggest that the ITI-signal facilitates acquisition during the early stages of the avoidance acquisition process, when the rats are initially acquiring escape behavior and then transitioning to avoidance behavior. Post-avoidance introduction of the visual ITI-signal into other associative learning tasks failed to confirm that the visual stimulus had acquired the properties of a conditioned inhibitor. Shortening the signal from the entirety of the 3 min ITI to only the first 5 s of the 3 min ITI slowed acquisition during the first four sessions, suggesting the flashing light (FL) is not functioning as a feedback signal. The prelimbic (PL) cortex showed greater activation during the period of training when the transition from escape responding to avoidance responding occurs. Only combined PL + infralimbic cortex lesions modestly slowed avoidance acquisition, but PL-cortex lesions slowed avoidance response latencies. Thus, the FL ITI-signal is not likely perceived as a safety signal nor is it serving as a feedback signal. The functional role of the PL-cortex appears to be to increase the drive toward responding to the threat of the warning signal. Hence, avoidance susceptibility displayed by male WKY rats may be driven, in part, both by external stimuli (ITI signal) as well as by enhanced threat recognition to the warning signal via the PL cortex. PMID:25484860

  19. Disease avoidance as a functional basis for stigmatization

    PubMed Central

    Oaten, Megan; Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatization is characterized by chronic social and physical avoidance of a person(s) by other people. Infectious disease may produce an apparently similar form of isolation—disease avoidance—but on symptom remission this often abates. We propose that many forms of stigmatization reflect the activation of this disease-avoidance system, which is prone to respond to visible signs and labels that connote disease, irrespective of their accuracy. A model of this system is presented, which includes an emotional component, whereby visible disease cues directly activate disgust and contamination, motivating avoidance, and a cognitive component, whereby disease labels bring to mind disease cues, indirectly activating disgust and contamination. The unique predictions of this model are then examined, notably that people who are stigmatized evoke disgust and are contaminating. That animals too show avoidance of diseased conspecifics, and that disease-related stigma targets are avoided in most cultures, also supports this evolutionary account. The more general implications of this approach are then examined, notably how it can be used to good (e.g. improving hygiene) or bad (e.g. racial vilification) ends, by yoking particular labels with cues that connote disease and disgust. This broadening of the model allows for stigmatization of groups with little apparent connection to disease. PMID:22042920

  20. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Gemma; Schlund, Michael W.; Dymond, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead to the inference that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known however about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidanceinstructions and social observationon subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+) and another was a safety cue (CS?). Groups were then either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock (instructed-learning group) or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group). During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed. PMID:26150773

  1. Dual mechanism for bitter avoidance in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    French, Alice Sarah; Sellier, Marie-Jeanne; Ali Agha, Moutaz; Moutaz, Ali Agha; Guigue, Alexandra; Chabaud, Marie-Ange; Reeb, Pablo D; Mitra, Aniruddha; Grau, Yves; Soustelle, Laurent; Marion-Poll, Frdric

    2015-03-01

    In flies and humans, bitter chemicals are known to inhibit sugar detection, but the adaptive role of this inhibition is often overlooked. At best, this inhibition is described as contributing to the rejection of potentially toxic food, but no studies have addressed the relative importance of the direct pathway that involves activating bitter-sensitive cells versus the indirect pathway represented by the inhibition of sugar detection. Using toxins to selectively ablate or inactivate populations of bitter-sensitive cells, we assessed the behavioral responses of flies to sucrose mixed with strychnine (which activates bitter-sensitive cells and inhibits sugar detection) or with L-canavanine (which only activates bitter-sensitive cells). As expected, flies with ablated bitter-sensitive cells failed to detect L-canavanine mixed with sucrose in three different feeding assays (proboscis extension responses, capillary feeding, and two-choice assays). However, such flies were still able to avoid strychnine mixed with sucrose. By means of electrophysiological recordings, we established that bitter molecules differ in their potency to inhibit sucrose detection and that sugar-sensing inhibition affects taste cells on the proboscis and the legs. The optogenetic response of sugar-sensitive cells was not reduced by strychnine, thus suggesting that this inhibition is linked directly to sugar transduction. We postulate that sugar-sensing inhibition represents a mechanism in insects to prevent ingesting harmful substances occurring within mixtures. PMID:25740527

  2. Telecommunications: Avoiding the Black Hole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riel, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Careful planning is required for teachers to take full advantage of the cross-cultural learning opportunities afforded by electronic networks and telecommunications. Networking with more than one classroom and using a well-defined group project integral to other classroom activities are recommended. (EA)

