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Sample records for tze huang pzh

  1. Pien Tze Huang inhibits liver metastasis by targeting TGF-β signaling in an orthotopic model of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zheng, Liangpu; Cao, Zhiyun; Shen, Aling; Li, Qiongyu; Fu, Caixuan; Feng, Jianyu; Peng, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in almost all types of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical process during the metastatic cascade. This process may be a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of CRC. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formula, has been demonstrated to be clinically effective in treating various types of human malignancies, including CRC. Our published data suggest that PZH can induce apoptosis, as well as inhibit cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis, thus suppressing CRC growth in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of PZH against CRC metastasis using a CRC liver metastasis mouse model to further explore the mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of PZH. MTT, migration, and Matrigel invasion assays were used to assess the effect of PZH on cell viability, migration and invasion. We then established an orthotopic liver metastasis model of colon cancer using microsurgical techniques. Mice were intragastrically administered 234 mg/kg/day dose of either PZH or saline for 14 days. The body and tumor weights of the mice were measured after they were sacrificed. Moreover, we examined the effect of PZH inhibition on liver metastasis. Finally, EMT-related proteins and the TGF-β signaling pathway were assessed using immunohistochemical staining (IHS). The present data revealed that PZH significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of CT-26 cells in a dose-dependent manner, which affirmed the inhibitory effect of PZH on CRC cell metastasis. No significant change was observed between the in vivo primary tumor growth and body weight. However, the control group had five cases of liver metastasis (5/6), whereas one case was found in the PZH group (1/6). Thus, PZH exhibited therapeutic efficacy against CRC metastasis without apparent toxicity. The inhibitory effect of PZH on EMT resulted in an increase in

  2. Pien Tze Huang inhibits metastasis of human colorectal carcinoma cells via modulation of TGF-β1/ZEB/miR-200 signaling network.

    PubMed

    Shen, Aling; Lin, Wei; Chen, Youqin; Liu, Liya; Chen, Hongwei; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Lin, Jiumao; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Tumor metastasis, a complex process involving the spread of malignant tumor cells from a primary tumor site to a distant organ, is a major cause of failure of cancer chemotherapy. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical step for the initiation of cancer metastasis. The processes of EMT and metastasis are highly regulated by a double-negative feedback loop consisting of TGF-β1/ZEB pathway and miR-200 family, which therefore has become a promising target for cancer chemotherapy. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formula first prescribed in the Ming Dynasty, has been demonstrated to be clinically effective in the treatment of various types of human malignancy including colorectal cancer (CRC). Our published data proposed that PZH was able to induce apoptosis, inhibit cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis, leading to the suppression of CRC growth in vitro and in vivo. To further elucidate the mode of action of PZH, in the present study we evaluated its effects on the metastatic capacities of human colorectal carcinoma HCT-8 cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that PZH significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of HCT-8 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PZH treatment inhibited the expression of key mediators of TGF-β1 signaling, such as TGF-β1, Smad2/3 and Smad4. Moreover, PZH treatment suppressed the expression of ZEB1 and ZEB2, two critical target genes of TGF-β1 pathway, leading to a decrease in the expression of mesenchymal marker N-cadherin and an increased expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin. Furthermore, PZH treatment upregulated the expression of miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c. Collectively, our findings in this study suggest that PZH can inhibit metastasis of colorectal cancer cells via modulating TGF-β1/ZEB/miR-200 signaling network, which might be one of the mechanisms whereby PZH exerts its anticancer function. PMID:25422078

  3. Identification and quantification of the anti-inflammatory constituents in Pian-Tze-Huang by liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingqing; Xu, Wen; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jing; Peng, Jun; Lu, Jinjian

    2016-08-01

    Both qualitative and quantitative analyses combined with activity evaluation were used for the integrated quality control study of Pien-Tze-Huang (PZH), a precious lozenge used for 460 years in China. In qualitative analysis, a high performance LC-quadrupole time-of-flight MS method was developed for the identification of chemical profiling in PZH. 27 compounds were unambiguously identified by comparing with reference substances, and 12 compounds were tentatively deduced based on their MS data and comparing with literatures. Then the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of 27 compounds were evaluated, and 9 saponins, 11 bile acids, taurine and muscone exhibited significant inhibitory activities on TNF-α production with IC50 values ranging from 12.34 to 147.24μM. In quantitative analysis, 21 active compounds, selected as quality control markers, were simultaneously detected in 15 batches of PZH samples by ultra-performance LC-triple quadrupole MS. All the analytes were detected within 15min. Satisfactory linearity was achieved with wide linear range and fine determination coefficient (r(2)>0.9990). The respective relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precisions, repeatability, stability, and recovery were less than 4.32%, 4.94%, 4.78%, 4.87%, and 4.91%. This study established a high sensitive and efficient method for the integrated quality control of PZH, including qualitative and quantitative analyses combined with pharmacological activity evaluation. PMID:27240301

  4. [Textual research on Huang shinüke (Huang's Obstetrics and Gynecology)].

    PubMed

    Wen, Jianfang; Wu, Tong

    2015-07-01

    Huang shi nü ke (Huang's Obstetrics and Gynecology), a handwritten copy of the Ming Dynasty passed on by Huang Xiaoyou, Yuanyi and Huang Dongjiu, and sorted out by Huang Yanrong, was a family medical book of Huang's obstetrics and gynecology in Xin'an, being a summary of their clinical experience.There were altogether 44 chapters divided into 4 parts, including general introduction, general principle of treatment, discussions on prenatal conditions and qi acquired from the mother, and gynecological diseases in sequence, with the appendixes of pulse diagnostics for differentiating male and female, and the 10-month methods of protecting the fetus. PMID:26815029

  5. Hilbert-Huang Transform in Ocean Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongxiang

    2013-04-01

    Hilbert-Huang Transform is a relative novel time-frequency analysis technique for multi-scale processes. It is a wavelet-like data-driven methodology without a priori basis assumption. This meets the requirement of the analysis of the nonstationary and nonlinear data with short length or irregular sampling time interval. Since it is introduced in 1998 by Dr. N.E Huang, it has been widely applied to different scientific research fields and engineering problems, showing its simplicity and successes. We develop further this method to characterize the scale invariance for turbulence-like/scaling processes, e.g., velocity, temperature, dissolved oxygen observed in ocean, etc. In this talk, we first present a general introduction of this method. The key feature of this Hilbert-based method is that it is free with sub-harmonics when dealing with nonstationary and nonlinear data. This is accomplished by using an Intrawave-Frequency Modulation mechanism to characterize the so-called nonlinear distortion. Therefore, unlike the Fourier based methodologies, artificial energy redistribution in spectral space is constrained. We then show several applications of this method to experimental data from wind tunnel experiments and ocean observations. The interaction between two different scales and two variables are also discussed in statistics sense. The method is general and applicable to other systems, in which the multi-scale is relevant. Reference 1. Huang, N. E.; Shen, Z.; Long, S. R.; Wu, M. C.; Shih, H. H.; Zheng, Q.; Yen, N.; Tung, C. C. & Liu, H. H. The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and non-stationary time series analysis Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, Royal Society, 1998, 454, 903-995 2. Huang, Y.; Schmitt, F.; Lu, Z. & Liu, Y. An amplitude-frequency study of turbulent scaling intermittency using Hilbert spectral analysis, Europhys. Lett., 2008, 84, 40010 3. Huang, Y.; Schmitt, F.; Lu, Z.; Fougairolles, P.; Gagne, Y. & Liu, Y. Second

  6. [Huang Yizhou's study on Nei jing (Inner Canon)].

    PubMed

    Hu, Benxiang; Huang, Youmei; Yu, Chengfen

    2002-01-01

    Being a great classical scholar of the late Qing dynasty, Huang Yizhou collated Nei jing (Inner Canon) by textual criticism. But most of his works were missing. By reviewing historical documents and literature, it has been found that his collated books include Huang di nei jing su wen jiao ben (Collated Edition of Huangdi's Inner Canon Plain Questions), Huang di nei jing su wen chong jiao zheng (Recollated Huangdi's Inner Canon Plain Questions), Nei jing zhen ci (Acupuncture in Inner Canon), Huang di nei jing jiu juan ji zhu (Variorum of Nine Volumes of Huangdi's Inner Canon), Huang di nei jing ming tang (Acupuncture Chart of Huangdi's Inner Canon), and Jiu chao tai su jiao ben (Old Extremely Plain Question Recension). Many of his disciples became famous scholars in the Republican period. PMID:12015056

  7. The Application of Hilbert-Huang Transforms to Meteorological Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Dean G.

    2003-01-01

    Recently a new spectral technique as been developed for the analysis of aperiodic and nonlinear signals - the Hilbert-Huang transform. This paper shows how these transforms can be used to discover synoptic and climatic features: For sea level data, the transforms capture the oceanic tides as well as large, aperiodic river outflows. In the case of solar radiation, we observe variations in the diurnal and seasonal cycles. Finally, from barographic data, the Hilbert-Huang transform reveals the passage of extratropical cyclones, fronts, and troughs. Thus, this technique can flag significant weather events such its a flood or the passage of a squall line.

  8. Neuroprotective Effect of Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) on Ma Huang- (Herb Ephedra-) Induced Toxicity in Rats Treated with a Ma Huang-Gui Zhi Herb Pair

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang-hao; Wei, Ping; Huo, Hui-ling; Xing, Xue-feng; Chen, Fei-long; Tan, Xiao-mei; Luo, Jia-bo

    2015-01-01

    Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese) and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese) are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 rats/group) were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48 mg/kg), and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination. PMID:25691910

  9. Aeroelastic Flight Data Analysis with the Hilbert-Huang Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.; Prazenica, Chad

    2006-01-01

    This report investigates the utility of the Hilbert Huang transform for the analysis of aeroelastic flight data. It is well known that the classical Hilbert transform can be used for time-frequency analysis of functions or signals. Unfortunately, the Hilbert transform can only be effectively applied to an extremely small class of signals, namely those that are characterized by a single frequency component at any instant in time. The recently-developed Hilbert Huang algorithm addresses the limitations of the classical Hilbert transform through a process known as empirical mode decomposition. Using this approach, the data is filtered into a series of intrinsic mode functions, each of which admits a well-behaved Hilbert transform. In this manner, the Hilbert Huang algorithm affords time-frequency analysis of a large class of signals. This powerful tool has been applied in the analysis of scientific data, structural system identification, mechanical system fault detection, and even image processing. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the potential applications of the Hilbert Huang algorithm for the analysis of aeroelastic systems, with improvements such as localized online processing. Applications for correlations between system input and output, and amongst output sensors, are discussed to characterize the time-varying amplitude and frequency correlations present in the various components of multiple data channels. Online stability analyses and modal identification are also presented. Examples are given using aeroelastic test data from the F-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing airplane, an Aerostructures Test Wing, and pitch plunge simulation.

  10. Hot-electron relaxation in metals within the Götze-Wölfle memory function formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Nabyendu; Singh, Navinder

    2016-04-01

    We consider nonequilibrium relaxation of electrons due to their coupling with phonons in a simple metal. In our model, electrons are living at a higher temperature than that of the phonon bath, mimicking a nonequilibrium steady-state situation. We study the relaxation of such hot electrons proposing a suitable generalization of the memory function formalism formulated by Götze and Wölfle (GW) [W. Götze and P. Wölfle, Phys. Rev. B 6, 1226 (1972)]. We derive analytical expressions for both the DC or zero frequency scattering rates and the optical scattering rates in various temperature and frequency regimes. Limiting cases are in accord with the previous studies. An interesting feature that the DC scattering rate at high temperatures and optical scattering rate at high frequencies are independent of the temperature difference between the electrons and the phonons is found in this study. The present formalism forms a basis which can also be extended to study hot-electron relaxation in variety of complex materials.

  11. Application of Huang-Hilbert Transforms to Geophysical Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Dean G.

    2003-01-01

    The Huang-Hilbert transform is a promising new method for analyzing nonstationary and nonlinear datasets. In this talk I will apply this technique to several important geophysical datasets. To understand the strengths and weaknesses of this method, multi- year, hourly datasets of the sea level heights and solar radiation will be analyzed. Then we will apply this transform to the analysis of gravity waves observed in a mesoscale observational net.

  12. Aeroelastic Flight Data Analysis with the Hilbert-Huang Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Marty; Prazenica, Chad

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility of the Hilbert-Huang transform for the analysis of aeroelastic flight data. It is well known that the classical Hilbert transform can be used for time-frequency analysis of functions or signals. Unfortunately, the Hilbert transform can only be effectively applied to an extremely small class of signals, namely those that are characterized by a single frequency component at any instant in time. The recently-developed Hilbert-Huang algorithm addresses the limitations of the classical Hilbert transform through a process known as empirical mode decomposition. Using this approach, the data is filtered into a series of intrinsic mode functions, each of which admits a well-behaved Hilbert transform. In this manner, the Hilbert-Huang algorithm affords time-frequency analysis of a large class of signals. This powerful tool has been applied in the analysis of scientific data, structural system identification, mechanical system fault detection, and even image processing. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential applications of the Hilbert-Huang algorithm for the analysis of aeroelastic systems, with improvements such as localized/online processing. Applications for correlations between system input and output, and amongst output sensors, are discussed to characterize the time-varying amplitude and frequency correlations present in the various components of multiple data channels. Online stability analyses and modal identification are also presented. Examples are given using aeroelastic test data from the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing aircraft, an Aerostructures Test Wing, and pitch-plunge simulation.

  13. Hilbert-Huang Transform in MHD Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kakurin, A.M.; Orlovsky, I.I.

    2005-12-15

    A new method for processing experimental data from MHD diagnostics is discussed that provides a more detailed study of the dynamics of large-scale MHD instabilities. The method is based on the Hilbert-Huang transform method and includes an empirical mode decomposition algorithm, which is used to decompose the experimental MHD diagnostic signals into a set of frequency- and amplitude-modulated harmonics in order to construct the time evolutions of the amplitudes and frequencies of these harmonics with the help of the Hilbert transform. The method can also be applied to analyze data from other diagnostics that measure unsteady oscillating signals.

  14. On the Hilbert-Huang Transform Theoretical Foundation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Blank, Karin; Huang, Norden E.

    2004-01-01

    The Hilbert-Huang Transform [HHT] is a novel empirical method for spectrum analysis of non-linear and non-stationary signals. The HHT is a recent development and much remains to be done to establish the theoretical foundation of the HHT algorithms. This paper develops the theoretical foundation for the convergence of the HHT sifting algorithm and it proves that the finest spectrum scale will always be the first generated by the HHT Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) algorithm. The theoretical foundation for cutting an extrema data points set into two parts is also developed. This then allows parallel signal processing for the HHT computationally complex sifting algorithm and its optimization in hardware.

  15. [Academic heritage of Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines) in Japan].

    PubMed

    He, Huiling; Xiao, Yongzhi

    2014-11-01

    Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines) was the first monograph on famines herbal in the history of China, which creates a new research field of edible plants. Around the middle and late 17th century, Jiu huang ben cao was spread to Japan and aroused great attention of famous Japanese herbalists. Thus, all versions of different edition systems were circulated in Japan. Later, some famous Japanese scholar ssuccessively quoted texts of Jiu huang ben cao from the Nong zheng quan shu (Whole book on Agricultural Administration) spread in Japan, and block-printed it as an independent work. As a result, Jiu huang ben cao virtually circulated widely in Japan. PMID:25620360

  16. ["Qi-Huang" Culture in the context of anthropological perspective of medicine and health].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huailin

    2011-05-01

    The survey of the two Chinese characters "(qi)(huang)" from the perspective of anthropology of medicine and health show that the words represent a variety of meanings. All the TCM related contents, such as physicians, medical works and official position of medicine etc. can be represented by the word. "Qi-huang" culture contained the relevant medical works and the physicians who handed down Chinese medicine, such as Qibo, Bogao, Shaoshi, Leigong, Rongcheng etc., and the contents are more abundant. Previously, less study concerned the historical relics spread extensively in Xinmi City, Henan Province, such as Qibo Shan, Limu Tai, Fenghou Ding etc. "Qi-huang" culture not only remained in the history, but also are living vividly in the present medical civilization. "Qi-huang" culture is not confined within China, but has been spread to the whole world. PMID:21781538

  17. Effect of Rhizoma coptidis (Huang Lian) on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Bing; Yu, Xiao-Tong; Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Tian-Yu; Wang, Han; Gu, Cheng-Juan; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly increasing diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a major public health issue globally; considerable progress has been made in the field of western hypoglycemic drug and insulin, but some shortages still exist. As one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) performs a good clinical practice and is showing a bright future in the treatment of DM. TCM therapy has certain advantages of less toxicity and/or side effects, and Chinese herbal medicine which usually contains various active ingredients could provide multiple therapeutic effects. Huang Lian (Rhizoma coptidis, RC) is a herb frequently used in many traditional formulas for properties of “clearing damp-heat, quenching fire, and counteracting poison” in Asia for centuries. In this review, we summarize the application of RC in the treatment of DM from two aspects of contents. Firstly, theoretical principles are explained, including the properties and related records about RC in ancient references and modern pharmacological researches and pharmacokinetics on RC and its active components. Secondly, the clinical application of RC is mainly reviewed, such as applicable stage and syndrome, the reasonable dose range, the preparation formulations, and the toxicity and/or side effects and solutions to its adverse actions. This review provides scientific evidence about the effective components, pharmacological researches, and toxicity of RC, as well as introducing traditional Chinese medical theory and clinical experience, in order to guide clinician to use RC more suitably and reasonably in the clinical practice. PMID:26508987

  18. Application of the Hilbert-Huang Transform to Financial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden

    2005-01-01

    A paper discusses the application of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method to time-series financial-market data. The method was described, variously without and with the HHT name, in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles and supporting documents. To recapitulate: The method is especially suitable for analyzing time-series data that represent nonstationary and nonlinear phenomena including physical phenomena and, in the present case, financial-market processes. The method involves the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), in which a complicated signal is decomposed into a finite number of functions, called "intrinsic mode functions" (IMFs), that admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms. The HHT consists of the combination of EMD and Hilbert spectral analysis. The local energies and the instantaneous frequencies derived from the IMFs through Hilbert transforms can be used to construct an energy-frequency-time distribution, denoted a Hilbert spectrum. The instant paper begins with a discussion of prior approaches to quantification of market volatility, summarizes the HHT method, then describes the application of the method in performing time-frequency analysis of mortgage-market data from the years 1972 through 2000. Filtering by use of the EMD is shown to be useful for quantifying market volatility.

  19. Identification of Velcro rales based on Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xue; Shao, Jie; Long, Yingjiao; Que, Chengli; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    Velcro rales, as a kind of crackles, are relatively specific for lung fibrosis and usually the first clinical clue of interstitial lung disease (ILD). We proposed an automatic analytic tool based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for the computerized identification of Velcro rales. In particular, HHT was utilized to extract the energy weight in various frequency bands (EW) of crackles and to calculate the portion of crackles during late inspiration. Support vector machine (SVM) based on the HHT-derived measures was used to differentiate Velcro rales from other crackles. We found that there were significant differences in the extracted parameters between Velcro rales and other crackles, including EW, EW and the proportion of crackles that appeared during the late inspiration. The discrimination results obtained from SVM achieved a concordance rate up to 92.20%±1.80% as confirmed by the diagnosis from experienced physicians. For practical purpose, the proposed approach may have potential applications to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of auscultation and conduct automatic ILD diagnose system.

  20. Effect of Rhizoma coptidis (Huang Lian) on Treating Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pang, Bing; Yu, Xiao-Tong; Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Tian-Yu; Wang, Han; Gu, Cheng-Juan; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly increasing diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a major public health issue globally; considerable progress has been made in the field of western hypoglycemic drug and insulin, but some shortages still exist. As one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) performs a good clinical practice and is showing a bright future in the treatment of DM. TCM therapy has certain advantages of less toxicity and/or side effects, and Chinese herbal medicine which usually contains various active ingredients could provide multiple therapeutic effects. Huang Lian (Rhizoma coptidis, RC) is a herb frequently used in many traditional formulas for properties of "clearing damp-heat, quenching fire, and counteracting poison" in Asia for centuries. In this review, we summarize the application of RC in the treatment of DM from two aspects of contents. Firstly, theoretical principles are explained, including the properties and related records about RC in ancient references and modern pharmacological researches and pharmacokinetics on RC and its active components. Secondly, the clinical application of RC is mainly reviewed, such as applicable stage and syndrome, the reasonable dose range, the preparation formulations, and the toxicity and/or side effects and solutions to its adverse actions. This review provides scientific evidence about the effective components, pharmacological researches, and toxicity of RC, as well as introducing traditional Chinese medical theory and clinical experience, in order to guide clinician to use RC more suitably and reasonably in the clinical practice. PMID:26508987

  1. Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis methods in biomedical signal applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Feng; Zhu, Jin-De

    2012-03-01

    Hilbert-Huang transformation, wavelet transformation, and Fourier transformation are the principal time-frequency analysis methods. These transformations can be used to discuss the frequency characteristics of linear and stationary signals, the time-frequency features of linear and non-stationary signals, the time-frequency features of non-linear and non-stationary signals, respectively. The Hilbert-Huang transformation is a combination of empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert spectral analysis. The empirical mode decomposition uses the characteristics of signals to adaptively decompose them to several intrinsic mode functions. Hilbert transforms are then used to transform the intrinsic mode functions into instantaneous frequencies, to obtain the signal's time-frequency-energy distributions and features. Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis can be applied to natural physical signals such as earthquake waves, winds, ocean acoustic signals, mechanical diagnosis signals, and biomedical signals. In previous studies, we examined Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis of the electroencephalogram FPI signals of clinical alcoholics, and 'sharp I' wave-based Hilbert-Huang transformation time-frequency features. In this paper, we discuss the application of Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis to biomedical signals, such as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram signals, electrogastrogram recordings, and speech signals. PMID:22558835

  2. On the Hilbert-Huang Transform Theoretical Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Blank, Karin; Flatley, Thomas; Huang, Norden E.; Patrick, David; Hestnes, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    One of the main heritage tools used in scientific and engineering data spectrum analysis is the Fourier Integral Transform and its high performance digital equivalent - the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Both carry strong a-priori assumptions about the source data, such as linearity, of being stationary, and of satisfying the Dirichlet conditions. A recent development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), known as the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), proposes a novel approach to the solution for the nonlinear class of spectrum analysis problems. Using a-posteriori data processing based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) sifting process (algorithm), followed by the normalized Hilbert Transform of the decomposition data, the HHT allows spectrum analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary data. The EMD sifting process results in a non-constrained decomposition of a source real value data vector into a finite set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). These functions form a near orthogonal adaptive basis, a basis that is derived from the data. The IMFs can be further analyzed for spectrum interpretation by the classical Hilbert Transform. A new engineering spectrum analysis tool using HHT has been developed at NASA GSFC, the HHT Data Processing System (HHT-DPS). As the HHT-DPS has been successfully used and commercialized, new applications post additional questions about the theoretical basis behind the HHT and EMD algorithms. Why is the fastest changing component of a composite signal being sifted out first in the EMD sifting process? Why does the EMD sifting process seemingly converge and why does it converge rapidly? Does an IMF have a distinctive structure? Why are the IMFs near orthogonal? We address these questions and develop the initial theoretical background for the HHT. This will contribute to the developments of new HHT processing options, such as real-time and 2-D processing using Field Programmable

  3. On Certain Theoretical Developments Underlying the Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Blank, Karin; Flatley, Thomas; Huang, Norden E.; Petrick, David; Hestness, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    One of the main traditional tools used in scientific and engineering data spectral analysis is the Fourier Integral Transform and its high performance digital equivalent - the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Both carry strong a-priori assumptions about the source data, such as being linear and stationary, and of satisfying the Dirichlet conditions. A recent development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), known as the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), proposes a novel approach to the solution for the nonlinear class of spectral analysis problems. Using a-posteriori data processing based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) sifting process (algorithm), followed by the normalized Hilbert Transform of the decomposed data, the HHT allows spectral analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary data. The EMD sifting process results in a non-constrained decomposition of a source real-value data vector into a finite set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). These functions form a nearly orthogonal derived from the data (adaptive) basis. The IMFs can be further analyzed for spectrum content by using the classical Hilbert Transform. A new engineering spectral analysis tool using HHT has been developed at NASA GSFC, the HHT Data Processing System (HHT-DPS). As the HHT-DPS has been successfully used and commercialized, new applications pose additional questions about the theoretical basis behind the HHT and EMD algorithms. Why is the fastest changing component of a composite signal being sifted out first in the EMD sifting process? Why does the EMD sifting process seemingly converge and why does it converge rapidly? Does an IMF have a distinctive structure? Why are the IMFs nearly orthogonal? We address these questions and develop the initial theoretical background for the HHT. This will contribute to the development of new HHT processing options, such as real-time and 2-D processing using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA

  4. On the Hilbert-Huang Transform Data Processing System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Flatley, Thomas P.; Huang, Norden E.; Cornwell, Evette; Smith, Darell

    2003-01-01

    One of the main heritage tools used in scientific and engineering data spectrum analysis is the Fourier Integral Transform and its high performance digital equivalent - the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The Fourier view of nonlinear mechanics that had existed for a long time, and the associated FFT (fairly recent development), carry strong a-priori assumptions about the source data, such as linearity and of being stationary. Natural phenomena measurements are essentially nonlinear and nonstationary. A very recent development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), known as the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) proposes a novel approach to the solution for the nonlinear class of spectrum analysis problems. Using the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) followed by the Hilbert Transform of the empirical decomposition data (HT), the HHT allows spectrum analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary data by using an engineering a-posteriori data processing, based on the EMD algorithm. This results in a non-constrained decomposition of a source real value data vector into a finite set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that can be further analyzed for spectrum interpretation by the classical Hilbert Transform. This paper describes phase one of the development of a new engineering tool, the HHT Data Processing System (HHTDPS). The HHTDPS allows applying the "T to a data vector in a fashion similar to the heritage FFT. It is a generic, low cost, high performance personal computer (PC) based system that implements the HHT computational algorithms in a user friendly, file driven environment. This paper also presents a quantitative analysis for a complex waveform data sample, a summary of technology commercialization efforts and the lessons learned from this new technology development.

  5. Temporal and spatial variability of drought in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhe; Yan, Deng-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Yin, Jun; Yuan, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Drought is a kind of extreme hydrological event. With the penetration of climate change impact, severity, areal extent, and frequency of drought are increasing, especially in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, which plays a key role in China's agriculture production. Analyzing the regional temporal and spatial variability in the context of climate change could provide a basis for the evasion of disasters and risk. The maximum number of consecutive dry days was selected as the indicator to analyze the decadal variability of drought severity, areal extent, and spatial variability of drought frequency in different seasons in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. Based on these, temporal and spatial variability of two kinds of special extreme events—consecutive drought and heavy rain after drought—were studied. The results showed that: (1) Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin mainly experienced moderate drought and severe drought. Moderate drought mainly occurs in autumn. High-frequency region of moderate drought is located in the plain of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, and its area is approximately 22.7 % of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. Severe drought often occurs in spring with high-frequency region in the upstream of the Yellow River. The area of this high-frequency region is about 6 % of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. (2) During 1961~2011, the areal extent of summer severe drought, autumn severe drought, and extreme drought all showed increasing trend, in which the increasing trend of the autumn severe drought area in the Yellow River has reached the significance level α = 0.05. (3) Consecutive drought of several seasons often took place in Ningxia plain and Hetao plain which lie in the northwest of the Yellow River Basin. In the recent 20 years, consecutive drought from spring to summer and consecutive drought from summer to autumn occurred frequently. Drought-flood abrupt alternation such as heavy rain after drought often occurred in summer temporally and Huaihe River Basin spatially.

  6. [Birthplace of the Qi-Huang culture-Xinmi of the Henan Province].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Min

    2012-05-01

    Located in the central plains and the eastern slope of songhsan, Xinmi has a long history and unique advantage in environment. As the birthplace of Qi-Huang culture, it has abundant Qibo and Huangdi relics (Xuanyuan tpe, Qibo tomb, Qibo temple, Qibo spring, Huangdi palace and Qibo mountain), folk tales about their academic discussion which were popular long time ago, many archaeological discoveries with academic value and genuine Chinese medicinal materials. Qi-Huang culture is the valuable Chinese culture heritage and it needs to be further studied and developed. PMID:22883381

  7. The Value of SCMC in SLA: Comments on Lin, Huang & Liou (2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analytic methods are often used to determine the effectiveness of certain treatments across studies. However, we are often unaware of how a meta-analysis can provide value to researchers and practitioners. This paper offers a brief commentary on a meta-analysis conducted by Lin, Huang and Liou (2013) in LLT, providing further statistical…

  8. Application of the Hilbert-Huang Transform for the Analysis of Impact-Echo Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algernon, D.; Wiggenhauser, H.

    2006-03-01

    In contrast to the FFT, which only gives the frequency content of the whole signal without revealing its relation to time, the application of the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) gives a time-frequency representation of the data. Examples of on-site measurements are shown, where HHT succeeds in identifying short transient signals, which could not be identified using FFT. Furthermore its application for filtering the signal and its capability to analyze data from nonlinear systems are demonstrated.

  9. [Characteristics of precipitation pH and conductivity at Mt. Huang].

    PubMed

    Shi, Chun-e; Deng, Xue-liang; Wu, Bi-wen; Hong, Jie; Zhang, Su; Yang, Yuan-jian

    2013-05-01

    To understand the general characteristics of pH distribution and pollution in precipitation at Mt. Huang, statistical analyses were conducted for the routine measurements of pH and conductivity (K) at Mt. Huang during 2006-2011. The results showed that: (1) Over the period of study, the annual volume weighted mean (VWM) precipitation pH varied from 4.81 to 5.57, with precipitation acidity strengthening before 2009 and weakening thereafter. The precipitation acidity showed evident seasonal variations, with the VWM pH lowest in winter (4.78), and highest in summer (5.33). The occurrence frequency of acid rain was 46% , accounting for 45% of total rainfalls and with the most frequent pH falling into weak acid to neutral rain. (2) The annual VWM K varied from 16.91 to 27.84 microS x cm(-1), with no evident trend. As for ions pollution, the precipitation was relatively clean at Mt. Huang, with the most frequent K range being below 15 microS x cm(-1), followed by 15-25 microS x cm(-1). From February 2010 to December 2011, precipitation samples were collected on daily basis for ions analysis, as well as pH and K measurement in lab. Detailed comparisons were conducted between the two sets of pH and K, one set from field measurement and the other from lab measurement. The results indicated: (1) The lab measured pH (K) was highly correlated with the field pH (K); however, the lab pH tended to move towards neutral comparing with the corresponding field pH, and the shift range was closely correlated with the field pH and rainfall. The shift range of K from field to lab was highly correlated with the total ion concentration of precipitation. The field K showed evident negative correlation with the field pH with a correlation coefficient of -0.51. (2) When sampling with nylon-polyethylene bags, the statistics showed smaller bias between two sets of pH, with higher correlation coefficient between two sets of K. Furthermore, the lab K also showed evident negative correlation with

  10. Application of the Hilbert-Huang Transform to the Search for Gravitational Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan B.; Cannizzo, John K.; Numata, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    We present the application of a novel method of time-series analysis, the Hilbert-Huang Transform, to the search for gravitational waves. This algorithm is adaptive and does not impose a basis set on the data, and thus the time-frequency decomposition it provides is not limited by time-frequency uncertainty spreading. Because of its high time-frequency resolution it has important applications to both signal detection and instrumental characterization. Applications to the data analysis of the ground and space based gravitational wave detectors, LIGO and LISA, are described.

  11. Advantages of the Hilbert Huang transform for marine mammals signals analysis.

    PubMed

    Adam, Olivier

    2006-11-01

    While marine mammals emit variant signals (in time and frequency), the Fourier spectrogram appears to be the most widely used spectral estimator. In certain cases, this approach is suboptimal, particularly for odontocete click analysis and when the signal-to-noise ratio varies during the continuous recordings. We introduce the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) as an efficient means for analysis of bioacoustical signals. To evaluate this method, we compare results obtained from three time-frequency representations: the Fourier spectrogram, the wavelet transform, and the Hilbert Huang transform. The results show that HHT is a viable alternative to the wavelet transform. The chosen examples illustrate certain advantages. (1) This method requires the calculation of the Hilbert transform; the time-frequency resolution is not restricted by the uncertainty principle; the frequency resolution is finer than with the Fourier spectrogram. (2) The original signal decomposition into successive modes is complete. If we were to multiply some of these modes, this would contribute to attenuate the presence of noise in the original signal and to being able to select pertinent information. (3) Frequency evolution for each mode can be analyzed as one-dimensional (1D) signal. We not need a complex 2D post-treatment as is usually required for feature extraction. PMID:17139753

  12. A Meta-Discursive Analysis of Online Comments of Chinese Netizens on Huang Xiaoming's Appropriation of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Xi

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the ideologies of English in China through a meta-discursive analysis of Chinese netizens' comments on the performance of English by Huang Xiaoming, a famous Chinese actor. By applying Park and Wee's framework for analysing ideological evaluations of appropriation (i.e. ideologies of allegiance, competence, and…

  13. [Horizontal transport of nitrate in main soil groups of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaomin; Deng, Jiancai; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhu, Anning; Pan, Youyu

    2002-09-01

    The horizontal transport of nitrate in main soil groups (yellow fluvo-aquic soils and aeolian sandy soil) in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain was studied. The results were as follows: the horizontal transport velocity of nitrate decreased with the distance of the tracer source in power function. Due to different soil property in soil profile, the curves of horizontal transport of nitrate were difference. The horizontal transport velocity of nitrate was controlled by the concentration gradient and soil water potential gradient in 20 cm of horizontal soil column. It was stable after 20 cm, which was controlled by soil matric potential. The horizontal transport velocity of nitrate was in a sharp positive relation with the soil moisture content and changed with exponential function. The concentration of nitrate in horizontal transport decreased with the unsaturated soil water diffusivity increased and changed with logarithmic function. PMID:12533936

  14. Stress measuring and monitoring for main tower of Guangzhou Pearl River HuangPu Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-feng; Liang, Jian-dong

    2008-11-01

    Stress measuring and monitoring play an important role in the construction monitor for HuangPu Bridge in Guangzhou Pearl River, and it ensure the construction safe and normal status of finished bridge. The strain of concrete includes not only the elastic strain resulted from the load effect, but also the non-elastic strain resulted from the creep and shrinkage of concrete. The difficulty for separating creep and shrinkage is the determining for the creep coefficient. A partial site test on creep and shrinkage for the concrete is carried out. The parameters of prediction model CEB-FIP1990 are modified, and some expressions for creep and shrinkage, which are suitable for this project, are acquired. Based on the linearity principle of superposition, the concrete's elastic stress is calculated, and the creep and shrinkage can be separated more accurately.

  15. Analysis of gravitational waves from binary neutron star merger by Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneyama, Masato; Oohara, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Shibata, Masaru

    2016-06-01

    Using the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), we analyze gravitational waves from late inspiral, merger, and post-merger phases of binary neutron stars coalescence, computed by a general relativistic numerical simulation. The HHT analysis has been developed as a method for time series analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary data, and it enables us to perform a high resolution time frequency analysis of signals with strong frequency modulation by evaluating the instantaneous variation of amplitude and frequency of data. We find that we can clearly observe the time evolution of the instantaneous frequency of the post-merger waveforms. It is found that temporal variation of frequency of post-merger waveforms can be evaluated within 5% error if BNS coalescences occur within 10 Mpc. This accuracy allows us to constrain the equation of state of neutron stars and to evaluate the radius of a fiducial neutron star of 1.8 M⊙ with a few hundred meters accuracy.

  16. A framework for the damage evaluation of acoustic emission signals through Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siracusano, Giulio; Lamonaca, Francesco; Tomasello, Riccardo; Garescì, Francesca; Corte, Aurelio La; Carnì, Domenico Luca; Carpentieri, Mario; Grimaldi, Domenico; Finocchio, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The acoustic emission (AE) is a powerful and potential nondestructive testing method for structural monitoring in civil engineering. Here, we show how systematic investigation of crack phenomena based on AE data can be significantly improved by the use of advanced signal processing techniques. Such data are a fundamental source of information that can be used as the basis for evaluating the status of the material, thereby paving the way for a new frontier of innovation made by data-enabled analytics. In this article, we propose a framework based on the Hilbert-Huang Transform for the evaluation of material damages that (i) facilitates the systematic employment of both established and promising analysis criteria, and (ii) provides unsupervised tools to achieve an accurate classification of the fracture type, the discrimination between longitudinal (P-) and traversal (S-) waves related to an AE event. The experimental validation shows promising results for a reliable assessment of the health status through the monitoring of civil infrastructures.

  17. Laser tissue welding analyzed using fluorescence, Stokes shift spectroscopy, and Huang-Rhys parameter.

    PubMed

    Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Alfano, Robert R

    2012-02-01

    Near infrared (NIR) continuous wave laser radiation at the 1,450 nm wavelength was used to weld porcine aorta and skin samples via the absorption of combitional vibrational modes of native water in the tissues. The fluorescence spectra were measured from the key native molecules of welded and non-welded tissues at specific excitation and emission wavelengths from collagen, elastin, and tryptophan. The changes in the fluorescence intensities and differences in Stokes shift (Δν(ss) ) of key native fluorophores were measured to differentiate the Huang-Rhys parameter values (S) of the chromophores. The strength of coupling depends on the local electron-vibration intra-tissue molecular environment and the amount of polar solvent water surrounding the net charges on collagen, elastin, and tryptophan. The S values for both non-welded and welded tissues were almost the same and less than 3, suggesting minimal changes in the local molecular environment as a result of welding. PMID:22076914

  18. The Early ULF Signal of the Gigantic Jets Revealed By Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Po-Hsun; Bing-Chih Chen, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    The conventional Fourier analysis on the sferics in ULF and VLF bandpasses has been done for years. Several phenomena e.g. whistler and Schumann resonance have been well studied by the Fourier spectrum comprehensively. But the Fourier analysis is computed by an integration over time, therefore, the temporal resolution is smoothed, and limited not only by the sampling rate but also the size of the integration window. The instantaneous frequency can't be obtained through this conventional approach. We introduce the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) instead of Fourier transform to analyze the sferics of TLEs recorded at Lulin observatory. The Hilbert-Huang transform decomposes a signal into so-called intrinsic mode functions (IMF), and derive instantaneous frequency data by differentiating the phase angle yielded by Hilbert transform. Our analysis of HHT on several gigantic jets recorded by ground observation surprisingly revealed an early signal of frequency-change during the phase of the leading jet, and this early signal can not be identified by Fourier analysis. In the phase of leading jet, the amplitude of the sferics remains a constant and no significant features are recognized in the recorded waveform, but an obvious frequency change about 100-200 millisecond prior to the main discharge of the full development jets (FDJs), which can be clearly recognized in the HHT spectra of all observed gigantic jets. From a further simulation, this frequency change is confirmed to come from the nature of the discharge, not an alias or a false signal generated by the analysis method. This early signal may implies an in-cloud discharge process which is suggested by Krehbiel et al. [2008

  19. Time-frequency analysis of non-stationary fusion plasma signals using an improved Hilbert-Huang transform

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yangqing Tan, Yi; Xie, Huiqiao; Wang, Wenhao; Gao, Zhe

    2014-07-15

    An improved Hilbert-Huang transform method is developed to the time-frequency analysis of non-stationary signals in tokamak plasmas. Maximal overlap discrete wavelet packet transform rather than wavelet packet transform is proposed as a preprocessor to decompose a signal into various narrow-band components. Then, a correlation coefficient based selection method is utilized to eliminate the irrelevant intrinsic mode functions obtained from empirical mode decomposition of those narrow-band components. Subsequently, a time varying vector autoregressive moving average model instead of Hilbert spectral analysis is performed to compute the Hilbert spectrum, i.e., a three-dimensional time-frequency distribution of the signal. The feasibility and effectiveness of the improved Hilbert-Huang transform method is demonstrated by analyzing a non-stationary simulated signal and actual experimental signals in fusion plasmas.

  20. Fallow land mapping for better crop monitoring in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain using HJ-1 CCD data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Miao; Wu, Bingfang; Meng, Jihua; Dong, Taifeng; You, Xingzhi

    2014-03-01

    The prediction of grain production is essential for socio-economic development planning, guidance and control of macro cropping structure adjustment. Fallow areas should be identified each growing season which is critical for grain production prediction. This paper focuses on fallow arable land monitoring during summer grain season in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain using China Environment Satellite HJ-1 CCD data. With the two satellites HJ-1A and HJ-1B, high temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be obtained. HJ-1 CCD data were acquired from early March to early June in 2010 over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. Multi-temporal HJ-1 CCD data were pre-processed and time series of NDVI were derived. An algorithm for separating cropped and fallow areas was developed based on three key periods of NDVI in early-March, mid-April and mid-May, 2010. The influence of fallow arable lands to yield estimation and crop condition monitoring over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain were also investigated and analyzed. Preliminary results in this paper showed that HJ-1 CCD data are capable for fallow land monitoring. Information of fallow arable lands is an essential part of crop monitoring and it should be incorporated into crop monitoring systems. In the future, the fallow lands over autumn grain season should also be identified and information of fallow arable lands should be generated yearly in order to get more reliable production prediction.

  1. Microbial diversity analysis of fermented mung beans (Lu-Doh-Huang) by using pyrosequencing and culture methods.

    PubMed

    Chao, Shiou-Huei; Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung; Yang, Chih-Hsien; Cheng, Wei-Shen; Kang, Ya-Huei; Watanabe, Koichi; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    In Taiwanese alternative medicine Lu-doh-huang (also called Pracparatum mungo), mung beans are mixed with various herbal medicines and undergo a 4-stage process of anaerobic fermentation. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to profile the bacterial community structure of Lu-doh-huang samples. Pyrosequencing of samples obtained at 7 points during fermentation revealed 9 phyla, 264 genera, and 586 species of bacteria. While mung beans were inside bamboo sections (stages 1 and 2 of the fermentation process), family Lactobacillaceae and genus Lactobacillus emerged in highest abundance; Lactobacillus plantarum was broadly distributed among these samples. During stage 3, the bacterial distribution shifted to family Porphyromonadaceae, and Butyricimonas virosa became the predominant microbial component. Thereafter, bacterial counts decreased dramatically, and organisms were too few to be detected during stage 4. In addition, the microbial compositions of the liquids used for soaking bamboo sections were dramatically different: Exiguobacterium mexicanum predominated in the fermented soybean solution whereas B. virosa was predominant in running spring water. Furthermore, our results from pyrosequencing paralleled those we obtained by using the traditional culture method, which targets lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, the microbial communities during Lu-doh-huang fermentation were markedly diverse, and pyrosequencing revealed a complete picture of the microbial consortium. PMID:23700436

  2. Microbial Diversity Analysis of Fermented Mung Beans (Lu-Doh-Huang) by Using Pyrosequencing and Culture Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shiou-Huei; Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung; Yang, Chih-Hsien; Cheng, Wei-Shen; Kang, Ya-Huei; Watanabe, Koichi; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    In Taiwanese alternative medicine Lu-doh-huang (also called Pracparatum mungo), mung beans are mixed with various herbal medicines and undergo a 4-stage process of anaerobic fermentation. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to profile the bacterial community structure of Lu-doh-huang samples. Pyrosequencing of samples obtained at 7 points during fermentation revealed 9 phyla, 264 genera, and 586 species of bacteria. While mung beans were inside bamboo sections (stages 1 and 2 of the fermentation process), family Lactobacillaceae and genus Lactobacillus emerged in highest abundance; Lactobacillus plantarum was broadly distributed among these samples. During stage 3, the bacterial distribution shifted to family Porphyromonadaceae, and Butyricimonas virosa became the predominant microbial component. Thereafter, bacterial counts decreased dramatically, and organisms were too few to be detected during stage 4. In addition, the microbial compositions of the liquids used for soaking bamboo sections were dramatically different: Exiguobacterium mexicanum predominated in the fermented soybean solution whereas B. virosa was predominant in running spring water. Furthermore, our results from pyrosequencing paralleled those we obtained by using the traditional culture method, which targets lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, the microbial communities during Lu-doh-huang fermentation were markedly diverse, and pyrosequencing revealed a complete picture of the microbial consortium. PMID:23700436

  3. Multimodal Pressure-Flow Analysis: Application of Hilbert Huang Transform in Cerebral Blood Flow Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Men-Tzung; Hu, Kun; Liu, Yanhui; Peng, C.-K.; Novak, Vera

    2008-12-01

    Quantification of nonlinear interactions between two nonstationary signals presents a computational challenge in different research fields, especially for assessments of physiological systems. Traditional approaches that are based on theories of stationary signals cannot resolve nonstationarity-related issues and, thus, cannot reliably assess nonlinear interactions in physiological systems. In this review we discuss a new technique called multimodal pressure flow (MMPF) method that utilizes Hilbert-Huang transformation to quantify interaction between nonstationary cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV) and blood pressure (BP) for the assessment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA). CA is an important mechanism responsible for controlling cerebral blood flow in responses to fluctuations in systemic BP within a few heart-beats. The MMPF analysis decomposes BP and BFV signals into multiple empirical modes adaptively so that the fluctuations caused by a specific physiologic process can be represented in a corresponding empirical mode. Using this technique, we showed that dynamic CA can be characterized by specific phase delays between the decomposed BP and BFV oscillations, and that the phase shifts are significantly reduced in hypertensive, diabetics and stroke subjects with impaired CA. Additionally, the new technique can reliably assess CA using both induced BP/BFV oscillations during clinical tests and spontaneous BP/BFV fluctuations during resting conditions.

  4. Application of Hilbert-Huang transform for defect recognition in pulsed eddy current testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baoling; Huang, Pingjie; Hou, Dibo; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Guangxin

    2015-07-01

    Defect recognition plays an important role in the structure integrity and health monitor of in-service equipment. However, it is difficult to recognise deep-layer defect or small-size defect in conductive structure during pulsed eddy current (PEC) testing. Aiming at the issue, this article proposes a method based on Hilbert-Huang transform which consists of two modules: data processing and defect recognition. In the data processing module, the PEC response signal is decomposed into a few of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using ensemble empirical mode decomposition method. The IMFs whose variance contribution rates are bigger than 1% are chosen to reconstruct signal in order to remove noise. In the defect recognition module, the features based on specific frequency components of marginal spectrum (MS) of the reconstructed signals are extracted to discriminate those defects in surface and subsurface. Furthermore, the normalisation MS energy ratio is proposed to quantify defects which cannot be distinguished using peak value in time domain. Experiments show that the proposed method can achieve better de-noising effect and defect evaluation, which contributes to the recognition of those complicated defects such as deep-layered and small-sized defect.

  5. Application of Hilbert-Huang transformation for detection of damage in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hwai-Chung; Pai, P. Frank; Warnemuende, Kraig

    2007-04-01

    Several nondestructive testing methods can be used to estimate the extent of damage in a concrete structure. Pulse-velocity and amplitude attenuation methods are very common in nondestructive ultrasonic evaluation. Velocity of propagation is not very sensitive to the degree of damage unless a great deal of micro-damages have evolved into localized macro-damages. The amplitude attenuation method is potentially more sensitive to damage than the pulse-velocity method. However, this method depends strongly on the coupling conditions between the transducers and the concrete and hence is unreliable. In a previous study, a new active modulation approach, Nonlinear Active Wave Modulation Spectroscopy, was developed and found promising for early detection of damage in concrete. In this procedure, a probe wave is passed through the system in a fashion similar to regular acoustic methods for inspection. Simultaneously, a second, low-frequency modulating wave is applied to the system to effectively change the size and stiffness of flaws microscopically and cyclically, thereby causing the frequency modulation to change cyclically as well. The resulting amplified modulations can be correlated to the extent of damage and quantification of small damage becomes possible. In this paper, we present the use of Hilbert-Huang transform to significantly enhance the damage detection sensitivity of this modulation method by performing time-frequency decomposition of nonlinear non-stationary time-domain responses.

  6. Inhibition of endosomal fusion activity of influenza virus by Rheum tanguticum (da-huang)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ta-Jen; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lee, Ming-Chung; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Rhubarb (Rheum tanguticum; da-huang in Chinese medicine) is a herbal medicine that has been used widely for managing fever and removing toxicity. In this study, we investigated how rhubarb inhibits influenza virus during the early stage of the infectious cycle using different functional assays. A non-toxic ethanolic extract of rhubarb (Rex) inhibited several H1N1 subtypes of influenza A viruses in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells, including strains that are clinically resistant to oseltamivir. Time course analysis of Rex addition showed that viral entry was one of the steps that was inhibited by Rex. We also confirmed that Rex effectively inhibited viral attachment and penetration into the host cells. The inhibition of red blood cell haemolysis and cell–cell fusion by Rex suggests that Rex may block haemagglutinin-mediated fusion (virus–endosome fusion) during the fusion/uncoating step. Rex has the capacity to inhibit influenza viruses by blocking viral endocytosis. Thus, rhubarb might provide an alternative therapeutic approach when resistant viruses become more prevalent. PMID:27302738

  7. Using Bioinformatics Approach to Explore the Pharmacological Mechanisms of Multiple Ingredients in Shuang-Huang-Lian

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bai-xia; Li, Jian; Gu, Hao; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Tian-jiao; Wang, Yun; Cai, Cheng-ke

    2015-01-01

    Due to the proved clinical efficacy, Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) has developed a variety of dosage forms. However, the in-depth research on targets and pharmacological mechanisms of SHL preparations was scarce. In the presented study, the bioinformatics approaches were adopted to integrate relevant data and biological information. As a result, a PPI network was built and the common topological parameters were characterized. The results suggested that the PPI network of SHL exhibited a scale-free property and modular architecture. The drug target network of SHL was structured with 21 functional modules. According to certain modules and pharmacological effects distribution, an antitumor effect and potential drug targets were predicted. A biological network which contained 26 subnetworks was constructed to elucidate the antipneumonia mechanism of SHL. We also extracted the subnetwork to explicitly display the pathway where one effective component acts on the pneumonia related targets. In conclusions, a bioinformatics approach was established for exploring the drug targets, pharmacological activity distribution, effective components of SHL, and its mechanism of antipneumonia. Above all, we identified the effective components and disclosed the mechanism of SHL from the view of system. PMID:26495421

  8. Applying Hilbert-Huang Transform to Develop a Novel Rainfall Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Lien, W.; Tung, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change impacts on hydrology and water resources have drawn many attentions. More and more research have identified that not only human-induced climate change but also natural long-term trend should be also considered. The generation of rainfall is a useful tool for the management of water resources systems to climate change. Most of the generation models used previously only take into account daily and monthly variations in the model parameters. Some long-term patterns, such as decadal cycles or trends, are usually lost in the stochastic generation. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel rainfall generation. This research applies Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to decompose the historical rainfall data into intrinsic mod functions (IMF) and trends. Each IMF represents a generally simple component of the rainfall time series. The generated base rainfall series, which is generated from the arranged historical rainfall series by stochastic simulation, is added to the trends and IMFs with more than one year periods derived from the result of HHT. Thus the newly simulated rainfall series with long-term properties is formed, and can be further applied to the impact of climate change on water resources management.

  9. Inhibition of endosomal fusion activity of influenza virus by Rheum tanguticum (da-huang).

    PubMed

    Lin, Ta-Jen; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lee, Ming-Chung; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Rhubarb (Rheum tanguticum; da-huang in Chinese medicine) is a herbal medicine that has been used widely for managing fever and removing toxicity. In this study, we investigated how rhubarb inhibits influenza virus during the early stage of the infectious cycle using different functional assays. A non-toxic ethanolic extract of rhubarb (Rex) inhibited several H1N1 subtypes of influenza A viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, including strains that are clinically resistant to oseltamivir. Time course analysis of Rex addition showed that viral entry was one of the steps that was inhibited by Rex. We also confirmed that Rex effectively inhibited viral attachment and penetration into the host cells. The inhibition of red blood cell haemolysis and cell-cell fusion by Rex suggests that Rex may block haemagglutinin-mediated fusion (virus-endosome fusion) during the fusion/uncoating step. Rex has the capacity to inhibit influenza viruses by blocking viral endocytosis. Thus, rhubarb might provide an alternative therapeutic approach when resistant viruses become more prevalent. PMID:27302738

  10. Segmentation of Killer Whale Vocalizations Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Olivier

    2008-12-01

    The study of cetacean vocalizations is usually based on spectrogram analysis. The feature extraction is obtained from 2D methods like the edge detection algorithm. Difficulties appear when signal-to-noise ratios are weak or when more than one vocalization is simultaneously emitted. This is the case for acoustic observations in a natural environment and especially for the killer whales which swim in groups. To resolve this problem, we propose the use of the Hilbert-Huang transform. First, we illustrate how few modes (5) are satisfactory for the analysis of these calls. Then, we detail our approach which consists of combining the modes for extracting the time-varying frequencies of the vocalizations. This combination takes advantage of one of the empirical mode decomposition properties which is that the successive IMFs represent the original data broken down into frequency components from highest to lowest frequency. To evaluate the performance, our method is first applied on the simulated chirp signals. This approach allows us to link one chirp to one mode. Then we apply it on real signals emitted by killer whales. The results confirm that this method is a favorable alternative for the automatic extraction of killer whale vocalizations.

  11. Diurnal variation of surface ozone in mountainous areas: Case study of Mt. Huang, East China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jin, Lianji; Zhao, Tianliang; Yin, Yan; Zhu, Bin; Shan, Yunpeng; Guo, Xiaomei; Tan, Chenghao; Gao, Jinhui; Wang, Haoliang

    2015-12-15

    To explore the variations in atmospheric environment over mountainous areas, measurements were made from an intensive field observation at the summit of Mt. Huang (30.13°N, 118.15°E, 1841m above sea level), a rural site located in East China, from June to August 2011. The measurements revealed a diurnal change of surface O3 with low concentrations during the daytime and high concentrations during the nighttime. The causes of diurnal O3 variations over the mountain peak in East China were investigated by using a fairly comprehensive WRF-Chem and HYSPLIT4 modeling approach with observational analysis. By varying model inputs and comparing the results to a baseline modeling and actual air quality observations, it is found that nearby ozone urban/anthropogenic emission sources were contributing to a nighttime increase in mountaintop ozone levels due to a regional transport lag and residual layer effects. Positive correlation of measured O3 and CO concentrations suggested that O3 was associated with anthropogenic emissions. Sensitivity modeling experiments indicated that local anthropogenic emissions had little impact on the diurnal pattern of O3. The diurnal pattern of O3 was mainly influenced by regional O3 transport from the surrounding urban areas located 100-150km away from the summit, with a lag time of 10h for transport. PMID:26318811

  12. Hilbert-Huang transform analysis of dynamic and earthquake motion recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, R.R.; Ma, S.; Safak, E.; Hartzell, S.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the rationale of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for analyzing dynamic and earthquake motion recordings in studies of seismology and engineering. In particular, this paper first provides the fundamentals of the HHT method, which consist of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert spectral analysis. It then uses the HHT to analyze recordings of hypothetical and real wave motion, the results of which are compared with the results obtained by the Fourier data processing technique. The analysis of the two recordings indicates that the HHT method is able to extract some motion characteristics useful in studies of seismology and engineering, which might not be exposed effectively and efficiently by Fourier data processing technique. Specifically, the study indicates that the decomposed components in EMD of HHT, namely, the intrinsic mode function (IMF) components, contain observable, physical information inherent to the original data. It also shows that the grouped IMF components, namely, the EMD-based low- and high-frequency components, can faithfully capture low-frequency pulse-like as well as high-frequency wave signals. Finally, the study illustrates that the HHT-based Hilbert spectra are able to reveal the temporal-frequency energy distribution for motion recordings precisely and clearly.

  13. Using Bioinformatics Approach to Explore the Pharmacological Mechanisms of Multiple Ingredients in Shuang-Huang-Lian.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bai-xia; Li, Jian; Gu, Hao; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Tian-jiao; Wang, Yun; Cai, Cheng-ke

    2015-01-01

    Due to the proved clinical efficacy, Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) has developed a variety of dosage forms. However, the in-depth research on targets and pharmacological mechanisms of SHL preparations was scarce. In the presented study, the bioinformatics approaches were adopted to integrate relevant data and biological information. As a result, a PPI network was built and the common topological parameters were characterized. The results suggested that the PPI network of SHL exhibited a scale-free property and modular architecture. The drug target network of SHL was structured with 21 functional modules. According to certain modules and pharmacological effects distribution, an antitumor effect and potential drug targets were predicted. A biological network which contained 26 subnetworks was constructed to elucidate the antipneumonia mechanism of SHL. We also extracted the subnetwork to explicitly display the pathway where one effective component acts on the pneumonia related targets. In conclusions, a bioinformatics approach was established for exploring the drug targets, pharmacological activity distribution, effective components of SHL, and its mechanism of antipneumonia. Above all, we identified the effective components and disclosed the mechanism of SHL from the view of system. PMID:26495421

  14. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven; Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Owen, Andrew; Reimer, Kenneth J. Cullen, William R.

    2007-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested.

  15. Damage Modes Recognition and Hilbert-Huang Transform Analyses of CFRP Laminates Utilizing Acoustic Emission Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WenQin, Han; Ying, Luo; AiJun, Gu; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2016-04-01

    Discrimination of acoustic emission (AE) signals related to different damage modes is of great importance in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials. To gain a deeper understanding of the initiation, growth and evolution of the different types of damage, four types of specimens for different lay-ups and orientations and three types of specimens for interlaminar toughness tests are subjected to tensile test along with acoustic emission monitoring. AE signals have been collected and post-processed, the statistical results show that the peak frequency of AE signal can distinguish various damage modes effectively. After a AE signal were decomposed by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method, it may separate and extract all damage modes included in this AE signal apart from damage mode corresponding to the peak frequency. Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) of AE signals can clearly illustrate the frequency distribution of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) components in time-scale in different damage stages, and can calculate accurate instantaneous frequency for damage modes recognition to help understanding the damage process.

  16. Application of Hilbert-Huang Transform for Improved Defect Detection in Terahertz NDE of Shuttle Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    Terahertz NDE is being examined as a method to inspect the adhesive bond-line of Space Shuttle tiles for defects. Terahertz signals are generated and detected, using optical excitation of biased semiconductors with femtosecond laser pulses. Shuttle tile samples were manufactured with defects that included repair regions unbond regions, and other conditions that occur in Shuttle structures. These samples were inspected with a commercial terahertz NDE system that scanned a tile and generated a data set of RF signals. The signals were post processed to generate C-scan type images that are typically seen in ultrasonic NDE. To improve defect visualization the Hilbert-Huang Transform, a transform that decomposes a signal into oscillating components called intrinsic mode functions, was applied to test signals identified as being in and out of the defect regions and then on a complete data set. As expected with this transform, the results showed that the decomposed low-order modes correspond to signal noise while the high-order modes correspond to low frequency oscillations in the signal and mid-order modes correspond to local signal oscillations. The local oscillations compare well with various reflection interfaces and the defect locations in the original signal.

