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1

Variability of pavement noise benefit by vehicle type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Volpe Center Acoustics Facility, in support of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), is participating in a long-term study to assess several types of pavement for the purpose of noise abatement. On a four-mile stretch of a two-lane highway in Southern California, several asphalt pavement overlays are being examined. Acoustical, meteorological, and traffic data are collected in each pavement overlay section, where microphones are deployed at multiple distances and heights. Single vehicle pass-by events are recorded primarily for three vehicle types: automobiles, medium trucks, and heavy trucks. Data are analyzed to determine the noise benefit of each pavement as compared to the reference dense-graded asphaltic concrete (DGAC); this includes a modified Statistical Pass-By Index as well as average Lmax values for each vehicle type. In addition, 1/3-octave band data are examined. Automobiles and heavy trucks are the focus of this paper, where benefits due to pavement will be presented for three pavement types: open-graded asphaltic concrete (OGAC) of 75 mm thickness, open-graded asphaltic concrete (OGAC) of 30 mm thickness, and rubberized asphaltic concrete, Type O (open) (RAC) of 30 mm thickness. Average Lmax values and spectral data show that noise benefits due to pavement can vary by vehicle type.

Rochat, Judith L.; Read, David R.

2005-09-01

2

Effects of Pavement Type on Traffic Noise levels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tire/road levels for Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) pavement types were investigated to provide an additional criterion for pavement selection in noise senstivie areas. Tire/road noise measurments were conducted in accordance with the Internatio...

L. A. Herman M. J. Ambroziak

1999-01-01

3

Improving rutting resistance of pavement structures using geosynthetics: an overview.  

PubMed

A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting). PMID:24526919

Mirzapour Mounes, Sina; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Khodaii, Ali; Almasi, Mohammad Hadi

2014-01-01

4

Predicting Performance of Pavements by Deflection Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two main objectives of this study are to develop a means for predicting the life of flexible pavements by use of deflection measurements of selected in-service pavements, and to determine which of the three factors of traffic, soil support, or age hav...

W. J. Liddle G. M. Jones D. E. Peterson G. F. Nielson G. Peterson

1969-01-01

5

23 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking Materials Appendix to Subpart...of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking Materials 1. Although...Specification Limits for Retroreflective Pavement Marking Material With CIE 2°...

2009-04-01

6

Water Quality Performance of Three Side-by-Side Permeable Pavement Surface Materials: Three Year Update  

EPA Science Inventory

Communities are increasingly installing structural low impact development (LID) practices to mange stormwater and reduce pollutant loads associated with stormwater runoff. Permeable pavement is a LID practice that has limited research on working-scale, side-by-side performance o...

7

Analysis of durability of advanced cementitious materials for rigid pavement construction in California  

SciTech Connect

Caltrans specifications for the construction of rigid pavements require rapid setting, high early strength, superior workability concrete with a desired 30+ year service life. These strict specifications provide the motivations for the investigation of advanced cementitious materials for pavement construction. The cementitious materials under consideration by Caltrans may be classified into four categories: Portland cements and blends, calcium aluminate cements and blends, calcium sulfoaluminate cements, and fly ash-based cements. To achieve the desired 30+ year design life, it is essential to select materials that are expected to exhibit long-term durability. Because most of the cementitious materials under consideration have not been extensively used for pavement construction in the United States, it is essential to characterize the long-term durability of each material. This report provides general information concerning the deleterious reactions that may damage concrete pavements in California. The reactions addressed in this report are sulfate attack, aggregate reactions, corrosion of reinforcing steel, and freeze-thaw action. Specifically, the expected performance of Portland cements and blends, calcium aluminate cements and blends, calcium sulfoaluminate cements, and fly ash-based cements are examined with regard to each of the deleterious reactions listed. Additional consideration is given to any deterioration mechanism that is particular to any of these cement types. Finally, the recommended test program for assessing potential long-term durability with respect to sulfate attack is described.

Kurtis, K.E.; Monteiro, P.

1999-04-01

8

Pavement Marking Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a final report for a study to review and evaluate the performance of pavement marking in Colorado. The report covers the performance of materials installed transverse to the road and panel review of several long-line striping projects with higher-...

R. G. Griffin

1990-01-01

9

Materials Characterization and Analysis of the Marquette Interchange HMA Perpetual Pavement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project focused on the characterization of materials used to construct the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) perpetual pavement within the Marquette Interchange and on the analysis of collected pavement response data to investigate the interactions between mater...

A. Coenen C. Williams H. Titi J. A. Crovetti R. E. Mohanned

2008-01-01

10

Characterization of Unbound Granular Materials for Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is focused on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of unbound granular road base materials (UGMs). An extensive laboratory investigation is described, in which various methods for determination of the mechanical properties of granular materials are examined for their applicability, particularly in developing countries. Further, the mechanical behavior of unbound granular materials as a function of the moisture

A. A. Araya

2011-01-01

11

Properties and toxicological effects of particles from the interaction between tyres, road pavement and winter traction material.  

PubMed

In regions where studded tyres and traction material are used during winter, e.g. the Nordic countries, northern part of USA, Canada, and Japan, mechanically generated particles from traffic are the main reason for high particle mass concentrations in busy street and road environments. In many Nordic municipalities the European environmental quality standard for inhalable particles (PM(10)) is exceeded due to these particles. In this study, particles from the wear of studded and studless friction tyres on two pavements and traction sanding were generated using a road simulator. The particles were characterized using particle sizers, Particle Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis and electron microscopy. Cell studies were conducted on particles sampled from the tests with studded tyres and compared with street environment, diesel exhaust and subway PM(10), respectively. The results show that in the road simulator, where resuspension is minimized, studded tyres produce tens of times more particles than friction tyres. Chemical analysis of the sampled particles shows that the generated wear particles consist almost entirely of minerals from the pavement stone material, but also that Sulfur is enriched for the submicron particles and that Zink is enriched for friction tyres for all particles sizes. The chemical data can be used for source identification and apportionment in urban aerosol studies. A mode of ultra-fine particles was also present and is hypothesised to originate in the tyres. Further, traction material properties affect PM(10) emission. The inflammatory potential of the particles from wear of pavements seems to depend on type of pavement and can be at least as potent as diesel exhaust particles. The results imply that there is a need and a good potential to reduce particle emission from pavement wear and winter time road and street operation by adjusting both studded tyre use as well as pavement and traction material properties. PMID:18258284

Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Göran; Gudmundsson, Anders; Dahl, Andreas; Swietlicki, Erik; Bohgard, Mats; Lindbom, John; Ljungman, Anders

2008-04-15

12

Study of image-based pavement cracking measurement techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracking is one of the most common diseases that happen to the pavement and a field cracking survey and a forensic investigation are important work for preventive maintenance. In order to measure the pavement crackings automatically, this paper uses digital image processing techniques to process the pavement cracking images acquired by the digital camera and classify the pavement cracking types

Sun Zhaoyun; Wang Chaofan; Sha Aimin

2009-01-01

13

The behavior of a novel raw material-encapsulated FBG sensor for pavement monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology on pavement monitoring has been paid more and more attention by government, engineers and scholars. Conventional methods, such as artificial inspection and core sampling, have defect in low efficiency and limited coverage, and modern technologies, such as spectrum analysis and integral imaging, have poor resistance to external interference and high cost, which reveals that common approaches have fallen behind the development of road engineering. Therefore, a novel raw material-encapsulated FBG strain sensor is put forward, thinking over outstanding advantages of fiber Bragg grating and perfect incorporation between coating layers and host layers. Numerical analysis and experiments have been done to inspect behavior of the sensing system. Results indicate that it can well detect the actual performance of pavements, and the sensor presents a high-precision, real-time and long-term monitoring, owning function of road disaster warming, which promise it an extensive future in pavement monitoring.

Wang, Huaping; Liu, Wanqiu; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Shuhong; Li, Yuan

2011-11-01

14

Study to analyze the effects of vehicles and pavement surface types on noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vehicles and pavement surface types on noise have been investigated at the Korea Highway Corporation’s Test Road along the southbound side of the Jungbu Inland Expressway, South Korea. The study was conducted in 2005 and 2006 through field measurements at nine surface sections of asphalt concrete and Portland cement concrete pavements using eleven vehicles. For the road

Dae Seung Cho; Sungho Mun

2008-01-01

15

Thermal stresses of flexible pavement with consideration of temperature-dependent material characteristics using stiffness matrix method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The asphalt pavement is regarded as a multilayered elastic half space axisymmetrical body. By introducing the relationship between material characteristics and temperature into the fundamental equations of thermoelasticity and using mathematic methods of Laplace and Hankel integral transformation, the stiffness matrix for a layer is derived firstly. Then the global stiffness matrix is established for multilayered elastic half space using the finite element concepts in which layers are completely contacted. Therefore, explicit solution for thermal stresses of the asphalt pavement is obtained from the solution of the algebra equation formed by global stiffness matrix and the inverse Hankel and Laplace integral transformation. Because the elements of matrix do not include positive exponential function, the calculation is not overflowed and the shortages of transfer matrix method are overcome. This approach serves as a better model for real pavement structure as it takes into account the relationships between the material characteristics and temperature in the pavement system.

Geng, Litao; Ren, Ruibo; Zhong, Yang; Xu, Qian

2011-02-01

16

The effect of loading time on flexible pavement dynamic response: a finite element analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic response of asphalt concrete (AC) pavements under moving load is a key component for accurate prediction of flexible pavement performance. The time and temperature dependency of AC materials calls for utilizing advanced material characterization and mechanistic theories, such as viscoelasticity and stress/strain analysis. In layered elastic analysis, as implemented in the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG), the time dependency is accounted for by calculating the loading times at different AC layer depths. In this study, the time effect on pavement response was evaluated by means of the concept of “pseudo temperature.” With the pavement temperature measured from instrumented thermocouples, the time and temperature dependency of AC materials was integrated into one single factor, termed “effective temperature.” Via this effective temperature, pavement responses under a transient load were predicted through finite element analysis. In the finite element model, viscoelastic behavior of AC materials was characterized through relaxation moduli, while the layers with unbound granular material were assumed to be in an elastic mode. The analysis was conducted for two different AC mixtures in a simplified flexible pavement structure at two different seasons. Finite element analysis results reveal that the loading time has a more pronounced impact on pavement response in the summer for both asphalt types. The results indicate that for reasonable prediction of dynamic response in flexible pavements, the effect of the depth-dependent loading time on pavement temperature should be considered.

Yin, Hao; Solaimanian, Mansour; Kumar, Tanmay; Stoffels, Shelley

2007-12-01

17

Development of Improved Pavement Performance Prediction Models for the Indiana Pavement Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) is increasingly committed to the Pavement Management System. For this reason, updated simple pavement performance prediction models with the least number of explanatory (independent) variables are required to predict the performance of various pavement types for future planning of rehabilitation or replacement. In Indiana, the two main pavement types are jointed concrete pavement (JCP)

Sedat Gulen; Karen Zhu; John Weaver; Jie Shan; William F. Flora

2001-01-01

18

Method of Determining the Thickness and Uniformity of Application for Thermoplastic Pavement Marking Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laser thickness-measurement device for measuring the thickness of thermoplastic pavement marking material (TPMM) has been successfully developed. The system has been installed onto a pushcart for easy field operation. The device is based on a laser tria...

R. Liu J. Li X. Chen Y. Chen H. Xing R. Liang

2002-01-01

19

Freeze-Thaw Tests of Liquid Deicing Chemicals on Selected Pavement Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were conducted to assess the extent of surface degradation resulting from the application of non-chloride deicing chemicals on three types of airfield pavements. The chemicals tested were proprietary mixtures of urea, formamide, and ethylene glycol;...

L. D. Minsk

1977-01-01

20

Development of Reliable Pavement Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current report proposes a framework for estimating the reliability of a given pavement structure as analyzed by the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The methodology proposes using a previously fit response surface, in place of the ...

J. Prozzi J. P. Aguiar-Moya

2011-01-01

21

A Guide to the Structural Design of Pavements for New Roads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Selection of the type of pavement; Estimation of traffic for design purposes; Design life of pavements; Design of flexible pavements; Design of concrete pavements; Design of pavements with a continuously reinforced concrete base and bituminous s...

1970-01-01

22

Rut Resistance Behavior of Pavement Structures Combined by the Different Asphalt Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper rut resistance behavior of pavement structures combined by the different asphalt mixtures is presented. Nine types of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) and ten types of their different combinations are experienced with China's wheel tracking tester in this study. They are composed of three types of aggregate gradation including a coarse, a middle and a fine gradation of

Fan Tong-jiang

2010-01-01

23

Comparison of the hydraulic behaviour and the quality of highway runoff water according to the type of pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation aimed at determining the impact of the type of pavement, whether conventional or porous, on the hydraulic behaviour and on the quality of runoff water. Data obtained from a French highway both before and after the replacement of a conventional asphalt by a porous asphalt are compared. Statistical tests have been

C Pagotto; M Legret; P Le Cloirec

2000-01-01

24

23 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pavement marking materials are for materials as they are intended to be used. For paint products, that means inclusion of glass beads and/or other retroreflective components. [67 FR 49572, July 31, 2002, as amended at 67 FR 70163,...

2010-04-01

25

Experimental studies of the dilution of vehicle exhaust pollutants by environment-protecting pervious pavement.  

PubMed

This study determines whether environment-protecting pervious pavement can dilute pollutants immediately after emissions from vehicle. The turbulence-driven dry-deposition process is too slow to be considered in this aspect. The pavement used is the JW pavement (according to its inventors name), a high-load-bearing water-permeable pavement with patents in over 100 countries, which has already been used for more than 8 years in Taiwan and is well suited to replacing conventional road pavement, making the potential implementation of the study results feasible. The design of this study included two sets of experiments. Variation of the air pollutant concentrations within a fenced area over the JW pavement with one vehicle discharging emissions into was monitored and compared with results over a non-JW pavement. The ambient wind speed was low during the first experiment, and the results obtained were highly credible. It was found that the JW pavement diluted vehicle pollutant emissions near the ground surface by 40%-87% within 5 min of emission; whereas the data at 2 m height suggested that about 58%-97% of pollutants were trapped underneath the pavement 20 min after emission. Those quantitative estimations may be off by +/- 10%, if errors in emissions and measurements were considered. SO2 and CO2 underwent the most significant reduction. Very likely, pollutants were forced to move underneath due to the special design of the pavement. During the second experiment, ambient wind speeds were high and the results obtained had less credibility, but they did not disprove the pollutant dilution capacity of the JW pavement. In order to track the fate of pollutants, parts of the pavement were removed to reveal a micro version of wetland underneath, which could possibly hold the responsibility of absorbing and decomposing pollutants to forms harmless to the environment and human health. PMID:22393814

Liu, Chung-Ming; Chen, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Lin, Wei-Shian; Yen, M-T; Chen, Ting-Hao

2012-01-01

26

Modeling the Roughness Progression of Kansas Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long-term prediction of the performance and durability of pavement represents a critical and vital issue in the pavement surface type selection process by the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) using the life-cycle-cost analysis. Accurate predicti...

M. Hossain V. Felker Y. M. Najjar

2004-01-01

27

Development of Vehicle-Mounted Measuring Devices for Non-Contact Thickness and Uniformity Measurement of Thermoplastic Pavement Marking Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this project, the researcher successfully developed a highway speed vehicle-mounted thermoplastic pavement marking material (TPMM) thickness measurement device based on the research results in Project 0-4882, Refinement of a Non- Contact Method to Dete...

R. Liu Y. Chen A. Ekbote W. Sun X. Chen J. Li P. Chopra

2006-01-01

28

STATUS OF POROUS PAVEMENT RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's porous pavement research program along with the economics, advantages, potential applications, and status and future research needs of porous pavements. Porous pavements are an available stormwater management techniq...

29

Impact of the variation in dynamic vehicle load on flexible pavement responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the dynamic variation in asphalt pavement critical responses due to dynamic tire load variations. An attempt was also made to develop generalized regression equations to predict the dynamic response variation in flexible pavement under various dynamic load conditions. The study used an extensive database of computed pavement response histories for five different types of sites (smooth, rough, medium rough, very rough and severely rough), two different asphalt pavement structures (thin and thick) at two temperatures (70 °F and 104 °F), subjected to a tandem axle dual tire at three speeds 25, 37 and 50 mph (40, 60 and 80 km/h). All pavement responses were determined using the 3D-Move Analysis program (Version 1.2) developed by University of Nevada, Reno. A new term called Dynamic Response Coefficient (DRC) was introduced in this study to address the variation in critical pavement responses due to dynamic loads as traditionally measured by the Dynamic Load Coefficient (DLC). While DLC represents the additional varying component of the tire load, DRC represents the additional varying component of the response value (standard deviation divided by mean response). In this study, DRC was compared with DLC for five different sites based on the roughness condition of the sites. Previous studies showed that DLC varies with vehicle speed and suspension types, and assumes a constant value for the whole pavement structure (lateral and vertical directions). On the other hand, in this study, DRC was found to be significantly varied with the asphalt pavement and function of pavement structure, road roughness conditions, temperatures, vehicle speeds, suspension types, and locations of the point of interest in the pavement. A major contribution of the study is that the variation of pavement responses due to dynamic load in a flexible pavement system can be predicted with generalized regression equations. Fitting parameters (R2) in the rage of 0.60 to 0.87 were observed the DRC predictive equations. In addition, verification of those generalized equations was evaluated using different sets of asphalt pavement structures and pavement materials. The differences between calculated and predicted values were found to be within +/-20% for the maximum tensile strain and +/-30% for the maximum compressive strain in the asphalt layer.

Ahsanuzzaman, Md

30

Temporary Pavement Marking Material Installation Procedure for Wet and Cold Pavement Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report accumulates and consolidates with a single reference source the current state of technology with respect to the materials and application procedures used for temporary pavement markings. The report also contains a cost-comparison of the variou...

R. W. McNees J. S. Noel

1984-01-01

31

Porous pavement. Phase 1: Design and operational criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization concepts, benefits and disadvantages, as well as other characteristics of porous pavements are presented with emphasis on porous asphalt pavements, but the criteria and design approach are applicable to all other porous pavement types. Design considerations include siting problems, load bearing design and hydrologic design. The history of porous pavement development and previous experience with porous pavement by several

E. V. Diniz

1980-01-01

32

Laboratory investigation of portland cement concrete containing recycled asphalt pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) is the removed and\\/or reprocessed pavement material containing asphalt and aggregate. The use of RAP in asphalt pavement has become a common practice in the construction of new, and reconstruction of old, hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. But little research has been done to examine the potential of incorporating RAP into concrete. Since RAP contains asphalt,

Baoshan Huang; Xiang Shu; Guoqiang Li

2005-01-01

33

Permanent deformation of flexible pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven pairs of pavements with granular bases were tested under controlled conditions. One pavement in each pair contained fabric inclusions. An improved testing facility was developed, including: (1) servo-hydraulic system for the loading carriage; (2) amplification and read-out system for pressure cells; (3) linearizing unit for strain coils; (4) transducers for measuring vertical and resilient deflection; (5) techniques for measuring in situ strain on fabric inclusions; (6) extensive use of nuclear density meter to monitor pavement and foundation materials. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) No improvement in performance resulted from fabric inclusions. (2) No consistent reduction in in-situ stresses, resilient strains, or permanent strains was observed as a result of fabric inclusion. (3) No consistent improvement in densities resulted from fabric inclusions. (4) Some slip apparently occurred between fabric and soil on those pavements which involved large deformations. The slip occurred between fabric and crushed limestone base rather than between fabric and silty-clay subgrade.

Brown, S. F.; Broderick, B. V.; Pappin, J. W.

1980-06-01

34

Application of Graded Finite Elements for Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asphalt paving layers, particularly the surface course, exhibit vertically graded material properties. This grading is caused primarily by temperature gradients and aging related stiffness gradients. Most conventional existing analysis models do not directly account for the continuous grading of properties in flexible pavement layers. As a result, conventional analysis methods may lead to inaccurate prediction of pavement responses and distress

William G. Buttlar; Glaucio H. Paulino; Seong Hyeok Song

2009-01-01

35

Microwave methods enable energy savings in restoration of highway pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot in place recycling of asphalt pavement by a method which utilizes microwave energy in combination with hot engine exhaust gases has been demonstrated to be technically and economically feasible. The process saves both energy and materials compared with conventional hot-mix recycling methods involving removal of old paving and reprocessing at hot-mix plants. Applications for microwave pavement heating include repair

M. R. Jeppson; F. J. Smith

1983-01-01

36

Recycled materials in asphalt pavements. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt pavement materials, and the use of other recycled materials to manufacture asphalt pavement. Articles discuss methods used for recycling bituminous pavement including hot-mix and cold-mix. Materials used to improve recycled pavement, and recycled materials used in asphalt pavement include latexes, rubber scrap such as tires, glass shards, concretes, dusts, waste oils, roofing wastes, sulfur, and metal refining sludges. Testing and evaluation of recycled pavements both in laboratories and in test cases are considered. (Contains a minimum of 160 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-05-01

37

Control of Grasses and Weeds Growing in Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbicides offer the engineer a means for controlling vegetation involving asphalt surfaces. The plants may arise from seeds or plant parts in the base material, by encroachment of plants from outside the pavement, or from seeds that become lodged in cracks or seams in the pavement.Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) and many associated plants can be controlled with either pre-surface or

Wayne G. McCully; William J. Bowmer; Allen F. Wiese

1970-01-01

38

Surface Preparation of Pavements Prior to Application of Pavement Markings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was undertaken to demonstrate that surface preparation of pavements by wire brushing prior to application of traffic marking paint would result in extended service life of traffic marking paint. A brush assembly was designed, fabricated and i...

J. M. Dale

1980-01-01

39

Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.  

PubMed

Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. PMID:23892046

Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

2013-10-01

40

Evaluation of Profiled Pavement Markings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluated flat thermoplastic markings (FTM) and profiled pavement markings (PPM) installed on highways maintained by the Alabama Department of Transportation. The primary objectives of this evaluation were to compare service life, life-cycle co...

J. K. Lindly R. K. Wijesundera

2003-01-01

41

Auto-synchronized laser scanning range sensor for thermoplastic pavement marking material thickness measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pavement marking materials provide delineation on highways around the world. The condition of the marking materials is very important for the driver's safety as well as the comfort and the driving expenses. Currently thermoplastic pavement marking materials (TPMM) are widely used in states. Measuring the thickness of TPMM on pavement is an essential index to monitor the contractors, calculate durability

Wei Sun; Xuemin Chen; Yuanhang Chen; Aditya Ekbote; Richard Ce Liu

2006-01-01

42

Development of Pavement Temperature Contours for India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stress-strain response of the bituminous pavements is highly sensitive to temperature. To systematically analyze the pavement performance, it is necessary that one understands the variation of pavement temperature spatially and temporally during the life time of a pavement. In this investigation, historic air temperature data for 37 locations across India was collected. Using this database, pavement temperature data was predicted by an appropriate air temperature-pavement temperature model. High and low temperature pavement temperature contours were generated for the first time for India. It was seen that the locations spanning from Srinagar to Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan to Orissa were extremely critical. The minimum temperature in these locations was - 10° C and the maximum temperature was around 68° C. Clearly such information is necessary when making choice of binder grade and bituminous layer thickness.

Nivitha, M. R.; Krishnan, J. M.

2014-06-01

43

The Impact of Cloud Type on Surface Radiation and Road Pavement Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecast systems provide decision support for end-users ranging from the solar energy industry to municipalities concerned with winter road maintenance. The racing community also relies on racetrack pavement temperature forecast systems because tire friction decreases as temperature increases, affecting vehicle performance. Race crews perform vehicle maintenance (e.g., tire pressure and suspension adjustments) to maximize traction given a forecasted racetrack temperature. Many forecast systems suffer from inaccurate radiation forecasts resulting in part from a lack of information relating radiation to cloud types. This research seeks to improve the forecasts by determining how cloud type impacts the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface. Cloud type information was obtained from the Naval Research Laboratory Cloud Classifier algorithm and radiation data were obtained from a Davis Weather Station. A theoretical maximum solar radiation distribution was calculated. Cloud type-radiation distribution analyses from Salisbury, North Carolina during May-June 2012 indicated that low clouds allowed approximately 20% of the maximum possible radiation to reach the surface, mid level clouds 32%, high clouds 40% and cumuliform types 34%. A categorical regression analysis revealed 33% of the variation in solar radiation on cloudy case days can be explained by cloud type. Inclusion of clear case days with apparent variability lowered this to 7% suggesting another influence on radiation. A similar bulk statistical analysis is in progress on a much larger data set obtained from the Oklahoma Mesonet. This work lays the foundation for use of satellite cloud type information in order to improve the output of forecast systems. Distribution of mean solar radiation measured at the surface for all nine case studies, sorted by cloud type height characteristics, where n represents the sample size.

Walker, C. L.; Anderson, A.; Chapman, M.; Drobot, S.

2012-12-01

44

Concrete Pavement Overlays over Existing Asphalt Pavement Structures, Project Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Whitetopping is a pavement system of portland cement concrete (PCC) placed on hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavement. Whitetopping is used to address distresses in asphalt pavement such as rutting and shoving. Three types of whitetopping pavements are c...

2007-01-01

45

Bridge and pavement maintenance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterioration of New York State Highway structures; precast repair of continuously reinforced concrete pavement (abridgment) patching of continuously reinforced concrete pavements, evaluation of several maintenance methods for continuously reinforced concrete pavement, patching jointed concrete pavements, highway pavement repairs by using polymer concrete, pressure grouting of concrete pavements, and choosing cost-effective maintenance are discussed.

Fitzpatrick, M. W.; Law, D. A.; Dixon, W. C.; Elkins, G. E.; Mucullough, B. F.; Darter, M. I.; Yoder, E. J.; Florence, R. H., Jr.; Virkler, S. J.; McGhee, K. H.

1981-03-01

46

Density Profiling of Asphalt Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Asphalt pavement density measurements were made using a conventional nuclear density gauge and a new electrical resistivity device called the Pavement Quality Indicator. Five sets of density tests were made at each of nine sites during, or immediately fol...

S. Shuler

2005-01-01

47

Recycling of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement, Johnson County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years there has been increasing interest in recycling construction materials. Surface courses of bituminous pavements are currently being actively recycled all over Kansas. The recycling of portland cement concrete pavements (PCCP) can help alle...

J. B. Wojakowski G. A. Fager M. A. Catron

1995-01-01

48

Use of Precast Slabs for Pavement Rehabilitation on I-66.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Highway agencies continuously strive to expedite pavement construction and repairs and to evaluate materials and methods to provide long-lasting pavements. As part of this effort, agencies have used precast concrete slabs for more than 10 years with succe...

C. Ozyildirim M. S. Hossain

2012-01-01

49

Rapid, Self-Contained In-Situ Permeameter for Field QA/QC of Pavement Base/Subbase Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drainage in pavement base/subbase layers is critical in achieving the service life of pavements. In practice, most design engineers assume a minimum permeability value in the hydraulic design of permeable base layers based on marginally accurate empirical...

C. Jahren D. Eichner D. J. White H. Gieselman P. Vennapusa Z. La

2009-01-01

50

Auto-synchronized laser scanning range sensor for thermoplastic pavement marking material thickness measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pavement marking materials provide delineation on highways around the world. The condition of the marking materials is very important for the driver's safety as well as the comfort and the driving expenses. Currently thermoplastic pavement marking materials (TPMM) are widely used in states. Measuring the thickness of TPMM on pavement is an essential index to monitor the contractors, calculate durability of marking materials, and provide better information for the pavement marking evaluation. In recent years to measure the thickness of TPMM, a procedure involving pre-embedded plates sprayed with the marking materials has been widely accepted. This method is labor intensive, and cannot obtain a continuous-thickness profile. Therefore there are demands to develop a high-speed automatic measuring system for determining the thickness and uniformity of marking materials. In this paper, a laser range sensor based on auto-synchronized laser scanning is proposed for the thermoplastic pavement marking material thickness measurement. Compare to classical triangulation method, this approach doesn't scarify the system resolution for large field of view and it is more suitable for highway speed measurement. To achieve high speed measurement, PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) is used in the prototype system instead of CCD (Charge Couple Device) in traditional auto-synchronized system. The standoff distance and transverse scan range of the prototype system both are 1 foot. The lab test results show that the prototype system can measure the thermoplastic type thickness with error in 5mil at laser scanning rate up to 50Hz.

Sun, Wei; Chen, Xuemin; Chen, Yuanhang; Ekbote, Aditya; Liu, Richard Ce

2006-04-01

51

Functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors and system developed for full-scale pavement monitoring.  

PubMed

Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements. PMID:24854060

Wang, Huaping; Liu, Wanqiu; He, Jianping; Xing, Xiaoying; Cao, Dandan; Gao, Xipeng; Hao, Xiaowei; Cheng, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhi

2014-01-01

52

Functionality Enhancement of Industrialized Optical Fiber Sensors and System Developed for Full-Scale Pavement Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements.

Wang, Huaping; Liu, Wanqiu; He, Jianping; Xing, Xiaoying; Cao, Dandan; Gao, Xipeng; Hao, Xiaowei; Cheng, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhi

2014-01-01

53

Degradation Modeling of Polyurea Pavement Markings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polyurea is a long life pavement marking material used for assets requiring long periods of uninterrupted accessibility. Knowing the performance characteristics of such markings is critical to asset management planning focused on maximizing marking materi...

J. D. Needham

2011-01-01

54

Pavement management  

SciTech Connect

The 11 papers in this report deal with the following areas: effect of pavement roughness on vehicle fuel consumption; rational seasonal load restrictions and overload permits; state-level pavement monitoring program; data requirements for long-term monitoring of pavements as a basis for development of multiple regression relations; simplified pavement management at the network level; combined priority programming of maintenance and rehabilitation for pavement networks; Arizona pavement management system: Phase 2-verification of performance prediction models and development of data base; overview of paver pavement management system; economic analysis of field implementation of paver pavement management system; development of a statewide pavement maintenance management system; and, prediction of pavement maintenance expenditure by using a statistical cost function.

Ross, F.R.; Connor, B.; Lytton, R.L.; Darter, M.I.; Shahin, M.Y.

1982-01-01

55

Modelling of pavement materials on steel decks using the five-point bending test: Thermo mechanical evolution and fatigue damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the modelling of wearing courses on steel orthotropic decks such as the Millau viaduct in France. This is of great importance when dealing with durability: due to the softness of such a support, the pavement is subjected to considerable strains that may generate top-down cracks in the layer at right angles of the orthotropic plate stiffeners and shear cracks at the interface between pavement and steel. Therefore, a five-point bending fatigue test was developed and improved since 2003 at the ENTPE laboratory, to test different asphalt concrete mixes. This study aims at modelling the mechanical behavior of the wearing course throughout the fatigue test by a finite element method (Comsol Multiphysics software). Each material - steel, sealing sheet, asphalt concrete layer - is considered and modelled. The modelling of asphalt concrete is complex since it is a heterogeneous material, a viscoelastic medium and it thermosensitive. The actual characteristics of the asphalt concrete (thermo physical parameter and viscoelastic complex modulus) are determined experimentally on cylindrical cores. Moreover, a damage law based on Miner's damage is included in the model. The modelling of the fatigue test leads to encouraging results. Finally, results from the model are compared to the experimental data obtained from the five-point bending fatigue test device. The experimental data are very consistent with the numerical simulation.

Arnaud, L.; Houel, A.

2010-06-01

56

Aquatic toxicity of airfield-pavement deicer materials and implications for airport runoff  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of airfield-pavement deicer materials (PDM) in a study of airport runoff often exceeded levels of concern regarding aquatic toxicity. Toxicity tests on Vibrio fischeri, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (commonly known as Selenastrum capricornutum) were performed with potassium acetate (K-Ac) PDM, sodium formate (Na-For) PDM, and with freezing- point depressants (K-Ac and Na-For). Results indicate that toxicity in PDM is driven by the freezing-point depressants in all tests except the Vibrio fisheri test for Na-For PDM which is influenced by an additive. Acute toxicity end points for different organisms ranged from 298 to 6560 mg/L (as acetate) for K-Ac PDM and from 1780 to 4130 mg/L (as formate) for Na- For PDM. Chronic toxicity end points ranged from 19.9 to 336 mg/L (as acetate) for K-Ac PDM and from 584 to 1670 mg/L (as formate) for Na-For PDM. Sample results from outfalls at General Mitchell International Airport in Milwaukee, Wl (GMIA) indicated that 40% of samples had concentrations greater than the aquatic-life benchmark for K-Ac PDM. K-Ac has replaced urea during the 1990s as the most widely used PDM at GMIA and in the United States. Results of ammonia samples from airport outfalls during periods when urea-based PDM was used at GMIA indicated that41% of samples had concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 1 -h water-quality criterion. The USEPA 1-h water-quality criterion for chloride was exceeded in 68% of samples collected in the receiving stream, a result of road-salt runoff from urban influence near the airport. Results demonstrate that PDM must be considered to comprehensively evaluate the impact of chemical deicers on aquatic toxicity in water containing airport runoff. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

Corsi, S. R.; Geis, S. W.; Bowman, G.; Failey, G. G.; Rutter, T. D.

2009-01-01

57

Aquatic toxicity of airfield-pavement deicer materials and implications for airport runoff.  