  3. Neural Structures Mediating Expression and Extinction of Platform-Mediated Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Rivera, Christian; Roman-Ortiz, Ciorana; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Sotres-Bayon, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Individuals use both passive and active defensive responses to environmental threats. Much is known about the neural circuits of passive defensive responses (e.g., freezing), but less is known about the substrates of active defensive responses (e.g., avoidance). We developed an active avoidance task in which rats learn to avoid a tone-signaled footshock by stepping onto a nearby platform. An advantage of this task is that freezing, which can interfere with avoidance, is reduced, thereby facilitating comparison of the effects of manipulations on avoidance versus freezing. After 10 d of avoidance training, rats were infused with muscimol to pharmacologically inactivate the prelimbic cortex (PL), infralimbic cortex (IL), ventral striatum (VS), or basolateral amygdala (BLA). Inactivating PL, VS, or BLA all impaired avoidance expression, but these areas differed with respect to freezing. Inactivating BLA decreased freezing consistent with loss of the toneshock association, whereas inactivation of VS increased freezing consistent with loss of avoidance memory. Inactivation of PL had no effect on freezing. Inactivation of IL did not impair avoidance expression but did impair avoidance extinction. Our findings suggest that active avoidance is mediated by prefrontalstriatal circuits, which may be overactive in individuals suffering from trauma-related disorders. PMID:25031411

  4. Behavioral avoidance of contagion in childhood.

    PubMed

    Blacker, Katy-Ann; LoBue, Vanessa

    2016-03-01

    Although there is a large literature on children's reasoning about contagion, there has been no empirical research on children's avoidance of contagious individuals. This study is the first to investigate whether children avoid sick individuals. Participants (4- to 7-year-old children) were invited to play with two confederates-one of whom was "sick." Afterward, their knowledge of contagion was assessed. Overall, children avoided proximity to and contact with the sick confederate and her toys, but only 6- and 7-year-olds performed above chance. The best predictor of avoidance behavior was not age but rather children's ability to make predictions about illness outcomes. This provides the first evidence of behavioral avoidance of contagious illness in childhood and suggests that causal knowledge underlies avoidance behavior. PMID:26615972

  5. Trade is a Two-Way Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue focuses on how U.S. trade policies must recognize the interdependent nature of trade partnerships. Economic concepts related to world trade are explained. The booklet contends that the United States cannot have a comparative advantage in producing all goods and that by offering consumers low-priced imports from overseas the United

  6. Instrumented Bolt Measures Load In Two Ways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Melvick, G. R.; Klundt, T. J.; Everton, R. L.; Eggett, M.

    1995-01-01

    Bolt instrumented to allow both ultrasonic and strain-gauge measurements of tensile load in bolt during installation and use of bolt in structure. Bolt head design allows interface for ultrasonic transducer installed, while shallow chamfered circumferential groove on bolt shank contains four strain gauges at equal angular intervals wired as a full-bridge transducer.

  7. Two Ways to Get Mad at Kinetochores.

    PubMed

    Meraldi, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint ensures that mitotic cells only segregate their sister chromatids once all chromosomes are attached via kinetochores by microtubules of the mitotic spindle. Reporting in Developmental Cell, Sili etal. (2015) show that in human cells the signaling cascade controlling the checkpoint operates through two separate branches. PMID:26651290

  8. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  9. A Demonstration of Approach and Avoidance Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, W. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Choosing between 2 unpleasant alternatives (Would you rather be less intelligent or less attractive?) is more difficult than choosing between two desirable options (Would you rather be more intelligent or more attractive?). Here I describe a classroom demonstration of avoidance-avoidance conflicts. Students make a series of approach-approach and

  10. How Do Speakers Avoid Ambiguous Linguistic Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, V.S.; Slevc, L.R.; Rogers, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they

  11. Human Hippocampus Arbitrates Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Bach, DominikR.; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Packard, PauA.; Mir, Jlia; Falip, Merc; Fuentemilla, Llus; Dolan, RaymondJ.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Animal models of human anxiety often invoke a conflict between approach and avoidance [1, 2]. In these, a key behavioral assay comprises passive avoidance of potential threat and inhibition, both thought to be controlled by ventral hippocampus [26]. Efforts to translate these approaches to clinical contexts [7, 8] are hampered by the fact that it is not known whether humans manifest analogous approach-avoidance dispositions and, if so, whether they share a homologous neurobiological substrate [9]. Here, we developed a paradigm to investigate the role of human hippocampus in arbitrating an approach-avoidance conflict under varying levels of potential threat. Across four experiments, subjects showed analogous behavior by adapting both passive avoidance behavior and behavioral inhibition to threat level. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observe that threat level engages the anterior hippocampus, the human homolog of rodent ventral hippocampus [10]. Testing patients with selective hippocampal lesions, we demonstrate a causal role for the hippocampus with patients showing reduced passive avoidance behavior and inhibition across all threat levels. Our data provide the first human assay for approach-avoidance conflict akin to that of animal anxiety models. The findings bridge rodent and human research on passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition and furnish a framework for addressing the neuronal underpinnings of human anxiety disorders, where our data indicate a major role for the hippocampus. PMID:24560572