  17. Number size distribution of aerosols at Mt. Huang and Nanjing in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Effects of air masses and characteristics of new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honglei; Zhu, Bin; Shen, Lijuan; An, Junlin; Yin, Yan; Kang, Hanqing

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol number spectra in the range of 10 nm-10 μm were observed at Mt. Huang (Aug. 15-Sep. 15) and Nanjing (Oct. 13-Nov. 15) by a wide-range particle spectrometer (WPS) in 2011. Based on the backward trajectories obtained using the HYSPLIT model, the transport pathways of observed air masses during the study periods were classified into the following four groups: maritime air mass, continental air mass, marine-continental mixed air mass and local air mass. The variations in the aerosol number spectrum and the new particle formation (NPF) events for various types of air masses were discussed, along with meteorological data. The results showed that the average number concentration was 12,540 cm- 3 at Nanjing and only 2791 cm- 3 at Mt. Huang. The aerosol number concentration in Nanjing was 3-7 times higher than that in Mt. Huang; the large discrepancy was in the range of 10-100 nm. Different types of air masses had different effects on number concentration distribution. The number concentration of aerosols was higher in marine air masses, continental air masses and continental-marine mixed air masses at 10-50 nm, 100-500 nm and 50-200 nm, respectively. Under the four types of air masses, the aerosol size spectra had bimodal distributions in Nanjing and unimodal distributions in Mt. Huang (except under continental air masses: HT1). The effects of the diverse air masses on aerosol size segments of the concentration peak in Mt. Huang were stronger than those in Nanjing. The local air masses were dominant at these two sites and accounted for 44% of the total air masses. However, the aerosol number concentration was the lowest in Mt. Huang and the highest in Nanjing when local air masses were present. The number concentrations for foreign air masses increased at Mt. Huang and decreased at Nanjing. Different types of air masses had greater effects on the aerosol spectrum distribution at Mt. Huang than at Nanjing. During the NPF events, the particle growth rates at Mt

  18. Energy spectrum analysis of blast waves based on an improved Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Wang, F.; Shang, F.; Jia, Y.; Zhao, C.; Kong, D.

    2016-07-01

    Using the improved Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), this paper investigates the problems of analysis and interpretation of the energy spectrum of a blast wave. It has been previously established that the energy spectrum is an effective feature by which to characterize a blast wave. In fact, the higher the energy spectra in a frequency band of a blast wave, the greater the damage to a target in the same frequency band. However, most current research focuses on analyzing wave signals in the time domain or frequency domain rather than considering the energy spectrum. We propose here an improved HHT method combined with a wavelet packet to extract the energy spectrum feature of a blast wave. When applying the HHT, the signal is first roughly decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by empirical mode decomposition. The wavelet packet method is then performed on each IMF to eliminate noise on the energy spectrum. Second, a coefficient is introduced to remove unrelated IMFs. The energy of each instantaneous frequency can be derived through the Hilbert transform. The energy spectrum can then be obtained by adding up all the components after the wavelet packet filters and screens them through a coefficient to obtain the effective IMFs. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by 12 groups of experimental data, and an energy attenuation model is established based on the experimental data. The improved HHT is a precise method for blast wave signal analysis. For other shock wave signals from blasting experiments, an energy frequency time distribution and energy spectrum can also be obtained through this method, allowing for more practical applications.

  19. The protective effect of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Fang in salt-sensitive hypertension rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; He, Yanming; Wang, Wenjian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension is considered as a chronic and complex disease relating to multiple systemic systems. Apart from lowering blood pressure, the final purpose of the treatment lies in reducing the variability of blood pressure and other risk factors. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of treating hypertension. This study was designed to determine the effect of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Fang (L-W-D-H-F), a compound used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, to treat salt-sensitive hypertension (SSHT) induced by a high-salt and high-fat diet. L-W-D-H-F was prepared from six plant extracts. It was dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution prior to use. Male Sprague-Dawley (6 weeks) rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet (CON); HSF (Without Drug Intervention); VAL (Valsartan 13.33 mg/kg/day); and LW (L-W-D-H-F 8.13 g/kg/day). Six weeks after blood pressure treatment, plasma biochemical analyses and histological and functional examination of the kidney were performed. L-W-D-H-F decreased the levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FG), insulin (INS), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and angiotensin II (Ang II) from plasma and Ang II and renin from kidney. It also promoted the excretion of urinary Na(+), reducing the loss of urinary K(+) and microalbuminuria (MAU), and improved the glomerular afferent arteriole, arterioles and each kidney unit. Together, these results suggest that L-W-D-H-F is capable of moderately reducing MAP in salt-sensitive hypertension and can work at different levels on multiple differential targets. PMID:24164386

  20. Analysis of natural mineral earthquake and blast based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuelong; Li, Zhonghui; Wang, Enyuan; Feng, Junjun; Kong, Xiangguo; Chen, Liang; Li, Baolin; Li, Nan

    2016-05-01

    There are important theoretical and scientific benefits to identify natural mineral earthquake and blast accurately to ensure the safety of mining. In the paper, we studied the wave characteristics of natural mineral earthquake and blast in a coal mine based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method. Results show that the dominant frequency of natural mineral earthquake wave is 20 Hz, which is lower than the other frequency bands. The blast wave frequency is relatively complex and its dominant frequency is 140 Hz, which is higher than the other frequency bands. The natural mineral earthquake wave amplitude is 50 mV and the blast signal amplitude reaches up to 250 mV. However, the decay rate of natural mineral earthquake wave is slower than the blast wave. Both of them could be decomposed into 9 intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by empirical mode decomposition (EMD). c2, c3, c4 and c5 are the main part of the natural mineral earthquake wave; while c2, c3, and c4 are the main part of the blast wave. These IMFs contain most of the signal energy and belong to the advantage part of the original signal. Besides, the instantaneous energy duration of natural mineral earthquake wave is longer, its peak energy arrival time is earlier and decay rate is slower, while the value is lower. The natural mineral earthquake wave Hilbert energy distributes in the sampling points 600-1200, frequency less than 50 Hz, and the energy peak 100 is at 25 Hz. By contrast, the blast wave Hilbert energy is concentrated on the sampling points 600-800, frequency around 50 Hz and 140 Hz, and the energy peak 170 is at 140 Hz.

  1. Analysis of tremor in multiple sclerosis using Hilbert-Huang Transform.

    PubMed

    Ayache, S-S; Al-ani, T; Farhat, W-H; Zouari, H-G; Créange, A; Lefaucheur, J-P

    2015-12-01

    Tremor is frequently described in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) but remains poorly characterized using neurophysiological techniques. Accelerometric (ACC) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings were performed in 26 MS patients complaining of clumsiness, associated (n = 16) or not associated (n = 10) with visible tremor. Seventeen healthy subjects with physiological tremor (PT) and eight patients with essential tremor (ET) served as controls. Signals were analyzed using non-linear Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and related Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), compared to the standard linear spectral analysis using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The presence of cerebellar signs and motor deficit was assessed on clinical examination. Using FFT, tremor was found in all patients with ET and 12% of subjects with PT, but in none of the MS patients, even in the presence of visible tremor. In contrast, EMD-HHT analysis of ACC-EMG coupling showed common frequency peaks characterizing tremor related to a central generator in 62.5% of MS patients with visible tremor, 40% of MS patients without visible tremor, 29% of subjects with PT, and all patients with ET. In EMD-HHT analysis, tremor characteristics were similar in subjects with PT and MS patients, regardless of the presence of a visible tremor, but these characteristics clearly differed in patients with ET. A visible tremor in MS patients was associated with more frequent cerebellar signs and less motor deficit at the upper limb. The low-frequency tremor observed in MS patients could therefore originate in lesions of the brainstem (midbrain) or cerebellothalamic circuits, or may correspond to an enhanced PT, partly favored by cerebellar dysfunction and being more visible during movement execution in the absence of concomitant motor deficit. PMID:26776079

  2. Distinction between essential and physiological tremor using Hilbert-Huang transform.

    PubMed

    Ayache, S S; Al-Ani, T; Lefaucheur, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Neurophysiological investigation, based on accelerometric (ACC) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings, is an essential step in the diagnosis of tremor. Among various signal analysis methods, fast Fourier transform (FFT) is the most frequently used in this domain. However, FFT has several limitations: first, it assumes that tremor is a periodic and linear signal, which is not true; second, it cannot distinguish between different types of tremor, when their frequency overlap in similar range, such as essential tremor (ET) and physiological tremor (PT). Therefore, we decided to apply a non-linear method of signal analysis based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert Huang transform (HHT), according to various procedures and compared to a more classical FFT approach. A first group of 8 healthy subjects with PT and a second group of 8 patients with ET were included in this study. At individual level, FFT was effective to highlight ET in the 8 patients, but PT in only 2 subjects. The EMD-HHT procedures performed better than FFT, revealing a common peak of PT in all subjects. Moreover, at group level, our EMD-HHT method allowed to clearly differentiate the two groups, especially by giving evidence for the existence of low frequency oscillations (around 4Hz) in subjects with PT. Although their physiological origin remains largely unknown, such slow oscillations seem to be of great importance to highlight PT and they have been much underestimated in the literature. Our original EMD-HHT approach is able to provide substantial improvement in the neurophysiological characterisation of the different types of tremor, especially for diagnostic application. PMID:24930942

  3. Monitoring Rock Failure Processes Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform of Acoustic Emission Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji; Peng, Weihong; Liu, Fengyu; Zhang, Haixiang; Li, Zhijian

    2016-02-01

    Rock fracturing generates acoustic emission (AE) signals that have statistical parameters referred to as AE signal parameters (AESP). Identification of rock fracturing or the failure process stage using such data raises several challenges. This study proposes a Hilbert-Huang transform-based AE processing approach to capture the time-frequency characteristics of both AE signals and AESP during rock failure processes. The damage occurring in tested rock specimens can be illustrated through analysis using this method. In this study, the specimens were 25 × 60 × 150 mm3 in size and were compressed at a displacement rate of 0.05 mm/min until failure. The recorded data included force and displacement, AE signals, and AESP. The AESP in the last third of the strain range period and 14 typical moments of strong AE signals were selected for further investigation. These results show that AE signals and AESP can be jointly used for identification of deformation stages. The transition between linear and nonlinear deformation stages was found to last for a short period in this process. The instantaneous frequency of the AE effective energy rate increased linearly from 0.5 to 1.5 Hz. Attenuation of elastic waves spreading in rock samples developed with deformation, as illustrated in the Hilbert spectra of AE signals. This attenuation is frequency dependent. Furthermore, AE signals in the softening process showed a complex frequency distribution attributed to the mechanical properties of the tested specimen. The results indicate that rock failure is predictable. The novel technology applied in this study is feasible for analysis of the entire deformation process, including softening and failure processes.

  4. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Melanogenesis Inhibitory Properties of Pracparatum Mungo (Lu-Do Huang)

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Yu-Yu; Chuang, Tien-Fu; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Yang, Jo-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Huang, Hui-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Pracparatum mungo (Lu-Do Huang) is a traditional Chinese functional medicine made from the natural fermentation of mung bean (Lǜ Dòu) mixed with other Chinese medicines. It has been recognized as having liver protecting and detoxifying effects. As mung beans have been verified to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, and whitening actions, the present research utilized the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental models to investigate the antioxidant and melanin inhibiting effects of P. mungo on the skin. The in vitro experiment revealed that P. mungo methanol extract (PMME) and P. mungo ethanol extract (PMEE) possess the capacity to clear α,α-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and inhibit tyrosinase activity. The ex vivo experiment indicated that PMEE can promote the growth of MDCK cells and increase the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in MDCK cells. On the other hand, PMME and PMEE can suppress the proliferation of A375 cells, and PMEE can reduce the enzymatic activities of SOD and catalase in A375 cells. The in vivo results showed that P. mungo can enhance the enzymatic performance of SOD, Catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver. The results also showed that P. mungo has antioxidant characteristics and can inhibit tyrosinase activity, thereby promoting the growth of skin tissues and suppressing the proliferation of A375 cells, and thus enhancing the effects that the antioxidant enzymatic performance has on the liver. These results can be applied in the development of tyrosinase inhibitors or antioxidants used for the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis or for auto-oxidation in further industrial applications, particularly those relating to functional food or cosmetic compositions. PMID:24716173

  5. Grundsätze über die Anlagen neuer Sternwarten mit Beziehung auf die Sternwarte der Universität Göttingen. Von Georg Heinrich Borheck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuermann, Klaus; Borheck, Georg Heinrich

    Die Göttinger Sternwarte, Wirkungsstätte des berühmten Gelehrten Carl Friedrich Gauß, ist ein bedeutendes Baudenkmal. Im Jahre 2005 wird sie gemeinsam von der Georg-August-Universität und der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen renoviert, um dann als repräsentatives Gebäude der Universität und Arbeitsstätte der Akademie zu dienen. Die Nutzung der historischen Räume für Ausstellungen macht diesen imposanten Bau erstmals der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich. Die Sternwarte war bei ihrer Errichtung vor 200 Jahren ein nach seinerzeit neuesten wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen konzipierter Bau, der die Universität Göttingen in eine der vordersten Stellen Europa rückte. Auch aufgrund ihrer Architektur ist sie ein großer Wurf des Göttinger Universitätsbaumeisters Georg Heinrich Borheck. Durch die Kriegswirren der Napoleonischen Zeit zerschlug sich Borhecks Versuch einer Publikation seiner Beschreibung des Baus der Göttinger Sternwarte 1805. Doch seine Schrift ist auch heute noch aktuell und wird mit diesem Band erstmals einer breiten Öffentlichkeit zugängig gemacht. Er zeigt die Grundsätze, nach denen damals öffentliche Bauten konzipiert wurden, erläutert die Bedeutung des Baus aus kunst- und wissenschaftshistorischer Sicht und informiert über die Pläne zur Restaurierung der Sternwarte in einem separaten Beitrag und im Geleitwort des Präsidenten der Georg-August Universität Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Kurt von Figura.

  6. Effects of Huang Bai (Phellodendri Cortex) and Three Other Herbs on GnRH and GH Levels in GT1–7 and GH3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Haeng; Kwak, Sung Chul; Kim, Dong Kwan; Park, Sang Woug; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Young-Sik; Lee, Donghun; Lee, Ju Won; Lee, Chang Gon; Lee, Hae Kyung; Cho, Sung-Min; Shin, Yu Jeong; Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Hocheol; Chang, Gyu Tae

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate the effects of Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Mai Ya, and Xia Ku Cao on hormone using the GT1–7 and GH3 cells. The GT1–7 and GH3 cell lines were incubated with DW; DMSO; and 30, 100, or 300 μg/mL of one of the four extract solutions in serum-free media for 24 hours. The MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the four herbs. The GT1–7 and GH3 cells were incubated in DW, estradiol (GT1–7 only), or noncytotoxic herb solutions in serum-free medium for 24 hours. A quantitative RT-PCR and western blot were performed to measure the GnRH expression in GT1–7 cells and GH expression in GH3 cells. Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Xia Ku Cao, and Mai Ya inhibited the GnRH mRNA expression in GT1–7 cells, whereas Huang Bai enhanced GH mRNA expression in GH3 cells. Additionally, Xia Ku Cao inhibited GnRH protein expression in GT1–7 cells and Huang Bai promoted GH protein expression in GH3 cells. The findings suggest that Huang Bai can delay puberty by inhibiting GnRH synthesis in the hypothalamus while also accelerating growth by promoting GH synthesis and secretion in the pituitary. PMID:26925153

  7. Application of the Huang-Hilbert transform and natural time to the analysis of seismic electric signal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulou, K. A.; Skordas, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Huang method is applied to Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activities in order to decompose them into their components, named Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). We study which of these components contribute to the basic characteristics of the signal. The Hilbert transform is then applied to the IMFs in order to determine their instantaneous amplitudes. The results are compared with those obtained from the analysis in a new time domain termed natural time, after having subtracted the magnetotelluric background from the original signal. It is shown that these instantaneous amplitudes, when combined with the natural time analysis, can be used for the distinction of SES from artificial noises.

  8. Study of nonlinear oscillations in a glow discharge plasma using empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert Huang transform

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, A. M.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.; Janaki, M. S.

    2013-02-15

    Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) based time series analysis was carried out on nonlinear floating potential fluctuations obtained from hollow cathode glow discharge plasma in the presence of anode glow. HHT was used to obtain contour plots and the presence of nonlinearity was studied. Frequency shift with time, which is a typical nonlinear behaviour, was detected from the contour plots. Various plasma parameters were measured and the concepts of correlation coefficients and the physical contribution of each intrinsic mode function have been discussed. Physically important quantities such as instantaneous energy and their uses in studying physical phenomena such as intermittency and non-stationary data have also been discussed.

  9. Hilbert-Huang transform based instrumental assessment of intention tremor in multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpinella, Ilaria; Cattaneo, Davide; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Objective. This paper describes a method to extract upper limb intention tremor from gyroscope data, through the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), a technique suitable for the study of nonlinear and non-stationary processes. The aims of the study were to: (i) evaluate the method’s ability to discriminate between healthy controls and MS subjects; (ii) validate the proposed procedure against clinical tremor scores assigned using Fahn’s tremor rating scale (FTRS); and (iii) compare the performance of the HHT-based method with that of linear band-pass filters. Approach. HHT was applied on gyroscope data collected on 20 MS subjects and 13 healthy controls (CO) during finger-to-nose tests (FNTs) instrumented with an inertial sensor placed on the hand. The results were compared to those obtained after traditional linear filtering. The tremor amplitude was quantified with instrumental indexes (TIs) and clinical FTRS ratings. Main results. The TIs computed after HHT-based filtering discriminated between CO and MS subjects with clinically-detected intention tremor (MS_T). In particular, TIs were significantly higher in the final part of the movement (TI2) with respect to the first part (TI1), and, for all components (X, Y, Z), MST showed a TI2 significantly higher than in CO subjects. Moreover, the HHT detected subtle alterations not visible from clinical ratings, as TI2 (Z-component) was significantly increased in MS subjects without clinically-detected tremor (MS_NT). The method’s validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between clinical FTRS scores and TI2 related to X (rs = 0.587, p = 0.006) and Y (rs = 0.682, p < 0.001) components. Contrarily, fewer differences among the groups and no correlation between instrumental and clinical indexes emerged after traditional filtering. Significance. The present results supported the use of the HHT-based procedure for a fully-automated quantitative and objective measure of intention tremor in MS, which can overcome

  10. Utilizing Hilbert-Huang transform in detection some of mechanical properties of the refractory metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Arshed Abdulhamed; Haris, Sallehuddin Mohamed; Nuawi, Mohd Zaki

    2016-02-01

    This study is one of the first to report on the use of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) to determine the modulus of elasticity of a material, which is one of the most important properties of metals. In addition, this study involves an analytical study of the process of transfer of energy, which was represented in the form of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Moreover, the distribution of IMFs within the time-frequency-plain was determined by testing eight test specimens. Five test specimens were refractory materials, namely, Ti, Ti6AL4V, Zr, Nb, and Ta, and the other three were non-refractory materials, namely, Al, Brass, and ST4340. The new setup was composed of Mg and involves the use of two piezoelectric transducers, which were used as the emitter and receiver. The setup was designed and implemented in this research based on Mg usage to test the metals. First, a new relationship was derived between the pressure transmission coefficient (PTC) of the transmitted wave (through the emitter-water-test specimen-Mg to the receiver) and the corresponding values of the product of the density (ρ) and the modulus of elasticity (E) for the same test specimen. Another relationship was established between the PTCs and the total energy transmitted at high frequencies. This energy indicates the summation of IMFs that have high frequencies (THIMFs), higher than 10 kHz, can determine E better than TOF for most test specimens. To verify this results, with regard to the second conclusion, a new simulation for this setup was carried out using Simulink in MATLAB. Twelve theoretical tests were done, for high acoustic impedance metals, like Hf, Mo, WNiFe and W in addition to test the same group which was tested experimentally. The results of theoretical tests supported the experimental results except for Nb. Most of the conclusions were obtained through practical results and analytical studies. The results proved that THIMFs can determine the change in the microstructure of the alloys

  11. Calculate excess mortality during heatwaves using Hilbert-Huang transform algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heatwaves could cause the population excess death numbers to be ranged from tens to thousands within a couple of weeks in a local area. An excess mortality due to a special event (e.g., a heatwave or an epidemic outbreak) is estimated by subtracting the mortality figure under ‘normal’ conditions from the historical daily mortality records. The calculation of the excess mortality is a scientific challenge because of the stochastic temporal pattern of the daily mortality data which is characterised by (a) the long-term changing mean levels (i.e., non-stationarity); (b) the non-linear temperature-mortality association. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) algorithm is a novel method originally developed for analysing the non-linear and non-stationary time series data in the field of signal processing, however, it has not been applied in public health research. This paper aimed to demonstrate the applicability and strength of the HHT algorithm in analysing health data. Methods Special R functions were developed to implement the HHT algorithm to decompose the daily mortality time series into trend and non-trend components in terms of the underlying physical mechanism. The excess mortality is calculated directly from the resulting non-trend component series. Results The Brisbane (Queensland, Australia) and the Chicago (United States) daily mortality time series data were utilized for calculating the excess mortality associated with heatwaves. The HHT algorithm estimated 62 excess deaths related to the February 2004 Brisbane heatwave. To calculate the excess mortality associated with the July 1995 Chicago heatwave, the HHT algorithm needed to handle the mode mixing issue. The HHT algorithm estimated 510 excess deaths for the 1995 Chicago heatwave event. To exemplify potential applications, the HHT decomposition results were used as the input data for a subsequent regression analysis, using the Brisbane data, to investigate the association between excess

  12. Hilbert–Huang transform in detecting and analyzing the uterine contraction activities

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Kemal; Demirer, Murat; Bayrak, Coşkun

    2015-01-01

    Objective The diagnosis of labor is currently one of the most difficult problems encountered by obstetrical healthcare providers. A major health problem is the increase in the rate of preterm delivery, which is responsible for 75% of all deaths in newborns. In addition, preterm delivery is associated with several cognitive and health problems in later life and enormous costs for the health system. A better understanding of myometrial activities could help to reduce preterm deliveries and the costs associated with prematurity in the following years. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether using the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) to analyze the uterine contraction data would help us gain a better insight of the myometrial activities of the human uterus during pregnancy. Material and Methods Uterine magnetomyographic (MMG) signals were recorded from pregnant patients at gestational ages of 32–38 weeks. The study was approved by the Human Research Advisory Board of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) and performed after obtaining written consent from each patient. The recording of transabdominal MMG signals was conducted with the SQUID Array for Reproductive Assessment (SARA, VSM MedTech Inc; Coquitlam, BC, Canada) system, which has 151 primary magnetic sensors allocated approximately 3 cm apart over an area of 850 cm2. The arrangement of sensors is concave in nature and, in a similar lateral distance, spans the maternal abdomen longitudinally from the symphysis pubis to the uterine fundus. The recording times ranged from 12 to 28 min, and the sampling rate was 250 Hz. The data were down-sampled to 25 Hz to reduce the computational complexity and post-processed with a bandpass filter (0.05–1 Hz) because the uterine contraction activity is a band-limited process (0.05–1 Hz). The recordings of one intrauterine pressure catheter (IUPC) dataset and two mother-perceived contraction datasets were compared with the HHT results

  13. On Hilbert-Huang Transform Based Synthesis of a Signal Contaminated by Radio Frequency Interference or Fringes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Shiri, Ron S.; Vootukuru, Meg; Coletti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Norden E. Huang et al. had proposed and published the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) concept correspondently in 1996, 1998. The HHT is a novel method for adaptive spectral analysis of non-linear and non-stationary signals. The HHT comprises two components: - the Huang Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), resulting in an adaptive data-derived basis of Intrinsic Mode functions (IMFs), and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA1) based on the Hilbert Transform for 1-dimension (1D) applied to the EMD IMF's outcome. Although paper describes the HHT concept in great depth, it does not contain all needed methodology to implement the HHT computer code. In 2004, Semion Kizhner and Karin Blank implemented the reference digital HHT real-time data processing system for 1D (HHT-DPS Version 1.4). The case for 2-Dimension (2D) (HHT2) proved to be difficult due to the computational complexity of EMD for 2D (EMD2) and absence of a suitable Hilbert Transform for 2D spectral analysis (HSA2). The real-time EMD2 and HSA2 comprise the real-time HHT2. Kizhner completed the real-time EMD2 and the HSA2 reference digital implementations respectively in 2013 & 2014. Still, the HHT2 outcome synthesis remains an active research area. This paper presents the initial concepts and preliminary results of HHT2-based synthesis and its application to processing of signals contaminated by Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI), as well as optical systems' fringe detection and mitigation at design stage. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP mission (SMAP) carries a radiometer instrument that measures Earth soil moisture at L1 frequency (1.4 GHz polarimetric - H, V, 3rd and 4th Stokes parameters). There is abundant RFI at L1 and because soil moisture is a strategic parameter, it is important to be able to recover the RFI-contaminated measurement samples (15% of telemetry). State-of-the-art only allows RFI detection and removes RFI-contaminated measurements. The HHT-based analysis and synthesis facilitates

  14. Effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang on gastrointestinal motility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Min Woo; Ahn, Tae Seok; Hong, Noo Ri; Jeong, Han-Sol; Jung, Myeong Ho; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Byung Joo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a herbal product used in traditional Chinese medicine, on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in mice. METHODS: The in vivo effects of SHXXT on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) using Evans blue in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). RESULTS: In normal ICR mice, ITRs were significantly and dose-dependently increased by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). GMD was induced by injecting acetic acid or streptozotocin intraperitoneally. The ITRs of GMD mice were significantly reduced compared to normal mice, and these reductions were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SHXXT is a novel candidate for the development of a prokinetic agent that may prevent or alleviate GMD. PMID:25632184

  15. Automated Flaw Detection Scheme For Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Specimens Using Hilbert Huang Transform Of Ultrasonic Phased Array Data

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.; Majumdar, Shantanu; Udpa, L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop processing algorithms to detect and localize the flaws using NDE ultrasonic data. Data was collected using cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) weld specimens on-loan from the U.S. nuclear power industry’s Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) specimen set. Each specimen consists of a centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS) pipe section welded to a statically cast (SCSS) or wrought (WRSS) section. The paper presents a novel automated flaw detection and localization scheme using low frequency ultrasonic phased array inspection signals in the weld and heat affected zone of the base materials. The major steps of the overall scheme are preprocessing and region of interest (ROI) detection followed by the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) of A-scans in the detected ROIs. HHT offers time-frequency-energy distribution for each ROI. The accumulation of energy in a particular frequency band is used as a classification feature for the particular ROI.

  16. Impact of land-use induced changes on agricultural productivity in the Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Gui; Li, Zhaohua; Wang, Zhan; Chu, Xi; Li, Zhihui

    The water resource allocation is greatly influenced by the land use, agricultural productivity and farmers' income. Therefore analyzing the impacts of land use changes on agricultural productivity and subsequent effects on farmer's income is an important basis of the further study on the management mechanism and optimal water resource allocation. Taking the Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin as the study area, this study examined the impacts of conversion from cultivated land to built-up land from 2000-2005 and 2005-2008. Then the agricultural productivity was estimated with the Estimation System for Agricultural Productivity model, and the changes in agricultural productivity caused by land conversion were analyzed. Thereafter, Simultaneous Equations Model was used to analyze the impacts of the conversion from cultivated land to built-up land on the agricultural productivity and subsequent effects on farmer's income. The results showed that: (1) The agricultural productivity was stable during the whole period, reaching about 2.84 ton/ha, 3.09 ton/ha and 2.80 ton/ha on average in 2000, 2005 and 2008, respectively, but the conversion from cultivated land to built-up land had important influence on the spatial pattern of agricultural productivity. (2) The land productivity, total power of agricultural machinery and the conversion from cultivated land to built-up land had an overall positive effect on the agricultural productivity. (3) The agricultural productivity and gross domestic product had positive influence on the farmers' income, while the cultivated land area per capita and percentage of farming employee had negative influence, indicating that the farmer's income was mainly contributed by non-agricultural income. These results in this study showed that optimal land use management can play an important role in promoting virtuous ecosystem cycle and sustainable socioeconomic development, which can also lay an important foundation for further research on the optimal

  17. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of Chinese patent drug YinHuang drop pill by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin-Long; An, Ya-Qi; Yan, Bing-Chao; Yue, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Bo; Ho, Hing-Man; Ren, Tian-Jing; Fung, Hau-Yee; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Liu, Zhong-Liang; Pu, Jian-Xin; Han, Quan-Bin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2016-06-01

    YinHuang drop pill (YHDP) is a new preparation, derived from the traditional YinHuang (YH) decoction. Since drop pills are one of the newly developed forms of Chinese patent drugs, not much research has been done regarding the quality and efficacy. This study aims to establish a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the chemical profile of YHDP. ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to identify 34 non-sugar small molecules including 15 flavonoids, 9 phenolic acids, 5 saponins, 1 iridoid, and 4 iridoid glycosides in YHDP samples, and 26 of them were quantitatively determined. Sugar composition of YHDP in terms of fructose, glucose and sucrose was examined via a high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector on an amide column (HPLC-NH2P-ELSD). Macromolecules were examined by high performance gel permeation chromatography coupled with ELSD (HPGPC-ELSD). The content of the drop pill's skeleton component PEG-4000 was also quantified via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector (UHPLC-CAD). The results showed that up to 73% (w/w) of YHDP could be quantitatively determined. Small molecules accounted for approximately 5%, PEG-4000 represented 68%, while no sugars or macromolecules were found. Furthermore, YHDP showed no significant differences in terms of daily dosage, compared to YinHuang granules and YinHuang oral liquid; however, it has a higher small molecules content compared to YinHuang lozenge. PMID:27131804

  18. Characterization of chemical constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Yin, Ran; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-12-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 × 3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution program. The detection was performed on a Waters Xevo G2 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 82 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Of the 82 compounds, 21 compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and MS data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing MS data and retrieving the reference literature. In addition, 31 compounds were identified from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, ten compounds were identified from Rheum palmatum L., 33 compounds were identified from Citrus aurantium L., and eight compounds were identified from Sojae Semen Praeparatum. Results indicated that iridoids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, coumarins, glycosides of crocetin, monoterpenoids, and organic acids were major constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. It is concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. PMID:25195935

  19. Learning Curve of the Application of Huang Three-Step Maneuver in a Laparoscopic Spleen-Preserving Splenic Hilar Lymphadenectomy for Advanced Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ze-Ning; Huang, Chang-Ming; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-long; Lin, Mi; Tu, Ru-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the learning curve of the application of Huang 3-step maneuver, which was summarized and proposed by our center for the treatment of advanced upper gastric cancer. From April 2012 to March 2013, 130 consecutive patients who underwent a laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy (LSPL) by a single surgeon who performed Huang 3-step maneuver were retrospectively analyzed. The learning curve was analyzed based on the moving average (MA) method and the cumulative sum method (CUSUM). Surgical outcomes, short-term outcomes, and follow-up results before and after learning curve were contrastively analyzed. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used for a multivariable analysis to determine the factors that affect the operative time using Huang 3-step maneuver. Based on the CUSUM, the learning curve for Huang 3-step maneuver was divided into phase 1 (cases 1–40) and phase 2 (cases 41–130). The dissection time (DT) (P < 0.001), blood loss (BL) (P < 0.001), and number of vessels injured in phase 2 were significantly less than those in phase 1. There were no significant differences in the clinicopathological characteristics, short-term outcomes, or major postoperative complications between the learning curve phases. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that body mass index (BMI), short gastric vessels (SGVs), splenic hilar artery (SpA) type, and learning curve phase were significantly associated with DT. In the entire group, 124 patients were followed for a median time of 23.0 months (range, 3–30 months). There was no significant difference in the survival curve between phases. AUGC patients with a BMI less than 25 kg/m2, a small number of SGVs, and a concentrated type of SpA are ideal candidates for surgeons who are in phase 1 of the learning curve. PMID:27043698

  20. Identifying the trend of the morphological change of a natural river using the Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia-Hsin Liu, Chelsie; Tsai, Christina W.

    2015-04-01

    This study introduces a more recent data analysis method, Hilbert Huang transform method (HHT), to analyze transport of sediment particles of a non-stationary and non-linear nature. In order to improve the modeling of the sediment concentrations and bed elevation change, it is proposed to first process the data using the Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method from HHT to obtain a collection of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). In this study, an analysis of time series of bed elevations, sediment concentrations, and flow rates is proposed. Multiple time scales exist in the system of flow, sediment transport and bed elevation change processes. With EMD method, we could decompose the original data into several independent intrinsic mode functions (IMF), each of which may be caused by various factors at different time scales. Then, we use HHT to transform every IMF from time-dependent functions into frequency-functions. A case study of the Chou-Shui River in Taiwan is presented. This study will present an alternative for identifying the trend and variability of the bed elevation change, sediment concentration and flow rate. It is hypothesized that the behavior of bed elevation change can be better described at a different time scales using HHT. The lag between the change in flow, sediment concentration and the bed elevation can also be identified in this study. It is expected that the HHT method can provide a viable alternative for an enhanced understanding of sediment transport processes in natural rivers.

  1. Enhanced method to reconstruct mode shapes of continuous scanning measurements using the Hilbert Huang transform and the modal analysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung Park, Kyihwan

    2014-09-15

    Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response.

  2. Anti-apoptotic effect of San Huang Shel Shin Tang cyclodextrin complex (SHSSTc) on CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hsun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Shen, Chia-Yao; Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Lin, Yueh-Min; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Yuhsin; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic loading is heavier in liver especially when injured or inflammation. San Huang Shel Shin Tang (SHSST) was an old traditional herbal decoction, which composed with Rheum officinale Baill, Scutellaria baicalnsis Geprgi and Coptis chinensis Franch (1:1:2 in weight), can provide a liver protection effects. We used a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) drug modification method in reduce of the necessary dose of the SHSST. As the results, the FAS-FADD expressions leaded apoptosis in CCl4 intraperitoneal (IP) injection induced acute liver injury in rats. Silymarin, baicalein, SHSST, and SHSST β-CD complex (SHSSTc) pretreatments protected liver through the decreasing of the expressions of FAS-FADD and downstream caspase-3 and caspase-8. Particularly, SHSSTc (30 mg/kg day) treatment enhanced cell survival pathway activation through the PI3K, Akt and Bad phosphorylation. Compared with SHSST as well as silymarin and baicalein, SHSSTc provided a magnificent liver protection effect, especially in survival pathway activation/TUNEL-apoptotic cell reduction/serum cholesterol level suppression. All these data suggested that β-CD complex modified the SHSST and promoted the bioavailability and liver protection effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 663-670, 2016. PMID:25447754

  3. The Hilbert-Huang Transform-Based Denoising Method for the TEM Response of a PRBS Source Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Li; Guo-qiang, Xue; Pan, Zhao; Hua-sen, Zhong; Khan, Muhammad Younis

    2016-05-01

    The denoising process is critical in processing transient electromagnetic (TEM) sounding data. For the full waveform pseudo-random binary sequences (PRBS) response, an inadequate noise estimation may result in an erroneous interpretation. We consider the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and its application to suppress the noise in the PRBS response. The focus is on the thresholding scheme to suppress the noise and the analysis of the signal based on its Hilbert time-frequency representation. The method first decomposes the signal into the intrinsic mode function, and then, inspired by the thresholding scheme in wavelet analysis; an adaptive and interval thresholding is conducted to set to zero all the components in intrinsic mode function which are lower than a threshold related to the noise level. The algorithm is based on the characteristic of the PRBS response. The HHT-based denoising scheme is tested on the synthetic and field data with the different noise levels. The result shows that the proposed method has a good capability in denoising and detail preservation.

  4. The Hilbert-Huang Transform-Based Denoising Method for the TEM Response of a PRBS Source Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Li; Guo-qiang, Xue; Pan, Zhao; Hua-sen, Zhong; Khan, Muhammad Younis

    2016-08-01

    The denoising process is critical in processing transient electromagnetic (TEM) sounding data. For the full waveform pseudo-random binary sequences (PRBS) response, an inadequate noise estimation may result in an erroneous interpretation. We consider the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and its application to suppress the noise in the PRBS response. The focus is on the thresholding scheme to suppress the noise and the analysis of the signal based on its Hilbert time-frequency representation. The method first decomposes the signal into the intrinsic mode function, and then, inspired by the thresholding scheme in wavelet analysis; an adaptive and interval thresholding is conducted to set to zero all the components in intrinsic mode function which are lower than a threshold related to the noise level. The algorithm is based on the characteristic of the PRBS response. The HHT-based denoising scheme is tested on the synthetic and field data with the different noise levels. The result shows that the proposed method has a good capability in denoising and detail preservation.

  5. Network Pharmacology-Based Antioxidant Effect Study of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang Decoction for Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    An, Li; Feng, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used for centuries to treat alcoholic liver disease. Reliable therapeutics of ZZDHD has also been validated in clinical practice. In this study, molecular docking and network analysis were carried out to explore the antioxidative mechanism of ZZDHD as an effective therapeutic approach to treat alcoholic liver disease. Multiple active compounds of ZZDHD were screened based on four key original enzymes (cytochrome P450 2E1, xanthine oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2) involved in ethanol-induced oxidative stress damage. A drug-target network was constructed through network pharmacology analysis, which predicted the relationships of active ingredients to the targets. Some results had been verified by the previous experimental pharmacological studies; meanwhile, it was first reported that xanthine oxidase and eriocitrin, neoeriocitrin, isorhoifolin, and poncirin had interactions. The network pharmacology strategy used provided a forceful tool for searching the mechanism of action of TCM formula and novel bioactive ingredients. PMID:25922610

  6. Comparison between Hilbert Huang transform and scalogram methods on non-stationary biomedical signals: application to laser Doppler flowmetry recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulier, Rémy; Humeau, Anne; Flatley, Thomas P.; Abraham, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application on healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a comparison between two signal processing methods that provide a clarification of this phenomenon. Analyses by the scalogram and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied at different time intervals in order to take into account the dynamics of the phenomenon. The results show that both the scalogram and the HHT methods lead to the same conclusions concerning the comparisons of the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities—during the progressive pressure and at rest—in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the HHT shows more details that may be obscured by the scalogram. Indeed, the non-locally adaptative limitations of the scalogram can remove some definition from the data. These results may improve knowledge on the above-mentioned reflex as well as on non-stationary biomedical signal processing methods.

  7. [The influence of Huang di nei jing (Huangdi's inner classic) on Shuo wen jie zi (the origin of Chinese characters)].

    PubMed

    Lan, Feng-li

    2006-10-01

    It is very likely that The Origin of Chinese Characters is influenced by Huang Di's Inner Classic after investigating the author of The Origin of Chinese Characters and identifying the publishing times of them. The following conclusions are reached through comparing and analyzing thinking modes, philosophical conception, and knowledge of human anatomy, disease and treatment in them: the knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) contained in The Origin of Chinese Characters is in direct line of succession with the Inner Classic; the universe and ecomedical thinking modes of "heaven-earth-human being" in The Origin of Chinese Characters and the Inner Classic respectively are cut from the same cloth; the theories of qi, yin-yang, and the five phases, the theoretical foundation of the Inner Classic, can be traced back to their sources through The Origin of Chinese Characters; The Origin of Chinese Characters traces back to characters' origin and original meanings through analyzing their structures, therefore, the book is important for us to study and read the Inner Classic, and to probe into the origin of TCM as well. PMID:17533693

  8. The response of local power grid at low-latitude to geomagnetic storm: An application of the Hilbert Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Wang, Chuan-Bing; Liu, Lu; Sun, Wei-Huai

    2016-04-01

    The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is an adaptive data analysis method that can accommodate the variety of data generated by nonlinear and nonstationary processes in nature. In this paper, we focus on the small geomagnetically induced current (GIC) at the local substations in low-latitude power grid of China, responding to a moderate storm on 14-18 July 2012. The HHT is applied to analyze the neutral point currents (NPCs) of transformers measured at different substations, and the GIC indices converted from local geomagnetic field measurements. The original data are decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition. After removal of the quasi-diurnal components related with the solar quiet variation, the IMFs representing storm disturbances are transformed into Hilbert energy spectra. The results show that some transformers have more or less responses to the moderate storm in the form of Hilbert energy spectra with the frequency around 2-3 mHz. A comparison on the amplitude changes of the spectra total energy of NPCs' perturbation during storm time intervals at different sites suggests that a shell type of three-phase single transformer group seems to be more vulnerable in the storm. Although the low-latitude power grids usually show very small GIC, these can be used to investigate the potential risk of space weather to the system.

  9. Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formulation (Liu Wei Di Huang Wan) on the Pharmacokinetics of Isoflavones in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Limopasmanee, Wirin; Chansakaow, Sunee; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Manorot, Maleeya; Sangdee, Chaichan; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit

    2015-01-01

    A combination of soy isoflavones and Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LWDHW) is potentially effective for postmenopausal women with intolerable vasomotor episodes who are not suitable candidates for hormonal therapy. The objective of this open-label, three-phase, crossover study was to determine the influence of both single and multiple oral doses of LWDHW on isoflavone pharmacokinetics in healthy postmenopausal women. Eleven subjects were assigned to receive the following regimens in a fixed sequence with washout periods of at least one week: Phase A, a single oral dose of soy milk; Phase B, a single oral dose of soy milk coadministered with LWDHW; and Phase C, multiple oral doses of LWDHW for 14 days followed by a single oral dose of soy milk. Blood samples were collected and mixed with β-glucuronidase/sulfatase to hydrolyze isoflavone conjugates to their respective aglycones (i.e., daidzein and genistein) and were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed were maximal plasma concentration (C max), time to reach peak concentration (T max), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and half-life (t 1/2). The results found no statistically significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of daidzein and genistein among the three regimens. PMID:26146635

  10. Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formulation (Liu Wei Di Huang Wan) on the Pharmacokinetics of Isoflavones in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Limopasmanee, Wirin; Chansakaow, Sunee; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Manorot, Maleeya; Sangdee, Chaichan; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit

    2015-01-01

    A combination of soy isoflavones and Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LWDHW) is potentially effective for postmenopausal women with intolerable vasomotor episodes who are not suitable candidates for hormonal therapy. The objective of this open-label, three-phase, crossover study was to determine the influence of both single and multiple oral doses of LWDHW on isoflavone pharmacokinetics in healthy postmenopausal women. Eleven subjects were assigned to receive the following regimens in a fixed sequence with washout periods of at least one week: Phase A, a single oral dose of soy milk; Phase B, a single oral dose of soy milk coadministered with LWDHW; and Phase C, multiple oral doses of LWDHW for 14 days followed by a single oral dose of soy milk. Blood samples were collected and mixed with β-glucuronidase/sulfatase to hydrolyze isoflavone conjugates to their respective aglycones (i.e., daidzein and genistein) and were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed were maximal plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach peak concentration (Tmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and half-life (t1/2). The results found no statistically significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of daidzein and genistein among the three regimens. PMID:26146635

  11. [Diversity of soil fauna in corn fields in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China under effects of conservation tillage].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiang-Gen; Zhu, An-Ning; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Zhang, Huan-Chao; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Cong-Zhi

    2009-10-01

    An investigation was made on the abundance and diversity of soil fauna in the corn fields under conventional and conservation tillage in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. The abundance and diversity of soil fauna were higher at corn maturing (September) than at its jointing stage (July), and higher at jointing stage under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. Soil fauna mainly distributed in surface soil layer (0-10 cm), but still had a larger number in 10-20 cm layer under conservation tillage. The individuals of acari, diptera, diplura, and microdrile oligochaetes, especially those of acari, were higher under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. At maturing stage, an obvious effect of straw-returning under conservation tillage was observed, i. e., the more the straw returned, the higher the abundance of soil fauna, among which, the individuals of collembola, acari, coleopteran, and psocoptera, especially those of collembolan, increased significantly. The abundance of collembola at both jointing and maturing stages was significantly positively correlated with the quantity of straw returned, suggesting that collembola played an important role in straw decomposition and nutrient cycling. PMID:20077699

  12. Tracking the evolution of quasi-periodic oscillation in RE J1034+396 using the Hilbert-Huang transform

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Chou, Yi; Yang, Ting-Chang; Su, Yi-Hao E-mail: yichou@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2014-06-10

    RE J1034+396, a narrow-line Seyfert 1 active galactic nucleus (AGN), is the first example of AGNs that exhibited a nearly coherent quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) for the data collected by XMM-Newton in 2007. The spectral behaviors and timing properties of the QPO have been studied since its discovery. We present an analysis of the QPO in RE J1034+396 based on the Hilbert-Huang transform. Comparing with other time-frequency analysis methods, the Hilbert spectrum reveals the variation of the QPO period in great detail. Furthermore, the empirical mode decomposition provides bandpass-filtered data that can be used in the O – C and correlation analysis. We suggest that it is better to divide the evolution of the QPO in this observation into three epochs according to their different periodicities. In addition to the periodicities, the correlations between the QPO periods and corresponding mean count rates are also different in these three epochs. Further examining the phase lags in these epochs, we found no significant phase lags between the soft and hard X-ray bands, which is also confirmed in the QPO phase-resolved spectral analysis. Finally, we discuss the indications of current models including a spotted accretion disk, diskoseismology, and oscillation of shock according to the observed time-frequency and spectral behaviors.

  13. Projection of extreme precipitation in the context of climate change in Huang-Huai-Hai region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jun; Yan, Denghua; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Zhe; Yuan, Yong; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Based on the national precipitation dataset (0.5∘×0.5∘) 1961-2011, published by the National Meteorological Information Center of China and the five Global Climate Models provided by ISI-MIP, annual maximum precipitation for 1 day, 3 days and 7 days could be calculated. Extreme precipitation was fitted via Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution to explore the changes of extreme precipitation with the return period of 20 years and 50 years during 1961-2000 and 2001-2050. Based on this, extreme precipitation projection in Huang-Huai-Hai region was done. The results showed that the five Global Climate Models could simulate the statistical features of extreme precipitation quite well, in which IPSL-CM5A-LR has the highest precision. Simulation of IPSL-CM5A-LR indicates that precipitation with the return period of 20 years and 50 years in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, middle and lower reaches of Huaihe River and plain area of the southern Haihe River will increase considerably in the future. Extreme precipitation in some of the places will even increase by more than 30%, which means that these places will face larger flood risk and their capacity to respond to flood disasters should be improved.

  14. Compositions, Formation Mechanism, and Neuroprotective Effect of Compound Precipitation from the Traditional Chinese Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenze; Zhao, Rui; Yan, Wenqiang; Wang, Hui; Jia, Menglu; Zhu, Nailiang; Zhu, Yindi; Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Penglong; Lei, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Compounds in the form of precipitation (CFP) are universally formed during the decocting of Chinese prescriptions, such as Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT). The formation rate of HLJDT CFP even reached 2.63% ± 0.20%. The identification by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) proved that the main chemical substances of HLJDT CFP are baicalin and berberine, which is coincident with the theory that the CFP might derive from interaction between acidic and basic compounds. To investigate the formation mechanism of HLJDT CFP, baicalin and berberine were selected to synthesize a simulated precipitation and then the baicalin-berberine complex was obtained. Results indicated that the melting point of the complex interposed between baicalin and berberine, and the UV absorption, was different from the mother material. In addition, ¹H-NMR integral and high-resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-MS) can validate that the binding ratio was 1:1. Compared with baicalin, the chemical shifts of H and C on glucuronide had undergone significant changes by ¹H-, (13)C-NMR, which proved that electron transfer occurred between the carboxylic proton and the lone pair of electrons on the N atom. Both HLJDT CFP and the baicalin-berberine complex showed protective effects against cobalt chloride-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells. It is a novel idea, studying the material foundation of CFP in Chinese prescriptions. PMID:27548137

  15. Enhanced method to reconstruct mode shapes of continuous scanning measurements using the Hilbert Huang transform and the modal analysis method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung; Park, Kyihwan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response. PMID:25273766

  16. Influence of signals length and noise in power spectral densities computation using Hilbert-Huang Transform in synthetic HRV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, María. G.; Altuve, Miguel; Lollett, Carlos; Wong, Sara

    2013-11-01

    Among non-invasive techniques, heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has become widely used for assessing the balance of the autonomic nervous system. Research in this area has not stopped and alternative tools for the study and interpretation of HRV, are still being proposed. Nevertheless, frequency-domain analysis of HRV is controversial when the heartbeat sequence is non-stationary. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) is a relative new technique for timefrequency analyses of non-linear and non-stationary signals. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of time serieś length and noise in HRV from synthetic signals, using HHT and to compare it with Welch method. Synthetic heartbeat time series with different sizes and levels of signal to noise ratio (SNR) were investigated. Results shows i) sequencés length did not affect the estimation of HRV spectral parameter, ii) favorable performance for HHT for different SNR. Additionally, HHT can be applied to non-stationary signals from nonlinear systems and it will be useful to HRV analysis to interpret autonomic activity when acute and transient phenomena are assessed.

  17. Climate change impacts on agriculture and soil carbon sequestration potential in the Huang-Hai Plain of China

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; He, Xiaoxia

    2006-03-01

    The Huang-Hai Plain in northeast China has been cultivated for thousands of years and is the most productive wheat growing region in the country. Its agricultural future will be determined in large part by how global climatic changes affect regional conditions and by the actions China takes to mitigate or adapt to climate change impacts. One potential mitigation strategy is to promote soil carbon (C) sequestration, which would improve soil quality while simultaneously contributing to the mitigation of climate change. The IPCC estimates that 40 Pg of C could be sequestered in cropland soils worldwide over the next century. Here we assess the potential for soil C sequestration with conversion of a conventional till (CT) continuous wheat system to a wheat-corn double cropping system and by implementing no till (NT) management for both continuous wheat and wheat-corn systems. To assess the influence of these management changes under a changing climate, we use two climate change scenarios at two time periods in the EPIC agro-ecosystem simulation model. The applied climate change scenarios are from the HadCM3 Global Climate Model for the time periods 2015-2045 and 2070-2099. The HadCM3 model projects that both temperature and precipitation will increase throughout the next century with increases of greater than 5 °C and up to 300 mm possible by 2099. An increase in the variability of temperature is also projected and is, accordingly, applied in the simulations. The EPIC model indicates that winter wheat yields would increase on average by 0.2 Mg ha-1 in the 2030 period and by 0.8 Mg ha-1 in the 2085 period due largely to the warmer nighttime temperatures and higher precipitation projected by the HadCM3 model. Simulated yields were not significantly affected by imposed changes in crop management. Simulated soil organic C content was higher under both NT management and double cropping than under CT continuous wheat. Soil C sequestration rates for continuous wheat systems

  18. Plasma Metabolomic Profiling to Reveal Antipyretic Mechanism of Shuang-Huang-Lian Injection on Yeast-Induced Pyrexia Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Long; Liu, Haiyu; Zhang, Li; Bai, Xu; Wang, Yingxin; Li, Jian; Cai, Chengke

    2014-01-01

    Shuang-huang-lian injection (SHLI) is a famous Chinese patent medicine, which has been wildly used in clinic for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, influenza, etc. The existing randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies suggested that SHLI could afford a certain anti-febrile action. However, seldom does research concern the pharmacological mechanisms of SHLI. In the current study, we explored plasma metabolomic profiling technique and selected potential metabolic markers to reveal the antipyretic mechanism of SHLI on yeast-induced pyrexia rat model using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis and pattern recognition techniques. We discovered a significant perturbance of metabolic profile in the plasma of fever rats and obvious reversion in SHLI-administered rats. Eight potential biomarkers, i.e. 1) 3-hydeoxybutyric acid, 2) leucine, 3) 16∶0 LPC, 4) allocholic acid, 5) vitamin B2, 6) Cys-Lys-His, 7) 18∶2 LPC, and 8) 3-hydroxychola-7, 22-dien-24-oic acid, were screened out by OPLS-DA approach. Five potential perturbed metabolic pathways, i.e. 1) valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, 2) glycerophospholipid metabolism, 3) ketone bodies synthesis and degradation, 4) bile acid biosynthesis, and 5) riboflavin metabolism, were revealed to relate to the antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI. Overall, we investigated antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI at metabolomic level for the first time, and the obtained results highlights the necessity of adopting metabolomics as a reliable tool for understanding the holism and synergism of Chinese patent drug. PMID:24940599

  19. A Comparative study of VLF and LF disturbunces prior earthquake events by the use of Hilbert-Huang Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiadis, H.; Xenos, Th. D.; Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Migga, E.

    2010-05-01

    It is well known that the lower ionospheric layer acts as a waveguide for the VLF and LF radiowaves.In the frame of the International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors(INFREP)an Elettronica radio receiver was set in operation in Thessaloniki-Greece, in order to collect the VLF-LF signals transmitted by ten stations across Europe. The sampling rate was one-minute. The collected signal samples were analysed using the Hilbert-Huang transformation (HHT). More specifically the VLF and LF variations during three earthquakes were analysed; (1) the earthquake at Peshkopia-Albania (6 September 2009, Long. 41.62, Lat. 20.41, 5.4 R, 10 km depth) at a distance of 242.45 km from Thessaloniki; (2)the earthquakes at Libolesh-Albania (12 September 2009, Lat. 41.49, Long 20.44, 4.2 R, depth 13 Κm) 228 km away from Thessaloniki and (3) the Durres-Albania (15 September 2009, Lat. 41.42, Long 19.16, 4.0 Richter, depth 33 km) 329 km away from Thessaloniki. The results of our analysis indicate that: a) The VLF signal variations seem to be stronger compared to the LF ones when the earthquakes are stronger, whereas the opposite seems to hold for weaker earthquakes.b) The HHT analysis used to de-noise the signals indicated that the first 4 or 5 IMFs represent noise in these three case studies. In concluding we may say that it is possible to distinguish ionospheric precursor phenoma from natural noise using HHT analysis.

  20. A Novel Characteristic Frequency Bands Extraction Method for Automatic Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Hilbert Huang Transform.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Ding, Enjie; Chen, Chunxu; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Because roller element bearings (REBs) failures cause unexpected machinery breakdowns, their fault diagnosis has attracted considerable research attention. Established fault feature extraction methods focus on statistical characteristics of the vibration signal, which is an approach that loses sight of the continuous waveform features. Considering this weakness, this article proposes a novel feature extraction method for frequency bands, named Window Marginal Spectrum Clustering (WMSC) to select salient features from the marginal spectrum of vibration signals by Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). In WMSC, a sliding window is used to divide an entire HHT marginal spectrum (HMS) into window spectrums, following which Rand Index (RI) criterion of clustering method is used to evaluate each window. The windows returning higher RI values are selected to construct characteristic frequency bands (CFBs). Next, a hybrid REBs fault diagnosis is constructed, termed by its elements, HHT-WMSC-SVM (support vector machines). The effectiveness of HHT-WMSC-SVM is validated by running series of experiments on REBs defect datasets from the Bearing Data Center of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). The said test results evidence three major advantages of the novel method. First, the fault classification accuracy of the HHT-WMSC-SVM model is higher than that of HHT-SVM and ST-SVM, which is a method that combines statistical characteristics with SVM. Second, with Gauss white noise added to the original REBs defect dataset, the HHT-WMSC-SVM model maintains high classification accuracy, while the classification accuracy of ST-SVM and HHT-SVM models are significantly reduced. Third, fault classification accuracy by HHT-WMSC-SVM can exceed 95% under a Pmin range of 500-800 and a m range of 50-300 for REBs defect dataset, adding Gauss white noise at Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) = 5. Experimental results indicate that the proposed WMSC method yields a high REBs fault classification accuracy and a

  1. Evaluation of hepatotoxicity potential of cinnabar-containing An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan, a patent traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Wu, Qin; Liang, Shi-Xia; Miao, Jia-Wei; Shi, Jing-Shan; Liu, Jie

    2011-07-01

    An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan (AGNH) is a patent traditional Chinese medicine for brain disorders. It contains 10% cinnabar (HgS). Hg is known to produce toxicity to the kidney, brain and liver. Is AGNH safe? Liver is a major organ for drug metabolism, whether the long-term use of AGNH would affect hepatic P450 enzymes is unknown. To address these concerns, mice were given orally cinnabar (300mg/kg), cinnabar-containing AGNH daily for 44days, and liver toxicity was examined and compared with that of methylmercury (MeHg, 2.6mg/kg) and mercuric chloride (HgCl(2), 32mg/kg). Serum aminotransferases were increased by MeHg and HgCl(2) only. Histopathology showed more severe liver damage in MeHg- and HgCl(2)-treated mice than in the cinnabar and AGNH groups. Accumulation of Hg in MeHg- and HgCl(2)-treated mice was 96- and 71-fold higher than controls, respectively, but was only 2-fold after cinnabar and AGNH administration. Expressions of metallothionein-1 and heme oxygenase-1, biomarkers for Hg toxicity, were increased by MeHg and HgCl(2,) but were not altered in cinnabar- and AGNH-treated mice. Expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 genes, such as Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp4a10 was increased only after MeHg and HgCl(2), and the expressions of Cyp3a11and Cyp3a25 were increased by all treatments, indicating the potential Hg-drug interactions after long-term use of cinnabar-containing traditional medicines. Taken together, the results demonstrate that AGNH is much less hepatotoxic than common mercurials, and that the use of total Hg content to evaluate the toxicity of cinnabar-containing traditional Chinese medicines appears to be inappropriate. PMID:21435368

  2. A Novel Characteristic Frequency Bands Extraction Method for Automatic Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Hilbert Huang Transform

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Ding, Enjie; Chen, Chunxu; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Because roller element bearings (REBs) failures cause unexpected machinery breakdowns, their fault diagnosis has attracted considerable research attention. Established fault feature extraction methods focus on statistical characteristics of the vibration signal, which is an approach that loses sight of the continuous waveform features. Considering this weakness, this article proposes a novel feature extraction method for frequency bands, named Window Marginal Spectrum Clustering (WMSC) to select salient features from the marginal spectrum of vibration signals by Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT). In WMSC, a sliding window is used to divide an entire HHT marginal spectrum (HMS) into window spectrums, following which Rand Index (RI) criterion of clustering method is used to evaluate each window. The windows returning higher RI values are selected to construct characteristic frequency bands (CFBs). Next, a hybrid REBs fault diagnosis is constructed, termed by its elements, HHT-WMSC-SVM (support vector machines). The effectiveness of HHT-WMSC-SVM is validated by running series of experiments on REBs defect datasets from the Bearing Data Center of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). The said test results evidence three major advantages of the novel method. First, the fault classification accuracy of the HHT-WMSC-SVM model is higher than that of HHT-SVM and ST-SVM, which is a method that combines statistical characteristics with SVM. Second, with Gauss white noise added to the original REBs defect dataset, the HHT-WMSC-SVM model maintains high classification accuracy, while the classification accuracy of ST-SVM and HHT-SVM models are significantly reduced. Third, fault classification accuracy by HHT-WMSC-SVM can exceed 95% under a Pmin range of 500–800 and a m range of 50–300 for REBs defect dataset, adding Gauss white noise at Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) = 5. Experimental results indicate that the proposed WMSC method yields a high REBs fault classification accuracy

  3. Plasma metabolomic profiling to reveal antipyretic mechanism of Shuang-huang-lian injection on yeast-induced pyrexia rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoyan; Guo, Mingxing; Li, Qiang; Peng, Long; Liu, Haiyu; Zhang, Li; Bai, Xu; Wang, Yingxin; Li, Jian; Cai, Chengke

    2014-01-01

    Shuang-huang-lian injection (SHLI) is a famous Chinese patent medicine, which has been wildly used in clinic for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, influenza, etc. The existing randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies suggested that SHLI could afford a certain anti-febrile action. However, seldom does research concern the pharmacological mechanisms of SHLI. In the current study, we explored plasma metabolomic profiling technique and selected potential metabolic markers to reveal the antipyretic mechanism of SHLI on yeast-induced pyrexia rat model using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis and pattern recognition techniques. We discovered a significant perturbance of metabolic profile in the plasma of fever rats and obvious reversion in SHLI-administered rats. Eight potential biomarkers, i.e. 1) 3-hydeoxybutyric acid, 2) leucine, 3) 16:0 LPC, 4) allocholic acid, 5) vitamin B2, 6) Cys-Lys-His, 7) 18:2 LPC, and 8) 3-hydroxychola-7, 22-dien-24-oic acid, were screened out by OPLS-DA approach. Five potential perturbed metabolic pathways, i.e. 1) valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, 2) glycerophospholipid metabolism, 3) ketone bodies synthesis and degradation, 4) bile acid biosynthesis, and 5) riboflavin metabolism, were revealed to relate to the antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI. Overall, we investigated antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI at metabolomic level for the first time, and the obtained results highlights the necessity of adopting metabolomics as a reliable tool for understanding the holism and synergism of Chinese patent drug. PMID:24940599

  4. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of Shuang-Huang-Lian oral liquid using UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and HPLC-ELSD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Bo; Yue, Rui-Qi; Xu, Jun; Ho, Hing-Man; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Chau, Siu-Leung; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Hu-Biao; Han, Quan-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Shuang-Huang-Lian oral liquid (SHL) is a well-known Chinese patent drug containing three herbal medicines: Radix Scutellariae, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and Fructus Forsythiae. It is usually used to treat acute upper respiratory tract infection caused by virus or bacteria. Although the licensing of botanical drug Veregen approved by FDA has indicated the importance of quantitative analysis in quality control of herbal medicines, quantitative evaluation of a Chinese patent drug like SHL remains a challenge due to the complex chemical profile. In this study, 15 small molecular components of SHL (four flavonoids, six quinic acid derivatives, three saponins and two phenylethanoid glycosides) were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The contents of the three major saccharides, namely fructose, glucose and sucrose were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector on an amino column (HPLC-ELSD). The macromolecules were quantified by precipitating in 80% ethanol, drying the precipitate, and then weighing. The established methods were validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability and then successfully applied to analyze 12 batches of commercial products of SHL produced by four different manufacturers. The results indicated that 57.52-78.11% (w/w) of SHL could be quantitatively determined (non-saccharide small molecules: 1.77-3.75%, monosaccharides: 0.93-20.93%, macromolecules: 2.63-5.76% and sucrose: 49.20-65.94%). This study may provide a useful way to comprehensively evaluate the quality of SHL. PMID:25222137

  5. [HUANG Yu-jie, the famous traditional Chinese medical physician of Taiwan in the late Qing dynasty and early republican period of China].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin-rong; Zhang, Yong-xian

    2009-07-01

    HUANG Yu-jie, the famous TCM physician of Taiwan in the late Qing dynasty and early Republican period of China, was a physician with noble medical morality and perfect medical skill. He made distinguished contributions especially to the prevention and treatment of epidemic disease. During the time he undertook the medical work, he also actively took part in the social activities and made changes in customs and traditions to promote the development of society. His medical morality and skill not only were the model for the medical field at that time but also had an extensive and profound impact on the common people. PMID:19930943

  6. Analysis of defects in externally driven dust-density wavefronts in cogenerated dusty plasma using the time-resolved Hilbert–Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sanjib; Barman, Chiranjib; Mondal, Malay; Bose, M.; Mukherjee, S.