PubMed

Concentrations of airfield-pavement deicer materials (PDM) in a study of airport runoff often exceeded levels of concern regarding aquatic toxicity. Toxicity tests on Vibrio fischeri, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (commonly known as Selenastrum capricornutum) were performed with potassium acetate (K-Ac) PDM, sodium formate (Na-For) PDM, and with freezing-point depressants (K-Ac and Na-For). Results indicate that toxicity in PDM is driven by the freezing-point depressants in all tests except the Vibrio fisheri test for Na-For PDM which is influenced by an additive. Acute toxicity end points for different organisms ranged from 298 to 6560 mg/L (as acetate) for K-Ac PDM and from 1780 to 4130 mg/L (as formate) for Na-For PDM. Chronic toxicity end points ranged from 19.9 to 336 mg/L (as acetate) for K-Ac PDM and from 584 to 1670 mg/L (as formate) for Na-For PDM. Sample results from outfalls at General Mitchell International Airport in Milwaukee, WI (GMIA) indicated that 40% of samples had concentrations greater thanthe aquatic-life benchmarkfor K-Ac PDM. K-Ac has replaced urea during the 1990s as the most widely used PDM at GMIA and in the United States. Results of ammonia samples from airport outfalls during periods when urea-based PDM was used at GMIA indicated that 41% of samples had concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 1-h water-quality criterion. The USEPA 1-h water-quality criterion for chloride was exceeded in 68% of samples collected in the receiving stream, a result of road-salt runoff from urban influence near the airport. Results demonstrate that PDM must be considered to comprehensively evaluate the impact of chemical deicers on aquatic toxicity in water containing airport runoff. PMID:19209582

Corsi, Steven R; Geis, Steven W; Bowman, George; Failey, Greg G; Rutter, Troy D

2009-01-01

58

Permeable Pavement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate how different riparian ground covers, such as grass or pavement, affect river flooding. They learn about permeable and impermeable materials through the measurement how much water is absorbed by several different household materials in a model river. Students use what they learn to make recommendations for engineers developing permeable pavement. Also, they consider several different limitations for design in the context of a small community.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

59

Microwave methods enable energy savings in restoration of highway pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot in-place recycling of asphalt pavement by a method which utilizes microwave energy in combination with hot-engine exhaust gases has been demonstrated to be technically and economically feasible. The process saves both energy and materials compared with conventional hot-mix recycling methods involving removal of old paving and reprocessing at hot-mix plants. Applications for microwave pavement heating include repair of cracks,

M. R. Jeppson; F. J. Smith

1983-01-01

60

Instrumentation, analysis and modeling of flexible pavement subdrainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pavement subsurface drainage and its effect on pavement performance has been a subject of interest since the 18$\\\\sp{\\\\rm th}$ and 19$\\\\sp{\\\\rm th}$ centuries. With no doubt the detrimental effects of heavy wheel loads on pavements with saturated base material is a significant factor. The consequence of subsurface water on pavement performance includes premature rutting, cracking, faulting, and increased roughness, all

Hossam Farouk Hassan

1996-01-01

61

Modelling the performance of pavement marking in cold weather conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate and poorly maintained pavement markings are considered to be one of the largest contributing factors to fatal motor vehicle crashes. As a result, it is essential to apply the appropriate pavement marking material for all weather conditions in order to increase public safety and reduce motor vehicle crashes. Building a strategic plan to renew and re-stripe pavement marking is

Hussam Fares; Khaled Shahata; Emad Elwakil; Ahmed Eweda; Tarek Zayed; Magdy Abdelrahman; Ismail Basha

2010-01-01

62

Engineering properties of resin modified pavement (RMP) for mechanistic design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research study described in this report focuses on determining the engineering properties of the resin modified pavement (RMP) material relating to pavement performance, and then developing a rational mechanistic design procedure to replace the current empirical design procedure. A detailed description of RMP is provided, including a review of the available literature on this relatively new pavement technology. Field evaluations of four existing and two new RMP project sites were made to assess critical failure modes and to obtain pavement samples for subsequent laboratory testing. Various engineering properties of laboratory-produced and field-recovered samples of RMP were measured and analyzed. The engineering properties evaluated included those relating to the material's stiffness, strength, thermal properties, and traffic-related properties. Comparisons of these data to typical values for asphalt concrete and portland cement concrete were made to relate the physical nature of RMP to more common pavement surfacing materials. A mechanistic design procedure was developed to determine appropriate thickness profiles of RMP, using stiffness and fatigue properties determined by this study. The design procedure is based on the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers layered elastic method for airfield flexible pavements. The WESPAVE computer program was used to demonstrate the new design procedure for a hypothetical airfield apron design. The results of the study indicated that RMP is a relatively stiff, viscoelastic pavement surfacing material with many of its strength and stiffness properties falling between those of typical asphalt concrete and portland cement concrete. The RMP's thermal and traffic-related properties indicated favorable field performance. The layered elastic design approach appeared to be a reasonable and practical method for RMP mechanistic pavement design, and this design procedure was recommended for future use and development.

Anderton, Gary Lee

1997-11-01

63

PAVEMENT EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SEASONAL AND TEMPERATURE ADJUSTMENT MODELS USING SEISMIC PAVEMENT ANALYZER (SPA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in material properties of pavement layers with temperature and seasonal climate variations significantly affect the pavement response. The AASHTO design guide requires that seasonal and temperature corrections be taken into consideration. Since the AASHTO adjustment models were developed based on data collected in Illinois, most of the states initiated studies that would take in consideration state specific conditions. New

Nenad Gucunski; Sameh Zaghloul; Rambod Hadidi; Ali Maher; Tony Chmiel

64

Characterization of highway traffic noise generated by rigid pavement contraction joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contraction joints in rigid (concrete) pavements are required to permit expansion of each monolithic section of roadway. At higher speeds, the major source of highway noise is attributed to vehicle tire\\/roadway interaction. Current concerns about limiting the impact of highway traffic noise has forced transportation agencies to consider strategies to control noise generated by tire\\/roadway interaction. Within this work the

Lawrin T. Ellis; Christopher Niezrecki; David Bloomquist

2003-01-01

65

Effects of selected pavement surface textures on tire noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern methods of surface texturing to enhance concrete pavement skid-resistance by increasing texture depth resulted in increased tire-pavement noise, as compared to older finishing practices. Measurements of noise associated with textured concrete pavements representing the range of current and past practice in New York State are reported. A high correlation was found between the depth of textures created by brooming

R. J. Mitrey; D. E. Amsler; D. E. Suuronen

1975-01-01

66

A Field Evaluation of the Use of FBC Flyash for Barnyard Pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pavement of muddy barnyards benefits livestock health by keeping animal feet and udders dryer and cleaner. In spring 1995, fluidized bed combustion (FBC) flyash was installed as a pavement material for barnyards on a farm approximately 40 miles north of Harrisburg, PA. The flyash was transported dry to the site in pneumatic tank trucks and hydrated to approximately 35% using

W. L. Stout; T. L. Nickeson; Paul Cunningham

67

Acoustic Aging of Asphalt Pavements: A Californian/Danish Comparison.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The level of noise generated by tire/pavement interaction of a pavement section changes over time. While the general consensus is that the noise level tends to increase as the pavement ages, more scientific investigation is necessary to better understand ...

E. Kohler H. Bendtsen Q. Lu

2010-01-01

68

Comparative Field Measurements of Tire Pavement Noise of Selected Texas Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of traffic noise are a serious concern in the United States and the world. One significant component of traffic noise is tire\\/pavement interaction. Protecting individual receivers by reducing pavement noise at the source rather than by using traffic noise barriers may result in substantial cost reductions and improved community acceptance of highway projects. This research conducted field testing

Michael T. McNerney; B. J. Landsberger; Tracy Turen; Albert Pandelides

1998-01-01

69

Long Term Monitoring of Moisture Under Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monitoring of the environmental instrumentation installed under select pavement sections constructed by the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) in 1995 on US 23 in Delaware County, Ohio was continued. The measurements made consisted of soil moisture,...

J. Howdyshell T. Butalia W. Wolfe

2010-01-01

70

Evaluating stepping displacements of pedestrian concrete pavements connected by EPDM rubber and PVC joiners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedestrian concrete pavements (sidewalks) are usually made of continuous slabs with simple control joints at a specified interval. Simple control joints such as breaking score lines or saw cuts are created on the pedestrian concrete pavements mainly to relieve stresses resulting from friction and also to avoid displacement\\/unplanned cracking. However, these joints have no load transfer mechanism and therefore the

Y. C. Koay; Y. M. Xie; S. Setunge

2008-01-01

71

Making "Magic" Sidewalks of Pervious Pavement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use everyday building materialsâsand, pea gravel, cement and waterâto create and test pervious pavement. They learn what materials make up a traditional, impervious concrete mix and how pervious pavement mixes differ. Groups are challenged to create their own pervious pavement mixes, experimenting with material ratios to evaluate how infiltration rates change with different mix combinations.

Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

72

Stormwater quality of spring-summer-fall effluent from three partial-infiltration permeable pavement systems and conventional asphalt pavement.  

PubMed

This study examined the spring, summer and fall water quality performance of three partial-infiltration permeable pavement (PP) systems and a conventional asphalt pavement in Ontario. The study, conducted between 2010 and 2012, compared the water quality of effluent from two Interlocking Permeable Concrete Pavements (AquaPave(®) and Eco-Optiloc(®)) and a Hydromedia(®) Pervious Concrete pavement with runoff from an Asphalt control pavement. The usage of permeable pavements can mitigate the impact of urbanization on receiving surface water systems through quantity control and stormwater treatment. The PP systems provided excellent stormwater treatment for petroleum hydrocarbons, total suspended solids, metals (copper, iron, manganese and zinc) and nutrients (total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus) by reducing event mean concentrations (EMC) as well as total pollutant loadings. The PPs significantly reduced the concentration and loading of ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3), nitrite (NO2(-)) and organic-nitrogen (Org-N) but increased the concentration and loading of nitrate (NO3(-)). The PP systems had mixed performances for the treatment of phosphate (PO4(3-)). The PP systems increased the concentration of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) but EMCs remained well below recommended levels for drinking water quality. Relative to the observed runoff, winter road salt was released more slowly from the PP systems resulting in elevated spring and early-summer Cl and Na concentrations in effluent. PP materials were found to introduce dissolved solids into the infiltrating stormwater. The release of these pollutants was verified by additional laboratory scale testing of the individual pavement and aggregate materials at the University of Guelph. Pollutant concentrations were greatest during the first few months after construction and declined rapidly over the course of the study. PMID:24681366

Drake, Jennifer; Bradford, Andrea; Van Seters, Tim

2014-06-15

73

Probabilistic and Adaptive Approach to Modeling Performance of Pavement Infrastructure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate prediction of pavement performance is critical to pavement management agencies. Reliable and accurate predictions of pavement infrastructure performance can save significant amounts of money for pavement infrastructure management agencies through...

Z. Li Z. Zhang

2007-01-01

74

State-of-the-Art Review of Cold in-Place Recycling of Asphalt Pavements in tne Northern Plains Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR) is defined as a rehabilitation technique in which the existing pavement materials are reused in-place without the application of heat. The reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) material is obtained by milling, planning, or crushin...

N. Suleiman

2002-01-01

75

Evaluation of multilayered pavement structures from measurements of surface waves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method is presented for evaluating the thickness and stiffness of multilayered pavement structures from guided waves measured at the surface. Data is collected with a light hammer as the source and an accelerometer as receiver, generating a synthetic receiver array. The top layer properties are evaluated with a Lamb wave analysis. Multiple layers are evaluated by matching a theoretical phase velocity spectrum to the measured spectrum. So far the method has been applied to the testing of pavements, but it may also be applicable in other fields such as ultrasonic testing of coated materials. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

Ryden, N.; Lowe, M. J. S.; Cawley, P.; Park, C. B.

2006-01-01

76

Climatic-Materials-Structural Pavement Analysis Program. User's Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is the User's Manual for the Climatic-Materials-Structural Pavement Analysis Program (CMS program) which is described in detail in the report entitled 'Volume 3. Environmental Effects on Pavements - Theory Manual, FHWA/RD-84-115.' The CMS ...

W. A. Herlache A. J. Patel B. J. Dempsey

1985-01-01

77

Laser Measurement of Pavement Surface Textures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory investigation was conducted into the feasibility of employing laser light depolarization as a measure of pavement surface textures. Pavement cores representing different conditions of wear were employed in the investigation, as were newly for...

S. Gee W. L. King

1974-01-01

78

Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Calibration for Pavement Rehabilitation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) is in the process of implementing the recently introduced AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) for new pavement sections. The majority of pavement work conducted by ODOT involves rehabil...

R. Shaidur R. C. Williams

2013-01-01

79

Analysis of Two-Layered Pavement Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents in detail the method of analysis used to interpret plate bearing test data using the Burmister layered pavement theory. The method is applicable to the analysis of any two-layered pavement system. (Author)

J. Nielsen

1964-01-01

80

Design, Evaluation, and Performance of Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 12 papers in this report deal with the following areas: The resilient modulus of subgrade reaction; finite-element model with stress-dependent support; structural model for concrete block pavement; effect of concrete shoulders on concrete pavement per...

J. A. Fischer M. R. Thompson A. M. Ioannides E. J. Barenberg A. A. A. Molenaar

1984-01-01

81

Investigation of Development of Pavement Roughness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program was designed as a 20-year study of pavement performance. The LTPP program consists of two programs: (1) General Pavement Studies (GPS) that use in-service test sections in either their original design phas...

C. Byrum R. W. Perera S. D. Kohn

1998-01-01

82

State of Nebraska Pavement Management Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pavement Management System described in the following pages basically fulfills the requirements outlined in the Federal register, Vol. 58, No. 229, Paragraph 500.207. This was accomplished with the 2004 completion of the Pavement Optimization Program ...

2005-01-01

83

Variability in Highway Pavement Construction. A Synthesis of Highway Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis will be of interest to state department of transportation (DOT) construction, materials, statistical, specification, and inspection engineers; DOT research staff; pavement construction material suppliers; highway construction contractors; a...

C. S. Hughes

1996-01-01

84

Road Asphalt Pavements Analyzed by Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing: Preliminary Results of the Venice Highway  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a fast procedure for evaluating asphalt pavement surface defects using airborne emissivity data. To develop this procedure, we used airborne multispectral emissivity data covering an urban test area close to Venice (Italy).For this study, we first identify and select the roads' asphalt pavements on Multispectral Infrared Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS) imagery using a segmentation procedure. Next, since in asphalt pavements the surface defects are strictly related to the decrease of oily components that cause an increase of the abundance of surfacing limestone, the diagnostic absorption emissivity peak at 11.2?m of the limestone was used for retrieving from MIVIS emissivity data the areas exhibiting defects on asphalt pavements surface.The results showed that MIVIS emissivity allows establishing a threshold that points out those asphalt road sites on which a check for a maintenance intervention is required. Therefore, this technique can supply local government authorities an efficient, rapid and repeatable road mapping procedure providing the location of the asphalt pavements to be checked.

Pascucci, Simone; Bassani, Cristiana; Palombo, Angelo; Poscolieri, Maurizio; Cavalli, Rosa

2008-01-01

85

78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration [FHWA Docket No. FHWA-2013-0014...Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION:...

2013-05-08

86

STUDY ON FLOOD CONTROL PROPERTIES OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENT USING SATURATED-UNSATURATED SEEPAGE ANALYSIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rainfall storage and infiltration facility of permeable pavement have been attracted attention as a control measure of flood and an environmental improvement measure in urban areas. However, rainfall infiltration of permeable pavement is unsteady flow and strongly dependent on the behavior of unsaturated zones in the pavement. Moreover, the wet condition of subbase course also has a great influence on the rainfall infiltration of the pavement. That's why previous studies have not made clear the precise the facility of permeable pavement as a flood control. In this paper, experimental studies and simulated analyses were performed to measure the overflow from the pavement under various conditions of rainfall intensities and estimate the rainfall infiltration of the pavement using the measurement data and unsaturated infiltration characteristics of porous asphalt materials. It is clear that this study shows the methods to have a quantitative estimation of the rainfall storage and infiltration facility of permeable pavement.

Yano, Takao; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Nakashima, Shinichiro; Moriishi, Kazushi; Wada, Minoru

87

Pavement Management 2009, Volume 1. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2093.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report includes 15 papers that explore the quality of automated pavement distress data collection, pavement maintenance prioritization, long-term pavement performance profile data for flexible pavements, user-oriented model for pavement funding decis...

2009-01-01

88

Effect of induced deformation on NDT pavement evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three nondestructive testing techniques were used in this study to evaluate pavement layer properties. These techniques included deflection and seismic methods. In the deflection methods, measurable surface deformations were induced using falling weight deflectometer and Dynaflect tests. These two tests utilized different schemes of dynamic loading applications to produce deflection basins from which the pavement layer properties were back calculated. Pavement properties from seismic methods were obtained from the analysis of surface waves due to transient load applications. In this study the seismic pavement analyzer (SPA) was used to determine pavement moduli values. Although the same assumptions for linear elastic behavior of pavement properties are usually assumed in all the three methods, obtained moduli values from these techniques did not conform to each other. Commonly, pavement deflection from SPA is not considered when analyzing layer properties. To narrow the gap between the obtained results, however, time-history records and frequency response functions were used to determine surface deflections from the three methods. Deflection measurements correlated with the obtained moduli values. Using these correlations, moduli values at any pavement deflection levels could be evaluated, especially at levels produced by traffic loads.

Tawfiq, Kamal S.; Sobanjo, John O.; Ruiz, R.

1999-02-01

89

Recycling of water-susceptible pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several bituminous concrete interstate pavements that experienced failures suspected to have been caused by stripping were investigated. On two projects, the degree of deterioration, potential serviceability, and possible remedial measures were studied. Cores were taken to determine the degreee of stripping and tensile strength, and dynaflect tests were performed. An emulsion mix design was developed for stripped bituminous concrete removed from another project with the expectation that it could be used as a surface mix on a highway with a low traffic volume. While this expectation was not realized, it was concluded that the material is suitable for use in a base mix. A maintenance resurfacing on a fourth project that experienced stripping failure is being monitored and the performance is being evaluated.

Maupin, G. W.

1980-05-01

90

Desert Pavement Process and Form: Modes and Scales of Landscape Stability and Instability in Arid Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desert pavements are recognized in arid landscapes around the world, developing via diminution of constructional/depositional landform relief and creating a 1-2 stone thick armor over a "stone free" layer. Surface exposure dating demonstrates that clasts forming the desert pavements are maintained at the land surface over hundreds of thousands of years, as aeolian fines are deposited on the land surface, transported into the underlying parent material and incorporated into accretionary soil horizons (e.g., the stone free or vesicular [Av] horizon). This surface armor provides long-term stability over extensive regions of the landscape. Over shorter time periods and at the landform-element scale, dynamic surficial processes (i.e., weathering, runoff) continue to modify the pavement form. Clast size reduction in comparison to underlying parent material, along with armoring and packing of clasts in pavements contribute to their persistence, and studies of crack orientations in pavement clasts indicate physical weathering and diminution of particle size are driven by diurnal solar insolation. Over geologic time, cracks form and propagate from tensile stresses related to temporal and spatial gradients in temperature that evolve and rotate in alignment with the sun's rays. Observed multimodal nature of crack orientations appear related to seasonally varying, latitude-dependent temperature fields resulting from solar angle and weather conditions. Surface properties and their underlying soil profiles vary across pavement surfaces, forming a landscape mosaic and controlling surface hydrology, ecosystem function and the ultimate life-cycle of arid landscapes. In areas of well-developed pavements, surface infiltration and soluble salt concentrations indicate that saturated hydraulic conductivity of Av horizons decline on progressively older alluvial fan surfaces. Field observations and measurements from well-developed desert pavement surfaces landforms also yield significantly lower infiltration rates, enhanced rates of overland flow characterized by high water:sediment ratios and reduced production of desert ecosystems. Consequently, regionally extensive pavement and significantly decreased infiltration over geologic time have resulted in widespread overland flow, elaborate drainage networks on alluvial and eolian-mantled bedrock landscapes, and channel incision and regional dissection of the pavement-mantled landforms. However, these once stable landscapes become progressively unstable with time, serving as sediment source areas for younger alluvial deposits (i.e., geologic life-cycle). Thus, regional dissection (instability) of these desert landscapes can be influenced by the intrinsic properties of pavement-mantled landscapes and not necessarily to external forces of climate change and tectonics.

Wells, Stephen G.; McFadden, Leslie D.; McDonald, Eric V.; Eppes, Martha C.; Young, Michael H.; Wood, Yvonne A.

2014-05-01

91

Striated boulder pavements within glaciomarine diamicts of the Yakataga Formation, Middleton Island, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of striated boulder pavements in glacial sequences is often cited as evidence of transport and deposition by grounded glacier ice. However, recent reports show that striated pavements also form in non-glacial environments by the abrasion of boulder lag surfaces by floating glacier and seasonal ice. Several striated boulder pavements are identified within Early Pleistocene upper Yakataga Formation sediments

Eyles

1985-01-01

92

On research of evaluation index system based on “white plus black” old cement concrete pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to “Black Plus White” pavement bearing trength, it chooses old pavement evaluation index on the basis of “Black Plus White”, builds a blur arrangement synthetic evaluation model and methods to evaluate the old pavement synthetically. By virtue of application of actual projects, the evaluation system is convenient and flexible and it offers quick and efficient standards for the old

Yu-hong Jiang; Shou-liang Jiang; Wei Zhu

2010-01-01

93

Types of Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from Edmonds Community College provides a brief introduction to a number of core materials including ceramics, composites, concrete, electronic/optical, metals, polymers/plastics and wood.

2011-09-08

94

QUANTIFICATION OF THE IMPACT OF SUBGRADE SWELLING IN PAVEMENT DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of the impact of environmental factors on pavement serviceability is important for a pavement design. In this regard, AASHTO Pavement Design Guidelines (1986) provide a rational method of incorporating the effects of roadbed swelling and frost action. According to the AASHTO (1986) procedure, the present serviceability index (PSI) loss of a pavement segment due to environmental factors is

1996-01-01

95

Cathodoluminescence microscopy and petrographic image analysis of aggregates in concrete pavements affected by alkali-silica reaction  

SciTech Connect

Various microscopic techniques (cathodoluminescence, polarizing and electron microscopy) were combined with image analysis with the aim to determine a) the modal composition and degradation features within concrete, and b) the petrographic characteristics and the geological types (rocks, and their provenance) of the aggregates. Concrete samples were taken from five different portions of Highway Nos. D1, D11, and D5 (the Czech Republic). Coarse and fine aggregates were found to be primarily composed of volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, as well as of quartz and feldspar aggregates of variable origins. The alkali-silica reaction was observed to be the main degradation mechanism, based upon the presence of microcracks and alkali-silica gels in the concrete. Use of cathodoluminescence enabled the identification of the source materials of the quartz aggregates, based upon their CL characteristics (i.e., color, intensity, microfractures, deformation, and zoning), which is difficult to distinguish only employing polarizing and electron microscopy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASR in concrete pavements on the Highways Nos. D1, D5 and D11 (Czech Republic). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cathodoluminescence was combined with various microscopic techniques and image analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASR was attributed to aggregates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Source materials of aggregates were identified based on cathodoluminescence characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quartz comes from different volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic parent rocks.

Stastna, A., E-mail: astastna@gmail.com [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Sachlova, S.; Pertold, Z.; Prikryl, R. [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Leichmann, J. [Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 267/2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

2012-03-15

96

Layer Coefficients for NHDOT Pavement Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1992, the New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) experimented with the use of reclaimed asphalt concrete as a base course material, identified by NHDOT as reclaimed stabilized base (RSB). The RSB and a control test section were placed on In...

V. C. Janoo

1994-01-01

97

Porous pavement. Phase 1: Design and operational criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization concepts, benefits and disadvantages, as well as other characteristics of porous pavements are presented with emphasis on porous asphalt pavements, but the criteria and design approach are applicable to all other porous pavement types. Design considerations include siting problems, load bearing design and hydrologic design. The history of porous pavement development and previous experience with porous pavement by several designers, contractors and operators are described. A computer model for hydrologic performance evaluation of existing or proposed porous pavement systems is also examined. Load bearing design criteria are based on previous work conducted for porous asphalt pavements. Appendices include a sample set of specifications for porous asphalt construction and a list of soils and their permeability classes as prepared by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service.

Diniz, E. V.

1980-08-01

98

Investigation of mechanical properties of pavement through electromagnetic techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is considered as one of the most flexible geophysical tools that can be effectively and efficiently used in many different applications. In the field of pavement engineering, GPR can cover a wide range of uses, spanning from physical to geometrical inspections of pavements. Traditionally, such inferred information are integrated with mechanical measurements from other traditional (e.g. plate bearing test) or non-destructive (e.g. falling weight deflectometer) techniques, thereby resulting, respectively, in time-consuming and low-significant measurements, or in a high use of technological resources. In this regard, the new challenge of retrieving mechanical properties of road pavements and materials from electromagnetic measurements could represent a further step towards a greater saving of economic resources. As far as concerns unpaved and bound layers it is well-known that strength and deformation properties are mostly affected, respectively, by inter-particle friction and cohesion of soil particles and aggregates, and by bitumen adhesion, whose variability is expressed by the Young modulus of elasticity. In that respect, by assuming a relationship between electromagnetic response (e.g. signal amplitudes) and bulk density of materials, a reasonable correlation between mechanical and electric properties of substructure is therefore expected. In such framework, a pulse GPR system with ground-coupled antennae, 600 MHz and 1600 MHz centre frequencies was used over a 4-m×30-m test site composed by a flexible pavement structure. The horizontal sampling resolution amounted to 2.4×10-2 m. A square regular grid mesh of 836 nodes with a 0.40-m spacing between the GPR acquisition tracks was surveyed. Accordingly, a light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD) was used for measuring the elastic modulus of pavement at each node. The setup of such instrument consisted of a 10-kg falling mass and a 100-mm loading plate so that the influence domain of the elasticity measure could be comparable to that of the radar signal. Good agreement were found between high Young modulus values and repaved zones, whereas damaged areas were characterized by lower values of E. Tomographic maps of amplitudes along the z axis were extracted up to a depth of z

Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio; D'Amico, Fabrizio

2014-05-01

99

A study of sound absorption by street canyon boundaries and asphalt rubber concrete pavement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sound field model, based on a classical diffusion equation, is extended to account for sound absorption in a diffusion parameter used to model sound energy in a narrow street canyon. The model accounts for a single sound absorption coefficient, separate accommodation coefficients and a combination of separate absorption and accommodation coefficients from parallel canyon walls. The new expressions are compared to the original formula through numerical simulations to reveal the effect of absorption on sound diffusion. The newly established analytical formulae demonstrate satisfactory agreement with their predecessor under perfect reflection. As well, the influence of the extended diffusion parameter on normalized sound pressure levels in a narrow street canyon is in agreement with experimental data. The diffusion parameters are used to model sound energy density in a street canyon as a function of the sound absorption coefficient of the street canyon walls. The acoustic and material properties of conventional and asphalt rubber concrete (ARC) pavement are also studied to assess how the crumb rubber content influences sound absorption in street canyons. The porosity and absolute permeability of compacted specimens of asphalt rubber concrete are measured and compared to their normal and random incidence sound absorption coefficients as a function of crumb rubber content in the modified binder. Nonlinear trends are found between the sound absorption coefficients, porosity and absolute permeability of the compacted specimens and the percentage of crumb rubber in the modified binders. The cross-sectional areas of the air voids on the surfaces of the compacted specimens are measured using digital image processing techniques and a linear relationship is obtained between the average void area and crumb rubber content. The measured material properties are used to construct an empirical formula relating the average porosity, normal incidence noise reduction coefficients and percentage of crumb rubber in the modified binder of the compacted specimens.

Drysdale, Graeme Robert

100

Reducing traffic noise with quieter pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, interest has increased in the use of pavement type to reduce traffic noise. This has been driven by public concern over noise from freeways and state transportation agencies' interest in using pavement instead of sound walls to mitigate traffic noise. Beginnings of the recent interest go back to 1998 with the formation of the Institute for Safe,

Paul Donavan

2005-01-01

101

Laboratory Evaluation of Selected Syncrude Products and Upgraded By-Products as Pavement Recycling Agents. Final Report, Part II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on the information presented in this report, the following conclusions appear warranted: (1) Selected syncrude products and upgraded by-products have the potential for use as recycling agents for asphalt pavements. The syncrude recycling agents exhi...

J. W. Button

1984-01-01

102

Influence of pavement condition on horizontal curve safety.  

PubMed

Crash statistics suggest that horizontal curves are the most vulnerable sites for crash occurrence. These crashes are often severe and many involve at least some level of injury due to the nature of the collisions. Ensuring the desired pavement surface condition is one potentially effective strategy to reduce the occurrence of severe accidents on horizontal curves. This study sought to develop crash injury severity models by integrating crash and pavement surface condition databases. It focuses on developing a causal relationship between pavement condition indices and severity level of crashes occurring on two-lane horizontal curves in Texas. In addition, it examines the suitability of the existing Skid Index for safety maintenance of two-lane curves. Significant correlation is evident between pavement condition and crash injury severity on two-lane undivided horizontal curves in Texas. Probability of a crash becoming fatal is appreciably sensitive to certain pavement indices. Data suggested that road facilities providing a smoother and more comfortable ride are vulnerable to severe crashes on horizontal curves. In addition, the study found that longitudinal skid measurement barely correlates with injury severity of crashes occurring on curved portions. The study recommends exploring the option of incorporating lateral friction measurement into Pavement Management System (PMS) databases specifically at curved road segments. PMID:23298704

Buddhavarapu, Prasad; Banerjee, Ambarish; Prozzi, Jorge A

2013-03-01

103

Evaluation of Concrete Pavement Patching Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a study undertaken to improve in concrete pavement patching techniques. Activities included an evaluation of the suitability of the impact hammer and maturity calculations for determining when a patch is ready toreceive ...

M. M. Sprinkel K. K. McGhee

1989-01-01

104

Evaluation of Bituminous Pavement with Polypropylene Fiber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a hot mix asphalt overlay modified with polypropylene fiber. In 1986, a continuously reinforced concrete pavement on Interstate 69 in Meridian, MS, was overlaid with hot mix asphalt binder and surfac...

M. Seshadri

1996-01-01

105

Pilot Implementation of Concrete Pavement Thickness GPR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research Project 5-4414 'Pilot Implementation of Concrete Pavement Thickness GPR (CPT-GPR)' has been successfully completed. In this project, two CPT-GPR systems were manufactured, including GPR electronics, thickness and dielectric constant calculation a...

R. Liu J. Li X. Chen H. Xing

2004-01-01

106

Pavement Recycling Guidelines for State and Local Governments. Participant's Reference Book.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recycling or reuse of existing asphalt pavement materials to produce new pavement materials has the following advantages: (1) reduced costs of construction, (2) conservation of aggregate and binder, (3) preservation of the existing pavement geometrics, (4...

P. S. Kandhal R. B. Mallick

1997-01-01

107

Pavement performance equations. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WSDOT PMS data base was used to develop regression equations for three pavement surface types: bituminous surface treatments, asphalt concrete, and portland-cement concrete. The primary regression equations developed were to predict Pavement Condition Rating (PCR) which is a measure of the pavement surface distress (ranges from 100 (no distress) to below 0 (extensive distress)). Overall, the equations fit the

J. P. Mahoney; R. K. Kay; N. C. Jackson

1988-01-01

108

Pavement Monitoring and Evaluation Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Use of Seismic Pavement Analyzer in Pavement Evaluation; Nature and Detection of Void-Induced Pavement Failures; Evaluation of New Ground-Penetrating Radar Technology to Quantify Pavement Structures; Algorithms for Pavement Distress Classificati...

1995-01-01

109

Pavements Recycling Guidelines for State and Local Governments (on CD-ROM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This participant's reference book was developed to support a 2-day workshop on pavement recycling guidelines for state and local governments. Recycling or reuse of existing asphalt pavement materials to produce new pavement materials has the following adv...

1998-01-01

110

Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland

M. Ting; J. G. Koomey; M. Pomerantz

2001-01-01

111

The Compaction of Bituminous Base and Base-Course Materials and Its Relation to Pavement Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An appraisal of the state of compaction of dense coated macadam bases and base-courses being achieved in current British construction practice reveals a considerable range of compaction levels and that the initial variation of density across the laid widt...

N. W. Lister W. D. Powell

1977-01-01

112

Pavement Thickness Surface Evenness and Construction Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structural performance and the riding quality of a road are strongly influenced by the accurate and uniform laying of the pavement materials to the appropriate design thickness. The report describes an investigation into the effectiveness of level-con...

J. C . McLellan

1982-01-01

113

A new type of low power thermoelectric micro-generator fabricated by nanowire array thermoelectric material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of thermoelectric micro-generator, which is composed of n-type and p-type Bi2Te3 nanowire array thermoelectric materials, is designed to be energy source for miniaturized solid-state devices such as MEMS, micro-electrical system and even “system on a chip”. The nanowire arrays are fabricated by electrochemical deposition of Bi2Te3 into the nano-pores of alumina template. The measurements showed that the

Wei Wang; Falong Jia; Qinghua Huang; Jianzhong Zhang

2005-01-01

114

Characterization of cementitiously stabilized subgrades for mechanistic-empirical pavement design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pavements are vulnerable to subgrade layer performance because it acts as a foundation. Due to increase in the truck traffic, pavement engineers are challenged to build more strong and long-lasting pavements. To increase the load-bearing capacity of pavements, subgrade layer is often stabilized with cementitious additives. Thus, an overall characterization of stabilized subgrade layer is important for enhanced short- and long-term pavement performance. In this study, the effect of type and amount of additive on the short-term performance in terms of material properties recommended by the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) is examined. A total of four soils commonly encountered as subgrades in Oklahoma are utilized. Results show that the changes in the Mr, ME and UCS values stabilized specimens depend on the soil type and properties of additives. The long-term performance (or durability) of stabilized soil specimens is investigated by conducting freeze-thaw (F-T) cycling, vacuum saturation and tube suction tests on 7-day cured P-, K- and C-soil specimens stabilized with 6% lime, 10% CFA and 10% CKD. This study is motivated by the fact that during the service life of pavement stabilized layers are subjected to F-T cycles and moisture variations. It is found that that UCS value of all the stabilized specimens decreased with increase in the number of F-T cycles. A strong correlation was observed between UCS values retained after vacuum saturation and F-T cycles indicating that vacuum saturation could be used as a time-efficient and inexpensive method for evaluating durability of stabilized soils. In this study, short- and long-term observations from stabilization of sulfate bearing soil with locally available low (CFA), moderate (CKD) and high (lime) calcium-based stabilizers are determined to evaluate and compare the effect of additive type on the phenomenon of sulfate-induced heave. The impact of different factors on the development of the ettringite, responsible for sulfate-induced heaving, is also discussed. For Level 2 design of pavements, a total of four stress-based statistical models and two feed-forward-type artificial neural network (ANN) models, are evaluated for predicting resilient modulus of 28-day cured stabilized specimens. Specifically, one semi-log stress-based, three log-log stress-based, one Multi-Layer Perceptrons Network (MLPN), and one Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) are developed. Overall, semi-log stress-based and MLPN neural network are found to show best acceptable performance for the present evaluation and validation datasets. Further, correlations are presented for stress-based models to correlate Mr with compacted specimen characteristics and soil/additive properties. Additionally, the effect of type of additive on indirect tensile and fatigue characteristics of selected stabilized P- and V-soil is evaluated. This study is based on the fact that stabilized layer is subjected to tensile stresses under wheel loading. Thus, the resilient modulus in tension (M rt), fatigue life and strength in tension (sigmat) or flexure (represented by modulus of rupture, MOR) becomes another important design parameter within the mechanistic framework. Cylindrical specimens are prepared, cured for 28 days and subjected to different stress sequences in indirect tension to study the Mrt. On the other hand, stabilized beam specimens are compacted using a Linear Kneading Compactor and subjected to repeated cycles of reloading-unloading after 28 days of curing in a four-point beam fatigue apparatus for evaluating fatigue life and flexural stiffness. It is found that all three additives improved the Mrt, sigmat and MOR values; however, degree of improvement varied with the type of additive and soil. This study encompasses the differences in the design of semi-rigid pavements developed using AASHTO 1993 and AASHTO 2002 MEPDG methodologies. Further, the design curves for fatigue performance prediction of stabilized layers are developed for different stabilized pavement sections. Knowledge gained f

Solanki, Pranshoo

115

Proceedings of the National Seminar on Asphalt Pavement Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 19 papers in this report deal with the following areas: economics of recycling; seminar on asphalt pavement recycling overview of project selection; cost and energy considerations in project selection for recycling asphalt pavements; specifications re...

S. P. LaHue F. N. Finn W. J. Halstead R. C. Ingberg D. R. Gallagher

1980-01-01

116

Guide for Curing of Portland Cement Concrete Pavements, Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides guidance on details of concrete curing practice as they pertain to construction of portland cement concrete pavements. The guide is organized around the major events in curing pavements: curing immediately after placement (initial c...

2005-01-01

117

A strategic laboratory approach for the performance investigation of geogrids in flexible pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the increasing request in terms of road transport makes maintenance and rehabilitation of road infrastructures key tasks for road engineering. In recent years, numerous products\\/materials have been introduced on the market and can be used in combination or singly in order to extend pavement life and guarantee high performance. Among them, geosynthetics can play different roles in pavement structures,

G. Ferrotti; F. Canestrari; A. Virgili; A. Grilli

2011-01-01

118

Geotechnical Aspects of Pavements: Reference Manual/Participant Workbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Reference Manual and Participants Workbook for the FHWA NHI's Course No. 132040--Geotechnical Aspects of Pavements. The manual covers the latest methods and procedures to address the geotechnical issues in pavement design, construction and per...