  12. Pathological demand avoidance: exploring the behavioural profile.

    PubMed

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happ, Francesca

    2014-07-01

    'Pathological Demand Avoidance' is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to 'socially manipulative' behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand avoidance is thought to share aspects of social impairment with autism spectrum disorders, but autism spectrum disorder-appropriate strategies, such as routine and repetition, are described as unhelpful. Outrageous acts and lack of concern for their effects draw parallels with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits. However, reward-based techniques, effective with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, seem not to work in pathological demand avoidance. Despite increasing interest and controversy over the pathological demand avoidance label, there is only one published study to date. We present the first systematic comparison of the behavioural profile of children receiving the term pathological demand avoidance (N = 25) to children with autism spectrum disorders (N = 39) or conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits (N = 28), using parent-report indices of psychopathology. The pathological demand avoidance group displayed comparable levels of autistic traits and peer problems to the autism spectrum disorders group and anti-social traits approaching those seen in the conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits group. Emotional symptoms in pathological demand avoidance exceeded both comparison groups. Findings highlight the extreme behavioural impairment associated with pathological demand avoidance and the need to explore whether behavioural overlap reflects a similar neurocognitive basis to existing groups. PMID:24104509

  13. Recommendations for Sense and Avoid Policy Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Since unmanned aircraft do not have a human on board, they need to have a sense and avoid capability that provides an "equivalent level of safety" (ELOS) to manned aircraft. The question then becomes - is sense and avoid ELOS for unmanned aircraft adequate to satisfy the requirements of 14 CFR 91.113? Access 5 has proposed a definition of sense and avoid, but the question remains as to whether any sense and avoid system can comply with 14 CFR 91.113 as currently written. The Access 5 definition of sense and avoid ELOS allows for the development of a sense and avoid system for unmanned aircraft that would comply with 14 CFR 91.113. Compliance is based on sensing and avoiding other traffic at an equivalent level of safety for collision avoidance, as manned aircraft. No changes to Part 91 are necessary, with the possible exception of changing "see" to "sense," or obtaining an interpretation from the FAA General Counsel that "sense" is equivalent to "see."

  14. How Do Speakers Avoid Ambiguous Linguistic Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, V.S.; Slevc, L.R.; Rogers, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they…

  15. Oxiracetam prevents haloperidol-induced passive avoidance impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Castellano, C; Battaglia, M; Sansone, M

    1992-08-01

    The nootropic drug oxiracetam (50 mg/kg) prevented passive avoidance impairment induced by posttraining administration of haloperidol (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg). Conversely, oxiracetam did not antagonize either locomotor depression or suppression of active avoidance responses induced by the dopamine receptor blocking agent. The results indicate that prevention of haloperidol-induced retention impairment, by oxiracetam, may be due to a not yet defined protective action, common to other nootropic agents, on different types of experimental amnesias, rather than to a specific interaction with dopaminergic mechanisms. PMID:1513861

  16. Between-species jamming avoidance in Pipistrelles?

    PubMed

    Necknig, Veronika; Zahn, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Past studies have reported that bats modify the spectral-temporal features of their vocalizations to avoid interference from the vocalizations of conspecifics (jamming avoidance). We tested for within, and between-species jamming avoidance in two sympatrically occurring species of vespertilionid bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and Pipistrellus nathusii. In both species the peak frequencies of the narrowband frequency component from samples of bats flying with conspecifics varied more than those from samples of bats flying alone, indicating intraspecific jamming avoidance. If individuals of the two species were recorded together, we found no reaction of P. nathusii. P. pipistrellus, however, used significantly higher frequencies than when recorded alone. As the narrowband frequency of this species normally overlaps with the frequency modulated (FM) part of P. nathusii calls, this can be interpreted as an interspecific jamming avoidance response. PMID:20938777

  17. Population properties affect inbreeding avoidance in moose.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Ivar; Haanes, Hallvard; Røed, Knut H; Solberg, Erling J; Markussen, Stine S; Heim, Morten; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2014-12-01

    Mechanisms reducing inbreeding are thought to have evolved owing to fitness costs of breeding with close relatives. In small and isolated populations, or populations with skewed age- or sex distributions, mate choice becomes limited, and inbreeding avoidance mechanisms ineffective. We used a unique individual-based dataset on moose from a small island in Norway to assess whether inbreeding avoidance was related to population structure and size, expecting inbreeding avoidance to be greater in years with larger populations and even adult sex ratios. The probability that a potential mating event was realized was negatively related to the inbreeding coefficient of the potential offspring, with a stronger relationship in years with a higher proportion or number of males in the population. Thus, adult sex ratio and population size affect the degree of inbreeding avoidance. Consequently, conservation managers should aim for sex ratios that facilitate inbreeding avoidance, especially in small and isolated populations. PMID:25540152