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of defects in externally driven dust-density wavefronts (DDWs) in cogenerated dusty plasma has been carried out. The DDWs are excited for threshold positive bias through another T-shaped electrode which is placed inbetween two main discharge electrodes. Spatiotemporal evolution of the DDWs reveals a wave defect and non-propagating wave mode in the DDW field. A space-time plot and the time-resolved Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) were employed to analyze the spatiotemporal wave data at a specific location in the wave field.

  7. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Analysis on Inflammation Rat Model after Oral Administration of Huang Lian Jie Du Decoction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Wang, Hong-Jie; Yang, Jian; Xin, Shao-Kun; Han, Ling-Yu; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Han, Shu-Yan; Gao, Bo; Hu, Hao; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Bian, Bao-Lin; Si, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD) is a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula with heat-dissipating and detoxifying effects. It is used to treat inflammation-associated diseases. However, no systematic pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data concerning the activity of HLJDD under inflammatory conditions is available to date. In the present study, the concentration-time profiles and the hepatic clearance rates (HCR) of 41 major components in rat plasma in response to the oral administration of a clinical dose of HLJDD were investigated by LC-QqQ-MS using a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (DMRM) method. Additionally, the levels of 7 cytokines (CKs) in the plasma and the body temperature of rats were analyzed. Furthermore, a PK-PD model was established to describe the time course of the hemodynamic and anti-inflammatory effects of HLJDD. As one of the three major active constituents in HLJDD, iridoids were absorbed and eliminated more easily and quickly than alkaloids and flavonoids. Compared with the normal controls, the flavonoids, alkaloids and iridoids in inflamed rats exhibited consistently changing trends of PK behaviors, such as higher bioavailability, slower elimination, delays in reaching the maximum concentration (Tmax) and longer substantivity. The HCR of iridoids was different from that of alkaloids and flavonoids in inflamed rats. Furthermore, excellent pharmacodynamic effects of HLJDD were observed in inflamed rats. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and body temperature significantly decreased after the administration of HLJDD. Based on PK-PD modeling with the three-phase synchronous characterization of time-concentration-effect, flavonoids exhibited one mechanism of action in the anti-inflammatory process, while iridoids and alkaloids showed another mechanism of action. Taken together, the results demonstrated that HLJDD may

  8. Bogoliubov theory and Lee-Huang-Yang corrections in spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of the quadratic Zeeman effect

    SciTech Connect

    Uchino, Shun; Kobayashi, Michikazu; Ueda, Masahito

    2010-06-15

    We develop Bogoliubov theory of spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in the presence of a quadratic Zeeman effect, and derive the Lee-Huang-Yang (LHY) corrections to the ground-state energy, pressure, sound velocity, and quantum depletion. We investigate all the phases of spin-1 and spin-2 BECs that can be realized experimentally. We also examine the stability of each phase against quantum fluctuations and the quadratic Zeeman effect. Furthermore, we discuss a relationship between the number of symmetry generators that are spontaneously broken and that of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes. It is found that in the spin-2 nematic phase there are special Bogoliubov modes that have gapless linear dispersion relations but do not belong to the NG modes.

  9. Comprehensive identification of 125 multifarious constituents in Shuang-huang-lian powder injection by HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyang; Liu, Meixian; Lin, Zongtao; Jiang, Haixiu; Niu, Yanyan; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2015-11-10

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS) method was established for excellent separation and structural identification of constituents in Shuang-huang-lian powder injection (SHLPI). The typical ultraviolet absorptions, accurate empirical molecular formula and reasonable fragmentation mechanisms of these ingredients were used for their structural elucidation. In consequence, 125 constituents (33 phenolic acids, 29 flavonoids, 32 phenylethanoid glycosides, 15 iridoid glycosides, 8 lignans, 3 amino acids and 2 purines nucleosides, 2 quinoid glycosides and 1 alkylbenzene glycoside) were either unequivocally identified or tentatively characterized by comparing authentic standards or published data. The result showed that this study could provide valuable information for the quality control and further investigation of SHLPI formula. PMID:26177215

  10. Quality evaluation of commercial Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang based on simultaneous determination of fourteen major chemical constituents using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Ka-Yan; Xu, Jun; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Min; Lang, Yan; Han, Quan-Bin

    2013-11-01

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), comprising Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and Gardeniae Fructus, is one of the commonly used Chinese medicine formulas for clearing heat and detoxifying. Quality control of the herbal complex like Chinese medicine formulas still remains a challenge. The successful approval of botanical drug Veregen by FDA indicated the importance of quantitative analysis in quality control of herbal medicines. In this study, an effective quantitative method based on conventional HPLC-DAD was developed for simultaneous determination of fourteen major ingredients (seven alkaloids, four flavonoids, three terpenes) in HLJDT. The established method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability and then successfully applied to quality evaluation of commercial HLJDT samples. The developed method can quantitatively determine up to 70% of the chemicals of commercial HLJDT sample and effectively revealed the significant variation in the quality of the commercial HLJDT samples collected from different locations. PMID:23973454

  11. Time-frequency analysis of VLF for seismic-ionospheric precursor detection: Evaluation of Zhao-Atlas-Marks and Hilbert-Huang Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeberis, C.; Zaharis, Z. D.; Xenos, T. D.; Spatalas, S.; Arabelos, D. N.; Contadakis, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    This work investigates the application of two post-processing methods of extracting spectra from VLF signals in order to detect disturbances that could be attributed to seismic-ionospheric precursory phenomena. Although precursory phenomena have been investigated in detail in past studies, a different application of time-frequency analysis methods may produce distinct patterns, which reveal disturbances in the VLF spectra received from stations that are in the propagation path over preparation zones, and also pinpoint disturbances that could be attributed to seismic-ionospheric precursors. To this purpose, three different methods of post processing are compared. These are the Wavelet Transform as a benchmark method in the form of the Continuous Wavelet Transform, a noise-assisted variant of the Hilbert-Huang Transform and the Zhao-Atlas-Marks Distribution. Comparative diagrams are presented and the advantages and weaknesses of each method are presented.

  12. Automated flaw detection scheme for cast austenitic stainless steel weld specimens using Hilbert-Huang transform of ultrasonic phased array data

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Tariq; Majumdar, Shantanu; Udpa, Lalita; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Crawford, Susan; Diaz, Aaron; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-05-17

    The objective of this work is to develop processing algorithms to detect and localize flaws using ultrasonic phased-array data. Data was collected on cast austenitic stainless stell (CASS) weld specimens onloan from the U.S. nuclear power industry' Pressurized Walter Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) traveling specimen set. Each specimen consists of a centrifugally cast stainless stell (CCSS) pipe section welded to a statically cst(SCSS) or wrought (WRSS) section. The paper presents a novel automated flaw detection and localization scheme using low frequency ultrasonic phased array inspection singals from the weld and heat affected zone of the based materials. The major steps of the overall scheme are preprocessing and region of interest (ROI) detection followed by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of A-scans in the detected ROIs. HHT offers time-frequency-energy distribution for each ROI. The Accumulation of energy in a particular frequency band is used as a classification feature for the particular ROI.

  13. Automated flaw detection scheme for cast austenitic stainless stell weld specimens using Hilbert-Huang transform of ultrasonic phased array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Tariq; Majumdar, Shantanu; Udpa, Lalita; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Crawford, Susan; Diaz, Aaron; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this work is to develop processing algorithms to detect and localize flaws using ultrasonic phased-array data. Data was collected on cast austenitic stainless stell (CASS) weld specimens onloan from the U.S. nuclear power industry' Pressurized Walter Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) traveling specimen set. Each specimen consists of a centrifugally cast stainless stell (CCSS) pipe section welded to a statically cst(SCSS) or wrought (WRSS) section. The paper presents a novel automated flaw detection and localization scheme using low frequency ultrasonic phased array inspection singals from the weld and heat affected zone of the based materials. The major steps of the overall scheme are preprocessing and region of interest (ROI) detection followed by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of A-scans in the detected ROIs. HHT offers time-frequency-energy distribution for each ROI. The Accumulation of energy in a particular frequency band is used as a classification feature for the particular ROI.

  14. Assessing the impact of climate change on the crop potential productivity in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain in China based on crop model and GIS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhan; Lei, Xiaotu; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2007-09-01

    The climate is changing due to higher concentrations of greenhouse gases. If concentrations continue to increase, climate models project climate change will be more severe in this century, and with significant impacts on many human sectors, particularly agriculture. Agriculture is a fundamental production sector for society, especially for highly populated countries such as China. Huang Huai-Hai Plain is regarded as the bread basket of China. With only 7.7% water resources of the whole country, it produces 39.2% of national grain production and 32.4% of gross domestic product. According to government predictions, by 2030 this area will have a net population increase of 104 million, while its urbanization rate will be greater than 50%. The total irrigated area will reach about 20 million ha, with a net increase of 2 million ha/year. In this study, DSSAT a dynamic process crop growth model, has been calibrated and validated for current production at ten sites in the major winter wheat and summer maize-growing region of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain in China The IPCC SRES greenhouse gase emission scenarios A2 and B2 were used in the simulation, combining with the Regional Climate Model (PRICES) which provides long term present and future daily weather data. Using the regional crop model and GIS technologies, the crop productivity changes of two main crops winter wheat and summer maize were for simulated 2020s, 2050s and 2080s under both IPCC SRES A2 and B2 greenhouse gases emission scenarios. Simulation results indicated the possibility of significant impacts of climate change on crop production in this region, with marked differences between rainfed and irrigated production. In conclusion, this exercise successfully tested the applicability of standard climate change impact assessment methodology to an important production region of China.

  15. Dry Matter Production, Photosynthesis of Flag Leaves and Water Use in Winter Wheat Are Affected by Supplemental Irrigation in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China

    PubMed Central

    Man, Jianguo; Shi, Yu; Yu, Zhenwen; Zhang, Yongli

    2015-01-01

    Winter wheat is threatened by drought in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China, thus, effective water-saving irrigation practices are urgently required to maintain its high winter wheat production. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 to determine how supplemental irrigation (SI) affected soil moisture, photosynthesis, and dry matter (DM) production of winter wheat by measuring the moisture in 0–20 cm (W2), 0–40 cm (W3), and 0–60 cm (W4) soil profiles. Rainfed (W0) and local SI practice (W1, irrigation with 60 mm each at jointing and anthesis) treatments were designed as controls. The irrigation amount for W3 was significantly lower than that for W1 and W4 but higher than that for W2. The soil relative water content (SRWC) in 0–40 cm soil profiles at jointing after SI for W3 was significantly lower than that for W1 and W4 but higher than that for W2. W3 exhibited lower SRWC in 100–140 and 60–140 cm soil profiles at anthesis after SI and at maturity, respectively, but higher root length density in 60–100 cm soil profiles than W1, W2 and W4. Compared with W1, W2 and W4, photosynthetic and transpiration rates and stomatal conductance of flag leaves for W3 were significantly greater during grain filling, particularly at the mid and later stages. The total DM at maturity, DM in grain and leaves, post-anthesis DM accumulation and its contribution to grain and grain filling duration were higher for W3. The 1000-grain weight, grain yield and water use efficiency for W3 were the highest. Therefore, treatment of increasing SRWC in the 0–40 cm soil profiles to 65% and 70% field capacities at jointing and anthesis (W3), respectively, created a suitable soil moisture environment for winter wheat production, which could be considered as a high yield and water-saving treatment in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China. PMID:26335019

  16. Simultaneous determination of various bioactive redox components in Shuang-Huang-Lian preparations using a novel three-channel isocratic elution liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liangmian; Hakamata, Hideki; Kusu, Fumiyo; Wang, Zhimin; Gao, Huimin; Kotani, Akira

    2014-07-01

    A novel three-channel isocratic elution high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (3LC-ECD) system was developed for the simultaneous determination of various bioactive redox components in Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) preparations. This 3LC-ECD system consists of three isocratic elution flow ways, two switching valves, four columns, and three electrochemical detectors. Through alternately rotating switching valves to change the elution flow way, six caffeoylquinic acids, four flavonoids, and one phenylethanoid glycoside compound were simultaneously determined within 70 min by the present 3LC-ECD method, in which three compounds of protocatechuic aldehyde, propyl gallate, and kaempferol were used as internal standards. The results demonstrated that the present 3LC-ECD method has achieved desired linearity (r>0.999), precision (relative standard deviation <2.5%), accuracy (recovery, 95.6-103.6%), and high sensitivity (limit of detection, 0.11-0.90 ng/mL). In addition, we successfully determined the contents of these 11 bioactive redox components in 14 batches of SHL oral liquid and 12 batches of SHL lyophilized powder for injection produced by different manufacturers in China. PMID:24657677

  17. Gene expression and enzyme activity of lipoprotein lipase correlate with intramuscular fat content in Guangxi san-huang and Arbor Acres chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y N; Wang, J; Chen, B J; Jiang, Q Y; Guo, Y F; Lan, G Q; Jiang, H S

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. This study investigated LPL gene expression, LPL enzyme activity, and the correlation of each with intramuscular fat (IMF) in Chinese Guangxi san-huang (GXSH) and Arbor Acres (AA) chickens. The results showed that age and breed had significant effects on LPL expression and enzyme activity. Correlation analyses showed significant positive correlations between LPL expression levels and IMF contents in the breast and thigh tissues of both GXSH (r = 0.712, P = 0.001; r = 0.792, P < 0.001, respectively) and AA (r = 0.644, P < 0.001; r = 0.545, P < 0.001, respectively) chickens. The results also indicated a significant positive correlation between LPL enzyme activity and IMF contents in the breast and thigh tissues of both GXSH (r = 0.615, P = 0.001; r = 0.685, P < 0.001, respectively) and AA (r = 0.600, P = 0.001; r = 0.528, P = 0.003, respectively) chickens. The results indicated that the LPL gene was significantly correlated with IMF in these two breeds. The results presented here could contribute to knowledge of LPL mRNA developmental expression patterns and enzyme activity, and it could facilitate further research on the molecular mechanisms underlying IMF deposition in chickens. PMID:27323106

  18. Dynamic metabolic profiling of urine biomarkers in rats with alcohol‑induced liver damage following treatment with Zhi‑Zi‑Da‑Huang decoction.

    PubMed

    An, Li; Lang, Qiaoling; Shen, Wenbin; Shi, Qingshui; Feng, Fang

    2016-09-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of liver‑associated morbidity and mortality. Zhi‑Zi‑Da‑Huang decoction (ZZDHD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been frequently used to treat or alleviate the symptoms of the various stages of ALD. To identify metabolic changes and the ZZDHD mechanism of action on ALD, potential urine biomarkers involved in the effects of ZZDHD were identified. Additionally, dynamic metabolomic profiles were systematically analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in conjunction with statistical analysis. Alcohol administration to experimental rats disrupted multiple metabolic pathways, including methionine, gut bacterial, energy and amino acid metabolism. However, ZZDHD relieved certain effects of alcohol on the metabolism and regulated changes in potential characteristic biomarkers, including dimethylglycine, hippurate, lactate and creatine. The present study investigated time‑dependent metabolomic changes in the development of alcohol‑induced liver injury, including the effect of ZZDHD intervention. These findings elucidated important information regarding the metabolic responses to the protective effects of ZZDHD. 1H NMR‑based metabolomics method a reliable and useful tool for determining the metabolic progression of alcohol‑induced liver injury and elucidating the underlying mechanisms of the effect of traditional Chinese medicine formulas. This study also demonstrated that NMR‑based metabolomics approach is a powerful tool for understanding the molecular basis of pathogenesis and drug intervention processes. PMID:27430289

  19. Effect of Huai Qi Huang on Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells through miR-200a

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jinyun; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular epithelial cells is a vital mechanism of renal fibrosis. Mounting evidence suggests that miR-200a expression decreases in tubular epithelial cells in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) rats. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that Huai Qi Huang (HQH) can ameliorate tubulointerstitial damage in adriamycin nephrosis and delay kidney dysfunction in primary glomerular disease. However, the effect of HQH on EMT of tubular epithelial cells in UUO rats and its molecular mechanism is unclear. In order to explore the effect of HQH on EMT and its molecular mechanism in renal fibrosis, in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed in our study. Our results showed that HQH increased miR-200a expression in UUO rats and in TGF-β1 stimulated NRK-52E cells. Meanwhile, HQH decreased ZEB1 and ZEB2 (the transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin), α-SMA expression in renal tubular epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we found that HQH protected kidney from fibrosis in UUO rats. The results demonstrated that HQH regulated miR-200a/ZEBs pathway and inhibited EMT process, which may be a mechanism of protecting effect on tubular cells in renal fibrosis. PMID:26884796

  20. Validation of crop model for simulating summer maize in the Huang-Huai Plain of China and its application on analyzing drought effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuyan; Liu, Ronghua; Cheng, Lin; Fang, Wensong; Wang, Xinli

    2009-08-01

    Using datasets of 1991-2004 meteorological and soil data as well as field management from 8 stations in the summer-sown maize zone over the Huang-Huai River Basin, North China, study is performed of the water deficit in various phases of growth of the crop impacting on the final yield by means of CERES-Maize of DSSAT Version 4.0, whose parameters are adjusted for local conditions. Results show that 1) in the jointing stage of vegetative growth and the filling stage (especially its earlier part) of the reproduction growth, field moisture acts as a key factor affecting the yield; 2) deficient moisture in the 7-leaf and jointing periods would cause maximum leaf area index to significantly drop, keeping dry matter from accumulation, leading to appreciable diminution of weight of dry stem and leaves; 3) water deficit in the earlier (middle) filling stage would result in reduced number of grains per cob (decrease substantially the weight of 100 grains). The findings in conjunction with measured moisture can be used to implement the "efficient irrigation with less water" practice in this vast region.

  1. Metabolic changes at the early stage of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in rats and the interventional effects of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yufen; Gao, Na; Zhang, Zhongxiao; Zu, Xianpeng; Hu, Zhenlin; Zhang, Weidong; Yin, Jun; Liu, Xinru

    2016-07-15

    Sepsis is a disease with high mortality that requires rapid diagnosis and treatment. This study used a metabolomic approach to profile the metabolic changes at the early stage of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rats and investigated the interventional effects of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT). Male SD rats were intragastrically administered 270mg/kg HLJDT 2h prior to CLP, serum extracts were profiled by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-Q-TOF-MS) and multivariate analytical (MVA) methods were employed to evaluate the metabolic changes of extracts. A Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) score plot indicated that septic rats undergo significant metabolic changes 2h after CLP, and HLJDT administration could reverse the metabolic changes induced by CLP. Sixteen biomarkers involved in amino acid metabolism, unsaturated fatty acid metabolism, purine metabolism, and lipid metabolism were identified after Orthogonal Partial Least-Squares Analysis (OPLS). Among the 16 metabolites, 10 were regulated by HLJDT. This study established the foundation for further research of the early diagnosis biomarkers and therapeutic evaluation biomarkers discovery of sepsis. PMID:26365787

  2. Functional representation for the born-oppenheimer diagonal correction and born-huang adiabatic potential energy surfaces for isotopomers of H3.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Steven L; Schwenke, David W; Schatz, George C; Garrett, Bruce C; Peterson, Kirk A

    2009-04-23

    Multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations of the Born-Oppenheimer diagonal correction (BODC) for H(3) were performed at 1397 symmetry-unique configurations using the Handy-Yamaguchi-Schaefer approach; isotopic substitution leads to 4041 symmetry-unique configurations for the DH(2) mass combination. These results were then fit to a functional form that permits calculation of the BODC for any combination of isotopes. Mean unsigned fitting errors on a test grid of configurations not included in the fitting process were 0.14, 0.12, and 0.65 cm(-1) for the H(3), DH(2), and MuH(2) isotopomers, respectively. This representation can be combined with any Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface (PES) to yield Born-Huang (BH) PESs; herein, we choose the CCI potential energy surface, the uncertainties of which ( approximately 0.01 kcal/mol) are much smaller than the magnitude of the BODC. Fortran routines to evaluate these BH surfaces are provided. Variational transition state theory calculations are presented comparing thermal rate constants for reactions on the BO and BH surfaces to provide an initial estimate of the significance of the diagonal correction for the dynamics. PMID:19290604

  3. San Huang Decoction downregulates Aurora kinase A to inhibit breast cancer cell growth and enhance chemosenstivity to anti-tumor drugs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanlei; Chen, Xu; Chen, Xiyan; Bian, Weihe; Yao, Chang; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Chen, Jiajing; Ye, Xiaozhou

    2016-08-01

    Our study aimed to explore whether San Huang Decoction (SHD) inhibited the development of breast cancer by regulating Aurora A. Human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were cultured and SHD extract was prepared. Cell growth assay and apoptosis analysis were respectively performed to detect the effects of SHD on breast cancer cells. In addition, the effects of SHD on the expression of Aurora A and p53 were determined by RT-PCR and western blot. Besides, we used Aurora A siRNA to knock down Aurora A. We then co-administrated SHD and tamoxifen or epirubicin to detect the effect of SHD on chemosensitivity to tamoxifen or epirubicin. SHD treatment significantly inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SHD treatment resulted in a marked decrease in Aurora A expression and obvious increase in p53 expression. In addition, knockdown of Aurora A induced cell growth inhibition, which was similar to the effect of SHD treatment. Besides, SHD exerted an additive effect on cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction when breast cancer cells were co-administration of SHD with tamoxifen or epirubicin. Our study indicates that SHD treatment may inhibit cell growth and enhance chemosenstivity to other anti-tumor drugs in breast cancer via down-regulation of Aurora A. PMID:27461831

  4. Cross-correlation analysis and time delay estimation of a homologous micro-seismic signal based on the Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong-Mei; Jia, Rui-Sheng; Du, Qian-Qian; Fu, You

    2016-06-01

    A micro-seismic signal's transient features are non-stationary. The traditional weighted generalized cross-correlation (GCC) algorithm is based on the cross-power spectrum density. This algorithm diminishes the performance of the time delay estimation for homologous micro-seismic signals. This paper analyzed the influence of calculation error on the cross-power spectrum density of a non-stationary signal and proposed a new cross-correlation analysis and time delay estimation method for homologous micro-seismic signals based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). First, the original signals are decomposed into intrinsic mode function (IMF) components using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for de-noising. Subsequently, the IMF components and the original signals are analyzed using a cross-correlation analysis. The IMF components are subsequently remodeled at different scales using the Hilbert transform. The marginal spectrum density is obtained via a time integration of the remodeled components. The cross-marginal spectrum density of the two signals can also be obtained. Finally, the cross-marginal spectrum density is used in the weighted GCC algorithm for time delay estimation instead of the cross-power spectrum density. The time delay estimation is determined by searching for the weighted GCC function peak. The experiments demonstrated the superior time delay estimation performance of the new method for non-stationary transient signals. Therefore, a new time delay estimation method for non-stationary random signals is presented in this paper.

  5. Climatic effects of irrigation over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain in China simulated by the weather research and forecasting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ben; Zhang, Yaocun; Qian, Yun; Tang, Jian; Liu, Dongqing

    2016-03-01

    The climatic effects of irrigation over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (3HP) in China are investigated by using the weather research and forecasting model coupled with an operational-like irrigation scheme. Multiple numerical experiments with irrigation off/on during spring, summer, and both spring and summer are conducted. Results show that the warm bias in surface temperature and dry bias in soil moisture are reduced over the 3HP region during the growing seasons by considering the irrigation in the model. The air temperature during nongrowing seasons is also affected by irrigation because of the persistent effects of soil moisture on land-air energy exchanges and ground heat storage. Irrigation can induce significant cooling in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) during the growing seasons and lead to a relatively wet PBL with increased low-level clouds during spring but a relatively dry condition in summer. Further analyses indicate that irrigation leads to increased summer precipitation over the Yangtze River Basin and decreased summer precipitation in southern and northern China. These responses are associated with the changes in the large-scale circulation induced by irrigation. Irrigation tends to cool the atmosphere and forces a possible southward shift of the upper level jet that can further affect the precipitation distribution. Our model results suggest that in addition to local-scale processes, large-scale impacts should also be considered when studying the precipitation response to irrigation over East Asia.

  6. Analysis and Recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine Pulse Based on the Hilbert-Huang Transform and Random Forest in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Yiqin; Yan, Hanxia; Yan, Jianjun; Yuan, Fengyin; Xu, Zhaoxia; Liu, Guoping; Xu, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This research provides objective and quantitative parameters of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pulse conditions for distinguishing between patients with the coronary heart disease (CHD) and normal people by using the proposed classification approach based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and random forest. Methods. The energy and the sample entropy features were extracted by applying the HHT to TCM pulse by treating these pulse signals as time series. By using the random forest classifier, the extracted two types of features and their combination were, respectively, used as input data to establish classification model. Results. Statistical results showed that there were significant differences in the pulse energy and sample entropy between the CHD group and the normal group. Moreover, the energy features, sample entropy features, and their combination were inputted as pulse feature vectors; the corresponding average recognition rates were 84%, 76.35%, and 90.21%, respectively. Conclusion. The proposed approach could be appropriately used to analyze pulses of patients with CHD, which can lay a foundation for research on objective and quantitative criteria on disease diagnosis or Zheng differentiation. PMID:26180536

  7. Evaluation of single-shot and two-shot fringe pattern phase demodulation algorithms aided by the Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Patorski, Krzysztof; Sluzewski, Lukasz; Sunderland, Zofia

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution we evaluate single and two-shot techniques, namely the Hilbert spiral transform (HST) and the Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization (GSO) in terms of phase demodulation accuracy in the complex fringe patterns analysis (i.e., with strong background/contrast variations, severe noise, considerable local gradients of fringe shape/orientation). Both methods are aided by the novel Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) processing to adaptively reduce demodulation errors. The HST utilizes a spiral phase function and a spatial fringe orientation map to demodulate phase of complex fringes. It is especially susceptible to uneven bias term and noise. The HHT method realizes bias/noise suppression adaptively with outstanding accuracy. The GSO is a fast two-shot fringe-shape-robust phase demodulation scheme. It treats two arbitrarily phase shifted interferograms as vectors and conducts orthogonal projection of one vector onto another. The GSO is susceptible to background, contrast and noise fluctuations, however. The HHT method is perfectly suitable to perform efficient pre-filtering. Both methods (HHT-HST and HHT-GSO) are proven versatile and robust to fringe pattern defects using simulation and experiment.

  8. Tracing the locality of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of China (259-210 BC).

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in China, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the local workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ(13)C (-8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ(15)N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ(13)C (-15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ(15)N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern China, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups. PMID:27253909

  9. Tracing the locality of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of China (259-210 BC)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in China, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the local workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ13C (−8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ15N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ13C (−15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ15N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern China, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups. PMID:27253909

  10. TIME-FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF THE SUPERORBITAL MODULATION OF THE X-RAY BINARY SMC X-1 USING THE HILBERT-HUANG TRANSFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Chou, Yi; Yang, Ting-Chang; Su, Yi-Hao; Wu, Ming-Chya E-mail: yichou@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2011-10-20

    The high-mass X-ray binary SMC X-1 exhibits a superorbital modulation with a dramatically varying period ranging between {approx}40 days and {approx}60 days. This research studies the time-frequency properties of the superorbital modulation of SMC X-1 based on the observations made by the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We analyzed the entire ASM database collected since 1996. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), developed for non-stationary and nonlinear time-series analysis, was adopted to derive the instantaneous superorbital frequency. The resultant Hilbert spectrum is consistent with the dynamic power spectrum as it shows more detailed information in both the time and frequency domains. The RXTE observations show that the superorbital modulation period was mostly between {approx}50 days and {approx}65 days, whereas it changed to {approx}45 days around MJD 50,800 and MJD 54,000. Our analysis further indicates that the instantaneous frequency changed to a timescale of hundreds of days between {approx}MJD 51,500 and {approx}MJD 53,500. Based on the instantaneous phase defined by HHT, we folded the ASM light curve to derive a superorbital profile, from which an asymmetric feature and a low state with barely any X-ray emissions (lasting for {approx}0.3 cycles) were observed. We also calculated the correlation between the mean period and the amplitude of the superorbital modulation. The result is similar to the recently discovered relationship between the superorbital cycle length and the mean X-ray flux for Her X-1.

  11. Rhein 8-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside Elicited the Purgative Action of Daiokanzoto (Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang), Despite Dysbiosis by Ampicillin.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kento; Tabuchi, Norihiko; Fukunaga, Masahito; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sennoside A (SA), the main purgative constituent of Daiokanzoto (da-huang-gan-cao-tang; DKT), is generally regarded as a prodrug that is transformed into an active metabolite by β-glucosidase derived from Bifidobacterium spp. It has been suggested that antibiotics would promote dysbiosis, and thereby inhibit the purgative activity of DKT. In this study, ampicillin was administered to mice for 8 d, and the changes in the SA metabolism of SA alone and of DKT were investigated. The results showed that the SA metabolism of SA singly continued to be inhibited by ampicillin, but that of DKT was activated from day 3 under the same conditions. In order to investigate the mechanism of SA metabolism activated by DKT in the mice administered ampicillin, changes in the SA metabolism were observed in the presence of rhein 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (RG) in rhubarb and liquiritin in glycyrrhiza, both of which accelerated the SA metabolism. In fact, RG achieved an activation of SA metabolism similar to that by DKT. The purgative action of DKT, which was continued treatment of the ampicillin, was significantly greater than that by SA alone, and it was shown that RG was involved in this effect. We also analyzed changes in the intestinal microbiota before and after administration of ampicillin. No Bifidobacteria were detected throughout the treatment, but the population of Bacteroides was significantly increased after 3 d under the same conditions. Taken together, these results strongly suggested that the RG in DKT changed the function of Bacteroides and thereby allowed DKT to metabolize SA. PMID:26934929

  12. Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan through its active ingredient loganin counteracts substance P-enhanced NF-κB/ICAM-1 signaling in rats with bladder hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Cheng, Chen-Hung; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-09-01

    Overt bladder afferent activation may exacerbate endogenous substance P (SP) release to induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-mediated inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production leading to hyperactive bladder. Ba-Wei-Die-Huang-Wan (BWDHW), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms in patients by undefined mechanisms. We explored the possible mechanisms and the active components of BWDHW on exogenous SP-induced bladder hyperactivity. BWDHW contained six major components: loganin, paeoniflorin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, and paeonol by high-performance liquid chromatography. In urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats, we evaluated transcystometrogram, pelvic afferent nerve activity by electrophysiologic recording techniques, ICAM-1 expression by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, ROS amount by an ultrasensitive chemiluminescence method and possible ROS sources from the different leukocytes by specific stains in SP-treated bladder. BWDHW and its major component loganin dose-dependently inhibited H2 O2 and HOCl activity in vitro. Intragastrical BWDHW (250 mg/kg) and loganin (5 mg/kg) twice daily for 2 weeks did not affect the baseline micturition parameters. Intra-arterial SP (20 µg/rat) through neurokinin-1 receptor activation increased voiding frequency (shortened intercontraction intervals), pelvic afferent nerve activity, bladder NF-κB/ICAM-1 expression, bladder ROS amount, neutrophils adhesion to venous endothelium, CD68 (monocyte/macrophage), and mast cell infiltration in the inflamed bladder. BWDHW and loganin pretreatment significantly depressed SP-enhanced pelvic afferent nerve activity, bladder NF-κB/ICAM-1 expression, leukocyte infiltration, and ROS amount, and subsequently improved bladder hyperactivity. In conclusion, our results suggest that BWDHW and its active component loganin improves bladder hyperactivity via inhibiting SP/neurokinin-1

  13. Lipidomics study of plasma phospholipid metabolism in early type 2 diabetes rats with ancient prescription Huang-Qi-San intervention by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS and correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Zhu, Jian-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Wei-Min; Rong, Xiang-Lu; Feng, Yi-Fan

    2016-08-25

    Potential impact of lipid research has been increasingly realized both in disease treatment and prevention. An effective metabolomics approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) along with multivariate statistic analysis has been applied for investigating the dynamic change of plasma phospholipids compositions in early type 2 diabetic rats after the treatment of an ancient prescription of Chinese Medicine Huang-Qi-San. The exported UPLC/Q-TOF-MS data of plasma samples were subjected to SIMCA-P and processed by bioMark, mixOmics, Rcomdr packages with R software. A clear score plots of plasma sample groups, including normal control group (NC), model group (MC), positive medicine control group (Flu) and Huang-Qi-San group (HQS), were achieved by principal-components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Biomarkers were screened out using student T test, principal component regression (PCR), partial least-squares regression (PLS) and important variable method (variable influence on projection, VIP). Structures of metabolites were identified and metabolic pathways were deduced by correlation coefficient. The relationship between compounds was explained by the correlation coefficient diagram, and the metabolic differences between similar compounds were illustrated. Based on KEGG database, the biological significances of identified biomarkers were described. The correlation coefficient was firstly applied to identify the structure and deduce the metabolic pathways of phospholipids metabolites, and the study provided a new methodological cue for further understanding the molecular mechanisms of metabolites in the process of regulating Huang-Qi-San for treating early type 2 diabetes. PMID:27369808

  14. The Anticancer Properties and Apoptosis-inducing Mechanisms of Cinnamaldehyde and the Herbal Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang ( Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang) in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2013-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has long been one of the most important causes of cancer mortality in the world. Many natural products and traditional herbal medicines have been used to treat HCC in Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. The present review aims to describe the anticancer properties and apoptotic mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive ingredient isolated from cinnamon trees, and the herbal prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang ( Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang; HLJDT) against human hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Implication of their treatment for the development of targeted therapy against HCC is discussed. PMID:24716182

  15. Impact of thermal time shift on wheat phenology and yield under warming climate in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Qi, Yongqing; Li, Zhiqiang; Wang, Rende; Moiwo, Juana P.; Liu, Fengshan

    2016-05-01

    Given climate change can potentially influence crop phenology and subsequent yield, an investigation of relevant adaptation measures could increase the understanding and mitigation of these responses in the future. In this study, field observations at 10 stations in the Huang- Huai-Hai Plain of China (HHHP) are used in combination with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-Wheat model to determine the effect of thermal time shift on the phenology and potential yield of wheat from 1981-2009.Warming climate speeds up winter wheat development and thereby decreases the duration of the wheat growth period. However, APSIM-Wheat model simulation suggests prolongation of the period from flowering to maturity (Gr) of winter wheat by 0.2-0.8 d•10yr-1 as the number of days by which maturity advances, which is less than that by which flowering advances. Based on computed thermal time of the two critical growth phases of wheat, total thermal time from floral initiation to flowering (TT_floral_initiation) increasesd in seven out of the 10 investigated stations. Alternatively, total thermal time from the start of grainfilling to maturity (TT_start_ grain_fill) increased in all investigated stations, except Laiyang. It is thus concluded that thermal time shift during the past three decades (1981-2009) prolongs Gr by 0.2-3.0 d•10yr-1 in the study area. This suggests that an increase in thermal time (TT) of the wheat growth period is critical for mitigating the effect of growth period reduction due to warming climatic condition. Furthermore, climate change reduces potential yield of winter wheat in 80% of the stations by 2.3-58.8 kg•yr-1. However, thermal time shift (TTS) increases potential yield of winter wheat in most of the stations by 3.0-51.0 kg•yr-1. It is concluded that wheat cultivars with longer growth periods and higher thermal requirements could mitigate the negative effects of warming climate on crop production in the study area.

  16. Hilbert-Huang spectral analysis for characterizing the intrinsic time-scales of variability in decennial time-series of surface solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengulescu, Marc; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of the variability of the surface solar irradiance (SSI) at different local time-scales is presented in this study. Since geophysical signals, such as long-term measurements of the SSI, are often produced by the non-linear interaction of deterministic physical processes that may also be under the influence of non-stationary external forcings, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), an adaptive, noise-assisted, data-driven technique, is employed to extract locally - in time and in space - the embedded intrinsic scales at which a signal oscillates. The transform consists of two distinct steps. First, by means of the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), the time-series is "de-constructed" into a finite number - often small - of zero-mean components that have distinct temporal scales of variability, termed hereinafter the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The signal model of the components is an amplitude modulation - frequency modulation (AM - FM) one, and can also be thought of as an extension of a Fourier series having both time varying amplitude and frequency. Following the decomposition, Hilbert spectral analysis is then employed on the IMFs, yielding a time-frequency-energy representation that portrays changes in the spectral contents of the original data, with respect to time. As measurements of surface solar irradiance may possibly be contaminated by the manifestation of different type of stochastic processes (i.e. noise), the identification of real, physical processes from this background of random fluctuations is of interest. To this end, an adaptive background noise null hypothesis is assumed, based on the robust statistical properties of the EMD when applied to time-series of different classes of noise (e.g. white, red or fractional Gaussian). Since the algorithm acts as an efficient constant-Q dyadic, "wavelet-like", filter bank, the different noise inputs are decomposed into components having the same spectral shape, but that are translated to the

  17. Chinese patent medicine liu wei di huang wan combined with antihypertensive drugs, a new integrative medicine therapy, for the treatment of essential hypertension: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Yao, Kuiwu; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Wei; Feng, Bo; Ma, Jizheng; Du, Xinliang; Wang, Pengqian; Xiong, Xingjiang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the beneficial and adverse effects of Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LWDHW), combined with antihypertensive drugs, for essential hypertension. Methods. Five major electronic databases were searched up to August 2012 to retrieve any potential randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of LWDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs for essential hypertension reported in any language, with main outcome measures as blood pressure. The quality of the included studies was assessed with the Jadad scale and a customized standard quality assessment scale. Results. 6 randomized trials were included. The methodological quality of the trials was evaluated as generally low. The pooled results showed that LWDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs was more effective in blood pressure and the scale for TCM syndrome and symptom differentiation scores compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. Most of the trials did not report adverse events, and the safety is still uncertain. Conclusions. LWDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs appears to be effective in improving blood pressure and symptoms in patients with essential hypertension. However, the evidence remains weak due to the poor methodological quality of the included studies. PMID:23258998

  18. Chinese Patent Medicine Liu Wei Di Huang Wan Combined with Antihypertensive Drugs, a New Integrative Medicine Therapy, for the Treatment of Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Yao, Kuiwu; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Wei; Feng, Bo; Ma, Jizheng; Du, Xinliang; Wang, Pengqian; Xiong, Xingjiang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the beneficial and adverse effects of Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LWDHW), combined with antihypertensive drugs, for essential hypertension. Methods. Five major electronic databases were searched up to August 2012 to retrieve any potential randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of LWDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs for essential hypertension reported in any language, with main outcome measures as blood pressure. The quality of the included studies was assessed with the Jadad scale and a customized standard quality assessment scale. Results. 6 randomized trials were included. The methodological quality of the trials was evaluated as generally low. The pooled results showed that LWDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs was more effective in blood pressure and the scale for TCM syndrome and symptom differentiation scores compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. Most of the trials did not report adverse events, and the safety is still uncertain. Conclusions. LWDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs appears to be effective in improving blood pressure and symptoms in patients with essential hypertension. However, the evidence remains weak due to the poor methodological quality of the included studies. PMID:23258998

  19. Coordinate Bethe ANSÄTZE for Non-Diagonal Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragoucy, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Bethe ansatz goes back to 1931, when H. Bethe invented it to solve some one-dimensional models, such as XXX spin chain, proposed by W. Heisenberg in 1928. Although it is a very powerful method to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the corresponding Hamiltonian, it can be applied only for very specific boundary conditions: periodic boundary ones, and so-called open-diagonal boundary ones. After reviewing this method, we will present a generalization of it that applies also to open-triangular boundary conditions. This short note presents only the basic ideas of the technique, and does not attend to give a general overview of the subject. Interested readers should refer to the original papers and references therein.

  20. Identification of the absorbed components and metabolites of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction in rat plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Bi, Kaishun; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Yin, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), consisting of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Rheum palmatum L., Citrus aurantium L. and Sojae Semen Praeparatum, is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine preparation for the treatment of acute or chronic hepatic diseases. In the present study, a sensitive and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed to separate and identify the absorbed components and metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of ZZDHD. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation and separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 mm × 3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution program. Mass spectrometric detection was performed on an Agilent 6520 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive and negative ion modes. By comparing the retention time, high resolution mass data of blank plasma and dosed plasma, a total of 43 constituents, including 21 prototype compounds and 22 metabolites were identified or tentatively characterized. Results indicated that glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones, glucuronidation was the main metabolic pathways of flavanone-related compounds. It is concluded the developed UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the absorbed components and metabolites of ZZDHD, and the results will provide essential data for further studying the relationship between the chemical components and pharmacological activity of ZZDHD. PMID:25912849

  1. An untargeted metabolomics-driven approach based on LC-TOF/MS and LC-MS/MS for the screening of xenobiotics and metabolites of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan; Li, Xixi; Yan, Xuemei; An, Li; Luo, Kaiwen; Shao, Mingjing; Jiang, Yue; Xie, Rui; Feng, Fang

    2015-11-10

    Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), a typical traditional Chinese medicine prescription, is widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of alcoholic liver disease. However, due to lack of holistic metabolic research, the active ingredients of ZZDHD have not been fully elucidated. It entails a huge obstacle for the quality evaluation, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical-safe medication administration of ZZDHD. In this work, an untargeted metabolomics-driven approach was proposed to rapidly screen and characterize xenobiotics and related metabolites in vivo conducted by LC-TOF/MS and LC-QqQ/MS. The tR-m/z pairs which were present in the ZZDHD-dosed group and absent in the control group could be clearly displayed by XCMS Online platform combined with supervised orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. Among them, a total of 61 ZZDHD-related xenobiotics and metabolites including 34 prototype components and 27 metabolites were rapidly identified or tentatively characterized in rat plasma. The results indicated that iridoid glycosides and monoterpenoids from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, flavonoid glycosides from Citrus aurantium L., as well as anthraquinones from Rheum palmatum L. were the main absorbed chemical components of ZZDHD. Hydrolysis, glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of ZZDHD in vivo. The present study provided a solid basis for further revealing the relationship between the xenobiotic metabolome and pharmacological activity of ZZDHD. In addition, the application of untargeted metabolomics-driven approach offers a fresh insight for rapid screening and identifying xenobiotics and metabolites of ZZDHD and other multiherb prescription. PMID:26275719

  2. Simultaneous multi-component quantitation of Chinese herbal injection Yin-zhi-huang in rat plasma by using a single-tube extraction procedure for mass spectrometry-based pharmacokinetic measurement.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Le; Wang, Meiling; Yuan, Yu; Guo, Bin; Zhou, Jing; Tan, Zhen; Ye, Meiling; Ding, Li; Chen, Bo

    2014-09-15

    Ying-zhi-huang injection (YZH-I) is an injectable multi-herbal prescription derived from the ancient Chinese remedy "Yin-chen-hao-tang", which is widely used in the clinic for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases. To date, little information is available on the pharmacokinetic properties of this poly-herbal formulation. Herein, we reported a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantitative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of eight major ingredients of YZH-I (including baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, geniposide, geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid) in rat plasma. A fast single-tube multi-impurity precipitation extraction ("SMIPE") procedure was introduced for straightforward plasma preparation, based on one-pot deproteinization precipitation with acidified methanol extraction and in-situ multifunction impurity removal by a solid sorbent mixture (anh. magnesium sulfate plus octadecylsilane). Particularly, the addition of ascorbic acid in methanol (10 mg/mL) was found to exhibit a pronounced protective effect and significantly increase extraction effectiveness of the herbal phenolic components. Some pretreatment variables (protein precipitating solvent, acidifying agent and sorbent) were optimized with acceptable matrix effect (-18 to 7.7%), extraction recovery (65-88%) and process efficiency (62-91%) for the SMIPE-based LC-MRM multi-analyte quantitation using matrix-matched calibration (5-1000 ng/mL) without using internal standard. Mean accuracies were obtained in the range of 83-114% at three different fortification levels, with intra- and inter-day variations within 13%. This validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous measurement and pharmacokinetic investigation of the chemical constituents in rats following an intravenous administration of YZH-I. PMID:25129410

  3. Atmospheric deposition as an important nitrogen load to a typical agro-ecosystem in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. 2. Seasonal and inter-annual variations and their implications (2008-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ping; Zhang, Jiabao; Ma, Donghao; Wen, Zhaofei; Wu, Shengjun; Garland, Gina; Pereira, Engil Isadora Pujol; Zhu, Anning; Xin, Xiuli; Zhang, Congzhi

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, an important N source to agro-ecosystems, has increased intensively in China during recent decades. However, knowledge on temporal variations of total N deposition and their influencing factors is limited due to lack of systematic monitoring data. In this study, total N deposition, including dry and wet components, was monitored using the water surrogate surface method for a typical agro-ecosystem with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain from May 2008 to April 2012. The results indicated that annual total N deposition ranged from 23.8 kg N ha-1 (2009-2010) to 40.3 kg N ha-1 (2008-2009) and averaged 31.8 kg N ha-1. Great inter-annual variations were observed during the sampling period, due to differences in annual rainfall and gaseous N losses from farmlands. Monthly total N deposition varied greatly, from less than 0.6 kg N ha-1 (January, 2010) to over 8.0 kg N ha-1 (August, 2008), with a mean value of 2.6 kg N ha-1. In contrast to wet deposition, dry portions generally contributed more to the total, except in the precipitation-intensive months, accounting for 65% in average. NH4+ -N was the dominant species in N deposition and its contribution to total deposition varied from 6% (December, 2009) to 79% (July, 2008), averaging 53%. The role of organic N (O-N) in both dry and wet deposition was equal to or even greater than that of NO3- -N. Influencing factors such as precipitation and its seasonal distribution, reactive N sources, vegetation status, field management practices, and weather conditions were responsible for the temporal variations of atmospheric N deposition and its components. These results are helpful for reducing the knowledge gaps in the temporal variations of atmospheric N deposition and their influencing factors in different ecosystems, to improve the understandings on N budget in the typical agro-ecosystem, and to provide references

  4. Chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of traditional and simplified decoction methods on the holistic quality of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuemei; Zhang, Qianying; Feng, Fang

    2016-04-01

    Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction, consisting of Rheum officinale Baill, Mirabilitum, Phellodendron amurense Rupr. and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of jaundice. As described in "Jin Kui Yao Lue", a traditional multistep decoction of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction was required while simplified one-step decoction was used in recent repsorts. To investigate the chemical difference between the decoctions obtained by the traditional and simplified preparations, a sensitive and reliable approach of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was established. As a result, a total of 105 compounds were detected and identified. Analysis of the chromatogram profiles of the two decoctions showed that many compounds in the decoction of simplified preparation had changed obviously compared with those in traditional preparation. The changes of constituents would be bound to cause the differences in the therapeutic effects of the two decoctions. The present study demonstrated that certain preparation methods significantly affect the holistic quality of traditional Chinese medicines and the use of a suitable preparation method is crucial for these medicines to produce special clinical curative effect. This research results elucidated the scientific basis of traditional preparation methods in Chinese medicines. PMID:26914461

  5. Comment on “Magnetostratigraphic study of the Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin, and Cenozoic uplift of the Tian Shan Range, Western China” Baochun Huang, John D.A. Piper, Shoutao Peng, Tao Liu, Zhong Li, Qingchen Wang, Rixiang Zhu [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2006, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charreau, Julien; Chen, Yan; Gilder, Stuart; Barier, Laurie

    2008-04-01

    The recent publication of "Magnetostratigraphic study of the Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin, and Cenozoic uplift of the Tian Shan Range,Western China" by B.C. Huang, J.D.A. Piper, S.T. Peng, T. Liu, Z. Li, Q.C. Wang, R.X. Zhu [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2006, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.020] discusses the Cenozoic uplift history of the Tianshan Mountains by studying the magnetostratigraphy of Paleogene to Neogene continental sediments from two sections located in the Kuche basin at the northern edge of the Tarim basin. To support their conclusion they reinterpreted a magnetostratigraphic study of the Yaha section, which lies ~ 10 km south of their sections, we previously published [J. Charreau, S. Gilder, Y. Chen, S. Dominguez, J.-P. Avouac, S. Sen, M. Jolivet, Y. Li and W. Wang, Magnetostratigraphy of the Yaha section, Tarim Basin (China): 11 Ma acceleration in erosion and uplift of the Tianshan Mountains, Geology 34(3), 2006, 181­184.]. Here, (1) we argue that the interpretations of the sedimentation rate changes they proposed for the Kuche sections are partially invalid, (2) we disagree with their reinterpretation of the age of the Yaha section, and (3) we think that the way they interpret their AMS data is incorrect.

  6. [Review of traditional Chinese medicine processed by fermentation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Xia; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Hai-Yang

    2012-12-01

    The fermentation processing of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), as an important processing method for TCM, originated from the ancient brewing technology. It has a long history in China. Fermented TCMs (FTCMs) are widely applied among folks for preventing and treating many diseases. There are many kinds of TCM processed by spontaneous fermentation, including Massa Medicata Fermentata, Rhizoma Pinelliae Fermentata, Red fermented rice, Semen Sojae Praepaaratum, Mass Galla chinesis et camelliae Fermentata and Pien Tze Huang. This essay summarizes historical origin, main varieties, the effect of microbial strains, current processing techniques and existing problems of FTCM, and look into the prospect of modern development of FTCMs. PMID:23627162

  7. Kreativität im Alltag: Über Grundsätze kreativitätsorientierten Lehrens und Lernens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropley, Arthur J.

    1990-09-01

    School pupils frequently find it difficult to be imaginative and original in tackling the tasks they are set in the classroom, and to behave — in the sense of the present article — creatively. Although applied creativity offers new propects for humanitarian education, there is still a lack of a practical and scientifically based concept of creativity which can also embrace the creative aspects of daily life. If cognitive, motivational and social elements of creativity are clearly recognized, it is possible to construct a Three Component Model of Practical Creativity. The Creativity Diagnosis derived from this provides criteria for the promotion of creativity in the classroom. The dimensions of this diagnostic schema are expert ability, aptitudes and skills relevant to creativity, and personal attributes conducive to creativity. The development of these three elements of pupils' personality can be encouraged not only by the proper planning and conduct of didactic teaching, but also by the teacher's use of creative stimuli and appropriate evaluation procedures. In the field of creativity promotion there are already a number of reports discussing individual aspects of the components of creativity drawn out here, which can only receive a brief mention in this paper.

  8. Impact of climatic and environmental changes on flood-duration-frequencies in the Fengle Rriver (YangTze Basin, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salles, Christian; Chu, Yin; Tournoud, Marie-George; Ou, Mengli; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Cres, François-Noël; Ma, Youhua

    2016-04-01

    Future water management challenges such as flood risk are highly relevant to climate and land use changes. Climate change is expected to lead to an ongoing intensification of effects on changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration which could exacerbate flooding issues. Land use changes, modifications of agricultural practices and urbanization alter the apportionment of the different hydrological processes at the basin scale and could significantly affect the seasonality of streamflow. At the local scale, the consequences of climate and land use changes on flood occurrence and magnitude are a major issue for the economic development and management policy of basin area. This study apply a methodology for investigating the potential consequences of land use ,as well as precipitation and temperature changes on flood occurrence, duration and magnitude, accounting for uncertainties in scenario data and hydrological model parameters. The discharge time series predicted for the future were simulated from a calibrated and validated distributed hydrological model. The model was run from inputs which are -predicted rainfall time series based on scenarios of changes identified from a literature review, -future evapotranspiration rates assessed from temperature changes identified from a literature review -and scenarios of land-use changes The study area, the Fengle River basin (1500 km2), is located in the northeast part of Yangtze basin. The river is one of the main tributaries of the Chao Lake, the fifth largest natural lake of China. The lake catchment is 9130 km2 in area, including the city of Hefei and a large extent of agricultural and rural areas. Many changes are expected in land use and agricultural practices in the future, due to the touristic appeal of the Chao Lake shore and the growth of the city of Hefei. Climate changes are also expected in this region, with a high impact on rainfall regime. In the current period heavy storms and floods occur predominantly during summer. Using the above methodology the future dynamics of the Fengle River is characterized on discharge-duration-frequency curves. Results will be discussed with regards to the sensitivity of predicted flood occurrence, duration and magnitude by quantifying the impact of rainfall, temperature and land-use changes.

  9. Optical sectioning microscopy using two-frame structured illumination and Hilbert-Huang data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusiak, M.; Patorski, K.; Tkaczyk, T.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a fast, simple and experimentally robust method for reconstructing background-rejected optically-sectioned microscopic images using two-shot structured illumination approach. Innovative data demodulation technique requires two grid-illumination images mutually phase shifted by π (half a grid period) but precise phase displacement value is not critical. Upon subtraction of the two frames the input pattern with increased grid modulation is computed. The proposed demodulation procedure comprises: (1) two-dimensional data processing based on the enhanced, fast empirical mode decomposition (EFEMD) method for the object spatial frequency selection (noise reduction and bias term removal), and (2) calculating high contrast optically-sectioned image using the two-dimensional spiral Hilbert transform (HS). The proposed algorithm effectiveness is compared with the results obtained for the same input data using conventional structured-illumination (SIM) and HiLo microscopy methods. The input data were collected for studying highly scattering tissue samples in reflectance mode. In comparison with the conventional three-frame SIM technique we need one frame less and no stringent requirement on the exact phase-shift between recorded frames is imposed. The HiLo algorithm outcome is strongly dependent on the set of parameters chosen manually by the operator (cut-off frequencies for low-pass and high-pass filtering and η parameter value for optically-sectioned image reconstruction) whereas the proposed method is parameter-free. Moreover very short processing time required to efficiently demodulate the input pattern predestines proposed method for real-time in-vivo studies. Current implementation completes full processing in 0.25s using medium class PC (Inter i7 2,1 GHz processor and 8 GB RAM). Simple modification employed to extract only first two BIMFs with fixed filter window size results in reducing the computing time to 0.11s (8 frames/s).

  10. Determination of phase derivatives from a single fringe pattern using Teager Hilbert Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepan, B.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel sequential algorithm for the estimation of phase derivatives from a single fringe pattern using electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) is proposed. The algorithm is based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD), vortex operator (VO) and Teager-Kaiser energy operator (TKEO). The empirical mode decomposition normalizes the fringe pattern; while vortex operator provides a 2D complex image and the phase derivatives are obtained using a novel image demodulation method called discrete higher order image demodulation algorithm (DHODA). Unlike phase shifting and Fourier transform methods, the proposed method does not require complex experimental setup or more than one fringe pattern for each deformation state. The proposed method is also able to provide phase derivatives in both the x and ydirections from a single fringe pattern, which is difficult to achieve using shearography. Since the algorithm provides unwrapped phase derivatives directly, it does not require separate phase unwrapping process. Hence it is suitable for dynamic strain and curvature measurement. The proposed algorithm is validated by both simulation and experiment. The results are found to be accurate and the method requires less computation time than existing phase demodulation techniques.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A catalogue of Paschen-line profiles (Huang+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Wallerstein, G.; Stone, M.

    2012-09-01

    This catalogue contains spectroscopic data of 90 stars. A wide variety of stars were observed at H-α and at P-δ. A few stars were observed at P-γ. Most of the data were obtained at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO). The remainder of the data were obtained at the Apache Point Observatory. (4 data files).

  12. Analyzing nonstationary financial time series via hilbert-huang transform (HHT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus, computer program product and method of analyzing non-stationary time varying phenomena. A representation of a non-stationary time varying phenomenon is recursively sifted using Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) to extract intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The representation is filtered to extract intrinsic trends by combining a number of IMFs. The intrinsic trend is inherent in the data and identifies an IMF indicating the variability of the phenomena. The trend also may be used to detrend the data.

  13. A Bridge Health Monitoring Method Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Chiang, Weiling; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a new method for nondestructive instrument method to monitor the health of a bridge. This new method is based on a transient test load and simple data collection. The nuclear of the method is the new invented nonstationary and nonlinear time series analysis method, the Empirical Mode Decomposition and Hilbert Spectral Analysis. The final decision on the health of the bridge structure is based on the nonlinear characteristic of the data, and on the comparison between the free and the forced vibration frequencies. Thus this alternative method enjoys many advantages: (1) no a priori data required, (2) simple data collection, and (3) minimum traffic disruption. Results from a case study of the Shing-Nan Bridge in Hou-Wei will be reported.

  14. A Novel Ship-rocking Forecasting Method based on Hilbert- Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De-yong, Kang; Yu-jian, Li; Xu-liang, Wang; Zhi, Chen

    2016-02-01

    The ship-rocking is a crucial factor which affects the accuracy of the ocean-based aerospace vehicle measurement. Here we have analysed groups of ship-rocking time series in horizontal and vertical directions utilizing a Hilbert based method from statistical physics. Based on these results we could predict certain amount of future values of the ship-rocking time series based on the current and the previous values. Our predictions are as accurate as the conventional methods from stochastic processes and provide a much wider prediction time range.

  15. "Lösen Sie Schachtelsätze Möglichst Auf"': The Impact of Editorial Guidelines on Sentence Splitting in German Business Article Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisiada, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Sentence splitting is assumed to occur mainly in translations from languages that prefer a hierarchical discourse structure, such as German, to languages that prefer an incremental structure. This article challenges that assumption by presenting findings from a diachronic corpus study of English-German business article translations, which shows…

  16. Review of AdS/CFT Integrability, Chapter III.1: Bethe Ansätze and the R-Matrix Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudacher, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The one-dimensional Heisenberg XXX spin chain appears in a special limit of the AdS/CFT integrable system. We review various ways of proving its integrability, and discuss the associated methods of solution. In particular, we outline the coordinate and the algebraic Bethe ansatz, giving reference to literature suitable for learning these techniques. Finally, we speculate which of the methods might lift to the exact solution of the AdS/CFT system, and sketch a promising method for constructing the Baxter Q-operator of the XXX chain. It allows to find the spectrum of the model using certain algebraic techniques, while entirely avoiding Bethe's ansatz.