B. R. Christopher C. Schwartz R. Boudreau

2006-01-01

119

Use of coal ash in highway pavements: Kansas Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the use of cementitious type C coal ash in three Kansas roadbase stabilization projects that included an extensive laboratory study, as well as subsequent monitoring of the roads for structural stability and evaluation of leaching potential into the underlying soils. The projects were intended to demonstrate that the process proposed could recycle existing roadway materials in place. The study showed that conventional recycling equipment can achieve satisfactory pulverization, mixing, and compaction. Further, after more than two years of service, the stabilized sections have exhibited no signs of deterioration due to traffic, weather, or frost. The only problems observed to data release to adhesion of the wearing surface to the fly-ash-stabilized base sections. Proper selection of tack-coat materials should minimize this problem. The results of the laboratory study correlated well with the observed pavement performance.

Ferguson, G.; Zey, J.

1992-01-01

120

Design of green engineered cementitious composites for pavement overlay applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction, repair and rehabilitation of concrete pavements relies on the production and flow of large quantities of concrete and its constituents. Within the US, nearly 43 megatons of cement are used annually for the construction, repair and rehabilitation of concrete pavements, accounting for over 39 megatons of CO2 emissions. To reduce environmental impact and improve the sustainability of pavement

M. D. Lepech; G. A. Keoleian; S. Qian; V. C. Li

121

Application of Grey Model to Predict Acoustical Properties and Tire\\/Road Noise on Asphalt Pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect factors of acoustical properties and tire\\/road noise, such as cruising speed, vehicle categories, pavement surface type and pavement condition are uncertain. Many of the exiting prediction models for acoustical properties and traffic noise have still application limitations and accuracy problems. Therefore, acoustical properties and tire\\/road noise measured on laboratory and field test is conducted in this study. The

Der-Hsien Shen; Chia-Ming Wu; Jia-Chong Du

2006-01-01

122

Evaluation of a new construction pavement section using the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Design Guide (MEPDG) is one of several "next generation" pavement design approaches intended to address limitations of older empirical methods. This research investigated the capabilities and performance of the MEPDG through analyses of an empirically-designed section of NH Route 16, which the New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) indicated may be under-designed. MEPDG distress predictions indicate that the pavement section should achieve a service life of at least 10 years. This was supported by the fatigue analysis of the base course, which also indicated that the pavement may have been damaged by traffic loads prior to the completion of the surface course. During this research, a number of limitations and model behaviors of the MEPDG were observed, some with significant importance to this analysis and to future projects within New Hampshire. Because implementation and full realization of the MEPDG requires significant investment, the results of this research should be considered before undertaking steps towards adoption of the software.

Lowe, Justin

123

Design of overlays based on pavement condition, roughness, and deflections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and use of a pavement maintenance rating system and the development of two procedures for designing the thickness of overlays are summarized. It is demonstrated that objective rating systems can be used to prioritize pavements scheduled for resurfacing and that the procedures for overlay design based on the existing pavement structure and on traffic loadings are practical.

McGhee, K. H.

1982-01-01

124

Evaluation of Non-Metallic Fiber Reinforced Concrete in PCC Pavements and Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This interim report presents the construction and performance evaluation of four structures, namely a full-depth pavement, a thin bridge-deck overlay, a jersey barrier, and white topping on scarified asphalt pavement, constructed with a new type non-metal...

S. Kakodkar V. Ramakrishnan

1995-01-01

125

Physically Meaningful Harmonization of Tire\\/Pavement Friction Measurement Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate characterization and evaluation of tire\\/pavement friction is critical in assuring runway and highway safety. Historically, Pavement Friction Measurement Devices (PFMDs) employing different measuring mechanisms have been used to evaluate tire\\/pavement friction. They yield significantly disparate friction coefficients under the same contact conditions. Currently, an empirically developed data harmonization method based on a reference device (Dynamic Friction Tester (DFT)) is

Madhura Priyanga Nishshanke Rajapakshe

2011-01-01

126

The Concrete and Pavement Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as…

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

127

Locating the Drainage Layer for Bituminous Pavements in Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pavement subsurface drainage and its effect on pavement performance has been a subject of interest since the 18th and 19th centuries. With no doubt the detrimental effects of heavy wheel loads on pavements with saturated base material is a significant factor. The consequence of subsurface water on pavement performance includes premature rutting, cracking, faulting, and increased roughness, all of which

Hossam Farouk. Hassan; Thomas D. White

1996-01-01

128

Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

129

Air Purification Pavement Surface Coating by Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study develops an atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) reactor to produce activated radicals from precursor molecules, and to immobilize nano titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder to substrate pavement materials. TiO2 has photocatalytic properties and under UV light can be used to oxidize and remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the atmosphere. Although TiO2 treated paving materials have great potential to improve air quality, current techniques to adhere TiO2 to substrate materials are either not durable or reduce direct contact of TiO2 with UV light, reducing the photocatalytic effect. To solve this technical difficulty, this study introduces APCP techniques to transportation engineering to coat TiO2 to pavement. Preliminary results are promising and show that TiO2 can be incorporated successfully into an APCP environment and can be immobilized at the surface of the asphalt substrate. The TiO2 coated material with APCP shows the ability to reduce nitrogen oxides when exposed to UV light in an environmental chamber. The plasma reactor utilizes high voltage streamers as the plasma source.

Westergreen, Joe; Pedrow, Patrick; Shen, Shihui; Jobson, Bertram

2011-11-01

130

Studies of the effect of aging of ``quiet'' pavements on tire/pavement noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the issues with using quieter pavements to abate traffic noise is their continued acoustic performance over the life cycle of the surface. Aging effects can be assessed in two manners: (1) long term monitoring of the noise performance of an individual section of roadway; (2) measurement of multiple sections of pavement of the same construction, but different ages. Long term monitoring of Interstate 80 near Davis (I-80 Davis) began in 1998, just prior to the placement of a dense graded leveling course and open graded asphalt overlay. The pavement surface is now approaching 7 years old and continues to show a traffic noise reduction of about 5 dBA over the existing condition. As support of the Arizona Quiet Pavement Program (QPPP), similarly constructed sections of asphalt rubber friction course (ARFC) on Arizona's interstate highways were measured for tire/pavement performance using the close proximity (CPX) method and the on-board sound intensity method. The construction dates for the pavements ranged from 1988 to 1999. The total range in noise level was 7 dB with some indication of degrading performance with age.

Reyff, James A.; Donavan, Paul

2005-09-01

131

Impact of Truck Loading on Design and Analysis of Asphaltic Pavement Structures - Phase III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigated the impact of the realistic constitutive material behavior of asphalt layer (both nonlinear inelastic and fracture) for the prediction of pavement performance. To this end, this study utilized a cohesive zone model to consider the ...

H. Ban Y. R. Kim

2012-01-01

132

A Laboratory Study on Reduction of the Heat Island Effect of Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat islands are formed as a result of construction that replaces vegetation with absorptive surfaces. Air temperature rises as a result of formation of heat islands. One suggested method to reduce the emitted heat from asphalt pavement surfaces is to reduce the temperature of the surface by flowing a suitable fluid through the pavement. The heated fluid could then be

Bao-Liang Chen; Sankha Bhowmick; Rajib B. Mallick

133

Pilot Implementation of New Test Procedures for Curing in Concrete Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Curing of concrete has substantial effects on the performance of Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement. Curing effectiveness depends on the quality of the curing materials, time of curing compound application in relation to evaporation, and the amount a...

C. Suh J. H. Yeon M. Won

2009-01-01

134

Evaluation of western and eastern shale oil residua as asphalt pavement recycling agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this investigation was to perform a preliminary evaluation of the utility of residual materials prepared from Green River Formation (western) and New Albany Shale (eastern) shale oils as recycling agents for aged asphalt pavement. Four pe...

P. M. Harnsberger R. E. Robertson

1990-01-01

135

Application of a New Decision Method in Expressway Pavement Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed the decision-making model of maintenance for cement concrete pavement, by analyzing the formation and evolution characteristics of cement concrete pavement diseases and considering the actual maintenance of Hunan Province, under the thought of preventive maintenance, According to the requirement of preventive maintenance, during the schedule making, we should firstly choose the preventive maintenance measures, such as replace

Jiang-hong Zeng; Jia Xu

2009-01-01

136

Reliability of signal processing technique for pavement damages detection and classification using ground penetrating radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) signal processing is a nondestructive technique, currently performed by many agencies involved in road management and particularly promising for soil characteristics interpretation. The focus of this paper is to assess the reliability of an optimal signal processing algorithm for pavement inspection. Preliminary detection and subsequent classification of pavement damages, based on an automatic GPR analysis, have

Andrea Benedetto; Francesco Benedetto; Maria Rosaria De Blasiis; Gaetano Giunta

2005-01-01

137

Pavement distress detection and severity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic recognition of road distresses has been an important research area since it reduces economic loses before cracks and potholes become too severe. Existing systems for automated pavement defect detection commonly require special devices such as lights, lasers, etc, which dramatically increase the cost and limit the system to certain applications. Therefore, in this paper, a low cost automatic pavement distress evaluation approach is proposed. This method can provide real-time pavement distress detection as well as evaluation results based on the color images captured from a camera installed on a survey vehicle. The entire process consists of two main parts: pavement surface extraction followed by pavement distress detection and classification. In the first part, a novel color segmentation method based on a feed forward neural network is applied to separate the road surface from the background. In the second part, a thresholding technique based on probabilistic relaxation is utilized to separate distresses from the road surface. Then, by inputting the geometrical parameters obtained from the detected distresses into a neural network based pavement distress classifier, the defects can be classified into different types. Simulation results are given to show that the proposed method is both effective and reliable on a variety of pavement images.

Salari, E.; Bao, G.

2011-02-01

138

The Quality of Infiltrated Water Through Porous and Conventional Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three case studies are presented herein. The first study was conducted to compare pollutant loadings of runoff waters either collected at the outlet of a porous pavement with reservoir structure or coming from a catchment drained by a conventional pavement drainage system. Pollutant loads measured at the reservoir structure appeared notably lower than those measured at the reference catchment. Secondly,

M. Legret; V. Colandini; C. Pagotto; A. Jullien

2007-01-01

139

Predicting physical clogging of porous and permeable pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryPorous pavements are easily retrofitted, and effective in improving water quality and hydrology, but prone to clogging. Despite being a major determinant in the lifespan of porous pavements, there is limited information on the physical clogging processes through these systems. The aim of this study was to understand the main physical processes that govern physical clogging and develop a simple black-box model that predicts physical clogging. The key variables that were hypothesised to influence clogging were pavement design and climate characteristics. Two compressed time scale laboratory experiments were conducted over 3 years on three common porous pavement types; monolithic porous asphalt, modular Hydrapave and monolithic Permapave. Pavement design was found to be an important role in clogging. Permapave did not clog even after 26 years of operation in simulated sub-tropical Brisbane (Australia) climate while porous asphalt and Hydrapave clogged after just 12 years, from surface clogging and geotextile clogging, respectively. Each system was tested using two different dosing patterns: (1) continual wetting with no dry periods and (2) variable inflow rates with drying periods (i.e. representing more natural conditions). The latter dosing method approximately doubled the lifespan of all systems suggesting the influence of climate conditions on clogging. Clogging was found to be highly correlated with cumulative volume and flow rate. A simple black-box regression model that predicts physical clogging was developed as a function of cumulative volume and Brisbane climatic conditions. However it is very likely that the shape of this regression is general, and that it could be calibrated for different climates in the future.

Yong, C. F.; McCarthy, D. T.; Deletic, A.

2013-02-01

140

Use of Scrap Rubber in Asphalt Pavement Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scrap tire rubber was mixed into an asphalt concrete wearing course to study the effect of ice disbonding from the pavement surface under traffic. Rubber contents of 0, 3, 6, and 12% by weight were studied. Initial laboratory ice disbonding test results l...

R. A. Eaton R. J. Roberts R. R. Blackburn

1991-01-01

141

76 FR 67018 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation...Manufacturers of In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems...Passive In- Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems that meet the...

2011-10-28

142

Analysis of Load Stress for Asphalt Pavement of Lean Concrete Base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study revealed that whether it is early distresses in asphalt pavement or not depends largely on working performance of base. In the field of asphalt pavement, it is widely accepted that lean concrete base, compared with the general semi-rigid base, has better working performance, such as high strength and good eroding resistance. Problem of early distresses in asphalt pavement, which caused by more traffic loadings, can be settled effectively when lean concrete is used in asphalt pavement. Traffic loading is important parameter used in the analysis of the new pavement design. However, few studies have done extensive and intensive research on the load stress for asphalt pavement of lean concrete base. Because of that, it is necessary to study the load stress for the asphalt pavement. In the paper, first of all, three-dimension finite element model of the asphalt pavement is created for the aim of doing mechanical analysis for the asphalt pavement. And then, the two main objectives of this study are investigated. One is analysis for load stress of lean concrete base, and the other is analysis for load stress of asphalt surface. The results show that load stress of lean concrete base decreases, decrease and increase with increase of base's thickness, surface's thickness and ratio of base's modulus to foundation's modulus respectively. So far as the asphalt surface is concerned, maximum shearing stress, which is caused by load, is evident in asphalt surface which is located in transverse contraction joint of lean concrete base of asphalt pavement. Maximum shearing stress decrease, decrease, decrease and increase respectively with increase of the surface's modulus, the surface's thickness, base's thickness and ratio of base's modulus to foundation's modulus.

Lijun, Suo; Xinwu, Wang

143

A review on using crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement.  

PubMed

An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction. PMID:24688369

Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

2014-01-01

144

Evaluation of low temperature cracking in asphalt pavement mixes. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the feasibility of using the thermal stress restrained specimen test to evaluate low temperature cracking in asphalt pavement mixes. Data were collected from laboratory and field evaluations. Various mixing, aging, and compaction methods were used to prepare test samples with materials obtained from two WYDOT highway projects. Field data were obtained from two recently built test sections to compare with laboratory test results. Pavement condition surveys quantified low temperature cracking of both test sections after one winter. Temperature data for these projects sites were also collected. Pavement condition and temperature data were compared to results from the thermal stress restrained specimen test.

Ksaibati, K.; Erickson, R.

1998-10-01

145

Literature Review - Elastic Constants for Airport Pavement Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature review was made to support an ongoing study to develop a method for evaluating airport pavements based on the layered elastic theory and using constants as determined from vibratory test results. The review covered the definitions and relatio...

J. L. Green

1978-01-01

146

New types of reinforced composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties of solids determine their usefulness as structural materials. Metals have some disadvantageous characteristics which reduce their effectiveness in critical engineering applications. These limitations can be overcome by the use of certain types of fibrous reinforced composites which have become available over the last few years. However, these materials in turn have their own inherent limitations, particularly in

J. G. Morley

1976-01-01

147

Effectiveness of transverse grooves in rigid pavement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transverse grooves were installed at 11 intersection approaches on worn rigid pavement to reduce a high rate of wet road accidents. In most cases, accident reductions were experienced only at intersections with multiple negative operational characteristics, including higher approach speeds, limited sight distances, and frequent vehicle stopping for turns or stop signs. Intersections with no more than one negative characteristic generally did not benefit from grooving.

Gurney, G. F.; Bryden, J. E.

1982-10-01

148

New structural systems for zero-maintenance pavements. Volume 3: Anchored pavement system designed for Edens Expressway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of the Edens Expressway subjected to mechanical and environmental loads using the anchored pavement concept is discussed. The mechanical and thermal properties of materials that could be encountered in future reconstruction of Edens Expressway are presented in a consistent form for computer programming. These properties are viewed as typical design values during investigation of pavement response. The behavior of the anchored pavement under induced temperature loads and weakening of subgrade (by thawing action) is clearly demonstrated. The example problem provides the input parameters of materials and loads for the analysis, the generation of finite element mesh, and the results of the analysis.

Saxena, S. K.; Militsopoulos, S. G.

1980-08-01

149

Pavement Joint and Crack Sealing Using Field-Molded Sealants. User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details equipment, personnel, and types of materials as well as the procedures used to demonstrate the application and inspection of field molded joint sealants to joints and cracks in portland cement and bituminous pavements. The description,...

L. N. Lynch

1992-01-01

150

Analytical Study of Probable Peak Vehicle Load on Rigid Pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the lack of formulas for evaluating the peak value of dynamic vehicle load on rigid pavement, the need to derive a simple closed-form solution to predict the peak load for pavement design is apparent. Presented herein is a theoretical solution for evaluating the probable peak vehicle load on rigid pave- ment due to the passage of a vehicle

Jeng-Hsiang Lin; Cheng-Chiang Weng

2001-01-01

151

Joint application of GPR and electrostatic resistivity to assess mixed pavement condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In planning maintenance and rehabilitation of paved streets it is of first importance to gather internal structure information to establish a diagnostic. We investigate the potential of the GPR and of the capacitively-coupled resistivity array profiling techniques to map the geometry and the defects present at various depths in streets with mixed pavement. GPR is excellent at delineating boundaries of material with contrasting electrical properties whereas the resistivity array is needed to determine the nature and quality of the imaged material. Thicknesses of asphalt and concrete can be continuously determined. Defects such as cracks, delaminations, voids and former repairs can be mapped. Quality of the concrete slab can be assessed by resistivity. The performances of the two techniques are demonstrated first using numerical modeling and imaging of typical pavement defects. Resistivity and GPR data were collected along a few streets in Montreal using a 1GHz GPR smart cart and a compact 2-receiver dipole resistivity system. Streets were selected to demonstrate the responses to different pavement defects. The results allow to show the performance and limitations of present systems. In particular, it is shown that multiple configuration arrays and real-time imaging for the resistivity pulled array are needed. For the arrays we investigate some designs and for the real-time imaging a technique based on Kalman filtering was developed.

Chouteau, M.; Camerlynck, C.; Kaouane, C.

2009-05-01

152

Hot-Recycling of Tar-Containing Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot recycling in pavement construction leads to the emission of hazardous compounds when tar-containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) is used. This is due to the relatively high content of substances such as phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in tar. The latter are of special interest, because some PAHs have carcinogenic and\\/or mutagenic properties. High tar content in combination with

Martin Hugener; Lukas Emmenegger; Peter Mattrel

2010-01-01

153

Sensitivity Analysis of Heavy Pavement Design for a Container Terminal Area, Case Study: Port of Gaza, Palestine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the sensitivity analysis of various design parameters for heavy-duty pavement for container terminal areas using Airport Pavement Structural Design System (APSDS) to yield an optimal design solution. APSDS is based on layered elastic theory, which was introduced into airfield design practice with the release of the computer program LEDFAA (Layered Elastic Design, Federal Aviation Administration). In this study, the pavement structure was found very sensitive to design parameters, where 15-60 mm more in base thickness was increased the design life twice. A reduction of base thickness was 27% by changing the handling system from rubber tyred gantry crane system to straddle carrier system and a reduction of 42-76% of base thickness by changing the interface condition at the bottom of base layer from smooth to rough. Other effects of design parameters such as lateral wandering distribution, container weight frequency, variation of elastic modulus for concrete block pavers and sub-grade are discussed. Also various construction materials were used and several combinations of base and sub-base materials were analysed to be able to select the most economical pavement structures.

Abualtayef, Mazen; de Heer, Ronald; Kuroiwa, Masamitsu; Matsubara, Yuhei; Khaled Seif, Ahmed

154

Finite Element Study of the Rehabilitation of Faulted Portland Cement Concrete Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of dowel bar retrofitting of faulted portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements by (1) modeling FWD Test data for computer model development and verification, (2) evaluating long term effects by ...

B. Muhunthan A. T. Jennings

1994-01-01

155

Reducing traffic noise with quieter pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, interest has increased in the use of pavement type to reduce traffic noise. This has been driven by public concern over noise from freeways and state transportation agencies' interest in using pavement instead of sound walls to mitigate traffic noise. Beginnings of the recent interest go back to 1998 with the formation of the Institute for Safe, Quiet & Durable Highways at Purdue University and the initiation long-term research by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) on the effectiveness of quieter pavements. In 2002, the State of Arizona announced plans to overlay 115 miles of concrete freeway in the greater Phoenix area with a quieter asphalt rubber surface. This turned into the first Quiet Pavement Pilot Program in partnership between Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Arizona Department of Transportation. Since that time, the FHWA in cooperation with the American Association of State Highway Transportation Agencies conducted a fact finding ``Scan'' tour in Europe to evaluate their quiet pavement technology and policy. This was followed by the first comparative tire/pavement noise testing in the US and Europe using the same procedures and test tires. The results, issues, and future directions surrounding these activities will be discussed.

Donavan, Paul

2005-09-01

156

Field investigation of clogging in a permeable pavement system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeable pavements are commonly used around commercial and industrial buildings to reduce the environmental impact. Results are presented from a forensic investigation of a permeable interlocking concrete paving (PICP) system that has been in service for over eight years. The aims were to quantify the sediment accumulation processes that occurred in the different pavement layers and to improve understanding of

Terry Lucke; Simon Beecham

2011-01-01

157

Leaching of organic contaminants from storage of reclaimed asphalt pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of asphalt has been promoted by rapid increases in both the use and price of petroleum?based bitumen. Semi?volatile organic compounds in leachates from reclaimed asphalt pavement, measured in field samples and in laboratory column test, were analysed through a GC\\/MS screen?test methodology. Sixteen PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) were also analysed in leachates from the column study. The highest concentrations of

Malin Norin

2004-01-01

158

Geotextiles in Flexible Pavement Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People everywhere in the developed world regularly drive on paved roads. Learning about the construction techniques and materials used in paving benefits technology and construction students. This article discusses the use of geosynthetic textiles in pavement construction. It presents background on pavements and describes geotextiles and drainage…

Alungbe, Gabriel D.

2004-01-01

159

Subsurface defect detection in first layer of pavement structure and reinforced civil engineering structure by FRP bonding using active infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many countries road network ages while road traffic and maintenance costs increase. Nowadays, thousand and thousand kilometers of roads are each year submitted to surface distress survey. They generally lean on pavement surface imaging measurement techniques, mainly in the visible spectrum, coupled with visual inspection or image processing detection of emergent distresses. Nevertheless, optimisation of maintenance works and costs requires an early detection of defects within the pavement structure when they still are hidden from surface. Accordingly, alternative measurement techniques for pavement monitoring are currently under investigation (seismic methods, step frequency radar). On the other hand, strengthening or retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures by externally bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) systems is now a commonly accepted and widespread technique. However, the use of bonding techniques always implies following rigorous installing procedures. To ensure the durability and long-term performance of the FRP reinforcements, conformance checking through an in situ auscultation of the bonded FRP systems is then highly suitable. The quality-control program should involve a set of adequate inspections and tests. Visual inspection and acoustic sounding (hammer tap) are commonly used to detect delaminations (disbonds) but are unable to provide sufficient information about the depth (in case of multilayered composite) and width of debonded areas. Consequently, rapid and efficient inspection methods are also required. Among the non destructive methods under study, active infrared thermography was investigated both for pavement and civil engineering structures through experiments in laboratory and numerical simulations, because of its ability to be also used on field. Pulse Thermography (PT), Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT) approaches have been tested onto pavement samples and CFRP bonding on concrete samples in laboratory. In parallel numerical simulations have been used to generate a set of time sequence of thermal maps for simulated samples with and without subsurface defect. Using this set of experimental and simulated data different approaches (thermal contrast, FFT analysis, polynomial interpolation, singular value decomposition…) for defect location have been studied and compared. Defect depth retrieval was also studied on such data using different thermal model coupled to a direct or an inverse approach. Trials were conducted both with an uncooled and cooled infrared camera with different measurement performances. Results obtained will be discussed and analysed in the paper we plan to present. Finally, combining numerical simulations and experiments allows us discussing on the sensitivity influence of the infrared camera used to detect subsurface defects.

Dumoulin, Jean; Ibos, Laurent

2010-05-01

160

Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection.  

PubMed

Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:23182778

Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A

2013-03-01

161

Rehabilitation Strategies for Highway Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NCHRP Project 1-38 was conducted to develop a process for selection of appropriate rehabilitation strategies for the ranges of pavement types and conditions found in the United States. A review of the pavement rehabilitation practices of State DOTs, and t...

C. E. Correa K. T. Hall R. P. Elliot S. H. Carpenter

2001-01-01

162

Construction and Statistical Evaluation of a Computerized Photologging System for Identification and Measurement of Pavement Cracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A close range photogrammetric collection system followed by computerized analysis has been developed for measurement and analysis of pavement cracking and rutting. The photographic collection system consists of two 70 mm format nonmetric Hasselblad camera...

R. J. Hintz J. D. Degner B. E. Ruth C. Karakadas

1988-01-01

163

Micro-topographic analysis of shell pavements formed by aeolian transport in a wind tunnel simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beach surfaces containing shell materials represent one end-member of a range of environments in which armoring is the primary control on wind erosion. Unlike spheres and cylinders which have formed the basis of theoretical model formulation and much of the early work in wind tunnels, mollusc shells have complex and non-uniform shapes which vary with their orientation. Identification of shell perimeter, height and frontal area relative to the bed area (roughness density) is therefore a formidable task, but nonetheless is essential for modeling sediment entrainment from beach surfaces. A methodology is suggested in this paper for capturing and analyzing these geospatial data, in the context of a wind tunnel simulation designed to improve understanding of the geophysical processes involved in armoring. For deposits where non-erodible shells represent half of the volume of the parent material, the surface appears to be highly stable to wind erosion from the outset, although minor reworking of the intervening, erodible sediment does occur. In comparison, the shell coverage must increase to approximately 30% during wind erosion events in order for any given beach surface to stabilize, especially beach deposits with a low concentration of shells by volume. With suitable calibration, the Raupach shear stress partitioning model can be forced to perform well in predicting the threshold conditions for particle entrainment. However, this approach overlooks the pivotal involvement of particle impact and ricochet in the creation and sculpting of the armored bed. As a case in point, when the shells are removed from digital elevation models of armored beach surfaces formed in aeolian systems, the adjusted topography is not suggestive of the presence of coherent flow structures (e.g., horseshoe vortices and wedge shaped shelter areas) as assumed to exist in the stress partitioning approach for isolated flows. This would suggest that future work on the armoring of natural surfaces affected by wind erosion must allow for more complexity in the flow perturbation.

McKenna Neuman, Cheryl; Li, Bailiang; Nash, David

2012-12-01

164

Theoretical analysis of piezoelectric energy harvesting from traffic induced deformation of pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of energy harvesting using piezoelectric transducers for pavement system applications is formulated with a focus on moving vehicle excitations. The pavement behavior is described by an infinite Bernoulli-Euler beam subjected to a moving line load and resting on a Winkler foundation. A closed-form dynamic response of the pavement is determined by a Fourier transform and the residue theorem. The voltage and power outputs of the piezoelectric harvester embedded in the pavements are then obtained by the direct piezoelectric effect. A comprehensive parametric study is conducted to show the effect of damping, the Winkler modulus, and the velocity of moving vehicles on the voltage and power output of the piezoelectric harvester. It is found that the output increases sharply when the velocity of the vehicle is close to the so-called critical velocity.

Xiang, H. J.; Wang, J. J.; Shi, Z. F.; Zhang, Z. W.

2013-09-01

165

Truck fleet model for design and assessment of flexible pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanistic empirical method of flexible pavement design/assessment uses a large number of numerical truck model runs to predict a history of dynamic load. The pattern of dynamic load distribution along the pavement is a key factor in the design/assessment of flexible pavement. While this can be measured in particular cases, there are no reliable methods of predicting the mean pattern for typical traffic conditions. A simple linear quarter car model which aims to reproduce the mean and variance of dynamic loading of the truck fleet at a given site is developed here. This probabilistic model reflects the range and frequency of the different heavy trucks on the road and their dynamic properties. Multiple Sensor Weigh-in-Motion data can be used to calibrate the model. Truck properties such as suspension stiffness, suspension damping, sprung mass, unsprung mass and tyre stiffness are represented as randomly varying parameters in the fleet model. It is used to predict the statistical distribution of dynamic load at each measurement point. The concept is demonstrated by using a pre-defined truck fleet to calculate a pattern of statistical spatial repeatability and is tested by using that pattern to find the truck statistical properties that generated it.

Belay, Abraham; OBrien, Eugene; Kroese, Dirk

2008-04-01

166

Pavement Marking Warranty Specifications. A Synthesis of Highway Practice. NCHRP Synthesis 408.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis study updates information on the use of pavement marking warranties by U.S. state departments of transportation (DOTs) and Canadian provincial/territorial transportation agencies. It also reviews road construction warranty experience in Eur...

M. J. Markow

2010-01-01

167

Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Review of QC/QA Data 2000 Through 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report analyzes the Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) data for Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (PCCP) constructed in the years 2000 through 2004. Analysis of the overall performance of the projects was accomplished by reviewing the Calculat...

E. Chavez

2006-01-01

168

Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site - presentation  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA?s Urban Watershed Management Branch has been monitoring an instrumented 110-space pervious pavement parking lot. The lot is used by EPA personnel and visitors to the Edison Environmental Center. The design includes 28-space rows of three permeable pavement types: asphal...

169

Numerical study on the curling and warping of hardened rigid pavement slabs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-service hardened concrete pavement suffers from environmental loadings caused by curling and warping of the slab. Traditionally, these loadings are computed on the basis of treating the slab as an elastic material, and of evaluating separately the curling and warping components. This dissertation simulates temperature distribution and moisture distribution through the slabs by use of a developed numerical model that couples the heat transfer and moisture transport. The computation of environmental loadings treats the slab as an elastic-viscous material, which considers the relaxation behavior and Pickett effect of the concrete. The heat transfer model considers the impacts of solar radiation, wind speed, air temperature, pavement slab albedo, etc. on the pavement temperature distribution. This dissertation assesses the difference between documented models that aim to predict pavement temperature, highlighting their pros and cons. The moisture transport model is unique for the documented models; it mimics the wetting and drying events occurring at the slab surface. These events are estimated by a proposed statistical algorithm, which is verified by field rainfall data. Analysis of the predicted results examines on the roles of the local air RH (relative humidity), wind speed, rainy pattern in the moisture distribution through the slab. The findings reveal that seasonal air RH plays a decisive role on the slab's moisture distribution; but wind speed and its daily variation, daily RH variation, and seasonal rainfall pattern plays only a secondary role. This dissertation sheds light on the computation of environmental loadings that in-service pavement slabs suffer from. Analysis of the computed stresses centers on the stress relaxation near the surface, stress evolution after the curing ends, and the impact of construction season on the stress's magnitude. An unexpected finding is that the total environmental loadings at the cyclically-stable state divert from the thermal stresses. At such a state, the total stress at the daytime is roughly equal to the thermal stress; whereas the total stress during the nighttime is far greater than the thermal stress. An explanation for this phenomenon is that during the night hours, the decline of the slab's near-surface temperature leads to a drop of the near-surface RH. This RH drop results in contraction therein and develops additional tensile stresses. The dissertation thus argues that estimating the environmental loadings by solely computing the thermally-induced stresses may reach delusive results. It recommends that the total environmental loadings of in-service slabs should be estimated by a sophisticated model coupling both moisture component and temperature component.

Qin, Yinghong

170

Clogging evaluation of open graded friction course pavements tested under rainfall and heavy vehicle simulators.  

PubMed

In this study a new procedure is developed to obtain core samples from field sections to assess clogging mechanisms of open graded friction course (OGFC) pavements using X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. The approach compared X-ray computed tomography (CT) images taken before and after: (1) rainfall simulations without trafficking to investigate particle-related clogging and (2) full-scale accelerated pavement rutting tests (APT) to investigate deformation related clogging of OGFC layers. Rainfall simulations were performed with runoff water of known total suspended solids (TSS) and particle size distributions (PSDs). Full-scale accelerated rutting tests were performed under controlled temperature and loads. Both investigations were performed for three different OGFC pavements with different layer thicknesses and mix types. The clogging of rutting test sections were also evaluated by comparing the surface permeability measurements performed before and after APT testing. The results of X-ray CT image processing revealed a significant reduction in air-void content of core samples after APT rutting tests. The highest air-void reduction was concentrated at the bottom of the OGFC layers. Permeability measurements also showed a 40%-90% reduction in permeability after APT trafficking. X-ray CT image processing of core samples tested under simulated rainfall showed that air void content reduction is concentrated in the lower part (2-6 mm from the bottom) of the OGFC layers as a result of particle accumulation. Small changes in air void contents were observed in the upper part of the OGFC layers (10-15 mm) while these reductions in air void contents were not significant to cause surface overflow and hence it is expected that the tested OGFC pavements will have sufficient permeability to infiltrate water during most average storm events. PMID:23920417

Coleri, Erdem; Kayhanian, Masoud; Harvey, John T; Yang, Kai; Boone, John M

2013-11-15

171

Research on the Maintenance Decision-Making of Cement Concrete Pavement Based on Preventive Maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cement concrete pavement maintenance decision-making model has been proposed, by analyzing the formation and development characteristics of pavement diseases and considering the actual maintenance in Hunan Expressway. The maintenance decision-making tree and the decision-making progress have been established in order to realize the purpose of rational distribution of maintenance funds and improve maintenance quality, under the thought of preventive

Jian Zhao; Jia Xu

2009-01-01

172

Epoxy Thermoplastic Pavement Marking Material: Specification and Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an extensive laboratory program to establish a specification for an epoxy thermoplastic (ETP) striping material which was developed in a contract research study for the Federal Highway Administration by Southwest Resear...

B. H. Chollar B. R. Appleman

1980-01-01

173

Micromorphology Characteristics of Hybrid Materials Type Layered Double Hydroxides - Antibiotics Studied by SEM Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrotalcite is a cheap, human health friendly material that belongs to the class of anionic clays. The lamellar matrices of anionic clays are formed by positively charged layers, counterbalanced by exchangeable interlayer anions; their high adsorption and high anionic exchange capacities allow using them as biocompatible matrices for designing drug - clay formulations. For the process of the drug delivery

G. Carja; S. Ratoi; G. Ciobanu; S. Dranca

174

Continuous monitoring of mining induced strain in a road pavement using fiber Bragg grating sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the application of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based sensors for monitoring road pavement strains caused by mining induced ground subsidence as a result of underground longwall coal mining beneath a major highway in New South Wales, Australia. After a lengthy planning period, the risks to the highway pavement were successfully managed by the highway authority and the mining company through a technical committee. The technical committee comprised representatives of the mining company, the highway authority and specialists in the fields of pavement engineering, geotechnical engineering and subsidence. An important component of the management strategy is the installation of a total of 840 strain and temperature sensors in the highway pavement using FBG arrays encapsulated in glass-fiber composite cables. The sensors and associated demodulation equipment provide continuous strain measurements along the pavement, enabling on-going monitoring of the effects of mining subsidence on the pavement and timely implementation of planned mitigation and response measures to ensure the safety and serviceability of the highway throughout the mining period.

Nosenzo, Giorgio; Whelan, B. E.; Brunton, M.; Kay, Daryl; Buys, Henk

2013-06-01

175

Continuous monitoring of mining induced strain in a road pavement using fibre Bragg grating sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the application of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) based sensors for monitoring road pavement strains caused by mining induced ground subsidence as a result of underground longwall coal mining beneath a major highway in New South Wales, Australia. After a lengthy planning period, the risks to the highway pavement were successfully managed by the highway authority and the mining company through a technical committee. The technical committee comprised representatives of the mining company, the highway authority and specialists in the fields of pavement engineering, geotechnical engineering and subsidence. An important component of the management strategy is the installation of a total of 840 strain and temperature sensors in the highway pavement using FBG arrays encapsulated in glass-fibre composite cables. The sensors and associated demodulation equipment provide continuous strain measurements along the pavement, enabling on-going monitoring of the effects of mining subsidence on the pavement and timely implementation of planned mitigation and response measures to ensure the safety and serviceability of the highway throughout the mining period.