  18. How do speakers avoid ambiguous linguistic expressions?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Victor S; Slevc, L Robert; Rogers, Erin S

    2005-07-01

    Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they did so equally regardless of whether they also were about to describe foils. This suggests that comprehension processes can sometimes detect linguistic-ambiguity before producing it. However, once produced, speakers consistently avoided using the same linguistically ambiguous expression again for a different meaning. This suggests that production processes can successfully detect linguistic-ambiguity after-the-fact. Speakers almost always avoided nonlinguistic-ambiguity. Thus, production processes are especially sensitive to nonlinguistic- but not linguistic-ambiguity, with the latter avoided consistently only once it is already articulated. PMID:15996561

  19. A large-scale assessment of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility using 46,450 cases and 42,461 controls from the breast cancer association consortium.

    PubMed

    Milne, Roger L; Herranz, Jess; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Zamora, M Pilar; Arias-Perez, Jos Ignacio; Gonzlez-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ziogas, Argyrios; Clarke, Christina A; Hopper, John L; Dite, Gillian S; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Brge G; Flyger, Henrik; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Winqvist, Robert; Pylks, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Gunel, Pascal; Truong, Thrse; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Colle, J Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W; Reed, Malcolm W R; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Soucy, Penny; Drk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Hamann, Ute; Frsti, Asta; Rdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Fasching, Peter A; Hberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Mariani, Paolo; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federik; Burwinkel, Barbara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betul T; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Alns, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Brresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Garca-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Rutgers, Emiel J; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Couch, Fergus J; Toland, Amanda E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Bentez, Javier; Malats, Nria; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-04-01

    Part of the substantial unexplained familial aggregation of breast cancer may be due to interactions between common variants, but few studies have had adequate statistical power to detect interactions of realistic magnitude. We aimed to assess all two-way interactions in breast cancer susceptibility between 70,917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected primarily based on prior evidence of a marginal effect. Thirty-eight international studies contributed data for 46,450 breast cancer cases and 42,461 controls of European origin as part of a multi-consortium project (COGS). First, SNPs were preselected based on evidence (P < 0.01) of a per-allele main effect, and all two-way combinations of those were evaluated by a per-allele (1 d.f.) test for interaction using logistic regression. Second, all 2.5 billion possible two-SNP combinations were evaluated using Boolean operation-based screening and testing, and SNP pairs with the strongest evidence of interaction (P < 10(-4)) were selected for more careful assessment by logistic regression. Under the first approach, 3277 SNPs were preselected, but an evaluation of all possible two-SNP combinations (1 d.f.) identified no interactions at P < 10(-8). Results from the second analytic approach were consistent with those from the first (P > 10(-10)). In summary, we observed little evidence of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility, despite the large number of SNPs with potential marginal effects considered and the very large sample size. This finding may have important implications for risk prediction, simplifying the modelling required. Further comprehensive, large-scale genome-wide interaction studies may identify novel interacting loci if the inherent logistic and computational challenges can be overcome. PMID:24242184

  20. A large-scale assessment of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility using 46 450 cases and 42 461 controls from the breast cancer association consortium

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Roger L.; Herranz, Jesús; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias-Perez, José Ignacio; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Clarke, Christina A.; Hopper, John L.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Collée, J. Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Soucy, Penny; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Fasching, Peter A.; Häberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Mariani, Paolo; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federik; Burwinkel, Barbara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Couch, Fergus J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Hall, Per; Benítez, Javier; Malats, Núria; Easton, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    Part of the substantial unexplained familial aggregation of breast cancer may be due to interactions between common variants, but few studies have had adequate statistical power to detect interactions of realistic magnitude. We aimed to assess all two-way interactions in breast cancer susceptibility between 70 917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected primarily based on prior evidence of a marginal effect. Thirty-eight international studies contributed data for 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 461 controls of European origin as part of a multi-consortium project (COGS). First, SNPs were preselected based on evidence (P < 0.01) of a per-allele main effect, and all two-way combinations of those were evaluated by a per-allele (1 d.f.) test for interaction using logistic regression. Second, all 2.5 billion possible two-SNP combinations were evaluated using Boolean operation-based screening and testing, and SNP pairs with the strongest evidence of interaction (P < 10−4) were selected for more careful assessment by logistic regression. Under the first approach, 3277 SNPs were preselected, but an evaluation of all possible two-SNP combinations (1 d.f.) identified no interactions at P < 10−8. Results from the second analytic approach were consistent with those from the first (P > 10−10). In summary, we observed little evidence of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility, despite the large number of SNPs with potential marginal effects considered and the very large sample size. This finding may have important implications for risk prediction, simplifying the modelling required. Further comprehensive, large-scale genome-wide interaction studies may identify novel interacting loci if the inherent logistic and computational challenges can be overcome. PMID:24242184