  17. Search for the Frequency Content of Hall Effect Thruster HF Electrostatic Wave with the Hilbert-Huang Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzyna, J.; Makowski, K.; Lazurenko, A.; Mazouffre, S.; Dudeck, M.; Bonhomme, G.; Peradzynski, Z.

    2006-01-15

    Hall Effect Thruster (HET) plasma oscillations are studied. A set of antennas and an electric probe is used to pick-up the signals. All the detectors are located in the thruster channel exit plane, at its outer circumference, close to the zone of maximum magnetic barrier of SPT100-ML device. Each non-stationary signal is expanded into a finite set of intrinsic modes with the use of Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method. Characteristic bands of instantaneous frequency and power are filtered out by means of Hilbert transform. The analysis is applied to signals recorded in different operating conditions of the HET. The HF oscillations in the frequency range of {approx} 1 divide 20 MHz are identified as an electrostatic drift wave propagating along the thruster azimuth. In this band the decrease of discharge voltage results in less defined and broadened frequency spectrum when compared to nominal operating conditions.

  18. The huang-you star of the song dynasty-a chinese star list of the early medieval period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Nai; Wang, De-chang

    1981-12-01

    Records of observations of stars (including the determinatives of the 28 lunar mansions) have been collected and re-edited from five previous editions. After further consulting the star chart of XYXFY and the Suzhou planisphere, we obtain the definitive positions of 360 stars which we can convert into the right ascensions and declinations for 1052 A.D., and hence their identification. Of the traditional 282 asterisms comprising 1464 stars, this list has 282 asterisms comprising 1457 stars, lacking only the star Shaocheng on the left Wall of the Purple Enclosure and the 6 stars of the asterism Ligong. With positions based on actual observations, this list embodies the traditional Chinese star system. It is the second listing after the "Star List of Master Shi" of the Warring Period, and provides an important and reliable reference for historical researches. All old Chinese texsts will be known by abbreviations. Full titles etc. are given at the end.

  19. Qin, Han, and Huang: Text Reproduction and Literacy in Rural China, A Case for Euclid and Homer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Bruce; Yu, Agnes

    1991-01-01

    Debates the merits of the claim that "symbolic technologies push cognitive growth earlier and longer." The results of an assessment are presented that involved three adult male peasants (two literate, one nonliterate) living in rural China and their ability to recall the text of "The Lonesome Opossum." (25 references) (GLR)

  20. Structure and photoluminescence of silver(i) trinuclear halopyrazolato complexes.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Yui; Young, David James; Fujisawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-11-14

    Five halogen substituted pyrazolates, 4-chloro-3,5-diisopropylpyrazole (4-Cl-3,5-iPr2pzH), 4-bromo-3,5-diisopropylpyrazole (4-Br-3,5-iPr2pzH), 4-iodo-3,5-diisopropylpyrazole (4-I-3,5-iPr2pzH), 4-chloro-3,5-diphenylpyrazole (4-Cl-3,5-Ph2pzH), and 4-bromo-3,5-diphenylpyrazole (4-Br-3,5-Ph2pzH), were conveniently prepared by halogenation of the appropriate pyrazoles with N-halosuccinimides (NXS) (X = Cl, Br, and I) followed by complexation of the pyrazolate anions with silver(i) nitrate. Single crystal X-ray analysis revealed either dimeric trinuclear {[Ag(μ-4-X-3,5-R2pz)]3}2 (R = iPr, X = Cl, Br, and I) or trinuclear [Ag(μ-4-X 3,5-R2pz)]3 (R = iPr, X = I; R = Ph, X = Cl, R = Ph, X = Br) structures, the latter held together with argentophilic interactions (AgAg interactions) that could also be observed in the Raman spectra. The electronegativity of the halogen substituent could be correlated with the strength of the AgAg interaction and the wavelength of solid-state photoluminescence. All complexes were emissive on UV irradiation at low temperatures, with the colour of emission from the diisopropyl substituted analogues red shifted by the halogens in the order Cl (red) > Br (orange) > I (yellow). Emission from the diphenyl substituted analogues was dominated by the extended aromatic system and was largely invariant to the halogens. PMID:25230795

  1. First International Conference between West and East—Leonardo and Lao-Tze. Western Science Meets Eastern Wisdom. Experiences of Scientists and Intellectuals for the Creation of a New Paradigm of Modern Science

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The Conference was organized and supported by: Nei Dan School (European School of Internal Martial Arts), NIB (Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Bioengineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Institute of Cardiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna), WACIMA (Worldwide Association Chinese Internal Martial Arts), Arti D’Oriente (Magazine of Eastern culture and traditions), Nuovo Orizzonte (Taiji Quan School in Florence), Samurai (Journal on Martial Arts), and Pinus (First National Institute for the Unification of Medical Strategies). Nei Dan School (www.taichineidan.com, neidan@libero.it) was in charge of the organization. Future meetings of the Centro studi ‘Tao and Science’ will take place in spring 2007 in Firenze and in October 2007 in Bologna. For information: E-mail: neidan@libero.it; web site: www.taichineidan.com, www.taoandscience.com PMID:18317548

  2. Composition and repellency of the essential oils of Evodia calcicola Chun ex Huang and Evodia trichotoma (Lour.) Pierre against three stored product insects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Shan-Shan; Li, Yin-Ping; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan

    2014-01-01

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oils of Evodia calcicola and Evodia trichotoma leaves were found to possess strong repellency against the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum adults, the cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne adults and the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila. The two essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by GC-MS. The main components of E. calcicola essential oil were identified to be (-)-β-pinene (44.02%), β-phellandrene (20.93%), ocimene (16.49%), and D-limonene (9.87%). While the main components of the essential oil of E. trichotoma were D-limonene (69.55%), 1R-a-pinene (11.48%), caryophyllene (2.80%) and spathulenol (2.24%). Data showed that T. castaneum was the most sensitive than other two stored product insects. Compared with the positive control, DEET (N, N-diethyl-3- methylbenzamide), the two essential oils showed the same level repellency against the red flour beetle. However, the essential oil of E. trichotoma showed the same level repellency against the cigarette beetle, while E. calcicola essential oil possessed the less level repellency against L. serricorne, relative to the positive control, DEET. Moreover, the two crude oils also exhibited strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, but lesser level repellency than the positive control, DEET. Thus, the essential oils of E. calcicola and E. trichotoma may be potential to be developed as a new natural repellent in the control of stored product insects. PMID:25341501

  3. Chemical consequences of pyrazole orientation in Ru(II) complexes of unsymmetric quinoline-pyrazole ligands.

    PubMed

    Hedberg Wallenstein, Joachim; Fredin, Lisa A; Jarenmark, Martin; Abrahamsson, Maria; Persson, Petter

    2016-08-01

    A series of homoleptic Ru(II) complexes including the tris-bidentate complexes of a new bidentate ligand 8-(1-pyrazol)-quinoline (Q1Pz) and bidentate 8-(3-pyrazol)-quinoline (Q3PzH), as well as the bis-tridentate complex of bis(quinolinyl)-1,3-pyrazole (DQPz) was studied. Together these complexes explore the orientation of the pyrazole relative to the quinoline. By examining the complexes structurally, photophysically, photochemically, electrochemically, and computationally by DFT and TD-DFT, it is shown that the pyrazole orientation has a significant influence on key properties. In particular, its orientation has noticeable effects on oxidation and reduction potentials, photostability and proton sensitivity, indicating that [Ru(Q3PzH)3](2+) is a particularly good local environment acidity-probe candidate. PMID:27240703

  4. Recoil polarization and beam-recoil double polarization measurement of eta electroproduction on the proton in the region of the S11(1535) resonance.

    PubMed

    Merkel, H; Achenbach, P; Ayerbe Gayoso, C; Bernauer, J C; Böhm, R; Bosnar, D; Cheymol, B; Distler, M O; Doria, L; Fonvieille, H; Friedrich, J; Janssens, P; Makek, M; Müller, U; Nungesser, L; Pochodzalla, J; Potokar, M; Sánchez Majos, S; Schlimme, B S; Sirca, S; Tiator, L; Walcher, Th; Weinriefer, M

    2007-09-28

    The beam-recoil double polarization P(x')(h) and P(z')(h) and the recoil polarization P(y') were measured for the first time for the p(e,e'p)eta reaction at a four-momentum transfer of Q(2) = 0.1 GeV(2)/c(2) and a center of mass production angle of theta = 120 degrees at the Mainz Microtron MAMI-C. With a center of mass energy range of 1500 MeVP(z')(h) are in good agreement with the model, P(y') shows a significant deviation, consistent with existing photoproduction data on the polarized-target asymmetry. PMID:17930579

  5. Emission Flux of Soil Carbon Dioxide in Hydrothermal Area of the Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, H.; Yang, T. F.; Lan, T. F.; Lee, H.

    2009-12-01

    Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located at north of Taiwan and considered as a potential active volcano. Hydrothermal activity occurs actively along the Chinshan Fault in this area. Based on the numbers of active fumarole/venting in the area, we can classify TVG into three major groups: (I) active hydrothermal area with major fumaroles (e.g., Da-you-keng, DYK), (II) active hydrothermal area without major fumaroles (e.g., Geng-tze-ping, GTP and Liu-huang-ku, LHK), and (III) non-active hydrothermal area (e.g., Tatun Natural Park, TNP). In this study we measure the soil CO2 flux in the representative areas of TVG by closed-chamber method. Soil CO2 flux can be obtained ca. 537 g m-2 day-1 at GTP, ca. 122 g m-2 day-1 at DYK, and ca. 25 g m-2 day-1 at TNP, respectively. We can compare these values with previous measured data of soil CO2 flux at LHK, 659 g m-2 day-1, which is close to the value of GTP but much higher than that of DYK. The results show that the emission flux of soil CO2 at group-I area (DYK) is much lower than the value of group-II area (GTP and LHK). It could be explained that most CO2 gas can release to the surface through the highly permeable conduit/pathway (fumaroles) at group-I area and hence, less emission flux of soil CO2 can be observed. Furthermore, the total amount of 111 t day-1 of soil CO2 in the hydrothermal area of TVG can be estimated. It is close to the values from other active hydrothermal areas in the world.

  6. Soil CO2 flux in hydrothermal areas of the Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Lan, Tefang F.; Lee, Hsiao-Fen; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Sano, Yuji; Chen, Cheng-Hong

    2016-07-01

    We measured soil CO2 flux in the representative hydrothermal areas of the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), to better understand the volcano's dynamic nature, and to estimate its soil CO2 degassing output. Results show that the average soil CO2 fluxes obtained at Da-You-Keng (DYK), Geng-Tze-Ping (GTP), She-Haung-Ping (SHP), and Tatun Natural Park (TNP) were 128 g m- 2 d- 1, 518 g m- 2 d- 1, 420 g m- 2 d- 1, and 25 g m- 2 d- 1, respectively. The range is comparable to other active volcanic/hydrothermal areas in the world. Along with Liu-Huang-Ku (LHK), where the soil CO2 flux is known, the total soil CO2 output from measured areas is evaluated at 82 t d- 1. Furthermore, a first total soil CO2 output from the whole hydrothermal areas of the TVG is roughly estimated at 113 t d- 1, which includes 15 t d- 1 mantle contribution. Considering the mantle-derived CO2 flux and H2O/CO2 ratio of fumarolic gas, thermal energy associated with the diffuse degassing at the TVG hydrothermal area is estimated at 8.2 MW. Carbon (δ13C) and helium (3He/4He) isotopic ratios of soil samples of the studied areas ranged from - 4.4 to - 6.7‰, and 2.45 to 6.98 RA, respectively. The extent of air involvement in the soil-degassing system, as constrained by the helium and carbon isotopic compositions, provides essential information for depicting regional degassing features of the hydrothermal areas.

  7. The optimal inventory policy for EPQ model under trade credit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2010-09-01

    Huang and Huang [(2008), 'Optimal Inventory Replenishment Policy for the EPQ Model Under Trade Credit without Derivatives International Journal of Systems Science, 39, 539-546] use the algebraic method to determine the optimal inventory replenishment policy for the retailer in the extended model under trade credit. However, the algebraic method has its limit of application such that validities of proofs of Theorems 1-4 in Huang and Huang (2008) are questionable. The main purpose of this article is not only to indicate shortcomings but also to present the accurate proofs for Huang and Huang (2008).

  8. Effects of the herbal medicine Hachimi-jio-gan (Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan) on insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Y; Ikeda, K; Myotoku, M

    2010-04-01

    Hachimi-jio-gan (HJ) is a Chinese medicine that has been widely used for the treatment of nephrotic syndromes, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. We reported that HJ lowers plasma glucose in type 1 diabetic rats. We investigated the effects of HJ on diabetic hyperglycemia and insulin secretion in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Eight-week-old diabetic GK rats were given free access to pellets containing 1% HJ extract powder for 14 weeks. HJ consumption increased the food intake and body weight of these rats in comparison to control rats. HJ may control the body weight loss observed in GK rats. HJ also reduced hyperglycemia in diabetic GK rats, and it significantly increased insulin secretion in non-fasting GK rats over the experimental period. In oral glucose tolerance tests, HJ significantly improved the insulin response at 30 min and reduced the plasma glucose level at 60 min after glucose administration (p < 0.05). Ten weeks after administration, the plasma leptin levels significantly increased in the HJ group rats. These results demonstrate that in diabetic GK rats, HJ decreased the level of postprandial glucose via enhanced insulin secretion coupled with the regulation of food intake by leptin. PMID:22491170

  9. Alleviative Effects of a Kampo (a Japanese Herbal) Medicine “Maoto (Ma-Huang-Tang)” on the Early Phase of Influenza Virus Infection and Its Possible Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Erika; Aoki, Yuka; Hokari, Rei

    2014-01-01

    A Kampo medicine, maoto, has been prescribed in an early phase of influenza-like illness and used for a treatment of influenza clinically in Japan these days. However, the efficacy of maoto against the virus infection remains to be elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the alleviative effects of maoto against early phase of influenza virus infection and its preliminary mode of actions through immune systems. When maoto (0.9 and 1.6 g/kg/day) was orally administered to A/J mice on upper respiratory tract infection of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 from 4 hours to 52 hours postinfection (p.i.) significant antipyretic effect was shown in comparison with water-treated control. Administration of maoto (0.8 and 1.3 g/kg/day) significantly decreased the virus titers in both nasal (NLF) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) at 52 hours p.i., and significantly increased the anti-influenza virus IgM, IgA, and IgG1 antibody titers in NLF, BALF, and serum, respectively. Maoto also increased significantly the influenza virus-bound IgG1 and IgM antibody titers in serum and the virus-bound IgM antibody titer in even the BALF of uninfected A/J mice. These results indicate that maoto exerts antipyretic activity in influenza virus-infected mice and virus reducing effect at an early phase of the infection through probably augmentation of the virus-bound natural antibodies. PMID:24778699

  10. NSR superstring measures in genus 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunin-Barkowski, Petr; Sleptsov, Alexey; Stern, Abel

    2013-07-01

    Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from the genus five expressions for the respective ansätze. This is inconsistent with the known properties of superstring amplitudes. In the present paper we show that the Grushevsky and OPSMY ansätze do not coincide in genus five. Then, by combining these ansätze, we propose a new ansatz for genus five, which now leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four. We also show that one cannot construct an ansatz from the currently known forms in genus 6 that satisfies all known requirements for superstring measures.

  11. Pyrazolylamidino ligands from coupling of acetonitrile and pyrazoles: a systematic study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Iglesias, Patricia; Arroyo, Marta; Bajo, Sonia; Strohmann, Carsten; Miguel, Daniel; Villafañe, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Mixed pyrazole-acetonitrile complexes, both neutral fac-[ReBr(CO)3(NCMe)(pz*H)] (pz*H = pzH, pyrazole; dmpzH, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole; or indzH, indazole) and cationic fac-[Re(CO)3(NCMe)(pz*H)2]A (A = BF4, ClO4, or OTf), are described. Their role as the only starting products to obtain final pyrazolylamidino complexes fac-[ReBr(CO)3(NH═C(Me)pz*-κ(2)N,N)] and fac-[Re(CO)3(pz*H)(NH═C(Me)pz*-κ(2)N,N)]A, respectively, is examined. Other products involved in the processes, such as fac-[ReBr(CO)3(pz*H)2], fac-[Re(CO)3(NCMe)(NH═C(Me)pz*-κ(2)N,N)]A, and fac-[Re(CO)3(pz*H)2(OTf)] are also described. Warming CD3CN solutions of fac-[Re(CO)3(NCMe)(pz*H)2]A at 40 °C gives cleanly the pyrazolylamidino complexes [Re(CO)3(pz*H)(NH═C(Me)pz*-κ(2)N,N)]A as the only products, pointing to an intramolecular process. This is confirmed by carrying out reactions in the presence of one equivalent of a pyrazole different from that coordinated, which affords complexes where the pyrazolylamidino ligand contains only the pyrazole previously coordinated. When the reactions lead to an equilibrium mixture of the final and starting products, the reverse reaction gives the same equilibrium mixture, which indicates that the coupling reaction of pyrazoles and nitriles to obtain pyrazolylamidino ligands is a reversible intramolecular process. A systematic study of the possible factors which may affect the reaction gives the following results: (a) the yields of the direct reactions are higher for lower temperatures; (b) the tendency of the pyrazoles to give pyrazolylamidino complexes follows the sequence indzH > pzH > dmpzH; and (c) the reaction rates do not depend on the nature of the anion even when a large excess is added. The presence of a small amount of aqueous solution of NaOH catalyzes the reaction. Thus, addition of 0.5-1% of NaOH (aq) to solutions of fac-[ReBr(CO)3(NCMe)(pz*H)] (in CD3CN) or fac-[Re(CO)3(NCMe)(pz*H)2]A (in CD3CN, CD3NO2 or (CD3)2CO) allowed the syntheses of the

  12. The complete proof on the optimal ordering policy under cash discount and trade credit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2010-04-01

    Huang ((2005), 'Buyer's Optimal Ordering Policy and Payment Policy under Supplier Credit', International Journal of Systems Science, 36, 801-807) investigates the buyer's optimal ordering policy and payment policy under supplier credit. His inventory model is correct and interesting. Basically, he uses an algebraic method to locate the optimal solution of the annual total relevant cost TRC(T) and ignores the role of the functional behaviour of TRC(T) in locating the optimal solution of it. However, as argued in this article, Huang needs to explore the functional behaviour of TRC(T) to justify his solution. So, from the viewpoint of logic, the proof about Theorem 1 in Huang has some shortcomings such that the validity of Theorem 1 in Huang is questionable. The main purpose of this article is to remove and correct those shortcomings in Huang and present the complete proofs for Huang.

  13. Luminescent rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes with pyrazolylamidino ligands: photophysical, electrochemical, and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Iglesias, Patricia; Guyon, Fabrice; Khatyr, Abderrahim; Ulrich, Gilles; Knorr, Michael; Martín-Alvarez, Jose Miguel; Miguel, Daniel; Villafañe, Fernando

    2015-10-28

    New pyrazolylamidino complexes fac-[ReCl(CO)3(NH[double bond, length as m-dash]C(Me)pz*-κ(2)N,N)] (pz*H = pyrazole, pzH; 3,5-dimethylpyrazole, dmpzH; indazole, indzH) and fac-[ReBr(CO)3(NH[double bond, length as m-dash]C(Ph)pz*-κ(2)N,N)] are synthesized via base-catalyzed coupling of the appropriate nitrile with pyrazole, or via metathesis by halide abstraction with AgBF4 from a bromido pyrazolylamidino complex and the subsequent addition of LiCl. In order to study both the influence of the substituents present at the pyrazolylamidino ligand, and that of the "sixth" ligand in the complex, photophysical, electrochemical, and computational studies have been carried out on this series and other complexes previously described by us, of the general formula fac-[ReL(CO)3(NH[double bond, length as m-dash]C(R')pz*-κ(2)N,N)](n+) (L = Cl, Br; R' = Me, Ph, n = 0; or L = NCMe, dmpzH, indzH, R' = Me, n = 1). All complexes exhibit phosphorescent decays from a prevalently (3)MLCT excited state with quantum yields (Φ) in the range between 0.007 and 0.039, and long lifetimes (τ∼ 8-1900 ns). The electrochemical study reveals irreversible reduction for all complexes. The oxidation of the neutral complexes was found to be irreversible due to halido-dissociation, whereas the cationic species display a reversible process implying the ReI/ReII couple. Density functional and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations provide a reasonable trend for the values of emission energies in line with the experimental photophysical data, supporting the (3)MLCT based character of the emissions. PMID:26389827

  14. Improving Intercultural Education at Chinese Institutions from German Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Lihe

    2015-01-01

    In this reflection paper, Lihe Huang describes his experience studying abroad in Germany as a visiting scholar. Through the well-designed introductory seminar and study tour arranged by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, which provided the grant for Huang's research on foreign languages teaching and intercultural education in Germany, he…

  15. Preface: Proceedings of the Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields II Conference (Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 31 March 2 April 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, H.

    2008-10-01

    (Edinburgh), D Y H Chui (Mainz), D Deb (Graz), C Dellago (Vienna), J Dhont (Jülich), P Dillmann (Konstanz), G Dominguez (Leipzig), M Duits (Enschede), B Dünweg (Mainz), F Ebert (Konstanz), S Egelhaaf (Düsseldorf), E Eggen (Utrecht), R Eichhorn (Bielefeld), E Eiser (Cambridge), H B Eral (Enschede), A Erbe (Konstanz), L Filion (Utrecht), G Foffi (Lausanne), J Fornleitner (Vienna), K Franzrahe (Konstanz), D Frenkel (Cambridge), M Fuchs (Konstanz), G Fytas (Heraklion), P Garstecki (Warsaw), I Gazuz (Konstanz), N Geerts (Amsterdam), G Gompper (Jülich), E Gonzalez-Tovar (San Luis Potosi), I Götze (Jülich), S Grandner (Berlin), L Gránásy (London), C Gutsche (Leipzig), D Hajnal (Mainz), R Hanes (Düsseldorf), A Härtel (Düsseldorf), P Henseler (Konstanz), C Hertlein (Stuttgart), C Holm (Mainz), J Hoogenboom (Barcelona), P Hopkins (Bristol), J Horbach (Cologne), C-C Huang (Jülich), K Huang (Göttingen), S Huißmann (Düsseldorf), M Humar (Ljubljana), S Iacopini (Mainz), A Imhof (Utrecht), A Ivlev (Garching), K Jacobs (Saarbrücken), J Jakobi (Hannover), O Jansen (Düsseldorf), M Jenkins (Düsseldorf), J Jordanovic (Berlin), S Jungblut (Mainz), M Kahn (Vienna), T Kalwarczyk (Warsaw), K Kegler (Leipzig), P Keim (Konstanz), Z Keqin (Singapore), U F Keyser (Leipzig), T Köller (Mainz), K Kremer (Mainz), M Krüger (Konstanz), A Kuijk (Utrecht), P Lang (Jülich), M Laurati (Düsseldorf), W Lechner (Vienna), H Lehle (Stuttgart), P Leiderer (Konstanz), H Lekkerkerker (Utrecht), P Lettinga (Jülich), A Libal (San Mart), B Lonetti (Jülich), N J Lorenz (Mainz), H Löwen (Düsseldorf), H Maleki (Mainz), J-G Malherbe (Paris), M Marechal (Utrecht), G Maret (Konstanz), C Mayer (Rome), S Mazoyer (Konstanz), M McPhie (Jülich), M Medina-Noyola (San Luis Potosi), A Melzer (Greifswald), A Menéndez-Manjón (Hannover), R Messina (Düsseldorf), H Michiel (Utrecht), P Mishra (Düsseldorf), J Mixteco (Guanajuato), B Moser (Düsseldorf), G Nägele (Jülich), R R Netz (Munich), P Nielaba (Konstanz

  16. Creatio ex zero. Ursprungs-Konzepte in der mathematischen Naturphilosophie des 19. Jahrhunderts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuser, M.-L.

    Die Autorin zeigt in ihrem Beitrag, daß Ansätze der heutigen Selbstorganisationstheorien, die diese in Richtung einer vereinheitlichten dynamischen Theorie verallgemeinern wollen, zumindest in konzeptueller Hinsicht, schon in der Mathematik und Naturphilosophie des 19. Jahrhunderts gewisse Vorläufer finden könnten.

  17. What Made Your Essay Successful? I "T.A.C.K.L.E.D" the Essay Question!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tze Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Teaching in Singapore, Tze Kwang Teo cannot conceive of a history teacher unfamiliar with the mnemonic "PEE" (or "PEEL") used to structure students' essays. Its ubiquity is testimony to its power, reminding students both to explain and to substantiate their claims. Yet, as Foster and Gadd have argued, its neat formulation can…

  18. Correction: β-Sialon nanowires, nanobelts and hierarchical nanostructures: morphology control, growth mechanism and cathodoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juntong; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yangai; Fang, Minghao; Chen, Kai; Huang, Yaoting; Huang, Saifang; Ji, Haipeng; Yang, Jingzhou; Wu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-08-01

    Correction for 'β-Sialon nanowires, nanobelts and hierarchical nanostructures: morphology control, growth mechanism and cathodoluminescence properties' by Juntong Huang, et al., Nanoscale, 2014, 6, 424-432. PMID:27401042

  19. Program Cut Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... findings were published June 2 in the New England Journal of Medicine . Dr. Susan Huang, a professor ... University of California, Irvine; June 2, 2016, New England Journal of Medicine HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . ...

  20. Giardia: Illness & Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical and mental growth, slow development, and cause malnutrition 2 , 11 , 13-17 . References Huang DB, White ... and treatment of giardiasis in chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition. [PDF - 3 pages] Arch Dis Child. 1991;66( ...

  1. Program Cut Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... internal medicine at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Roughly 250,000 such infections occur in ... P.H., professor, internal medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Susan Huang, M.D., M.P.H., ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: familial paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... DYSKINESIA 2 Sources for This Page Bruno MK, Lee HY, Auburger GW, Friedman A, Nielsen JE, Lang ... Citation on PubMed GeneReview: Familial Paroxysmal Nonkinesigenic Dyskinesia Lee HY, Xu Y, Huang Y, Ahn AH, Auburger ...

  3. Ephedra

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wilkins; 2000:110–117. Ephedra. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on May ... 2009. Ephedra ( Ephedra sinica )/Ma huang. Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on May ...

  4. Comparison of the effects of bisphenol A alone and in a combination with X-irradiation on sperm count and quality in male adult and pubescent mice.

    PubMed

    Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata M; Jankowska-Steifer, Ewa A; Tyrkiel, Ewa J; Gajowik, Aneta; Radzikowska, Joanna; Pachocki, Krzysztof A

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is employed in the manufacturing of epoxy, polyester-styrene, and polycarbonate resins, which are used for the production of baby and water bottles and reusable containers, food and beverage packing, dental fillings and sealants. The study was designed to examine the effects of 8-week exposure (a full cycle of spermatogenesis) to BPA alone and in a combination with X-irradiation on the reproductive organs and germ cells of adult and pubescent male mice. Pzh:Sfis male mice were exposed to BPA (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) or X-rays (0.05 Gy) or to a combination of both (0.05 Gy + 5 mg/kg bw BPA). The following parameters were examined: sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and DNA damage in male gametes. Both BPA and X-rays alone diminished sperm quality. BPA exposure significantly reduced sperm count in pubescent males compared to adult mice, with degenerative changes detected in seminiferous epithelium. This may suggest a higher susceptibility of germ cells of younger males to BPA action. Combined BPA with X-ray treatment enhanced the harmful effect induced by BPA alone in male germ cells of adult males, whereas low-dose irradiation showed sometimes protective or additive effects in pubescent mice. PMID:23619965

  5. Influence of manganese on sintering processes in the Ti-Fe system. 1. Volume changes in sintering of Ti-Fe-Mn compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kivalo, L.I.; Skorokhod, V.V.

    1986-05-01

    An investigation was made of the influence of manganese on the sintering processes in the titanium-iron system in the area of temperatures of existence of the first ternary eutectic point. Powders of titanium obtained by hydride-calcium reduction, ferromanganese, and types PZh4M2 and V3 iron were used. A figure presents data on the character of the volume changes in sintering of compacts of mixtures of titanium and iron powders with and without manganese. The x-ray analysis was made on a DRON-0.5 instrument. The profiles of intensities of the x-ray lines of Ti(Fe, Mn) phase present in specimens of mixture II are shown. With an increase in sintering temperature the line, which is diffuse at 1050 degrees C, gradually narrows, and at 1250 degrees C a doublet appears. At the time, the lattice parameter changes from 0.2976 for unalloyed TiFe to 0.2991 nm for Ti(Fe, Mn) obtained at 1250 degrees C. To obtain Ti(Fe, Mn) compounds of the required composition, it is necessary to take into account the amount of evaporated manganese.

  6. Modeling the Pion Generalized Parton Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezrag, C.

    2016-02-01

    We compute the pion Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) in a valence dressed quarks approach. We model the Mellin moments of the GPD using Ansätze for Green functions inspired by the numerical solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger Equations (DSE) and the Bethe-Salpeter Equation (BSE). Then, the GPD is reconstructed from its Mellin moment using the Double Distribution (DD) formalism. The agreement with available experimental data is very good.

  7. Signal Processing Methods Monitor Cranial Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Norden Huang, of Goddard Space Flight Center, invented a set of algorithms (called the Hilbert-Huang Transform, or HHT) for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary signals that developed into a user-friendly signal processing technology for analyzing time-varying processes. At an auction managed by Ocean Tomo Federal Services LLC, licenses of 10 U.S. patents and 1 domestic patent application related to HHT were sold to DynaDx Corporation, of Mountain View, California. DynaDx is now using the licensed NASA technology for medical diagnosis and prediction of brain blood flow-related problems, such as stroke, dementia, and traumatic brain injury.

  8. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  9. Chaos in the BMN matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yuhma; Kawai, Daisuke; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2015-06-01

    We study classical chaotic motions in the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase (BMN) matrix model. For this purpose, it is convenient to focus upon a reduced system composed of two-coupled anharmonic oscillators by supposing an ansatz. We examine three ansätze: 1) two pulsating fuzzy spheres, 2) a single Coulomb-type potential, and 3) integrable fuzzy spheres. For the first two cases, we show the existence of chaos by computing Poincaré sections and a Lyapunov spectrum. The third case leads to an integrable system. As a result, the BMN matrix model is not integrable in the sense of Liouville, though there may be some integrable subsectors.

  10. Unitarity triangle and quark mass matrices on the nearest-neighbor interaction basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Toshiaki; Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    1997-02-01

    We examine the unitarity triangle of the KM matrix, which is derived from the general quark mass matrices in the NNI basis. The Fritzsch Ansätze are modified by introducing four additional parameters. The KM matrix elements are expressed in terms of quark mass ratios, two phases, and four additional parameters. It is found that the vertex of the unitarity triangle is predicted to be almost in the second quadrant on the ρ-η plane as far as Vus~=-md/mseip+mu/mceiq.

  11. Davydov Ansatz as an efficient tool for the simulation of nonlinear optical response of molecular aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke-Wei; Gelin, Maxim F.; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Zhao, Yang

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a variational approach to the description of four-wave-mixing signals of molecular aggregates, in which the third-order response functions are evaluated in terms of the Davydov Ansätze. Our theory treats both singly and doubly excited excitonic states, handling the contributions due to stimulated emission, ground state bleach, and excited state absorption. As an illustration, we simulate a series of optical two-dimensional spectra of model J-aggregates. Our approach may become suitable for the computation of femtosecond optical four-wave-mixing signals of molecular aggregates with intermediate-to-strong exciton-phonon and exciton-exciton coupling strengths.

  12. Communication: Explicitly correlated four-component relativistic second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Ten-no, Seiichiro; Yamaki, Daisuke

    2012-10-01

    We propose explicitly correlated Ansatz for four-component relativistic methods within the framework of the no-pair approximation. Kinetically balanced geminal basis is derived to satisfy the cusp conditions in the non-relativistic limit based on the Lévy-Leblend-like equation. Relativistic variants of strong-orthogonality projection operator (Ansätze 2α and 2β) suitable for practical calculations are introduced by exploiting the orthogonal complement of the large-component basis. A pilot implementation is performed for the second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory. PMID:23039576

  13. Author Affiliation Index: A New Approach to Marketing Journal Ranking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Yue; Chen, Carl R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has adopted various methods to assess the relative quality of academic marketing journals. This study, as a replication and extension of Chen and Huang (2007), introduces the Author Affiliation Index (AAI) as an alternative approach to assessing marketing journal quality. The AAI is defined as the ratio of articles authored by…

  14. Erratum to "A theoretical model of reversible adhesion in shape memory surface relief structures and its application in transfer printing" [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 77 (2015) 27-42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yeguang; Zhang, Yihui; Feng, Xue; Kim, Seok; Rogers, John A.; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    The publisher regrets that in the final published version, Yihui Zhang and Yonggang Huang are listed with incorrect affiliations. This information is obviously inconsistent with the contacting address of these two authors listed on the bottom of the title page. The correct affiliations are Yihui Zhang with Northwestern University and Tsinghua University and

  15. Visual Sequence Learning in Infancy: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Associations with Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafto, Carissa L.; Conway, Christopher M.; Field, Suzanne L.; Houston, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that nonlinguistic sequence learning abilities are an important contributor to language development (Conway, Bauernschmidt, Huang, & Pisoni, 2010). The current study investigated visual sequence learning (VSL) as a possible predictor of vocabulary development in infants. Fifty-eight 8.5-month-old infants were presented with a…

  16. CONTRIBUTION OF INSPIRATORY FLOW TO ACTIVATION OF EGFR, RAS, MAPK, ATF-2 AND C-JUN DURING LUNG STRETCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contribution of Inspiratory Flow to Activation of EGFR, Ras, MAPK, ATF-2 and c-Jun during Lung Stretch

    R. Silbajoris 1, Z. Li 2, J. M. Samet 1 and Y. C. Huang 1. 1 NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, NC .

    Mechanical ventilation with larg...

  17. Single particle density of trapped interacting quantum gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, Renu; Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.

    2015-05-15

    An expression for single particle density for trapped interacting gases has been obtained in first order of interaction using Green’s function method. Results are easily simplified for homogeneous quantum gases and are found to agree with famous results obtained by Huang-Yang-Luttinger and Lee-Yang.

  18. Lifelong Learning for Social Development: A Review of Global Perspectives. Papers Presented at the International Conference on Lifelong Learning for Social Development (Kerala, India, August 13-15, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains 67 papers from an international conference on lifelong learning for social development. The following papers are among those included: "Lifelong Learning for Social Development" (John Dewar Wilson); "Building Networks of Lifelong Learning for Social Development outside the Center" (Shen-Tzay Huang, Chi chuan Li, An-Chi Li);…

  19. Relations between Academic Achievement and Self-Concept among Adolescent Students with Disabilities over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenheiser, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that academic achievement and self-concept among adolescents in the general education population are positively related (e.g., Huang, 2011). For students with disabilities, however, the correlation between academic achievement and self-concept is sometimes negative and non-significant (Daniel & King, 1995; Feiwell,…

  20. Fertilizer intensification and its impacts in China's HHH Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accomplishment of China’s food security by application of high rates of fertilizers has generated several controversies regarding the quality of soil and water resources. Thus, the objective of this article is to assess the effects and causes of the fertilizer intensification in the Huang Huai ...

  1. 78 FR 14792 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... 91733. Officers: Alex C. Huang, CEO (QI); Wei Zheng, Shareholder. Application Type: New NVO & OFF.... Officers: Richard L. Giovannone, President (QI); Miranda L. Lou, Chairman. Application Type: QI Change.... Zavaleta, Secretary (QI); Patricia A. Whaley, CEO. Application Type: New NVO & OFF License Triple...

  2. ALTERATION OF CARDIAC ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BY WATER-LEACHABLE COMPONENTS OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alteration of cardiac electrical activity by water-leachable components
    of residual oil fly ash (ROFA)

    Desuo Wang, Yuh-Chin T. Huang*, An Xie, Ting Wang

    *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA
    104 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599
    Department of Basic ...

  3. Modern Foreign Languages: A Refereed International Journal of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Du, Ed; Zidong, Huang, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These three issues contain the following articles written in Chinese: "On Conflated Theme in Systemic Functional Grammar" (Huang Guo-Wen); "A Cognitive Approach to the Conceptual Semantic Structures of Causation" (Cheng Qi-Long); "Falsifying the Internal Argument Hypothesis" (Zhao Yan-Chun); "Existential Sentences in English and Chinese: Towards a…

  4. Genetics Home Reference: trisomy 18

    MedlinePlus

    ... 55(3):476-83. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Bronsteen R, Lee W, Vettraino IM, Huang R, Comstock CH. Second-trimester sonography and trisomy 18. J Ultrasound Med. 2004 Feb;23(2):233-40. Citation on PubMed Chen CP, Chern SR, Tsai FJ, Lin CY, Lin YH, ...

  5. 77 FR 24968 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; Scholarly Works G13. Date: July 11, 2012... Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20817. Contact Person: Zoe H. Huang, MD,...

  6. Grapefruit Juice and Medicine May Not Mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Huang, decreasing the effectiveness of the drug. Fexofenadine (brand name Allegra) is available in both prescription and non-prescription forms to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies. Fexofenadine may also be less effective if taken with orange or apple juice, so the drug label states “do not ...

  7. Activation of Phonological and Semantic Codes in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Nivedita; Durrant, Samantha; Floccia, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    What are the processes underlying word recognition in the toddler lexicon? Work with adults suggests that, by 5-years of age, hearing a word leads to cascaded activation of other phonologically, semantically and phono-semantically related words (Huang & Snedeker, 2010; Marslen-Wilson & Zwitserlood, 1989). Given substantial differences in…

  8. Differences in the reproductive biology and diapause of two congeneric species of egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from northeast Asia: implications for biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) constitute a cryptic species complex of egg parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleotpera: Buprestidae) in their native range of northeast Asia. While O. primorskyensis is c...

  9. A Chinese Nurse's Socio-Cultural Experiences in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author expresses her thoughts and experiences on studying abroad. Yang Huang explains that studying overseas for international students means a lot--not only being away from home but also experiencing quite a few unexpected difficulties. Studying abroad is full of challenges for every student due to the language barrier,…

  10. MODULATION OF HYPOXIC PULMONARY VASOCONSTRICTION BY ERYTHROCYTIC NITRIC OXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    American Heart Association 2001

    Modulation of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction by Erythrocytic NO
    McMahon TJ1, Gow AJ1, Huang YCT4, Stamler JS1,2,3
    Departments of Medicine1 and Biochemistry2, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute3,
    Duke University Med...

  11. Interlending Section. Collections and Services Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on interlibrary lending which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Inter-Library Loan Service of the National Library of China," a description by Huang Jungui and Zhao Qikang (People's Republic of China) of the history, organization, purposes, and possible future…

  12. Technology Transfer/Commercialization Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: (1) Who we are. (2) Technology opportunities and successes in 2002: Hilbert-Huang transform; new sensors via sol-gel-filled fiber optics; hierarchical segmentation software. (3) Activities in 2002: encouraging researcher involvement; inventorying new technologies; patenting Goddard technologies; promoting Goddard technologies; establishing new agreements;seeking and bestowing awards. (4) How to reach Goddard's: technology commercialization office.

  13. American Council on Consumer Interests Annual Conference (35th, Baltimore, Maryland, March 29-April 1, 1989). The Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carsky, Mary L., Ed.

    Among the 90 papers in this volume, education-related titles are as follows: "The Colston Warne Legacy" (Peterson); "Keeping a File on Survey Respondents" (Huang); "Aging-in-Place: Are Responses in the Best Interest of Elderly Consumers?" (Stum); "Low-Income Elderly in Health Maintenance Organizations: Enrollment, Satisfaction, & Understanding"…

  14. Gaining Insight to Transfer of Training through the Lens of Social Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisweiler, Silke; Nikitopoulos, Alexandra; Netzel, Janine; Frey, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the question under which conditions people change their behavior through vocational trainings or not. Following the demand of more theory-driven investigations in transfer research (Blume, Ford, Baldwin, & Huang, 2010) we wish to add the perspective of social psychology. We therefore illustrate how well-known concepts from…

  15. Effects of Temperature and Photoperiod on the Reproductive Biology and Diapause of Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an Egg Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...

  16. URBAN PARTICLE-INDUCED PULMONARY ARTERY CONSTRUCTION IS MEDIATED BY SUPEROXIDE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    URBAN PARTICLE-INDUCED PULMONARY ARTERY CONSTRICTION IS MEDIATED BY SUPEROXIDE PRODUCTION.Jacqueline D. Carter, Zhuowei Li, Lisa A. Dailey, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina, and ORD, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

    Exposure to particulate matter...

  17. Motivation and Commitment: Pre-Service Teachers from Hong Kong and Mainland China at a Training Institute in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Mingyue; Lai, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that historical and social backgrounds influence individuals' motivation to teach and their commitment to teaching (Gordon, 2000; Su, Hawkins, Huang & Zhao, 2001). This article reports on a comparative study exploring the motivation to teach and the commitment to teaching among non-local prospective student teachers from…

  18. Deja Vu All over Again: Re-Revisiting the Conceptual Status of Early Word Learning: Comment on Smith and Samuelson (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Amy E.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors assert that L. B. Smith and L. Samuelson's (2006; see record EJ750228) most recent critique of A. E. Booth, S. R. Waxman, and Y. T. Huang's (2005; see record EJ684979) work missed its mark, deflecting attention from the important theoretical difference between the two sets of authors' positions and focusing instead on imagined…

  19. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Salmon Roe - a kinetic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in unsalted and salted (3%) salmon roe. Growth curves, developed using inoculated samples incubated at constant temperatures between 5 and 30 degrees C, were analyzed by curve-fitting to the Huang and Baran...

  20. Organized Labor at the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Wei-Chiao, Ed.

    These papers are organized around the theme that labor unions in the United States, having suffered a precipitous decline in membership and influence, must reassess their past practices and strategies and seek new methods and solutions. Following an introduction by Wei-Chiao Huang, the document includes "Bargaining Realities: Responding to a…

  1. [Effect of pressure on electron-phonon coupling constants of all-trans-beta-carotene].

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei-Jiao; Wang, Kai; Xu, Sheng-Nan; Qu, Guan-Nan; Li, Shuo; Sun, Cheng-Lin; Zhou, Mi; Li, Zuo-Wei

    2014-05-01

    The present paper cited that R Tubino and other people introduced a kind of electron-phonon coupling constants with dimension, which can establish the relation with the Huang-Rhys factor and calculate the electron-phonon coupling constants of every C-C bond vibration mode. There are many reports about the visible absorption and Raman spectra of all-trans-beta-carotene with pressure. But the study about the Raman scattering cross section and the Huang-Rhys factor with pressure have not been reported now. Visible absorption and Raman spectra of all-trans-beta-carotene were measured in carbon disulfide in the pressure range from 0. 04 to 0. 60 GPa. The results indicated that the visible absorption spectra of beta-carotene in nonpolar solvent carbon disulfide are red-shifted with pressure increasing, but the frequency shifts towards higher frequencies in the Raman spectra, the Raman scattering cross section decreases, Huang-Rhys factor increases, and the electron-phonon coupling constants of CC bond vibration modes increase. The mechanism is that all-trans-beta-carotene caused by compression and a decrease in the structurally ordered properties of the molecules leads to narrow energy gap of the pi, shortens effective conjugation length, hinders delocalization of pi-electron, decreases the Raman scattering cross section, and increases the Huang-Rhys factor and the electron-phonon coupling constants. PMID:25095427

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (86th, Kansas City, Missouri, July 30-August 2, 2003). Communication Technology and Policy Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Communication Technology and Policy Division of the proceedings contains the following 15 papers: "Both Sides of the Digital Divide in Appalachia: Uses and Perceived Benefits of Internet Access" (Daniel Riffe); "Bridging Newsrooms and Classrooms: Preparing the Next Generation of Journalists for Converged Media" (Edgar Huang, Karen Davison,…

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (81st, Baltimore, Maryland, August 5-8, 1998). Visual Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Visual Communication section of the Proceedings contains the following 12 papers: "The Limits of Copyright Protection for the Use of Visual Works in Motion Pictures, Print Media, and Pop Art in the 1990s" (Andy Bechtel and Arati Korwar); "Afterthoughts on the Representational Strategies of the FSA Documentary" (Edgar Shaohua Huang); "Design…

  4. Advances in membrane protein crystallography: in situ and in meso data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, Simone; Tate, Christopher G.

    2015-05-23

    Membrane protein structural biology has made tremendous advances over the last decade but there are still many challenges associated with crystallization, data collection and structure determination. Two independent groups, Axford et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1228–1237] and Huang et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1238–1256], have published methods that make a major contribution to addressing these challenges.

  5. INHIBITION OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV)-INDUCED INFLAMMATION BY 3-NITROTYROSINE IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-Induced Inflammation by 3-Nitrotyrosine in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. J. M. Soukup, MPH 1, ZW. Li, MD 2 and YC. T. Huang, MD 1. 1 NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, University of North Carolina,...

  6. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Bibliographic Control Division. Section: Bibliography. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on bibliographic control presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Bibliographic Interchange/Coordination in Southeast Asia (Huck Tee Lim, Malaysia); (2) "Project for 'Chinese National Bibliography' and Its Progress" (Huang Jungui, China); (3) "Subject Bibliography in the…

  7. Family League 2011-12 Out of School Time Programs in Baltimore City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Linda S.; Connolly, Faith; Kommajesula, Alok H.

    2013-01-01

    Out of School Time (OST) programs have been shown to promote positive personal, academic and social development (Huang, Gribbons, Kim, Lee, & Baker, 2000; Welsh et al., 2002). The Family League of Baltimore City works with partners to sponsor a range of after-school programs in Baltimore City Public Schools (City Schools) to provide healthy…

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Kawasaki disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juo SH, Liang CD, Chen WC, Wang YS, Lee CH, Hsi E, Yu HR, Woon PY, Lin IC, Huang CF, Hwang DY, Lee CP, Lin LY, Chang WP, Chang WC. ITPKC ... Sun LC, Chen PL, Wu JF, Chang CC, Lee WL, Shen CT, Wang NK, Wu CS, Yeh ...

  9. My Classroom: China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the teaching practice of two senior high school English teachers, Yu Huang and Yu Zhu. Their school is in Hezhang County--the No. 2 Middle School in the province of Guizhou. In China, most middle schools consist of six grades of students; the first three years are considered junior middle school and the latter three years…

  10. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the reproductive biology and diapause of oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...

  11. VANADL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS. Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and ORD, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
    V...

  12. VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS.

    Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and NHEERL, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Ca...

  13. Implementing Ten-Minute Tickers in Secondary Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynott, Francis J., III; Hushman, Glenn; Dixon, Jonette; McCarthy, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during physical education class time started to be measured and questioned (Bar-Or, 1987; Lacey & LaMaster, 1990; McGing, 1989; Simons-Morton, Taylor, Snider, & Huang, 1993). Researchers suggested that the amount of time students spent in…

  14. Books and Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonardo, Michael; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Special section includes two articles on academic library collection management: "Current Awareness: Acquisitions to Endusers" (Michael Lonardo and Dianne Taylor-Harding) describes methods for announcing recent library acquisitions to faculty; and "Book Acquisitions: A Purchasing System" (Ting Zheng and Joyce Huang) explains a purchasing system…

  15. NITROTYROSINATION OF A TUBULIN INDUCES EPITHELIAL BARRIER DYSFUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrotyrosination of a-Tubulin Induces Epithelial Transport Dysfunction. Yuh-Chin Huang, Lisa Dailey, Wen-Li Zhang and Ilona Jaspers. ORD, Environmental Protection Agency and CEMLB, University of North Carolina

    a-Tubulin undergoes a cyclic removal and readdition of tyrosin...

  16. NITROTYROSINE ATTENUATES RSV-INDUCED INFLAMMATION IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrotyrosine attenuates RSV-induced inflammation in airway epithelial cells. Joleen Soukup, Zuowei Li, Susanne Becker and Yuh-Chin Huang. NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, North Carolina, CEMALB, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

    Nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr) is a...

  17. Prescription for a pharmacyte

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-06-10

    The efficient homing capacity of T cells may be used to deliver cell-associated, drug-laden nanoparticles to lymphoma cells that are resident in lymph nodes, increasing drug efficacy compared with drug encapsulated in free nanoparticles or free drug (Huang et al., this issue).

  18. An Integrated Decision Model for Evaluating Educational Web Sites from the Fuzzy Subjective and Objective Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tony Cheng-Kui; Huang, Chih-Hong

    2010-01-01

    With advances in information and network technologies, lots of data have been digitized to reveal information for users by the construction of Web sites. Unfortunately, they are both overloading and overlapping in Internet so that users cannot distinguish their quality. To address this issue in education, Hwang, Huang, and Tseng proposed a group…

  19. Evaluating the effect of temperature on microbial growth rate - the Ratkowsky and a Belehrádek type models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper to conduct a parallel comparison of a new Belehradek-type growth rate (Huang model), Ratkowsky Square-root, and Ratkowsky Square equations as secondary models for evaluating the effect of temperature on the growth of microorganisms. Growth rates of psychrotrophs and meso...

  20. Wavelength attack on practical continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system with a heterodyne protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiang-Chun; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2013-05-01

    We present the wavelength attack on a practical continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system with a heterodyne protocol, in which the transmittance of beam splitters at Bob's station is wavelength dependent. Our strategy is proposed independent of but analogous to that of Huang [arXiv:1206.6550v1 [quant-ph

  1. An analytical system for studying the stable isotopes of carbon monoxide using continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathirana, S. L.; van der Veen, C.; Popa, M. E.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-02-01

    In the atmosphere, carbon monoxide (CO) is the major sink for the hydroxyl radical (OH •), has multiple anthropogenic and natural sources and considerable spatial and seasonal variability. Measurements of CO isotopic composition are useful in constraining the strengths of its individual source and sink processes and thus its global cycle. A fully automated system for δ13C and δ18O analysis has been developed to extract CO from an air sample, convert CO into carbon dioxide (CO2) using the Schütze reagent, and then determine the isotopic composition in an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). The entire system is continuously flushed with high-purity helium (He), the carrier gas. The blank signal of the Schütze reagent is only 1-3% of the typical sample size. The repeatability is 0.1‰ for δ13C and 0.2‰ for δ18O. The peak area allows simultaneous determination of the mole fraction with an analytical repeatability of ~0.7 nmol mol-1 for 100 mL of typical ambient air (185.4 nmol mol-1 of CO). A single, automated, measurement is performed in 18 min, so multiple measurements can be combined conveniently to improve precision.

  2. An analytical system for stable isotope analysis on carbon monoxide using continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathirana, S. L.; van der Veen, C.; Popa, M. E.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-12-01

    A fully automated system for the determination of δ13C and δ18O in atmospheric CO has been developed. CO is extracted from an air sample and converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) using the Schütze reagent. The isotopic composition is determined with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) technique. The entire system is continuously flushed with high-purity helium (He), the carrier gas. The blank signal of the Schütze reagent is ~ 4 nmol mol-1, or 1-3 % of the typical sample size. The repeatability is 0.1 ‰ for δ13C and 0.2 ‰ for δ18O. The peak area allows for simultaneous determination of the mole fraction with an analytical repeatability of ~ 0.7 nmol mol-1 for 100 mL of ambient air (185.4 nmol mol-1 of CO). An automated single measurement is performed in only 18 min, and the achieved time efficiency (and small volume of sample air) allows for repetitive measurements practically.

  3. Schlusswort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Michael; Reinhardt, Andreas

    Im Rahmen des BMBF-Verbundprojektes ProMoLeS wurde bereits zu Projektbeginn der Industriearbeitskreis Montagelösungen für die Leistungselektronik" gegründet, welcher unter der organisatorischen und fachlichen Leitung vom bayerischen Cluster Leistungselektronik im ECPE e.V. eine Plattform für den Austausch zwischen Unternehmen der Leistungselektronik bietet. Ziel des Industriearbeitskreises ist es daher, mit neuen und innovativen Lösungen einen Beitrag zur Sicherung der Montagearbeitsplätze am Standort Deutschland zu leisten. Der Arbeitskreis richtet sich an Fach- und Führungskräfte von Unternehmen, die leistungselektronische Systeme oder deren Komponenten entwickeln und herstellen: Entwicklungsingenieure, Fertigungsplaner, Fertigungstechnologen, Fertigungsleiter, Arbeitsorganisatoren, Qualitätsbeauftragte sowie Wissenschaftler an Hochschulen, die auf den genannten Gebieten arbeiten. Ziel und Zweck des Arbeitskreises ist es, Wissen und Erfahrung auszutauschen, persönliche Kontakte von Fachleuten zwischen Unternehmen und wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen zu verstärken, Kooperationen in dem Gebieten der Entwicklung, Fertigung, Logistik oder Qualifizierung aufzubauen, strategisch relevante Themen zu erkennen und gemeinsame Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprojekte zu initiieren. Damit soll die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der Unternehmen verbessert und Arbeitsplätze am Standort gesichert werden.

  4. Darwinische Kulturtheorie - Evolutionistische und "evolutionistische`` Theorien sozialen Wandels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antweiler, Christoph

    Evolutionistische Argumentationen außerhalb der Biologie sind weit verbreitet. Wenn sie vertreten werden, heißt das mitnichten, dass sie notwendigerweise von darwinischen Argumenten geprägt sind. Wenn man Evolution und Kultur aus explizit darwinischer Perspektive zusammen bringt, bedeutet das noch lange nicht unbedingt Soziobiologie. Und es bedeutet sicherlich nicht Sozialdarwinismus. Dieser Beitrag soll einen Überblick der so genannten evolutionären Ansätze bzw. evolutionistischen Ansätze zu menschlichen Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen geben. Es soll gezeigt werden, was in den Ansätzen analytisch zu trennen ist und was synthetisch zusammen gehört. Mein Beitrag ist nicht wissenschaftsgeschichtlich angelegt, sondern systematisch ausgerichtet und hat zwei Schwerpunkte (Antweiler 2008; Antweiler 2009b). Zum einen geht es um kausale Zusammenhänge von organischer Evolution und gesellschaftlichem Wandel. Auf der anderen Seite werden Analogien zwischen biotischer und kultureller Evolution erläutert, die als spezifische Ähnlichkeiten dieser beiden als grundsätzlich verschieden gesehenen Prozesse aufgefasst werden. Dadurch wird die Frage aufgeworfen, ob die Evolution von Organismen einerseits und die Transformation von Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen andererseits, spezielle Fälle eines allgemeinen Modells von Evolution darstellen.

  5. Notes on the geographic variation of Lopinga gerdae Nordström, 1934 Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Si-Yao; Lang, Song-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Lopinga gerdae Nordström, 1934 (Satyrini) is a species geographically restricted to S. Gansu, Northwest China. It was described from four males and one female collected from "Ka-tien-kou" on 18.VII.[1930] and "Kung-tze-tagga im Tsaluk-Tal, Minshan" on 19.VII.[1930] by Dr. David Hummel (Nordström, 1934). Though exact sites could not be located, we were able to confirm that "Ka-tien-kou" and "Kung-tze-tagga" are two small places in a valley of Minshan Mts. in the southwestern part of the Jone [Choni in Nordström (1934)] County. In recent years, specimens of this species were collected from Tewo by Eckweiler (Görgner, 1990), from Xiahe by Bozano (Bozano, 1999), from Daban-shan by Floriani I., Floriani A. and Saldaitis A. (Bozano pers. comm.), and from Liupan-shan by Chinese researchers. Specimens from different localities having been compared and their distribution considered, it is found that this species varies continuously from west to east in its small range (Fig. 16), with the individuals collected around the type locality being the intermediate form. However, after dissecting the male genitalia, the result suggests that the populations from Xiahe and Liupan-shan should still be regarded as extreme forms of the same species. PMID:27615915

  6. Thermal dilepton rates and electrical conductivity of the QGP from the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Heng-Tong; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Meyer, Florian

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the temperature dependence of the thermal dilepton rate and the electrical conductivity of the gluon plasma at temperatures of 1.1, 1.3, and 1.5 Tc in quenched QCD. Making use of nonperturbatively clover-improved Wilson valence quarks allows for a clean extrapolation of the vector meson correlation function to the continuum limit. We found that the vector correlation function divided by T3 is almost temperature independent in the current temperature window. The spectral functions are obtained by χ2 fitting of phenomenologically inspired Ansätze for the spectral function to the continuum extrapolated correlator data, where the correlations between the data points have been included. Systematic uncertainties arising from varying the Ansätze motivated from strong coupling theory as well as perturbation theory are discussed and estimated. We found that the electrical conductivity of the hot medium, related to the slope of the vector spectral function at zero frequency and momentum, is 0.2 Ce m≲σ /T ≲0.7 Ce m for T =1.1 Tc and 0.2 Ce m≲σ /T ≲0.4 Ce m for the higher temperatures. The dilepton rates and soft photon rates, resulting from the obtained spectral functions, show no significant temperature dependence, either.

  7. Pyrazole and Pyrazolate as Ligands in the Synthesis and Stabilization of New Palladium(II) and (III) Compounds.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Francisco; Hirva, Pipsa; Ofori, Albert; Sanaú, Mercedes; Špec, Tanja; Úbeda, MaAngeles

    2016-03-01

    The versatility of pyrazole/pyrazolate as ligands has allowed the synthesis and the structural characterization of four different types of new orthometalated palladium compounds, for which DFT calculations have been performed in order to investigate their relative stabilities. [Pd2{μ-(C6H4)PPh2}2{μ-(R,R'2pz)}2] (R = R' = H, 2a; R = Br, R' = H, 2b; R = CH3, R' = H, 2c; R = H, R' = CH3, 2d; R = Br, R' = CH3, 2e) compounds with exo-bidentate pyrazolatos are the first paddlewheel dinuclear palladium(II) compounds with pyrazolato bridging ligands described and characterized in the literature. In the process of the synthesis of 2a, a new tetranuclear intermediate compound, [Pd4{μ-(C6H4)PPh2}4(μ-pz)2(μ-OH)2] (3a), has been isolated and structurally characterized. Compounds of the general formula [Pd2{μ-(C6H4)PPh2}2Br2(R,R'2pzH)2] (R = R' = H, 4a; R = Br; R' = H, 4b; R = CH3; R' = H, 4c; R = H; R' = CH3, 4d; R = Br; R' = CH3, 4e) with pyrazoles as monodentate ligands have also been obtained, in which, according to the QTAIM analysis, additional Br···HNpz weak interactions stabilize their structure. The tetranuclear Pd2Ag2 compounds, [Pd2{μ-(C6H4)PPh2}2{μ-(R,R'2pz-Ag-R,R'2pz)}2] (R = R' = H, 5a; R = Br; R' = H, 5b; R = CH3, R' = H, 5c), showed a distorted tetrahedron disposition of the metal atoms. The QTAIM analysis revealed an enhanced stability because of additional metal-metal interactions. New palladium(III) compounds, [Pd2{μ-(C6H4)PPh2}2{μ-(R,R'2pz)}2Cl2] (R = R' = H, 6a; R = Br, R' = H, 6b) were also synthesized by oxidation of compounds 2 with PhICl2. DFT calculations highlighted their greater stability compared to that of similar compounds with N,N-donor ligands, such as formamidinatos and triazenidos. PMID:26914982

  8. Shell deformation studies using holographic interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmerter, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The buckling of shallow spherical shells under pressure has been the subject of many theoretical and experimental papers. Experimental data above the theoretical buckling load of Huang have given rise to speculation that shallow shell theory may not adequately predict the stability of nonsymmetric modes in higher-rise shells which are normally classified as shallow by the Reissner criterion. This article considers holographic interferometry as a noncontact, high-resolution method of measuring prebuckling deformations. Prebuckling deformations of a lambda = 9, h/b = 0.038 shell are Fourier-analyzed. Buckling is found to occur in an N = 5 mode as predicted by Huang's theory. The N = 4 mode was unusually stable, suggesting that even at this low value of h/b, stabilizing effects may be at work.