Whelan, B. E.; Brunton, M.; Nosenzo, Giorgio; Kay, Daryl; Buys, Henk

2012-01-01

176

Leaching of organic contaminants from storage of reclaimed asphalt pavement.  

PubMed

Recycling of asphalt has been promoted by rapid increases in both the use and price of petroleum-based bitumen. Semi-volatile organic compounds in leachates from reclaimed asphalt pavement, measured in field samples and in laboratory column test, were analysed through a GC/MS screen-test methodology. Sixteen PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) were also analysed in leachates from the column study. The highest concentrations of semi-volatile compounds, approximately 400 microg l(-1), were measured in field samples from the scarified stockpile. Naphthalene, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were the most dominant of the identified semi-volatiles. The occurrence of these compounds in urban groundwater, also indicate high emission rates and persistent structures of the compounds, making them potentially hazardous. Car exhausts, rubber tires and the asphalt material itself are all probable emission sources, determined from the organic contaminants released from the stockpiles. The major leaching mechanism indicated was dissolution of organic contaminants from the surface of the asphalt gravels. In the laboratory column test, the release of high-molecular weight and more toxic PAH was higher in the leachates after two years than at the commencement of storage. The concentrations of semi-volatiles in leachates, were also several times lower than those from the field stockpile. These results demonstrate the need to follow up laboratory column test with real field measurements. PMID:15176747

Norin, Malin; Strömvall, A M

2004-03-01

177

Performance Study of Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement on I-95.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of the CRCP on I-95. Pavement observations and measurements were made on all construction contracts and included intensive crack surveys, measurements of the widths of selected cracks, measurements ...

G. N. Shah

1978-01-01

178

Damage and healing evaluation of Mn/Road pavements using stress wave testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to accurately assess the fatigue life of asphalt concrete pavements, an in-situ field evaluation method must be used so that factors which cannot be accounted for in the lab are considered. Surface wave testing is employed in this research to nondestructively monitor sensitive structural changes in the asphalt surface layer of pavements in the field. Microcrack damage growth and healing are investigated on pavement test sections at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (Mn/Road) by way of surface wave testing. One of the mechanisms which cannot be simulated accurately in the lab is healing of asphalt concrete during rest periods. Healing of the asphalt pavement test sections at Mn/Road following a 24 hour rest period was quantified using wavespeed measurements. These measurements show that a significant amount of healing is occurring and can be detected using stress wave testing. Several signal processing methods are used to evaluate the microcrack damage growth and healing in the asphalt pavement sections. The 'apparent' modulus is computed from the velocity of wave propagation and used to quantify damage in the pavements. Attenuation of the stress waves is also calculated for damage assessment. It is discovered that attenuation parameters in the frequency domain are more sensitive than wavespeed calculations in the time domain, but contain significantly more variability.

Katzke, Evan; Kim, Y. R.

1998-03-01

179

Optimizing Construction Quality Management of Pavements Using Mechanistic Performance Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The implementation of an effective performance-based construction quality management requires a tool for determining impacts of construction quality on the life-cycle performance of pavements. This report presents a statistical-based algorithm that was de...

I. Abdallah H. Yin S. Nazarian C. Ferregut

2004-01-01

180

Effects of conductive fillers on temperature distribution of asphalt pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sun provides a cheap and abundant source of clean and renewable energy. Solar cells have been used to capture this energy and generate electricity. A more useful form of the solar cell would be asphalt pavements, which get heated up by solar radiation. Graphite powders are utilized as thermal conductive fillers to make an asphalt collector conductive so as to improve the efficiency of the asphalt collector. Accounting for the important application conditions and evaluating the effects of the heat conductive materials and the solar energy absorbability of the conductive asphalt collector, a finite element model has been developed to predict temperature distributions in the conductive asphalt solar collector. In this study, an experimental validation exercise was conducted using the measured data taken from full-depth asphalt slabs. Validation results showed that the model can satisfactorily predict the temperature distributions in asphalt concrete slabs. The optimal depth is 25-50 mm for placing pipes that serve as the heat exchanger. Meanwhile, the effect of the surroundings on the solar energy potential of the asphalt collector was noticeable.

Mingyu, Chen; Shaopeng, Wu; Yuan, Zhang; Hong, Wang

2010-05-01

181

Optimal Placement of Reflective Pavement Markers. Appendices C and D.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project included an analytical optimization of the spacings for Snowplowable Raised Reflective Pavement Markers (RRPM's) for tangent sections of interstate highways and entrance and exit ramps (curves). The project also included a test driver study us...

H. T. Zwahlen

1985-01-01

182

Optimal Placement of Reflective Pavement Markers. Appendices A and B.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project included an analytical optimization of the spacings for Snowplowable Raised Reflective Pavement Markers (RRPM's) for tangent sections of interstate highways and entrance and exit ramps (curves). The project also included a test driver study us...

H. T. Zwahlen

1985-01-01

183

Optimal Placement of Reflective Pavement Markers. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project included an analytical optimization of the spacings for Snowplowable Raised Reflective Pavement Markers (RRPM's) for tangent sections of interstate highways and entrance and exit ramps (curves). The project also included a test driver study us...

H. T. Zwahlen

1985-01-01

184

Design of Full-Depth Asphalt Airfield Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides fundamental concepts relative to the development of a theoretical design procedure for Full-Depth airfield pavements. The report is limited to those factors pertinent to the development of design thickness requirements to prevent load...

M. W. Witczak

1972-01-01

185

Microthesaurus of Vehicle Mobility, Environment, and Pavement Terms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The terms in the microthesaurus cover three major areas of interest: Vehicle mobility, environment, and pavements, as related primarily to military research. Non-technical terms common to all subject areas in research and development are included to provi...

1975-01-01

186

Durability and Retro-Reflectivity of Pavement Markings, Synthesis Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waterborne paints are used to paint pavement markings (edgelines and centerlines) to provide guidance for motorists. The painted markings need to be repainted periodically as their retro-reflectivity deteriorates. The Indiana Department of Transportation ...

Y. Jiang

2008-01-01

187

Preventive Maintenance Condition Standards of Expressway Asphalt Pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

There isn't a unified pavement preventive maintenance road condition standard both at home and abroad till now, in view of that, macro and micro road condition standard for expressway asphalt pavement preventive maintenance is established, among which macro standard is under the promise of PSSIges83, and is under the control standard of 82lesPCI<88, 88lesRQI<93, 85lesSRI<90. Its determinative process, the usage

Hu Guoxiang; Li Jie

2009-01-01

188

Systematic Conversion of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes into n-type Thermoelectric Materials by Molecular Dopants  

PubMed Central

Thermoelectrics is a challenging issue for modern and future energy conversion and recovery technology. Carbon nanotubes are promising active thermoelectic materials owing to their narrow bandgap energy and high charge carrier mobility, and they can be integrated into flexible thermoelectrics that can recover any waste heat. We here report air-stable n-type single walled carbon nanotubes with a variety of weak electron donors in the range of HOMO level between ca. ?4.4?eV and ca. ?5.6?eV, in which partial uphill electron injection from the dopant to the conduction band of single walled carbon nanotubes is dominant. We display flexible films of the doped single walled carbon nanotubes possessing significantly large thermoelectric effect, which is applicable to flexible ambient thermoelectric modules.

Nonoguchi, Yoshiyuki; Ohashi, Kenji; Kanazawa, Rui; Ashiba, Koji; Hata, Kenji; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Adachi, Chihaya; Tanase, Tomoaki; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

2013-01-01

189

GPR abilities in investigation of the pavement transversal cracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the results of an investigation into the capabilities of the GPR technique within the field of pavement crack diagnostics. Initially, laboratory tests were performed on prototypes simulating idealized cracks. Next, long-term visual observation and repeated GPR scanning were performed, on three roads of semi-rigid construction, several hundreds of meters long and subjected to heavy traffic. Furthermore, a road of rigid construction was tested, having a more than 70-year history of use. In several cases the cracks were probed by drillings, in order to recognize structures responsible for signal generation, or to explain reasons of signal lacking. The main result of this work is a list of GPR indications of cracks, which can be noticed on echograms. It was created through a correlation of the visually-observed cracks with the corresponding echograms, with decimeter accuracy. Several types of GPR responses were classified and linked to possible categories of crack structures, or to processes associated with the presence of cracks (as crumbling, erosion, and lithological alterations). The poor visibility of cracks was also studied, due to small crack size, or to the blurred character of the damaged area, or else to masking effects related to coarse grains in the asphalt mixture. The efficiency of the proposed method for the identification and localization of cracks is higher when a long-term GPR observation is performed.

Krysi?ski, Lech; Sudyka, Jacek

2013-10-01

190

Removal of formaldehyde from indoor air by passive type air-cleaning materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a board-like air-cleaning material consisting of activated carbon particles and manganese oxides, by which HCHO gas is decomposed into carbon dioxide even at room temperature. In this study, we investigated removal efficiencies of the air-cleaning board in a passive mode using a kinetic approach. First-order removal rate constant, k, corresponding to air change rate was characterized for

Yoshika Sekine; Atsushi Nishimura

2001-01-01

191

An Overview Of Pavement Management System For Industrial Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACT With the current surge in national economy the industrial traffic has increased many folds in terms of quantity of load and traffic volume. This results in early deterioration of the roads. Also the serviceability reduces hampering the industry's supply of raw material and transport of finished goods. An efficient road transportation system is of vitally important for smooth operations of industrial units. Construction of new roads needs an enormous investment. However, once constructed the road network system requires huge resources to maintain serviceability and to ensure safe passage at an appropriate speed and with low VOC (Vehicle Operating Cost). Road maintenance is therefore an essential function and should be carried out on a timely basis. The cost of providing and maintaining the roads for the industrial areas at an acceptable serviceability level is quite high. It is therefore essential for a transportation engineer to attempt establishing an acceptable pavement condition level from economic, safety and environmental point of view. In today's economic environment of constrained budgets, as the existing road infrastructure has aged, a more systematic approach towards determining maintenance and rehabilitation needs is necessary. The efficient pavement management system shall provide objective information and useful analysis to ensure consistent and cost effective decisions related to preservation of existing industrial road network in healthy condition.

Hokam, Vivek S.

2012-03-01

192

Automatic Pavement Distress Setection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics published by the Federal Highway Administration indicates that maintenance and rehabilitation of highway pavements in the United States requires over $17 billion a year. Conventional visual and manual pavement distress analysis approaches that the inspectors traverse the roads, stop and measure the distress objects when they are found, are very costly, time-consuming, dangerous, labor-intensive, tedious, subjective, having high degree

Heng-da Cheng; Mario Miyojim

1998-01-01

193

Study on pavement technologies to mitigate the heat island effect and their effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the heat island effect in large cities has become a social issue in Japan. Pavements are thought to be one of the main causes of the heat island effect as they cover wide area of cities. Therefore, new pavements, such as water retention pavements or heat shield pavements, have been developed and used as countermeasures by the central and

K. Kubo; H. KIDO

194

Effects of impervious pavements on reducing runoff in an arid urban catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressive urbanization of US arid and semi-arid southwestern territories has transformed undeveloped aridlands into dynamic, radially expanding metropolitan centers. As these mature, infill development further reduces undeveloped area, inversely coupling surface imperviousness to infiltration rates, with a subsequent increase in runoff generation. Intensified runoff carries undesirable environmental consequences, magnifying urban flooding events and concentrations, transport, and propagation of contaminants. Pervious pavements offer one potential solution for decreased urban infiltration. At present, the application potential of pervious pavements as an effective urban infiltration management tool exceeds its exploitation. While entirely eliminating urban Total Impervious Area is not a feasible solution, pervious pavements significantly reduce Effective Impervious Area at costs competitive with traditional Best Management Practices. Previous research into pervious pavements has largely consisted of laboratory prototypes or small-scale field experiments, with a heavy bias towards parking lots. In this study we explore the effectiveness of pervious pavements in increasing infiltration, thus decreasing runoff volume during summer monsoonal and winter convective rainfall events in an 8 ha residential catchment in Scottsdale, Arizona. Analysis focuses on the interaction dynamics between surface area of pervious pavement application and its net effect on runoff response at the catchment level. Hydrological response was modeled using MAHLERAN (Model for Assessing Hillslope-Landscape Erosion, Runoff and Nutrients), a spatially explicit, event-based model, parameterized at a spatial resolution of 0.25 sq m. Data for model parameterization was obtained from analysis of aerial imagery and field-based monitoring of surface properties. The model was tested against measurements of flow at the catchment outlet for multiple rainfall events with total event rainfall ranging from 5 mm to 25 mm. Model testing shows total event discharge simulated well, although low Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for events indicate a poor fit between the shape and timing of the modeled and monitored hydrograph, which we attribute to poor characterization of friction factors in urban catchments. Scenario-based model analysis tested catchment response to substitution of pervious for conventional pavement by percent and pavement-function scenarios. Results are consistent with previous findings in that short duration-high intensity storms trigger threshold infiltration capacity, past which pervious pavement damping of runoff volume levels off, approaching conventional levels. However at the modeled catchment scale, this initial damping represents a significant reduction in volume, peak flow velocity, and contaminant loading potential. Urban surface drainage networks concentrate and channel flow along roads: the capacity of pervious pavements to simultaneously increase infiltration directly at location of greatest runoff and mitigate inflow effects from remote points has compelling potential as a hydrologic and urban systems engineering tool.

Epshtein, O.; Turnbull, L.; Earl, S.

2011-12-01

195

Water quality and quantity assessment of pervious pavements performance in experimental car park areas.  

PubMed

Pervious pavements have become one of the most used sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) techniques in car parks. This research paper presents the results of monitoring water quality from several experimental car park areas designed and constructed in Spain with bays made of interlocking concrete block pavement, porous asphalt, polymer-modified porous concrete and reinforced grass with plastic and concrete cells. Moreover, two different sub-base materials were used (limestone aggregates and basic oxygen furnace slag). This study therefore encompasses the majority of the materials used as permeable surfaces and sub-base layers all over the world. Effluent from the test bays was monitored for dissolved oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity and total petroleum hydrocarbons in order to analyze the behaviour shown by each combination of surface and sub-base materials. In addition, permeability tests were undertaken in all car parks using the 'Laboratorio Caminos Santander' permeameter and the Cantabrian Portable Infiltrometer. All results are presented together with the influence of surface and sub-base materials on water quality indicators using bivariate correlation statistical analysis at a confidence level of 95%. The polymer-modified porous concrete surface course in combination with limestone aggregate sub-base presented the best performance. PMID:24718346

Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Charlesworth, Susanne M; Castro-Fresno, Daniel; Andres-Valeri, Valerio C A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge

2014-01-01

196

Comparative Occupational Survey of Civilian and Military Members in the Pavements Maintenance and Construction Equipment Operator Specialties. Final Report for Period 1 October 1975-30 October 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to analyze and compare the job performance of civil service and military pavements maintenance workers and construction equipment operators. A military sample of 2,675 and a civilian sample of 1,974 were surveyed by means of a job inventory checklist and relative time spent rating method. Of the three job types that were…

Cowan, Douglas K.

197

Influence of mixture composition on the noise and frictional characteristics of flexible pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both traffic noise and wet pavement-tire friction are mainly affected by the tire/pavement interaction. Existing laboratory test methods allow for evaluation of polishing resistance of the aggregates only. Currently, there is no generally accepted standardized laboratory test method to address noise related issues and the overall frictional properties of pavements (including macrotexture). In this research, which included both laboratory and field components, friction and noise properties of the flexible (asphalt) pavements were investigated. As a part of this study, a laboratory device to polish asphalt specimens was developed and the procedure to evaluate mixture frictional properties was proposed. Following this procedure, forty-six different Superpave mixtures (each utilizing a different aggregate blends), one stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixture and one porous friction course (PFC) mixture were tested. Six of the above mixes (four Superpave mixtures, SMA mixture and PFC mixture) were selected for laboratory noise testing. This testing was performed using a one-of-a-kind tester called the Tire/Pavement Test Apparatus (TPTA). In addition, the field sections constructed using Superpave, SMA and PFC mixtures were also periodically tested for friction and noise. Field measurements included testing of total of 23 different asphalt and two concrete pavements. The field friction testing was performed using both portable CTM and DFT devices and the (ASTM E 274) locked wheel friction trailer. The laboratory friction testing was performed using CTM and DFT devices only. The results of both field and laboratory friction measurements were used to develop an International Friction Index (IFI)-based frictional requirement for laboratory friction measurements. The results collected in the course of the study indicate that the IFI-based flag values could be successfully used in place of SN-based flag values to characterize frictional characteristics of pavements.

Kowalski, Karol J.

198

Engineering Properties of Stabilized Subgrade Soils for Implementation of the AASHTO 2002 Pavement Design Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive laboratory study was undertaken to determine engineering properties of cementitiously stabilized common subgrade soils in Oklahoma for the design of roadway pavements in accordance with the AASHTO 2002 Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design...

M. M. Zaman N. N. Khoury P. Solanki

2009-01-01

199

Winter Tenting of Highway Pavements. Test Program and Discussion of Causes and Mechanisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tenting consists of localized frost heaving in the immediate vicinity of transverse pavement cracks. It produces a highly irregular riding surface, leads to premature pavement-surface deterioration, occurs on highways designed for high traffic volumes and...

M. A. Kestler, A. S. Krat, G. E. Roberts

2000-01-01

200

State-of-the-Art Studies/Preliminary Work Scopes. Task B. Pavement Maintenance Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pavement maintenance cost is one of the three major components of the total life cycle cost for a specific highway segment. The capability of accurately estimating pavement maintenance cost depends directly on the quality of the available maintenance data...

H. J. Chen J. Perl M. W. Mirza

1987-01-01

201

Optimization of p -type segmented Bi 2 Te 3 \\/CoSb 3 thermoelectric material prepared by spark plasma sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kind of p-type segmented Bi2Te3\\/CoSb3 thermoelectric material was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). When the segmented materials were used at the temperature\\u000a ranging from 300 Koto 800K, the junction temperature was optimized, which is about 500 K, and the corresponding length ratio\\u000a of CoSb3 to Bi2Te3 is about 15?2. The measured maximum power output of segmented materials is

Wang Jun; Tang Xinfeng; Liu Haiqiang; Yang Xiuli; Zhang Qingjie

2006-01-01

202

Construction and Preliminary Monitoring of the Georgetown, Texas Precast Prestressed Concrete Pavement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After completion of a feasibility study which examined the viability of using precast concrete panels to expedite pavement construction, FHWA and TxDOT funded an implementation project to construct a precast concrete pavement pilot project to test the con...

D. K. Merritt B. F. McCullough N. H. Burns

2002-01-01

203

The clogging behaviour and treatment efficiency of a range of porous pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of a laboratory investigation into the clogging behaviour of three different porous pavements that were most representative of the available range and their pollutant removal efficiency over time. These pavements were monolithic Porous Asphalt (PA), Permapave (PP), and modular Hydrapave (HP). The pavements were dosed with a semi-synthetic stormwater mixture over a continuous period of

C. F. Yong; A. Deletic; T. D. Fletcher; M. R. Grace

204

Removal of formaldehyde from indoor air by passive type air-cleaning materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a board-like air-cleaning material consisting of activated carbon particles and manganese oxides, by which HCHO gas is decomposed into carbon dioxide even at room temperature. In this study, we investigated removal efficiencies of the air-cleaning board in a passive mode using a kinetic approach. First-order removal rate constant, k, corresponding to air change rate was characterized for the board as a function of the ratio of applied board area to space volume, S/ V, and was found directly proportional to S/ V with a slope of 25 at 25°C. The performance of the board was evaluated in a full-size laboratory with a constant gas generation. The board suppressed the increase of indoor HCHO concentration and the time course fitted to a theoretical curve. Then, field tests of the air-cleaning board were conducted in newly constructed multi-family houses in Japan from May 1998 to January 1999. The board not only reduced indoor HCHO concentration from 0.21 to 0.04 ppm for more than 7 months, but also enhanced the loss of HCHO gas from building materials in apartments.

Sekine, Yoshika; Nishimura, Atsushi

205

Study of Factors Affecting Roughness Progression on Portland Cement Concrete Pavements in Kansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Portland Cement Concrete Pavements (PCCP) with favorable as-constructed smoothness and lower rates of roughness progression are expected to have longer service lives. This study was done to estimate pavement damage due to dynamic wheel loads generated for...

J. Hancock M. Akhter M. Hossain

2004-01-01

206

Development of a Real-Time Transverse Pavement Profile Measurement System: Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has been using a five-sensor rut bar system that uses measurements made with ultrasonic sensor technology to automatically collect pavement rutting for Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) purposes. ...

R. S. Walker

2006-01-01

207

Evaluation of Three Porous Pavement Systems in a Newly Constructed Parking Lot  

EPA Science Inventory

This project examines porous pavement systems in a newly constructed parking lot next to Building 205 at the Edison Environmental Center. Porous pavement systems are one means of promoting environmental sustainability through stormwater runoff reduction. This project examines t...

208

Comparing finite element and constitutive modelling techniques for predicting rutting of asphalt pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of different finite element (FE) modelling techniques and material constitutive models on predicting rutting in asphalt pavements under repeated loading conditions. Different simplified 2D and more realistic 3D loading techniques are simulated and compared for predicting asphalt rutting. This study also evaluates and compares the rutting performance predictions using different

Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub; Masoud K. Darabi; Chien-Wei Huang; Eyad A. Masad; Dallas N. Little

2011-01-01

209

Comparing finite element and constitutive modelling techniques for predicting rutting of asphalt pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of different finite element (FE) modelling techniques and material constitutive models on predicting rutting in asphalt pavements under repeated loading conditions. Different simplified 2D and more realistic 3D loading techniques are simulated and compared for predicting asphalt rutting. This study also evaluates and compares the rutting performance predictions using different

Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub; Masoud K. Darabi; Chien-Wei Huang; Eyad A. Masad; Dallas N. Little

2012-01-01

210

Development of the Asphalt Institute's Deflection Method for Designing Asphalt Concrete Overlays for Asphalt Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throughout the world there are a number of overlay design procedures for the strengthening of existing pavements. These procedures are based on local environment and it is difficult to extrapolate them to new areas and to new materials. Very few, if any, ...

R. I. Kingham

1969-01-01

211

Improved Mix Design, Evaluation, and Materials Management Practices for Hot Mix Asphalt with High Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Content.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recycling of asphalt pavements is one of the great success stories of the highway building industry. Although the use of recycled asphalt in new pavements dates back almost 100 years, it did not become a common practice until the late 1970s when asphalt b...

J. R. Willis M. Marasteanu R. West

2013-01-01

212

Evaluation of clay content in soils for pavement engineering applications using GPR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay content significantly influences the mechanical behavior of soils, thereby playing an important role in many fields of applications such as civil engineering, geology and agriculture. In the area of pavement engineering, clay content in structural bearing courses of pavement frequently causes damages and defects, such as transversal and longitudinal cracks, or other faults. The main consequence is a lowering of both the road safety and operability, with the number of expected accidents increasing. In this study, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) laboratory tests were carried out to predict the clay amount in pavement structural layers under different clay and moisture conditions. GPR data processing is performed using two different methods. The first method is based on the Fresnel theory and focuses on the Rayleigh scattering of the radar waves. The approach is based on a different scattering of the various components of the frequency spectrum, mostly depending on both the soil texture and variation in soil moisture content. For the application of this method, we used a pulse radar with ground-coupled, 500 MHz centre-frequency antennas in a common offset, bistatic configuration. The transmitter and receiver were linked by optic fiber electronic modules. The second method is based on full-waveform inversion of the ultra wideband radar data. In particular, a specific radar-antenna electromagnetic model is used to filter out antenna effects and antenna-medium interactions from the raw radar data and retrieve the response of the soil only, expressed in terms of a layered medium Green's function. To estimate the medium geometrical and electrical values, an optimization inverse problem is formulated. For the application of that second method, we used a vector network analyzer (VNA) as continuous-wave stepped-frequency radar system to acquire data in the 500-3000 MHz frequency range. A doubled-ridged broadband horn antenna operating in far-field conditions was used as transmitter and receiver, and was connected to the radar using a high-quality coaxial cable. Typical road materials for subgrade and sub-base courses were used. In particular, three types of soils classified, respectively, as A1,A2,A3 by AASHTO were used and adequately compacted in electrically and hydraulically isolated boxes. A copper sheet was laid at the bottom of the experimental boxes to control the bottom boundary conditions in the electromagnetic model. Basically, two significant cases were considered for each soil type, taking into account the 0% and the 25% by weight of bentonite clay, respectively. Water was gradually added and GPR measurements were carried out for all moisture steps until the maximum saturation level was reached. Concerning the Rayleigh scattering method, analyses show a high consistency of the results with respect to our expectations. A negative correlation between the shift of the frequency spectrum peaks and the clay amount was demonstrated, by virtue of its strong hygroscopic properties. Similarly, the full-waveform inversion technique allowed to measure reliable electric parameters. Generally, different responses (e.g. electric conductivity and permittivity) of the 0% clay-member cases compared to those of the analogous clayey soil samples highlight the large potentiality of both methods for the detection of clay.

Tosti, Fabio; Patriarca, Claudio; Benedetto, Andrea; Slob, Evert C.; Lambot, Sébastien

2013-04-01

213

Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: A Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a critical review of existing literature and modeling tools related to life-cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pavements. The review finds that pavement LCA is an expanding but still limited research topic in the literature, and that the existing body of work exhibits methodological deficiencies and incompatibilities that serve as barriers to the widespread utilization of LCA by pavement engineers and policy makers. This review identifies five key issues in the current body of work: inconsistent functional units, improper system boundaries, imbalanced data for asphalt and cement, use of limited inventory and impact assessment categories, and poor overall utility. This review also identifies common data and modeling gaps in pavement LCAs that should be addressed in future work. These gaps include: the use phase (rolling resistance, albedo, carbonation, lighting, leachate, and tire wear and emissions), asphalt fumes, feedstock energy of bitumen, traffic delay, the maintenance phase, and the end-of-life phase. This review concludes with a comprehensive list of recommendations for future research, which shed light on where improvements in knowledge can be made that will benefit the accuracy and comprehensiveness of pavement LCAs moving forward.

Santero, Nicholas; Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad

2010-04-20

214

Cloud Impacts on Pavement Temperature in Energy Balance Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecast systems provide decision support for end-users ranging from the solar energy industry to municipalities concerned with road safety. Pavement temperature is an important variable when considering vehicle response to various weather conditions. A complex, yet direct relationship exists between tire and pavement temperatures. Literature has shown that as tire temperature increases, friction decreases which affects vehicle performance. Many forecast systems suffer from inaccurate radiation forecasts resulting in part from the inability to model different types of clouds and their influence on radiation. This research focused on forecast improvement by determining how cloud type impacts the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and subsequent pavement temperatures. The study region was the Great Plains where surface solar radiation data were obtained from the High Plains Regional Climate Center's Automated Weather Data Network stations. Road pavement temperature data were obtained from the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System. Cloud properties and radiative transfer quantities were obtained from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System mission via Aqua and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite products. An additional cloud data set was incorporated from the Naval Research Laboratory Cloud Classification algorithm. Statistical analyses using a modified nearest neighbor approach were first performed relating shortwave radiation variability with road pavement temperature fluctuations. Then statistical associations were determined between the shortwave radiation and cloud property data sets. Preliminary results suggest that substantial pavement forecasting improvement is possible with the inclusion of cloud-specific information. Future model sensitivity testing seeks to quantify the magnitude of forecast improvement.

Walker, C. L.

2013-12-01

215

A numerical approach to evaluate the risk of differential surface icing on pavements with insulated sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a numerical study on the differential icing risk at the surface of pavements with insulated sections in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Differential icing situations occur when slippery conditions form on the surface of insulated pavement sections while adjacent conventional pavement sections maintain dry surface conditions. A heat transfer model that considers the climate

Jean Côté; Jean-Marie Konrad

2005-01-01

216

Statistical analysis of acoustic measurements for assessing pavement surface condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a method for assessing pavement surface condition using measurements from a microphone mounted underneath a moving vehicle. Such measurements will include tire-generated sound, which carries much information about the road condition, as well as noise generated by the wind and vehicle. The proposed method uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to extract the tire-generated sound from the noisy measurements. The analysis begins with acoustic pressure measurements made over constant and known road conditions. Fourier transforms are taken over various time windows and a PCA is performed over the resulting vectors, yielding to a set of principal component vectors for that road condition. Each road condition is characterized by a set of principal component vectors. These vector sets are used to analyze measurements from a road with unknown road conditions by finding the vector set that best represents the acoustic measurements from that road. Successful applications of this method are demonstrated by accurate estimations of the mean texture depth (MTD) of pavement directly from acoustic measurements.

Zhang, Yiying; Ma, Xin; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

2012-03-01

217

Climate Change and the Performance of Pavement Infrastructure in Southern Canada: Context and Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is ample evidence in the engineering literature to suggest that pavement infrastructure is sensitive to climate, principally through the deterioration or deformation processes of thermal cracking, rutting, and frost heave and thaw settlement. These processes are introduced in the paper and explained within the context of pavement management. Several empirically-derived indicators, many of them used in pavement design or

Brian Mills; S. Tighe; J. Andrey; K. Huen; S. Parm

2006-01-01

218

New Jersey Experimental Pavement Project Route I-80 and I-95.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the twenty-year performance of an AASHO satellite experimental pavement project which consisted of nine test sections of various base course materials and two surface courses. The objectives in undertaking the experimental pavement pr...

R. F. Baker J. J. Quinn

1988-01-01

219

Cosmogenic {sup 3}He surface-exposure dating of stone pavements. Implications for landscape evolution in deserts  

SciTech Connect

The formation of stone pavements, a ubiquitous gravel armor mantling landforms in arid regions of the world, has been previously attributed to erosion by wind and water or alternating shrinking and swelling of soil horizons, implying that gravel is concentrated at the land surface in a time-transgressive manner. A newly proposed model for pavement evolution differs from these models in that pavement clasts are continuously maintained at the land surface in response to deposition and pedogenic modification of windblown dust. In-situ cosmogenic {sup 3}He surface-exposure ages on volcanic and alluvial landforms in the Mojave Desert of California are used to understand pavement evolution over geologic time scales and to test this new model. These exposure ages are stratigraphically consistent, show internal consistency at each site, and, for stone pavements adjacent to pristine, continuously exposed volcanic bedrock, are indistinguishable at the 1{sigma} level. We conclude that stone pavements are born at the surface and that pavements may provide one of the longest-term records of geologic, hydrologic, and climatic processes operating on desert surfaces. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Wells, S.G. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); McFadden, L.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Poths, J.; Olinger, C.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-07-01

220

Development on preventive maintenance management system for expressway asphalt pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the status that there was no expressway pavement preventive maintenance management system at home and abroad at present, based on the technology theory obtained by the author and the demands and process of expressway asphalt pavement preventive maintenance management, preventive maintenance management system for expressway asphalt pavement (EPMMS (V1.0)) was developed. The work or functions of expressway

Hu Guoxiang; Li Jie

2010-01-01

221

Evaluation of Pavement Performance on DEL 23.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1994, a ramp containing two AC and two PCC sections in the SPS-8 experiment was constructed on the Ohio SHRP Test Road. In 1996, 36 more sections in the SPS-1, SPS-2 and SPS-9 experiments were opened to traffic on the mainline pavement. The response an...

S. M. Sargand

2007-01-01

222

Friction evaluation of concrete paver blocks for airport pavement applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and use of concrete paver blocks is reviewed and some general specifications for application of this type of pavement surface at airport facilities are given. Two different shapes of interlocking concrete paver blocks installed in the track surface at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are described. Preliminary cornering performance results from testing of 40 x 14 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires are reviewed. These tire tests are part of a larger, ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction and Radial Tire (START) Program involving several different tire sizes. Both dry and wet surface conditions were evaluated on the two concrete paver block test surfaces and a conventional, nongrooved Portland cement concrete surface. Future test plans involving evaluation of other concrete paver block designs at the ALDF are indicated.

Yager, Thomas J.

1992-01-01

223

Digital image processing as a tool for pavement distress evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information obtained through accurate condition assessment of pavement surface distress data is needed as an essential input to any decision making process concerning pavement management policy. At the same time technological advances in automated inspection systems provide the opportunity to automate the collection and evaluation of the pavement surface condition. In this paper a method developed jointly by the

A. Georgopoulos; A. Loizos; A. Flouda

1995-01-01

224

Generation of phase nuclei by solitons of the new "undulator" type in martensitic phase transitions of crystalline materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microdynamics of large-amplitude nonlinear lattice vibrations of plutonium and uranium materials has been investigated at high reactor temperatures in the ranges of martensitic phase transitions. Topologically new large-amplitude solitons of the "undulator" type have been revealed. Transverse and longitudinal "undulator" solitons in crystals with hexagonal and cubic symmetry, depending on the direction of motion, have different kinematic and amplitude characteristics, which differ from the characteristics of the previously known solitons. The transverse "undulator" solitons, like electrons in undulators, are observed with periodic atomic displacements orthogonal to the direction of soliton propagation. The longitudinal "undulator" solitons with displacements of atoms in the direction of soliton propagation are characterized by periodic delays with two-step velocities on the trajectory in a certain analogy with two-period engineering undulator devices. It has been shown that, at high energies, such "undulator" solitons of two types generate nuclei of a new phase in early stages of structural phase transitions.

Dubovsky, O. A.; Orlov, A. V.

2013-08-01

225

Hypolithic Microbial Community of Quartz Pavement in the High-Altitude Tundra of Central Tibet  

PubMed Central

The hypolithic microbial community associated with quartz pavement at a high-altitude tundra location in central Tibet is described. A small-scale ecological survey indicated that 36% of quartz rocks were colonized. Community profiling using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed no significant difference in community structure among a number of colonized rocks. Real-time quantitative PCR and phylogenetic analysis of environmental phylotypes obtained from clone libraries were used to elucidate community structure across all domains. The hypolithon was dominated by cyanobacterial phylotypes (73%) with relatively low frequencies of other bacterial phylotypes, largely represented by the chloroflexi, actinobacteria, and bacteriodetes. Unidentified crenarchaeal phylotypes accounted for 4% of recoverable phylotypes, while algae, fungi, and mosses were indicated by a small fraction of recoverable phylotypes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9653-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Wong, Fiona K. Y.; Lacap, Donnabella C.; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Aitchison, J. C.; Cowan, Donald A.

2010-01-01

226

Investigation into Pavement Curing Materials, Application Techniques, and Assessment Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of curing compounds were applied to lab and field concrete at different times after casting. Two application methods, single and double layer applications, were employed. Concrete properties, such as electrical conductivity, moisture content, sorptivity, degree of hydration, strength, and permeability were evaluated, and the results were employed for assessment of the curing effectiveness. The investigation indicated that properties

Kejin Wang; James K. Cable; Zhi Ge

227

Cost-effective selection and multi-period scheduling of pavement maintenance and rehabilitation strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimization methodology is developed for determining the most cost-effective maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) activities for each pavement section in a highway pavement network, along an extended planning horizon. A multi-dimensional 0-1 knapsack problem with M&R strategy-selection and precedence-feasibility constraints is formulated to maximize the total dollar value of benefits associated with the selected pavement improvement activities. The solution approach is a hybrid dynamic programming and branch-and-bound procedure. The imbedded-state approach is used to reduce multi-dimensional dynamic programming to a one-dimensional problem. Bounds at each stage are determined by using Lagrangian optimization to solve a relaxed problem by means of a sub-gradient optimization method. Tests for the proposed solution methodology are conducted using typical data obtained from the Texas Department of Transportation.