  1. A new collision avoidance model for pedestrian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian-Ling; Chen, Yao; Dong, Hai-Rong; Zhou, Min; Ning, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The pedestrians can only avoid collisions passively under the action of forces during simulations using the social force model, which may lead to unnatural behaviors. This paper proposes an optimization-based model for the avoidance of collisions, where the social repulsive force is removed in favor of a search for the quickest path to destination in the pedestrians vision field. In this way, the behaviors of pedestrians are governed by changing their desired walking direction and desired speed. By combining the critical factors of pedestrian movement, such as positions of the exit and obstacles and velocities of the neighbors, the choice of desired velocity has been rendered to a discrete optimization problem. Therefore, it is the self-driven force that leads pedestrians to a free path rather than the repulsive force, which means the pedestrians can actively avoid collisions. The new model is verified by comparing with the fundamental diagram and actual data. The simulation results of individual avoidance trajectories and crowd avoidance behaviors demonstrate the reasonability of the proposed model. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61233001 and 61322307) and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2013JBZ007).

  2. Ontogenetic development of avoidance learning in rats after eye opening.

    PubMed

    Kllner, O; Kllner, U; Gb, R; Klingberg, F

    1988-01-01

    Five male and one female group of 8 pups were selected from 8 liters on the second postnatal day and returned to 6 dams. The animals were investigated in two subsequent tests; first, in a peripheral field avoidance test using a 60 x 75 x 22 cm open field subdivided into 20 equal squares of 15 x 15 cm with separate floor grids for electrical punishment and, second, in a W-like maze with a start arm falling into a common alley from which left and right each two goal arms branched off. Four qualities were measured in the first test: finding out that only central fields remained unpunished; the stay duration in central fields indicating passive avoidance; the response to a conditioned stimulus, when they entered peripheral fields indicating active avoidance; the quality of extinction. The differences of these qualities changed significantly from week to week as the acquisition speed and the consolidation increased, the extinction was rapid in the third week, very slow in the fourth week and adult-like in the fifth week. The self-chosen strategy of pups showed dominance of escape with subsequent motor inhibition in the third week, dominance of trials and active avoidance in the fourth week, dominance of passive avoidance in the fifth week. We found no difference between males and females, or between blind and control rats. The W-maze test revealed additionally that reversal learning from left goal to right goal was still difficult in the fourth week and that brightness-cued alteration of goals in which wrong choices were punished when a time limit was overcome could not be learned before the sixth week and not consolidated before the end of the seventh week. The results suggest that various brain processes are involved in the development of avoidance and learning strategies which mature unevenly and reach their peaks at different ages. PMID:3254159

  3. Avoiding DEET through insect gustatory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngseok; Kim, Sang Hoon; Montell, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Summary DEET is the most widely used insect repellent worldwide. In Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), DEET is detected through a mechanism that employs the olfactory receptor, OR83b. However, it is controversial as to whether ORNs respond directly to DEET or whether DEET blocks the response to attractive odors. Here, we showed that DEET suppressed feeding behavior in Drosophila and this effect was mediated by gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). DEET was potent in suppressing feeding as <0.1% DEET elicited aversive behavior. Inhibition of feeding by DEET required multiple gustatory receptors (GRs), which were expressed in inhibitory GRNs. DEET stimulated action potentials in GRNs that respond to aversive compounds, and this response was lost in Gr32a, Gr33a and Gr66a mutants. Since 0.02% DEET elicited action potentials, we conclude that DEET directly activates of GRNs. We suggest that the effectiveness of DEET in pest control owes to its dual action in inducing avoidance simultaneously via GRNs and ORNs. PMID:20797533

  4. Moving Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yucong

    There has been a vast increase in applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civilian domains. To operate in the civilian airspace, a UAV must be able to sense and avoid both static and moving obstacles for flight safety. While indoor and low-altitude environments are mainly occupied by static obstacles, risks in space of higher altitude primarily come from moving obstacles such as other aircraft or flying vehicles in the airspace. Therefore, the ability to avoid moving obstacles becomes a necessity for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Towards enabling a UAV to autonomously sense and avoid moving obstacles, this thesis makes the following contributions. Initially, an image-based reactive motion planner is developed for a quadrotor to avoid a fast approaching obstacle. Furthermore, A Dubin's curve based geometry method is developed as a global path planner for a fixed-wing UAV to avoid collisions with aircraft. The image-based method is unable to produce an optimal path and the geometry method uses a simplified UAV model. To compensate these two disadvantages, a series of algorithms built upon the Closed-Loop Rapid Exploratory Random Tree are developed as global path planners to generate collision avoidance paths in real time. The algorithms are validated in Software-In-the-Loop (SITL) and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations using a fixed-wing UAV model and in real flight experiments using quadrotors. It is observed that the algorithm enables a UAV to avoid moving obstacles approaching to it with different directions and speeds.