  9. Systematic position of Mucronella perforata Okada et Mawatari 1937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xi-Xing; Liu, Hui-Lian

    1999-12-01

    Mucronella perforata was first discovered from Onagawa Bay, northern Honshu, Japan, in 1937 by Okada and Mawatari. It was reported from Hong Kong and its neighboring waters and was referred to the genus Hippopodina Levinsen, 1909 of the Family Hippopodinidae Levinsen, 1909 by Huang et al. (1990) and Huang (1994). According to the astogeny of the species, both the ancestrula and its successor zooids have an ascus proximal to the orifice, and its hyperstomial ovicells are imperforate, so it could not be a member of any known genus of the known families of the superfamily Schizoporelloidea Jullien, 1883 in the infraorder Lepraliomorpha Gordon, 1989. The new genus Pacificincola and the new family Pacificincolidae established respectively on the basis of reexaminations of the Chinese specimens obtained from the southern Yellow Sea, the East China Sea and the northern South China Sea. Schizoporella insculpta Hincks, 1880 and Hippoporina mexicana Soule, Soule et Chaney, 1995 have been referred to the new genus in the paper.

  10. Spin Transport in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbaum, Ian

    2008-03-01

    Silicon has been broadly viewed as the ideal material for spintronics due to its low atomic weight, lattice inversion symmetry, and near lack of nuclear spin, resulting in exceptionally long spin lifetime. Despite this appeal, however, the experimental difficulties of achieving coherent spin transport in silicon were overcome for the first time only recently, by using unique spin-polarized hot-electron injection and detection techniques. [1] Our subsequent observations of very long spin lifetimes and transit lengths [2] have impact on prospects for Silicon spintronics as the basis for a new paradigm of information processing. [1] Ian Appelbaum, Biqin Huang, and Douwe J. Monsma, ``Electronic measurement and control of spin transport in silicon,'' Nature 447, 295 (2007). [2] Biqin Huang, Douwe J. Monsma, and Ian Appelbaum, ``Coherent spin transport through a 350-micron-thick silicon wafer,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 177209 (2007).

  11. Use of the moon and the large space telescope as an extrasolar planet detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matloff, G. L.; Fennelly, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Roman (1959), Spitzer (1962), and Huang (1973) have discussed photometric detection of extrasolar planets using a 3-m space telescope such as the Large Space Telescope (LST). A space telescope could be an extrasolar planet detection system if used in conjunction with an occulter placed 10,000 km in front of the telescope. The occulter would reduce the amount of light received from the star under observation. For a semi-infinite plane occulter 10,000 km in front of the telescope, Spitzer and Huang's results indicate that a Jupiter-like planet would be observed with a signal/noise of 1.00, for observations at 0.4 micron using a 3-m telescope like the LST.

  12. Discovery of a second species of Aesalini from Taiwan, with description of the new species of the genus Echinoaesalus Zelenka, 1993 (Coleoptera: Lucanidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Chen, Chang-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Echinoaesalus chungi Huang & Chen, new species is described from Pingtung, Taiwan. It is the second species of the tribe Aesalini known from Taiwan. This new species is similar to the Bornean species Echinoaesalus arayai Huang & Imura, 2011, but can be distinguished mainly by the smaller size of the entire body, the laterally hooked sulcus on mentum of male, the separated sulci on mentum of female, the bristles inserted anteriorly in the wall of the punctures on dorsal surface of the body, the 9th abdominal segment of male with relatively larger paired pleurites, the medial lobe of parameres with weakly pigmented dorsal surface on distal half and with the pigmented distal sclerite interrupted on dorsal surface, and female genitalia with longer styli, thinner hemisternites and shorter bursa copulatrix. A key to the males of Echinoaesalus species is given. Female genitalia are described in detail for the new species and Echinoaesalus arayai. PMID:25781244

  13. An exact frequency equation in closed form for Timoshenko beam clampled at both ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jae-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The author has discovered several errors which are not typographical in the frequency equations for a Timoshenko beam clamped at both ends by Huang who presented the frequency equations and normal mode equations for all six common types of simple, finite beams in closed form for the first time. The exact frequency equations in closed form for Timoshenko beams clamped at both ends are derived based on his analysis. And then in order to justify the amended solutions of Huang, two versions of the closed form exact method and the Ritz method are applied. The frequency equations by the previous researcher present frequencies for only the flexural modes, while the closed form exact method and the Ritz method give ones for the thickness-shear modes as well as the bending modes. The purpose of the present study is to reveal the errors, correct them, and give some numerical results.

  14. Gravity as the Square of Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiermaier, M.

    The BCJ squaring relations provide a simple prescription for thecomputation of gravity amplitudes in terms of gauge theory ingredients. Unlike the KLT relations, the squaring relations are directly applicable both at tree and loop level. We review the derivation of these relations from on-shell recursion relations, and discuss an off-shell approach to these relations in which the interactions of the gravity Lagrangian arise as the square of the gauge-theory interactions. This article is based on work with Zvi Bern, Tristan Dennen and Yu-tin Huang [Z. Bern, T. Dennen, Y.-t. Huang and M. Kiermaier, Phys. Rev. D textbf{82} (2010), 065003, arXiv:1004.0693 (Ref. 1))] which was presented at String Field Theory and Related Aspects 2010.

  15. Theoretical High-Resolution Spectroscopy Beyond Ccsd(t): the Interstellar Anions CN-, CCH-, C3N-, and C4H-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botschwina, Peter; Schröder, Benjamin; Sebald, Peter; Oswald, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    Using extended coupled cluster methods well beyond fc-CCSD(T), spectroscopic properties of several molecular anions of astrochemical interest have been calculated. Excellent agreement with MW data is observed for CN-, CCH-, C3N-, and C4H- and accurate equilibrium structures are presented for all four species. The results for CCH- are superior to recent theoretical results of Huang and Lee and confirm the quality of our earlier predictions. The new calculations predict ν_1 = 3209.3 cm-1, ν_2 (band origin) = 510.0 cm-1, and ν_3 = 1804.4 cm-1, estimated errors not exceeding 1 cm-1. X. Huang, T. J. Lee J. Chem. Phys. 2009, {131}, 104301. M. Mladenović, P. Botschwina, P. Sebald, S. Carter, Theor. Chem. Acc. 1998, 100, 134

  16. Approximation of nonnegative functions by means of exponentiated trigonometric polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasino, Dario

    2002-03-01

    We consider the problem of approximating a nonnegative function from the knowledge of its first Fourier coefficients. Here, we analyze a method introduced heuristically in a paper by Borwein and Huang (SIAM J. Opt. 5 (1995) 68-99), where it is shown how to construct cheaply a trigonometric or algebraic polynomial whose exponential is close in some sense to the considered function. In this note, we prove that approximations given by Borwein and Huang's method, in the trigonometric case, can be related to a nonlinear constrained optimization problem, and their convergence can be easily proved under mild hypotheses as a consequence of known results in approximation theory and spectral properties of Toeplitz matrices. Moreover, they allow to obtain an improved convergence theorem for best entropy approximations.

  17. Binarization of Gray-Scaled Digital Images Via Fuzzy Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominquez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new fast-computational technique based on fuzzy entropy measure has been developed to find an optimal binary image threshold. In this method, the image pixel membership functions are dependent on the threshold value and reflect the distribution of pixel values in two classes; thus, this technique minimizes the classification error. This new method is compared with two of the best-known threshold selection techniques, Otsu and Huang-Wang. The performance of the proposed method supersedes the performance of Huang-Wang and Otsu methods when the image consists of textured background and poor printing quality. The three methods perform well but yield different binarization approaches if the background and foreground of the image have well-separated gray-level ranges.

  18. Binarization of Gray-Scaled Digital Images Via Fuzzy Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominquez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new fast-computational technique based on fuzzy entropy measure has been developed to find an optimal binary image threshold. In this method, the image pixel membership functions are dependent on the threshold value and reflect the distribution of pixel values in two classes; thus, this technique minimizes the classification error. This new method is compared with two of the best-known threshold selection techniques, Otsu and Huang-Wang. The performance of the proposed method supersedes the performance of Huang- Wang and Otsu methods when the image consists of textured background and poor printing quality. The three methods perform well but yield different binarization approaches if the background and foreground of the image have well-separated gray-level ranges.

  19. Laser Chemistry: Nanoporous Carbons Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks as Novel Matrices for Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Small 15/2016).

    PubMed

    Shih, Yung-Han; Fu, Chien-Ping; Liu, Wan-Ling; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-04-01

    On page 2057, a Lewis acid porous carbon material with tunable hydrophilicity is prepared by temperature controlled pyrolysis of Al based metal-organic frameworks, by C.-H. Lin, H.-Y. Huang, S. Ma, and co-workers. This porous carbon highlights its low heat capacity, and high water uptake, which acts as efficient laser-absorbing matrix/sorbent for detecting trace levels of target compounds. PMID:27076045

  20. Evidence of G.O.D.'s Miracle: Unearthing a RAG Transposon.

    PubMed

    Flajnik, Martin F

    2016-06-30

    Diversity of antibodies and T cell receptors is generated by gene rearrangement dependent on RAG1 and RAG2, enzymes predicted to have been derived from a transposable element (TE) that invaded an immunoglobulin superfamily gene early in the evolution of jawed vertebrates. Now, Huang et al. report the discovery of ProtoRAG in the lower chordate Amphioxus, the long-anticipated TE related to the RAG transposon. PMID:27368095

  1. High grain, low noise organic and nanoelectronic photodetectors (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    2015-08-01

    The dramatically reduction of cost of photodetectors without comprising their performance will enable new applications in many fields. In this talk, I will brief our progress in the development of sensitive photodetectors/photon counters using low-cost solution processable organic and nano-electronic materials. Four types of device structures will be compared in terms of device gain, noise, sensitivity, response speed and linear dynamic range: 1) traditional diode structure, 2) a structure combine the photodiode and photoconductor through the interface trap triggered secondary charge injection, 3) an organic phototransistor that has combined photoconductive gain and photovoltaic gain, and 4) quantum dots modulated transistor channel conductance. Broad response spectrum from UV to NIR will be demonstrated, and active material limited performance will be discussed. Solution-Processed Nanoparticle Super-Float-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor as Un-cooled Ultraviolet and Infrared Photon Counter Yongbo Yuan, Qingfeng Dong, Bin Yang, Fawen Guo, Qi Zhang, Ming Han, and Jinsong Huang*, Scientific Reports, 3, 2707 (2013) A nanocomposite ultraviolet photodetector enabled by interfacial trap-controlled charge injection Fawen Guo, Bin Yang, Yongbo Yuan, Zhengguo Xiao, Qingfeng Dong, Yu Bi, and Jinsong Huang*, Nature Nanotechnology, 7, 798-802, (2012) Large Gain, Low Noise Nanocomposite Ultraviolet Photodetectors with a Linear Dynamic Range of 120 dB Yanjun Fang, Fawen Guo,Zhengguo Xiao, Jinsong Huang*, Advanced Optical Materials, 348-353 (2014) High Gain and Low-Driving-Voltage Photodetectors Based on Organolead Triiodide Perovskites Rui Dong, Yanjun Fang, Jungseok Chae, Jun Dai, Zhengguo Xiao, Qingfeng Dong,Yongbo Yuan, Andrea Centrone,Xiao Cheng Zeng , Jinsong Huang*. ,Advanced Materials, 2015

  2. Quantum convolutional codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tingsu; Huang, Xinmei; Tang, Yuansheng

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, three families of quantum convolutional codes are constructed. The first one and the second one can be regarded as a generalization of Theorems 3, 4, 7 and 8 [J. Chen, J. Li, F. Yang and Y. Huang, Int. J. Theor. Phys., doi:10.1007/s10773-014-2214-6 (2014)], in the sense that we drop the constraint q ≡ 1 (mod 4). Furthermore, the second one and the third one attain the quantum generalized Singleton bound.

  3. The bare essentials. Release of LOM report leaves HHS to determine what should be covered by health benefits packages.

    PubMed

    Zigmond, Jessica

    2011-10-10

    In the wake of an IOM report on the criteria HHS should use to determine what benefits will be "essential" under reform, various stakeholders are weighing in. The National Association of Public Hospitals and Health Systems would like "enabling" services--such as language, transportation and case-management services--included, because they help make medical care more effective, says Xiaoyi Huang, left, of the NAPH. PMID:22111491

  4. Notes on the genus Echinoaesalus Zelenka, 1993 (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), with the description of a new species from the Malay Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Bartolozzi, Luca; Chen, Chang-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Echinoaesalus cechovskyi new species is described from the Malay Peninsula. Echinoaesalus hidakai borneoensis Huang & Imura, 2011 is elevated to the species level as E. borneoensis new status. The male or female genitalia of Echinoaesalus timidus (Krikken, 1975), E. hidakai (Araya, Kon, & Johki, 1993), E. borneoensis, and E. sabahensis Zelenka, 1994 are described and illustrated for the first time. The intraspecific variation of E. timidus is discussed. PMID:26624641

  5. Bearing Damage Detection of BLDC Motors Based on Current Envelope Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chun-Yao; Hsieh, Yu-Hua

    2012-12-01

    This paper proposes current envelope analysis (CEA) to analyze bearing fault signals in brushless direct current (BLDC) motors, and back propagation neural networks (BPNN) to automatically identify bearing faults. We made sample motors which contained different types of fault, recorded the current signals, and extracted the current features using CEA and Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) for BPNN fault identification. The results indicate that this approach can efficiently identify bearing faults in BLDC motors.

  6. Flexible Supercapacitors: A Simple Approach to Boost Capacitance: Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Manganese Oxides@MOFs via Chemically Induced In Situ Self-Transformation (Adv. Mater. 26/2016).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Cheng, Tao; Wang, Yang; Lai, Wen-Yong; Pang, Huan; Huang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    W.-Y. Lai, H. Pang, W. Huang, and co-workers present a simple and effective method for transforming nanocubic MOFs (metal-organic frameworks) into MnOx -nanoflower-decorated MOFs. This liquid-phase method is metaphorically illustrated by the ocean background, as is the transformation process by the different cubes. The application of these materials in flexible supercapacitors is further described on page 5242. PMID:27383023

  7. Technology Transfer/Commercialization Report 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Technology opportunities and successes in 2002: Hilbert-Huang transform. New sensors via sol-gel-filled fiber optics. Hierarchical segmentation software. 2. Activity in 2002: encouraging researcher involvment. 10th annual new technology reporting award program. Commercial technology development program. 3. Inventorying new technologies: Sensors and detectors. Environmental systems. Information systems. Guidance, navigation, and control. Thermal and cryogenics. Optics. Patenting Goddard technologies. Striking gold with NASA technology transfer.

  8. STRESS ANNEALING INDUCED DIFFUSE SCATTERING FROM Ni3(Al,Si) PRECIPITATES

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Ice, Gene E; Karapetrova, Evgenia; Zschack, P.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse scattering caused by L12 type Ni3 (Al,Si) precipitates after stress annealing of Ni-Al-Si alloys is studied. Experimental reciprocal space maps are compared to the theoretical ones. Oscillations of diffuse scattering due to Ni3 (Al,Sc) precipitates are observed. Peculiarities of diffuse scattering in asymptotic region as compared to Huang scattering region are discussed. Coupling between the stress annealing direction and the precipitate shape is demonstrated.

  9. Treatment of acute bronchiolitis with Chinese herbs.

    PubMed Central

    Kong, X T; Fang, H T; Jiang, G Q; Zhai, S Z; O'Connell, D L; Brewster, D R

    1993-01-01

    In a randomised single blind trial the Chinese herbs Shuang Huang Lian were evaluated for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis. Children with acute bronchiolitis and serological evidence of recent respiratory syncytial virus infection were studied in a tertiary hospital in Harbin, China. The 96 children were randomised into three treatment groups: herbs, herbs with antibiotics, and antibiotics alone. The herbs were prepared by the medical school pharmacy and administered daily by intravenous infusion for seven days. The main outcomes, assessed blindly, were symptomatic improvement in cough, fever, wheezing, chest signs, and duration of stay in hospital. The mean duration of symptoms from the start of treatment was 6.2 (confidence interval 5.6 to 6.9) days in the two groups treated with herbs compared with 8.6 (confidence interval 7.5 to 9.8) days in the group treated with antibiotics alone. The mean reductions in duration of clinical manifestations for treatment with antibiotics alone compared with herbs were: from 3.1 to 1.5 days for fever, 9.1 to 6.1 days for cough, 6.5 to 4.1 days for wheezing, and 7.2 to 4.9 days for chest crackles. No adverse effect of Shuang Huang Lian herbal treatment was detected. In conclusion, this study confirms Chinese experience with Shuang Huang Lian that it is safe and effective, and warrants further study. PMID:8503668

  10. Herb-drug interaction of 50 Chinese herbal medicines on CYP3A4 activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pao, Li-Heng; Hu, Oliver Yoa-Pu; Fan, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chang-Ching; Liu, Liang-Chun; Huang, Pei-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on the enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 and the possible metabolism-based herb-drug interactions in human liver microsomes and in rats. Fifty single-herbal preparations were screened for the activity of CYP3A4 using human liver microsomes for an in vitro probe reaction study. The enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 was estimated by determing the 6β-hydroxytestosterone metabolized from testosterone performed on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Huang Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Geprgi), Mu Dan Pi (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.), Ji Shiee Terng (Spatholobus suberectus Dunn.) and Huang Qi (Astragalus membranaceus [Fisch] Bge) have been demonstrated to have remarkable inhibiting effects on the metabolism of CYP3A4, whereas Xi Yi Hua (Magnolia biondii Pamp.) exhibited a moderate inhibition. These five single herbs were further investigated in an animal study using midazolam. Mu Dan Pi, Ji Shiee Terng and Huang Qi were observed to have greatly increased in the C(max) and AUC of midazolam. This study provides evidence of possible herb-drug interactions involved with certain single herbs. PMID:22298448

  11. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjögren's syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Hsueh-Ting; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chen, Fang-Pey; Wang, Shengwen; Wu, Po-Chang; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale survey aimed to evaluate frequencies and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Taiwan by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for cases in which CHM was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients' discomforts. We analyzed cases of SS principal diagnosis (ICD-9:710.2) with a catastrophic illness certificate (CIC) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient clinics from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in the NHIRD between 2002 and 2011. CHM prescription patterns for SS were evaluated from claimed visitation files and corresponding prescription files. There were 15,914 SS patients with CIC (SS/CIC), and we found only 130 SS/CIC cases visiting TCM clinics in LHID2000, 133 in LHID2005, and 126 in LHID2010. After removing duplicate data, 366 SS/CIC and 4,867 visits were analyzed. The 50-59 year age group showed the highest ratio (29.51%) in both women and men. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan" and "Xuan-Shen" (Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.) was the most commonly used formula and single herb, respectively. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Gan-Lu-Yin, Xuan-Shen, Mai-Men-Dong (Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl.), and Sheng-Di-Huang (raw Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch)" were the core pattern prescriptions in treating SS/CIC. PMID:25923413

  12. Nonperiodic metallic gratings transparent for broadband terahertz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    Recently, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that nonperiodic metallic gratings can become transparent for broadband terahertz waves. Quasiperiodic and disordered metallic gratings effectively weaken and even eliminate Wood's anomalies, which are the diffraction-related characters of periodic gratings. Consequently, both the transparence bandwidth and transmission efficiency are significantly increased due to the structural aperiodicity. Furthermore, we show that for a specific light source, for example, a line source, a corresponding nonperiodic transparent grating can be also designed. We expect that our findings can be applied for transparent conducting panels, perfect white-beam polarizers, antireflective conducting solar cells, and beyond. References: X. P. Ren, R. H. Fan, R. W. Peng, X. R. Huang, D. H. Xu, Y. Zhou, and Mu Wang, Physical Review B, 91, 045111 (2015); R. H. Fan, R. W. Peng, X. R. Huang, J. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Hu, Mu. Wang, and X. Zhang, Advanced Materials, 24, 1980 (2012); and X. R. Huang, R. W. Peng, and R. H. Fan. Physical Review Letters, 105, 243901 (2010).

  13. Verification of five pharmacogenomics-based warfarin administration models

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meiqin; Yu, Liangping; Qiu, Hanfan; Wang, Qimin; Zhang, Jing; Song, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to screen and validate five individual warfarin dosing models (four Asian model algorithms, namely, Ohno, Wen, Miao, Huang, and the algorithm of International Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Consortium, namely IWPC algorithm) with the aim of evaluating their accuracy, practicality, and safety. Materials and Methods: Patients’ CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1–1639G >A genes were genotyped, and patient-related information and steady warfarin doses were recorded. The difference between the predicted dose and actual maintenance dose of each model was compared. Results: The prediction accuracies of the Huang and Wen models were the highest. In terms of clinical practicality, the Huang model rated the highest for the low-dose group, whereas the Ohno and IWPC models rated the highest for the middle-dose group. The models tended to markedly overpredict the doses in the low-dose group, especially the IWPC model. The Miao model tended to severely underpredict the doses in the middle-dose group, whereas no model exhibited severe overprediction. Conclusions: Since none of the models ranked high for all the three criteria considered, the impact of various factors should be thoroughly considered before selecting the most appropriate model for the region's population. PMID:27298494

  14. Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Zhang, Li; Long, Hongzhu; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury. The search focused primarily on English-language case reports, case series, and clinical reviews. We identified reported hepatotoxicity cases in 77 relevant publications with 57 different herbs and herbal mixtures of TCM, which were further analyzed for causality by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale, positive reexposure test results, or both. Causality was established for 28/57 different herbs or herbal mixtures, Bai Xian Pi, Bo He, Ci Wu Jia, Chuan Lian Zi, Da Huang, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Huang Qin, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Xue Cao, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Jiguja, Kudzu, Ling Yang Qing Fei Keli, Lu Cha, Rhen Shen, Ma Huang, Shou Wu Pian, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Syo Saiko To, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, and Zhen Chu Cao. In conclusion, this compilation of liver injury cases establishes causality for 28/57 different TCM herbs and herbal mixtures, aiding diagnosis for physicians who care for patients with liver disease possibly related to herbal TCM. PMID:25536637

  15. Trends in der IT-Sicherheit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Claudia

    Ich möchte Ihnen einen Überblick geben über Trends, Challenges, offene Fragestellungen sowie Lösungsansätze aus dem Bereich der IT-Sicherheit. Meine Vorredner haben mir schon eine wunderbare Basis dafür geschaffen, indem sie wichtige Trends im Bereich IT bereits angesprochen haben. Deshalb werde ich auf diese Trends, nämlich das Internet of Things and Services nur noch einmal kurz eingehen, um daran dann die IT-Sicherheitsthemen, die sich aus diesen IT-Trends ergeben, zu skizzieren und anschließend Lösungen vorstellen, die insbesondere im Forschungsumfeld entwickelt werden, aber schon reif sind, auch in die unternehmerische Praxis übernommen zu werden.

  16. D mesons in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Hattori, Koichi; Lee, Su Houng; Oka, Makoto; Ozaki, Sho; Suzuki, Kei

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the mass spectra of open heavy flavor mesons in an external constant magnetic field within QCD sum rules. Spectral Ansätze on the phenomenological side are proposed in order to properly take into account mixing effects between the pseudoscalar and vector channels, and the Landau levels of charged mesons. The operator product expansion is implemented up to dimension-5 operators. As a result, we find for neutral D mesons a significant positive mass shift that goes beyond simple mixing effects. In contrast, charged D mesons are further subject to Landau level effects, which together with the mixing effects almost completely saturate the mass shifts obtained in our sum rule analysis.

  17. NATO postdoctoral fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Three of the 50 people receiving North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Postdoctoral Fellowships in Science will study geophysics or a geophysics-related discipline. The fellowships, announced by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of State, are awarded to young scientists for full-time postgraduate study abroad at institutions and laboratories in NATO countries or in countries that cooperate with NATO.Gordon N. Shudofsky, currently studying at Princeton University, plans to do geophysics research at the State University at Utrecht in The Netherlands. Hsueh-tze Lee, currently at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, will study biological oceanography at the Station Zoologique, France (Villefranch-surmer). Charles D. Whiteman, now at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, will study atmospheric sciences at the University of Innsbruck in Austria.

  18. Approach to exact solutions of cosmological perturbations: Tachyon field inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Ramón; Pérez, Roberto G.

    2016-03-01

    An inflationary universe scenario in the context of a tachyon field is studied. This study is carried out using an ansatz for the effective potential of cosmological perturbations U (η ). We describe in great detail the analytical solutions of the scalar and tensor perturbations for two different Ansätze for the effective potential of cosmological perturbations: Easther's model and an effective potential similar to power-law inflation. Also, we find from the background equations that the effective tachyonic potentials V (φ ) in both models satisfy the properties of a tachyonic potential. We consider the recent data from the Planck to constrain the parameters in our effective potential generating the cosmological perturbations.

  19. Automatische Montagemaschinen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Stefan

    Seit den 1950er Jahren werden Produkte in größerem Ausmaß automatisch montiert. Besonders bei ausgesprochenen Massenprodukten wurde inzwischen ein hoher technischer Stand erreicht. Die dazu benutzten Montageautomaten sind Sondermaschinen, die fur ein Produkt individuell angepasst sind. Typisch sind mittlerweile ein modularer Aufbau and die Kombination von erprobten Baukastenkomponenten zu einer Anlage. Es gibt verschiedene Bauformen, von denen sich jede in Verbindung mit bestimmten Erzeugnissen and Bedingungen bewährt hat. In manchen Anwendungen mit kleinen Stückzahlen, zahlreichen Varianten oder bei einzelnen diffizilen Arbeitsschritten können Handarbeitsplätze erforderlich sein, was zu sog. hybriden Montagesystemen als Kombination von Hand- und Maschinenarbeitsplätzen führt.

  20. Semantic Desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauermann, Leo; Kiesel, Malte; Schumacher, Kinga; Bernardi, Ansgar

    In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie der Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft aussehen könnte und wo das Semantic Web neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet. Dazu werden Ansätze aus dem Bereich Semantic Web, Knowledge Representation, Desktop-Anwendungen und Visualisierung vorgestellt, die es uns ermöglichen, die bestehenden Daten eines Benutzers neu zu interpretieren und zu verwenden. Dabei bringt die Kombination von Semantic Web und Desktop Computern besondere Vorteile - ein Paradigma, das unter dem Titel Semantic Desktop bekannt ist. Die beschriebenen Möglichkeiten der Applikationsintegration sind aber nicht auf den Desktop beschränkt, sondern können genauso in Web-Anwendungen Verwendung finden.

  1. MediMax Elektronik-Marktkette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Die Elektronikkette MediMax setzt auf Server Based Computing mit Windows Server 2003® und Thin Clients. Mit über 100 Filialen ist MediMax die erfolgreiche Fachmarktlinie der ElectronicPartner-Verbundgruppe in Deutschland. Die Zugehörigkeit zum Mutterverbund garantiert den Franchisenehmern der Elektronikkette eine schnelle Warenversorgung und günstige Einkaufskonditionen. Über 50.000 Artikel zahlreicher namhafter Markenhersteller und unterschiedlicher Preisklassen sind ständig abrufbar. Darüber hinaus profitieren die Filialen von einer zentralen Organisation und Betreuung ihrer IT. Von Düsseldorf aus administriert ein internes Supportteam die Arbeitsplätze aller Standorte und stellt außerdem die Warenwirtschaftslösung zur Verfügung. Dank der Umstellung auf eine moderne Server Based Computing-Umgebung sind Wartung und Support künftig so effizient wie nie zuvor.

  2. Products of Independent Elliptic Random Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, Sean; Renfrew, David; Soshnikov, Alexander; Vu, Van

    2015-07-01

    For fixed , we study the product of independent elliptic random matrices as tends to infinity. Our main result shows that the empirical spectral distribution of the product converges, with probability , to the -th power of the circular law, regardless of the joint distribution of the mirror entries in each matrix. This leads to a new kind of universality phenomenon: the limit law for the product of independent random matrices is independent of the limit laws for the individual matrices themselves. Our result also generalizes earlier results of Götze-Tikhomirov (On the asymptotic spectrum of products of independent random matrices, available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1012.2710) and O'Rourke-Soshnikov (J Probab 16(81):2219-2245, 2011) concerning the product of independent iid random matrices.

  3. Endoskopie, minimal invasive chirurgische und navigierte Verfahren in der Urologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Joachim; von Walter, Matthias; Jakse, Gerhard

    Betrachtet man die letzten 100 Jahre der Urologie in Deutschland seit Gründung ihrer Fachgesellschaft 1906 in Stuttgart, so sind sicherlich die letzten 25 Jahre von umfassenden Entwicklungen mit z. T. vollständigen Umwälzungen bisheriger Therapien und Methoden auf urologischen Fachgebiet gekennzeichnet. In erster Linie handelte es sich dabei um minimal invasive endoskopische Techniken wie perkutane Nierenchirurgie, Ureterorenoskopie, videoendoskopisch unterstütze transurethrale Elektroresektionen der Prostata und von Blasentumore sowie die Laparoskopie. Sie führten zu besseren operativen Ergebnissen und einer deutlichen Senkung der Morbidität der entsprechenden Behandlung urologischer Krankheitsbilder, mit der Konsequenz, dass einige bisher als Standard gültige offene Operationsverfahren abgelöst wurden.

  4. Davydov Ansatz as an efficient tool for the simulation of nonlinear optical response of molecular aggregates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ke-Wei; Gelin, Maxim F; Chernyak, Vladimir Y; Zhao, Yang

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a variational approach to the description of four-wave-mixing signals of molecular aggregates, in which the third-order response functions are evaluated in terms of the Davydov Ansätze. Our theory treats both singly and doubly excited excitonic states, handling the contributions due to stimulated emission, ground state bleach, and excited state absorption. As an illustration, we simulate a series of optical two-dimensional spectra of model J-aggregates. Our approach may become suitable for the computation of femtosecond optical four-wave-mixing signals of molecular aggregates with intermediate-to-strong exciton-phonon and exciton-exciton coupling strengths. PMID:26049468

  5. Boson peak in supercooled liquids: Time domain observations and mode coupling theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cang, Hu; Li, Jie; Andersen, Hans C.; Fayer, M. D.

    2005-08-01

    Optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experiments are presented for the supercooled liquid acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin - ASP). The ASP data and previously published OHD-OKE data on supercooled dibutylphthalate (DBP) display highly damped oscillations with a periods of ˜2ps as the temperature is reduced to and below the mode coupling theory (MCT) temperature TC. The oscillations become more pronounced below TC. The oscillations can be interpreted as the time domain signature of the boson peak. Recently a schematic MCT model, the Sjögren model, was used to describe the OHD-OKE data for a number of supercooled liquids by Götze and Sperl [W. Götze and M. Sperl, Phys. Rev. E 92, 105701 (2004)], but the short-time and low-temperature behaviors were not addressed. Franosch et al. [T. Franosch, W. Gotze, M. R. Mayr, and A. P. Singh, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3183 (1997)] found that the Sjögren model could describe the boson peak observed by depolarized light-scattering (DLS) experiments on glycerol. The OHD-OKE experiment measures a susceptibility that is a time domain equivalent of the spectrum measured in DLS. Here we present a detailed analysis of the ASP and DBP data over a broad range of times and temperatures using the Sjögren model. The MCT schematic model is able to describe the data very well at all temperatures and relevant time scales. The trajectory of MCT parameters that fit the high-temperature data (no short-time oscillations) when continued below TC results in calculations that reproduce the oscillations seen in the data. The results indicate that increasing translational-rotational coupling is responsible for the appearance of the boson peak as the temperature approaches and drops below TC.

  6. Fabrication and properties of silicon carbide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyun Woo

    2008-12-01

    (compressive) normal loads. Here, we show that the friction forces of SiC nanowires films is 5--12 that of macroscopic solids. For nanowires films, the maximum static frictional force varies linearly with, but is not proportional to, normal load; it increases linearly with interface area; and it is independent of loading speed. To summarize, the combined experimental and theoretical studies in this thesis demonstrated unique structures and surface properties of SiC nanowires, including: (1) Periodical twinning, surface faceting, and structure transition, [Shim & Huang, Appl. Phy. Lett. 90, 083106] (2) Twinning growth mechanism, [Shim, Zhang & Huang, J. Appl. Phys., submitted; Zhang, Shim, & Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261908] (3) Self-integration (nanowebs formation) during growth, [Shim & Huang, Nanotechnology 18, 335607] (4) Thermal stability and self-integration by annealing, [Shim, Kuppers & Huang, J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 8, 3999] and (5) Strong friction of nanowires film. [Shim, Kuppers & Huang, NATURE Nanotech., submitted] The collection of these results enhances the understanding of SiC nanowires growth, the better control of their microstructure and integration, and the application of ceramic nanowires as friction material at high temperature.

  7. Repeatability observations from a time-lapse seismic survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, S.L.; Miller, R.D.; Raef, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Time-lapse seismic surveys have proven extremely valuable in recent years, having numerous economical and environmental applications. To fully utilize this monitoring technique, problems associated with recording repeatability must be minimized. Much work has been done to equalize data from one survey to the next via processing techniques (Huang et al., 1998). The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential for minimized processing, allowing study of extremely small changes in subsurface characteristics. The goal is to evaluate source and receiver terrain combination to optimize signal repeatability, and to improve deconvolution with the ground force to suppress different types of noise and increase repeatability. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  8. Traditional Chinese Medicine in treatments to depression.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2009-03-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a long history of more than 5,000 years and it has the earliest medicine book in the world: Yellow Emperor's Canon: Internal Medicine (Huang Ti Nei Jing), by the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC) (Lin , 1988; Shampo and Kyle, 1989; Wang, 1999). However the combinational and systemic recipes that bring TCM high efficiency also block the promotion of TCM treatment to various diseases, including depression. In this short comment we firstly give some theoretical basis for TCM treatment to depression, then some clinical reports on efficiency; we also present some possible explanations on TCM treatments to depression. PMID:19300379

  9. Effect of quark gluon plasma on charm quark produced in relativistic heavy ion collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younus, Mohammed; Srivastava, Dinesh K.; Bass, Steffen A.

    2014-05-01

    Charm quarks are produced mainly in the pre-equilibrium stage of heavy ion collision and serve as excellent probes entering the thermalized medium. They come out with altogether different momenta and energies and fragments into D-mesons and decay into non-photonic electrons which are observed experimentally. Here we present the effect of QGP on charm quark production using two different models: first one based on Wang-Huang-Sarcevic model of multiple scattering of partons and the second one is based on Parton Cascade Model with Boltzmann transport equation used for charm quark evolution in QGP.

  10. Energy analysis on use of air and superheated steam as drying media

    SciTech Connect

    Tarnawski, W.Z.; Mitera, J.; Borowski, P.; Klepaczka, A.

    1996-10-01

    The physical properties of air and superheated steam were analyzed in a range of temperatures applied in paper and paperboard drying processes. On the basis of tests carried out on a pilot stand the values of energy indices for air and steam drying processes are compared. With the drying media temperature as T{sub M} = 300 C, nozzle velocity {nu} = 60 m/s and using the Huang and Mujumdar model as well as relationships given by Chance a comparative analysis of the results has been carried out. Variation of several indices in the range of temperatures 100--600 C and various nozzle velocities was studied.

  11. [Changes of soil physical, chemical and ecological factors under mechanized cultivation].

    PubMed

    Xia, Ping

    2002-03-01

    Three-years agricultural mechanization extension project in Huang-Huai-Hai regions showed that the application of comprehensive agricultural technologies which included the return of straw and stalk to field by mechanization, deep application of fertilizer, deep plough and soil no-tillage with mulch, had an obvious biological effects. In comparing with traditional cultivation, the comprehensive mechanized cultivation could decrease soil bulk density by 0.08 g.cm-3, increase soil organic mater by 12%, improve moisture utilization by 10.1-13.6%, and increase the grain yields of wheat and corn by 1218 kg.hm-2. PMID:12132162

  12. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  13. A proposed neutral line signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxas, I.; Speiser, T. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Horton, W.

    1992-01-01

    An identifying signature is proposed for the existence and location of the neutral line in the magnetotail. The signature, abrupt density, and temperature changes in the Earthtail direction, was first discovered in test particle simulations. Such temperature variations have been observed in ISEE data (Huang et. al. 1992), but their connection to the possible existence of a neutral line in the tail has not yet been established. The proposed signature develops earlier than the ion velocity space ridge of Martin and Speiser (1988), but can only be seen by spacecraft in the vicinity of the neutral line, while the latter can locate a neutral line remotely.

  14. Outstanding Student Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    The following members in the Space Physics & Aeronomy Section received Outstanding Student Paper Awards at the 2003 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California. Arve Aksnes; Aroh Barjatya; Jacob Bortnik; Amir Caspi; Ruben Delgado; Galen Fowler; Paul G. Hanlon; Sid Henderson; Tara B. Hiebert; Chia-Lin Huang; Steven P. Joy; Eun-Hwa Kim; Colby Lemon; Yingjuan Ma; Elizabeth A. MacDonald; Jaco Minnie; Mitsuo Oka; Yoshitaka Okazaki; Erin J. Rigler; Ina P. Robertson; Patrick A. Roddy; Sang-Il Roh; Albert Y. Shih; Christopher Smithtro; Emma Spanswick; Maria Spasojevic; Hiroki Tanaka; Linghua Wang; Deirdre E. Wendel; Jichun Zhang>

  15. Outstanding Student Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    The following members in the Space Physics & Aeronomy Section received Outstanding Student Paper Awards at the 2003 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California. Arve Aksnes; Aroh Barjatya; Jacob Bortnik; Amir Caspi; Ruben Delgado; Galen Fowler; Paul G. Hanlon; Sid Henderson; Tara B. Hiebert; Chia-Lin Huang; Steven P. Joy; Eun-Hwa Kim; Colby Lemon; Yingjuan Ma; Elizabeth A. MacDonald; Jaco Minnie; Mitsuo Oka; Yoshitaka Okazaki; Erin J. Rigler; Ina P. Robertson; Patrick A. Roddy; Sang-Il Roh; Albert Y. Shih; Christopher Smithtro; Emma Spanswick; Maria Spasojevic; Hiroki Tanaka; Linghua Wang; Deirdre E. Wendel; Jichun Zhang>

  16. Nonexistence of the solitary-wave solutions of the Sakuma-Nishiguchi equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Sen-Yue

    1992-10-01

    Making a qualitative analysis, we prove that no nonsingular solitary-wave solution exists for the Sakuma-Nishiguchi equation utt-c2uxx-Muxxxx +N(u2xx)xx=0 [Phys. Rev. B 41, 12 117 (1990)], which describes surface acoustic waves in a semi-infinite layered medium with a free surface. From this, we conclude that the solitary-wave solutions obtained by Sakuma and Nishiguchi using the weak-nonlinearity approximation and by Huang using a function-series-solution approach [Phys. Rev. B 44, 3377 (1991)] do not pertain to this model equation.

  17. Nanobumps on silicon created with polystyrene spheres and 248 or 308 nm laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Piparia, Reema; Rothe, Erhard W.; Baird, R. J.

    2006-11-27

    Huang et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161911 (2005)] formed arrays of nanobumps on a silicon substrate. They applied a 248 nm laser pulse to a surface monolayer of 1-{mu}m-diameter polystyrene spheres. The authors first replicated their experiment with 248 nm light. But when 308 nm pulses were applied instead, the nanobumps had a different shape and composition. At 248 nm, much of the laser light is absorbed in the polystyrene, which serves to quickly distort, melt, and ablate the sphere. At 308 nm, very little light is absorbed. The nanobumps from 248 nm radiation are organic polymers, while those formed with 308 nm pulses are silicon based.

  18. Hydrochemical study of an arsenic-contaminated plain in Guandu, north Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic pollution in Guandu Plain, north Taiwan is a critical issue due to highly developed anthropogenic activities. It was considered that arsenic was carried in by surface water system. Two major rivers, Huanggang Creek and South Huang Greek, flow through Guandu Plain. Both creeks originate from Tatung Volcano Group, which is extensively active in post-volcanic activities. In this study, the hydrochemistry along the two major rivers was studied for tracing the source of arsenic pollution in Guandu Plain. The pH values in the upstream water are in the range from 6 to 8 but dramatically decrease down to 2-4.5 in the downstream area. It can be concluded that the creeks are recharged with very low pH geothermal water. In addition, arsenic shows a different spatial distribution. In Huanggang Creek, arsenic concentration is much higher, about 200 ppb to 500 ppb, in the downstream than in the upstream while arsenic concentration is extremely low, below 1 ppb, in the downstream of South Huang Greek. The geochemical results show that rare earth elements (REEs) are depleted in the upstream both in Huanggang creek and South Huang creek, and the NASC-normalized ratios of heavy to light REE (Lu/La) in the upstream are very close to 1. This demonstrates that the upstream water is geochemically dominated by the interaction between water and sedimentary rock. In the downstream, the NASC-normalized REE pattern shows a quit different type which is depleted in light REEs (much higher Lu/La ratio). It is well known that igneous rock is depleted in light REEs; therefore, arsenic is possibly volcanic origin. In this study, PHREEQC, a thermodynamic modeling program, was also utilized to calculate the saturation index (SI) of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), which can effectively scavenge arsenic in water. The results demonstrate that SI of HFO is mainly controlled by pH in this study. When pH is greater than 3.5, HFO start to precipitate and remove arsenic from water. Therefore, it is

  19. Research frontiers in drought-induced tree mortality: Crossing scales and disciplines

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, Henrik; Adams, Henry D.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Jansen, Steven; Zeppel, Melanie J. B.

    2015-01-12

    Sudden and widespread forest die-back and die-off (e.g., Huang & Anderegg, 2012) and increased mortality rates (e.g., Peng et al., 2011) in many forest ecosystems across the globe have been linked to drought and elevated temperatures (Allen et al., 2010, Fig. 1). Furthermore, these observations have caused a focus on the physiological mechanisms of drought-induced tree mortality (e.g. McDowell et al., 2008) and many studies, both observational and manipulative, have been carried out to explain tree death during drought from a physiological perspective.

  20. The first Mesozoic microwhip scorpion (Palpigradi): a new genus and species in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Michael S.; Breitkreuz, Laura C. V.; Cai, Chenyang; Alvarado, Mabel; Azar, Dany; Huang, Diying

    2016-04-01

    A fossil palpigrade is described and figured from mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber from northern Myanmar. Electrokoenenia yaksha Engel and Huang, gen. n. et sp. n., is the first Mesozoic fossil of its order and the only one known as an inclusion in amber, the only other fossil being a series of individuals encased in Pliocene onyx marble and 94-97 million years younger than E. yaksha. The genus is distinguished from other members of the order but is remarkably consistent in observable morphological details when compared to extant relatives, likely reflecting a consistent microhabitat and biological preferences over the last 100 million years.

  1. The first Mesozoic microwhip scorpion (Palpigradi): a new genus and species in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S; Breitkreuz, Laura C V; Cai, Chenyang; Alvarado, Mabel; Azar, Dany; Huang, Diying

    2016-04-01

    A fossil palpigrade is described and figured from mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber from northern Myanmar. Electrokoenenia yaksha Engel and Huang, gen. n. et sp. n., is the first Mesozoic fossil of its order and the only one known as an inclusion in amber, the only other fossil being a series of individuals encased in Pliocene onyx marble and 94-97 million years younger than E. yaksha. The genus is distinguished from other members of the order but is remarkably consistent in observable morphological details when compared to extant relatives, likely reflecting a consistent microhabitat and biological preferences over the last 100 million years. PMID:26879963

  2. Four new species of Meligethes Stephens from China and additional data on other species of the genus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae: Meligethinae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Meike; Yang, Xingke; Huang, Min; Jelínek, Josef; Audisio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Four new species of Meligethes Stephens, 1830, M. (s.str.) macrofemoratus (Shaanxi, Ningxia), M. (s.str.) yak (NW Sichuan), M. (s.str.) auropilosus (Tibet) and M. (Odontogethes) aurorugosus (Tibet) spp. nov., are described and illustrated from China. Diagnostic characters distinguishing these new species from closely related taxa are discussed. The previously unknown male of Meligethes (s.str.) aureolineatus Audisio, Sabatelli & Jelínek, 2015 from Sichuan and the previously unknown female of M. (Odontogethes) scrobescens Chen, Lin, Huang & Yang, 2015 from Sichuan are also described. Additional data are also presented on the geographic distribution and life history of other Chinese Meligethes species. PMID:27395211

  3. Empirical mode decomposition for analyzing acoustical signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention discloses a computer implemented signal analysis method through the Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT) for analyzing acoustical signals, which are assumed to be nonlinear and nonstationary. The Empirical Decomposition Method (EMD) and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) are used to obtain the HHT. Essentially, the acoustical signal will be decomposed into the Intrinsic Mode Function Components (IMFs). Once the invention decomposes the acoustic signal into its constituting components, all operations such as analyzing, identifying, and removing unwanted signals can be performed on these components. Upon transforming the IMFs into Hilbert spectrum, the acoustical signal may be compared with other acoustical signals.

  4. Communications, customs, organization slowed project

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, J.T. )

    1992-09-21

    This paper reports that completion of a recently commissioned pipeline automation system in China overcame delays caused by serious difficulties in communications, organization, customs, and distance. The 153 mile, 28 in. hot-oil pipeline is located in the Shangdong Province, east of Beijing, China, and runs from Dongying, in the Shengli oil field, to the port of Huangdao on the Yellow Sea. The Shengli Oil Pipeline Co. (SOPC) now operates the fully automated Dong-Huang liquid pipeline with capability for central control in Weifang.

  5. On Components, Latent Variables, PLS and Simple Methods: Reactions to Rigdon's Rethinking of PLS

    PubMed Central

    Bentler, Peter M.; Huang, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    Rigdon (2012) suggests that partial least squares (PLS) can be improved by killing it, that is, by making it into a different methodology based on components. We provide some history on problems with component-type methods and develop some implications of Rigdon's suggestion. It seems more appropriate to maintain and improve PLS as far as possible, but also to freely utilize alternative models and methods when those are more relevant in certain data analytic situations. Huang's (2013) new consistent and efficient PLSe2 methodology is suggested as a candidate for an improved PLS. PMID:24926106

  6. Tectonic evolution and oil and gas of Tarim basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzhu, Kang; Zhihong, Kang

    According to the new results achieved in the past ten years and more, using mobilism and the theory of polycycle by Huang Jiqing (1977, 1984), the formation of the basement of the Tarim basin and its characteristics are summarized. The prototype basins formed since Sinian times are classified into rift basin, continental marginal basin, cratonic basin, foreland basin and others. The Tarim basin is regarded as a huge oil- and gas-bearing basin superposed by prototype basins of different ages. The tectonic characteristics of these basins including tectonic movements, tectonic migrations, faults and trap types are summarized. In addition, structural control over oil and gas and oil-forming features are analysed.

  7. COMMITTEES: SQM2006 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Organising Committee Kenneth Barish Huan Zhong Huang Joseph Kapusta Grazyna Odyniec Johann Rafelski Charles A Whitten Jr International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Federico Antinori Tamas Biró Jean Cleymans Lazlo Csernai Tim Hallman Ulrich Heinz Sonja Kabana Rob Lacey Yu-Gang Ma Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Johann Rafelski Hans Ritter Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Wen-Qing Shen Georges Stephans Horst Stöcker Thomas Ullrich Bill Zajc

  8. [Ancient medical cultural and historical sites in Xinmi].

    PubMed

    Fan, Jing

    2011-05-01

    Fuxi in the period of the three great emperors and Yandi, Huangdi, Zhurong in the period of five emperors had set their capitals in Xinmi in Henan Province, so did Kuai State and Mi State in Western Zhou Dynasty, as well as Zheng State in Spring-Autumn Period. Large amount of culture relics of medicine were preserved. It can be deduced through the relics that Xinmi is one of the headstream of Chinese medicine. We should fully develop and utilize the Qi-huang culture resources in Xinmi to serve the development of the economy, culture and health care system in Xinmi. PMID:21781543

  9. Valid or not? Yunnan mountain snake Plagiopholis unipostocularis (Serpentes: Colubridae: Pseudoxenodontinae).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guang Hui; Chen, Wen De; Liu, Qin; Zhu, Fei; Peng, Pei Hao; Guo, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Plagiopholis unipostocularis Zhao, Jiang & Huang, 1978 is a small snake endemic to Yunnan, southern China. Its validity is still controversial and unresolved. Based on extensive sampling in Yunnan, we conducted morphological comparison and molecular phylogenetics on the unidentified specimens of Plagiopholis from Yunnan. Based on a combination of morphological comparison and molecular phylogeny, the newly collected specimens could be identified as P. blakewayi. While some specimens exhibit one or more diagnostics of P. unipostocularis, and some characteristics are intermediate between that of Plagiopholis unipostocularis and P. blakewayi. Thus morphological continuities between two species uncovered P. unipostocularis is a synonymy of P. blakewayi, and the diagnostics of this species was revised accordingly. PMID:26624106

  10. Comment on ``Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XIII. Microwave heating in slow motion'' [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194509 (2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, G. P.

    2012-07-01

    Critical reading of the dielectric method and data in the paper [W. Huang and R. Richert, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194509 (2009)], 10.1063/1.3139519 showed that (i) the large inter-electrode area of the Teflon spacer used in the dielectric cell affected the spectral data and (ii) the measured Δɛ of propylene carbonate after making the spacer area correction is 1.8-times the known value, indicating errors from unknown sources. This puts into question their support for the dynamic heterogeneity view, and their inference on the magnitude of configurational heat capacity.

  11. A simple model for abrupt millennial climate change in the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, Georg

    2015-04-01

    We first confirm that the time series of Calcium concentrations in GRIP ice-core data exhibits a significant alpha-stable noise component as previously found by Ditlevsen (GRL 1999). Building on recent theoretical results from homogenisation theory for deterministic systems, we propose a simple conceptual entirely deterministic multi-scale model of the ocean-atmosphere-ice system which exhibits alpha-stable behaviour. Unlike in most models employing homogenisation theory we employ here chaotic dynamics exhibiting intermittency. The intermittency is associated with the atmospheric dynamics interacting with sea-ice dynamics. This is joint work with Nathan Duignan, Cameron Duncan and Eric Huang.

  12. [A brief history of Chinese royal court medicines].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Sheng

    2010-09-01

    With the establishment of an emperor and a royal court, the court physician came into being and the royal court medicines gradually began to evolve. In the first year of Kai Huang of the Sui dynasty (581), King Wendi of the Sui dynasty established the imperial medical bureau. Since then the royal court medicines entered a period of development and prosperity. In the Yuan dynasty, the scope of official duty of the imperial hospital narrowed, the development of royal court medicines lacked new growth. To the Ming and Qing dynasties, the royal court medicine began to decline and eventually ended with the demise of the Qing dynasty. PMID:21163077

  13. On vortex dust structures in magnetized dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nebbat, E.; Annou, R.

    2010-09-15

    To explain the generation of vortex patterns of dust grains in a magnetized dusty plasma [Huang et al., Plasma Sci. Technol. 9, 1 (2007)], a time dependent nonlinear model that describes vortices as a result of an instability is proposed. Grain-grain as well as grain-ion interactions, particle attachment, and grains drift and diffusion are key elements in the present model. It is found that the latter reproduces the experimental results quite well, whereas the stability analysis shows that the vortex core is grain size dependent.

  14. Toward optical coherence topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayegh, Samir; Jiang, Yanshui

    2012-03-01

    Commercial OCT systems provide pachymetry measurements. Full corneal topographic information of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces for use in cataract surgery and refractive procedures is a desirable goal and would add to the usefulness of anterior and posterior segment evaluation. While substantial progress has been made towards obtaining "average" central corneal power (D Huang), power in different meridians and topography are still missing. This is usually reported to be due to eye movement. We analyze the role of centration, eye movements and develop a model that allows for the formulation of criteria for obtaining reliable topographic data within ¼ diopter.

  15. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  16. An inventory model involving back-order price discount when the amount received is uncertain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfawi Kurdhi, Nughthoh; Prasetyo, Joko; Sulistijowati Handajani, Sri

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents and analyses the continuous review inventory model with order quantity, safety factor, back-order price discount, ordering cost and lead time as decision variables. Our work is based on the paper of Huang (2010). We extend the model to incorporate the situation when the amount received is uncertain. The lead time demand is assumed follows a normal distribution. A solution procedure is developed to find the optimal solution. A numerical example is given to illustrate the model. A sensitivity analysis is also included to describe the effects of changes in the model parameters on the expected annual cost.

  17. COMMITTEES: SQM2004 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    Organising Committee Jean Cleymans (Chairman) Zeblon Vilakazi Roger Fearick Peter Steinberg Rory Adams Bruce Becker Sarah Blyth Gareth de Vaux Heather Gray Mark Horner Nawahl Razak Artur Szostak Spencer Wheaton International Advisory Committee Federico Antinori Tim Hallman John Harris Tetsuo Hatsuda Ulrich Heinz Huan Z Huang Sonja Kabana Volker Koch Rob Lacey Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Maurizio Morando Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Josef Pochodzalla Johann Rafelski Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Georges Stephans Horst Stoecker Herbert Stroebele Thomas Ullrich Orlando Villalobos-Baillie Bill Zajc Joseph Zimanyi

  18. Electric field driven fractal growth in polymer electrolyte composites: Experimental evidence of theoretical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawar, Anit; Chandra, Amita

    2012-11-01

    The influence of electric field on the diffusion limited aggregation has been observed experimentally. The observation provides experimental confirmation of the theoretical model proposed by Zhi-Jie Tan et al. [Phys. Lett. A 268 (2000) 112]. Most strikingly, a transition from a disordered ramified pattern to an ordered pattern (chain-like growth) has been observed. The growth is governed by diffusion, convection and migration in an electric field which give rise to the different patterns. This Letter can also be considered as an experimental evidence of computer simulated fractal growth given by Huang and Hibbert [Physica A 233 (1996) 888].

  19. Superfluid Equation of State of Dilute Composite Bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyronas, X.; Combescot, R.

    2007-10-01

    We present an exact theory of the BEC-BCS crossover in the Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) regime, which treats explicitly dimers as made of two fermions. We apply our framework, at zero temperature, to the calculation of the equation of state. We find that, when expanding the chemical potential in powers of the density n up to the Lee-Huang-Yang order, proportional to n3/2, the result is identical to the one of elementary bosons in terms of the dimer-dimer scattering length aM, the composite nature of the dimers appearing only in the next order term proportional to n2.

  20. Salbutamol in paediatrics: pharmacology, prescribing and controversies.

    PubMed

    Andrzejowski, Paul; Carroll, Will

    2016-08-01

    Salbutamol has become a key drug in respiratory medicine since it was first developed by Sir David Jack et al in 1968, 5000 years after the β agonist ephedrine was first used in its raw form, as the Ma Huang herb in Chinese medicine to treat asthma. It is one of the most commonly encountered medicines in paediatric practice and the authors have found that an understanding of its pharmacology in clinical practice is incredibly helpful. In this article, we discuss its pharmacology and pharmacodynamics, practical prescribing points and some unresolved issues surrounding its use, which should serve to provide an essential working knowledge for the busy paediatrician. PMID:27059284

  1. Effect of an allophanic soil on humification reactions between catechol and glycine: Spectroscopic investigations of reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masami; Miura, Akitaka; Sasaki, Masahide; Izumo, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Adduction of amino acids to phenols is a possible humification reaction pathway [F.J. Stevenson, Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reaction, second ed., Wiley, New York, 1994, pp. 188-211; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Sci. Total Environ. 62 (1987) 435; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55 (1991) 1156; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Geoderma 112 (2003) 31; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Geoderma 124 (2005) 415]. To elucidate the reaction kinetics and products of abiotic humification, the effects of an allophanic soil on the adduction of amino acids to phenols were investigated using catechol (CT) and glycine (Gly) as a model phenol and amino acid, respectively. An aqueous solution containing CT and Gly (pH 7.0) in the presence of allophanic soil was incubated for 2 weeks, and the kinetics of the humification reactions were monitored by analysis of absorptivity at 600 nm ( E600). A mixture of CT and Gly in the absence of allophanic soil was used as a control. The E600 value increased markedly in the presence of allophanic soil. In addition, unreacted CT was detected in the control reaction mixture, but not in the allophane-containing reaction mixture. Under the sterilized conditions, absorbance at 600 nm for the control reaction mixture was significantly smaller than that for the allophanic soil-containing reaction mixture, which indicates there was no microbial participation during incubation. These results indicate that the allophanic soil effectively facilitated humification reactions between CT and Gly. The reaction mixtures were acidified and humic-like acid (HLA) was isolated as a precipitate. The elemental composition, acidic functional group contents, molecular weight, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS 13C NMR, and 1H NMR spectra of the purified HLAs were analyzed. The results of these analyses indicate that the nitrogen atom of Gly binds to the aromatic carbon of CT in the HLA products.

  2. Chemoselective Schwartz Reagent Mediated Reduction of Isocyanates to Formamides.

    PubMed

    Pace, Vittorio; de la Vega-Hernández, Karen; Urban, Ernst; Langer, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    Addition of the in situ generated Schwartz reagent to widely available isocyanates constitutes a chemoselective, high-yielding, and versatile approach to the synthesis of variously functionalized formamides. Steric and electronic factors or the presence of sensitive functionalities (esters, nitro groups, nitriles, alkenes) do not compromise the potential of the method. Full preservation of the stereochemical information contained in the starting materials is observed. The use of formamides in the nucleophilic addition of organometallic reagents (Chida-Sato allylation, Charette-Huang addition to imidoyl triflate activated amides, Matteson homologation of boronic esters) is briefly investigated. PMID:27218199

  3. Nature of the secondary component of beta Lyrae.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.; Lucy, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a hypothesis concerning the nature of the secondary component of beta Lyrae which is regarded as more plausible than the suggestion that this component is a black hole. Adopting Huang's (1962) and Woolf's (1965) basic model for beta Lyrae, it is suggested that the secondary star may be a massive 'main-sequence' star in rapid, nonuniform motion. Certain findings regarding mu Sco and V356 Sgr, which have primaries that are very cool and underluminous for their masses, are cited as evidence for such an inference, since their underluminosity is probably due to high angular momentum and they are normal enough not to be suspected of harboring a black hole.

  4. Transient signal detection using the empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael L.; Ridgway, Jeffrey; Waldman, Cye H.; Gabbay, Michael; Buntzen, Rodney R.; Battista, Brad

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, we report on efforts to develop signal processing methods appropriate for the detection of man-made electromagnetic signals in the nonlinear and nonstationary underwater electromagnetic noise environment of the littoral. Using recent advances in time series analysis methods [Huang et al., 1998], we present new techniques for detection and compare their effectiveness with conventional signal processing methods, using experimental data from recent field experiments. These techniques are based on an empirical mode decomposition which is used to isolate signals to be detected from noise without a priori assumptions. The decomposition generates a physically motivated basis for the data.

  5. A new drought tipping point for conifer mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Thomas E.

    2015-03-01

    (Huang et al 2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 024011) present a method for predicting mortality of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) in the Southwestern US during severe drought based on the relationship between the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and annual tree ring growth. Ring growth was zero when SPEI for September to July was -1.64. The threshold SPEI of -1.64 was successful in distinguishing areas with high tree mortality during recent severe drought from areas with low mortality, and is proposed to be a tipping point of drought severity leading to tree mortality. Below, I discuss this work in more detail.

  6. A generalized tool for accurate time-domain separation of excited modes in spin-torque oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Siracusano, Giulio Puliafito, Vito; Finocchio, Giovanni

    2014-05-07

    We propose and develop an advanced signal processing technique that, combined with micromagnetic simulations, is able to deeply describe the non-stationary behavior of spin-torque oscillators, both in terms of time domain and spatial distribution of the magnetization dynamics. The Hilbert-Huang Transform is used for the identification of the time traces of each oscillation in a multimode excitation and enhanced with masking signals and the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. We emphasize that the technique developed here is general and can be used for any physical non-linear system in the presence of multimode dynamical excitation or intermittence.

  7. The Influence of Peripheral Substituent Modification on P(V), Mn(III), and Mn(V)(O) Corrolazines: X-ray Crystallography, Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Properties, and HAT and OAT Reactivities.