Yoo, J.; Garcia-Diaz, A.

2008-03-01

228

Evaluation of MDOT's Distress Thresholds for Maintained Pavement Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As an alternative to traditional contracting, pavement warranty has been adopted in Mississippi since 2000, aimed to enhance pavement performance and protect the investment in pavement construction. Currently, a manual distress survey method and the assoc...

A. El Gendy F. Wang Y. Qi

2012-01-01

229

LTPP Data Analysis: Daily and Seasonal Variations in Insitu Material Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of the effects of temperature and moisture on pavement materials, knowledge of the variation in insitu material properties of pavement layers is essential for evaluating the effective structural capacity of the pavement. However, the relationships...

E. C. Drumm R. Meier

2003-01-01

230

Enhancing the resolution of gpr spectra for pavement engineering applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface. This non-destructive method uses electromagnetic radiation and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures. It can detect objects, changes in material, and voids and cracks. GPR has many applications in a number of fields. In the field of civil engineering one of the most advanced technologies used for road pavement monitoring is based on the deployment of advanced GPR systems. One of the most relevant causes of road pavement damage is often referable to water intrusion in structural layers. In this context, GPR has been recently proposed as a method to estimate moisture content in a porous medium without preventive calibration. Hence, the development of methods to obtain an estimate of the moisture content is a crucial research field involving economic, social and strategic aspects in road safety for a great number of public and private Agencies. In particular, a recent new approach was proposed to estimate moisture content in a porous medium basing on the theory of Rayleigh scattering, showing a shift of the frequency peak of the GPR spectrum towards lower frequencies as the moisture content increases in the soil. The weakness characterizing this approach is represented by the needs of high resolution signals, whereas GPR spectra are affected by low resolution. Hence, the rising requirement for high resolution leads to specific demands for improved prediction methods. Recently, a new technique combining the response of the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT, well known for its high-precision receiving signal level) with that of the MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm, well known for its super-resolution capacity has been proposed. This combined method has been proved to obtain a high precision level in quantifying the shift of the frequency peak of the GPR spectrum. This combined method can perform a reliable coarse estimate of the (abscissa of the) frequency peak. Unfortunately, whereas resolution affecting the GPR spectra has been enhanced, we still need a sensible increasing of the moisture content to appreciate a visible frequency shift. Hence, sub-sample resolution techniques are needed to obtain a resolution better than the sample period. Addressing some of these issues, this work proposes a sub-sample resolution technique exploiting a fast parabolic interpolator, running on three samples of the GPR spectrum in the neighborhood of the frequency peak (i.e. the coarse estimation). More in details, the new detector searches for the (abscissa of the) vertex of the parabola fitted over three GPR samples: the coarse estimate of the frequency peak, and one sample before and after this estimation. The rationale behind the new fast parabolic approach is as follows. We expect the method to obtain a finer estimation of the (abscissa of the) frequency peak because we are now interpolating a parabola in the neighborhood of the same maximum (i.e the coarse estimate), but with a narrow variance thus increasing the estimation accuracy. No noteworthy increase of computational complexity and processing throughput is required to implement the new approach. In fact, near the totality of the amount of the required computation is due to the former stage (i.e. FFT and/or MUSIC implementation to evaluate the coarse estimate of the frequency peak), and the latter logic (i.e. the interpolation function) is negligible from implementation and computational point of view. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach to evidence and quantify moisture content in soil. In fact, the proposed sub-sample super resolution technique can resolve a frequency shift in the GPR spectrum even for a corresponding amount of moisture less than 2-3%.

Benedetto, F.; Benedetto, A.

2012-04-01

231

Use of crushed concrete products in Minnesota pavement foundations. Final report, 1987-1994  

SciTech Connect

The report reviews eleven field and laboratory studies that have been performed to address concerns about the use of recycled concrete aggregate in pavement foundations. Performance concerns have centered on the possible impairment of drainage systems by deposits of calcium carbonate precipitate and other fines derived from the recycled concrete base materials. Environmental concerns have focused on the relatively high pH of the effluent produced by drainage systems that remove water from ungreated recycled concrete aggregate foundation layers. The studies considered in the report demonstrate that all recycled concrete aggregates are capable of producing various amounts of precipitate, with the precipitate potential being directly related to the amount of freshly exposed cement mortar surface. It appears that selective grading and blending with virgin aggregates are techniques that should significantly reduce precipitate potential. One study suggests that washing recycled concrete products will reduce accumulations of crusher dust and other fines in and around the pavement drains. Others indicate that the use of filter fabrics with sufficiently high initial permittivity will allow the accumulation of precipitate and other fines without significant impairing drainage function. The report discusses study results related to environmental concerns and provides recommendations for revisions to current specifications.

Synder, M.B.

1995-03-01

232

Desert pavement study at Amboy, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desert pavement is a general term describing a surface that typically consists of a thin layer of cm-sized rock fragments set on top of a layer of finer material in which no fragments are found. An understanding of desert pavement is important to planetary geology because they may play a major role in the formation and visibility of various aeolian features such as wind streaks, which are important on Mars and may be important on Venus. A field study was conducted in Amboy, California to determine the formation mechanism of desert pavements. The probable sequence of events for the formation and evolution of a typical desert pavement surface, based on this experiment and the work of others, is as follows. Starting with a layer of surface material consisting of both fine particles and rock fragments, aeolian deflation will rapidly erode the surface until an armored lag is developed, after which aeolian processes become less important. The concentration of fragments then slowly increases as new fragments are brought to the surface from the subsurface and as fragments move downslope by sheet wash. Sheet wash would be responsible for removing very fine particles from the surface and for moving the fragments relative to one another, forming interlocks.

Williams, S.; Greeley, R.

1984-04-01

233

Desert pavement study at Amboy, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Desert pavement is a general term describing a surface that typically consists of a thin layer of cm-sized rock fragments set on top of a layer of finer material in which no fragments are found. An understanding of desert pavement is important to planetary geology because they may play a major role in the formation and visibility of various aeolian features such as wind streaks, which are important on Mars and may be important on Venus. A field study was conducted in Amboy, California to determine the formation mechanism of desert pavements. The probable sequence of events for the formation and evolution of a typical desert pavement surface, based on this experiment and the work of others, is as follows. Starting with a layer of surface material consisting of both fine particles and rock fragments, aeolian deflation will rapidly erode the surface until an armored lag is developed, after which aeolian processes become less important. The concentration of fragments then slowly increases as new fragments are brought to the surface from the subsurface and as fragments move downslope by sheet wash. Sheet wash would be responsible for removing very fine particles from the surface and for moving the fragments relative to one another, forming interlocks.

Williams, S.; Greeley, R.

1984-01-01

234

Analysis, testing and verification of the behavior of composite pavements under Florida conditions using a heavy vehicle simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whitetopping (WT) is a rehabilitation method to resurface deteriorated asphalt pavements. While some of these composite pavements have performed very well carrying heavy load, other have shown poor performance with early cracking. With the objective of analyzing the applicability of WT pavements under Florida conditions, a total of nine full-scale WT test sections were constructed and tested using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) in the APT facility at the FDOT Material Research Park. The test sections were instrumented to monitor both strain and temperature. A 3-D finite element model was developed to analyze the WT test sections. The model was calibrated and verified using measured FWD deflections and HVS load-induced strains from the test sections. The model was then used to evaluate the potential performance of these test sections under critical temperature-load condition in Florida. Six of the WT pavement test sections had a bonded concrete-asphalt interface by milling, cleaning and spraying with water the asphalt surface. This method produced excellent bonding at the interface, with shear strength of 195 to 220 psi. Three of the test sections were intended to have an unbonded concrete-asphalt interface by applying a debonding agent in the asphalt surface. However, shear strengths between 119 and 135 psi and a careful analysis of the strain and the temperature data indicated a partial bond condition. The computer model was able to satisfactorily model the behavior of the composite pavement by mainly considering material properties from standard laboratory tests and calibrating the spring elements used to model the interface. Reasonable matches between the measured and the calculated strains were achieved when a temperature-dependent AC elastic modulus was included in the analytical model. The expected numbers of repetitions of the 24-kip single axle loads at critical thermal condition were computed for the nine test sections based on maximum tensile stresses and fatigue theory. The results showed that 4" slabs can be used for heavy loads only for low-volume traffic. To withstand the critical load without fear of fatigue failure, 6" slabs and 8" slabs would be needed for joint spacings of 4' and 6', respectively.

Tapia Gutierrez, Patricio Enrique

235

Fast simulated annealing inversion of surface waves on pavement using phase-velocity spectra  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The conventional inversion of surface waves depends on modal identification of measured dispersion curves, which can be ambiguous. It is possible to avoid mode-number identification and extraction by inverting the complete phase-velocity spectrum obtained from a multichannel record. We use the fast simulated annealing (FSA) global search algorithm to minimize the difference between the measured phase-velocity spectrum and that calculated from a theoretical layer model, including the field setup geometry. Results show that this algorithm can help one avoid getting trapped in local minima while searching for the best-matching layer model. The entire procedure is demonstrated on synthetic and field data for asphalt pavement. The viscoelastic properties of the top asphalt layer are taken into account, and the inverted asphalt stiffness as a function of frequency compares well with laboratory tests on core samples. The thickness and shear-wave velocity of the deeper embedded layers are resolved within 10% deviation from those values measured separately during pavement construction. The proposed method may be equally applicable to normal soil site investigation and in the field of ultrasonic testing of materials. ?? 2006 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

Ryden, N.; Park, C. B.

2006-01-01

236

Effect of Concrete Shoulders on Concrete Pavement Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field program of strain and deflection measurements was conducted. The objective of the program was to evaluate the effect of frozen support, tied-concrete shoulder, and tridem-axle loading on concrete pavement performance. Results of the study on the e...

S. D. Tayabji C. G. Ball P. A. Okamoto

1983-01-01

237

Effect of Frozen Support on Concrete Pavement Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field program of strain and deflection measurements was conducted. The objective of the program was to evaluate the effect of frozen support, tied-concrete shoulder, and tridem-axle loading on concrete pavement performance. Results of the study on the e...

C. G. Ball S. D. Tayabji P. A. Okamoto

1983-01-01

238

Prediction of Wet-Pavement Skid Resistance and Hydroplaning Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current means of predicting the skid resistance of a wet pavement and the speed at which hydroplaning would occur are based on empirical models or relationships derived from experimental studies. These models and relationships are applicable only for the conditions specified, and extrapolations beyond the applicability range of parameters (e.g., vehicle speed, tire load, tire inflation pressure, water film

Ghim Ping Ong; T F Fwa

2007-01-01

239

Implementation of an Automated Rating Procedure for Pavement Surface Roughness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study on the implementation of a Rating Procedure for Pavement Surface Roughness was divided into three tasks. The first task involved the automation of the collection and processing of roughness data. The task involved using a microprocessor-based da...

G. F. Hayhoe J. C. Wambold W. H. Park

1982-01-01

240

Summary of Experimental Concrete Pavements in New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes a 22-year study of concrete pavement design features. It included construction of a test road with numerous variables, two roads with several major design changes, and several roads among the first to incorporate a major change in lo...

J. M. Vyce

1988-01-01

241

Mathematical model of frost heave and thaw settlement in pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1975 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Federal Highway Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration have been working cooperatively to develop a mathematical model to estimate frost heave and thaw weakening under various environmental conditions and for various pavement designs. A model has been developed. It is a one-dimensional representation of vertical heat and moisture flux. It is

Gary L. Guymon; Richard L. Berg; Theodore V. Hromadka

1993-01-01

242

Implementation of Warm-Mix Asphalt Mixtures in Nebraska Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of several WMA mixtures as potential asphalt paving mixtures for Nebraska pavements. To that end, three well-known WMA additives (i.e., Sasobit, Evotherm, and Advera synthetic zeolite) ...

H. Ban J. Zhang Y. R. Kim

2012-01-01

243

Evaluation of Concrete Pavement Repair Using Precast Technology in Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Virginia Transportation Research Council has recently evaluated the use of precast con- crete patches for repairing jointed concrete pavement in Virginia. Six patches were placed: three had dowels cast into them during fabrication, and three had dowels inserted in place (dowel bar retrofit). Fabrication and placement were documented. The load transfer efficiency at the joints and the ride quality

Shabbir Hossain; Celik Ozyildirim

244

Construction and testing of crumb rubber modified hot mix asphalt pavement. Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was structured towards addressing that portion of ISTEA which directs the individual states to conduct studies on the recyclability of crumb rubber modified hot mix asphalt (CRMHMA), and the technical performance of CRMHMA pavement by monitoring the construction and evaluating the performance of highway test sections in which CRMHA is removed by cold milling and recycled into new

G. E. Albritton; G. R. Gatlin

1996-01-01

245

Measurement of the Pore Size Distrubition of Limestone Aggregates in Concrete Pavement Cores: Phase I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Freeze-thaw damage is one of the common forms of distress for concrete pavements in Kansas. D-Cracking is a form of freeze-thaw damage caused by aggregates with poor freeze-thaw durability. It is believed that pores in the aggregates below 10 micro m in d...

A. Esmaeily K. A. Riding M. Mirzahosseini

2012-01-01

246

Cooler reflective pavements give benefits beyond energy savings: durability and illumination  

SciTech Connect

City streets are usually paved with asphalt concrete because this material gives good service and is relatively inexpensive to construct and maintain. We show that making asphalt pavements cooler, by increasing their reflection of sunlight, may lead to longer lifetime of the pavement, lower initial costs of the asphalt binder, and savings on street lighting and signs. Excessive glare due to the whiter surface is not likely to be a problem.

Pomerantz, Melvin; Akbari, Hashem; Harvey, John T.

2000-06-01

247

Article title misstates the role of pavement sealers.  

PubMed

The claim made in the title of Witter et al. (2014) "Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: A major PAH source to urban stream sediments" is not supported by the data presented. The author's use of Pearson correlation coefficients is insufficient to indicate causation. The application of spatial analysis and principle component analysis did not include sealer specific inputs, so provides no basis for the claim. To test the hypothesis that sealers are a source of PAHs in the stream studied, EPA's Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) source evaluation model was applied to Witter's sediment data. CMB found an excellent fit (R(2) > 0.999) between measured and modeled PAH concentrations when sealers were not included as a potential source. This finding does not support Witter et al. (2014) claim that sealers are a major source of PAHs. PMID:24373812

O'Reilly, Kirk

2014-08-01

248

Thickness and air voids measurement on asphalt concrete pavements using ground-penetrating radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layer thickness and air voids are important parameters in quality assurance of newly paved hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. A non-destructive testing (NDT) technique was used to collect layer thickness information. The thicknesses estimated by the technique were compared with core thicknesses. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) system with air coupled antennas was used for on-site pavement data collection. Two application softwares - RADAN and ROAD DOCTOR - were used to process the field data for estimating layer thicknesses and air voids along the scanned pavements. 150 mm diameter cores taken from random locations on the pavements were tested in the laboratory to determine layer thickness and air voids. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare thicknesses and generate a regression equation relating air voids and dielectric constant of the pavement material. No significant differences were found between thickness estimates from RADAN and ROAD DOCTOR softwares when compared to the core measurements. However, RADAN and ROAD DOCTOR results are marginally significantly different from each other. ROAD DOCTOR software was used to generate air voids for the pavements scanned. Laboratory results from cores were utilized to determine calibration factors for the air voids -- dielectric equation. A relationship between air voids and dielectric constant is presented. It is concluded that GPR system with air coupled antennas used alongside a reduced core testing has a potential for quality control of newly paved hot mixed asphalt pavements.

Dhakal, Sharad Raj

249

Discrimination of source reactor type by multivariate statistical analysis of uranium and plutonium isotopic concentrations in unknown irradiated nuclear fuel material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of identifying the provenance of unknown nuclear material in the environment by multivariate statistical analysis of its uranium and\\/or plutonium isotopic composition is considered. Such material can be introduced into the environment as a result of nuclear accidents, inadvertent processing losses, illegal dumping of waste, or deliberate trafficking in nuclear materials. Various combinations of reactor type and fuel

Martin Robel; Michael J. Kristo

2008-01-01

250

Lichen colonization of the Roman pavement at Baelo Claudia (Cadiz, Spain): biodeterioration vs. bioprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the effect of lichen colonization on the first century A.D. pavement of the forum at Baelo Claudia, a Roman city located in southern Spain. Lichen colonization is scarce, covering only 13% of the total surface. The rest of the flagstones are mostly uncovered but show strong physico-chemical weathering. The flagstones colonized by lichens do not show weathering.

X. Ariño; J. J. Ortega-Calvo; A. Gomez-Bolea; C. Saiz-Jimenez

1995-01-01

251

An assessment of the skid resistance effect on traffic safety under wet-pavement conditions.  

PubMed

Pavement-tire friction provides the grip that is required for maintaining vehicle control and for stopping in emergency situations. Statistically significant negative correlations of skid resistance values and wet-pavement accident rates have been found in previous research. Skid resistance measured with SCRIM and crash data from over 1750km of two-lane rural roads in the Spanish National Road System were analyzed to determine the influence of pavement conditions on safety and to assess the effects of improving pavement friction on safety. Both wet- and dry-pavement crash rates presented a decreasing trend as skid resistance values increased. Thresholds in SCRIM coefficient values associated with significant decreases in wet-pavement crash rates were determined. Pavement friction improvement schemes were found to yield significant reductions in wet-pavement crash rates averaging 68%. The results confirm the importance of maintaining adequate levels of pavement friction to safeguard traffic safety as well as the potential of pavement friction improvement schemes to achieve significant crash reductions. PMID:19540980

Pardillo Mayora, José M; Jurado Piña, Rafael

2009-07-01

252

Hydraulic and treatment performance of pervious pavements under variable drying and wetting regimes.  

PubMed

Pervious pavements are an effective stormwater treatment technology. However, their performance under variable drying and wetting conditions have yet to be tested, particularly under a continuous time scale. This paper reports on the clogging behaviour and pollutant removal efficiency of three pervious pavement types over 26 accelerated years. These pavements were monolithic porous asphalt (PA), Permapave (PP) and modular Hydrapave (HP). Over a cycle of 13 days, the period of which was equivalent to the average annual Brisbane, Australia rainfall (1,200 mm), the pavements were randomly dosed with four different flows. Drying events of 3 h duration were simulated during each flow. Inflow and outflow samples were collected and analysed for Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Nitrogen (TN). To evaluate the rate of clogging, a 1 in 5 year Brisbane storm event was simulated in the 6th, 8th, 12th, 16th, 20th and 24th week. Under normal dosing conditions, none of the pavements showed signs of clogging even after 15 years. However, under storm conditions, both PA and HP started to clog after 12 years, while PP showed no signs of clogging after 26 years. The drying and various flow events showed no effects in TSS removal, with all systems achieving a removal of approximately 100%. The average TP removal was 20% for all flows except for low flow, which had a significant amount of leaching over time. Leaching from TN was also observed during all flows except high flow. The TSS, TP and TN results observed during storm events were similar to that of high flow. PMID:22335113

Yong, C F; Deletic, A; Fletcher, T D; Grace, M R

2011-01-01

253

Temperature Control Strategies for Microwave Hot In-Place Recycling of Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to realize the optimal temperature control for microwave hot in-place recycling of asphalt pavements, the electric field in heating process was solved based on the radio propagation principle, and the equation of heat flow control was established by the theory of permeability plate. The temperature control model was built through coupling between the two equations. The exact solution

Tongsheng Sun; Jinfei Shi; Zhisheng Zhang; Jianyong Zheng

2009-01-01

254

Hot Bituminous Pavement Gradation Acceptance Review of QC/QA Data 2000 to 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report analyzes the Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) data for hot bituminous pavements using gradation acceptance awarded in the years 2000 to 2002. Analysis of the overall performance of the projects is accomplished by reviewing the Calcula...

E. Chavez

2004-01-01

255

Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Review of QC/QA Data 2000 Through 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report analyzes the Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) data for Portland cement concrete pavement (PCCP) awarded in the years 2000 through 2009. Analysis of the overall performance of the projects is accomplished by reviewing the Calculated Pa...

J. Goldbaum V. DeLuccie

2011-01-01

256

Hot Bituminous Pavement Gradation Acceptance Review of QC/QA Data 2000 through 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report analyzes the Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) data for hot bituminous pavements using gradation acceptance awarded in the years 2000 to 2003. Analysis of the overall performance of the projects is accomplished by reviewing the Calcula...

E. Chavez

2005-01-01

257

Structure simulation of MCM-41 type materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural properties of mesoporous molecular sieves with MCM-41 type structure were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The ratio between wall thickness and pore diameter was varied and the stabilization energy of the lattice was determined for a pore diameter range between 15 and 49Å. With decreasing wall thickness and increasing pore radius an increase of the stabilization energy was

K. Kleestorfer; H. Vinek; A. Jentys

2001-01-01

258

Development of material evaluation method by using a pulsed neutron transmission with pixel type detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectroscopic neutron imaging is attractive in the research field of energy-selective neutron radiography. Imaging using the time-of-flight (TOF) method at a pulsed neutron source is very suitable for such spectroscopic measurements. We developed new two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detectors (2D-PSNDs) aiming at high detection efficiency, high counting rate and high time resolution which are the most important 2D-PSND performances for the spectroscopic imaging. These detectors consist of independent 6Li-glass (Ce) scintillator pixels, and have been used in various pulsed neutron transmission experiments. As a result, we have succeeded in developing various new imaging techniques; crystallographic, nuclide-selective and thermographic imaging.

Sato, H.; Takada, O.; Satoh, S.; Kamiyama, T.; Kiyanagi, Y.

2010-11-01

259

Maintenance Methods for Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In late 1974, test maintenance sections were constructed on a section of I-65 south of Indianapolis, Indiana. The road was stratified into 'similar' sections of pavement using deflection, cracking, and breakup as selection criteria. Various types of measu...

S. J. Virkler

1978-01-01

260

Mobile acoustic system for the detection of surface-breaking cracks in pavement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the structural condition of road and airport pavement is an extremely critical task to ensure the safety and efficiency of teh transportation. The topic is relevant to both civil and military transportation infrastructure. The presence of damage in pavement, including surface cracking, depressions, swells, and wear, is inevitable due to the sever environmental and service loads that these structures must be subject to. Existing NDE techniques aimed at assessing the structural condition of pavement include Falling Weight Deflectometer, Ground Penetrating Radar, and acoustic methods based on surface waves. This paper presents improvements to the traditional surface-wave method for the detection of surface-breaking cracks in pavement. The advances include 1) the modeling of the problem as dipsersive waves propagating in a multilayer system, 2) the inclusion of post-processing algorithms based on the Wavelet Transform to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the inspection, and 3) the use of non-contact, air-coupled acoustic detectors to enhance the mobility of the inspection unit. The crack detection procedure consists of first generating a dispersive wave with an impulse hammer, and then measuring the changes in velocity, amplitude and/or frequency content as the wave travels across the flaw with the aid of the Continuous Wavelet Transform. Multilayer wave propagation modeling provides a better understanding of the experimental results by predicting how the various frequencies interact with cracks of different depths. The results of field tests will be presented for both rigid (concrete-based) and flexible (bitumen-based) pavement with surface cracks.

Marzani, Alessandro; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Benzoni, Gianmario

2004-07-01

261

An application of smart dust for pavement condition monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pavement maintenance is vital for travel safety; detecting road weather conditions using a wireless sensing network poses many challenges due to the harsh environment. This paper presents some preliminary results of an ongoing effort of applying "Smart Dust" sensor network for monitoring pavement temperature and moisture condition to detect icy road condition. Careful considerations yield effective solutions to various hardware and software development issues including the selection of sensors and antenna, design of casing, interfacing motes with alien sensors and programming of motes. A series of experiments is carried out to study traffic interference to packet delivery performance of a small-scale sensor network in a pseudo-field environment. In addition, several overnight tests are conducted to study the performance of motes operated under a power efficient condition. The results are analyzed and challenges are identified in this smart sensing application. The aforementioned research activities would benefit robust real-world implementations of off-the-shelf sensor network products.

Ferzli, Nadim A.; Ivey, Richard A.; King, Timothy; Sandburg, Colby J.; Pei, Jin-Song; Zaman, Musharraf M.; Refai, Hazem H.; Lin, Hung, Jr.; Landrum, Aaron; Victor, Rory

2006-04-01

262

Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Implementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recently introduced Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) and associated computer software provides a state-of-practice mechanistic-empirical highway pavement design methodology. The MEPDG methodology is based on pavement responses compu...

N. R. Stires R. L. Baus

2010-01-01

263

POROUS PAVEMENT: RESEARCH; DEVELOPMENT; AND DEMONSTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's porous pavement research program along with the economics, advantages, potential applications, and status and future research needs of porous pavements. Porous pavements are an available stormwater management techniq...

264

Full scale demonstration of air-purifying pavement.  

PubMed

Experiments concerning a full-scale demonstration of air purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands, are reported. The full width of the street was provided with concrete pavement containing TiO? over a length of 150 m ("DeNOx street"). Another part of the street, about 100 m, was paved with normal paving blocks ("Control street"). The outdoor monitoring was done during 26 days for a period exceeding one year, and measured parameters included traffic intensity, NO, NO? and ozone concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and the visible and UV light irradiance. Prior and parallel to these field measurements, the used blocks were also measured in the lab to assess their performance. The NOx concentration was, on average, 19% (considering the whole day) and 28% (considering only afternoons) lower than the obtained values in the Control street. Under ideal weather conditions (high radiation and low relative humidity) a NOx concentration decrease of 45% could be observed. PMID:23731840

Ballari, M M; Brouwers, H J H

2013-06-15

265

Evaluation of Long-Term Pavement Performance and Noise Characteristics of Open-Graded Friction Courses - Project 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the second of three experimental installations of open-graded friction course (OGFC) quieter pavements designed to reduce the noise generated at the tire/pavement interface. Experimental sections of OGFC were built using asphalt rubb...

J. Weston J. S. Uhlmeyer K. W. Anderson M. Russell T. Sexton

2012-01-01

266

Cutting of Solid Type Molded Composite Materials by Q-switched Fiber Laser with High-Performance Nozzle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the effects of the nozzle shape on cutting results and fundamental characteristics of laser cutting of solid type molded composite materials, which was composed of semiconductor board and epoxy-resin molding compounds, by Q-switched single-mode fiber laser. Experimental results clarified that high speed cutting of 16 mm/s could be carried out using a Laval throat nozzle with initial expansion zone, which also led to straighter kerf shape and narrower kerf width than other nozzles. Besides, Laval throat nozzle made it possible to reduce the kerf width, and the difference of kerf width between irradiation-side and exit-side became smaller. Nitrogen assist gas led to the narrow kerf width and straight kerf shape. Furthermore, the difference of kerf between substrate side and epoxy-resin side became smaller. Substrate side irradiation was more suitable for precision cutting than epoxy-resin side irradiation. These results proved that Q-switched single-mode fiber laser was useful for cutting of composite materials.

Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kitada, Ryoji; Uno, Yoshiyuki; Doi, Hiroyuki

267

Geocomposite Capillary Barrier Drain for Limiting Moisture Changes in Pavement Subgrades and Base Courses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project determined the effectiveness of a geocomposite capillary barrier drain (GCBD) system in preventing pavement damage by controlling moisture movement in pavement subgrade and base course. A number of geotextiles were evaluated for their suitabi...

K. S. Henry J. C. Stormont

2002-01-01

268

Test Performance of Thermoplastic Markings on New York Concrete Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermoplastic centerline markings were installed at 25 sites on portland cement concrete pavement throughout New York State to evaluate their performance under various pavement and weather conditions, and to identify factors affecting their performance. T...

E. D. McNaught J. T. Capelli G. F. Gurney

1977-01-01

269

Effects of aggregate gradations on properties of Grouted Macadam composite pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grouted Macadam composite pavement (GMCP) is generally a composite pavement which is manufactured by preparing a highly workable fluid mortar which is specially designed with a very high early and 28 day strength (1 day - 45 MPa, 28 day - 105 MPa) by filling the flowing fluid mortar into a very open porous asphalt skeleton (25-32% Voids in Mix

N. M. Husain; H. B. Mahmud; M. R. Karim; N. B. A. A. Hamid

2010-01-01

270

Hybrid green permeable pave with hexagonal modular pavement systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modular permeable pavements are alternatives to the traditional impervious asphalt and concrete pavements. Pervious pore spaces in the surface allow for water to infiltrate into the pavement during rainfall events. As of their ability to allow water to quickly infiltrate through the surface, modular permeable pavements allow for reductions in runoff quantity and peak runoff rates. Even in areas where the underlying soil is not ideal for modular permeable pavements, the installation of under drains has still been shown to reflect these reductions. Modular permeable pavements have been regarded as an effective tool in helping with stormwater control. It also affects the water quality of stormwater runoff. Places using modular permeable pavement has been shown to cause a significant decrease in several heavy metal concentrations as well as suspended solids. Removal rates are dependent upon the material used for the pavers and sub-base material, as well as the surface void space. Most heavy metals are captured in the top layers of the void space fill media. Permeable pavements are now considered an effective BMP for reducing stormwater runoff volume and peak flow. This study examines the extent to which such combined pavement systems are capable of handling load from the vehicles. Experimental investigation were undertaken to quantify the compressive characteristics of the modular. Results shows impressive results of achieving high safety factor for daily life vehicles.

Rashid, M. A.; Abustan, I.; Hamzah, M. O.

2013-06-01

271

Aircraft-Pavement Interaction Studies, Phase I: A Finite-Element Model of a Jointed Concrete Pavement on a Non-Linear Viscous Subgrade (Dynamic Interaction of Aircraft-Pavement Systems).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a finite-element procedure for analyzing multilayered concrete airfield pavements. An 'equivalent plate' theory is used to account for the increased stiffness provided by a stabilized base or a structural overlay. The stiffness is als...

A. C. Eberhardt

1973-01-01

272

On-site inspections of pavement damages evolution using GPR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is being increasingly used for pavements maintenance due to the wide range of applications spanning from physical to geometrical inspections, thereby allowing for a reliable diagnosis of the main causes of road structural damages. In this work, an off-ground GPR system was used to investigate a large-scale rural road network. Two sets of surveys were carried out in different time periods, with the main goals to i) localize the most critical sections; ii) monitor the evolution of previous damages and localize newborn deep faults, although not revealed at the pavement surface level; iii) analyze the causes of both evolution and emergence of faults by considering environmental and human factors. A 1-GHz GPR air-launched antenna was linked to an instrumented van for collecting data at traffic speed. Other support techniques (e.g. GPS data logger, odometer, HD video camera) were used for cross-checking,. Such centre frequency of investigation along with a 25-ns time window allow for a signal penetration of 900 mm, consistent with the deepest layer interfaces. The bottom of the array was 400 mm over the surface, with a minimum distance of 1200 mm from the van body. Scan length of maximum 10 km were provided for avoiding heavy computational loads. The rural road network was located in the District of Rieti, 100 km north from Rome, Italy, and mostly develops in a hilly and mountainous landscape. In most of the investigated roads, the carriageway consists in two lanes of 3.75 meters wide and two shoulders of 0.50 meters wide. A typical road section includes a HMA layer (65 mm average thickness), a base layer (100 mm average thickness), and a subbase layer (300 mm average thickness), as described by pavement design charts. The first set of surveys was carried out in two days at the beginning of spring in moderately dry conditions. Overall, 320-km-long inspections were performed in both travel directions, thereby showing a productivity of approximately 160 km/day at 40 km/h speed, on the average. After processing and first-checking, GPR profiles were divided into homogeneous sections according to the combination of different parameters (e.g. route analyzed, long distance conditions of regularity/irregularity in layers arrangement). In such context, a high consistency between surface damages, mismatches from the GPR scans, and boundary environmental conditions was demonstrated. In addition, deep mismatches were detected even for early-stage or unrevealed faults. The second set of surveys was carried out in autumn in high humidity conditions, due to recent rainfalls. 160 km of relevant routes from the same road network were investigated. Results showed a high consistency with those collected during the first-stage of surveys. Minor changes were found in those sections with low traffic loads (e.g. farther away from the biggest town of Rieti), whereas major mismatches were detected in wetlands (e.g. close to rivers), work zones, and nearby those sections already deeply damaged in the past. This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar'.

Tosti, Fabio; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro; Benedetto, Andrea

2014-05-01

273

Testing and Trial Deployment of a Cost-Effective and Real-Time Asphalt Pavement Quality Indicator System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project designed and tested a low cost pavement quality indicator based on capacitance energy dissipation technique to measure asphalt density of asphalt pavements. A prototype system was designed and fabricated, and evaluated in the laboratory to est...

P. Sawchuk R. Sovik

1997-01-01

274

SATURATED - UNSATURATED HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF SUBBASE COURSE MATERIAL AND SUBGRADE SOIL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to evaluate the rainwate r storage and infiltration properties of the permeable pavement by unsaturated seepage analysis or gas-liquid two-phase flow analysis, it is important to know the unsaturated hydraulic properties of materials wh ich constitute the pavement. For this reason, we showed the unsaturated hydraulic properties of porous asphalt material s but we have not clarified the relation between the performance of the permeable pavement and the properties of all constituti on materials. In this paper, we try to determine the unsaturated hydraulic properties of subbase course and subgrade materials that greatly affect the rainwater storage and infiltration properties of the permeable pavement. We show from experiments that water retention characteristic and the un saturated hydraulic properties of subbase course and subgrade materials well match the van Genuchten model and the Irmay model.

Yano, Takao; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Nakashima, Shin-Ichiro; Moriishi, Kazushi; Ohnishi, Yuzo

275

Development of an evaporation-optimized and water-permeable pavement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent decades, urban areas have been threatened more frequently by flood events. Furthermore, the potential for damage from these events has increased on average. The construction of houses, streets and parking lots has caused this trend by sealing the ground surface, i.e. these water-impermeable areas reduce the natural infiltration and evaporation-rates, and in some cases it is even completely stopped. The consequence is the so called "urban water cycle". Water from precipitation cannot be stored anywhere and so there is an immediate and very high surface run-off effect. Especially after intense rain events, canalisations and sewage-treatment plants are overloaded and this leads to higher costs for water treatment and to environmental damage. A practical solution to this problem is the use of water-permeable pavements. Here higher infiltration rates lead to a groundwater recharge that is greater than that of natural soils. The consequences from using these surfaces are already noticeable in many places through increasing groundwater levels. These increases cause damage to buildings. A second difference from a natural-soil water-balance is a lower evapotranspiration rate. Up to now the evaporation rates for water-permeable pavements has not been established accurately. The aim of the applied research project at the University of Muenster, which is sponsored by the DBU (The German Federal Environmental Foundation), is to gain knowledge of urban evaporation rates and of water-permeable surfaces, especially water-permeable pavements. Water-permeable pavements consist of the paving stone surface and the two sub-base layers below. Pre-investigations show that evaporation can be influenced by the complete sub-base. Therefore, the first step was to investigate which materials are used for sub-base construction. All in all, 27 materials were collected from throughout Germany and these materials were then tested (in terms of physical and hydraulic attributes) in the soil-mechanics laboratory of the University of Muenster. For their street construction useability, and having regard to evaporation, a selection of appropriate materials were built into a test field. The test field consisted of seven hexagonal areas each about 10 m2 large, which are placed in a honeycomb manner. The evaporation measurements are carried out with a WERNER tunnel-evaporation gauge (TUV) which is able to detect the actual evaporation rate. Its functional principle also allows a direct comparison between the middle reference area and one outer area of the test field. Every measuring period lasts one week and after that the TUV is moved to between the next outer area and the reference area. So the TUV rotates over the whole test field and every measuring area is covered by a measurement. In addition, a Hellman rain-gauge near the test field enables the measurement of a direct precipitation-evaporation ratio. Since the start of the measurements in July 2008, the first results collected showed that measureable differences in evaporation rates could be detected after a few measuring periods, i.e. the differences are up to 32% between the reference area and one outer area. In July 2009, the six outer measuring areas of the test field will be replaced and, based on the actual results collected, the sub-base layers will be replaced by an evaporation-optimized sub-base. The new outer measuring areas will only differ in terms of a different paving-stone surface. These paving stones are actually under developement and under laboratory testing (i.e. permeability, porosity, capillary water and evaporationrates), and so they will be evaporation-opimized. The open-air test in the test field is to assure and compare the evaporation rates. As a final result, the evaporation-optimized and water-permeable pavement and the knowledge of its exact drainage ratio will allow city planners or architects to build water-permeable streets with due regard to the respective area-specific conditions. This new developed pavement is an approximation to the water balanc

Starke, P.; Göbel, P.; Coldewey, W. G.