  5. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  6. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  7. When Should a Mother Avoid Breastfeeding?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tweet Share Compartir When should a mother avoid breastfeeding? Health professionals agree that human milk provides the most ... Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office on Women's Health Breastfeeding for Parents La Leche League International One-on- ...

  8. Men, Avoid Impotence Drugs Before Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157884.html Men, Avoid Impotence Drugs Before Surgery Let an anesthesia ... 21, 2016 MONDAY, March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men should not take erectile dysfunction drugs such as ...

  9. Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Florian; Stutzki, Fabian; Jauregui, Cesar; Limpert, Jens; Tnnermann, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    The impact of avoided crossings (also known as anti-crossings) in single and double-clad large mode area Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) suitable for high-power laser systems is evaluated numerically. It is pointed out that an inappropriate choice of pump core diameter, bending radius and/or index depression may lead to avoided crossings that manifest themselves in unwanted deformations of the output beam. PMID:21747513

  10. Singularity avoidance and time in quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kreienbuehl, Andreas

    2009-06-15

    We consider the quantization of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We derive a reduced square root Hamiltonian by choosing the scale factor as time variable and quantize the theory using Pauli matrices a la Dirac. From the resulting spinor equation we show that there is no semiclassical wave packet that avoids the big bang singularity. Our work raises the question concerning the relationship between the choice of time and singularity avoidance.

  11. The inhibitory avoidance discrimination task to investigate accuracy of memory

    PubMed Central

    Atucha, Erika; Roozendaal, Benno

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at developing a new inhibitory avoidance task, based on training and/or testing rats in multiple contexts, to investigate accuracy of memory. In the first experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given footshock in an inhibitory avoidance apparatus and, 48 h later, retention latencies of each rat were assessed in the training apparatus (Shock box) as well as in a novel, contextually modified, apparatus. Retention latencies in the Shock box were significantly longer than those in the Novel box, indicating accurate memory of the training context. When the noradrenergic stimulant yohimbine (0.3 mg/kg, sc) was administered after the training, 48-h retention latencies in the Shock box, but not Novel box, were increased, indicating that the noradrenergic activation enhanced memory of the training experience without reducing memory accuracy. In the second experiment, rats were trained on an inhibitory avoidance discrimination task: They were first trained in an inhibitory avoidance apparatus without footshock (Non-Shock box), followed 1 min later by footshock training in a contextually modified apparatus (Shock box). Forty-eight-hour retention latencies in the Shock and Non-Shock boxes did not differ from each other but were both significantly longer than those in a Novel box, indicating that rats remembered the two training contexts but did not have episodic-like memory of the association of footshock with the correct training context. When the interval between the two training episodes was increased to 2 min, rats showed accurate memory of the association of footshock with the training context. Yohimbine administered after the training also enhanced rats' ability to remember in which training context they had received actual footshock. These findings indicate that the inhibitory avoidance discrimination task is a novel variant of the well-established inhibitory avoidance task suitable to investigate accuracy of memory. PMID:25814942

  12. Helping children stop or avoid enteral feeding

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Long term enteral feeding is widely used to provides vital support for infants and children unable to feed orally, but once medically stable the transition to a normal diet can be difficult. Other children may need to commence tube feeding later in childhood because of difficulties associated with neurodisability, but recognising which children will benefit from tube feed is not straightforward. The Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Yorkhill set up a multidisciplinary feeding team in 2002 to help avoid unnecessary tube feeding. We accept only children who are either artificially fed or with severe nutritional problems and only after attempted uni-disciplinary management. The team members are a clinical psychologist, paediatric dietitian and consultant paediatrician, supported by a specialist paediatric registrar, assistant psychologist and administrative support. We can see only a small proportion of all with complex feeding problems, but aim to improve the care of such children generally. We disseminate the lessons learned within the Feeding Clinic via education locally and nationally and have an active programme of research. Over the first ten years of the clinic we have seen 222 patients of whom 67% were initially either tube or oral supplement fed, while only 29% remain so at follow up. In the first three years of the clinic tube fed children had spent a median of seven years on feeds before they were successfully weaned, but since then that has fallen to a median of 2.7 years. Of 53 other children referred for possibly tube feeding, 32 (60%) remain well on a normal diet and only ten (19%) have needed to start tube feeding. The service is highly cost effective. Salary costs are only around 65,000 per year, while weaning five children per year, reducing their years on feeds by four years, saves the NHS 130,000.