    PubMed

    Joslin, Evan E; Zaragoza, Jan Paulo T; Baglia, Regina A; Siegler, Maxime A; Goldberg, David P

    2016-09-01

    The influence of remote peripheral substitution on the physicochemical properties and reactivity of phosphorus and manganese corrolazine (Cz) complexes was examined. The substitution of p-MeO for p-t-Bu groups on the eight phenyl substituents of the β-carbon atoms of the Cz ring led to changes in UV-vis transitions and redox potentials for each of the complexes. The oxygen atom transfer (OAT) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactivity of the Mn(V)(O) complexes was also influenced by p-MeO substitution. The OAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) (MeOP8Cz = octakis(p-methoxyphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)) with triarylphosphine (PAr3) substrates led to second-order rate constants from 10.2(5) to 3.1(2) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). These rates of OAT are slower than those seen for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)). A Hammett study involving para-substituted PAr3 substrates reveals a Hammett ρ-value for Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) that is more negative than that observed for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), consistent with a less electrophilic Mn center. The HAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) with C-H substrates was examined and revealed second-order rate constants from 6.8(5) × 10(-5) to 1.70(2) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1). The rate constants varied with the C-H bond strength of the substrate. Slightly faster HAT rates with C-H substrates were observed with Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) compared to Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), indicating that the basicity of the putative [Mn(IV)(O)](-) intermediate likely compensates for the more negative redox potential in the driving force for HAT. In addition, the complete, large-scale synthesis of the para-phenyl-substituted porphyrazines RP8PzH2 (R = p-tert-butylphenyl (TB), p-methoxyphenyl (MeO), and p-isopropylphenyl) and corrolazines RP8CzH3 (TBP8CzH3 and MeOP8CzH3) is presented. The crystal structures of the monoprotonated, metal-free corrolazine [(TBP8CzH3)(H)](+)[BArF](-), P(V)(OMe)2(MeOP8Cz), and Mn(III)(MeOP8Cz)(MeOH) are presented. This work

  8. Non-Negative Integral Level Affine Lie Algebra Tensor Categories and Their Associativity Isomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, Robert

    2016-08-01

    For a finite-dimensional simple Lie algebra {{g}}, we use the vertex tensor category theory of Huang and Lepowsky to identify the category of standard modules for the affine Lie algebra {{widehat{{g}}}} at a fixed level {ℓin{N}} with a certain tensor category of finite-dimensional {{g}}-modules. More precisely, the category of level ℓ standard {{widehat{{g}}}}-modules is the module category for the simple vertex operator algebra {L_{widehat{{g}}}(ℓ, 0)}, and as is well known, this category is equivalent as an abelian category to {{D}({g},ℓ)}, the category of finite-dimensional modules for the Zhu's algebra {A{(L_{widehat{{g}}}(ℓ, 0))}}, which is a quotient of {U({g})}. Our main result is a direct construction using Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations of the associativity isomorphisms in {{D}({g},ℓ)} induced from the associativity isomorphisms constructed by Huang and Lepowsky in {{L_{widehat{{g}}}(ℓ, 0) - {mod}}}. This construction shows that {{D}({g},ℓ)} is closely related to the Drinfeld category of {U({g})}[[h

  9. Contributions to the knowledge of subterranean trechine beetles in southern China’s karsts: five new genera (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi; Huang, Sunbin; Wang, Xinhui; Tang, Mingruo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent discoveries reveal that southern China’s karsts hold the most diverse and morphologically modified subterranean trechine beetles in the world, albeit the first troglobitic blind beetle was only reported in the early 1990’s. In total, 110 species belonging to 43 genera of cavernicolous trechines have hitherto been recorded from the karsts of southern China, including the following five new genera proposed below: Shiqianaphaenops Tian, gen. n., to contain two species: Shiqianaphaenops majusculus (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops majusculus Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), the type species from Cave Feng Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou, and Shiqianaphaenops cursor (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops cursor Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), from Cave Shenxian Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou; and the monotypic Dianotrechus Tian, gen. n. (the type species: Dianotrechus gueorguievi Tian, sp. n., from Cave Dashi Dong, Kunming, Yunnan), Tianeotrechus Tian & Tang, gen. n. (the type species: Tianeotrechus trisetosus Tian & Tang, sp. n., from Cave Bahao Dong, Tian’e County, Guangxi), Huoyanodytes Tian & Huang, gen. n. (the type species: Huoyanodytes tujiaphilus Tian & Huang, sp. n., from Longshan, Hunan) and Wanhuaphaenops Tian & Wang, gen. n. (the type species: Wanhuaphaenops zhangi Tian & Wang, sp. n., from Cave Songjia Dong, Chenzhou, Hunan). PMID:27081334

  10. Site-selective laser-spectroscopy studies of the intrinsic 1.9-eV luminescence center in glassy SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuja, Linards; Suzuki, Toshio; Tanimura, Katsumi

    1995-12-01

    The intrinsic 1.9-eV photoluminescence band (the R band) in neutron-irradiated synthetic silica glass has been studied using site-selective photoluminescence excitation in the 2.0 eV absorption band and transient spectral hole-burning techniques. The measurements of the low-energy wing of the zero-phonon line intensity distribution function confirm the predicted nearly Gaussian shape with a peak at 1.93 eV and a half-width of 86 meV. The homogeneous shape of the emission contour (``single-site spectrum'') has been evaluated by a selective saturation method, revealing, a phonon sideband with a peak at 60 cm-1 and a width of approximately 500 cm-1. The total Huang-Rhys factor is estimated as 1.50+/-0.5 and the partial Huang-Rhys factor for the interaction with the 890 cm-1 local vibration is 0.08+/-0.04. The analysis of spectral parameters indicates that the R band cannot be due to peroxide or ozonide molecular ions and upholds the attribution of the center to the nonbridging oxygen hole center.

  11. Observations of exciton-surface plasmon polariton coupling and exciton-phonon coupling in InGaN/GaN quantum wells covered with Au, Ag, and Al films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrin, Y.; Rich, D. H.; Keller, S.; DenBaars, S. P.

    2015-07-01

    The coupling of excitons to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in Au-, Ag-, and Al-coated InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple and single quantum wells (SQWs) was studied with time-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) and CL wavelength imaging techniques. Excitons were generated in the metal-coated SQWs by injecting a pulsed high-energy electron beam through the thin metal films, which is found to be an ideal method of excitation for plasmonic quantum heterostructures and nanostructures which are opaque to laser/light excitation. The Purcell enhancement factor (Fp) at low temperatures was obtained by the direct measurement of changes in the carrier lifetime caused by the SQW excitonSPP coupling. The deposition of thin films of Al, Ag, and Au on an InGaN/GaN QW enabled a comparison of excitonSPP coupling for energy ranges in which the surface plasmon energy is greater than, approximately equal to, and less than the QW excitonic transition energy. We investigated the temperature dependence of the Huang-Rhys factors for exciton-to-LO phonon coupling for the metal-covered and bare samples. CL imaging and spectroscopy with variable excitation densities are used to examine the spatial correlations between CL emission intensity, carrier lifetime, QW excitonic emission energy, and the Huang-Rhys factor, all of which are strongly influenced by local fluctuations in the In composition and formation of InN-rich centers.

  12. Observations of exciton-surface plasmon polariton coupling and exciton-phonon coupling in InGaN/GaN quantum wells covered with Au, Ag, and Al films.

    PubMed

    Estrin, Y; Rich, D H; Keller, S; DenBaars, S P

    2015-07-01

    The coupling of excitons to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in Au-, Ag-, and Al-coated InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple and single quantum wells (SQWs) was studied with time-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) and CL wavelength imaging techniques. Excitons were generated in the metal-coated SQWs by injecting a pulsed high-energy electron beam through the thin metal films, which is found to be an ideal method of excitation for plasmonic quantum heterostructures and nanostructures which are opaque to laser/light excitation. The Purcell enhancement factor (Fp) at low temperatures was obtained by the direct measurement of changes in the carrier lifetime caused by the SQW exciton-SPP coupling. The deposition of thin films of Al, Ag, and Au on an InGaN/GaN QW enabled a comparison of exciton-SPP coupling for energy ranges in which the surface plasmon energy is greater than, approximately equal to, and less than the QW excitonic transition energy. We investigated the temperature dependence of the Huang-Rhys factors for exciton-to-LO phonon coupling for the metal-covered and bare samples. CL imaging and spectroscopy with variable excitation densities are used to examine the spatial correlations between CL emission intensity, carrier lifetime, QW excitonic emission energy, and the Huang-Rhys factor, all of which are strongly influenced by local fluctuations in the In composition and formation of InN-rich centers. PMID:26076324

  13. Characterization of Na+- beta-Zeolite Supported Pd and Pd Ag Bimetallic Catalysts using EXAFS, TEM and Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Huang,W.; Lobo, R.; Chen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Flow reactor studies of the selective hydrogenation of acetylene in the presence of ethylene have been performed on Na+ exchanged {beta}-zeolite supported Pd, Ag and PdAg catalysts, as an extension of our previous batch reactor studies [W. Huang, J.R. McCormick, R.F. Lobo, J.G. Chen, J. Catal. 246 (2007) 40-51]. Results from flow reactor studies show that the PdAg/Na+-{beta}-zeolite bimetallic catalyst has lower activity than Pd/Na+-{beta}-zeolite monometallic catalyst, while Ag/Na+-{beta}-zeolite does not show any activity for acetylene hydrogenation. However, the selectivity for the PdAg bimetallic catalyst is much higher than that for either the Pd catalyst or Ag catalyst. The selectivity to byproduct (ethane) is greatly inhibited on the PdAg bimetallic catalyst as well. The results from the current flow reactor studies confirmed the pervious results from batch reactor studies [W. Huang, J.R. McCormick, R.F. Lobo, J.G. Chen, J. Catal. 246 (2007) 40-51]. In addition, we used transmission electron microscope (TEM), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and FTIR of CO adsorption to confirm the formation of Pd-Ag bimetallic alloy in the PdAg/Na+-{beta}-zeolite catalyst.

  14. Can medical herbs stimulate regeneration or neuroprotection and treat neuropathic pain in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Friedemann, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  15. Data on the identification of protein interactors with the Evening Complex and PCH1 in Arabidopsis using tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry (TAP-MS).

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Alvarez, Sophie; Nusinow, Dmitri A

    2016-09-01

    Tandem affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (TAP-MS) analysis is a powerful biochemical approach to identify protein-protein associations. Here we describe two datasets generated by a series of TAP-MS analyses to co-purify proteins associated with either ELF3 or ELF4 of the Evening Complex (EC) ("Identification of Evening Complex Associated Proteins in Arabidopsis by Affinity Purification and Mass Spectrometry" (Huang et al., 2016a) [1]) or proteins associated with PCH1, which is a newly identified output of the circadian clock to regulate photoperiodic growth in Arabidopsis thaliana ("PCH1 integrates circadian and light-signaling pathways to control photoperiod-responsive growth in Arabidopsis" (Huang et al. 2016b) [2]). We used either ELF3, ELF4 or PCH1 fused to a C-terminal tandem affinity tag (6xHis-3xFLAG) as baits and conducted purifications in various genetic mutant backgrounds. These data are discussed in recent publications [1,2], and are deposited at the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD002606 (for EC) and PRIDE: PXD003352 (for PCH1). PMID:27274533

  16. Spectrally and spatially resolved cathodoluminescence of nanodiamonds: local variations of the NV(0) emission properties.

    PubMed

    Tizei, L H G; Kociak, M

    2012-05-01

    Here we report the spectrally and spatially resolved cathodoluminescence of diamond nanoparticles using focused fast electron beams in a transmission electron microscope. We demonstrate the possibility of quickly detecting various individual colour centres of different kinds on wide areas (several micrometres square) contained in nanoparticles separated by subwavelength distances. Among them, nanoparticles containing one or more neutral nitrogen-vacancy (NV(0)) intensity maxima have been seen, attributable to individual emitters. Thanks to a spatial resolution which is solely limited by charge carrier diffusion in the case of a fast electron (80 keV) setup, the spectra of two individual NV(0) emitters separated by 80 nm inside a nanoparticle have been spatially discerned. A shift of the zero phonon line (ZPL) between the two emitters, which we attribute to internal stress, is shown to arise even within the same nanoparticle. Detailed emission spectra (ZPL, phonon lines and Huang-Rhys factor, directly linked to the relaxation energy of the colour centre) in 51 individual NV(0) centres have been measured in 39 particles. The ZPL and Huang-Rhys factor are found to be measurably dispersed, while the phonon energies keep constant. PMID:22481219

  17. Identifying Modes of Temperature Variability Using AIRS Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.; Yung, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We use the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Advance Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) data obtained on Aqua spacecraft to study mid-tropospheric temperature variability between 2002-2007. The analysis is focused on daily zonal means of the AIRS channel at 2388 1/cm in the CO2 R-branch and the AMSU channel #5 in the 57 GHz Oxygen band, both with weighting function peaking in the mid-troposphere (400 mb) and the matching sea surface temperature from NCEP (Aumann et al., 2007). Taking into account the nonlinear and non- stationary behavior of the temperature we apply the Empirical Mode Decomposition (Huang et al., 1998) to better separate modes of variability. All-sky (cloudy) and clear sky, day and night data are analyzed. In addition to the dominant annual variation, which is nonlinear and latitude dependent, we identified the modes with higher frequency and inter-annual modes. Some trends are visible and we apply stringent criteria to test their statistical significance. References: Aumann, H. H., D. T. Gregorich, S. E. Broberg, and D. A. Elliott, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L15813, doi:10.1029/2006GL029191, 2007. Huang, N. E. Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A 454, 903-995, 1998.

  18. Quasi-periodicities and Empirical Modes of the Heliospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. J.; Zhou, X.; Ruzmaikin, A.

    2006-12-01

    Quasi-periodicities in solar phenomena including variations in the heliospheric magnetic field have attracted attention in the past. Recently, such a periodicity near 140- 150 days has been of interest. In a recent analysis of solar cycle variations in the Sun's open magnetic flux, we found a quasi-periodicity of approximately one and one-half years in the radial component and the field magnitude that persists during the last four sunspot cycles. Inspection of the data revealed that this signal was variable in both amplitude and period. Power spectra having proved marginally useful in revealing the signal properties, we apply a new technique called Empirical Mode Decomposition (Huang et al., 1998) that treats both the frequency and amplitude as time-dependent. Application of this technique revealed several quasi-periodic modes including the mode near 1 and 1/2 years and the mode near 140 days that was not evident by inspection alone. The results of this analysis will be presented and the origin of the several periodicities will be discussed. Reference: Huang, N. E. Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A 454, 903-995, 1998.

  19. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  20. New expectations from the well-known medicinal properties of Arctium lappa.

    PubMed

    Miele, C; Beguinot, F

    2012-05-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) serves as a major regulator of energy homeostasis and is activated by different glucose-lowering agents. Indeed, AMPK has been identified as an attractive target for the development of innovative molecules to treat type 2 diabetes. In this issue of Diabetologia (doi: 10.1007/s00125-011-2366-3 ), Huang and co-workers report that arctigenin activates muscle uptake of glucose and inhibits hepatocyte gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis by reducing mitochondrial respiration and inducing AMPK activity. Importantly, it is reported that arctigenin improves glucose and lipid metabolism in ob/ob mice. Based on this evidence, Huang and co-workers suggest that arctigenin may represent a valuable lead compound for developing innovative glucose-lowering molecules. While these findings are not entirely novel and mechanistic investigations are needed, the results strongly support the concept that arctigenin deserves to be further considered because of its several potentially beneficial in vivo effects. In particular, the authors conclude that further mechanistic studies on arctigenin might provide novel insight and opportunities for selective modulation of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass. PMID:22358500

  1. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  2. Bulk and Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis of Long-Chain, n-alkanes From a 85-kyr Core From Lake Peten Itza, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, J. L.; Brenner, M.; Bush, M. B.; Correa, A.; Curtis, J. H.; Hodell, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Drill cores obtained from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala, contain a ~85-kyr record of terrestrial climate from lowland Central America. Variations in sediment lithology suggest rapid changes in precipitation during the last glacial and deglacial periods. Previous work in nearby Lake Quexil demonstrated the utility of using the carbon isotopic compositions of leaf wax n-alkanes to infer changes in terrestrial vegetation (Huang et al., 2001). Here we report carbon isotopes of bulk organic and long-chain n-alkanes in 60 samples to reconstruct changes in the relative proportion of C3 and C4 biomass in the watershed under changing climate and atmospheric CO2 conditions during the past 85 kyrs. Compound-specific carbon isotope results are compared directly with pollen analysis from the same samples. Huang, Y., F.A. Street-Perrott, S.E. Metcalfe, M. Brenner, M. Moreland, and K.H. Freeman. 2001. Climate change as the dominant control on glacial-interglacial variations in C3 and C4 plant abundance. Science 293:1647-1651.

  3. Collaborative Research: Simulation of Beam-Electron Cloud Interactions in Circular Accelerators Using Plasma Models

    SciTech Connect

    Katsouleas, Thomas; Decyk, Viktor

    2009-10-14

    National Lab later implemented a similar basic quasistatic scheme including pipelining in the code WARP [9] and found good to very good quantitative agreement between the two codes in modeling e-clouds. References [1] C. Huang, V. K. Decyk, C. Ren, M. Zhou, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, J. H. Cooley, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., and T. Katsouleas, "QUICKPIC: A highly efficient particle-in-cell code for modeling wakefield acceleration in plasmas," J. Computational Phys. 217, 658 (2006). [2] B. Feng, C. Huang, V. K. Decyk, W. B. Mori, P. Muggli, and T. Katsouleas, "Enhancing parallel quasi-static particle-in-cell simulations with a pipelining algorithm," J. Computational Phys, 228, 5430 (2009). [3] C. Huang, V. K. Decyk, M. Zhou, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, J. H. Cooley, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., and B. Feng, T. Katsouleas, J. Vieira, and L. O. Silva, "QUICKPIC: A highly efficient fully parallelized PIC code for plasma-based acceleration," Proc. of the SciDAC 2006 Conf., Denver, Colorado, June, 2006 [Journal of Physics: Conference Series, W. M. Tang, Editor, vol. 46, Institute of Physics, Bristol and Philadelphia, 2006], p. 190. [4] B. Feng, C. Huang, V. Decyk, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, P. Muggli, "Enhancing Plasma Wakefield and E-cloud Simulation Performance Using a Pipelining Algorithm," Proc. 12th Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts, Lake Geneva, WI, July, 2006, p. 201 [AIP Conf. Proceedings, vol. 877, Melville, NY, 2006]. [5] B. Feng, P. Muggli, T. Katsouleas, V. Decyk, C. Huang, and W. Mori, "Long Time Electron Cloud Instability Simulation Using QuickPIC with Pipelining Algorithm," Proc. of the 2007 Particle Accelerator Conference, Albuquerque, NM, June, 2007, p. 3615. [6] B. Feng, C. Huang, V. Decyk, W. B. Mori, G. H. Hoffstaetter, P. Muggli, T. Katsouleas, "Simulation of Electron Cloud Effects on Electron Beam at ERL with Pipelined QuickPIC," Proc. 13th Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts, Santa Cruz, CA, July-August, 2008, p. 340 [AIP Conf. Proceedings, vol. 1086, Melville, NY, 2008

  4. Optimal Gaussian squeezed states for atom interferometry in the presence of phase diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhonenkov, Igor; Moore, Michael G.; Vardi, Amichay

    2010-10-15

    We optimize the signal-to-noise ratio of a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer with Gaussian squeezed input states in the presence interactions. For weak interactions, our results coincide with those of Huang and Moore [Y. P. Huang and M. G. Moore, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 250406 (2008)], with an optimal initial number variance {sigma}{sub o{proportional_to}}N{sup 1/3} and an optimal signal-to-noise ratio s{sub o{proportional_to}}N{sup 2/3} for the total atom number N. As the interaction strength u increases past unity, phase diffusion becomes dominant, leading to a transition in the optimal squeezing from initial number squeezing to initial phase squeezing with {sigma}{sub o{proportional_to}{radical}}(uN) and s{sub o{proportional_to}{radical}}(N/u) shot-noise scaling. The initial phase squeezing translates into hold-time number squeezing, which is less sensitive to interactions than coherent states and improves s{sub o} by a factor of {radical}(u).

  5. Broadband enhanced transmission of acoustic waves through serrated metal gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dong-Xiang; Fan, Ren-Hao; Deng, Yu-Qiang; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu; Jiangnan University Collaboration

    In this talk, we present our studies on broadband properties of acoustic waves through metal gratings. We have demonstrated that serrated metal gratings, which introduce gradient coatings, can give rise to broadband transmission enhancement of acoustic waves. Here, we have experimentally and theoretically studied the acoustic transmission properties of metal gratings with or without serrated boundaries. The average transmission is obviously enhanced for serrated metal gratings within a wide frequency range, while the Fabry-Perot resonance is significantly suppressed. An effective medium hypothesis with varying acoustic impedance is proposed to analyze the mechanism, which was verified through comparison with finite-element simulation. The serrated boundary supplies gradient mass distribution and gradient normal acoustic impedance, which could efficiently reduce the boundary reflection. Further, by increasing the region of the serrated boundary, we present a broadband high-transmission grating for wide range of incident angle. Our results may have potential applications to broadband acoustic imaging, acoustic sensing and new acoustic devices. References: [1] Dong-Xiang Qi, Yu-Qiang Deng, Di-Hu Xu, Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Ze-Guo Chen, Ming-Hui Lu, X. R. Huang and Mu Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 011906 (2015); [2] Dong-Xiang Qi, Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Xian-Rong Huang, Ming-Hui Lu, Xu Ni, Qing Hu, and Mu Wang, Applied Physics Letters 101, 061912 (2012).

  6. Investigation of Antioxidant Interactions between Radix Astragali and Cimicifuga foetida and Identification of Synergistic Antioxidant Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Shancang; Li, Feng; Zhang, Bo; Qu, Yi; Sun, Tianlei; Luo, Ting; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    The medicinal plants of Huang-qi (Radix Astragali) and Sheng-ma (Cimicifuga foetida) demonstrate significantly better antioxidant effects when used in combination than when used alone. However, the bioactive components and interactional mechanism underlying this synergistic action are still not well understood. In the present study, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was employed to investigate the antioxidant capacity of single herbs and their combination with the purpose of screening synergistic antioxidant compounds from them. Chromatographic isolation was performed on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 columns and HPLC, and consequently to yield formononetin, calycosin, ferulic acid and isoferulic acid, which were identified by their retention time, UV λmax, MS and MS/MS data. The combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin at a dose ratio of 1∶1 resulted in significant synergy in scavenging DPPH radicals and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Furthermore, the protective effects of these four potential synergistic compounds were examined using H2O2-induced HepG2 Cells bioassay. Results revealed that the similar synergy was observed in the combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin. These findings might provide some theoretical basis for the purported synergistic efficiency of Huang-qi and Sheng-ma as functional foods, dietary supplements and medicinal drugs. PMID:24498048

  7. The geoid computed from a new generalized theory of the figure of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng-li; Liu, Cheng-jun; Liu, Yu

    2012-08-01

    The geoid serves as the reference frame in geodesy. The Clairaut equation, Darwin - de Sitter theory and the series work of Denis are regarded as the standard theories of equilibrium figures of the Earth to the first - , second - , and third - order precision, respectively. Recently, a new generalized theory to obtain the interior figures to third - order accuracy was developed (Liu & Huang, 2008; Huang & Liu, 2012), in which, both the direct and indirect contribution of the anti - symmetric crust layer are included, thus, all the non - zero order and odd degree terms, up to degree/order of six, are included in the spherical harmonic expression of the equilibrium figures. As a result, the global dynamical flattening (H) was obtained as 1/306.68, i.e., the difference of H between the calculated value from above traditional theories and the value from precession observations is reduced from 1.1%, by about 2/3, to 0.38%. In this presentation, based on the above new generalized theory, the geoid is calculated and compared with the one derived from EGM96. Some further discussion will be also presented.

  8. Synthesis of artificial spectrum-compatible seismic accelerograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrochidou, E.; Alvanitopoulos, P. F.; Andreadis, I.; Elenas, A.; Mallousi, K.

    2014-08-01

    The Hilbert-Huang transform is used to generate artificial seismic signals compatible with the acceleration spectra of natural seismic records. Artificial spectrum-compatible accelerograms are utilized instead of natural earthquake records for the dynamic response analysis of many critical structures such as hospitals, bridges, and power plants. The realistic estimation of the seismic response of structures involves nonlinear dynamic analysis. Moreover, it requires seismic accelerograms representative of the actual ground acceleration time histories expected at the site of interest. Unfortunately, not many actual records of different seismic intensities are available for many regions. In addition, a large number of seismic accelerograms are required to perform a series of nonlinear dynamic analyses for a reliable statistical investigation of the structural behavior under earthquake excitation. These are the main motivations for generating artificial spectrum-compatible seismic accelerograms and could be useful in earthquake engineering for dynamic analysis and design of buildings. According to the proposed method, a single natural earthquake record is deconstructed into amplitude and frequency components using the Hilbert-Huang transform. The proposed method is illustrated by studying 20 natural seismic records with different characteristics such as different frequency content, amplitude, and duration. Experimental results reveal the efficiency of the proposed method in comparison with well-established and industrial methods in the literature.

  9. Relation between deep bioluminescence and oceanographic variables: A statistical analysis using time-frequency decompositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, S.; Nerini, D.; Tamburini, C.

    2014-09-01

    We consider the statistical analysis of a 1.7-year high-frequency sampled time series, between 2009 and 2010, recorded at the ANTARES observatory in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea (2475 m depth). The objective was to estimate relationships between bioluminescence and environmental time series (temperature, salinity and current speed). As this entire dataset is characterized by non-linearity and non-stationarity, two time-frequency decomposition methods (wavelet and Hilbert-Huang) were used. These mathematical methods are dedicated to the analysis of a signal at various time and frequencies scales. This work propose some statistical tools dedicated to the study of relationships between two time series. Our study highlights three events of high bioluminescence activity in March 2009, December 2009 and March 2010. We demonstrate that the two events occurring in March 2009 and 2010 are correlated to the arrival of newly formed deep water masses at frequencies of approximately 4.8×10-7 (period of 24.1 days). In contrast, the event in December 2009 is only correlated with current speed at frequencies of approximately 1.9×10-6 (period of 6.0 days). The use of both wavelet and Hilbert-Huang transformations has proven to be successful for the analysis of multivariate time series. These methods are well-suited in a context of the increasing number of long time series recorded in oceanography.

  10. Magnetic order the iron spins in NdOFeAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Lynn, J. W.; Li, J.; Li, G.; Chen, G. F.; Luo, J. L.; Wang, N. L.; Dai, Pengcheng; Dela Cruz, C.; Mook, H. A.

    2009-03-01

    Polarized and unpolarized powder neutron-diffraction measurements have been carried out to investigate the iron magnetic order in the parent compound of one of the highest Tc system, NdFeAsO. Antiferromagnetic order is observed below 141 K [1], which is in close proximity to the structural distortion observed in this material [2]. The magnetic structure consists of chains of parallel spins that are arranged antiparallel between chains, which is the same in-plane spin arrangement as observed in all the other iron oxypnictide materials. Nearest-neighbor spins along the c axis are antiparallel like LaFeAsO [3]. The ordered moment is 0.25 (7) μB, which is the smallest ordered moment found so far in these systems. [3pt] [1]Ying Chen, J. W. Lynn, J. Li, G. Li, G. F. Chen, J. L. Luo, N. L. Wang, Pengcheng Dai, C. dela Cruz and H. A. Mook, Phys. Rev. B 78, 064515 2008. [0pt] [2]Y. Qiu, W. Bao, Q. Huang, T. Yildirim, J. M. Simmons, M. A. Green, J.W. Lynn, Y.C. Gasparovic, J. Li, T. Wu, G. Wu, and X.H. Chen, arXiv:0806.2195 (Phys. Rev. Lett. accepted). [0pt] [3] C. dela Cruz, Q. Huang, J. W. Lynn, J. Li, W. Ratcliff II, J. L. Zarestky, H. A. Mook, G. F. Chen, J. L. Luo, N. L. Wang, and P. Dai, Nature 453, 899 (2008).

  11. Nonadiabatic bounce and an inflationary phase in the quantum mixmaster universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Hervé; Czuchry, Ewa; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre; Małkiewicz, Przemysław

    2016-06-01

    Following our previous paper, Bergeron et al., Smooth quantum dynamics of the mixmaster universe, Phys. Rev. D 92, 061302(R) (2015), concerning the quantization of the vacuum Bianchi IX model and the Born-Huang-Oppenheimer framework, we present a further analysis of the dynamical properties of the model. Consistently with the deep quantum regime, we implement the harmonic approximation of the anisotropy potential. We thus obtain manageable dynamical equations. We study the quantum anisotropic oscillations during the bouncing phase of the universe. Neglecting the backreaction from transitions between quantum anisotropy states, we obtain analytical results. In particular, we identify a parameter that is associated with dynamical properties of the quantum model and describes a sort of phase transition. Once the parameter exceeds its critical value, the Born-Huang-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down. The application of the present result to a simple model of the universe indicates that the parameter indeed exceeds its critical value and that there takes place a huge production of anisotropy at the bounce. This in turn must lead to a sustained phase of accelerated expansion, an inflationary phase. The quantitative inclusion of backreaction shall be examined in a follow-up paper based on the vibronic approach.

  12. Inverted spectra of SWCNT films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, John; Hurst, Katherine; Roberson, Lara; Nield, Kathryn; Hamlin, John

    2008-03-01

    Diffuse Reflectance for purified single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films and its relation to absorptance in the wavelength range 0.6 μm to 2 μm are inverted when compared to absorptivity data in the literature. This surprising behavior has been corroborated by diffuse reflectance measurements and shows that the reflectance is a substantial part of the unique optical behavior. Typically, the absorptance is fairly assumed to be complementary to the transmittance, while the reflectivity is insignificant. Only in certain instances (see for example, Barnes, et. al[1], Wang, et. al[2]), is the small reflectance explicitly accounted for. In the present work, we present diffuse reflectance and specular absorptance at normal incidence of SWCNT films. [1] T. M. Barnes, J. van de Lagemaat, D. Levi,1 G. Rumbles, T. J. Coutts, C. L. Weeks, D. A. Britz, I. Levitsky, J. Peltola, P. Glatkowski, Phys. Rev. B 75, 235410 (2007). [2] F. Wang, M. Y. Sfeir, L. Huang, X. M. H. Huang, Wu, J. Kim, J. Hone, S. O'Brien, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, PRL 96, 167401 (2006).

  13. Higher-order M-theory corrections and the Kac Moody algebra E10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault; Nicolai, Hermann

    2005-07-01

    It has been conjectured that the classical dynamics of M-theory is equivalent to a null geodesic motion in the infinite-dimensional coset space E10/K(E10), where K(E10) is the maximal compact subgroup of the hyperbolic Kac Moody group E10. We here provide further evidence for this conjecture by showing that the leading higher-order corrections, quartic in the curvature and related 3-form-dependent terms, correspond to negative imaginary roots of E10. The conjecture entails certain predictions for which higher-order corrections are allowed: in particular corrections of type RM(DF)N are compatible with E10 only for M + N = 3k + 1. Furthermore, the leading parts of the R4, R7, ... terms are predicted to be associated with singlets under the {\\mathfrak{sl}}_{10} decomposition of E10. Although singlets are extremely rare among the 4400 752 653 representations of {\\mathfrak{sl}}_{10} appearing in E10 up to level ell <= 28, there are indeed singlets at levels ell = 10 and ell = 20 which do match with the R4 and the expected R7 corrections. Our analysis indicates a far more complicated behaviour of the theory near the cosmological singularity than suggested by the standard homogeneous ansätze.

  14. Fehler begehen - Mathematik verstehen Über die Bedeutung von Fehlern für das Verstehen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käser, Udo

    Auch wenn eine historisch oder systematisch umfassende Darstellung zur Fehlerthematik bislang nicht vorliegt, ist die Idee, einer Fehleranalyse unter der Leitfrage, welche Fehler von Schülerinnen und Schülern aufgrund welcher epistemologischen Überzeugungen begangen werden, zentralen Raum für die Betrachtung von Verstehensprozessen einzuräumen, nicht neu. So ist es geradezu ein Charakteristikum einer modernen konstruktivistischen Didaktik, die eigenen Fehler von Lernenden als ihre individuellen Lerngelegenheiten zu begreifen, die einen wichtigen Motor für den subjektiven Lernfortschritt bilden. Diese Sichtweise wurzelt aus psychologischer Perspektive in Analysen in der Tradition Piagets, der in Abkehr von einer quantitativen, psychometrischen Beschreibung kognitiver Prozesse, wie sie sich zum Beispiel in Intelligenztheorien nach Binet findet, qualitativ zu beschreiben versuchte, in welcher Weise Kinder und Jugendliche denken und urteilen. Doch auch schon in der klassischen Philosophie sind entsprechende Ansätze zu finden. Prominente Beispiele hierfür sind die Idolenlehre Bacons und die Ideenlehre Platons.

  15. Dateiformate für Audio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petermichl, Karl

    Ein Dateiformat definiert die Anordnung und die Bedeutung von Werten innerhalb einer Datei. Dies reicht von inhaltsbeschreibenden Parametern bis zum Adressbereich der eigentlichen Audiodaten. Bedingt durch historische Entwicklungen und anwendungsspezifische Erfordernisse kommt in der Audiotechnik eine große Vielfalt von Formaten und Datenstrukturen zum Einsatz. In der Regel handelt es sich um Binärdateien; Textdateien können aufgrund des eingeschränkten Wertebereiches nur für sehr kleine Datensätze verwendet werden. Wesentlich ist die Unterscheidung zwischen dem Dateiformat und der Kodierung der im File enthaltenen Audiosignale. Je nach Intention der Entwickler wird schon bei der Entwicklung eines Dateiformats festgelegt, ob es nur zur Speicherung einer bestimmten Kodierung genutzt werden kann, oder ob die Option besteht, unterschiedliche Audioformate im gleichen Dateiformat abzuspeichern. Damit wird in vielen Fällen auch eine Einteilung in "lineare“ und "datenreduzierte“ Dateiformate unmöglich, vielmehr muss eine Datei auf ihre Möglichkeiten und den tatsächlichen Inhalt überprüft werden, bevor eine Aussage zulässig ist.

  16. A Variational Study of Passive Scalar Decay with the Amplitude Mapping Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyink, Gregory L.

    1997-11-01

    We use the Statistical Rayleigh-Ritz Method (SRRM) to study passive scalar decay. SRRM makes computational use of the exact dynamical equations in regimes currently inaccessible to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), by exploiting intuitive guesses or Ansätze for the system statistics ( G. L. Eyink, Phys. Rev. E, 54) 3419 (1996). The method is applied here to the advection-diffusion equations within the amplitude mapping closure (H. Chen, S. Chen, and R. H. Kraichnan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63) 2657 (1989). We derive all multi-time scalar correlations simultaneously by studying the statistical histories of the ``fine-grained'' or ``empirical'' PDF. For this quantity we derive an effective action of Onsager-Machlup type, formally equivalent to a stochastic Langevin model. The amplitude mapping Ansatz is shown to lead to a realizability failure for predicted multi-time statistics, due to the arbitrariness of scalar decay rate. Because this realizability breakdown is restricted to moments of quadratic order or lower, it is still meaningful to compare with experiment for higher moments. For mapping closure with a time-dependent Gaussian reference field (S. Girimaji, Phys. Fluids A 4) 2875 (1992), we present analytical solutions of joint two-time PDF's of the scalar with an initial PDF either Gaussian or double-delta.

  17. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  18. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, H.W.; Henins, I.; Park, J.; Selwyn, G.S.

    1999-05-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) [A. Sch{umlt u}tze {ital et al.}, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. {bold 26}, 1685 (1998)] is a nonthermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O), which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz rf. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains neutral metastable species (e.g., O{sub 2}{sup {asterisk}}, He{sup {asterisk}}) and radicals (e.g., O, OH). This reactive effluent has been shown to be an effective neutralizer of surrogates for anthrax spores and mustard blister agent. Unlike conventional wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion and it does not destroy wiring, electronics, or most plastics, making it highly suitable for decontamination of sensitive equipment and interior spaces. Furthermore, the reactive species in the effluent rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful by-products. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Polaron dynamics with a multitude of Davydov D{sub 2} trial states

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nengji; Huang, Zhongkai; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Yang; Chernyak, Vladimir

    2015-07-07

    We propose an extension to the Davydov D{sub 2} Ansatz in the dynamics study of the Holstein molecular crystal model with diagonal and off-diagonal exciton-phonon coupling using the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational principle. The new trial state by the name of the “multi-D{sub 2} Ansatz” is a linear combination of Davydov D{sub 2} trial states, and its validity is carefully examined by quantifying how faithfully it follows the Schrödinger equation. Considerable improvements in accuracy have been demonstrated in comparison with the usual Davydov trial states, i.e., the single D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} Ansätze. With an increase in the number of the Davydov D{sub 2} trial states in the multi-D{sub 2} Ansatz, deviation from the exact Schrödinger dynamics is gradually diminished, leading to a numerically exact solution to the Schrödinger equation.

  20. Dünne Beschichtungen auf Biomaterialien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, Doris; Lahann, Jörg; Plüster, Wilhelm

    Ein Schwerpunkt der Implantatentwicklung liegt in der Synthese und Verarbeitung geeigneter Biomaterialien, die bezüglich ihrer mechanischen Eigenschaften und ihrer Stabilität die erwünschte Funktion im Organismus erfüllen sollen. Die biologische Antwort auf Biomaterialien im Implantateinsatz wird jedoch hauptsächlich von der chemischen Zusammensetzung und der Struktur der Implantatoberfläche bestimmt [1]. Sie ist entscheidend für die Langzeitverträglichkeit eines Implantats. Geeignete Ansätze zur Verbesserung der Grenzflächenverträglichkeit von Biomaterialien, ohne die mechanischen Eigenschaften und die Funktionalität des Implantates zu verändern, beruhen auf die Aufbringung einer definierten, falls erforderlich biologisch aktiven Beschichtung auf die Werkstoffoberfläche. Bei den eingesetzten Beschichtungsverfahren handelt es sich vielfach um bekannte Verfahren zur Oberflächenmodifizierung technischer Werkstoffe, die auf physikalischen und chemischen Prozessen basieren. Je nach Beschichtungsverfahren können unterschiedliche Schichtdicken erzielt werden. Zur Charakterisierung der Zusammensetzung und Struktur der beschichteten Biomaterialoberflächen ist der Einsatz oberflächensensitiver Analytik unverzichtbar. Vielfach wird eine Kombination von Methoden eingesetzt, die sich hinsichtlich ihrer Informationstiefe und Informationsaussage unterscheiden [1].

  1. On the Epistemological Status of Cosmology Anthropic Principle, Cosmological Numbers, and the Subject of Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahsner, Renate

    It is shown that cosmology destroys the fundamental on which it lies as a natural-scientific discipline if it introduces subjectivistic principles as one of them is the so-called Anthropic Principle that superseds the Copernican turn of sciences. Likewise conceptions are proved as conceptions that contradict the physical cosmology which conceive that the World harmony or the physical-uniform grasping of the world can be derived from numbers or relations of numbers. This is due to the fact that these conceptions liquadate the advantage of physics to get via measurements statements about reality.Translated AbstractZum epistemologischen Status der Kosmologie Anthropisches Prinzip, kosmologische Zahlen und der Gegenstand der KosmologieEs wird gezeigt, daß die Kosmologie das Fundament, auf dem sie als naturwissenschaftliche Disziplin beruht, zerstört, wenn sie subjektorientierte Grundsätze wie das Anthropische Prinzip einführt, die das copernicanische Prinzip aufheben. Desgleichen werden Konzepte, die davon ausgehen, daß die Harmonie der Welt oder die physikalisch einheitliche Fassung der Welt aus Zahlen oder Zahlenverhältnissen abgeleitet werden kann, als Konzepte nachgewiesen, die der physikalischen Kosmologie widersprechen, da sie den Vorzug der Physik, durch Messungen Aussagen über die Wirklichkeit zu gewinnen, liquidieren.

  2. Two methods for restricted configuration spaces within the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, Daniel J.; McCurdy, C. William

    2015-01-01

    The multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method has shown promise in calculating electronic dynamics in molecules driven by strong and high-energy lasers. It must incorporate restricted configuration spaces (meaning that a particular combination of Slater determinants is used, instead of full configuration interaction) to be applied to big systems. Two different Ansätze are used to determine the essential term in the equations. The first Ansatz is the Lagrangian variational principle. The explicit, complete MCTDHF equations of motion, satisfying that principle, for arbitrary configuration spaces, are given. The property that a restricted configuration list must satisfy in order for the Lagrangian and McLachlan variational principles to give different results is identified. The second Ansatz keeps the density matrix block diagonal among equivalent orbitals, in a generalization of the method of Worth [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8322 (2000), 10.1063/1.481438]. The methods perform well in calculating the dynamics of Be and BC2 + subject to ultrafast, ultrastrong lasers in severely truncated Hilbert spaces, although they exhibit differing degrees of numerical stability as implemented.

  3. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in two-flavor QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitani, S.; Della Morte, M.; Djukanovic, D.; von Hippel, G.; Hua, J.; Jäger, B.; Knippschild, B.; Meyer, H. B.; Rae, T. D.; Wittig, H.

    2015-09-01

    We present results for the nucleon electromagnetic form factors, including the momentum transfer dependence and derived quantities (charge radii and magnetic moment). The analysis is performed using O (a ) improved Wilson fermions in Nf=2 QCD measured on the Coordinated Lattice Simulations ensembles. Particular focus is placed on a systematic evaluation of the influence of excited states in three-point correlation functions, which lead to a biased evaluation, if not accounted for correctly. We argue that the use of summed operator insertions and fit Ansätze including excited states allow us to suppress and control this effect. We employ a novel method to perform joint chiral and continuum extrapolations, by fitting the form factors directly to the expressions of covariant baryonic chiral effective field theory. The final results for the charge radii and magnetic moment from our lattice calculations include, for the first time, a full error budget. We find that our estimates are compatible with experimental results within their overall uncertainties.

  4. Contraction of fermionic operator circuits and the simulation of strongly correlated fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Thomas; Pineda, Carlos; Eisert, Jens

    2009-10-01

    A fermionic operator circuit is a product of fermionic operators of usually different and partially overlapping support. Further elements of fermionic operator circuits (FOCs) are partial traces and partial projections. The presented framework allows for the introduction of fermionic versions of known qudit operator circuits (QUOC), important for the simulation of strongly correlated d -dimensional systems: the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansätze (MERA), tree tensor networks (TTN), projected entangled pair states (PEPS), or their infinite-size versions (iPEPS etc.). After the definition of a FOC, we present a method to contract it with the same computation and memory requirements as a corresponding QUOC, for which all fermionic operators are replaced by qudit operators of identical dimension. A given scheme for contracting the QUOC relates to an analogous scheme for the corresponding fermionic circuit, where additional marginal computational costs arise only from reordering of modes for operators occurring in intermediate stages of the contraction. Our result hence generalizes efficient schemes for the simulation of d -dimensional spin systems, as MERA, TTN, or PEPS to the fermionic case.

  5. New instantons in AdS4/CFT3 from D4-branes wrapping some of CP3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghdi, M.

    2013-07-01

    With use of a 6-form field strength of ten-dimensional type IIA supergravity over AdS4×CP3, when S7/Zk is considered as a S1 Hopf fibration on CP3, we earn a fully localized solution in the bulk of Euclideanized AdS4. Indeed, this object appears in the external space because of wrapping a D4(M5)-brane over some parts of the respective internal spaces. Interestingly, this supersymmetry breaking SU(4)×U(1)-singlet mode exists in already known spectra when one uses the 8c gravitino representation of SO(8). To adjust the boundary theory, we should swap the original 8s and 8c representations for supercharges and fermions in the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model. The procedure could later be interpreted as adding an anti-D4(M5)-brane to the prime N=6 membrane theory, resulting in a N=0 antimembrane theory while other symmetries are preserved. Then, according to the well-known state-operator correspondence rules, we find a proper dual operator with the conformal dimension of Δ+=3 that matches to the bulk massless pseudoscalar state. After that, by making use of some fitting Ansätze for the used matter fields, we arrive at an exact boundary solution and comment on the other related issues as well.

  6. Faster identification of optimal contraction sequences for tensor networks.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Robert N C; Haegeman, Jutho; Verstraete, Frank

    2014-09-01

    The efficient evaluation of tensor expressions involving sums over multiple indices is of significant importance to many fields of research, including quantum many-body physics, loop quantum gravity, and quantum chemistry. The computational cost of evaluating an expression may depend strongly on the order in which the index sums are evaluated, and determination of the operation-minimizing contraction sequence for a single tensor network (single term, in quantum chemistry) is known to be NP-hard. The current preferred solution is an exhaustive search, using either an iterative depth-first approach with pruning or dynamic programming and memoization, but these approaches are impractical for many of the larger tensor network ansätze encountered in quantum many-body physics. We present a modified search algorithm with enhanced pruning which exhibits a performance increase of several orders of magnitude while still guaranteeing identification of an optimal operation-minimizing contraction sequence for a single tensor network. A reference implementation for matlab, compatible with the ncon() and multienv() network contractors of arXiv:1402.0939 and Evenbly and Pfeifer, Phys. Rev. B 89, 245118 (2014), respectively, is supplied. PMID:25314572

  7. Data based 3D modelling of the southwest African continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymark, J.; Sippel, J.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Götze, H.-J.; Reichert, C.

    2012-04-01

    The volcanic passive continental margin of southwest Africa was formed in consequence of rifting and continental break-up of Gondwana in the Late Mesozoic. Our study focusses on an area extending from the Walvis Ridge in the north to the Agulhas Falkland Fracture Zone in the south including some important petroliferous sedimentary basins such as the Walvis Basin, the Luderitz Basin, and the Orange Basin. Due to decades of industrial exploration and scientific research, some of these areas reveal a large pool of structural and geophysical data. Thus, much is known about the individual tectonic and depositional histories of several subdomains of the area. The goal of our study is to understand the margin in its entirety. We present a 3D model of the present-day configuration of the southwest African continental margin. This model integrates well information, seismic reflection and refraction data, a previously published 3D structural model (Maystrenko et al., 2011), as well as freely available global data sets on the crustal structure (e.g. crust2.0 of Bassin, Laske & Masters, 2000). To extrapolate local information on crustal thickness (respectively the depth of the Moho) across the whole margin, we perform 3D gravity modelling using the software IGMAS+ (Götze & Schmidt, 2010; Schmidt et al., 2011). As parts of the first results, we show margin-wide depth and thickness distributions of a Palaeozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary layer and a Paleoproterozoic to Mesozoic crystalline crustal layer.

  8. Orchestration of the Floral Transition and Floral Development in Arabidopsis by the Bifunctional Transcription Factor APETALA2[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yant, Levi; Mathieu, Johannes; Dinh, Thanh Theresa; Ott, Felix; Lanz, Christa; Wollmann, Heike; Chen, Xuemei; Schmid, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor APETALA2 (AP2) has numerous functions, including roles in seed development, stem cell maintenance, and specification of floral organ identity. To understand the relationship between these different roles, we mapped direct targets of AP2 on a genome-wide scale in two tissue types. We find that AP2 binds to thousands of loci in the developing flower, many of which exhibit AP2-dependent transcription. Opposing, logical effects are evident in AP2 binding to two microRNA genes that influence AP2 expression, with AP2 positively regulating miR156 and negatively regulating miR172, forming a complex direct feedback loop, which also included all but one of the AP2-like miR172 target clade members. We compare the genome-wide direct target repertoire of AP2 with that of SCHLAFMÜTZE, a closely related transcription factor that also represses the transition to flowering. We detect clear similarities and important differences in the direct target repertoires that are also tissue specific. Finally, using an inducible expression system, we demonstrate that AP2 has dual molecular roles. It functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor, directly inducing the expression of the floral repressor AGAMOUS-LIKE15 and directly repressing the transcription of floral activators like SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1. PMID:20675573

  9. Repression of Flowering by the miR172 Target SMZ

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Johannes; Yant, Levi J.; Mürdter, Felix; Küttner, Frank; Schmid, Markus

    2009-01-01

    A small mobile protein, encoded by the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) locus, plays a central role in the control of flowering. FT is regulated positively by CONSTANS (CO), the output of the photoperiod pathway, and negatively by FLC, which integrates the effects of prolonged cold exposure. Here, we reveal the mechanisms of regulation by the microRNA miR172 target SCHLAFMÜTZE (SMZ), a potent repressor of flowering. Whole-genome mapping of SMZ binding sites demonstrates not only direct regulation of FT, but also of many other flowering time regulators acting both upstream and downstream of FT, indicating an important role of miR172 and its targets in fine tuning the flowering response. A role for the miR172/SMZ module as a rheostat in flowering time is further supported by SMZ binding to several other genes encoding miR172 targets. Finally, we show that the action of SMZ is completely dependent on another floral repressor, FLM, providing the first direct connection between two important classes of flowering time regulators, AP2- and MADS-domain proteins. PMID:19582143

  10. Nature of the effective interaction between dendrimers

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Taraknath Dasgupta, Chandan Maiti, Prabal K.

    2014-10-14

    We have performed fully atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the effective interaction between two polyamidoamine dendrimers. Using the umbrella sampling technique, we have obtained the potential of mean force (PMF) between the dendrimers and investigated the effects of protonation level and dendrimer size on the PMF. Our results show that the interaction between the dendrimers can be tuned from purely repulsive to partly attractive by changing the protonation level. The PMF profiles are well-fitted by the sum of an exponential and a Gaussian function with the weight of the exponential function dominating over that of the Gaussian function. This observation is in disagreement with the results obtained in previous analytic [C. Likos, M. Schmidt, H. Löwen, M. Ballauff, D. Pötschke, and P. Lindner, Macromolecules 34, 2914 (2001)] and coarse-grained simulation [I. Götze, H. Harreis, and C. Likos, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7761 (2004)] studies which predicted the effective interaction to be Gaussian.

  11. Faster identification of optimal contraction sequences for tensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Robert N. C.; Haegeman, Jutho; Verstraete, Frank

    2014-09-01

    The efficient evaluation of tensor expressions involving sums over multiple indices is of significant importance to many fields of research, including quantum many-body physics, loop quantum gravity, and quantum chemistry. The computational cost of evaluating an expression may depend strongly on the order in which the index sums are evaluated, and determination of the operation-minimizing contraction sequence for a single tensor network (single term, in quantum chemistry) is known to be NP-hard. The current preferred solution is an exhaustive search, using either an iterative depth-first approach with pruning or dynamic programming and memoization, but these approaches are impractical for many of the larger tensor network ansätze encountered in quantum many-body physics. We present a modified search algorithm with enhanced pruning which exhibits a performance increase of several orders of magnitude while still guaranteeing identification of an optimal operation-minimizing contraction sequence for a single tensor network. A reference implementation for matlab, compatible with the ncon() and multienv() network contractors of arXiv:1402.0939 and Evenbly and Pfeifer, Phys. Rev. B 89, 245118 (2014),10.1103/PhysRevB.89.245118, respectively, is supplied.

  12. Hilbert space renormalization for the many-electron problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhendong; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2016-02-01

    Renormalization is a powerful concept in the many-body problem. Inspired by the highly successful density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm, and the quantum chemical graphical representation of configuration space, we introduce a new theoretical tool: Hilbert space renormalization, to describe many-electron correlations. While in DMRG, the many-body states in nested Fock subspaces are successively renormalized, in Hilbert space renormalization, many-body states in nested Hilbert subspaces undergo renormalization. This provides a new way to classify and combine configurations. The underlying wavefunction Ansatz, namely, the Hilbert space matrix product state (HS-MPS), has a very rich and flexible mathematical structure. It provides low-rank tensor approximations to any configuration interaction (CI) space through restricting either the "physical indices" or the coupling rules in the HS-MPS. Alternatively, simply truncating the "virtual dimension" of the HS-MPS leads to a family of size-extensive wave function Ansätze that can be used efficiently in variational calculations. We make formal and numerical comparisons between the HS-MPS, the traditional Fock-space MPS used in DMRG, and traditional CI approximations. The analysis and results shed light on fundamental aspects of the efficient representation of many-electron wavefunctions through the renormalization of many-body states.

  13. Zuverlässigkeit digitaler Schaltungen unter Einfluss von intrinsischem Rauschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeberger, V. B.; Schlichtmann, U.

    2011-08-01

    Die kontinuierlich fortschreitende Miniaturisierung in integrierten Schaltungen führt zu einem Anstieg des intrinsischen Rauschens. Um den Einfluss von intrinsischem Rauschen auf die Zuverlässigkeit zukünftiger digitaler Schaltungen analysieren zu können, werden Methoden benötigt, die auf CAD-Verfahren wie Analogsimulation statt auf abschätzenden Berechnungen beruhen. Dieser Beitrag stellt eine neue Methode vor, die den Einfluss von intrinsischem Rauschen in digitalen Schaltungen für eine gegebene Prozesstechnologie analysieren kann. Die Amplituden von thermischen, 1/f und Schrotrauschen werden mit Hilfe eines SPICE Simulators bestimmt. Anschließend wird der Einfluss des Rauschens auf die Schaltungszuverlässigkeit durch Simulation analysiert. Zusätzlich zur Analyse werden Möglichkeiten aufgezeigt, wie die durch Rauschen hervorgerufenen Effekte im Schaltungsentwurf mit berücksichtigt werden können. Im Gegensatz zum Stand der Technik kann die vorgestellte Methode auf beliebige Logikimplementierungen und Prozesstechnologien angewendet werden. Zusätzlich wird gezeigt, dass bisherige Ansätze den Einfluss von Rauschen bis um das Vierfache überschätzen.

  14. Phänomenologische Grundlagen der Wärmelehre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Die Physik der Wärme lässt sich auf zweierlei Weise formulieren: Einmal als Mechanik eines Systems, das eine enorm große Zahl von Teilchen enthält (statistische Mechanik), und einmal mit Hilfe von ad hoc eingeführten Größen, den sogenannten Zustandsgrößen, die geeignet sind, das Verhalten eines solchen Systems zu beschreiben, ohne dass man die Teilchen selbst und ihre Bewegungen betrachten muss (Thermodynamik). Wir werden beide Ansätze in ihrer einfachsten und anschaulichsten Ausprägung in Kap. 5 (kinetische Gastheorie) bzw. in Kap. 8 (Grundbegriffe der Thermodynamik) behandeln. Obgleich sich die volle Durchführung des Programms als begrifflich und mathematisch recht schwierig erweist - die Vorlesung "Thermodynamik und Statistik" steht gewöhnlich am Ende der Kursvorlesungen über theoretische Physik - werden wir doch auf der Grundlage der Kap. 5 und 8 eine Menge über die Physik der Wärme lernen können. Den Ausgangspunkt der Wärmelehre bilden jedoch allemal die Naturerscheinungen, die wir hier in Kap. 4 behandeln wollen: Wärme, Kälte, Temperaturausgleich. Wir werden untersuchen, wie man diese Begriffe quantifizieren kann, und was bei der Erwärmung oder Abkühlung eines Körpers vor sich geht. Dabei werden wir auf den I. und II. Hauptsatz der Wärmelehre stoßen.

  15. Organisationsübergreifendes Management von Föderations-Sicherheitsmetadaten auf Basis einer Service-Bus-Architektur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Stephan; Hommel, Wolfgang

    In service-orientierten Architekturen wird die herkömmliche web-service-basierte Punkt-zu-Punkt-Kommunikation zunehmend durch den Einsatz eines Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) abgelöst, der den sicheren und zuverlässigen Nachrichtentransport realisiert. Der Einsatzbereich eines ESB endet jedoch an den Grenzen der ihn einsetzenden Institution. In diesem Artikel analysieren wir aktuelle Herausforderungen bei der organisationsübergreifenden Verwaltung von Sicherheitsmetadaten, zu denen insbesondere Serverzertifikate und Privacy Policies gehören. Als konkretes Szenario wird dabei das Federated Identity Management im Rahmen der deutschen Hochschulföderation DFN-AAI aufgegriffen. Als standardbasierte, einheitliche Lösung, die proprietäre sowie metadatentyp-spezifische Ansätze integriert und den damit verbundenen Administrationsaufwand reduziert, schlagen wir einen organisationsübergreifenden ESB vor, den wir als Federation Service Bus (FedSB) bezeichnen. Wir diskutieren seine technischen Eigenschaften, das zugrunde liegende Kommunikationsmodell und die organisatorischen Schritte zur Einführung.

  16. Checkpoint-Inhibitoren in der Immuntherapie: Ein Meilenstein in der Behandlung des malignen Melanoms.

    PubMed

    Wilden, Sophia M; Lang, Berenice M; Mohr, Peter; Grabbe, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    Seit Jahrzehnten ist bekannt, dass Tumoren vom Immunsystem erkannt und zerstört werden können. Diese, vor allem in Tierversuchen gewonnene Erkenntnis konnte jedoch in der Vergangenheit nicht zum Nutzen unserer Patienten umgesetzt werden, da immunonkologische Therapieansätze in den letzten Jahrzehnten in der Anwendung beim Menschen stets versagt haben. Daher hat, mit Ausnahme der adjuvanten Interferontherapie, keines dieser Verfahren den Einzug in die klinische Versorgung gefunden. Langzeitüberleben unter guter Lebensqualität war dabei sehr wenigen Patienten vorbehalten. Mit den neuen immunologischen Therapieansätzen wird jedoch sowohl das Langzeitüberleben als auch die Lebensqualität onkologischer Patienten neu definiert. Auf die neuen "Immun-Checkpoint-Inhibitoren" spricht erstmals ein relevanter Teil der behandelten Patienten an und diese zeigen in der Regel langandauernde Remissionen bis hin zur Heilung. Schon jetzt ist klar, dass die Immuntherapie in Zukunft eine der wesentlichen Therapiesäulen bei der Behandlung des metastasierten Melanoms und auch vieler anderer fortgeschrittener Tumoren bilden wird. In dieser Übersicht werden die wichtigsten neuen Therapiemodalitäten besprochen und sowohl deren Wirkprinzip als auch klinische Daten zum Therapieansprechen und zu erwartenden Nebenwirkungen der Therapie referiert. PMID:27373243

  17. Various velocity correlations functions in a Lorentz gas - simulation and mode coupling theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, C. P.; Masters, A. J.

    1995-02-01

    We present computer simulation results for several types of velocity correlation function in the two dimensional, overlapping Lorentz gas. Only the normal velocity autocorrelation function, whose integral gives the diffusion constant, shows obvious anomalous behaviour at the percolation transition. The other functions are fairly well approximated by the Lorentz-Boltzmann equation, even for densities at which the travelling particle is trapped. We do, however, at a sub-percolation density, examine the long time behaviour of the autocorrelation function corresponding to the second rank, irreducible tensor of the velocity, and find an algebraic decay with an exponent of 3.0 ± 0.1, consistent with the theoretically expected value of 3. With these observations in mind we re-examine the mode coupling theory of Götze, Leutheusser and Yip (Phys. Rev. A 23 (1981) 2634,) replacing their one (frequency dependent) relaxation time approximation to a kinetic operator by a two (frequency dependent) relaxation time model. We find that this leads to a significantly better estimate of the diffusions constant at low density. Furthermore the theory correctly predicts no striking anomalous behaviour in the types of velocity correlation function that are unrelated to diffusion as the percolation threshold is crossed.