2009-04-01

276

Development of Field Data for Effective Implementation of Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides summary of the work that was carried out to assess the merits of the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design approach and attempts to calibrate the procedure for application in Nebraska. Mechanistic Empirical (M-E) design of pavements i...

A. Azizinamini M. A. Stanigzai N. Ala

2009-01-01

277

Modelling of Mechanical Properties of Cement Concrete Incorporating Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries there is a trend to recycle wastes obtained during pavement maintenance or reconstruction, and to forbid the landfill of these products. Thus, in some circumstances it can be tempting to use reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in new hydraulic concrete mixtures. This paper presents experimental data and modelling about the effect of RAP incorporation on cement concrete mechanical

Vincent Mathias; Thierry Sedran; François de Larrard

2009-01-01

278

A new technology of preventive reinforcement for the semi-rigid base of asphalt pavement expressway  

Microsoft Academic Search

As for the existing treated methods for the base layer of asphalt pavement, there were at least two main shortages: the one was the lagged technology, the other one was the unseasonable choosing of treated time. In order to develop a new preventive maintenance technologies for the asphalt pavement, in this paper, the authors propose that, before the damages happen

Guo-xiang Hu; Jie Li; Bai-lin Sun

2011-01-01

279

A Statistical Analysis of the Effect of Wet Pavement Friction on Highway Traffic Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on analysis of statistical association between wet pavement friction and roadway crashes aimed at answering these questions: (1) Is wet pavement friction a significant factor for explaining variation in crash history? (2) Is this factor more relevant at locations with high expected braking frequency, such as sharp curves and intersections?The data set includes “found data” locations with

John N. Ivan; Nalini Ravishanker; Eric Jackson; Brien Aronov; Sizhen Guo

2012-01-01

280

Leaching of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from reclaimed asphalt pavement.  

PubMed

The work presented herein displays the results of a study addressing environmental concerns related to the possible leaching of pollutants from reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples from an experimental site were tested in both static batch tests and column leaching tests. Selected heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in leachates. The results have allowed us to consider the leaching of pollutants to be rather weak for most of the parameters studied. Concentrations in solutions from batch leaching tests were generally below the EC limit values for drinking water. Pollutant concentrations from column experiments were higher in solutions as of the initial leaching stages, but then decreased rapidly and wound up at values below the detection limits. The factors influencing results proved to be the material grain size and the percolation water flow rate. Results from leaching experiments performed on core samples taken on two rebuilt road section pavements, containing 10% and 20% of reclaimed asphalt pavement, respectively, confirmed the results obtained from the batch and column experiments. PMID:16083938

Legret, M; Odie, L; Demare, D; Jullien, A

2005-09-01

281

Identification of frost susceptible aggregates and their use in concrete or bituminous pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coarse aggregates have been recognized as potential sources of deterioration of concrete exposed to freezing and thawing action. Whenever coarse aggregates are involved, deterioration of pavement structures can take place as pitting, pop-outs, and varying extents of D-cracking. Recently, serious damage of bituminous pavements was observed where the coarse aggregate fraction played an important role. In some concrete and bituminous

Salcedo

1984-01-01

282

THE INFLUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION QUALITY CONTROL DATA VARIABILITY ON PAVEMENTS EVOLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting pavement evolution is a fundamental component in pavement maintenance and rehabilitation management work. However, it is very complex to carry out due to several drawbacks, namely a common use of inadequate quality control procedures or a lack of reproducibility of quality control data. This paper describes the main conclusions of a study on the influence of construction quality control

Elisabete Fraga de Freitas; Paulo Pereira; Luís de Picado-Santos

283

Depletion of E. coli in permeable pavement mineral aggregate storage and reuse systems.  

PubMed

Permeable pavement reservoirs provide an important opportunity for the harvesting and storage of stormwater for reuse. This research aims to determine whether storage in dolomite, calcite and quartzite mineral aggregates in the base course of a permeable pavement impacts on the survival of the pathogen indicator organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) in storage. The reasons for depletion were also investigated. Twelve model permeable pavement storage reservoirs were filled, in triplicate, with dolomite, calcite and quartzite. Three reservoirs contained no aggregate. After filling with pathogen spiked rainwater, the concentration of E. coli was examined for 22 days in the reservoirs. The reservoirs were then agitated to determine if there was E. coli present which was not in aqueous suspension. The results of the experiments show that there is no significant difference in the depletion of E. coli found in reservoirs without aggregate, and those filled with dolomite or calcite. The rate of depletion was found to be significantly lower in the quartzite filled reservoirs. Agitation of the reservoirs yielded increases in the aqueous concentration of E. coli in all reservoir types, suggesting that the bacteria are adhering to the surface of the mineral aggregate and to the reservoir walls. PMID:19955632

Myers, B R; Beecham, S; van Leeuwen, J A; Keegan, A

2009-01-01

284

Development of a structural index for pavement management: An exploratory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the structural condition of a highway pavement is important for pavement management at both the network level and the project level, particularly when the system monitoring, evaluation, and decision-making are to be made in a context of multiple criteria that include structural condition. A key aspect of the performance criteria for multiple criteria decision making is that the

William Fredrick Flora

2009-01-01

285

New structural systems for zero-maintenance pavements. Volume 3: Anchored pavement system designed for Edens Expressway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of the Edens Expressway subjected to mechanical and environmental loads using the anchored pavement concept is discussed. The mechanical and thermal properties of materials that could be encountered in future reconstruction of Edens Expressway are presented in a consistent form for computer programming. These properties are viewed as typical design values during investigation of pavement response. The behavior

S. K. Saxena; S. G. Militsopoulos

1980-01-01

286

Cracks in desert pavement rocks: Further insights into mechanical weathering by directional insolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of cracks is a fundamental first step in the physical weathering of rocks in desert environments. In this study we combine new field data from the Mojave (U.S.), Gobi (Mongolia) and Strzelecki (Australia) deserts that collectively support the hypothesis that meridional cracks (cracks with orientations not readily attributable to rock anisotropies or shape) in boulders or cobbles form due to tensile stresses caused by directional heating and cooling during the sun's daily transit. The new studies indicate that rock size, surface age, and latitude play important roles with respect to their influence on rock fracture. Rock size and pavement surface age exert an influence on the development of rock cracks as the average clast size of mature desert pavements may be at or below the threshold-clast size for thermal cracking of rocks. Latitude-controlled seasonal temperature variations play a key role, as demonstrated by: 1) tightly clustered mean resultant orientations that differ by latitude, as predicted in McFadden et al. (2005), and 2) very cold wintertime temperatures and strong diurnal gradients that may favor crack development in wintertime, given the likelihood for strong clast heating during early morning hours. The consistent evidence for meridional cracks in surfaces of diverse age and desert environments, climate, vegetation, and distance of clast transport indicate that directional insolation may play the key role in initially generating and propagating rock fractures, rather than a secondary role as implied in recent field and modeling studies of physical weathering in deserts.

Eppes, Martha Cary; McFadden, Leslie D.; Wegmann, Karl W.; Scuderi, Louis A.

2010-11-01

287

A Pavement Feedback Data System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The complex character of highway pavements coupled with ever-increasing traffic volumes and variability of climatic conditions have made it imperative that service life data be collected and analyzed to guide the design of new and reconstructed pavements....

O. G. Strom W. R. Hudson J. L. Brown

1972-01-01

288

Discussion on the Prediction Method of the Pavement Performance for Expressway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The empirical regression model was selected for forecasting the preventive maintenance time; the grey system theory was used to determine if pavements were fit for preventive maintenance. Combined with the instance, on the forecasting of the pavement performance for an expressway, the application of the grey system theory was introduced.

He Xiao-ming; Guan Peng; Hu Guo-xiang; Zhou Lin

2009-01-01

289

Validation of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Model using Airfield Pavement Multiple Wheel Load Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various highway vehicle axle\\/wheel arrangements and aircraft gear configurations adopted nowadays to accommodate increasing load levels impact flexible pavement response and performance in accordance with different multiple wheel loading scenarios. As the demand for heavier wheel loads and number of load applications continually increases, it is essential to properly characterize the nonlinear behavior of the pavement subgrade and unbound aggregate

Minkwan Kim; Erol Tutumluer

2010-01-01

290

Modeling of Mn/ROAD Test Sections with the CRREL Mechanistic Pavement Design Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory is developing a mechanistic pavement design procedure for use in seasonal frost areas. The procedure was used to predict pavement performance of some test sections under construction at the Mn...

S. R. Bigl R. L. Berg

1996-01-01

291

Modeling of Mn/ROAD Test Sections with the CRREL Mechanistic Pavement Design Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Cold Research and Engineering Laboratoey is developing a mechanistic pavement design procedure for use in seasonal frost areas. The procedure was used to predict pavement performance of some test sections at the Mn/ROAD facility. Simulations...

S. R. Bigl R. L. Berg

1996-01-01

292

Thermal Stability Analysis under Embankment with Asphalt Pavement and Cement Pavement in Permafrost Regions  

PubMed Central

The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8?m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results.

Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

2013-01-01

293

Evaluation of Rehabilitation Techniques for Flexible and Rigid Pavements in Nevada. Part 1. Cost-Effective Rehabilitation of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement in Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study, was to evaluate the feasibility of several rehabilitation strategies for Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) pavement. Recommendations were made for future crack and seat, rubblization, and reconstruction projects based on a review o...

S. Bemanian

1999-01-01

294

Pavement Management Roadmap, Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored the development of a Pavement Management Roadmap to help identify the steps needed to address current gaps in pavement management and to establish research and development initiatives and priorities. Thi...

J. Krstulovich K. A. Zimmerman L. M. Pierce

2010-01-01

295

Western States Drainable PCC Pavement Workshop. Held in Sacramento, California on July 21-22, 1993. Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Overview of Pavement Drainage Systems; Performance of Drainable PCC Pavements in Washington State; Arizona Experience With Concrete Pavements; Drainable PCC Pavements in Oregon; A Performance Evaluation of PCC Pavements Constructed on Permeable ...

R. Baumgardner L. Pierce G. Way L. Moore K. Smith S. Bemanian M. Farrar J. Stites G. Wells W. Nokes W. Frank J. Woodstrom

1993-01-01

296

Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

2011-02-05

297

Use of High-Volume Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) for Asphalt Pavement Rehabilitation Due to Increased Highway Truck Traffic from Freight Transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recent rise in asphalt binder prices has led state agencies and contractors to use higher quantities of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Besides being economic, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, RAP can be replaced for a portion of aggregates ...

H. Musty M. Hossain N. Sabahfer

2012-01-01

298

Porous flame-retarded asphalt pavement for highway tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new way to improve the tunnel fire protection by using flame-retarded porous asphalt pavement containing ATH powders was\\u000a introduced. Based on the miniature burning test designed and conducted, the burning time and temperature of porous asphalt\\u000a (PA) and flame-retarded porous asphalt (FRPA) were studied comparing with cement concrete pavement, dense-graded HMA and SMA.\\u000a Results of burning test and pavement

Shuguang Hu; Shaolong Huang; Qingjun Ding

2008-01-01

299

Pavement Evaluation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the current (1976) Air Force method for load evaluation of airfield pavements. The technique makes use of wave-propagation data and finite-element computer codes to determine the load capacity of pavements. The computer code also pro...

J. P. Nielsen G. T. Baird

1976-01-01

300

Bituminous Pavement Polishing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eleven test strips containing replicate sections of bituminous pavements used in Pennsylvania were placed at the behest of a Joint Industry-PennDOT Task Force to investigate field performance of the aggregates. Fifty-two aggregate samples and 223 pavement...

S. H. Dahir W. E. Meyer

1974-01-01

301

Effectiveness of low impact development practices in two urbanized watersheds: retrofitting with rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement.  

PubMed

The impacts of urbanization on hydrology and water quality can be minimized with the use of low impact development (LID) practices in urban areas. This study assessed the performance of rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement as retrofitting technologies in two urbanized watersheds of 70 and 40 km(2) near Indianapolis, Indiana. Six scenarios consisting of the watershed existing condition, 25% and 50% implementation of rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement, and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% porous pavement were evaluated using a proposed LID modeling framework and the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA)-LID model. The model was calibrated for annual runoff from 1991 to 2000, and validated from 2001 to 2010 for the two watersheds. For the calibration period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.60 and 0.50 for annual runoff and streamflow. Baseflow was not calibrated in this study. During the validation period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.50 for runoff and streamflow, and 0.30 for baseflow in the two watersheds. The various application levels of barrel/cistern and porous pavement resulted in 2-12% reduction in runoff and pollutant loads for the two watersheds. Baseflow loads slightly increased with increase in baseflow by more than 1%. However, reduction in runoff led to reduction in total streamflow and associated pollutant loads by 1-9% in the watersheds. The results also indicate that the application of 50% rain barrel/cistern, 50% porous pavement and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% porous pavement are good retrofitting options in these watersheds. The L-THIA-LID model can be used to inform management and decision-making for implementation of LID practices at the watershed scale. PMID:23474339

Ahiablame, Laurent M; Engel, Bernard A; Chaubey, Indrajeet

2013-04-15

302

Cortisol affects tight junction morphology between pavement cells of rainbow trout gills in single-seeded insert culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary culture system of rainbow trout gill pavement cells grown on permeable support (single-seeded insert, SSI) was used\\u000a to examine histological and physiological changes induced by the addition of the corticosteroid hormone cortisol. Pavement\\u000a cell epithelia were cultured under symmetrical conditions (L15 apical\\/L15 basolateral) and developed a high transepithelial\\u000a resistance (TER, 6.84 ± 1.99 k? cm2, mean ± SEM) with a low phenol red diffusion

Adolf Michael Sandbichler; Julia Farkas; Willi Salvenmoser; Bernd Pelster

303

Precast concrete pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report reviewed published literature on precast concrete pavements and found that precast concrete pavements have had some limited application in airfields, roads, and storage areas. This review of past experience and an analytical study of precast slabs concluded that existing design and construction techniques can be adapted for use with precast concrete pavements, but more work is needed to develop effective and easily constructed load transfer designs for slab joints. Precast concrete does not offer any advantage for conventional pavements due to its high cost and surface roughness, but it may find applications for special problems such as construction in adverse weather, subgrade settlement, temporary pavements that need to be relocated, and military operations.

Rollings, R. S.; Chou, Y. T.

1981-11-01

304

Rapid decision support tool based on novel ecosystem service variables for retrofitting of permeable pavement systems in the presence of trees.  

PubMed

The retrofitting of sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) such as permeable pavements is currently undertaken ad hoc using expert experience supported by minimal guidance based predominantly on hard engineering variables. There is a lack of practical decision support tools useful for a rapid assessment of the potential of ecosystem services when retrofitting permeable pavements in urban areas that either feature existing trees or should be planted with trees in the near future. Thus the aim of this paper is to develop an innovative rapid decision support tool based on novel ecosystem service variables for retrofitting of permeable pavement systems close to trees. This unique tool proposes the retrofitting of permeable pavements that obtained the highest ecosystem service score for a specific urban site enhanced by the presence of trees. This approach is based on a novel ecosystem service philosophy adapted to permeable pavements rather than on traditional engineering judgement associated with variables based on quick community and environment assessments. For an example case study area such as Greater Manchester, which was dominated by Sycamore and Common Lime, a comparison with the traditional approach of determining community and environment variables indicates that permeable pavements are generally a preferred SuDS option. Permeable pavements combined with urban trees received relatively high scores, because of their great potential impact in terms of water and air quality improvement, and flood control, respectively. The outcomes of this paper are likely to lead to more combined permeable pavement and tree systems in the urban landscape, which are beneficial for humans and the environment. PMID:23697848

Scholz, Miklas; Uzomah, Vincent C

2013-08-01

305

Detection of Circumstellar Material in a Normal Type Ia Supernova  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type Ia supernovae are important cosmological distance indicators. Each of these bright supernovae supposedly results from the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf star that, after accreting material from a companion star, exceeds some mass limit, but the true nature of the progenitor star system remains controversial. Here we report the spectroscopic detection of circumstellar material in a normal type

F. Patat; P. Chandra; R. Chevalier; S. Justham; Ph. Podsiadlowski; C. Wolf; A. Gal-Yam; L. Pasquini; I. A. Crawford; P. A. Mazzali; A. W. A. Pauldrach; K. Nomoto; S. Benetti; E. Cappellaro; N. Elias-Rosa; W. Hillebrandt; D. C. Leonard; A. Pastorello; A. Renzini; F. Sabbadin; J. D. Simon; M. Turatto

2007-01-01

306

Comprehensive Evaluation of Compaction of Asphalt Pavements and Development of Compaction Monitoring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study aimed to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of compaction of asphalt pavements and develop software for monitoring field compaction in real time. In the first phase of this study, the researchers built several test sections that were constructe...

A. Chowdhury E. Kassem E. Masad T. Scullion W. Liu

2012-01-01

307

Pressure Relief Joints for Rigid Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report was prepared to focus attention on damage occurring to some highway bridges as a result of pressure exerted by adjacent rigid pavement slabs. The report illustrates some of the conditions preceding serious bridge damage, and describes several t...

D. E. Gordinier W. P. Chamberlin

1969-01-01

308

The behavior of a slag base pavement structure at P39/1, Erasmia under heavy vehicle simulator loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation of unbound slag as a basecourse material using the Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) was undertaken. Two HVS tests were performed on site P39/1 and with these tests it is possible not only to evaluate slag as a basecourse material, but also to compare it with a good quality crushed-stone base. It was felt that these tests would give further information on the possible use of slag as a basecourse material in Category A roads. A description of the HVS tests on this slag base pavement is given. The test results were evaluated using mechanistic analysis techniques. The behavior of the pavement structure is described and analyzed, and dry conditions are compared with wet conditions. Finally, general recommendations are made on the use of high standard slag bases.

Horak, E.; Maree, J. H.

1982-02-01

309

The Effects of Silica Fume and Fly Ash on the Scaling Resistance and Flexural Strength of Pavement Concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Silica Fume (SF) and Fly Ash (FA) additives on the frost salt scaling resistance and flexural strength properties of pavement concrete. An attempt is also made to attain a more durable and higher strength concrete by a suitable combination of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), SF and FA. SF and

Engin Yener; Sinan Hinislio?lu

2011-01-01

310

Multimodal approach to seismic pavement testing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A multimodal approach to nondestructive seismic pavement testing is described. The presented approach is based on multichannel analysis of all types of seismic waves propagating along the surface of the pavement. The multichannel data acquisition method is replaced by multichannel simulation with one receiver. This method uses only one accelerometer-receiver and a light hammer-source, to generate a synthetic receiver array. This data acquisition technique is made possible through careful triggering of the source and results in such simplification of the technique that it is made generally available. Multiple dispersion curves are automatically and objectively extracted using the multichannel analysis of surface waves processing scheme, which is described. Resulting dispersion curves in the high frequency range match with theoretical Lamb waves in a free plate. At lower frequencies there are several branches of dispersion curves corresponding to the lower layers of different stiffness in the pavement system. The observed behavior of multimodal dispersion curves is in agreement with theory, which has been validated through both numerical modeling and the transfer matrix method, by solving for complex wave numbers. ?? ASCE / JUNE 2004.

Ryden, N.; Park, C. B.; Ulriksen, P.; Miller, R. D.

2004-01-01

311

Pavement macrotexture estimation using principal component analysis of tire/road noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation on the prediction of macrotexture Mean Texture Depth (MTD) of pavement from a moving vehicle is conducted. The MTD was predicted by using the tire/road noise measured from a microphone mounted underneath a moving vehicle. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to filter noise from microphone data prioer to estimating its energy over an optimally selected bandwidth. Energy obtained using this method is named PCA energy, hence the developed method for MTD estimation is termed as PCA Energy Method. The acoustic energy is assumed to have positive linear correlation with MTD of pavement. Moreover, PCA was used to differentiate important information about the road surface from noisy data while vehicle is moving, yielding a set of principal component vectors representing the conditions of each road section. This principal component vector was used to compute the PCA energy that is to be used for MTD prediction. The frequency band most relative to pavement macrotexture was determined to be 140 to 700 Hz through theoretical and statistical research. Then, a MTD prediction model was built based on a Taylor series expansion with two variables, PCA energy and the driving speed of the vehicle. The model parameters were obtained from an engineered track (interstate highway) with known MTD, and then applied to urban roads for the feasibility test. The accuracy of the model is 83.61% for the engineered track, which is 10% higher than the previous energy-based methods without PCA treatment. Moreover, applicability of the model is increased by the extended MTD prediction range between 0.2 and 3 mm compared to that of the engineered track having 0.4 to 1.5 mm. In addition, the MTD could be predicted every 7.8 meters and with good repeatability in the urban road test, which proves the feasibility of the proposed approach. Therefore, the PCA Energy Method is a reliable, efficient, and cost effective way to predict MTD for engineering applications as an important index for pavement friction prediction and pavement segregation identification.

Zhang, Yiying; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

2014-04-01

312

Investigating the accelerated deterioration of flexible pavement using two-stage design analysis approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The accelerated deterioration of flexible pavement and its relation to design strength requirements is a major problem facing\\u000a highway engineers. The goal of this research is to investigate a possible relationship between the accelerated pavement deterioration\\u000a rates and pavement design strength using a two-stage design analysis approach.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Approach Overview  The approach in this study applies a two-stage solution to the three

Khaled A. Abaza; Suleiman A. Ashur

2011-01-01

313

Recent advances in the characterization of transportation geo-materials. Geotechnical special publication No. 89  

SciTech Connect

This special publication, sponsored by the Pavements Committee of the Geo-Institute, contains five papers from sessions of the Third National Conference of the Geo-Institute. The goal of the project was to encourage the application of geotechnical fundamentals in pavement design, and help the transfer of new developments in dealing with other earth-supported structures subjected to static, dynamic, and cyclic loads. Papers focus on recent advances in field and laboratory characterization of transportation geo-materials, including the use of various nondestructive testing techniques (falling weight deflecometer, spectral analysis of surface waves, ground penetrating radar, seismic pavement analyzer, Humbold stiffness gauge) and cone penetration testing for field characterization, application of a new Tube Suction test method for characterizing durability of pavement foundation core samples, and laboratory stress path testing of granular materials under dynamic confinement conditions using a new advanced triaxial test device.

Tutumluer, E.; Papagiannakis, A.T. [eds.

1999-07-01

314

Design, Building, and Testing of A Portable Polishing Machine for Pavement Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new portable polishing machine for rapidly polishing a pavement surface to an equilibrium is described. The machine has a built in friction measuring device to indicate the skid resistance while polishing. Initial polishing data is presented by comparin...

G. C. Marshall

1972-01-01

315

Design of Civil Airfield Pavements for Seasonal Frost and Permafrost Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A supply of water, freezing temperatures, and frost-susceptible soil is essential to cause frost action. The report describes the frost susceptibility of various FAA soil groups. The detrimental effects of the frost heaving of airfield pavements are contr...

R. L. Berg

1974-01-01

316

Effect of Concrete Shoulders, Lane Widening and Frozen Subgrade on Concrete Pavement Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fourth and final report of a study to determine the effect of concrete shoulders, lane widening and frozen subgrade on concrete pavement performance is presented. In this portion of the study, Falling Weight Deflectometer tests were conducted seasonal...

G. R. Korfhage

1988-01-01

317

Design Parameters for Two-Layered Pavement Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the values of the modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio obtained for three base materials used in airfield pavement construction. These bases were constructed of sand, select base, and crushed rock. Each base was prepared to form ...

J. Nielsen

1964-01-01

318

Size and composition of airborne particles from pavement wear, tires, and traction sanding.  

PubMed

Mineral matter is an important component of airborne particles in urban areas. In northern cities of the world, mineral matter dominates PM10 during spring because of enhanced road abrasion caused by the use of antiskid methods, including studded tires and traction sanding. In this study, factors that affect formation of abrasion components of springtime road dust were assessed. Effects of traction sanding and tires on concentrations, mass size distribution, and composition of the particles were studied in a test facility. Lowest particle concentrations were observed in tests without traction sanding. The concentrations increased when traction sand was introduced and continued to increase as a function of the amount of aggregate dispersed. Emissions were additionally affected by type of tire, properties of traction sand aggregate, and driving speed. Aggregates with high fragmentation resistance and coarse grain size distribution had the lowest emissions. Over 90% of PM10 was mineral particles. Mineralogy of the dust and source apportionment showed that they originated from both traction sand and pavement aggregates. The remaining portion was mostly carbonaceous and originated from tires and road bitumen. Mass size distributions were dominated by coarse particles. Contribution of fine and submicron size ranges were approximately 15 and 10% in PM10, respectively. PMID:15757329

Kupiainen, Kaarle J; Tervahattu, Heikki; Räisänen, Mika; Mäkelä, Timo; Aurela, Minna; Hillamo, Risto

2005-02-01

319

Design and Evaluation of Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer Dowels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluates fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) dowel bars as load transfering devices in jointed plans concrete pavement (JPCP) under HS25 static and fatigue loads and compares their response with JPCP consisting of steel dowels. Along with laborator...

H. Li H. V. S. GangaRao P. V. Vijay

2009-01-01

320

Development of a Long Range Plan for Engineering Research on Flexible Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A long range plan for engineering research on flexible pavements was developed for the U. S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory at Port Hueneme, California. The findings of the Navy's future needs were developed from interviews with personnel at NCEL and ...

B. M. Callaway C. R. Foster

1966-01-01

321

Pavement Friction Measurements on Nontangent Sections of Roadways. Volume 2. Comprehensive Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is directed toward developing the most practical measurement technique for measuring wet-pavement friction for road sections other than the straight, level portions currently measured. The measurement system must be capable of operating at traf...

R. A. Zimmer R. D. Tonda

1983-01-01

322

Assessment of Clogging Dynamics in Permeable Pavement Systems with Time Domain Reflectometers  

EPA Science Inventory

Infiltration is a primary functional mechanism in green infrastructure stormwater controls. This study used time domain reflectometers (TDRs) to measure spatial infiltration and assess clogging dynamics of permeable pavement systems in Edison, NJ, and Louisville, KY. In 2009, t...

323

Performance of a movable flexible pipe-encapsulated FBG sensor developed for shape monitoring of multi-layered pavement structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large span and heterogeneous components of multi-layered pavement structure usually bring about stochastic damage, and many modern approaches, such as ground penetrating radar, integral imaging and optical fiber sensing technology, have been employed to detect the degeneration mechanism. Restricted by the cost and universality, novel elements for pavement monitoring are in high demand. Optical fiber sensing technology for high sensitivity, long stability, anti-corrosion and resistance to water erosion then is considered. Therefore, a movable FBG sensor located in flexible pipe is developed, which has long stroke inside inner wall of the hollow pipe, and a full-scale shape of the structure could be sketched just with one FBG. Theoretical and experimental methods about establishing the relationship between wavelength variable and curvature have been provided, and function about reconfiguring the coordinate is converted to a mathematic question. Move over, transfer error modification has been taken into account for modify related error. Multi-layered pavement model embedded with this sensor will be accomplished to inspect its performance in later work. The work in the paper affords a feasible method for shape monitoring and would be potentially valuable for the maintenance and inverse design of pavement structure.

Wang, Huaping; Liu, Wanqiu; Zhou, Zhi

2014-03-01

324

Evaluation of remaining fatigue life model for hot-mix asphalt airfield pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several design criteria exist for predicting the fatigue life of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. Researchers previously developed an Aged Asphalt fatigue criterion from laboratory testing of aged field HMA airfield pavements. This criterion is unique because the majority of the existing fatigue criteria were developed from laboratory-prepared specimens. In this paper, a comparison of the Department of Defense (DoD), the

Haley P. Bell; Isaac L. Howard; Reed B. Freeman; E. Ray Brown

2011-01-01

325

Evaluation of remaining fatigue life model for hot-mix asphalt airfield pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several design criteria exist for predicting the fatigue life of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. Researchers previously developed an Aged Asphalt fatigue criterion from laboratory testing of aged field HMA airfield pavements. This criterion is unique because the majority of the existing fatigue criteria were developed from laboratory-prepared specimens. In this paper, a comparison of the Department of Defense (DoD), the

Haley P. Bell; Isaac L. Howard; Reed B. Freeman; E. Ray Brown

2012-01-01

326

Surface runoff from full-scale coal combustion product pavements during accelerated loading  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing coal combustion products (CCPs) was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under well-controlled conditions. An equivalent of 20 years of highway traffic loading was simulated at the OSU/OU Accelerated Pavement Load Facility (APLF). Three types of portland cement concrete driving surface layers were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (PC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50). In general, the concentrations of minor and trace elements were higher in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachates than in the leachates obtained from synthetic precipitation leaching procedure and ASTM leaching procedures. Importantly, none of the leachate concentrations exceeded the TCLP limits or primary drinking water standards. Surface runoff monitoring results showed the highest release rates of inorganic elements from the FA50 concrete pavement, whereas there were little differences in release rates between PC and FA30 concretes. The release of elements generally decreased with increasing pavement loading. Except for Cr, elements were released as particulates (>0.45 {mu} m) rather than dissolved constituents. The incorporation of fly ash in the PC cement concrete pavements examined in this study resulted in little or no deleterious environmental impact from the leaching of inorganic elements over the lifetime of the pavement system.

Cheng, C.M.; Taerakul, P.; Tu, W.; Zand, B.; Butalia, T.; Wolfe, W.; Walker, H. [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States)

2008-08-15

327

Desert pavement characteristics on wadi terrace and alluvial fan surfaces: Wadi Al-Bih, U.A.E. and Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In arid mountain areas, the dating and correlation of alluvial depositional surfaces is often uncertain. Especially in regions where the geomorphology is not well known, surface modification by the development of soil and desert pavement may allow the correlation of geomorphic surfaces and estimation of at least their relative ages. Pleistocene wadi terraces and associated alluvial fans occur in Wadi Al-Bih, U.A.E. and Oman, for which correlations and age relationships are not known. Three age-related groups of fans and terraces have been identified and mapped on the basis of their morphostratigraphic relationships. Deposition of the oldest terrace sediments and associated fans followed a long period of sustained incision after Miocene uplift of the region. The younger two groups of terraces and fans are inset within the older group. To identify the gross effects of pavement development, comparisons have been made between terrace surface and subsurface particle-size distributions. The older terraces have finer surface sediments and a greater contrast between finer surface and subsurface sediments than the younger terraces. This reflects the degree of pavement development. Particle size on the fan surfaces is comparable with that on the equivalent terrace surfaces. Criteria for the classification of pavements were developed based on clast fracturing and angularity, size, sorting, packing, and surface texture, from which a simple index of pavement development has been derived. Other properties, rock varnish and weathering characteristics, were also recorded; but these proved to be less discriminatory than pavement characteristics. The pavement data have been augmented by observations on soils. Detailed studies of pavements on terraces (8 sites, 12 samples covering the three age groups) and fans (5 sites, 10 samples covering the three age groups) allow differentiation between age-groups. The three terraces show three different age-related pavement types, expressed by differences in the pavement development index. Weakly-developed pavements (little fracturing, sub-rounded clasts, some modification of the depositional fabric, incipient soil development, stage I CaCO 3 accumulation) occur on the youngest terrace and fan surfaces. Moderately-developed pavements (clast fracturing, sub-angular clasts, moderate sorting and packing, deeper soil development, stage II CaCO 3 accumulation) occur on the middle terrace and fan surfaces. Well-developed pavements (complete clast fracturing into small angular fragments, mature sorting and packing of the pavement surface, deep soil development with strong horizonation, stage III CaCO 3 accumulation) occur on the highest terrace and oldest fan surfaces. There are minor differences between the youngest pavements on terraces and fans, which reflect initial sedimentological differences. These differences become less as the pavements develop. On the basis of comparative studies, the oldest terrace is estimated to date from sometime prior to ca. 100 ka BP, the second terrace and the most extensive fan surface from the Late Pleistocene, and the youngest terrace and fan phase from the Latest Pleistocene or Early Holocene.

Al-Farraj, Asma; Harvey, Adrian M.

2000-11-01

328

Mathematical model of frost heave and thaw settlement in pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1975 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Federal Highway Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration have been working cooperatively to develop a mathematical model to estimate frost heave and thaw weakening under various environmental conditions and for various pavement designs. A model has been developed. It is a one-dimensional representation of vertical heat and moisture flux. It is based on a numerical solution technique termed the nodal domain integration method, and it estimates frost heave and frost penetration reasonably well for a variety of situations. The model is now ready for additional field evaluation and implementation in appropriate cases. The main objectives of this report are: (1) to describe the model, FROST, including modeling uncertainties and errors; (2) to summarize recent comparisons between measured and computed values for frost heave and frost penetration; and (3) to describe parameters necessary for input into the model.

Guymon, Gary L.; Berg, Richard L.; Hromadka, Theodore V.

1993-04-01

329

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 ?g/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

2014-01-01

330

Systems approach to life-cycle design of pavements. Volume 3: LIFE2 program listing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is the third volume of a three-volume report which documents an automated system (LIFE2) for analyzing pavement designs and maintenance and repair strategies based on life-cycle costs. LIFE2 models existing Corps of Engineers criteria for designing rigid and flexible pavements for airfields, roads, and streets. The program includes analytical procedures for evaluating earthwork, drainage, and frost protection requirements

E. S. Lindow

1979-01-01

331

A method for assessing the physical recovery of Antarctic desert pavements following human-induced disturbances: a case study in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica.  