  13. Key conclusions from AVOID Work Stream One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    AVOID work stream (WS1)one has produced emission scenarios that simulate potential future global emission pathways for greenhouse gases during the 21st century. The study explored the influence of three key features of such pathways: (1) the year in which emissions peak globally, (2) the rate of emission reduction, and (3) the minimum level to which emissions are eventually reduced. It examined the resultant climate change, climate change impacts and economic implications using computer simulations. Avoided impacts, carbon taxes and GDP change increase throughout the 21st century in the models. AVOID-WS1 showed that in the absence of climate policy it is very likely that global mean temperatures would exceed 3 degrees and there are evens chances that the temperature would rise by 4 degrees relative to pre-industrial times. Scenarios that peak emissions in 2016 were more effective at constraining temperatures to below 3 degrees than those that peaked in 2030: one 2016' scenario achieved a probability of 45% of avoiding breaching of a 2 degree threshold. Scenarios peaking in 2030 were inconsistent with constraining temperatures to below 2 degrees. Correspondingly, scenarios that peak in 2030 are more effective at avoiding climate impacts than scenarios that peak in 2016, for all sectors that we studied. Hence the date at which emissions peak is more important than the rate of subsequent emissions reduction in determining the avoided impacts. Avoided impacts increase with time, being negligible in the 2030s, significant by the 2050s and large by the 2080s. Finally, the choice of GCM influences the magnitude of the avoided impacts strongly, so that the uncertainties in our estimates of avoided impacts for each scenario are larger than the difference between the scenarios. Our economic analysis is based on models which differ greatly in the assumptions that they make, but generally show that the date at which emissions peak is a stronger driver of induced GDP changes, and, with some exceptions, carbon taxes, than the rate at which emissions are subsequently reduced. In models which assume perfect rationality and foresight and/or assume the economy to be equilibrium with full employment, then mitigation could cause GDP to decrease. In models which do not make these assumptions, mitigation could cause GDP to increase. In either case the effects are small (a few % of GDP lost or gained in 2100) and insignificant when compared with the 600-1200% increase in global GDP forecast between 2000 and 2100 in the SRES A1B reference scenario used in this study. Estimates of carbon taxes required differ widely between models.

  14. Influences on meat avoidance among British students.

    PubMed

    Santos, M L; Booth, D A

    1996-12-01

    Male and female undergraduates (18-23 years old; 68% in their first year; N = 158) who had just chosen a vegetarian dish in a campus dining hall or restaurant reported a diversity of meat avoidance habits before arrival at University a few weeks previously. More women than men had avoided meat and other flesh foods, with the exception of fish. Consistently with the distinction between "red" and "white" meats, chicken and turkey were the least often avoided flesh foods among men and women. The only clear gradation from flesh-eating to vegetarianism was eating poultry and either beef/lamb or pork, eating only poultry and eating neither; fish was not on this Guttman scale, contrary to previous assumptions. Reasons for avoiding meat and perceived influences on preferences for food in their chosen vegetarian dish were elicited by open-ended interviews in 41 women from the meat-avoidance survey. Rationales spontaneously offered were as diverse as reported in previous studies, but always included at least two of the following: ethics of raising/killing animals, concern for health, sensory factors, disgust and influence of friends. In contrast, choices among described variants of the familiar dish were largely controlled by its sensory and nutritional features, presumably because other attributes had been factored out. PMID:9015557

  15. Behavioural inbreeding avoidance in wild African elephants.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Hollister-Smith, Julie A; Poole, Joyce H; Lee, Phyllis C; Moss, Cynthia J; Maldonado, Jsus E; Fleischer, Robert C; Alberts, Susan C

    2007-10-01

    The costs of inbreeding depression, as well as the opportunity costs of inbreeding avoidance, determine whether and which mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance evolve. In African elephants, sex-biased dispersal does not lead to the complete separation of male and female relatives, and so individuals may experience selection to recognize kin and avoid inbreeding. However, because estrous females are rare and male-male competition for mates is intense, the opportunity costs of inbreeding avoidance may be high, particularly for males. Here we combine 28 years of behavioural and demographic data on wild elephants with genotypes from 545 adult females, adult males, and calves in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, to test the hypothesis that elephants engage in sexual behaviour and reproduction with relatives less often than expected by chance. We found support for this hypothesis: males engaged in proportionally fewer sexual behaviours and sired proportionally fewer offspring with females that were natal family members or close genetic relatives (both maternal and paternal) than they did with nonkin. We discuss the relevance of these results for understanding the evolution of inbreeding avoidance and for elephant conservation. PMID:17784925