  18. Bianchi type-II models in the presence of perfect fluid and anisotropic dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Suresh; Akarsu, Özgür

    2012-06-01

    The spatially homogeneous but totally anisotropic and non-flat Bianchi type-II cosmological model has been studied in general relativity in the presence of two minimally interacting fluids; a perfect fluid as the matter fluid and a hypothetical anisotropic fluid as the dark energy fluid. The Einstein field equations have been solved by applying two kinematical Ansätze: we have assumed the variation law for the mean Hubble parameter that yields a constant value of the deceleration parameter, and one of the components of the shear tensor has been considered proportional to the mean Hubble parameter. We have particularly dwelled on the accelerating models with non-divergent expansion anisotropy as the Universe evolves. Yielding the anisotropic pressure, the fluid we consider in the context of dark energy can produce results that can be produced in the presence of isotropic fluid in accordance with the ΛCDM cosmology. However, the derived model gives additional opportunities by being able to allow kinematics that cannot be produced in the presence of fluids that yield only isotropic pressure. We have obtained well-behaving cases where the anisotropy of the expansion and the anisotropy of the fluid converge to finite values (include zero) in the late Universe. We have also showed that, although the metric we consider is totally anisotropic, the anisotropy of the dark energy is constrained to be axially symmetric, as long as the overall energy momentum tensor possesses zero shear stress.

  19. Engineering the just war: examination of an approach to teaching engineering ethics.

    PubMed

    Haws, David R

    2006-04-01

    The efficiency of engineering applied to civilian projects sometimes threatens to run away with the social agenda, but in military applications, engineering often adds a devastating sleekness to the inevitable destruction of life. The relative crudeness of terrorism (e.g., 9/11) leaves a stark after-image, which belies the comparative insignificance of random (as opposed to orchestrated) belligerence. Just as engineering dwarfs the bricolage of vernacular design 'moving us past the appreciation of brush-strokes, so to speak' the scale of engineered destruction makes it difficult to focus on the charred remains of individual lives. Engineers need to guard against the inappropriate military subsumption of their effort. Fortunately, the ethics of warfare has been an ongoing topic of discussion for millennia. This paper will examine the university core class I've developed (The Moral Dimensions of Technology) to meet accreditation requirements in engineering ethics, and the discussion with engineering and non-engineering students focused by the life of electrical engineer Vannevar Bush, with selected readings in moral philosophy from the Dao de Jing, Lao Tze, Cicero, Aurelius Augustinus, Kant, Annette Baier, Peter Singer, Elizabeth Anscombe, Philippa Foot, and Judith Thomson. PMID:16609723

  20. The Purpose-Like Nature of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Popa

    According to Jeffrey Tze-Fei Wong (2002): A living system is one capable of reproduction and evolution, with a fundamental logic that demands an incessant search for performance with respect to its building blocks and arrangement of these building blocks. The search will end only when perfection or near perfection is reached. Without this built-in search, living systems could not have achieved the level of complexity and excellence to deserve the designation of life." The reader must understand that a distinction exists between how the common language defines purpose and what the theory of early life means by it. In Dexter's dictionary the word purpose' is anthropocentrically associated to performing an action with a conscious (deliberate) aim, intention and/or design. Yet life displays elaborate and suitable features that resemble the results of a purpose-like action (Szathmáry 2002). In fact any material-energetic order has the potential for a tendency' (or purposefulness') directed in the opposite sense to entropy (Valenzuela 2002). Because the purposefulness' of their function is such a vigorous and typical property of living organisms (Korzeniewski 2001, Szathmáry 2002), the search for a theory of life is more productive if it focuses on the best explanation for life (Bedau 1998).

  1. Asymptotic decay of the pair correlation function in molecular fluids: Application to hard rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenko, S. V.; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2005-08-01

    We investigate the asymptotic decay of the total correlation function h(1,2) in molecular fluids. To this end, we expand the angular dependence of h(1,2) and the direct correlation function c(1,2) in the Ornstein-Zernike equation in a complete set of rotational invariants. We show that all the harmonic expansion coefficients hl1l2l(r) are governed by a common exponential decay length and a common wavelength of oscillations in the isotropic phase. We determine the asymptotic decay of the total correlation functions by investigating the pole structure of the reciprocal ( q -space) harmonic expansion coefficients hl1l2l(q) . The expansion coefficients in laboratory frame of reference hl1l2l(r) are calculated in computer simulations for an isotropic fluid of hard spherocylinders. We find that the asymptotic decay of h(1,2) is exponentially damped oscillatory for hard spherocylinders with a length-to-diameter ratio L/D⩽10 for all statepoints in the isotropic fluid phase. We compare our results on the pole structure using different theoretical Ansätze for c(1,2) for hard ellipsoids. The theoretical results show that the asymptotic decay of h(1,2) is exponentially damped oscillatory for all elongations of the ellipsoids.

  2. Varying constants quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczyńska, Katarzyna; Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P. E-mail: abalcerz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2015-02-01

    We discuss minisuperspace models within the framework of varying physical constants theories including Λ-term. In particular, we consider the varying speed of light (VSL) theory and varying gravitational constant theory (VG) using the specific ansätze for the variability of constants: c(a) = c{sub 0} a{sup n} and G(a)=G{sub 0} a{sup q}. We find that most of the varying c and G minisuperspace potentials are of the tunneling type which allows to use WKB approximation of quantum mechanics. Using this method we show that the probability of tunneling of the universe ''from nothing'' (a=0) to a Friedmann geometry with the scale factor a{sub t} is large for growing c models and is strongly suppressed for diminishing c models. As for G varying, the probability of tunneling is large for G diminishing, while it is small for G increasing. In general, both varying c and G change the probability of tunneling in comparison to the standard matter content (cosmological term, dust, radiation) universe models.

  3. Confronting effective models for deconfinement in dense quark matter with lattice data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Brauner, Tomáš; Naylor, William R.

    2015-12-01

    Ab initio numerical simulations of the thermodynamics of dense quark matter remain a challenge. Apart from the infamous sign problem, lattice methods have to deal with finite volume and discretization effects as well as with the necessity to introduce sources for symmetry-breaking order parameters. We study these artifacts in the Polyakov-loop-extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model and compare its predictions to existing lattice data for cold and dense two-color matter with two flavors of Wilson quarks. To achieve even qualitative agreement with lattice data requires the introduction of two novel elements in the model: (i) explicit chiral symmetry breaking in the effective contact four-fermion interaction, referred to as the chiral twist, and (ii) renormalization of the Polyakov loop. The feedback of the dense medium to the gauge sector is modeled by a chemical-potential-dependent scale in the Polyakov-loop potential. In contrast to previously used analytical Ansätze, we determine its dependence on the chemical potential from lattice data for the expectation value of the Polyakov loop. Finally, we propose adding a two-derivative operator to our effective model. This term acts as an additional source of explicit chiral symmetry breaking, mimicking an analogous term in the lattice Wilson action.

  4. Effective field theory of dark energy: a dynamical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Frusciante, Noemi; Raveri, Marco; Silvestri, Alessandra E-mail: mraveri@sissa.it

    2014-02-01

    The effective field theory (EFT) of dark energy relies on three functions of time to describe the dynamics of background cosmology. The viability of these functions is investigated here by means of a thorough dynamical analysis. While the system is underdetermined, and one can always find a set of functions reproducing any expansion history, we are able to determine general compatibility conditions for these functions by requiring a viable background cosmology. In particular, we identify a set of variables that allows us to transform the non-autonomous system of equations into an infinite-dimensional one characterized by a significant recursive structure. We then analyze several autonomous sub-systems, obtained truncating the original one at increasingly higher dimension, that correspond to increasingly general models of dark energy and modified gravity. Furthermore, we exploit the recursive nature of the system to draw some general conclusions on the different cosmologies that can be recovered within the EFT formalism and the corresponding compatibility requirements for the EFT functions. The machinery that we set up serves different purposes. It offers a general scheme for performing dynamical analysis of dark energy and modified gravity models within the model independent framework of EFT; the general results, obtained with this technique, can be projected into specific models, as we show in one example. It also can be used to determine appropriate ansätze for the three EFT background functions when studying the dynamics of cosmological perturbations in the context of large scale structure tests of gravity.

  5. Discovery of Weyl fermion semimetal and topological Fermi arc quasiparticles in TaAs, NbAs, NbP, TaP and related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. Zahid

    Topological matter can host Dirac, Majorana and Weyl fermions as quasiparticle modes on their boundaries. First, I briefly mention the basic theoretical concepts defining insulators and superconductors where topological surface state modes are robust only in the presence of a gap (Hasan & Kane; Rev. of Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 (2010)). In these systems topological protection is lost once the gap is closed turning the system into a trivial metal. A Weyl semimetal is the rare exception in this scheme which is a topologically robust metal (semimetal) whose low energy emergent excitations are Weyl fermions. In a Weyl fermion semimetal, the chiralities associated with the Weyl nodes can be understood as topological charges, leading to split monopoles and anti-monopoles of Berry curvature in momentum space. This gives a measure of the topological strength of the system. Due to this topology a Weyl semimetal is expected to exhibit 2D Fermi arc quasiparticles on its surface (Wan et.al., 2011). These arcs (``fractional'' Fermi surfaces) are discontinuous or disjoint segments of a two dimensional Fermi contour, which are terminated onto the projections of the Weyl fermion nodes on the surface we have observed experimentally in TaAs, NbAs, NbP class of materials (Xu, Belopolski et.al., Science 349, 613 (2015); Xu, Alidoust et.al., Nature Phys. (2015); Xu, Belopolski et.al., Science Adv. (2015), Belopolski, Xu et.al., arXiv (2015)) following our theoretical predictions (Huang, Xu, Belopolski et.al., Nature Commun. 6:7373 (2015), submitted in November 2014). Our theoretical predictions (Nature Commun. 2015) and experimental demonstrations (Science 2015, Nature Physics 2015, Science Advances 2015) reveal that these Fermi arc quasiparticles can only live on the boundary of a 3D crystal which collectively represents the realization of a new state of quantum matter beyond our earlier work on Fermi arcs in topological materials (Xu, Liu, Kushwaha et.al., Science 347, 294 (2015), adv

  6. Taylor-plasticity-based analysis of length scale effects in void growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. X.; Demiral, M.; El Sayed, T.

    2014-10-01

    We have studied the void growth problem by employing the Taylor-based strain gradient plasticity theories, from which we have chosen the following three, namely, the mechanism-based strain gradient (MSG) plasticity (Gao et al 1999 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47 1239, Huang et al 2000 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 48 99-128), the Taylor-based nonlocal theory (TNT; 2001 Gao and Huang 2001 Int. J. Solids Struct. 38 2615) and the conventional theory of MSG (CMSG; Huang et al 2004 Int. J. Plast. 20 753). We have addressed the following three issues which occur when plastic deformation at the void surface is unconstrained. (1) Effects of elastic deformation. Elasticity is essential for cavitation instability. It is therefore important to guarantee that the gradient term entering the Taylor model is the effective plastic strain gradient instead of the total strain gradient. We propose a simple elastic-plastic decomposition method. When the void size approaches the minimum allowable initial void size related to the maximum allowable geometrically necessary dislocation density, overestimation of the flow stress due to the negligence of the elastic strain gradient is on the order of \\frac{l\\varepsilon_Y}{R0} near the void surface, where l, ɛY and R0 are, respectively, the intrinsic material length scale, the yield strain and the initial void radius. (2) MSG intrinsic inconsistency, which was initially mentioned in Gao et al (1999 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47 1239) but has not been the topic of follow-up studies. We realize that MSG higher-order stress arises due to the linear-strain-field approximation within the mesoscale cell with a nonzero size, lɛ. Simple analysis shows that within an MSG mesoscale cell near the void surface, the difference between microscale and mesoscale strains is on the order of (\\frac{l\\varepsilon}{R0})2 , indicating that when \\frac{l\\varepsilon}{R0}˜ 1.0 , the higher-order stress effect can make the MSG result considerably different from the TNT or CMSG

  7. Theory of exciton transfer and diffusion in conjugated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Barford, William; Tozer, Oliver Robert

    2014-10-28

    We describe a theory of Förster-type exciton transfer between conjugated polymers. The theory is built on three assumptions. First, we assume that the low-lying excited states of conjugated polymers are Frenkel excitons coupled to local normal modes, and described by the Frenkel-Holstein model. Second, we assume that the relevant parameter regime is ℏω < J, i.e., the adiabatic regime, and thus the Born-Oppenheimer factorization of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom is generally applicable. Finally, we assume that the Condon approximation is valid, i.e., the exciton-polaron wavefunction is essentially independent of the normal modes. The resulting expression for the exciton transfer rate has a familiar form, being a function of the exciton transfer integral and the effective Franck-Condon factors. The effective Franck-Condon factors are functions of the effective Huang-Rhys parameters, which are inversely proportional to the chromophore size. The Born-Oppenheimer expressions were checked against DMRG calculations, and are found to be within 10% of the exact value for a tiny fraction of the computational cost. This theory of exciton transfer is then applied to model exciton migration in conformationally disordered poly(p-phenylene vinylene). Key to this modeling is the assumption that the donor and acceptor chromophores are defined by local exciton ground states (LEGSs). Since LEGSs are readily determined by the exciton center-of-mass wavefunction, this theory provides a quantitative link between polymer conformation and exciton migration. Our Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the exciton diffusion length depends weakly on the conformation of the polymer, with the diffusion length increasing slightly as the chromophores became straighter and longer. This is largely a geometrical effect: longer and straighter chromophores extend over larger distances. The calculated diffusion lengths of ∼10 nm are in good agreement with experiment. The spectral

  8. Light Absorption of Brown Carbon Aerosol in the Pearl River Delta Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    X.F. Huang, J.F. Yuan, L.M. Cao, J. Cui, C.N. Huang, Z.J. Lan and L.Y. He Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, ChinaCorresponding author. Tel.: +86 755 26032532; fax: +86 755 26035332. E-mail address: huangxf@pku.edu.cn (X. F. Huang). Abstract: The strong spectral dependence of light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) aerosol has been recognized in recent decades. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) of ambient aerosol was widely used in previous studies to attribute light absorption of brown carbon at shorter wavelengths, with a theoretical assumption that the AAE of black carbon (BC) aerosol equals to unit. In this study, the AAE method was improved by statistical extrapolation based on ambient measurements in the polluted seasons in typical urban and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China. A three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) were used to explore the relationship between the ambient measured AAE and the ratio of organic aerosol to BC aerosol, in order to extract the more realistic AAE by pure BC aerosol, which were found to be 0.86, 0.82 and 1.02 at 405nm and 0.70, 0.71, and 0.86 at 532nm in the campaigns of urban-winter, urban-fall, and rural-fall, respectively. Roadway tunnel experiment results further supported the effectiveness of the obtained AAE for pure BC aerosol. In addition, biomass burning experiments proved higher spectral dependence of more-BrC environment and further verified the reliability of the instruments' response. Then, the average light absorption contribution of BrC aerosol was calculated to be 11.7, 6.3 and 12.1% (with total relative uncertainty of 7.5, 6.9 and 10.0%) at 405nm and 10.0, 4.1 and 5.5% (with total relative uncertainty of 6.5, 8.6 and 15.4%) at 532nm of the three campaigns, respectively. These results indicate that the

  9. Validation of two energy balance closure parameterisations using field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Fabian; De Roo, Frederik; Kohnert, Katrin; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Foken, Thomas; Schmid, Hans Peter; Mauder, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements often do not close the energy balance. This indicates that surface heat fluxes are underestimated, likely because large-scale eddies and stationary circulations are not captured. Because EC is a widespread tool in environmental science to assess energy fluxes and trace gas budgets, it is essential to quantify the 'missing' fluxes. In the literature, two approaches to parameterise the lack of energy balance closure can be found. The first one by Huang et al (2008) is based on large-eddy simulations (LES) and perceives the energy imbalance as being the result of large-scale turbulent organized structures. The second approach by Panin and Bernhofer (2008) suggests an empirical approach which focuses on surface roughness heterogeneities on the landscape-scale. We tested both approaches with EC data from three sites, located in southern Germany, of the Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) programme. Additionally, we applied the parameterisations to aircraft data from Canada, which were conducted as part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) experiment and the Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites (BERMS) programme. For each flight, the flux contribution of turbulent structures larger than 2 km, determined by wavelet analysis, serves as an estimate of the missing flux of conventional EC measurements. In most cases, the two parameterisations do not give a reliable prediction of the energy balance residual. The approach of Panin and Bernhofer (2008) disregards topographical effects, differences in surface moisture and surface temperature and thus, it cannot explain the poor energy balance closure of the TERENO sites. However, above the flat terrain of the airborne measurements in Canada, it works surprisingly well. The parameterisation by Huang et al (2008) was developed for homogeneous terrain, a condition which is almost never met in field studies. In addition, there is a general mismatch between LES and

  10. Downward continuation methods for gravimetric geoid modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Véronneau, M.

    2003-04-01

    The determination of a gravimetric geoid model based on the Stokes integral requires that gravity anomalies must be on the geoid and that the anomalous potential must be harmonic above the geoid. To fulfill these requirements, gravity observations (or gravity anomalies) collected on the surface of the Earth need to be reduced to the geoid by a) removing the masses above the geoid and compensating for this removal; and b) continuing the gravity anomalies downward to the geoid. A well-known case is the determination of the Helmert gravity anomalies on the geoid in terms of Helmert's 2nd condensation method (e.g. Martinec et al. 1993). There are two procedures to follow for the evaluation of the Helmert gravity anomalies on the geoid: a) the Helmert gravity anomalies are evaluated on the irregular Earth surface, then are continued downward to the geoid, i.e., masses above the geoid are removed and restored as a condensed layer on the geoid prior to the downward continuation; b) alternatively the refined Bouguer anomalies on the surface of the Earth are downward-continued to the geoid, then the Helmert gravity anomalies are evaluated on the geoid, i.e., the condensed masses are restored after the downward continuation. Both procedures are theoretically equivalent (Huang et al. 2002a). In theory, the inclusion of the downward continuation should improve the geoid regardless of the approach chosen. However, different authors arrive at contradictory conclusions pertaining to its applications (e.g. Pavlis 1998; Ardalan 2000; Jekili and Serpas 2002; Véronneau and Huang 2002). This raises an open question as to how researchers should evaluate the downward continuation in order to improve geoid modeling. In this research, the two procedures described above are used to determine the geoid in Canada. The downward continuations are evaluated using the Poisson and Moritz methods (e.g. Moritz 1980; Sideris 1988; Vanícek et al. 1996; Martinec 1996; Sjöberg 1998; Nahavandchi 2000

  11. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Transient Dipolar Radicals via Autodetachment of Dipole-Bound States of Cold Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dao-Ling; Liu, Hong-Tao; Dau, Phuong Diem; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    High-resolution vibrational spectroscopy of transient species is important for determining their molecular structures and understanding their chemical reactivity. However, the low abundance and high reactivity of molecular radicals pose major challenges to conventional absorption spectroscopic methods. The observation of dipole-bound states (DBS) in anions extend autodetachment spectroscopy to molecular anions whose corresponding neutral radicals possess a large enough dipole moment (>2.5 D).1,2 However, due to the difficulty of assigning the congested spectra at room temperature, there have been only a limited number of autodetachment spectra via DBS reported. Recently, we have built an improved version of a cold trap3 coupled with high-resolution photoelectron imaging.4 The first observation of mode-specific auotodetachment of DBS of cold phenoxide have shown that not only vibrational hot bands were completely suppressed, but also rotational profile was observed.5 The vibrational frequencies of the DBS were found to be the same as those of the neutral radical, suggesting that vibrational structures of dipolar radicals can be probed via DBS.5 More significantly, the DBS resonances allowed a number of vibrational modes with very weak Frank-Condon factors to be "lightened" up via vibrational autodetachment.5 Recently, our first high-resolution vibrational spectroscopy of the dehydrogenated uracil radical, with partial rotational resolution, via autodetachment from DBS of cold deprotonated uracil anions have been reported.6 Rich vibrational information is obtained for this important radical species. The resolved rotational profiles also allow us to characterize the rotational temperature of the trapped anions for the first time.6 1 K. R. Lykke, D. M. Neumark, T. Andersen, V. J. Trapa, and W. C. Lineberger, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 6842 (1987). 2 D. M. Wetzel, and J. I. Brauman, J. Chem. Phys. 90, 68 (1989). 3 P. D. Dau, H. T. Liu, D. L. Huang, and L. S. Wang, J. Chem. Phys

  12. Revisiting the Emission from Relativistic Blast Waves in a Density-jump Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, J. J.; Wu, X. F.; Li, Liang; Huang, Y. F.; Dai, Z. G.

    2014-09-01

    Re-brightening bumps are frequently observed in gamma-ray burst afterglows. Many scenarios have been proposed to interpret the origin of these bumps, of which a blast wave encountering a density-jump in the circumburst environment has been questioned by recent works. We develop a set of differential equations to calculate the relativistic outflow encountering the density-jump by extending the work of Huang et al. This approach is a semi-analytic method and is very convenient. Our results show that late high-amplitude bumps cannot be produced under common conditions, rather only a short plateau may emerge even when the encounter occurs at an early time (<104 s). In general, our results disfavor the density-jump origin for those observed bumps, which is consistent with the conclusion drawn from full hydrodynamics studies. The bumps thus should be caused by other scenarios.

  13. Thermodynamic Database for the NdO(1.5)-YO(1.5)-YbO(1.5)-ScO(1.5)-ZrO2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Copland, Evan H.; Kaufman, Larry

    2001-01-01

    A database for YO(1.5)-NdO(1.5)-YbO(1.5)-ScO(1.5)-ZrO2 for ThermoCalc (ThermoCalc AB, Stockholm, Sweden) has been developed. The basis of this work is the YO(1.5)-ZrO2 assessment by Y. Du, Z. Jin, and P. Huang, 'Thermodynamic Assessment of the ZrO2-YO(1.5) System'. Experimentally only the YO(1.5)-ZrO2 system has been well-studied. All other systems are only approximately known. The major simplification in this work is the treatment of each single cation unit as a component. The pure liquid oxides are taken as reference states and two term lattice stability descriptions are used for each of the components. The limited experimental phase diagrams are reproduced.

  14. Landau superfluids as nonequilibrium stationary states

    SciTech Connect

    Wreszinski, Walter F.

    2015-01-15

    We define a superfluid state to be a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS), which, at zero temperature, satisfies certain metastability conditions, which physically express that there should be a sufficiently small energy-momentum transfer between the particles of the fluid and the surroundings (e.g., pipe). It is shown that two models, the Girardeau model and the Huang-Yang-Luttinger (HYL) model, describe superfluids in this sense and, moreover, that, in the case of the HYL model, the metastability condition is directly related to Nozières’ conjecture that, due to the repulsive interaction, the condensate does not suffer fragmentation into two (or more) parts, thereby assuring its quantum coherence. The models are rigorous examples of NESS in which the system is not finite, but rather a many-body system.

  15. Convergence to global equilibrium for Fokker-Planck equations on a graph and Talagrand-type inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Rui; Huang, Wen; Li, Yao; Tetali, Prasad

    2016-08-01

    In 2012, Chow, Huang, Li and Zhou [7] proposed the Fokker-Planck equations for the free energy on a finite graph, in which they showed that the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation is a nonlinear ODE defined on a Riemannian manifold of probability distributions. Different choices for inner products result in different Fokker-Planck equations. The unique global equilibrium of each equation is a Gibbs distribution. In this paper we proved that the exponential rate of convergence towards the global equilibrium of these Fokker-Planck equations. The rate is measured by both the decay of the L2 norm and that of the (relative) entropy. With the convergence result, we also prove two Talagrand-type inequalities relating relative entropy and Wasserstein metric, based on two different metrics introduced in [7]. The first one is a local inequality, while the second is a global inequality with respect to the "lower bound metric" from [7].

  16. Taxonomic notes on the genus Orthobrachia Warren, with description of a new species from China and Thailand (Lepidoptera, Geometridae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guo-Hua; Su, Zi-You; Stüning, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All seven members of the genus Orthobrachia Warren, 1895 are recorded, with description of a new species from Sichuan Province, China and N. Thailand, including Orthobrachia latifasciata (Moore, 1888) and Orthobrachia flavidior (Hampson, 1898) from northern India, Nepal and China, Orthobrachia tenebrosa Yazaki, 1992 from Nepal and India, Orthobrachia owadai Yazaki, 1992 from India, Orthobrachia simpliciata Yazaki, 2002 from China, and Orthobrachia maoershanensis Huang, Xin & Wang, 2003 from South China. A key to the Orthobrachia species is provided, along with a distributional map of all nominal species. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in Hunan Agricultural University (China), South China Agricultural University (China) and Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig (Germany). PMID:27563275

  17. Study of electron-vibrational interaction and concentration quenching effect of Cu+ ions in lithium based sulphate phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoyar, Priyanka D.; Choithrani, Renu; Dhoble, S. J.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study electron-vibrational interaction (EVI) and concentration quenching and their manifestation in experimental photoluminescence spectra of Cu+ ion in various lithium based phosphors namely, Li2SO4, LiNaSO4 and LiKSO4. The main parameters of EVI, such as the Stokes shift, Huang-Rhys factor and zero-phonon line positions, were estimated. The studied systems shows strong electron lattice coupling. The validity of results was established by modeling the shape of the emission spectra, which was found to be in good agreement with experimental photoluminescence spectra. The concentration quenching study is also carried out for these compounds. The studied systems correspond to the nearest neighbor energy transfer mechanism.

  18. Comprehensive comparisons of geodesic acoustic mode characteristics and dynamics between Tore Supra experiments and gyrokinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Storelli, A. Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; Singh, Rameswar; Morel, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Ghendrih, P.; Görler, T.

    2015-06-15

    In a dedicated collisionality scan in Tore Supra, the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is detected and identified with the Doppler backscattering technique. Observations are compared to the results of a simulation with the gyrokinetic code GYSELA. We found that the GAM frequency in experiments is lower than predicted by simulation and theory. Moreover, the disagreement is higher in the low collisionality scenario. Bursts of non harmonic GAM oscillations have been characterized with filtering techniques, such as the Hilbert-Huang transform. When comparing this dynamical behaviour between experiments and simulation, the probability density function of GAM amplitude and the burst autocorrelation time are found to be remarkably similar. In the simulation, where the radial profile of GAM frequency is continuous, we observed a phenomenon of radial phase mixing of the GAM oscillations, which could influence the burst autocorrelation time.

  19. 3D Modeling of Laser Propagation in Ionizing Gas and Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, J.; Antonsen, T., Jr.; Huang, C.; Mori, W.

    2003-10-01

    The interaction of a high intensity laser with ionizing gas and plasmas is of current interest for both Laser Wakefield Accelerators and x-ray generation. We have developed a 3D fluid simulation code based on the same quasistatic approximation used in the 2D code WAKE [1]. The object oriented structure of the code also allows it to couple to the quickPIC particle code [2]. We will present 3D studies of the ionization scattering instability [3], which occurs when a laser pulse propagates in an ionizing gas. [1] P. Mora and T. Antonsen, Jr., Phys. Plasmas 4(1), January 1997 [2] J. Cooley, T. Antonsen, Jr., C. Huang, etal., Proceedings, Advanced Accelerator Concepts, 2002 [3] Z. Bian and T. Antonsen, Jr., Phys. Plasmas 8(7), July 2001 * work supported by NSF and DOE

  20. Detection of Unusual Events and Trends in Complex Non-Stationary Data Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Rafael B; Protopopescu, Vladimir A; Worley, Brian Addison; Perez, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    The search for unusual events and trends hidden in multi-component, nonlinear, non-stationary, noisy signals is extremely important for a host of different applications, ranging from nuclear power plant and electric grid operation to internet traffic and implementation of non-proliferation protocols. In the context of this work, we define an unusual event as a local signal disturbance and a trend as a continuous carrier of information added to and different from the underlying baseline dynamics. The goal of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of detecting hidden intermittent events inside non-stationary signal data sets corrupted by high levels of noise, by using the Hilbert-Huang empirical mode decomposition method.

  1. Magnetic Excitations below the Orbital Phase Transition of La_4Ru_2O_10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Raymond; Khalifah, Peter; Nagler, Stephen; Lumsden, Mark; Frost, Christopher; Bewley, Robert

    2004-03-01

    We have measured magnetic excitations in the layered ruthenate compound, La_4Ru_2O_10, which undergoes a first-order orbital phase transition at 160K [P. Khalifah, R. Osborn, Q. Huang, H. W. Zandbergen, R.Jin, Y. Liu, D. Mandrus, R. J. Cava, Science 297, 2237 (2002)]. Inelastic neutron scattering from polycrystalline samples showed that the magnetic response of the high-temperature phase is quasielastic, arising from spin fluctuations within the S=1 ground state of the 4d^4 t_2g electrons, but becomes predominantly inelastic in the low-temperature phase with an excitation centered at 40 meV. New single crystal measurements using the the HB3 triple axis spectrometer (HFIR, ORNL) and MAPS spectrometer (ISIS Pulsed Neutron Facility) reveal a strong Q-dependence of S( Q,ω), reflecting the importance of interionic interactions. We discuss possible models of the magnetic excitation spectrum and their relevance to the orbital phase transition.

  2. Comment on ‘multifractal diffusion entropy analysis on stock volatility in financial markets’ [Physica A 391 (2012) 5739-5745

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    In their recent article ‘multifractal diffusion entropy analysis on stock volatility in financial markets’ Huang, Shang and Zhao (2012) [6] suggested a generalization of the diffusion entropy analysis method with the main goal of being able to reveal scaling exponents for multifractal times series. The main idea seems to be replacing the Shannon entropy by the Rényi entropy, which is a one-parametric family of entropies. The authors claim that based on their method they are able to separate long range and short correlations of financial market multifractal time series. In this comment I show that the suggested new method does not bring much valuable information in obtaining the correct scaling for a multifractal/mono-fractal process beyond the original diffusion entropy analysis method. I also argue that the mathematical properties of the multifractal diffusion entropy analysis should be carefully explored to avoid possible numerical artefacts when implementing the method in analysis of real sequences of data.

  3. A numerical study of the motion of a neutrally buoyant cylinder in two dimensional shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Huang, Shih-Lin; Chen, Shih-Di; Chu, Chin-Chou; Chang, Chien-Cheng

    2012-11-01

    We have investigated the motion of a neutrally buoyant cylinder of circular or elliptic shape in two dimensional shear flow of a Newtonian fluid by direct numerical simulation. The numerical results are validated by comparisons with existing theoretical, experimental and numerical results, including a power law of the normalized angular speed versus the particle Reynolds number. The centerline between two walls is an expected equilibrium position of the cylinder mass center in shear flow. When placing the particle away from the centerline initially, it migrates toward another equilibrium position for higher Reynolds numbers due to the interplay between the slip velocity, the Magnus force, and the wall repulsion force. T-W Pan acknowledges the support by the US NSF and S-L Huang, S-D Chen, C-C Chu, C-C Chang acknowledge the support by the National Science Council of Taiwan, ROC.

  4. Post-buckling analysis for the precisely controlled buckling of thin film encapsulated by elastomeric subsrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, H.; Sun, Y.; Rogers, J. A.; Huang, Y.; Arizona State Univ.; Univ. of Illinois; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-04-01

    The precisely controlled buckling of stiff thin films (e.g., Si or GaAs nano ribbons) on the patterned surface of elastomeric substrate (e.g., poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)) with periodic inactivated and activated regions was designed by Sun et al. [Sun, Y., Choi, W.M., Jiang, H., Huang, Y.Y., Rogers, J.A., 2006. Controlled buckling of semiconductor nanoribbons for stretchable electronics. Nature Nanotechnology 1, 201-207] for important applications of stretchable electronics. We have developed a post-buckling model based on the energy method for the precisely controlled buckling to study the system stretchability. The results agree with Sun et al.'s (2006) experiments without any parameter fitting, and the system can reach 120% stretchability.

  5. Surface and interface phonon-polaritons in freestanding quantum well wire systems of polar ternary mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, C. L.; Bao, J.; Yan, Z. W.

    2016-03-01

    The surface and interface phonon-polaritons in freestanding rectangular quantum well wire systems consisting of polar ternary mixed crystals are investigated in the modified random-element-isodisplacement model and the Born-Huang approximation, based on the Maxwell's equations with the boundary conditions. The numerical results of the surface and interface phonon-polariton frequencies as functions of the wave-vector, geometric structure, and the composition of the ternary mixed crystals in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs and ZnxCd1-xSe/ZnSe quantum well wire systems are obtained and discussed. It is shown that there are 10 and 8 branches of surface and interface phonon-polaritons in the two quantum well wire systems respectively. The effects of the "two-mode" and "one-mode" behaviors of the ternary mixed crystals on the surface and interface phonon-polariton modes are shown in the dispersion curves.

  6. Localization of phonon polaritons in disordered polar media.

    PubMed

    Satanin, Arkady M; Joe, Yong S; Kim, Chang Sub; Vasilevskiy, Mikhail I

    2005-12-01

    The localization of the hybrid modes of phonons and photons in polar matter is investigated in the presence of random scatterers theoretically. We employ the self-consistent generalized Born-Huang approach to derive effective equations describing the phonon-polariton fields. Based on these equations, the density of states and various localization properties are exploited in two-dimensional systems both analytically and numerically within the framework of the Anderson model with a non-Hermitian effective Hamiltonian. Consequently, it is shown that the disorder effect brings some intriguing features which include the appearance of the localized states in the polariton bottleneck in the energy spectrum and the collapse of the energy gap. In addition, an analysis is given of the polariton level-spacing distribution. PMID:16486089

  7. Application of sewage sludge compost on highway embankments.

    PubMed

    Pengcheng, Gao; Xinbao, Tang; Yanan, Tong; Yingxu, Chen

    2008-01-01

    More and more sewage sludge is being produced in China. Safe and economical methods for sewage sludge disposal should be found considering the increase in sewage treatment. In order to verify the feasibility of sludge disposal on newly built highway embankments, five treatments (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 tons ha(-1)) of sewage sludge compost (SSC) were added to a silty-clay embankment soil on the Xi-Huang highway. The results showed that amendment with SSC increased soil available N, available P, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and water content, and decreased soil bulk density. Application of SSC enhanced ryegrass growth and reduced runoff and soil erosion. Heavy metal losses from sediments in runoff remained constant or decreased relative to the control until a rate of 60 tons ha(-1) was exceeded, when heavy metal losses appeared to increase. PMID:17910912

  8. Full-dimensional vibrational calculations for H5O2+ using an ab initio potential energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Anne B.; Huang, Xinchuan; Carter, Stuart; Landeweer, Marc Y.; Bowman, Joel M.

    2005-02-01

    We report quantum diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) and variational calculations in full dimensionality for selected vibrational states of H5O2+ using a new ab initio potential energy surface [X. Huang, B. Braams, and J. M. Bowman, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 044308 (2005)]. The energy and properties of the zero-point state are focused on in the rigorous DMC calculations. OH-stretch fundamentals are also calculated using "fixed-node" DMC calculations and variationally using two versions of the code MULTIMODE. These results are compared with infrared multiphoton dissociation measurements of Yeh et al. [L. I. Yeh, M. Okumura, J. D. Myers, J. M. Price, and Y. T. Lee, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 7319 (1989)]. Some preliminary results for the energies of several modes of the shared hydrogen are also reported.

  9. Spin transport through n-type doped silicon using electrical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, H.-Jae; Huang, Biqin; Appelbaum, Ian

    2008-03-01

    In this presentation, we report on all-electrical injection, transport, and detection of spin-polarized electrons through a 3um n-type Phosphorus-doped single-crystal silicon device. Using our hot-electron methods, we demonstrate both spin-valve behavior in an in-plane magnetic field and spin precession in a perpendicular magnetic field. Voltage spectroscopy reveals the effects of charge screening and band bending in the spin transport layer which are not evident in the operation of our previously-studied undoped silicon devices [1,2]. References [1] Ian Appelbaum et al. Nature 447, 295 (2007). [2] Biqin Huang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 177209 (2007).

  10. Quasiparticle Properties of a Mobile Impurity in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Rasmus Søgaard; Levinsen, Jesper; Bruun, Georg M.

    2015-10-01

    We develop a systematic perturbation theory for the quasiparticle properties of a single impurity immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Analytical results are derived for the impurity energy, effective mass, and residue to third order in the impurity-boson scattering length. The energy is shown to depend logarithmically on the scattering length to third order, whereas the residue and the effective mass are given by analytical power series. When the boson-boson scattering length equals the boson-impurity scattering length, the energy has the same structure as that of a weakly interacting Bose gas, including terms of the Lee-Huang-Yang and fourth order logarithmic form. Our results, which cannot be obtained within the canonical Fröhlich model of an impurity interacting with phonons, provide valuable benchmarks for many-body theories and for experiments.

  11. Hazard analysis for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facilty

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.J.; Brehm, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    This hazard analysis (HA) has been prepared for the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility (Facility), in compliance with the requirements of Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) controlled manual WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual, and to the direction of WHC-IP-0690, Safety Analysis and Regulation Desk Instructions, (WHC 1992). An HA identifies potentially hazardous conditions in a facility and the associated potential accident scenarios. Unlike the Facility hazard classification documented in WHC-SD-NR-HC-004, Hazard Classification for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility, (Huang 1993), which is based on unmitigated consequences, credit is taken in an HA for administrative controls or engineered safety features planned or in place. The HA is the foundation for the accident analysis. The significant event scenarios identified by this HA will be further evaluated in a subsequent accident analysis.

  12. Revisiting the emission from relativistic blast waves in a density-jump medium

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, J. J.; Huang, Y. F.; Dai, Z. G.; Wu, X. F.; Li, Liang E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn

    2014-09-01

    Re-brightening bumps are frequently observed in gamma-ray burst afterglows. Many scenarios have been proposed to interpret the origin of these bumps, of which a blast wave encountering a density-jump in the circumburst environment has been questioned by recent works. We develop a set of differential equations to calculate the relativistic outflow encountering the density-jump by extending the work of Huang et al. This approach is a semi-analytic method and is very convenient. Our results show that late high-amplitude bumps cannot be produced under common conditions, rather only a short plateau may emerge even when the encounter occurs at an early time (<10{sup 4} s). In general, our results disfavor the density-jump origin for those observed bumps, which is consistent with the conclusion drawn from full hydrodynamics studies. The bumps thus should be caused by other scenarios.

  13. Two new species of Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) egg parasitoids of Agrilus spp. (Coleoptera, Buprestidae) from the USA, including a key and taxonomic notes on other congeneric Nearctic taxa.

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Petrice, Toby R; Gates, Michael W; Bauer, Leah S

    2015-01-01

    Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) species are egg parasitoids that are important for the biological control of some Buprestidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera). Two species, Oobiusagrili Zhang & Huang and Oobiuslongoi (Siscaro), were introduced into North America for classical biocontrol and have successfully established. Two new native North American species that parasitize eggs of Agrilus spp. (Buprestidae) are described and illustrated from the USA: Oobiusminusculus Triapitsyn & Petrice, sp. n. (Michigan), an egg parasitoid of both Agrilussubcinctus Gory on ash (Fraxinus spp.) and Agrilusegenus Gory on black locust (Robiniapseudoacacia L.) trees, and Oobiuswhiteorum Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Pennsylvania), an egg parasitoid of Agrilusanxius Gory on European white birch (Betulapendula Roth). A taxonomic key and notes on the Nearctic native and introduced Oobius species are also included. PMID:25931963

  14. A new species and a key to 19 species of the genus Traulia Stål, 1873 (Orthoptera: Catantopidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Cheng-Quan; Shi, Jian-Ping; Yin, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Traulia Stål, 1873 namely Traulia xiai sp. nov. is described from China in this paper. The new species is similar to Traulia brachypeza Bi, 1986, but differs from the latter by the short tegmina, reaching the middle of third abdominal tergite only. The new species is also similar to Traulia ornate Shiraki, 1910, but differs from the latter by hind tibia all orange red and furculae of male absent. We think that Traulia yifengensis Wang, Xiangyu & Liu, 1997 is a valid species, not a synonym of Traulia brachypeza Bi, 1985 by Wei & Huang (2012), because the tegmina of Traulia yifengensis is very long, extending over the end of abdomen distinctly. A key to 19 species of this genus from China is also given in this paper. The type specimens are deposited in the National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung, Taiwan, China. PMID:26624686

  15. Origin of long-lived coherences in light-harvesting complexes.

    PubMed

    Christensson, Niklas; Kauffmann, Harald F; Pullerits, Tõnu; Mančal, Tomáš

    2012-06-28

    A vibronic exciton model is applied to explain the long-lived oscillatory features in the two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex. Using experimentally determined parameters and uncorrelated site energy fluctuations, the model predicts oscillations with dephasing times of 1.3 ps at 77 K, which is in a good agreement with the experimental results. These long-lived oscillations originate from the coherent superposition of vibronic exciton states with dominant contributions from vibrational excitations on the same pigment. The oscillations obtain a large amplitude due to excitonic intensity borrowing, which gives transitions with strong vibronic character a significant intensity despite the small Huang-Rhys factor. Purely electronic coherences are found to decay on a 200 fs time scale. PMID:22642682

  16. Inelastic and Quasielastic Neutron Scattering in PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 Above the Burns Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Burkovsky, R.; Shapiro, S.; Vakhrushev, S.B.; Ivanov, A.; Hirota, K.; Matsuura, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present here the results of the study of the true paraelectric phase of PMN via neutron inelastic and quasielastic scattering. Inelastic data for two different Brillouin Zones were treated simultaneously in terms of the 2-mode approach for the lowest TO mode. We have confirmed that 2-mode description allows removing the contradictions between the temperature dependences of the soft-mode frequency and the dielectric susceptibility existing in the single mode model. The diffuse scattering was mapped in three Brillouin zones and substantial anisotropy of the 2-d intensity distribution was found that was not reported before. Treatment of data in terms of Huang scattering produced satisfactory description of the experimental data. It is shown that broad satellite peaks close to the main Bragg reflections in our case can be described in terms of instrumental resolution.

  17. Numerical calculations of photoassociation of cold 85Rb2 molecules to the 1g(5P1 / 2) State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeman, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Data obtained at the University of Connecticut by Jianbing Qi, Dajun Wang, Ye Huang, H. K. Pechkis, E. E. Eyler, P. Gould and W. C. Stwalley in 2003 have been only partially analyzed and assigned. In, transitions observed by Qi et al. to the 0u+ state were presented. Ref. analyzed transitions of 87Rb2 to the 1g(P1 / 2) state, simplified by double spin polarization, observed in the D. Heinzen Laboratory. Transitions to 0g- and 1g levels without double spin polarization are more problematical. This is a preliminary report, based on data obtained by Qi et al. with a dense array of spectral lines, having certain signal:noise limitations. Supported by US NSF.

  18. Remote sensing and hydrogeological methodologies for irrigation canal leakage detection: the Osasco and Fossano test sites (NorthWestern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, Luigi; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Seventy percent of global fresh water is usually used for irrigation. This rate is three times the amount of water used by industry and ten times the amount used in domestic and urban environment (Hotchkiss et al., 2001). However, the average efficiency of the water transport for agricultural purposes in different contexts (at world scale) is variable between 30% and 80%. Studies conducted in Italy confirms that rates are similar from the case studies abroad. In this research, satellite image analysis and hydrological-hydrogeological methods were used in two pilot sites (Osasco channel and Fossano channel, in the Noth-Western Italy) to identify the areas most prone to this problem and to quantify the losses. The aim of the study is to define a multidisciplinary approach in order to identify the critical situations of irrigation channels for a sustainable water resource use and management. The use of remote sensing techniques can identify, on a regional scale and at relative low cost, the channels section potentially critical upon which focus the attention and perform in-situ investigation. The presence of leakage from the irrigation canals, indeed, tends to induce variations of moisture on the surface ground. These variations affect the vegetation (e.g. vegetation state), and certain physical characteristics of the soil (e.g. the capacity and thermal conductivity). The analysis of these anomalies, conducted with digital image processing techniques (with infrared spectrum bands particularly sensitive to the above indicators) help to identify those areas with anomalies related to increased losses (Huang and Fipps, 2002). The use of satellite imagery in the proposed approach is an innovative application of Earth Observation for land and water monitoring (Huang et al., 2005). After the identification of anomalies, hydrological-hydrogeological methods were applied to evaluate the losses. At fist an hydrogeological characterisation of the study area and the bottom of the

  19. Timely online chatter detection in end milling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yang; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Huamin; Li, Dequn; Liu, Hongqi; Qiao, Haiyu; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-06-01

    Chatter is one of the most unexpected and uncontrollable phenomenon during the milling operation. It is very important to develop an effective monitoring method to identify the chatter as soon as possible, while existing methods still cannot detect it before the workpiece has been damaged. This paper proposes an energy aggregation characteristic-based Hilbert-Huang transform method for online chatter detection. The measured vibration signal is firstly decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using ensemble empirical mode decomposition. Feature IMFs are then selected according to the majority energy rule. Subsequently Hilbert spectral analysis is applied on these feature IMFs to calculate the Hilbert time/frequency spectrum. Two indicators are proposed to quantify the spectrum and thresholds are automatically calculated using Gaussian mixed model. Milling experiments prove the proposed method to be effective in protecting the workpiece from severe chatter damage within acceptable time complexity.

  20. Charge-transfer nature in luminescence of YNbO4:Bi blue phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sang Hoon; Jeon, Duk Young; Suh, Kyung Soo

    2001-12-01

    Bismuth doped yttrium niobate (YNbO4:Bi) is a potential blue phosphor for field emission displays application. It is observed after introducing Bi ions that cathodoluminescence efficiency of YNbO4:Bi becomes lower than that of YNbO4. From the calculations of critical distance (RC) of energy transfer and Huang-Rhys parameter (SHR) of YNbO4:Bi, it is found that the energy transfer by a dipolar-type interaction is unlikely compared with that of a short-range interaction possible in the luminescence of YNbO4:Bi. Thus, it is believed that the luminescence property of YNbO4:Bi is mainly affected by the host lattice YNbO4 having self-luminescent NbO43- complex. By time-resolved spectroscopy, it is found that luminescence characteristics of activator Bi3+ in YNbO4:Bi shows a charge-transfer behavior.

  1. Confined optical-phonon-assisted cyclotron resonance in quantum wells via two-photon absorption process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuc, Huynh Vinh; Hien, Nguyen Dinh; Dinh, Le; Phong, Tran Cong

    2016-06-01

    The effect of confined phonons on the phonon-assisted cyclotron resonance (PACR) via both one and two photon absorption processes in a quantum well is theoretically studied. We consider cases when electrons are scattered by confined optical phonons described by the Fuchs-Kliewer slab, Ridley's guided, and Huang-Zhu models. The analytical expression of the magneto-optical absorption coefficient (MOAC) is obtained by relating it to the transition probability for the absorption of photons. It predicts resonant peaks caused by transitions between Landau levels and electric subband accompanied by confined phonons emission in the absorption spectrum. The MOAC and the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for the intra- and inter-subband transitions are given as functions of the magnetic field, temperature, and quantum well width. In narrow quantum wells, the phonon confinement becomes more important and should be taken into account in studying FWHM.

  2. Local Finite-Amplitude Wave Activity as an Objective Diagnostic of Midlatitude Extreme Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Lu, J.; Burrows, D. A.; Leung, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    Midlatitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate-related damage, yet our understanding of these extreme events is limited, partly due to the lack of a theoretical basis for midlatitude extreme weather. In this work, the local finite-amplitude wave activity (LWA) of Huang and Nakamura (2015) is introduced as a diagnostic of the 500-hPa geopotential height (Z500) for characterizing midlatitude weather events. It is found that the LWA climatology and its variability associated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) agree broadly with the previously reported blocking frequency in literature. There is a strong seasonal and spatial dependence in the trends of LWA in recent decades. While there is no observational evidence for a hemispheric-scale increase in wave amplitude, robust trends in wave activity can be identified at the regional scales, with important implications for regional climate change.

  3. Local finite-amplitude wave activity as an objective diagnostic of midlatitude extreme weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Lu, Jian; Burrows, D. Alex; Leung, L. Ruby

    2015-12-01

    Midlatitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate-related damage, yet our understanding of these extreme events is limited, partly due to the lack of a theoretical basis for midlatitude extreme weather. In this letter, the local finite-amplitude wave activity (LWA) of Huang and Nakamura (2015) is introduced as a diagnostic of the 500 hPa geopotential height for characterizing midlatitude weather events. It is found that the LWA climatology and its variability associated with the Arctic Oscillation agree broadly with the previously reported blocking frequency in the literature. There is a strong seasonal and spatial dependence in the trends of LWA in recent decades. While there is no observational evidence for a hemispheric-scale increase in wave amplitude, robust trends in wave activity can be identified at the regional scales, with important implications for regional climate change.

  4. Simultaneous ionization and excitation of helium by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Cappello, C.; Roy, A. C.; Ren, X. G.; Dey, R.

    2008-02-01

    We present numerical results for He (1s2) (e, 2e) He+ reaction process for transitions to the n = 1, 2 and 3 states of He+ for noncoplanar symmetric geometry at incident energies of 1000 and 1600 eV. The calculations are performed using the plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) and the 3C method (also called the Brauner, Briggs and Klar (BBK) model) that includes post collision interaction and multiple scattering effects. In both the methods we have used the highly correlated configuration interaction wave function for the ground state of helium. A comparison of the present theoretical cross sections with the recent measured data of Ren et al. [X.G. Ren, C.G. Ning, J.K. Deng, G.L. Su, S.F. Zhang, Y.R. Huang, G.Q. Li, Phys. Rev. A 72 (2005) 042718] shows reasonably good agreement.

  5. Aggregate colour centres in impurity LiF crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Karasik, Aleksandr Ya; Konyushkin, V A; Papashvili, A G; Pukhov, K K; Ermakov, I V; Gellermann, V

    2002-08-31

    LiF crystals with colour centres exhibiting a zero-phonon line (ZPL) at 1080 nm in absorption and luminescence are studied. The decay time of luminescence of colour centres at 10 K is 260 - 280 ns, the ZPL half-width is 4.7 cm{sup -1}, and colour centres are characterised by a weak electron - phonon interaction (the Huang - Rhys factor is S < 0.11). The polarisation analysis of luminescence showed that the transition dipole moments of colour centres are oriented along the crystal axes [100], [010], and [001]. The model of aggregate F{sub 4} colour centres having a spatial structure with three symmetry axes C{sub 2} may correspond to the colour centres studied in the paper. (active media. lasers)

  6. Bow and stern waves triggered by the Moon's shadow boat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. Y.; Sun, Y. Y.; Kakinami, Y.; Chen, C. H.; Lin, C. H.; Tsai, H. F.

    2011-09-01

    It has been predicted that the Moon's shadow, the cooling region, sweeping over the Earth's atmosphere with a supersonic speed could trigger bow waves since 1970. The longest total solar eclipse within next hundred years occurring on 22 July 2009 sweeps over the Eastern Asia region during the noontime period. An analysis of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is applied to study ionospheric TEC (total electron content) derived from ground-based GPS receivers in Taiwan and Japan. We not only find the feature of the predicted bow wave but also the stern wave on the equator side of the eclipse path, as well as the stern wake right behind the Moon's shadow boat. The bow and stern waves are formed by acoustic gravity waves of periods about 3 and/or 5 minutes traveling equatorward with a phase speed of about 100 m/s in the ionosphere.

  7. Multimodal sensory integration in single cerebellar granule cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Taro; Shimuta, Misa; Häusser, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian cerebellum is a highly multimodal structure, receiving inputs from multiple sensory modalities and integrating them during complex sensorimotor coordination tasks. Previously, using cell-type-specific anatomical projection mapping, it was shown that multimodal pathways converge onto individual cerebellar granule cells (Huang et al., 2013). Here we directly measure synaptic currents using in vivo patch-clamp recordings and confirm that a subset of single granule cells receive convergent functional multimodal (somatosensory, auditory, and visual) inputs via separate mossy fibers. Furthermore, we show that the integration of multimodal signals by granule cells can enhance action potential output. These recordings directly demonstrate functional convergence of multimodal signals onto single granule cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12916.001 PMID:26714108

  8. Comparison of Signals from Gravitational Wave Detectors with Instantaneous Time-Frequency Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroeer, A.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J.

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy relies on the use of multiple detectors, so that coincident detections may distinguish real signals from instrumental artifacts, and also so that relative timing of signals can provide the sky position of sources. We show that the comparison of instantaneous time-frequency and time-amplitude maps provided by the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) can be used effectively for relative signal timing of common signals, to discriminate between the case of identical coincident signals and random noise coincidences and to provide a classification of signals based on their time-frequency trajectories. The comparison is done with a X(sup 2) goodness-offit method which includes contributions from both the instantaneous amplitude and frequency components of the HHT to match two signals in the time domain. This approach naturally allows the analysis of waveforms with strong frequency modulation.

  9. Reply to the comment by Boulila and Hinnov towards "Chronology of the Early Toarcian environmental crisis in the Lorraine Sub-Basin (NE Paris Basin)" by W. Ruebsam, P. Münzberger, and L. Schwark [Earth and Planetary Science Letters 404 (2014) 273-282

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruebsam, Wolfgang; Münzberger, Petra; Schwark, Lorenz

    2015-04-01

    Recently Boulila and Hinnov provided an alternative interpretation for the cyclostratigraphy of the Early Toarcian in the Lorraine Basin proposed by Ruebsam et al. (2014). Floating chronologies based on cyclostratigraphy, in particular when discrete time lines (e.g. tephra layers, intrusions, etc.) are missing, are subject to contrasting interpretation and discussion as exemplified for the Early Toarcian by previous contributions (e.g. Kemp et al., 2011; Boulila et al., 2014; Huang and Hesselbo, 2014). In the following we address the discussion raised by Boulila and Hinnov with specific focus on differential sedimentation rates in sub-basins on the NW-Tethyan Shelf during the Early Toarcian and how this may have affected i) the duration of individual ammonite (sub)zones and the Toarcian carbon isotopic excursion, ii) the expression of a 405 ka cycle and iii) the obliquity-forcing on paleoclimate.

  10. Drift wave instability in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, T. S.; Hill, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    A linear normal mode analysis of the drift wave instability in the Io plasma torus was carried out on the basis of the Richmond (1973) and Huang et al. (1990) analyses of drift waves in the vicinity of the earth's plasmapause. Results indicate that the outer torus boundary is linearly unstable to the growth of electrostatic drift waves. It is shown that the linear growth rate is proportional to the ion drift frequency and to the ratio of the flux tube charge content to the Jovian ionospheric Pedersen conductance. It is also shown that various theoretical models of global radial transport in Jupiter's atmosphere (including corotating convection, interchange diffusion, and transient flux tube convection) can be understood as plausible nonlinear evolutions of electrostatic drift waves.

  11. Multi-layer multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) approach to the correlated exciton-vibrational dynamics in the FMO complex.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Jan; Shibl, Mohamed F; Al-Marri, Mohammed J; Kühn, Oliver

    2016-05-14

    The coupled quantum dynamics of excitonic and vibrational degrees of freedom is investigated for high-dimensional models of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. This includes a seven- and an eight-site model with 518 and 592 harmonic vibrational modes, respectively. The coupling between local electronic transitions and vibrations is described within the Huang-Rhys model using parameters that are obtained by discretization of an experimental spectral density. Different pathways of excitation energy flow are analyzed in terms of the reduced one-exciton density matrix, focussing on the role of vibrational and vibronic excitations. Distinct features due to both competing time scales of vibrational and exciton motion and vibronically assisted transfer are observed. The question of the effect of initial state preparation is addressed by comparing the case of an instantaneous Franck-Condon excitation at a single site with that of a laser field excitation. PMID:27179506

  12. The bromine content of micrometeorites - Arguments for stratospheric contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Bromine-salt nanocrystals are associated with a porous chondritic micrometeorite (W7029E5) that was collected in the lower stratosphere. These salt nanocrystals occur together with volcanic Na and K salt nanocrystals embedded in sulfuric acid droplets that were originally adhered to the particle. These materials were concentrated during hexane rinsing as part of routine curation procedures at the NASA Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Curatorial Facility. This observation is fortuitous to the extent that the concentration of nanocrystals and sulfuric acid is an experimental artifact of curation. If bromine is a stratospheric contaminant due to surface adsorption, there should be a positive linear relationship between the mass-normalized residence time and bromine content of individual micrometeorites. I show that the predicted correlation exists using a new model to calculate the stratospheric residence time of individual nonspherical micrometeorites in the slow-settling Wilson-Huang regime of the stratosphere.

  13. Introducing PROFESS 3.0: An advanced program for orbital-free density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mohan; Xia, Junchao; Huang, Chen; Dieterich, Johannes M.; Hung, Linda; Shin, Ilgyou; Carter, Emily A.

    2015-05-01

    Orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) is a linear-scaling first-principles quantum mechanics method used to calculate the ground-state energy of a given system. Here we present a new version of PRinceton Orbital-Free Electronic Structure Software (PROFESS) with new features. First, PROFESS 3.0 provides a set of new kinetic energy density functionals (KEDFs) which are designed to model semiconductors or transition metals. Specifically, PROFESS 3.0 includes the Huang-Carter (HC) KEDF [1], a density decomposition method with fixed localized electronic density [2], the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC) decomposition KEDF [3], and the Enhanced von Weizsäcker (EvW)-WGC KEDF [4]. Other major new functions are included, such as molecular dynamics with different statistical mechanical ensembles and spin-polarized density optimizers.

  14. The Rectangular Waveguide Board Wall Slot Array Antenna Integrated with One Dimensional Subwavelength Periodic Corrugated Grooves and Artificially Soft Surface Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Zeyu; Luo, Xiangang

    2009-04-01

    In this letter, we propose a high gain rectangular waveguide board wall slot array antenna, which is integrated with one dimensional subwavelength periodic corrugated grooves and artificially soft surface structure. The corresponding far field radiation characteristics are investigated. The simulation results show that the gain of planar 2 × 8 slot array antenna with the introduction of corrugated grooves structure is increased to 26.1 dB, and half power beamwidth in the E plane is considerably reduced. Compared with the subwavelength periodic grooves slits array antenna proposed by Huang et al.[Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143512 (2007)], the side and back lobe level of this antenna are also significantly reduced by 6 dB and 10 dB, respectively. The physical mechanism for radiation-pattern improvement has been well explained by the modulation of surface wave, the reradiation of surface energy, and suppression of surplus surface wave at the grounded edge.

  15. Matrix-isolated infrared absorption spectrum of CH2BrOO radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Sander, Stanley P.; Cheng, Lan; Thimmakondu, Venkatesan S.; Stanton, John F.

    2016-07-01

    The bromomethylperoxy radical, CH2BrOO, has been generated in cryogenic matrices. Six fundamental bands for CH2BrOO have been observed in an argon matrix at 5 K. The experimental frequencies (cm-1) are: ν4 = 1274.3, ν5 = 1229.4, ν6 = 1086.7, ν7 = 961.8, ν8 = 879.9, and ν10 = 515.4, two of which are detected for the first time. Ab initio calculations have been performed employing coupled-cluster methods. The experimental frequencies are shown to be in good agreement with the computation as well as the four bands (ν4, ν6, ν7 and ν8) observed by Huang and Lee in the gas phase.

  16. Relaxation times of the two-phonon processes with spin-flip and spin-conserving in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zi-Wu; Liu, Lei; Li, Shu-Shen

    2014-04-07

    We perform a theoretical investigation on the two-phonon processes of the spin-flip and spin-conserving relaxation in quantum dots in the frame of the Huang-Rhys' lattice relaxation model. We find that the relaxation time of the spin-flip is two orders of magnitude longer than that of the spin-conserving, which is in agreement with previous experimental measurements. Moreover, the opposite variational trends of the relaxation time as a function of the energy separation for two-phonon processes are obtained in different temperature regime. The relaxation times display the oscillatory behaviors at the demarcation point with increasing magnetic field, where the energy separation matches the optical phonon energy and results in the optical phonon resonance. These results are useful in understanding the intraband levels' relaxation in quantum dots and could be helpful in designing photoelectric and spin-memory devices.