PubMed

With increasing visitor numbers an understanding of the impacts of human activities in Antarctic terrestrial environments has become important. The objective of this study was to develop a means for assessing recovery of the ground surface desert pavement following physical disturbance. A set of 11 criteria were identified to assess desert pavement recovery. Assessed criteria were: embeddedness of surface clasts; impressions of removed clasts; degree of clast surface weathering; % overturned clasts; salt on underside of clasts; development of salt coatings; armouring per m(2); colour contrast; evidence of subsidence/melt out; accumulation of salt on cut surfaces; and evidence of patterned ground development. Recovery criteria were assigned a severity/extent rating on a scale from zero to four, zero being highly disturbed, and four being undisturbed. A relative % recovery for each criteria was calculated for each site by comparison with a nearby undisturbed control area, and an overall Mean Recovery Index (MRI) was assigned to each pavement surface. To test the method, 54 sites in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica were investigated including areas disturbed by: bulldozer scraping for road-fill, contouring for infrastructure, geotechnical investigations, and experimental treading trial sites. Disturbances had occurred at timescales ranging from one week to 50 years prior to assessment. The extent of desert pavement recovery at the sites investigated in this study was higher than anticipated. Fifty of the 54 sites investigated were in an intermediate, or higher, stage of desert pavement recovery, 30 sites were in an advanced stage of recovery, and four sites were indistinguishable from adjacent control sites (MRI = 100%). It was found that active surfaces, such as the gravel beach deposits at the Greenpeace World Park Base site at Cape Evans, the aeolian sand deposits at Bull Pass, and the alluvial fan deposits of the Loop Moraine field campsite, recovered relatively quickly, whereas less active sites, such as the bulldozed tracks at Marble Point, and Williams Field to McMurdo Station pipeline site on Ross Island, showed only intermediate recovery 20-30 years after disturbance. The slabby grano-diorite surface material at the former Vanda Station site, meant that the impacts that had occurred were hard to detect following decommissioning of the station and site remediation. Desert pavements disturbed by randomly dispersed footprints, temporary field campsites at the Loop Moraine and VXE6 Pond in the Wright Valley, recovered to be undetectable (MRI = 100%) within five years, whereas track formation from repeated trampling, particularly the concentration of larger clasts along the margin of a confined track, persisted for over 15 years (MRI = 82%). The recovery assessment method developed in this study has environmental management applications and potential to advance our ability to predict the recovery of desert pavement following human impacts from activities in Antarctica. PMID:23000478

O'Neill, Tanya A; Balks, Megan R; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; McWhirter, Judi L

2012-12-15

332

Road-runoff metal concentrations in Toledo, Ohio, and their relation to average daily traffic and age of pavement overlay.  

PubMed

Road runoff can contain metal concentrations and sampling of it can be expensive if auto-samplers are used. In this study, an inexpensive storm water sampling apparatus was developed and used for collecting the road runoff at eleven different sites in Toledo area. Sites were selected with the purpose of evaluating the effects of average daily traffic (ADT) and the age of pavement overlay on road runoff metal concentrations. Ag, As, Cd, and Mo concentrations were primarily below detection limit. Ba, Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn were observed in higher concentrations but lower than <800 mug/L. Mg, Al, Fe, K, Na, and Ca were observed in mg/L levels, much higher concentrations. ADT was positively correlated with runoff concentrations of K, Mn, Pb and Zn. The source of Ca, Mg, and Mn appeared to be the asphalt pavement surface; with time, as the pavement aged, these sources appeared to be depleted as observed by lower runoff concentrations in older pavements. PMID:20371930

Apul, D S; Miller, E; Jain, V

2010-01-01

333

Waxing and waning of dreissenid pavements as a possible result of astronomical forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human induced range expansions of invasive dreissenid bivalves are of great concern. However, the underlying biological processes are only poorly understood, partly due to the lack of information on natural expansion events. Here we use the extinct bivalve species Sinucongeria primiformis as a model organism for testing natural (i.e. pre-Anthropocene) blooms of dreissenid species in a lacustrine system of Lake Pannon during the Tortonian (~10.5 Myr; Late Miocene). 600 samples from a consecutive core were evaluated for the relative abundance of this pavement-forming mollusc, which cover about 8 millennia of Late Miocene time with a decadal resolution. The formation of these pavements occurred in repetitive cycles, which were also documented for carious other geophysical and geochemical and biotic proxies. The investigated bivalve was among the most successful species settling in offshore environments of Lake Pannon, where it formed vast pavements. The tolerance for poorly oxygenated lake bottoms close to the epilimnion/hypolimnion boundary was probably the key adaptation to outcompete other species in this lacustrine offshore environment. We document that solar forcing might have played an important role for lake hydrology, which in turn allowed population blooms during phases of improved ecological conditions. The repeated establishment of dysoxic conditions was lethal for the populations and is reflected by pyrite incrustations in the shell cavities. The cyclicities might be expressions of the Gleissberg cycles and the 500 yr cycle, indicating that bottom water oxygenation was strongly influenced by these solar cycles. This example shows that dreissenid bivalves may be pioneers, which quickly dominate aquatic ecosystems even in pre-Anthropocene records. The surprisingly strong influence of solar forcing on the success of the Miocene dreissenids is an overlooked aspect for predicting the population dynamics of extant dreissenids. This study was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF grants P21414-B16 and P25365-B25).

Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Kern, Andrea K.; Piller, Werner E.; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Tom

2014-05-01

334

Field and Laboratory Investigation of Photocatalytic Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In spite of the importance of the national transportation network, there is a growing recognition that highway operations have major environmental impacts during construction and service. High traffic volumes cause high concentration of nitrogen oxides an...

A. Okeil M. Hassan

2012-01-01

335

Precast Repair of Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation into the applicability of precast slabs for rapid repair of CRCP is presented. Analytical techniques are used to study loading of repair slabs due to volume change, wheel loads, and lifting, with detailed results presented in several of t...

G. E. Elkins B. F. McCullough W. R. Hudson

1979-01-01

336

A test of porous pavement effectiveness on clay soils during natural storm events.  

PubMed

Porous pavements allow precipitation to infiltrate through the pavement to the soil, reducing the volume of stormwater runoff produced at a site. However, porous pavements are not widely used on fine-grained soils due to concerns about their performance. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of porous pavements in controlling stormwater runoff on clay soils. We compared the performance of an asphalt parking lot and a porous pavement parking lot of grass pavers in Athens, Georgia, USA, over relatively small and low-intensity rain events. The porous lot produced 93% less runoff than the asphalt lot. The total volume of runoff at the porous lot was significantly less than the asphalt lot (t = 2.96, p = 0.009). Turbidity was significantly greater at the asphalt lot (t = 6.18, p < 0.001) whereas conductivity was significantly higher at the porous lot (t = 2.31, p = 0.03). Metal and nutrient concentrations were below detection limits at both lots during seven of nine small storm events. During events in which we could detect pollutants, calcium, zinc, silica, and total phosphorus concentrations were higher at the asphalt lot whereas total nitrogen concentrations were greater at the porous lot. Our results suggest porous pavements are a viable option for reducing stormwater runoff and some pollutants from small storms or the first flush from large storms on clay soils. PMID:16426659

Dreelin, Erin A; Fowler, Laurie; Ronald Carroll, C

2006-02-01

337

Evaluation of Glauconite Aggregate for Pavement Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Glauconite is an abundant aggregate in east central Texas. However, it is rather soft and thus subject to crushing and abrasion under normal construction processes. The purpose of this research study is to evaluate the quality of glauconite and determine ...

J. W. Button D. N. Little

1997-01-01

338

WINTER MANTEINANCE OF POROUS ASPHALT PAVEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract The maintenance plan of any managing company of road infrastructures requires yearly high expenses for the operator teams which are in charge of salt or de -icing substance spreading on road surfaces. This is particularly onerous in regions where low temperatures or ice formation on road surfaces occur frequently. Such a compulsory spreading operation implies yearly a significant

Felice Giuliani

339

Field Evaluation of Porous Asphalt Pavement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the construction and early performance of a field trial of a Porous Friction Course (PFC) in Indiana. The PFC is compared to an adjacent section of Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) constructed at the same time using the same binder, coars...

R. S. McDaniel W. D. Thornton J. G. Dominguez

2004-01-01

340

Laboratory analysis of the infiltration capacity of interlocking concrete block pavements in car parks.  

PubMed

Interlocking concrete block pavements (ICBPs) have been widely used in car parks to reduce runoff. Researches have demonstrated that clogging is the most influential factor in the reduction of the infiltration capacity of this type of permeable pavement. Nevertheless, there is no laboratory study of the infiltration performance of ICBPs that combines clogging levels with variables related with the topography of car parks such as runoff surface length (R(SL)) and surface slope (S(S)). This paper studies the infiltration behaviour of ICBP during their operational life in a car park using an improved version of the Cantabrian Fixed (CF) Infiltrometer. This laboratory device simulates direct rainfall and runoff from adjacent impervious areas over an ICBPs surface of 0.25 m(2) for different slopes (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10%) and three scenarios of clogging (surface newly built, surface clogged and surface clogged with maintenance). This paper presents the results of the tests and a statistical analysis based on three regression models (corresponding to each clogging scenario) depending on the R(SL) and S(S) variables. All models passed a confidence level of 95%, presenting high R(2) values and showing that R(SL) is a more influential variable than the S(S) for all clogging scenarios. PMID:23202575

Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge; Vega-Zamanillo, Angel; Castro-Fresno, Daniel

2013-01-01

341

SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS: NTC and electrical properties of nickel and gold doped n-type silicon material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon materials compensated by deep level impurities such as nickel and gold have negative temperature coefficient (NTC) characteristics. In this work, n-type silicon wafers are smeared by nickel chloride ethanol solution and gold chloric acid ethanol solution, and subsequently put in the opening environment to heat. The electrical resistance and B-value of the thermistors made by this silicon material are measured and analyzed. When the silicon surface concentration of gold atoms is 2 × 10-6 mol/cm2, the uniformity of the single-crystal silicon material is optimal. When the diffusion temperature is between 900 and 1000 °C, a material with high B-value and low electrical resistivity is obtained. The B-T and R-T change laws calculated by the theory of semiconductor deep level energy are basically consistent with the experimental results.

Maojin, Dong; Zhaoyang, Chen; Yanwei, Fan; Junhua, Wang; Mingde, Tao; Xiuyun, Cong

2009-08-01

342

Perpetual Pavement Instrumentation for the Marquette Interchange Project Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides details on the design, installation and monitoring of a pavement instrumentation system for the analysis of load-induced stresses and strains within a perpetual hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement system. The HMA pavement was constructed a...

D. E. Newman J. A. Crovetti J. P. Schabelski N. J. Hornyak

2007-01-01

343

Structure elucidation of alkaline earth impregnated MCM-41 type mesoporous materials obtained by direct synthesis: An experimental and theoretical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, MCM-41 were synthesized hydrothermally and functionalized with calcium and strontium salts by direct method, using the Si/M = 50 molar ratio, in order to elucidate the way as the alkaline earth is incorporated on MCM-41 molecular sieve. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and theoretical calculations by DFT method. Experimental results and computer simulations showed that the alkaline earths were incorporated on MCM-41 through a complex structure, which negatively influences on basic sites formation.

Paz, Gizeuda L.; Silva, Francisco das Chagas M.; Araújo, Maciel M.; Lima, Francisco das Chagas A.; Luz, Geraldo E.

2014-06-01

344

Thermal conductance of and heat generation in tire-pavement interface and effect on aircraft braking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite-difference analysis was performed on temperature records obtained from a free rolling automotive tire and from pavement surface. A high thermal contact conductance between tire and asphalt was found on a statistical basis. Average slip due to squirming between tire and asphalt was about 1.5 mm. Consequent friction heat was estimated as 64 percent of total power absorbed by bias-ply, belted tire. Extrapolation of results to aircraft tire indicates potential braking improvement by even moderate increase of heat absorbing capacity of runway surface.

Miller, C. D.

1976-01-01

345

Federal Aviation Administration Airport Pavement Management and Airport Pavement Roughness Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides the status of two ongoing nondestructive testing (NDT) programs by the FAA: (1) PAVEAIR a web-based Airport Pavement Management System and (2) research subjective responses of pilots to vibrations induced by airport pavement roughness using a Boeing simulator. By 2011, the FAA is scheduled to complete a three-year effort to create an internet-based computer program for airport

Albert LARKIN; Gordon F. HAYHOE

346

Pavement Base Drain Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Portions of the Department's highway drainage system design have recently been revised. Essentially, the longitudinal drainage trench was moved closer to the pavement/shoulder joint, and the fine concrete sand layer was eliminated as a trench backfill mat...

G. L. Hoffman

1981-01-01

347

PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 ?g m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 ?g m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ?PAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ?PAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2-3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ?PAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (˜1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

2012-05-01

348

PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 ?g m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 ?g m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ?PAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ?PAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2–3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ?PAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (~1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

2012-01-01

349

On-site infiltration of road runoff using pervious pavements with subjacent infiltration trenches as source control strategy.  

PubMed

The focus in this work was on subsoil infiltration of stormwater from parking lots. With regard to operation, reduced infiltration performance due to clogging and pollutants in seepage, which may contribute to contaminate groundwater, are of interest. The experimental investigation covered a pervious pavement with a subjacent infiltration trench draining an impervious area of 2 ha. In order to consider seasonal effects on the infiltration performance, the hydraulic conductivity was measured tri-monthly during monitoring with a mobile sprinkling unit. To assess natural deposits jointing, road bed, gravel of infiltration trenches and subsoil were analysed prior to commencement of monitoring for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons. Furthermore, from 22 storm events, water samples of rainfall, surface runoff, seepage and ground water were analysed with regard to the above mentioned pollutants. The study showed that the material used for the joints had a major impact on the initial as well as the final infiltration rates. Due to its poor hydraulic conductivity, limestone gravel should not be used as jointing. Furthermore, it is recommended that materials for the infiltration facilities are ensured free of any contaminants prior to construction. Polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons were, with the exception of surface runoff, below detection limits. Heavy metal concentrations of groundwater were with the exception of lead (because of high background concentrations), below the permissible limits. PMID:22179634

Fach, S; Dierkes, C

2011-01-01

350

Impact of Truck Loading on Design and Analysis of Asphaltic Pavement Structures-Phase II. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, Schaperys nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is implemented into the commercial finite element (FE) software ABAQUS via user defined subroutine (user material, or UMAT) to analyze asphalt pavement subjected to heavy truck loads. Then...

H. Ban S. Im Y. Kim

2011-01-01

351

Binzhou Perpetual Pavement Test Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressway construction has been carried out on a large-scale in China. Vigorous economical development has caused rapid growth in traffic volume and truck axle loads creating a severe challenge for the pavement structure design. Therefore, the high-performance and low- maintenance cost of a long-life perpetual pavement structure is gaining attention. This paper discusses the first perpetual asphalt pavement test road

Yongshun Yang; Jincheng Wei; Wang Lin; David Timm; Gerald Huber

2009-01-01

352

AN OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR AIRPORT CONCRETE PAVEMENT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an optimal management model is formulated for the performance-based rehabilitation/maintenance contract for airport concrete pavement, whereby two types of life cycle cost risks, i.e., ground consolidation risk and concrete depreciation risk, are explicitly considered. The non-homogenous Markov chain model is formulated to represent the deterioration processes of concrete pavement which are conditional upon the ground consolidation processes. The optimal non-homogenous Markov decision model with multiple types of risk is presented to design the optimal rehabilitation/maintenance plans. And the methodology to revise the optimal rehabilitation/maintenance plans based upon the monitoring data by the Bayesian up-to-dating rules. The validity of the methodology presented in this paper is examined based upon the case studies carried out for the H airport.

Shimomura, Taizo; Fujimori, Yuji; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Obama, Kengo; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

353

Monitoring and Modeling of Pavement Response and Performance. Task B: New York. Volume 1: I490, RT9A, and I86 AC Pavement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume reports on experiments at three pavement sites in New York, I490 in Rochester, RT9A in New York City, and I86 near Angelica. I490 included JPCP sections instrumented to monitor loss of support from curling and warping during curing and early u...

I. S. Khoury J. Morrison S. M. Sargand

2012-01-01

354

Marginal Aggregates in Flexible Pavements: Field Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utilization of substandard or marginal aggregates in flexible pavement construction of airport pavements. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of using lower quality aggregates such as rou...

R. C. Ahlrich

1998-01-01

355

Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, are a potential source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. An initial assessment of volatilization of PAHs from coal-tar-sealed pavement is presented here in which we measured summertime gas-phase PAH concentrations 0.03 m and 1.28 m above the pavement surface of seven sealed (six with coal-tar-based sealant and one with asphalt-based sealant) and three unsealed (two asphalt and one concrete) parking lots in central Texas. PAHs also were measured in parking lot dust. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m samples above sealed lots (1320 ng m-3) during the hottest part of the day was 20 times greater than that above unsealed lots (66.5 ng m-3). The geometric mean concentration in the 1.28-m samples above sealed lots (138 ng m-3) was five times greater than above unsealed lots (26.0 ng m-3). Estimated PAH flux from the sealed lots was 60 times greater than that from unsealed lots (geometric means of 88 and 1.4 ?g m-2 h-1, respectively). Although the data set presented here is small, the much higher estimated fluxes from sealed pavement than from unsealed pavement indicate that coal-tar-based sealants are emitting PAHs to urban air at high rates compared to other paved surfaces.

Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

2012-01-01

356

Pavement Quality Indicators Study Five Year Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nebraska Department of Roads (NDOR) conducts annual examinations of the Nebraska's interstate and federal highway pavements. During these examinations, numerous indicators of pavement quality are measured directly or are compiled from parameters recor...

C. Kluver W. Jensen

2008-01-01

357

Comparative Measurements of Tire/Pavement Noise in Europe and the United States: Noise Intensity Testing in Europe (NITE) Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pavements in four European countries were measured for their tire noise performance in a manner identical to that done in the States of California and Arizona. This allowed the comparison of pavements that provided a range of noise performance from quiet ...

P. R. Donavan

2006-01-01

358

A Methodology to Estimate Load and Non-Load Shares of Highway Pavement Routine Maintenance and Rehabilitation Expenditures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focused on the estimation of load and non-load shares of pavement maintenance and rehabilitation expenditures. The information provides the basis for the allocation of pavement-related expenditures in a highway cost allocation study. A comprehensive database was developed in the study, and an aggregate performance approach was used based on econometric models. This approach utilizes the marginal effect

Zongzhi Li; Kumares C. Sinha

2000-01-01

359

Pavement Condition Evaluation Utilizing Dynamic Deflection Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, the research efforts were directed toward the development of pavement condition evaluation techniques and analysis procedures for flexible and rigid overlay pavement design. This investigation also included a detailed field evaluation of an...

K. Majidzadeh

1977-01-01

360

Evaluation of a Hot Mix Asphalt Perpetual Pavement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2003, WisDOT constructed two perpetual pavement test sections on the entrance ramp to I-94 from the Kenosha Safety and Weigh Station Facility in Southeastern WI. Test section 1 (TS1) HMA layers were constructed as follows: 2-in surface layer (PG 76-28,...

B. Bischoff I. Battaglia J. Ryan S. Reichelt

2010-01-01

361

Investigation of Asphalt Pavement Analyzer Testing Program in Nebraska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The asphalt pavement analyzer (APA) has been widely used to evaluate hot-mix asphalt (HMA) rutting potential in mix design and quality control quality assurance (QC-QA) applications, because the APA testing and its data analyses are relatively simple, rap...

M. Hong Y. R. Kim

2008-01-01

362

Management of Vegetation on the Pavement Edge and Adjacent Shoulder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Herbicides were applied to the pavement edge and adjoining shoulder on two-lane highways FM 331 near Bellville on June 6, 1991, and on FM 1087 near Nacogdoches, Texas, on June 3, 1991, to evaluate their influence on vegetation control. Herbicides used inc...

R. E. Meyer C. L. Benner W. G. McCully

1995-01-01

363

State-of-the art guideline manual for design, quality control and construction of Sulfur-Extended-Asphalt (SEA) pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur-Extended-Asphalt (SEA) binders save asphalt, a potential energy source, by replacing some asphalt in conventional flexible pavement mixes with sulfur. These new binders appear to possess properties comparable to asphalt. The guideline manual discussed provides the highway community in both public and private organizations with the most definitive state-of-the-art guidelines extant for using these binders. Information on design, construction, quality

W. C. McBee; T. A. Sullivan; J. O. Izatt

1980-01-01

364

Capturing Solar Energy from Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of extracting heat energy from asphalt pavements has been investigated in this study. The scope of work consisted of finite element modeling and testing with small and large scale asphalt pavement samples. Water flowing through copper tubes inserted within asphalt pavements samples were used as heat exchangers in the experiments. The rise in temperature of water as a

Rajib B. Mallick; Bao-Liang Chen; Sankha Bhowmick; Michael S. Hulen

365

Environmental policy for long-life pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses life-cycle assessment to evaluate the role of long-life pavements in achieving environmental goals. The success of such pavements in reducing environmental impacts over their life cycle hinges on their ability to serve their intended purpose for their design life. Those pavements that do serve for their entire design life offer extreme longevity at only a marginal environmental

Nicholas J. Santero; John Harvey; Arpad Horvath

2011-01-01

366

Pavement roughness and skid properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road roughness and roadway safety as it relates to both surface and air transportation are discussed. The role of road roughness in vehicle ride, the measurement of roughness, the evaluation of riding confort, and the effect of grooving pavements are discussed. The effects of differential pavement friction on the response of cars in skidding maneuvers is discussed.

367

Types and Distribution of Bright Materials in 4 Vesta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A strong case can be made that Vesta is the parent asteroid of the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites [1]. As such, we have over a century of detailed sample analysis experience to call upon when formulating hypotheses regarding plausible lithologic diversity on Vesta. It thus came as a surprise when Dawn s Framing Camera (FC) first revealed distinctly localized materials of exceptionally low and high albedos, often closely associated. To understand the nature and origin of these materials, and how they inform us of the geological evolution of Vesta, task forces began their study. An initial step of the scientific endeavor is to develop a descriptive, non-genetic classification of objects to use as a basis for developing hypotheses and observational campaigns. Here we present a catalog of the types of light-toned deposits and their distribution across Vesta. A companion abstract [2] discusses possible origins of bright materials and the constraints they suggest for vestan geology.

Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Li, Jian-Yang; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Schroder, S. E.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Yingst, R. A.

2012-01-01

368

Feasibility Study of In-situ Characterization of Size Distribution of Air Voids in Concrete Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report concerns a feasibility study on the use of a non-destructive and non-invasive method to determine the size distribution of air voids in fresh concrete, which will be used for laying concrete pavement. A preliminary review of different techniqu...

B. N. Tong K. M. Li S. Liu

2013-01-01

369

Polymer concrete for precast repair of continuously reinforced concrete pavement on IH 30, near Mt. Pleasant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two punchout repairs made in a continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) using precast portland cement panels are described. The two repairs, one 1.44 sq. ft., the other 36 sq. ft., were completed and opened to traffic in one afternoon. This technique provides a rapid method of repair that produces a repair that is structurally as good or better than the surrounding pavement. With a trained crew, the repair time can be reduced and thus reducing lane closure time. Since lane closure time is a critical consideration in high volume highways, this method is cost effective in those areas.

Meyer, A. M.; McCullough, B. F.; Fowler, D. W.

1981-08-01

370

PAVEMENT DAMAGE FROM TRANSIT BUSES AND MOTOR COACHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the load-associated pavement damage effects of transit and intercity (motor coaches) buses operating on urban and rural interstate highway systems. The paper presents analyses of (i) the effect of pavement surface roughness on pavement damage potential from transit and intercity buses with different lengths, (ii) the effects of changes in the weights of transit buses on pavement

Edward Fekpe

371

THERMAL UPGRADING OF 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL (RAM) TYPE B PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect

The 9977 package is a radioactive material package that was originally certified to ship Heat Sources and RTG contents up to 19 watts and it is now being reviewed to significantly expand its contents in support of additional DOE missions. Thermal upgrading will be accomplished by employing stacked 3013 containers, a 3013 aluminum spacer and an external aluminum sleeve for enhanced heat transfer. The 7th Addendum to the original 9977 package Safety Basis Report describing these modifications is under review for the DOE certification. The analyses described in this paper show that this well-designed and conservatively analyzed package can be upgraded to carry contents with decay heat up to 38 watts with some simple design modifications. The Model 9977 package has been designed as a replacement for the Department of Transportation (DOT) Fissile Specification 6M package. The 9977 package is a very versatile Type B package which is certified to transport and store a wide spectrum of radioactive materials. The package was analyzed quite conservatively to increase its usefulness and store different payload configurations. Its versatility is evident from several daughter packages such as the 9978 and H1700, and several addendums where the payloads have been modified to suit the Shipper's needs without additional testing.

Gupta, N.; Abramczyk, G.

2012-03-26

372

Factors influencing PM 10 emissions from road pavement wear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerated pavement wear is one of the major environmental disadvantages of studded tyres in northern regions and results in increased levels of PM 10. Measurements of PM 10 in a road simulator hall have been used to study the influence of pavement properties, tyre type and vehicle speed on pavement wear. The test set-up included three different pavements (one granite and two quartzite with different aggregate sizes), three different tyre types (studded, non-studded, and summer tyres) and different speeds (30-70 km h -1). The results show that the granite pavement was more prone to PM 10 production compared to the quartzite pavements. Studded winter tyres yield tens of times higher PM 10 concentrations compared to non-studded winter tyres. Wear from summer tyres was negligible in comparison. It was also shown that wear is strongly dependent on speed; every 10 km h -1 increase yielded an increase of the PM 10 concentration of 680 ?g m -3 in one of the simulator experiments.

Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Göran; Gudmundsson, Anders; Dahl, Andreas; Jonsson, Per; Swietlicki, Erik

373

Hypolithic microbial community of quartz pavement in the high-altitude tundra of central Tibet.  

PubMed

The hypolithic microbial community associated with quartz pavement at a high-altitude tundra location in central Tibet is described. A small-scale ecological survey indicated that 36% of quartz rocks were colonized. Community profiling using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed no significant difference in community structure among a number of colonized rocks. Real-time quantitative PCR and phylogenetic analysis of environmental phylotypes obtained from clone libraries were used to elucidate community structure across all domains. The hypolithon was dominated by cyanobacterial phylotypes (73%) with relatively low frequencies of other bacterial phylotypes, largely represented by the chloroflexi, actinobacteria, and bacteriodetes. Unidentified crenarchaeal phylotypes accounted for 4% of recoverable phylotypes, while algae, fungi, and mosses were indicated by a small fraction of recoverable phylotypes. PMID:20336290

Wong, Fiona K Y; Lacap, Donnabella C; Lau, Maggie C Y; Aitchison, J C; Cowan, Donald A; Pointing, Stephen B

2010-11-01

374

Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement content and virgin binder grade on properties of plant produced mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the mixture properties of plant-produced asphalt mixtures containing up to 40% reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Five sets of asphalt mixtures were tested to determine their dynamic moduli and low temperature tensile creep compliance and strength. The mixture moduli were analyzed to assess changes in mixture behavior over a range of

Rebecca S. McDaniel; Ayesha Shah; Gerald A. Huber; Audrey Copeland

2012-01-01

375

Effectiveness of Pavement Management System and its Effects to the Closing of Final Account in Construction Project in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federal roads maintenance needs a systematic and effective mechanism to ensure that the roads are in good condition and provide comfort to the road user. In implementing effective maintenance, budget is main the factor limiting this endeavor. Thus Public Works Department (PWD) Malaysia used Highway Development and Management (HDM-4) System to help the management of PWD Malaysia in determining the location and length of the road to be repaired according to the priority based on its analysis. For that purpose, PWD Malaysia has applied Pavement Management System (PMS) which utilizes HDM-4 as the analysis engine to conduct technical and economic analysis in generating annual work programs for pavement maintenance. As a result, a lot of feedback and comment have been received from Supervisory and Roads Maintenance Unit (UPPJ) Zonal on the accuracy of the system output and problems that arise in the closing of final account. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to evaluate current system accuracy in terms of generating the annual work program for periodic pavement maintenance, to identify factors contributing to the system inaccuracy in selecting the location and length of roads that require for treatment and to propose improvement measures for the system accuracy. The factors affecting the closing of final account caused by result received from the pavement management system are also defined. The scope of this paper is on the existing HDM-4 System which cover four states specifically Perlis, Selangor, Kelantan and Johor which is analysed via the work program output data for the purpose of evaluating the system accuracy. The method used in this paper includes case study, interview, discussion and analysis of the HDM-4 System output data. This paper has identified work history not updated and the analysis is not using the current data as factors contributing to the system accuracy. From the result of this paper, it is found that HDM-4's system accuracy used by PWD Malaysia attains average 65 per cent only and had not achieved level that had been set by PWD Malaysia namely 80 per cent. Hence, this paper has revealed the causes of the occurrances in the pavement management system in construction project in Malaysia and investigated the consequences of the late payments and final account problems confronted by contractors in Malaysia, which eventually proposed strategic actions that could be taken by the contractors in securing their payments.

Zakaria, Zarabizan; Ismail, Syuhaida; Yusof, Aminah Md

2013-04-01

376

Polymer Concrete for Precast Repair of Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement on IH 30, Near Mt. Pleasant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes two punchout repairs made in a continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) using precast portland cement panels. The two repairs, one 12 foot by 12 foot, the other 6 foot by 6 foot, were completed and opened to traffic in one af...

A. H. Meyer B. F. McCullough D. W. Fowler

1981-01-01

377

Investigation of Concrete Properties to Support Implementation of the New AASHTO Pavement Design Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research was conducted to investigate the splitting tensile strength and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of concrete to support implementation of the AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide in Wisconsin. WisDOT Grade A-FA Class C fl...

R. N. Kraus T. R. Naik Y. M. Chun

2006-01-01

378

Properties of Extruded PS-212 Type Self-Lubricating Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research has been underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center since the 1960's to develop high temperature, self-lubricating materials. The bulk of the research has been done in-house by a team of researchers from the Materials Division. A series of self-lubricating solid material systems has been developed over the years. One of the most promising is the composite material system referred to as PS-212 or PM-212. This material is a powder metallurgy product composed of metal bonded chromium carbide and two solid lubricating materials known to be self-lubricating over a wide temperature range. NASA feels this material has a wide potential in industrial applications. Simplified processing of this material would enhance its commercial potential. Processing changes have the potential to reduce processing costs, but tribological and physical properties must not be adversely affected. Extrusion processing has been employed in this investigation as a consolidation process for PM-212/PS-212. It has been successful in that high density bars of EX-212 (extruded PM-212) can readily be fabricated. Friction and strength data indicate these properties have been maintained or improved over the P.M. version. A range of extrusion temperatures have been investigated and tensile, friction, wear, and microstructural data have been obtained. Results indicate extrusion temperatures are not critical from a densification standpoint, but other properties are temperature dependent.

Waters, W. J.; Sliney, H. E.; Soltis, R. F.

1993-01-01

379

Beyond the Beaten Track: Resettlement Initiatives of Pavement Dwellers and Slum Dwellers in Bombay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Society for Promotion of Adult Resource Centres was created to alleviate the problem of railway settlement families and pavement dwellers in Bombay, India. The area resource center provides information, analysis of available resources, discussion of problems, and sharing of experiences. (JOW)

Patel, Sheela

1988-01-01

380

Analysis on shear stress in interlayer interface of concrete bride deck pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

For studying the behavior of concrete bride deck pavement, the physiochemical property of interlayer interface was analyzed from microscopic view. Much initial pore and many initial cracks and low strength cement crystals were existed in the interlayer interface because of the cast time difference. A total of 32 samples were tested for studying the shear performance of pre- and post-casting

Hong Luo; Ling Luo; Liang Fan

2011-01-01

381

DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE PAVEMENT DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM USING DYNAMIC RESPONSES OF AN ORDINARY VEHICLE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle Intelligent Monitoring System (VIMS), which enables frequent quantitative assessment of road pavement condition, has been developed. The system, which utilizes an ordinary vehicle equipped with an accelerometer, GPS, and portable PC, is simple and inexpensive. VIMS evaluates road roughness by estimating the International Roughness Index (IRI) from the response of the vehicle traveling at a constant speed. At first, the repeatability of the dynamic response measurement is confirmed. Then, an IRI estimation method utilizing vertical responses of the vehicle has been proposed and its accuracy studied. Furthermore, IRI estimation calibration to account for differences in measurement vehicles and driving speeds has been discussed. Finally, VIMS is applied to expressways in Japan and national roads in the Philippines, which confirms the diagnostic capability of the system.

Asakawa, Hiroyuki; Nagayama, Tomonori; Fujino, Yozo; Nishikawa, Takafumi; Akimoto, Takashi; Izumi, Kimihiko

382

Effective Pavement Marking Practices for Sealcoat and Hot-Mix Asphalt Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the tasks of research conducted to identify effective pavement marking practices for seal coat and hot-mix asphalt (HMAC) pavements in Texas. The researchers reviewed literature, determined current Texas Department of Transportation ...

T. J. Gates H. G. Hawkins E. R. Rose

2003-01-01

383

Comparative study of Hilbert–Huang transform, Fourier transform and wavelet transform in pavement profile analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employs the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT), the wavelet transform and the Fourier transform to analyse the road surface profiles of three pavement profiles. The wavelet and Fourier transforms have been the traditional spectral analysis methods, but they are predicated on a priori selection of basis functions that are either of infinite length or have fixed finite widths. The central

A. Y. Ayenu-Prah; N. O. Attoh-Okine

2009-01-01

384

Development of Empirical-Mechanistic Pavement Performance Models using Data from the Washington State PMS Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Pavement Management System (PMS) is a decision-support tool that aids public agencies in planning maintenance activities of their facilities. A complete PMS involves the following tasks: inspecting facilities and collecting data, predicting the deterioration of facilities through performance models, and optimizing the Maintenance, Rehabilitation, and Reconstruction (MR&R) policies over the planning horizon. Performance models are a core component of

Samer Madanat; Ziad El Nakat; Nakul Sathaye

2005-01-01

385

Evaluation of reclaimed rubber in bituminous pavements. Final report, July 1993April 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Section 1038 of the 1991 Intermodel Surface Transportation efficiency Act (ISTEA) mandated use of crumb rubber from scrap tires in asphalt pavement starting in FY 94. To gain some experience, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) constructed five demonstration projects in 1993 and one in 1994. All used the `dry process` to introduce crumb rubber into the mix. With the

Trepanier

1995-01-01

386

Hot Bituminous Pavement Voids Acceptance Review of QC/QA Data 2000 through 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report analyzes the Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) data for hot bituminous pavements using voids acceptance as the testing criteria awarded in the years 2000 through 2003. Analysis of the overall performance of the projects is accomplished...

E. Chavez

2005-01-01

387

Hydrologic and Pollutant Removal Performance of a Full-Scale, Fully Functional Permeable Pavement Parking Lot  

EPA Science Inventory

In accordance with the need for full-scale, replicated studies of permeable pavement systems used in their intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes to evaluate these systems, the EPA?s Urb...

388

Flexible Highway Pavement Design - The State of the Art. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the first of an eight-volume series which constitutes the Interim Report for PennDOT Research Project 71-7 entitled 'An Evaluation of Pennsylvania's Flexible Pavement Design Methodology.' This volume is a literature survey and critical revi...

E. S. Lindow M. G. Sharma H. Recart T. D. Larson

1973-01-01

389

Durability of Certain Configurations for Providing Skid Resistance on Concrete Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of the study was to establish the factors that influence the durability of the surface configurations that are used or can be used to provide high and long lasting skid resistance for portland cement concrete pavements. In the developme...

H. C. Ozyildirim

1974-01-01

390

Development of Acoustical Prediction Model for Asphalt Pavements Using Grey System Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic noise resulted from various transportation vehicles is normally the most significant sources of noise in the environment of urban areas. Previous research results have shown that traffic noise is mainly generated from tire\\/road noise for high velocity vehicles. For traffic noise assessment, the controlling factors for the acoustical properties and the tire\\/road noise on asphalt pavements are not known

Chia-Ming Wu; Cheng-Chiao Lee; Jia-Chong Du; Der-Hsien Shen

2010-01-01

391

Environmental Effects of Pervious Pavement as a Low Impact Development Installation in Urban Regions - Chapter 13  

EPA Science Inventory

Pervious pavement systems can be used to reduce stormwater runoff volume and are efficient at removing solids from runoff; however, the pollutant removal efficiency for nutrients, metals, and organic contaminants is yet to be determined due to either a lack of data or inconsisten...