  16. Avoidance of Phycomyces in a controlled environment.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, P W; Matus, I J; Berg, H C

    1987-01-01

    The sporangiophore of the fungus Phycomyces bends away from nearby objects without ever touching them. It has been thought that these objects act as aerodynamic obstacles that damp random winds, thereby generating asymmetric distributions of a growth-promoting gas emitted by the growth zone. In the interest of testing this hypothesis, we studied avoidance in an environmental chamber in which convection was suppressed by a shallow thermal gradient. We also controlled pressure, temperature, and relative humidity of the air, electrostatic charge, and ambient light. A protocol was established that yielded avoidance rates constant from sporangiophore to sporangiophore to within +/- 10%. We found that avoidance occurred at normal rates in the complete absence of random winds. The rates were smaller at 100% than at lower values of relative humidity, but not by much. Remarkably, at a distance as great as 0.5 mm, avoidance from a 30-micron diam glass fiber (aligned parallel to the sporangiophore) was about the same as that from a planar glass sheet. However, the rate for the fiber fell more rapidly with distance. The rate for the sheet remained nearly constant out to approximately 4 mm. We conclude that avoidance depends either on adsorption by the barrier of a growth-inhibiting substance or emission by the barrier of a growth-promoting substance; it cannot occur by passive reflection. Models that can explain these effects are analyzed in the Appendix. PMID:3567313

  17. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-01-01

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition. PMID:23715617

  18. Neural Correlates of Attentional Flexibility during Approach and Avoidance Motivation.

    PubMed

    Calcott, Rebecca D; Berkman, Elliot T

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic, momentary approach or avoidance motivational states have downstream effects on eventual goal success and overall well being, but there is still uncertainty about how those states affect the proximal neurocognitive processes (e.g., attention) that mediate the longer-term effects. Attentional flexibility, or the ability to switch between different attentional foci, is one such neurocognitive process that influences outcomes in the long run. The present study examined how approach and avoidance motivational states affect the neural processes involved in attentional flexibility using fMRI with the aim of determining whether flexibility operates via different neural mechanisms under these different states. Attentional flexibility was operationalized as subjects' ability to switch between global and local stimulus features. In addition to subjects' motivational state, the task context was manipulated by varying the ratio of global to local trials in a block in light of recent findings about the moderating role of context on motivation-related differences in attentional flexibility. The neural processes involved in attentional flexibility differ under approach versus avoidance states. First, differences in the preparatory activity in key brain regions suggested that subjects' preparedness to switch was influenced by motivational state (anterior insula) and the interaction between motivation and context (superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule). Additionally, we observed motivation-related differences the anterior cingulate cortex during switching. These results provide initial evidence that motivation-induced behavioral changes may arise via different mechanisms in approach versus avoidance motivational states. PMID:26000735

  19. Neural Correlates of Attentional Flexibility during Approach and Avoidance Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Calcott, Rebecca D.; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic, momentary approach or avoidance motivational states have downstream effects on eventual goal success and overall well being, but there is still uncertainty about how those states affect the proximal neurocognitive processes (e.g., attention) that mediate the longer-term effects. Attentional flexibility, or the ability to switch between different attentional foci, is one such neurocognitive process that influences outcomes in the long run. The present study examined how approach and avoidance motivational states affect the neural processes involved in attentional flexibility using fMRI with the aim of determining whether flexibility operates via different neural mechanisms under these different states. Attentional flexibility was operationalized as subjects’ ability to switch between global and local stimulus features. In addition to subjects’ motivational state, the task context was manipulated by varying the ratio of global to local trials in a block in light of recent findings about the moderating role of context on motivation-related differences in attentional flexibility. The neural processes involved in attentional flexibility differ under approach versus avoidance states. First, differences in the preparatory activity in key brain regions suggested that subjects’ preparedness to switch was influenced by motivational state (anterior insula) and the interaction between motivation and context (superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule). Additionally, we observed motivation-related differences the anterior cingulate cortex during switching. These results provide initial evidence that motivation-induced behavioral changes may arise via different mechanisms in approach versus avoidance motivational states. PMID:26000735

  20. Integrated Collision Avoidance System for Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Collision with ground/water/terrain and midair obstacles is one of the common causes of severe aircraft accidents. The various data from the coremicro AHRS/INS/GPS Integration Unit, terrain data base, and object detection sensors are processed to produce collision warning audio/visual messages and collision detection and avoidance of terrain and obstacles through generation of guidance commands in a closed-loop system. The vision sensors provide more information for the Integrated System, such as, terrain recognition and ranging of terrain and obstacles, which plays an important role to the improvement of the Integrated Collision Avoidance System.