392

Effectiveness of Class C Fly Ash on Mitigating Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete Pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the state of Nebraska, Portland cement concrete pavements (PCCP) use Platte River sand and gravel exclusively as a fine aggregate. It has been well established that this aggregate is a reactive aggregate that can potentially lead to alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Fly ash has been used as an economic and effective way for ASR mitigation. However, Class C fly ash

Kromel E. Hanna; George Morcous; Maher K. Tadros

2009-01-01

393

Relationship of the Tire-Pavement Interface to Traffic Accidents Occurring under Wet Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wet weather (total) accident rate was nearly double the rate for all weather conditions for the five months studied with the pavement being wet 6.7% of the time period. In certain areas the wet weather accident rate for all accidents could vary as muc...

E. H. Dean

1969-01-01

394

An Iterative Layered Elastic Computer Program for Rational Pavement Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to develop a simple and easily operated computer program for the rational design of pavements. The program must yield results approximating those computed by the more sophisticated nonlinear finite element program. A linearly laye...

Y. T. Chou

1976-01-01

395

Stratified soils under stone pavements as tools for palaeoenvironment reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stone pavements in climate-sensitive arid environments are often genetically associated with their underlying soil. Such soils are in general accretionary but also show features of stratification, resulting from changing environmental conditions, as well as alteration by pedogenesis. We thus regard soil-sediment profiles under stone pavements as distinctive archives of past geomorphic and pedologic processes. Deciphering the evolution allows reconstruction of landscape dynamics. Cima Volcanic Field, eastern Mojave Desert, California, has been in the focus of several studies. However, a detailed stratigraphic investigation of soils developed on basaltic lava flows of known age has not been conducted. We present descriptions of pedologic, stratigraphic and mineralogic properties of a sequence of soil profiles situated on a basaltic lava flow of middle Pleistocene age. We infer several phases of aeolian, fluvial, mass movement and pedologic activity of different nature. The archive reveals a complex evolution that can be attributed to specific environmental conditions in this climate-sensitive region, though numerical dating is preliminary. However, stratified, cumulic soils associated with desert pavements can be regarded as a unique type of archive, recording processes not traced in any other proxy record.

Dietze, M.; Kleber, A.

2009-04-01

396

A source mixing model to apportion PAHs from coal tar and asphalt binders in street pavements and urban aquatic sediments.  

PubMed

Present-day and more than 30 years old road and footpath pavements from Auckland, New Zealand were analysed for PAHs to test the hypothesis that coal tar based pavement binders contribute to unusually high PAH concentrations in adjacent stream and estuarine sediments. Total PAH (?(28)PAH) concentrations in the dichloromethane-soluble fraction ("binder"), comprising 5-10% of pavement mass, were as high as 200,000 mgkg(-1) (10,000 mgkg(-1) in binder+aggregate). Older and deeper pavement layers were strongly pyrogenic, whereas pavement layers from recently sealed roads had a more petrogenic composition and more than 1000 times lower ?(28)PAH concentrations. Source identification analysis using three PAH isomer ratio pairs (benz(a)anthracene/(benz(a)anthracene+chrysene); benzo(a)pyrene/(benzo(a)pyrene+benzo(e)pyrene); and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/(indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene+benzo(g,h,i)perylene) revealed low PAH (bitumen) pavements to have consistently lower isomer ratios than high PAH (coal tar) samples. Moreover, pavement data for one isomer ratio (e.g. benzo(a)pyrene/(benzo(a)pyrene+benzo(e)pyrene) were highly correlated with those of another isomer ratio (e.g. benz(a)anthracene/(benz(a)anthracene+chrysene) and were bounded at their lower and higher extremes by the characteristics of pure bitumen and coal tar, respectively, suggesting that PAH composition of a given pavement sample could be accounted for by conservative mixing between coal tar and bitumen as source materials. A concentration-weighted mixing model, with coal tar and bitumen as source materials, explained more than 80% of the variance in isomer ratios and enveloped the entire PAH compositional and concentration range encountered. PAH composition and concentrations in adjacent stream sediments (> 15 mgkg(-1) dry weight) were consistent with diluted coal tar material as a principal PAH source. Due to the very high PAH concentrations of coal tar, a coal tar content of as little as 0.01% of total sediment mass can account for more than 90% of PAH concentrations in adjacent stream sediments. PMID:20843538

Ahrens, Michael J; Depree, Craig V

2010-12-01

397

Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement.  

PubMed

Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, are a potential source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. An initial assessment of volatilization of PAHs from coal-tar-sealed pavement is presented here in which we measured summertime gas-phase PAH concentrations 0.03 m and 1.28 m above the pavement surface of seven sealed (six with coal-tar-based sealant and one with asphalt-based sealant) and three unsealed (two asphalt and one concrete) parking lots in central Texas. PAHs also were measured in parking lot dust. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH(8)) in the 0.03-m samples above sealed lots (1320 ng m(-3)) during the hottest part of the day was 20 times greater than that above unsealed lots (66.5 ng m(-3)). The geometric mean concentration in the 1.28-m samples above sealed lots (138 ng m(-3)) was five times greater than above unsealed lots (26.0 ng m(-3)). Estimated PAH flux from the sealed lots was 60 times greater than that from unsealed lots (geometric means of 88 and 1.4 ?g m(-2) h(-1), respectively). Although the data set presented here is small, the much higher estimated fluxes from sealed pavement than from unsealed pavement indicate that coal-tar-based sealants are emitting PAHs to urban air at high rates compared to other paved surfaces. PMID:22289152

Van Metre, Peter C; Majewski, Michael S; Mahler, Barbara J; Foreman, William T; Braun, Christopher L; Wilson, Jennifer T; Burbank, Teresa L

2012-06-01

398

Impact of Price Reductions on the Long-Term Pavement Performance of HMA Mixes in North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Article 105-3 of the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) Standard Specifications for Road and Structures provides guidance on price adjustments for hot mix asphalt pavements that are not within reasonably close conformity with the specific...

O. El-Haggan S. Lee Y. Seo Y. R. Kim

2005-01-01

399

Development of Guidelines for Reduction of Temperature Differential Damage (TDD) for Hot Mix Asphalt Pavement Projects in Connecticut: Construction Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Connecticut Department of Transportation personnel used an infrared camera to observe thermal segregation of hot mix asphalt during pavement construction. Several sites were selected for study from ongoing paving projects. During paving operations, the in...

J. W. Henault

1999-01-01

400

Evaluation of Rapid Setting Cement-Based Materials for Patching and Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient repair and replacement of concrete pavements and bridge decks often requires a rapid setting material that can be placed, cured, and opened to traffic in a relatively short period of time. Frequently, temporary repairs are made using materials that are later found to be incompatible with the existing pavement, structures, and environment. This practice causes these materials to

Amit D. Barde; Swathi Parameswaran; Todd Chariton; W. Jason Weiss; Menashi D. Cohen; Scott Andrew Newbolds

2006-01-01

401

Uppvaermning av Asfaltbelaeggningar med Hjaelp av Stralning. En Teoretisk Analys foer Bedoemning av Temperaturfoerdelningen och den Tillgodogjorda Vaermeenergin (Heating of Asphalt Pavements by Use of Radiation. A Theoretical Analysis for the Estimation of the Temperature Distribution and the Heat Energy Utilized).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Greater and greater importance is attached to the maintenance of asphalt pavements. Among other things, methods which involve preheating of the existing road surface have been used. In this report, numerical results of a derived method of calculation givi...

A. Bjoerklund

1980-01-01

402

Recycling and use of waste materials and by-products in highway construction: A synthesis of highway practice. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report on recycling and use of waste materials and by-products in highway construction will be of interest to administrators and policy makers; pavements, materials, geotechnical, and environmental engineers; and other professionals involved with highway design, construction, and maintenance. Information is provided on the technical, economic, and environmental aspects (including legislative and regulatory considerations) of recycling and on the specific applications of waste materials and by-products. Information is also provided on the quantities, characteristics, possible uses, current and past research activities, and actual highway construction use of each waste material or by-product. This information is classified into four broad categories based on source: agricultural, domestic, industrial, and mineral wastes.

Collins, R.J.; Ciesielski, S.K.; Mason, L.S.

1994-01-01

403

Use of the 1993 AASHTO Guide, MEPDG and Historical Performance to Update the WSDOT Pavement Design Catalog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the preparation of a revised pavement thickness design catalog for the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) using the 1993 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Guide, the Mechan...

J. Li J. P. Mahoney J. S. Uhlmeyer S. T. Muench

2011-01-01

404

About the sizes of elastomer particles in the asphalt concrete binder providing the maximum service life of pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is noted that the durability of asphalt concrete pavements is determined by the time of the trunk cracks formation in the polymer-containing composites - in the modified by elastomers (e.g., by rubber) bitumenous binder of asphalt. Developed by the authors previously the theory of the cracks propagation in heterosystems [1] has allowed to investigate the problem of the cracks propagation in the rubber-bitumen composite. This investigations show that most effectively to prevente the trunk cracks formation in asphalt concrete can ultrafine rubber particles (150-750 nm) in a bitumenos binder of asphalt.

Kaplan, A. M.; Chekunaev, N. I.

2014-05-01

405

Multitarget detection\\/tracking for monostatic ground penetrating radar: application to pavement profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monostatic ground penetrating radar (GPR) has proven to be a useful technique in pavement profiling. In road and highway pavements, layer thickness and permittivity of asphalt and concrete can be estimated by using an inverse scattering approach. Layer-stripping inversion refers to the iterative estimation of layer properties from amplitude and time of delay (TOD) of echoes after their detection. This

Umberto Spagnolini; Vittorio Rampa

1999-01-01

406

An Annotated Bibliography and Research Review on the Development of a Long Range Plan for Engineering Research on Flexible Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annotated bibliography and research review on Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory contract report CR 67.014 entitled 'Development of a Long Range Plan for Engineering Research on Flexible Pavements,' dated November 1966.

1966-01-01

407

Does colored pavement make non-signalized intersections safer? A case study in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, colored pavement has become popular recently because of having been evaluated for improving intersections to be safer. This paper aims to evaluate the effects of the colored pavement for traffic safety at the non-signalized intersection in the residential area by statistical analysis method “Quantification Theory II”, based on various residents perspectives such as “car”, “bicycle” and “pedestrian”, and

Ryosuke Ando; Tomoyuki Inagaki; Yasuhiro Mimura

2011-01-01

408

Concrete pavement analysis: the first eighty years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper traces the evolution of analytical methods for concrete pavements over the period from the publication of Westergaard's early work in the 1920s until today. It is demonstrated that this development was accomplished in parallel with the birth and coming of age of geotechnical engineering, and was likewise pioneered by a number of colorful and distinguished personalities. Westergaard's analysis

Anastasios M. Ioannides

2006-01-01

409

IMPACT OF BUSES ON HIGHWAY INFRASTRUCTURE: CASE STUDY FOR NEW JERSEY STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buses are classified as heavy vehicles, and research has shown that heavy vehicles are mainly responsible for pavement damage and costs incurred to rectify the damage. Transit agencies must consider the pavement damage caused by a bus when choosing among different types of buses for procurement for certain corridors and deciding on the type of transit service for a corridor.

M Boile; Preethi Narayanan; Kaan Ozbay

2003-01-01

410

Kansas Tire/Pavement Noise Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of noise testing accomplished by the National Center for Asphalt Technology using a close-proximity noise trailer. The paper discusses the nature of tire/pavement noise and the results of testing selecte...

B. Waller D. I. Hanson R. S. James

2005-01-01

411

Exposure to wear particles generated from studded tires and pavement induces inflammatory cytokine release from human macrophages.  

PubMed

Health risks associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been shown epidemiologically as well as experimentally, pointing to both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Lately, wear particles generated from traffic have been recognized to be a major contributing source to the overall particle load, especially in the Nordic countries were studded tires are used. In this work, we investigated the inflammatory effect of PM10 generated from the wear of studded tires on two different types of pavement. As comparison, we also investigated PM10 from a traffic-intensive street, a subway station, and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Human monocyte-derived macrophages, nasal epithelial cells (RPMI 2650), and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to the different types of particles, and the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha into the culture medium was measured. The results show a significant release of cytokines from macrophages after exposure for all types of particles. When particles generated from asphalt/granite pavement were compared to asphalt/quartzite pavement, the granite pavement had a significantly higher capacity to induce the release of cytokines. The granite pavement particles induced cytokine release at the same magnitude as the street particles did, which was higher than what particles from both a subway station and DEP did. Exposure of epithelial cells to PM10 resulted in a significant increase of TNF-alpha secreted from BEAS-2B cells for all types of particles used (DEP was not tested), and the highest levels were induced by subway particles. None of the particle types were able to evoke detectable cytokine release from RPMI 2650 cells. The results indicate that PM10 generated by the wear of studded tires on the street surface is a large contributor to the cytokine-releasing ability of particles in traffic-intensive areas and that the type of pavement used is important for the level of this contribution. Furthermore, the airway inflammatory potential of wear particles from tires and pavement might be of a greater magnitude than that of DEP. PMID:16608163

Lindbom, John; Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Göran; Dahl, Andreas; Gudmundsson, Anders; Swietlicki, Erik; Ljungman, Anders G

2006-04-01

412

Cumberland Gap Tunnel Pavement Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kentucky Transportation Center was contacted by the Cumberland Gap Tunnel Authority in 2001 to conduct a Falling Weight Deflectormeter (FWD) test on the concrete pavement structure at two locations in the southbound tunnel that appeared to be settling...

B. Rister

2005-01-01

413

23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208...Systems § 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition... (i) An inventory of the physical pavement features including the number of...

2009-04-01

414

23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208...Systems § 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition... (i) An inventory of the physical pavement features including the number of...

2010-04-01

415

Innovative Materials Development and Testing. Volume 5. Partial Depth Spall Repair in Jointed Concrete Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The partial-depth spall-repair experiments, conducted as part of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) H-106 project, is one of the most extensive attempts to date to evaluate the performance of various rapid-setting materials and procedures used ...

C. A. G. Mojab A. J. Patel A. R. Romine

1993-01-01

416

Improved Drainage and Frost Action Criteria for New Jersey Pavement Design. Phase II. Data Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of including open-graded drainage layers in their highway pavements was studied. Before constructing actual pavements with open-graded drainage layers, frost penetration depths and moisture content profiles beneath several pavements in New...

R. L. Berg

1979-01-01

417

Possibilities of ground penetrating radar usage within acceptance tests of rigid pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the road pavement acceptance tests, destructive as well as non-destructive tests of individual road layers are performed to verify the standard requirements. The article describes a method for providing quick, effective and sufficiently accurate measurements of both dowel and tie bar positions in concrete pavements, using a two-channel ground penetrating radar (GPR). Measurements were carried out in laboratory and in-situ conditions. A special hand cart for field measurements, set for the testing requirements, was designed. It was verified that following the correct measuring and assessment method, it is possible to reach accuracy of determining the in-built rebar up to 1 cm in vertical direction and up to 1.5 cm per 11.5 m of measured length in horizontal direction. In the in-situ tests, GPR identification of possible anomalies due to the phase of concrete pavement laying was presented. In the conclusion, a measurement report is mentioned. The standard requirements for the position of dowels and tie bars cover maximum possible deviation of the rebar position from the project documentation in vertical and horizontal direction, maximum deflection of rebar ends to each other, and maximum translation of rebar in the direction of its longitudinal axis.

Stryk, Josef; Matula, Radek; Pospisil, Karel

2013-10-01

418

Pavement Management Surveillance Systems Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study evaluates available pavement distress surveillance equipment and recommends a system of proven value to the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department. The requirements of the system are that it be able to provide summary data for pave...

M. Bradley

1988-01-01

419

Floatability of polymer materials modulated by frothers.  

PubMed

Flotation tests of 35 polymer materials were carried out to investigate their floatability modulated by frothers. Results of flotation tests demonstrated that polymer resins and soft PVC showed high floatability, floatability of hard PVC plastics was relatively low and was related to the frothers, and there exists significant difference in the floatability of different post-consumer plastics. Flotation rate of post-consumer plastics varies from 0% to 100%. Furthermore, three-category low-energy surface (LES) was defined based on the hydrophile index of the materials involved in this paper, and an adsorption model was proposed to explain the results of flotation and to discuss the floatability of polymer materials modulated by frothers. Frother molecules are prone to adsorb on the surface of bubble rather than LES at relatively low concentration, bubble adsorbed by frother molecules is prone to approach first-category LES rather than third-category LES, and the structure of liquid film is formed on the first-category LES at large concentration. Floatability of polymer materials modulated by frothers is further discussed: frothers increase the floatability of the first-category LES but decrease the floatability of the third-category LES, while the floatability of the second-category LES is related to the type of frothers. PMID:24084102

Wang, Hui; Wang, Chong-qing; Fu, Jian-gang

2013-12-01

420

SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS: Suppression of extension of the photo-sensitive area for a planar-type front-illuminated InGaAs detector by the LBIC technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To suppress the extension of the photo-sensitive area of a planar-type InGaAs detector, the structure of the detector was modified, and the small-diffusion-area diffusion method, circle-type covering contact and guard-ring were introduced. The laser-beam-induced-current (LBIC) technique was used to study the photo responsive characteristics of the photo-sensitive area of different detector structures. It was indicated that, by modifying the size of the diffusion area, the width of the circle-type covering contact, the distance between the guard-ring and the photo-sensitive area and the working status of the guard-ring, extension of the photo-sensitive area could be effectively suppressed, and the detector photo-sensitive area could be exactly defined.

Yongfu, Li; Hengjing, Tang; Tao, Li; Yaoming, Zhu; Peilu, Jiang; Hui, Qiao; Xue, Li; Haimei, Gong

2010-01-01

421

PCC Pavement Texturing in Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven textures were formed in the plastic surface of a CRC pavement during construction. They were formed using transverse tines, transverse broom, artificial turf, transverse roller, artificial turf-transverse tine combination, longitudinal broom, and lo...

J. N. Davidson

1977-01-01

422

A novel, compact, low-cost, impulse ground-penetrating radar for nondestructive evaluation of pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development of a novel, compact, low-cost, impulse ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and demonstrate its use for nondestructive evaluation of pavement structures. This GPR consists of an ultrashort-monocycle-pulse transmitter (330 ps), an ultrawide-band (UWB) sampling receiver (0-6 GHz), and two UWB antennas (0.2-20 GHz)-completely designed using microwave-integrated circuits with seamless electrical connections between them. An approximate analysis

Jeong Soo Lee; Cam Nguyen; Thomas Scullion

2004-01-01

423

Wear of hard materials by hard particles  

SciTech Connect

Hard materials, such as WC-Co, boron carbide, titanium diboride and composite carbide made up of Mo2C and WC, have been tested in abrasion and erosion conditions. These hard materials showed negligible wear in abrasion against SiC particles and erosion using Al2O3 particles. The WC-Co materials have the highest wear rate of these hard materials and a very different material removal mechanism. Wear mechanisms for these materials were different for each material with the overall wear rate controlled by binder composition and content and material grain size.

Hawk, Jeffrey A.

2003-10-01

424

Pattern recognition algorithms for density estimation of asphalt pavement during compaction: a simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the application of artificial neural network (ANN) based pattern recognition to extract the density information of asphalt pavement from simulated ground penetrating radar (GPR) signals. This study is part of research efforts into the application of GPR to monitor asphalt pavement density during compaction. The main challenge is to eliminate the effect of roller-sprayed water on GPR signals during compaction and to extract density information accurately. A calibration of the excitation function was conducted to provide an accurate match between the simulated signal and the real signal. A modified electromagnetic mixing model was then used to calculate the dielectric constant of asphalt mixture with water. A large database of GPR responses was generated from pavement models having different air void contents and various surface moisture contents using finite-difference time-domain simulation. Feature extraction was performed to extract density-related features from the simulated GPR responses. Air void contents were divided into five classes representing different compaction statuses. An ANN-based pattern recognition system was trained using the extracted features as inputs and air void content classes as target outputs. Accuracy of the system was tested using test data set. Classification of air void contents using the developed algorithm is found to be highly accurate, which indicates effectiveness of this method to predict asphalt concrete density.

Shangguan, Pengcheng; Al-Qadi, Imad L.; Lahouar, Samer

2014-08-01

425

Design of Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements Using Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Rebars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report investigates the effects on stress development in pavement and on critical design factors from substituting glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) reinforcement for conventional steel reinforcement in continuously reinforced concrete pavements ...

J. H. Choi R. H. Chen

2005-01-01

426

Post-Glacial Ant Generated Desert Pavements in Southeastern Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desert pavements typically require thousands to tens of thousands of years to reach a high level of development. In a pluvial lake valley in Southeastern Oregon I have observed harvester ants creating desert pavement-like features in less than two months. The summer lake basin is a fairly simple sedimentary system. In the eastern half of the basin, the basaltic bedrock is buried under tens of meters of alluvial deposits which lie beneath an approximately ten meter thick dune sheet. The dune sands are noticably different in grainsize and chemistry than the fine component of the alluvial deposits. The dunes began to form at the end of the last pluvial interval (Allison 1980) and continue to be active today. Roughly one fourth of the total area of the dune sheet is mantled with desert pavement, consisting of very coarse sand and fine pebbles (1-8 mm diameter). The dune sand is very fine grained with a considerable amount of silt and minimal clay. It forms thin (2-20 cm thick) well developed Av horizons beneath the desert pavement. Owyhee harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex owyheei) in the area use pebbles of the same size and petrology as the desert pavements to construct their hills. For the ants the closest source of these pebbles is often the alluvium, ten meters below the anthill, rather than in a desert pavement deposit at some distance away overland. An experiment conducted between June and August 1999 demonstrated that the ants rebuild their hills with newly excavated pebbles. When the colonies die off after 5-25 years, the pebbles are stranded at the surface. Processes such as those described by Haff and Werner (1996), where jackrabbits and birds were observed kicking desert pavement clasts aross the ground serve to redistribute the pebbles across the surface of the sand dunes. The sand dunes have been forming over an 8000 year period. Based on anthill-regrowth measurements, the lifespan of an individual colony of harvester ants leads to the excavation of only enough pebbles to cover a two meter square area with desert pavement. This study has determined the quantity of desert pavement currently present at the surface of the sand dunes, and the timescale over which ants can excavate pebbles from the alluvium. The episodic nature of ant colony activity remains to be fully incorporated into the study of desert pavement, usually thought of as a static landform.

Leonard, K. C.

2001-12-01

427

The impact of geology on the performance of a bituminous surfaced pavement—a case study from southeastern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the multi-million Naira dual carriageways in Nigeria, the Enugu-Port Harcourt expressway, has continued to experience failure at some sections, namely the stretches covering Lokpaukwu, Lokpanta, and Leru. This road section which, unlike others, does not respond to regular and routine maintenance, is concentrated on one geologic formation, the Eze Aku Shale which has been intruded by a dolerite sill. The emplacement of the dolerite sill had resulted in intense fracturing of the shales in the vicinity of the intrusions which includes portions of where the express road crosses. The road problem is most severe where the dolerite sill is traced right under and across the road. There is evidence from the study that the road problem is linked to the geological/hydrogeological conditions of the area. For example, the problematic section of the road is built on a considerably jointed, fractured and weathered shale formation as a subgrade. The subgrade ultimately has low bearing capacity. The road is almost at the foot of an escarpment where there is a concentration of natural groundwater discharge. Most of the discharge zones including natural water courses are now almost blocked resulting in increased groundwater storage and rise in water table under the highway pavement. This leads to fast deterioration of the base course materials. The dolerite sill, where it crosses the road, is less than 2 m below the grade level. It impedes vertical infiltration as well as lateral groundwater flow. Thus its position with respect to the highway grade elevation leads to an almost perpetual wetting of the base and sub-base materials.

Okagbue, C. O.; Uma, K. O.

428

Manganese pavements on the blake plateau.  

PubMed

Dredge samples and photographs from the Blake Plateau, off the southeast coast of the United States, indicate that a layer of manganese oxide forms pavement that may be continuous over an area af about 5000 square kilometers. The manganese pavement grades into round manganese nodules to the south and east and into phosphate nodules to the west. The Gulf Stream probably maintains a very unusual environment that prohibits deposition of clastic sediment and permits accretion of manganese pavements. PMID:17739590

Pratt, R M; McFarlin, P F

1966-03-01

429

Fore and aft elastic response characteristics of 34 x 9.9, type 7, 14 ply-rating aircraft tires of bias-ply, bias-belted, and radial-belted design. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., May 1973; [static and rolling tests on dry concrete pavements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to determine the fore-and-aft elastic response characteristics of 34 x 9.9, type VII, 14 ply-rating aircraft tires of bias-ply, bias-belted, and radial-belted design. The investigation consisted of static and rolling tests on dry concrete pavements at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility; statistical techniques which related the measured tire elastic characteristics to variations in the vertical load, inflation pressure, braking force and/or tire vertical deflection; and a semiempirical analysis which related the tire elastic behavior to measured wheel slippage during steady-state braking. The bias-belted tire developed the largest spring constant value for most loading conditions; the radial-belted tire, the smallest. The elastic response of the tire free periphery to static braking included both tread stretch and carcass torsional wind-up about the axle for the bias-ply and bias-belted tires and carcass wind-up alone for the radial-belted tire.

Tanner, J. A.

1974-01-01

430

STOCHASTIC SIMULATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENT MINERAL AGGREGATE VARIATION ON THE HOMOGENEITY OF RECYCLED HOT-MIX ASPHALT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays flexible pavement used for roads more and more often consists of hot mix asphalt, made in cen- tral asphalt mixing plant including granules of reclaimed asphalt pavement. The quantity of reclaimed asphalt pave- ment to be added depends on its homogeneity. The article presents the algorithm to prognosticate the mineral part composition of hot-mix asphalt, taking into consideration the

K stutis Vislavi ius; Henrikas Sivilevi

431

High performance p-type thermoelectric materials and methods of preparation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is embodied in high performance p-type thermoelectric materials having enhanced thermoelectric properties and the methods of preparing such materials. In one aspect of the invention, p-type semiconductors of formula Zn4-xAxSb3-yBy wherein 0?x?4, A is a transition metal, B is a pnicogen, and 0?y?3 are formed for use in manufacturing thermoelectric devices with substantially enhanced operating characteristics and improved efficiency. Two methods of preparing p-type Zn4Sb3 and related alloys of the present invention include a crystal growth method and a powder metallurgy method.

Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alexander (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

2005-01-01

432

[Technology transfer of building materials by ECOMAT  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the plan for technology transfer of building materials developed by ECOMAT to the commercial private sector. Some of the materials are briefly discussed like foams, fiber reinforcement, fly ash development, and polymer fillers.

NONE

1996-01-01

433

On-machine laser triangulation sensor for precise surface displacement measurement of various material types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a custom-designed laser triangulation based metrology system, which enables high precision surface displacement measurement of various material types with a single sensor configuration. Laser structuring applications require material surface alignment relative to the laser focus position where fabrication conditions are optimal. The measurement system utilizes a high-quality UV wavelength laser beam (primarily used for structuring purposes) with automatic control of its intensity. The laser source operates in a continuous wave (CW) mode during the measurement process, whereas the UV wavelength enables measurement of transparent materials. Robust displacement measurement of various material types was solved by introducing a new approach of structured light projection and its centroid detection. A high resolution 2D galvanometric scanning system is used for dynamic symmetrical pattern projection, which is proven to reduce the effects of material surface related errors and speckle noise. Furthermore, a "double curve fitting" (DCF) centroid detection algorithm, where Gaussian curves are fitted to radial cross sections of the acquired pattern, and an ellipse is fitted to their peak positions, was introduced. The method includes subsurface scattering compensation, which proves crucial for translucent material measurement, where incident light penetrates into the material surface and causes uneven light intensity distribution of the acquired pattern. Experimental results have shown that the metrology system is robust to laser intensity variation and material type, with measurement bias lower than 50 ?m and standard deviation lower than +/-6.3 ?m for all materials. The developed probe has been integrated into commercial LPKF laser structuring systems.

Žbontar, Klemen; Podobnik, Boštjan; Povše, Franc; Mihelj, Matjaž

2013-09-01

434

Recycling asphalt pavements. January 1975-January 1990 (a Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1975-January 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt-containing pavement materials. Articles include examples of recycling asphalt pavements; performance testing of recycled paving; methods including cold in-place, cold off-site, and hot-mix recycling; additives in recycled pavement for better performance; use of scrap roofing asphalt in conjunction with recycled paving; economics of recycling; process design; and process variables. Recycling of other materials is considered in related bibliographies. (Contains 130 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-03-01

435

Methane and carbon monoxide emissions from asphalt pavement: Measurements and estimates of their important to global budgets  

SciTech Connect

The authors measured emissions of methane from asphalt surfaces used in pavement for roadways. Maximum emissions were 22 mg/m{sup 2}/hr for 1- to 4-week-old pavement during maximum sunlight intensity. Emissions were much smaller at low sunlight intensity and dropped off to negligible amounts at night. Smaller emissions were observed for asphalt pavement of 2.5 to 3 years approximate age under similar conditions. Comparison measurements of carbon monoxide emissions resulted in maximum emissions of about 2.6 mg/m{sup 2}hr for 1-week-old pavement. These findings indicate that emissions of CH{sub 4} and CO are a function of both sunlight and temperature. Based on these results, methane emissions from asphalt pavement cannot be a significant source of atmospheric methane as compared to other identified methane sources. Therefore, although asphalt methane emissions are a form of fossil fuel methane, they cannot explain the relatively high fraction of {sup 14}C-depleted methane in the atmosphere.

Tyler, S.C.; Dlugokencky, E.; Zimmerman, P.R.; Cicerone, R.J. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (USA)); Lowe, D.C. (Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt (New Zealand))

1990-08-20

436

Typing of Nontypable Staphylococci by Lysogeny  

PubMed Central

Strains of coagulase-positive staphylococci which were nontypable with the routine typing set of phages could be typed by lysogeny with phage-propagating strains as indicators and with ultraviolet induction. About 10% of the strains could be typed without induction. About 36% of them could be typed by this method when ultraviolet irradiation was used as an inducing agent. The phage groups from which the majority of the nontypable staphylococci originated were easily identified by this method of typing.

Chun, Doki; Choi, Sak Duk; Suh, Jung Hae; Moon, Young Suk

1967-01-01

437

Density Measurement Verification for Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete Pavement Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected service...

S. Darra T. V. Scholz

2010-01-01

438

An overview of waste materials recycling in the Sultanate of Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various wastes and by-product materials are generated in the Sultanate of Oman including reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) aggregate, demolition concrete, cement by-pass dust (CBPD), copper slag, petroleum-contaminated soils (PCS), discarded tires, incinerator ash, and others. Recycling of such materials in construction is not practiced. Research data are also minimal into the potential use of selected materials in construction applications. This

R Taha; A Al-Rawas; K Al-Jabri; A Al-Harthy; H Hassan; S Al-Oraimi

2004-01-01

439

Porous Pavement. Phase I. Design and Operational Criteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design and operational criteria, utilization concepts, benefits and disadvantages, as well as other characteristics of porous pavements are presented in this report. Particular emphasis is placed on porous asphalt pavements, but the criteria and design ap...

E. V. Diniz

1980-01-01

440

POROUS PAVEMENT. PHASE I. DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL CRITERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Design and operational criteria, utilization concepts, benefits and disadvantages, as well as other characteristics of porous pavements are presented in this report. Particular emphasis is placed on porous asphalt pavements, but the criteria and design approach are applicable to ...

441

Stabilized Pavements for ALRS (Alternate Launch and Recovery Surfaces).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An 'ALRS Stabilized Material Pavement Analysis System' (SPAS) is proposed. An 'intact slab' approach based on ILLI-PAVE analyses and Meyerhof ultimate concepts is recommended. The study of the WES Test Section data indicated the validity of SPAS and facil...

M. R. Thompson R. R. Costigan

1985-01-01

442

A numerical model for flexible pavements rut depth evolution with time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplified method has been developed for the finite elements modelling of flexible pavements rut depth evolution with time. This method is based on the shakedown theory established by Zarka for metallic structures. The yield surface of Drucker-Prager and the plastic potential of Von Mises have been used. The simplified method determines straightforwardly the purely elastic state or the elastic shakedown state or the plastic shakedown state. The calibration of the simplified method with two unbound granular materials for roads under repeated loads triaxial tests, is explained. Then, a finite elements modelling of a flexible pavement has been carried out. Calculations of 2D and 3D have been performed and rut depth evolutions with time are shown, which underline the capabilities of the model to take into account the accumulation of plastic strains along the loading cycles. Copyright

Allou, Fatima; Chazallon, Cyrille; Hornych, Pierre

2007-01-01

443

The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

Beccacece, Hernan M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

2014-01-01

444

Revised procedure for pavement design under seasonal frost conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents engineering guidance and design criteria for pavements at Army and Air Force facilities in seasonal frost areas. Design methods for controlling surface roughness and loss of subgrade strength during thawing periods are provided. Criteria for using thermal insulating materials and membrane encapsulated soil layers in seasonal frost areas are presented. Six design examples are included.

R. L. Berg; T. C. Johnson

1983-01-01

445

Revised procedure for pavement design under seasonal frost conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents engineering guidance and design criteria for pavements at Army and Air Force facilities in seasonal frost areas. Design methods for controlling surface roughness and loss of subgrade strength during thawing periods are provided. Criteria for using thermal insulating materials and membrane encapsulated soil layers in seasonal frost areas are presented. Six design examples are included.

Berg, R. L.; Johnson, T. C.

1983-09-01

446

SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS: P-type ZnO thin films prepared by in situ oxidation of DC sputtered Zn3N2:Ga  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of a new fabrication route for N and Ga codoped p-type ZnO thin films on glass substrates, consisting of DC sputtering deposition of Zn3N2:Ga precursors followed by in situ oxidation in high purity oxygen, has been studied. The effects of oxidation temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical transmittance and Hall effect measurements. The results were compared to a control film without Ga. XRD analyses revealed that the Zn3N2 films entirely transformed into ZnO films after annealing Zn3N2 films in oxygen over 500 °C for 2 h. Hall effect measurements confirmed p-type conduction in N and Ga codoped ZnO films with a low resistivity of 19.8 ? · cm, a high hole concentration of 4.6 × 1018 cm-3 and a Hall mobility of 0.7 cm2/(V·s). These results demonstrate a promising approach to fabricate low resistivity p-type ZnO with high hole concentration.

Jun, Zhang; Shuwen, Xue; Lexi, Shao

2010-04-01

447

Thermoelectric Generators using Solar Thermal Energy in Heated Road Pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature of road pavement rises up to 70degC in summer due to the effect of the solar radiation. The authors have developed a pavement-cooling system using thermoelectric generator. Heat in the pavement is collected as heated water in a heat collection tube installed in the pavement. River water near the road is used as a coolant. Electric power is

M. Hasebe; Y. Kamikawa; S. Meiarashi

2006-01-01

448

Status of the improved N-type SiGe\\/GaP thermoelectric material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive experimental and theoretical work has been conducted in order to optimize the thermoelectric properties of n-type SiGe materials. A key factor to the improvement of the figure of merit Z of these materials has been the successful ability to substantially increase the electron concentrations by up to a factor of two at room temperature over current standard P-doped

Jean-Pierre Fleurial; Alex Borschevsky; Jan Vandersande; Nancy Scoville; Clara Bajgar

1992-01-01