  17. Electron-phonon interaction in three-, two- and one-dimensional ternary mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Junhua; Fan, Yunpeng

    2016-05-01

    The electron-phonon (e-p) interaction in three-dimensional (3D), two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) ternary mixed crystals is studied. The e-p interaction Hamiltonians including the unit cell volume variation in ternary mixed crystals are obtained by using the modified random-element-isodisplacement model and Born-Huang method. The polaronic self-trapping energy and renormalized effective mass of GaAsxSb1‑x, GaPxAs1‑x and GaPxSb1‑x compounds are numerically calculated. It is confirmed theoretically that the nonlinear variation of the self-trapping energy and effective mass with the composition is essential and the unit cell volume effects cannot be neglected except the weak e-p coupling. The dimensional effect cannot also be ignored.

  18. Visual Sequence Learning in Infancy: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Associations with Language

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that non-linguistic sequence learning abilities are an important contributor to language development (Conway, Bauernschmidt, Huang, & Pisoni, 2010). The current study investigated visual sequence learning as a possible predictor of vocabulary development in infants. Fifty-eight 8.5-month-old infants were presented with a three-location spatiotemporal sequence of multi-colored geometric shapes. Early language skills were assessed using the MacArthur-Bates CDI. Analyses of children’s reaction times to the stimuli suggest that the extent to which infants demonstrated learning was significantly correlated with their vocabulary comprehension at the time of test and with their gestural comprehension abilities 5 months later. These findings suggest that visual sequence learning may have both domain-general and domain-specific associations with language learning. PMID:22523477

  19. Review on the Applications and Molecular Mechanisms of Xihuang Pill in Tumor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiujun; Lin, Jinyin; Liu, Rui; Gao, Yebo; He, Shulin; Xu, Xinyao; Hua, Baojin; Li, Conghuang; Hou, Wei; Zheng, Honggang; Bao, Yanju

    2015-01-01

    Xihuang pill (XH) is a complementary and alternative medicine that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of tumors since the 18th century. XH has clinical effects on non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, and bone metastasis. XH can also inhibit the growth of tumor cells and cancer stem cells, prevent tumor invasion and angiogenesis, and regulate the tumor microenvironment. XH is composed of Ru Xiang (olibanum), Mo Yao (Commiphora myrrha), She Xiang (Moschus), and Niu Huang (Calculus bovis). Some of the compounds found in these ingredients exert multiple antitumor effects and may synergize with the other ingredients. We aimed to summarize the clinical applications and molecular mechanisms of XH and its chemical composition. This review will provide potential new strategies and alternative perspectives for tumor treatments and basic research into complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:26170886

  20. [The author of Yi ding jie (Stepping to the Peak of Medicine) and its characteristics].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangqian; Xiao, Linrong; Yan, Yaying

    2014-05-01

    Yi ding jie (Stepping to the Peak of Medicine) was written by Huang Yuanying, a Hakka physician of Changting, Fujian at the turn of the Qing Dynasty and Republican period. Being a successful candidate of the imperial exam at the provincial level in the 20th year of Guangxu reign (1894) of the Qing Dynasty, he still practise as a physician. He had been a teacher of the Jiangxi Provincial Medical School and a supervisor of the Tingjun Middle School. He was conversant with the use of classical prescriptions, paid high attention to pulse taking. His work Yi ding jie is now collected in the Museum of Hakka Family Tree in Shanghang County, which was written in the form of traditional Chinese chapters of novel, bearing many case records, elaborating medical theory, reflecting from an aspect the medical level of Hakka medicine of that time, enlightening the inheritance of traditional Chinese medicine and its spreading for modern people. PMID:25208842

  1. Two new species of Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) egg parasitoids of Agrilus spp. (Coleoptera, Buprestidae) from the USA, including a key and taxonomic notes on other congeneric Nearctic taxa

    PubMed Central

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V.; Petrice, Toby R.; Gates, Michael W.; Bauer, Leah S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) species are egg parasitoids that are important for the biological control of some Buprestidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera). Two species, Oobius agrili Zhang & Huang and Oobius longoi (Siscaro), were introduced into North America for classical biocontrol and have successfully established. Two new native North American species that parasitize eggs of Agrilus spp. (Buprestidae) are described and illustrated from the USA: Oobius minusculus Triapitsyn & Petrice, sp. n. (Michigan), an egg parasitoid of both Agrilus subcinctus Gory on ash (Fraxinus spp.) and Agrilus egenus Gory on black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) trees, and Oobius whiteorum Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Pennsylvania), an egg parasitoid of Agrilus anxius Gory on European white birch (Betula pendula Roth). A taxonomic key and notes on the Nearctic native and introduced Oobius species are also included. PMID:25931963

  2. Photoluminescence of n-doped double quantum well—electron subbands under influence of in-plane magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlita, M.; Byszewski, M.; Döhler, G. H.; Grill, M.; Hlídek, P.; Malzer, S.; Zvára, M.

    2006-08-01

    We report on photoluminescence (PL) measurements of a GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum well (DQW) in high magnetic fields. Measurements were carried out on a selectively contacted symmetric p- δn-DQW- δn-p structure, which allows a variation of the electron density in DQW by a p-n bias and simultaneously a tilting of DQW, when a p-p bias is applied. Attention was paid to phenomena in in-plane magnetic fields, theoretically studied by Huang and Lyo (HL), [Phys. Rev. B 59, (1999) 7600]. In this paper, we compare our results for both symmetric and asymmetric DQWs with the theoretical model made by HL. Whereas the spectra from a symmetric DQW fully confirmed the theoretical predictions, the results gained from DQW with an electric-field-induced asymmetry did not allow a proper study of anticipated effects. The reasons for that are discussed.

  3. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Symmetry Analysis of Barotropic Potential Vorticity Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihlo, Alexander; Popovych, Roman O.

    2009-10-01

    Recently F. Huang [Commun. Theor. Phys. 42 (2004) 903] and X. Tang and P.K. Shukla [Commun. Theor. Phys. 49 (2008) 229] investigated symmetry properties of the barotropic potential vorticity equation without forcing and dissipation on the beta-plane. This equation is governed by two dimensionless parameters, F and β, representing the ratio of the characteristic length scale to the Rossby radius of deformation and the variation of earth' angular rotation, respectively. In the present paper it is shown that in the case F ≠ 0 there exists a well-defined point transformation to set β = 0. The classification of one- and two-dimensional Lie subalgebras of the Lie symmetry algebra of the potential vorticity equation is given for the parameter combination F ≠ 0 and β = 0. Based upon this classification, distinct classes of group-invariant solutions are obtained and extended to the case β ≠ 0.

  4. Shallow water marine gammaridean amphipods of Pulau Tioman, Malaysia, with the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Azman, B.A.R.; Othman, B.H.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Eleven taxa including one new species of gammaridean amphipods are reported from the waters of Pulau Tioman. The presence of Tethygeneia sunda sp. n. represents the first record of the genus from the South China Sea. Additional material of Ampelisca brevicornis (Costa, 1853); Cymadusa vadosa Imbach, 1967; Paradexamine setigera Hirayama, 1984; Ericthonius pugnax (Dana, 1853); Leucothoe furina (Savigny, 1816); Microlysias xenokeras (Stebbing, 1918); Monoculodes muwoni Jo, 1990 are identified from the South China Sea, supporting previous records by Lowry (2000), Huang (1994), Imbach (1967), Margulis (1968) and Nagata (1959). Three additional species, Gitanopsis pusilla K.H. Barnard, 1916, Liljeborgia japonica Nagata, 1965b and Latigammaropsis atlantica (Stebbing, 1888), whilst previously reported from the neighbouring waters, comprise new records for the South China Sea. PMID:24146563

  5. Kinetic Isotope Effects for the Reactions of Muonic Helium and Muonium with H2

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Donald G.; Arseneau, Donald J.; Sukhorukov, Oleksandr; Brewer, Jess H.; Mielke, Steven L.; Schatz, George C.; Garrett, Bruce C.; Peterson, Kirk A.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2011-01-28

    The neutral muonic helium atom may be regarded as the heaviest isotope of the hydrogen atom, with a mass of ~4.1 amu (4.1H), because the negative muon screens one proton charge. We report the reaction rate of 4.1H with 1H2 to produce 4.1H1H + 1H at 295 to 500 K. The experimental rate constants are compared with the predictions of accurate quantum mechanical dynamics calculations carried out on an accurate Born-Huang potential energy surface and with previously measured rate constants of 0.11H (where 0.11H is shorthand for muonium). Kinetic isotope effects can be compared for the unprecedentedly large mass ratio of 36. The agreement with accurate quantum dynamics is quantitative at 500 K, and variational transition state theory is used to interpret the extremely low (large inverse) kinetic isotope effects in the 10-4 to 10-2 range.

  6. Baicalein protects against the development of angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms by blocking JNK and p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Houzao; Yan, Yunfei; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Shuyang; Liu, Depei

    2016-09-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. In western countries, the morbidity of AAA is approximately 8%. Currently, pharmacotherapies for AAA are limited. Here, we demonstrate that baicalein (BAI), the main component of the Chinese traditional drug "Huang Qin", attenuates the incidence and severity of AAA in Apoe (-/-) mice infused with angiotensin II (AngII). Mechanically, BAI treatment decreases AngII-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the aortic wall. Moreover, BAI inhibits inflammatory cell accumulation in the aortas of mice infused with AngII. It also inhibits AngII-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 to maintain elastin content in vivo. In addition, it blocks AngII cascade by downregulating angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Taken together, our findings show that BAI is an effective agent for AAA prevention. PMID:27333787

  7. A new interpretation of internal-variable theory in finite thermo-viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, ZhuPing; Dui, GuanSuo; Yang, ShengYou

    2013-03-01

    Based on the non-equilibrium thermodynamics, an internal- variable theory in thermo-viscoelasticity at finite deformation was proposed by Huang in 1999. In this theory, a modified stretch of the molecular chain was introduced, and hence the molecular network model in rubber elasticity was extended to take into account the viscous and thermal effects of the material. The viscous dissipation of the material can then be described by means of these internal variables, which appear in the expression of the modified stretch. In order to give a clearer explanation on the physical implication of the internal variables, a connection between the internal-variable theory and theoretical formulation based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient in existing literature is presented in this paper, which allows the above internal-variable theory to be more systematic.

  8. Local finite-amplitude wave activity as an objective diagnostic of midlatitude extreme weather

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lu, Jian; Burrows, Alex D.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-12-28

    Midlatitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate related damage, yet our understanding of these extreme events is limited, partly due to the lack of a theoretical basis for midlatitude extreme weather. In this letter, the local finite-amplitude wave activity (LWA) of Huang and Nakamura [2015] is introduced as a diagnostic of the 500-hPa geopotential height (Z500) to characterizing midlatitude weather events. It is found that the LWA climatology and its variability associated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) agree broadly with the previously reported blocking frequency in literature. There is a strong seasonal and spatial dependence in the trend13 s of LWA in recent decades. While there is no observational evidence for a hemispheric-scale increase in wave amplitude, robust trends in wave activity can be identified at the regional scales, with important implications for regional climate change.

  9. [Historical textual research on Shan biandou with discussion on the misnaming of plant title].

    PubMed

    Li, J B

    2016-05-01

    The original plants of Shan biandou, first seen in Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines), include the plants of Astragalusgenus, such as A. scaberrimus and/or A. complanatus in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. But Cassia mimosoides was named as Shan biandou by Japanese scholars in the 19th century. This mistaken identification and misnaming, still in use today in Chinese and Japanese circles of botany and materia medica, did cause some confusion. The merits and demerits of using the plant names in Chinese characters from the Japanese language by Chinese botanists were analyzed, the disadvantages of which should be well avoided. Because of the vicissitude in the names of plants and Chinese herbs, it is necessary to strengthen the study and develop the significant value of A. complanatus and C. mimosoides in health care so as to promote its contributions to the cause of TCM. PMID:27485866

  10. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo Ferreira, Marina; Detrano, Filipe; Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Barros, Maria Elisa; Serrão Lanzillotti, Regina; Firmino Nogueira Neto, José; Portella, Emilson Souza; Serrão Lanzillotti, Haydée; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (Pvalue < 0.021) and Huang et al. (Pvalue ≤ 0.005) equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al's. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate. PMID:25436144

  11. Ab initio study of beryllium-decorated fullerenes for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoonkyung; Huang, Bing; Duan, Wenhui; Ihm, Jisoon

    2010-04-01

    We have found that a beryllium (Be) atom on nanostructured materials with H2 molecules generates a Kubas-like dihydrogen complex [Lee, Huang, Duan, and Ihm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143120 (2010)]. Here, we investigate the feasibility of Be-decorated fullerenes for hydrogen storage using ab initio calculations. We find that the aggregation of Be atoms on pristine fullerenes is energetically preferred, resulting in the dissociation of the dihydrogen. In contrast, for boron (B)-doped fullerenes, Be atoms prefer to be individually attached to B sites of the fullerenes, and a maximum of one H2 molecule binds to each Be atom in a form of dihydrogen with a binding energy of ˜0.3 eV. Our results show that individual dispersed Be-decorated B-doped fullerenes can serve as a room-temperature hydrogen storage medium.

  12. Multi-layer multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) approach to the correlated exciton-vibrational dynamics in the FMO complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Jan; Shibl, Mohamed F.; Al-Marri, Mohammed J.; Kühn, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The coupled quantum dynamics of excitonic and vibrational degrees of freedom is investigated for high-dimensional models of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. This includes a seven- and an eight-site model with 518 and 592 harmonic vibrational modes, respectively. The coupling between local electronic transitions and vibrations is described within the Huang-Rhys model using parameters that are obtained by discretization of an experimental spectral density. Different pathways of excitation energy flow are analyzed in terms of the reduced one-exciton density matrix, focussing on the role of vibrational and vibronic excitations. Distinct features due to both competing time scales of vibrational and exciton motion and vibronically assisted transfer are observed. The question of the effect of initial state preparation is addressed by comparing the case of an instantaneous Franck-Condon excitation at a single site with that of a laser field excitation.

  13. An alternative approach to characterize nonlinear site effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, R.R.; Hartzell, S.; Liang, J.; Hu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale of a method of nonstationary processing and analysis, referred to as the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), for its application to a recording-based approach in quantifying influences of soil nonlinearity in site response. In particular, this paper first summarizes symptoms of soil nonlinearity shown in earthquake recordings, reviews the Fourier-based approach to characterizing nonlinearity, and offers justifications for the HHT in addressing nonlinearity issues. This study then uses the HHT method to analyze synthetic data and recordings from the 1964 Niigata and 2001 Nisqually earthquakes. In doing so, the HHT-based site response is defined as the ratio of marginal Hilbert amplitude spectra, alternative to the Fourier-based response that is the ratio of Fourier amplitude spectra. With the Fourier-based approach in studies of site response as a reference, this study shows that the alternative HHT-based approach is effective in characterizing soil nonlinearity and nonlinear site response.

  14. Linear spin-wave study of a quantum kagome ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.; Burkov, A. A.; Melko, Roger G.

    2016-04-01

    We present a large-S study of a quantum spin ice Hamiltonian, introduced by Huang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 167203 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.167203], on the kagome lattice. This model involves a competition between the frustrating Ising term of classical kagome ice, a Zeeman magnetic field h , and a nearest-neighbor transverse spin-flip term SixSjx-SiySjy . Recent quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations by Carrasquilla et al. [Nat. Commun. 6, 7421 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms8421], uncovered lobes of a disordered phase for large Ising interaction and h ≠0 —a putative quantum spin liquid phase. Here, we examine the nature of this model using large-S expansion. We show that the ground state properties generally have the same trends with those observed in QMC simulations. In particular, the large-S ground state phase diagram captures the existence of the disordered lobes.

  15. Optical waveguiding and temperature dependent photoluminescence of nanotubulars grown from molecular building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maibohm, C.; Rastedt, M.; Kutscher, F.; Frey, O. N.; Beckhaus, R.; Rubahn, H.-G.; Al-Shamery, K.

    2013-12-01

    Optical waveguiding of blue light after UV-excitation is demonstrated in bundles of organic nanotubulars obtained via template assisted aggregation of the small π-conjugated non planar molecules 17H-Tetrabenzo[a,c,g,i]fluorene (17H-Tbf) and 17-Trimethylsilyltetrabenzo[a,c,g,i]fluorene (TMS-Tbf). The propagating blue light is strongly attenuated due to self-absorption. Vibronic spectra for both nanotubulars and macroscopic crystallites for temperatures between 5 and 300 K show a behavior of TMS-Tbf that resembles that of long chained molecules while 17H-TbF resembles that of small organic molecules. For both molecular species crystallites and nanostructures have large average Huang-Rhys factors indicating strong phononic coupling promoted by the polycrystallinity of the samples.

  16. Cataclysmic Variables as Binary Stars - then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Robert P.

    A brief history is given of the clues that led to the establishment, in the period c. 1950 to 1965, of a universal binary model for novae and related cataclysmic variables. The observational facts, established early in this period by A. H. Joy and R. F. Sanford (selected binary orbits), J. L. Greenstein (spectroscopy) and M. Walker (photometry) are reviewed, as are the theoretical ideas that formed the basis for the early models, viz., those of G. Kuiper (restricted 3-body problem), A. Sandage and M. Schwarzschild (stellar evolution), J. Crawford (dog-eat-dog hypothesis), F. Hoyle and H. Bondi (accretion), S.-S. Huang (angular momentum losses), and S. Chandrasekhar (gravitational radiation). Some comparisons are made between what we knew then and what we know now. With apologies to all, the speaker will recall some anecdotes of an earlier time and comment on developments of the past score of years from a very personal perspective.

  17. Tracking and Recognition of Multiple Human Targets Moving in a Wireless Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ji; Li, Fangmin; Zhao, Ning; Jiang, Na

    2014-01-01

    With characteristics of low-cost and easy deployment, the distributed wireless pyroelectric infrared sensor network has attracted extensive interest, which aims to make it an alternate infrared video sensor in thermal biometric applications for tracking and identifying human targets. In these applications, effectively processing signals collected from sensors and extracting the features of different human targets has become crucial. This paper proposes the application of empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert-Huang transform to extract features of moving human targets both in the time domain and the frequency domain. Moreover, the support vector machine is selected as the classifier. The experimental results demonstrate that by using this method the identification rates of multiple moving human targets are around 90%. PMID:24759117

  18. Porphyry-Cu-Mo Stockwork Formation by Dynamic, Transient Hydrothermal Pulses: Mineralogic Insights From the Deposit at Butte, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, C. N.; Reed, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    The temperature profile in magmatic-hydrothermal systems directly affects the chemical behavior and pressure regime of hydrothermal fluids and the resulting diversity of mineralization. We combine textural observations of igneous and hydrothermal minerals using SEM-CL and -BSE images with three independent mineral thermobarometers to better understand the thermal profile at the porphyry-Cu-Mo deposit in Butte, Montana. We apply the two most recent (and controversial) forms of the Ti-in-quartz thermobarometer from Thomas et al. (2010) and Huang and Audétat (2011), the Zr-in-rutile thermobarometer of Tomkins et al. (2007), and the XMg-Ti-in-biotite thermometer of Henry et al. (2005) to estimate the formation temperatures of these magmatic and hydrothermal minerals. In a comparison of isobaric temperature distributions from Ti-in-quartz (Thomas et al., 2010) and Zr-in-rutile we find that the Thomas et al. calibration consistently yields temperatures that are 50 to 200°C lower than those from Zr-in-rutile. These quartz temperatures are unreasonably low for quartz phenocrysts and are considerably lower than previous estimates for vein quartz. Temperature estimates from the Zr-in-rutile and XMg-Ti-in-biotite thermobarometers agree well with each other and with previous temperature estimates. We conclude that application of the Ti-in-quartz thermobarometer of Thomas et al. is not appropriate for this natural system. Quartz temperatures calculated using the calibration of Huang and Audétat (2011) are closer to those from rutile and biotite. Application of the Ti-in-quartz thermobarometer of Huang and Audétat to hydrothermal samples yields maximum temperature estimates, however, and requires evaluation of trace element abundances (e.g., Ti, Al) and other crystal lattice impurities (e.g., fluid inclusions) in growth zones as a means to determine whether growth zones represent slow or fast-growing quartz. Using thermobarometry from rutile, biotite, and quartz (Huang and

  19. [Analysis of Wang Shuhe's academic contribution and epistemology].

    PubMed

    Meng, Qin-Yun

    2010-11-01

    Wang Shuhe is considered to be Zhang Zhongjing's disciple according to four reasons: A. the acquaintance of Yu Jiaxi and Fan Xingzhun and others. B. the close relation of Wang Shuhe and Wei Xun. C. Zhang Zhongjing's complete works kept by Wang Shuhe and Wang Shuhe's autobiography. D. the record in Maijing and that Wang Shuhe called Zhang Zhongjing master. It was speculated that Wang Shuhe was the minister of imperial medical affairs of the Wu Kingdom from the title of the emperor's reign recorded by Huang Fumi and Jingzhou's attribution. He contributed to Traditional Chinese Medicine in three aspects-preserving and classifying Zhang Zhongjng's complete works; preserving literature on pulse diagnosis, writing Maijing and standardizing methods for pulse-taking; and advancing the concept of syndrome and Bianzheng (transmutation with steaming in infant feverish perspiration), probing the theory of feverish diseases, and people's well-being, demonstrating the spirit of Bianzhenglunzhi. PMID:21223699

  20. Nonlinear, non-stationary image processing technique for eddy current NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Dib, Gerges; Kim, Jaejoon; Zhang, Lu; Xin, Junjun; Udpa, Lalita

    2012-05-01

    Automatic analysis of eddy current (EC) data has facilitated the analysis of large volumes of data generated in the inspection of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants. The traditional procedure for analysis of EC data includes data calibration, pre-processing, region of interest (ROI) detection, feature extraction and classification. Accurate ROI detection has been enhanced by pre-processing, which involves reducing noise and other undesirable components as well as enhancing defect indications in the raw measurement. This paper presents the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) for feature extraction and support vector machine (SVM) for classification. The performance is shown to significantly better than the existing rule based classification approach used in industry.

  1. X-ray diffraction on precipitates in Czochralski-grown silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caha, O.; Meduňa, M.

    2009-12-01

    The results of a study of oxygen precipitates in Czochralski grown silicon are reported. High-resolution X-ray diffraction was used to measure reciprocal space maps on samples after various annealing treatment. The measurements were performed for several diffraction orders and systematic differences between reciprocal space maps around different diffractions were found. The diffuse X-ray scattering intensity was simulated, where the displacement field of precipitates was calculated using continuum elasticity theory. The simulations give correct asymptotic behavior and the interpretation of intermediate region between Huang and core scattering processes is found. The X-ray diffraction results are correlated to the infrared absorption spectroscopy measurement involving the interstitial oxygen concentration.

  2. Supercurrent Drag via the Coulomb Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ji-Min; Yip, Sungkit

    1996-03-01

    We predict a supercurrent drag effect due to the Coulomb interaction between two parallel superconducting wires/layers. In contrast to previously explored frictional drag effect between two semiconducting quantum wells, our nondissipative drag mechanism ( J.-M. Duan and S. K. Yip, Phys. Rev. Lett.70), 3647 (1993). is based on considerations of the free energy of collective charge fluctuations. Our prediction has been confirmed experimentally ( X. Huang et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 4051 (1995). This mechanism generally exists in other nondissipative systems, such as double-layer quantum Hall syatems ( J.-M. Duan, Europhys. Lett.29), 489 (1995)., or between the two edge channels of a Hall bar, and between one-dimensional Luttinger Liquids.

  3. Periodicity of the solar radius revisited by using empirical mode decomposition and the Lomb-Scargle method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhi-Ning; Feng, Wen; Liang, Hong-Fei

    2015-06-01

    Using the Hilbert-Huang transform and the Lomb-Scargle method, we investigate periodicities in the daily solar radius data during the time interval from February 1978 to October 1999 derived from Calern Observatory. The following prominent periods are found: (1) the rotation cycle signal; (2) several mid-term periods including 122, 162.9 and 225 days, annual-variation periodicities (319 and 359 days), quasi-triennial oscillations (3.46 and 3.94 years); (3) the 11-year Schwabe cycle, which is in anti-phase with solar activity. This result indicates that the strong magnetic field associated with the Sun has a greater inhibitive effect on the radius variation. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  4. [Using Guangming (GB37) acupoint to treat eye diseases: from historical suspense to modern clinical experiments].

    PubMed

    Huang, T; Wu, M Z

    2016-05-01

    Guangming (GB37) gained its name before the writing of Huang di Ming Tang Jing (The Yellow Emperor's Mingtang Classic), the earliest work of the art of acupuncture point. However, in acupuncture and moxibustion works before the Song Dynasty, this acupoint was not used to treat eye diseases. In Dou Hanqing's Zhen jiu biao you fu (Song to Elucidate Mysteries in Acupuncture Moxibustion), Guangming was used to treat oculopathy as an alias of Cuanzhu (BL2). Influenced by this, the alias "Guangming" was mistaken as Guangming (GB37) of the Gallbladder Meridian in the Bian que shen ying zhen jiu yu long jing (Bian Que Acupuncture and Moxibustion Jade Dragon Classic) of the Yuan Dynasty, and the symptom of eye itch was added to the indications of Guangming (GB37). This was wrongly informed in the later acupuncture and moxibustion works, and the modern scholars also accepted it and confirmed its effect by the clinical and experimental research. PMID:27485868

  5. Quantum filaments in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächtler, F.; Santos, L.

    2016-06-01

    Collapse in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates may be arrested by quantum fluctuations. Due to the anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interactions, the dipole-driven collapse induced by soft excitations is compensated by the repulsive Lee-Huang-Yang contribution resulting from quantum fluctuations of hard excitations, in a similar mechanism as that recently proposed for Bose-Bose mixtures. The arrested collapse results in self-bound filamentlike droplets, providing an explanation for the intriguing results of recent dysprosium experiments. Arrested instability and droplet formation are general features directly linked to the nature of the dipole-dipole interactions, and should hence play an important role in all future experiments with strongly dipolar gases.

  6. Complex dynamics of a delayed discrete neural network of two nonidentical neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuanlong; Huang, Tingwen; Huang, Yu

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, we discover that a delayed discrete Hopfield neural network of two nonidentical neurons with self-connections and no self-connections can demonstrate chaotic behaviors. To this end, we first transform the model, by a novel way, into an equivalent system which has some interesting properties. Then, we identify the chaotic invariant set for this system and show that the dynamics of this system within this set is topologically conjugate to the dynamics of the full shift map with two symbols. This confirms chaos in the sense of Devaney. Our main results generalize the relevant results of Huang and Zou [J. Nonlinear Sci. 15, 291–303 (2005)], Kaslik and Balint [J. Nonlinear Sci. 18, 415–432 (2008)] and Chen et al. [Sci. China Math. 56(9), 1869–1878 (2013)]. We also give some numeric simulations to verify our theoretical results.

  7. Geometrical Scaling of an Ablative Bluff Body under Different Outer Flow Velocity and Temperature Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Michael; White, Christopher M.; Dubief, Yves

    2015-11-01

    Experimental results investigating the geometrical scaling and local properties of an eroding low temperature ablator (para-dichlorobenzene) are presented. The bluff body is placed in a heated open-circuit wind tunnel and the effects of incoming outer flow velocity (uniform and spatially varying) and temperature on the ablation process are investigated. Image sequencing of the projected area in the streamwise-spanwise and streamwise-wall normal flow direction are used to quantify the time evolution of the geometrical shape and compute local recession rates and curvature. The geometrical self-similarity and local recession rates are evaluated and compared to Moore et al. and Huang et al. who investigated erosion under the action of fluid shear force and dissolution, respectively. This work is supported by the NSF (CBET-0967224).

  8. Detection and quantification of delamination in laminated plates from the phase of appropriate guided wave modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjad, Umar; Yadav, Susheel Kumar; Kundu, Tribikram

    2016-01-01

    Applicability of specific Lamb wave modes for delamination detection and quantification in a laminated aluminum plate is investigated. The Lamb modes were generated in the plate using a broadband piezoelectric transducer structured with a rigid electrode. Appropriate excitation frequencies and modes for inspection were selected from theoretical dispersion curves. Sensitivity of antisymmetric and symmetric modes for delamination detection and quantification has been investigated using the Hilbert-Huang transform. The mode conversion phenomenon of Lamb waves during progressive delamination is observed. The antisymmetric mode is found to be more reliable for delamination detection and quantification. In this investigation, the changes in the phase of guided Lamb wave modes are related to the degree of delamination, unlike other studies, where mostly the attenuation of the propagating waves has been related to the extent of the internal damage, such as cracks and corrosions. Appropriate features for delamination detection and quantification are extracted from the experimental data.

  9. Percolation thresholds on two-dimensional Voronoi networks and Delaunay triangulations.

    PubMed

    Becker, Adam M; Ziff, Robert M

    2009-10-01

    The site percolation threshold for the random Voronoi network is determined numerically, with the result pc=0.714 10+/-0.000,02 , using Monte Carlo simulation on periodic systems of up to 40,000 sites. The result is very close to the recent theoretical estimate pc approximately 0.7151 of Neher For the bond threshold on the Voronoi network, we find pc=0.666, 931+/-0.000,005 implying that, for its dual, the Delaunay triangulation pc=0.333 069+/-0.000 005 . These results rule out the conjecture by Hsu and Huang that the bond thresholds are 2/3 and 1/3, respectively, but support the conjecture of Wierman that, for fully triangulated lattices other than the regular triangular lattice, the bond threshold is less than 2 sin pi/18 approximately 0.3473 . PMID:19905267

  10. Taxonomic notes on the genus Orthobrachia Warren, with description of a new species from China and Thailand (Lepidoptera, Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Hua; Su, Zi-You; Stüning, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    All seven members of the genus Orthobrachia Warren, 1895 are recorded, with description of a new species from Sichuan Province, China and N. Thailand, including Orthobrachia latifasciata (Moore, 1888) and Orthobrachia flavidior (Hampson, 1898) from northern India, Nepal and China, Orthobrachia tenebrosa Yazaki, 1992 from Nepal and India, Orthobrachia owadai Yazaki, 1992 from India, Orthobrachia simpliciata Yazaki, 2002 from China, and Orthobrachia maoershanensis Huang, Xin & Wang, 2003 from South China. A key to the Orthobrachia species is provided, along with a distributional map of all nominal species. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in Hunan Agricultural University (China), South China Agricultural University (China) and Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig (Germany). PMID:27563275

  11. Non-ideal boson system in the Gaussian approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, P.R.; de Toledo Piza, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate ground-state and thermal properties of a system of non-relativistic bosons interacting through repulsive, two-body interactions in a self-consistent Gaussian mean-field approximation which consists in writing the variationally determined density operator as the most general Gaussian functional of the quantized field operators. Finite temperature results are obtained in a grand canonical framework. Contact is made with the results of Lee, Yang, and Huang in terms of particular truncations of the Gaussian approximation. The full Gaussian approximation supports a free phase or a thermodynamically unstable phase when contact forces and a standard renormalization scheme are used. When applied to a Hamiltonian with zero range forces interpreted as an effective theory with a high momentum cutoff, the full Gaussian approximation generates a quasi-particle spectrum having an energy gap, in conflict with perturbation theory results. {copyright} 1997 Academic Press, Inc.

  12. Analysis of Ocean Electromagnetic Data Using a Hilbert Spectrum Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Jeffrey; Larsen, Michael L.; Waldman, Cye H.; Gabbay, Michael; Buntzen, Rodney R.; Rees, C. David

    2003-08-01

    We apply a newly developed time series analysis technique, the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), to naturally occurring ocean electromagnetic data obtained from bottom-mounted sensors. The HHT was originally developed as an alternative to the Fourier power spectral density for the analysis of nonlinear phenomena in water waves. The HHT is applied to the data in two steps. In the first step, an empirical mode decomposition is used to extract individual oscillatory modes possessing different characteristic time scales. Unlike Fourier modes, however, these modes can vary in amplitude and frequency. In the second step, the Hilbert transform is used to determine physically meaningful instantaneous frequencies from these modes. We present results showing that the HHT provides a more compact representation of the ocean electromagnetic environment than the Fourier spectrum. In particular, the HHT is able to capture nonlinear wave phenomena associated with ocean swell in a single mode without the need for higher order harmonics.

  13. Application of the HHT Method to the Non-contact Thickness Measurement of an Axially Moving Thin Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yangfang; Lu, Qianqian; Xia, Chunlin; Ding, Fan

    2016-06-01

    Non-contact thickness measuring systems can be found in a wide spectrum of technologies. In this paper, Hilbert-Huang transform method is used to analyze the real time signals of a measuring system which includes two round conveyor strings carrying a thin plate, a solar wafer as a sample under test. The vibrations of moving strings and the plate, which are sensitive to moving speed and initial tension in the string, are introduced briefly; the relevant analyses should be helpful for the system design. Using EMD-based time-domain filtering and complementary method, thickness variations and error bands are estimated for different cases. The results show that HHT method as an adaptive time-frequency method, should be potential in measurement engineering applications.

  14. Skeleton graph expansion of critical exponents in "cultural revolution" years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Bailin

    Kenneth Wilson's Nobel Prize winning breakthrough in the renormalization group theory of phase transition and critical phenomena almost overlapped with the violent "cultural revolution" years (1966-1976) in China. An unexpected chance in 1972 brought the author of these lines close to the Wilson-Fisher є-expansion of critical exponents and eventually led to a joint paper with Lu Yu published entirely in Chinese without any English title and abstract. Even the original acknowledgment was deleted because of mentioning foreign names like Kenneth Wilson and Kerson Huang. In this article I will tell the 40-year old story as a much belated tribute to Kenneth Wilson and to reproduce the essence of our work in English. At the end, I give an elementary derivation of the Callan-Symanzik equation without referring to field theory.

  15. A model for longitudinal optical phonons and electron-phonon coupling in GaAs/GaAlAs multilayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemot, C.; Clerot, F.

    A new model for long-wavelength longitudinal optical phonons in GaAsGaAlAs multi-layer structures is presented. Depending on the layer, the relative ionic displacements are written on the basis of GaAs or GaAs-type longitudinal optical phonons and treated in the framework of the Born-Huang model generalized to include isotropic dispersion effects in the Brillouin zone centre. For double heterostructures, a finite number of quantized confined modes is found. Interplay between the long range Coulomb interaction, which couples the vibrations of adjacent GaAs layers, and confinement effects, which prevent the displacements of adjacent GaAs layers to overlap, is evidenced in the case of superlattices. The strength of the electron-phonon coupling in double heterostructures stays within a factor of 2 of the electron-bulk phonon effective coupling strength for practical values of the parameters.

  16. 5d-4f emission of Eu2+ and electron-vibrational interaction in several alkaline earth sulfides doped with Eu2+ and Er3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, G. A.; Liu, D.-X.; Tian, Y.; Brik, M. G.; Sardar, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Several alkaline earth sulfides doped with Eu2+ and Er3+ ions have been synthesized and shown to be potential phosphors for applications in the visible spectral range. The excitation and emission spectra corresponding to the 4f-5d interconfigurational transitions of Eu2+ were analyzed with an aim of extraction of the main parameters of the electron-vibrational interaction. The values of the Huang-Rhys factor, effective phonon energies, and zero-phonon line positions were systematically compared for all studied materials; physical trends were discussed. As a test for the validity of the obtained parameters, the Eu2+ 5d-4f emission bands were modeled to yield good agreement with the experimental spectra.

  17. Graduating Underrepresented African American, Latino, and American Indian Students in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Angela

    African American, Latino, and American Indian students are less likely to graduate in science than comparable White and Asian students (Gándara & Maxwell-Jolly, 1999; Huang, Taddese, & Walter, 2000). After controlling for preparation and need (p < .05), logistic regression modeling of data from the University of Colorado, Boulder, confirmed this. However, students in the University of Colorado Minority Arts and Sciences Program (MASP) were more likely to graduate in science than White and Asian students (p < .05). MASP students valued the program's financial support, academic community, and relationships with professors, but not, notably, academic enrichment workshops. This finding provides insight into factors that increase retention of well prepared African American, Latino, and American Indian students and calls for further research and theory.

  18. Quasiparticle Properties of a Mobile Impurity in a Bose-Einstein Condensate.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Rasmus Søgaard; Levinsen, Jesper; Bruun, Georg M

    2015-10-16

    We develop a systematic perturbation theory for the quasiparticle properties of a single impurity immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Analytical results are derived for the impurity energy, effective mass, and residue to third order in the impurity-boson scattering length. The energy is shown to depend logarithmically on the scattering length to third order, whereas the residue and the effective mass are given by analytical power series. When the boson-boson scattering length equals the boson-impurity scattering length, the energy has the same structure as that of a weakly interacting Bose gas, including terms of the Lee-Huang-Yang and fourth order logarithmic form. Our results, which cannot be obtained within the canonical Fröhlich model of an impurity interacting with phonons, provide valuable benchmarks for many-body theories and for experiments. PMID:26550852

  19. Taxonomic revision of the East Asian genus Scleropteroides Colonnelli, 1979 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Ceutorhynchinae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Junhao; Yoshitake, Hiraku; Zhang, Runzhi; Ito, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Scleropteroides Colonnelli, 1979 (Ceutorhynchinae: Scleropterini) was revised on the basis of detailed morphological observations. The genus was redefined to include three species from East Asia: S. hypocrita (Hustache, 1916) is redescribed and recorded from northeastern China and northern Korea for the first time; S. horridulus (Voss, 1958) is redescribed with new records from southern Korea; S. insularis Voss, 1971 was moved from synonymy with S. hypocrita to that with S. horridulus (syn. n.), and S. longiprocessus Huang & Yoshitake, sp. n. is described as new, sympatric with S. hypocrita in Japan. All the species are associated with woody Rubus species (Rosaceae). A key to species, habitus photographs, illustrations of important characters, and distribution maps are provided for each species. PMID:25197212

  20. Topside Ionospheric Profile Constructed with ROCSAT Observation and Jicamarca Ionosonde Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulasi Ram, S.; Su, S.; Liu, C.

    2009-05-01

    Topside ionospheric profile is constructed using simple Chapman-alpha function to connect the ROCSAT observed density at the 600-km altitude to the bottomside ionosphere measured by the ionosonde at Jicamarca. We found that the constructed topside density profiles are almost identical to the Jicamarca ISR measurements in several examples and are all superior to other approaches such as the Huang-Reinisch method and the IRI 2007 model. The local time variation of the effective topside scale height in the Chapman- alpha function for the December solstice in 2003 indicates a low ion temperature in the morning hours that is quite different from the ion temperature measured by ROCSAT at the 600-km altitude where the temperature rises rapidly at sunrise. The discrepancy between the two temperatures can be explained by the vertical variation in the topside ionospheric temperature during the morning hour and is confirmed from a result in the SAM2 model.

  1. Influence of intra-pigment vibrations on dynamics of photosynthetic exciton

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Yoshihiro E-mail: ysato.colby@gmail.com; Doolittle, Brian

    2014-11-14

    We have numerically investigated the effect of an underdamped intra-pigment vibrational mode on an exciton's quantum coherence and energy transfer efficiency. Our model describes a bacteriochlorophyll a pigment-protein dimer under the conditions at which photosynthetic energy transfer occurs. The dimer is modeled using a theoretical treatment of a vibronic exciton, and its dynamics are numerically analyzed using a non-Markovian and non-perturbative method. We examined the system's response to various values of the Huang-Rhys factor, site energy difference, reorganization energy, and reorganization energy difference. We found that the inclusion of the intra-pigment vibronic mode allows for long-lived oscillatory quantum coherences to occur. This excitonic coherence is robust against static site-energy disorder. The vibrational mode also promotes exciton transfer along the site-energy landscape thus improving the overall energy transfer efficiency.

  2. Formation of model-free motor memories during motor adaptation depends on perturbation schedule

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Motor adaptation to an external perturbation relies on several mechanisms such as model-based, model-free, strategic, or repetition-dependent learning. Depending on the experimental conditions, each of these mechanisms has more or less weight in the final adaptation state. Here we focused on the conditions that lead to the formation of a model-free motor memory (Huang VS, Haith AM, Mazzoni P, Krakauer JW. Neuron 70: 787–801, 2011), i.e., a memory that does not depend on an internal model or on the size or direction of the errors experienced during the learning. The formation of such model-free motor memory was hypothesized to depend on the schedule of the perturbation (Orban de Xivry JJ, Ahmadi-Pajouh MA, Harran MD, Salimpour Y, Shadmehr R. J Neurophysiol 109: 124–136, 2013). Here we built on this observation by directly testing the nature of the motor memory after abrupt or gradual introduction of a visuomotor rotation, in an experimental paradigm where the presence of model-free motor memory can be identified (Huang VS, Haith AM, Mazzoni P, Krakauer JW. Neuron 70: 787–801, 2011). We found that relearning was faster after abrupt than gradual perturbation, which suggests that model-free learning is reduced during gradual adaptation to a visuomotor rotation. In addition, the presence of savings after abrupt introduction of the perturbation but gradual extinction of the motor memory suggests that unexpected errors are necessary to induce a model-free motor memory. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that different perturbation schedules do not lead to a more or less stabilized motor memory but to distinct motor memories with different attributes and neural representations. PMID:25673736

  3. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in mice lacking superoxide dismutase 2: attenuation via antioxidant treatment.

    PubMed

    Morten, Karl J; Ackrell, Brian A C; Melov, Simon

    2006-02-10

    Mice that lack the mitochondrial form of superoxide dismutase (SOD2) incur severe pathologies and mitochondrial deficiencies, including major depletion of complex II, as a consequence of buildup of endogenous reactive oxygen species (Melov, S., Coskun, P., Patel, M., Tuinstra, R., Cottrell, B., Jun, A. S., Zastawny, T. H., Dizdaroglu, M., Goodman, S. I., Huang, T. T., Miziorko, H., Epstein, C. J., and Wallace, D. C. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 96, 846-851 and Li, Y., Huang, T. T., Carlson, E. J., Melov, S., Ursell, P. C., Olson, J. L., Noble, L. J., Yoshimura, M. P., Berger, C., Chan, P. H., Wallace, D. C., and Epstein, C. J. (1995) Nat. Genet. 11, 376-381). These problems can be greatly attenuated or rescued by synthetic antioxidant treatment, such as with the catalytic antioxidant EUK189 (Hinerfeld, D., Traini, M. D., Weinberger, R. P., Cochran, B., Doctrow, S. R., Harry, J., and Melov, S. (2004) J. Neurochem. 88, 657-667). We have used heart mitochondria from sod2 null mice to better understand mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production both in the absence of SOD2 and following in vivo antioxidant treatment. Isolated heart mitochondria from 5-day-old sod2 null animals respiring on the complex II substrate succinate exhibited statistically significant higher levels of mitochondrial O2* (157%, p < 0.01) but significantly less H2O2 (33%, p < 0.001) than wild type littermates. Treatment of sod2 nullizygous mice with EUK189 proportionately increased the levels of complex II and H2O2. Increased production of O2* resulting from complex II normalization had no effect on steady state levels due to the rapid conversion to H2O2, a process presumably aided by the presence of the EUK189, an SOD mimetic. PMID:16326710

  4. Mapping of Estimations and Prediction Intervals Using Extreme Learning Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    Due to the large amount and complexity of data available nowadays in environmental sciences, we face the need to apply more robust methodology allowing analyses and understanding of the phenomena under study. One particular but very important aspect of this understanding is the reliability of generated prediction models. From the data collection to the prediction map, several sources of error can occur and affect the final result. Theses sources are mainly identified as uncertainty in data (data noise), and uncertainty in the model. Their combination leads to the so-called prediction interval. Quantifying these two categories of uncertainty allows a finer understanding of phenomena under study and a better assessment of the prediction accuracy. The present research deals with a methodology combining a machine learning algorithm (ELM - Extreme Learning Machine) with a bootstrap-based procedure. Developed by G.-B. Huang et al. (2006), ELM is an artificial neural network following the structure of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) with one single hidden layer. Compared to classical MLP, ELM has the ability to learn faster without loss of accuracy, and need only one hyper-parameter to be fitted (that is the number of nodes in the hidden layer). The key steps of the proposed method are as following: sample from the original data a variety of subsets using bootstrapping; from these subsets, train and validate ELM models; and compute residuals. Then, the same procedure is performed a second time with only the squared training residuals. Finally, taking into account the two modeling levels allows developing the mean prediction map, the model uncertainty variance, and the data noise variance. The proposed approach is illustrated using geospatial data. References Efron B., and Tibshirani R. 1986, Bootstrap Methods for Standard Errors, Confidence Intervals, and Other Measures of Statistical accuracy, Statistical Science, vol. 1: 54-75. Huang G.-B., Zhu Q.-Y., and Siew C.-K. 2006

  5. Crash protectiveness to occupant injury and vehicle damage: An investigation on major car brands.

    PubMed

    Huang, Helai; Li, Chunyang; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate vehicles' crash protectiveness on occupant injury and vehicle damage, which can be deemed as an extension of the traditional crash worthiness. A Bayesian bivariate hierarchical ordered logistic (BVHOL) model is developed to estimate the occupant protectiveness (OP) and vehicle protectiveness (VP) of 23 major car brands in Florida, with considering vehicles' crash aggressivity and controlling external factors. The proposed model not only takes over the strength of the existing hierarchical ordered logistic (HOL) model, i.e. specifying the order characteristics of crash outcomes and cross-crash heterogeneities, but also accounts for the correlation between the two crash responses, driver injury and vehicle damage. A total of 7335 two-vehicle-crash records with 14,670 cars involved in Florida are used for the investigation. From the estimation results, it's found that most of the luxury cars such as Cadillac, Volvo and Lexus possess excellent OP and VP while some brands such as KIA and Saturn perform very badly in both aspects. The ranks of the estimated safety performance indices are even compared to the counterparts in Huang et al. study [Huang, H., Hu, S., Abdel-Aty, M., 2014. Indexing crash worthiness and crash aggressivity by major car brands. Safety Science 62, 339-347]. The results show that the rank of occupant protectiveness index (OPI) is relatively coherent with that of crash worthiness index, but the ranks of crash aggressivity index in both studies is more different from each other. Meanwhile, a great discrepancy between the OPI rank and that of vehicle protectiveness index is found. What's more, the results of control variables and hyper-parameters estimation as well as comparison to HOL models with separate or identical threshold errors, demonstrate the validity and advancement of the proposed model and the robustness of the estimated OP and VP. PMID:26551733

  6. Time Frequency Analysis of The Land Subsidence Monitored Data with Exploration Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shang-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan geographic patterns and various industry water, caused Zhuoshui River Fan groundwater extraction of excess leads to land subsidence, affect the safety of high-speed railway traffic and public construction. It is necessary to do the deeply research on the reason and behavior of subsidence. All the related element will be confer including the water extracted groundwater that be used on each industry or the impact of climate change rainfall and the ground formation characteristics. Conducted a series of in situ measurements and monitoring data with Hilbert Huang Transform. Discussion of subsidence mechanism and estimate the future high-speed rail traffic may affect the extent of providing for future reference remediation. We investigate and experiment on the characteristic of land subsidence in Yun Lin area. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) and signal normalized are be used to discuss the physical meanings and interactions among the time series data of settlement, groundwater, pumping, rainfall and micro-tremor of ground. The broadband seismic signals of the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology, (BATS) obtained near the Zhuoshui River (WLGB in Chia Yi, WGKB in Yun Lin and RLNB in Zhang Hua) were analyzed by using HHT and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to discuss the micro-tremor characteristics of the settled ground. To compare among ten years series data of micro-tremor, groundwater and land subsidence monitoring wells, we can get more information about land subsidence. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were performed to correlate the resistivity profile and borehole logging data at the test area. The relationships among resistivity, groundwater variation, and ground subsidence obtained from the test area have been discussed. Active and passive multichannel analysis of surface waves method (MASW) can calculate Poisson's ratio by using shear velocity and pressure velocity. The groundwater level can be presumed when Poisson's ratio arrive 0

  7. Dictating participation? Rethinking the adaptive co-management of socio-ecological systems in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Vilaly, Audra; Abd salam El Vilaly, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    In the face of environmental change, enhancing adaptive capacity relies on stakeholder engagement. But the participatory process, while critical to the translation, transfer, and application of scientific knowledge to society, is not without its own contradictions. These include the asymmetrical relations of power that prevail between environmental scientists, managers, and local users; discrepant understandings of knowledge and its appropriate uses; and conflicting social, economic, and ecological values, to name only a few. Our research examines five major transboundary river basin organizations in West Africa and their efforts to improve adaptive basin management via stakeholder collaboration. In particular, we evaluate the participatory strategies of these organizations to measure non-linear, multi-directional feedbacks between the social and biophysical factors of land use/land cover change, as well as the impacts of this change on basins and their dependent populations. Our research suggests that oftentimes, these methods paradoxically produce a hierarchical and marginalizing effect on local stakeholders in relation to the scientists that study them. In seeking to address these limitations, we assess the potential costs and benefits of integrating select components of a Participatory Action Research (PAR) framework (see, for example, Reason & Bradbury-Huang, 2007) into studies of complex socio-ecological problems. This approach, used widely in the social sciences, promotes critical reflection on and minimization of the power inequities inherent in science-society collaborations. It instead favors more horizontal forms of knowledge co-production that support and foster the expansion of local, existing movements for social and environmental justice. A PAR framework may therefore improve the efficiency, sustainability, and equitability of land-based adaptation to environmental change; further research is thus recommended to test this hypothesis. References

  8. Prediction of mean monthly river discharges in Colombia through Empirical Mode Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, A. M.; Poveda, G.

    2015-04-01

    The hydro-climatology of Colombia exhibits strong natural variability at a broad range of time scales including: inter-decadal, decadal, inter-annual, annual, intra-annual, intra-seasonal, and diurnal. Diverse applied sectors rely on quantitative predictions of river discharges for operational purposes including hydropower generation, agriculture, human health, fluvial navigation, territorial planning and management, risk preparedness and mitigation, among others. Various methodologies have been used to predict monthly mean river discharges that are based on "Predictive Analytics", an area of statistical analysis that studies the extraction of information from historical data to infer future trends and patterns. Our study couples the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) with traditional methods, e.g. Autoregressive Model of Order 1 (AR1) and Neural Networks (NN), to predict mean monthly river discharges in Colombia, South America. The EMD allows us to decompose the historical time series of river discharges into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMF) that capture the different oscillatory modes of different frequencies associated with the inherent time scales coexisting simultaneously in the signal (Huang et al. 1998, Huang and Wu 2008, Rao and Hsu, 2008). Our predictive method states that it is easier and simpler to predict each IMF at a time and then add them up together to obtain the predicted river discharge for a certain month, than predicting the full signal. This method is applied to 10 series of monthly mean river discharges in Colombia, using calibration periods of more than 25 years, and validation periods of about 12 years. Predictions are performed for time horizons spanning from 1 to 12 months. Our results show that predictions obtained through the traditional methods improve when the EMD is used as a previous step, since errors decrease by up to 13% when the AR1 model is used, and by up to 18% when using Neural Networks is combined with the

  9. Stress Drops for Potentially Induced Earthquake Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Beroza, G. C.; Ellsworth, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Stress drop, the difference between shear stress acting across a fault before and after an earthquake, is a fundamental parameter of the earthquake source process and the generation of strong ground motions. Higher stress drops usually lead to more high-frequency ground motions. Hough [2014 and 2015] observed low intensities in "Did You Feel It?" data for injection-induced earthquakes, and interpreted them to be a result of low stress drops. It is also possible that the low recorded intensities could be a result of propagation effects. Atkinson et al. [2015] show that the shallow depth of injection-induced earthquakes can lead to a lack of high-frequency ground motion as well. We apply the spectral ratio method of Imanishi and Ellsworth [2006] to analyze stress drops of injection-induced earthquakes, using smaller earthquakes with similar waveforms as empirical Green's functions (eGfs). Both the effects of path and linear site response should be cancelled out through the spectral ratio analysis. We apply this technique to the Guy-Greenbrier earthquake sequence in central Arkansas. The earthquakes migrated along the Guy-Greenbrier Fault while nearby injection wells were operating in 2010-2011. Huang and Beroza [GRL, 2015] improved the magnitude of completeness to about -1 using template matching and found that the earthquakes deviated from Gutenberg-Richter statistics during the operation of nearby injection wells. We identify 49 clusters of highly similar events in the Huang and Beroza [2015] catalog and calculate stress drops using the source model described in Imanishi and Ellsworth [2006]. Our results suggest that stress drops of the Guy-Greenbrier sequence are similar to tectonic earthquakes at Parkfield, California (the attached figure). We will also present stress drop analysis of other suspected induced earthquake sequences using the same method.

  10. Advanced source apportionment of PM2.5 using online mass spectrometry in two major cities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevot, Andre S. H.; Elser, Miram; Huang, Rujin; Slowik, Jay; Wang, Qiyuan; Canonaco, Francesco; Bozzetti, Carlo; Cao, Junji; Baltensperger, Urs; El Haddad, Imad

    2016-04-01

    During winter 2013-2014 aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements were conducted in two major cities of China: Xi'an and Beijing. The AMS was equipped with a recently developed aerodynamic lens for direct measurements of the PM2.5 fraction for the first time in Asia (Williams et al., 2013). We could show that around 40% of the mass is lost using a conventional PM1 inlet. The statistical tool multi-linear engine 2 using constrained positive matrix factorization was used to derive the sources of organic aerosols. During the more extreme haze periods, 537 and 243 ug/m3 were recorded in Xi'an and Beijing respectively. The main results include a dominance of coal combustion in Beijing of the primary organic aerosols with a contribution of more than 90% to the cancerogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons. In Xi'an primary wood burning was a more important source. In both cities, an increase of secondary organic aerosols could be observed. The results including uncertainties will be discussed and put in perspective of previous analyses of haze in northern China including our previous analysis published in Nature (Huang et al., 2014). The study can be used as a role model for future similar analyses in Asia where the emission sources are highly complex. Huang, R.J., Cao, J.J., El Haddad, I. and Prévôt A.S.H. et al. (2014) Nature 514, 218-222. Williams, L.R., Prévôt, A.S.H., Worsnop, D.R. et al. (2013) Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 3271-3280.

  11. Vertical profiles of atmospheric fluorescent aerosols observed by a mutil-channel lidar spectrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Huang, J.; Zhou, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Bi, J.

    2015-12-01

    Zhongwei Huang1*, Jianping Huang1, Tian Zhou1, Nobuo Sugimoto2, Jianrong Bi1 and Jinsen Shi11Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China. 2Atmospheric Environment Division, National Institutes for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan Email: huangzhongwei@lzu.edu.cn Abstract Atmospheric aerosols have a significant impact on regional and globe climate. The challenge in quantifying aerosol direct radiative forcing and aerosol-cloud interactions arises from large spatial and temporal heterogeneity of aerosol concentrations, compositions, sizes, shape and optical properties (IPCC, 2007). Lidar offers some remarkable advantages for determining the vertical structure of atmospheric aerosols and their related optical properties. To investigate the characterization of atmospheric aerosols (especially bioaerosols) with high spatial and temporal resolution, we developed a Raman/fluorescence/polarization lidar system employed a multi-channel spectrometer, with capabilities of providing measurements of Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence excitation at 355 nm from atmospheric aerosols. Meanwhile, the lidar system operated polarization measurements both at 355nm and 532nm wavelengths, aiming to obtain more information of aerosols. It employs a high power pulsed laser and a received telescope with 350mm diameter. The receiver could simultaneously detect a wide fluorescent spectrum about 178 nm with spectral resolution 5.7 nm, mainly including an F/3.7 Crossed Czerny-Turner spectrograph, a grating (1200 gr/mm) and a PMT array with 32 photocathode elements. Vertical structure of fluorescent aerosols in the atmosphere was observed by the developed lidar system at four sites across northwest China, during 2014 spring field observation that conducted by Lanzhou University. It has been proved that the developed lidar could detect the fluorescent aerosols with high temporal and

  12. Analysis of daily river flow fluctuations using empirical mode decomposition and arbitrary order Hilbert spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. X.; Schmitt, F. G.; Lu, Z. M.; Liu, Y. L.

    2009-04-01

    In this work, we present the analysis of two long time series of daily river flow data, 32 years recorded in the Seine river (France), and 25 years recorded in the Wimereux river (Wimereux, France). We apply a scale based decomposition method, namely Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), on these time series. The data are decomposed into several Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF). The mean frequency of each mode indicates that the EMD method acts as a filter bank. Furthermore, the cross-correlation between these IMF modes from the Seine river and the Wimereux river demonstrates strong correlation among the large scale IMF modes, which indicates that both rivers are influenced by the same events. We also find that the large scale parts have the same evolution trend. We finally apply arbitrary order Hilbert spectral analysis (Huang et al. EPL, 2008), a new technique coming from turbulence studies and time series analysis, on the flow of the Seine river. This new method provides on amplitude-frequency representation of the original time series, giving a joint pdf p(ω,A). When marginal moments of the amplitude are computed, one obtains an intermittency study in the frequency space. Applied to river flow discharge data from the Seine river, this shows the scaling range and characterizes the intermittent fluctuations over the range of scales from 4.5 day to 60 days. Reference Huang Y.X., Schmitt F. G., Lu Z.M. And Liu Y.L. An amplitude-frequency study of turbulent scaling intermittency using Hilbert spectral analysis Europhys. Lett. 2008, 84: 40010

  13. Imaging the Structure of Grains, Grain Boundaries, and Stacking Sequences in Single and Multi-Layer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, David

    2012-02-01

    Graphene can be produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper substrates on up to meter scales [1, 2], making their polycrystallinity [3,4] almost unavoidable. By combining aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and dark-field transmission electron microscopy, we image graphene grains and grain boundaries across six orders of magnitude. Atomic-resolution images of graphene grain boundaries reveal that different grains can stitch together via pentagon-heptagon pairs. We use diffraction-filtered electron imaging to map the shape and orientation of several hundred grains and boundaries over fields of view of a hundred microns. Single, double and multilayer graphene can be differentiated, and the stacking sequence and relative abundance of sequences can be directly imaged. These images reveal an intricate patchwork of grains with structural details depending strongly on growth conditions. The imaging techniques enabled studies of the structure, properties, and control of graphene grains and grain boundaries [5]. [4pt] [1] X. Li et al., Science 324, 1312 (2009).[0pt] [2] S. Bae et al., Nature Nanotechnol. 5, 574 (2010).[0pt] [3] J. M. Wofford, et al., Nano Lett., (2010).[0pt] [4] P. Y. Huang, et al., Nature 469, 389--392 (2011); arXiv:1009.4714, (2010)[0pt] [5] In collaboration with Pinshane Y. Huang, C. S. Ruiz-Vargas, A. M. van der Zande, A. W. Tsen, L. Brown, R. Hovden, F. Ghahari, W. S. Whitney, M.P. Levendorf, J. W. Kevek, S. Garg, J. S. Alden, C. J. Hustedt, Y. Zhu, N. Petrone, J. Hone, J. Park, P. L. McEuen

  14. Group force mobility model and its obstacle avoidance capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Sean A.; Huang, Dijiang

    2009-10-01

    Many mobility models attempt to provide realistic simulation to many real world scenarios. However, existing mobility models, such as RPGM [X. Hong, M. Gerla, G. Pei, C. Chiang, A group mobility model for ad hoc wireless networks, in: Proceedings of ACM/IEEE MSWiM'99, Seattle, WA, August 1999, pp. 53-60] and others, fail to address many aspects. These limitations range from mobile node (MN) collision avoidance, obstacle avoidance, and the interaction of MNs within a group. Our research, the group force mobility model (GFMM) [S.A. Williams, D. Huang, A group force mobility model, Appeared at 9th Communications and Networking Simulation Symposium, April 2006], proposes a novel idea which introduces the concept of attraction and repulsion forces to address many of these limitations. Williams and Huang [A group force mobility model, Appeared at 9th Communications and Networking Simulation Symposium, April 2006] described some of the limitations and drawbacks that many models neglect. This model effectively simulates the interaction of MNs within a group, the interaction of groups to one another, the coherency of a group, and the avoidance of collision with groups, nodes, and obstacles. This paper provides an overview of GFMM and particularly illustrates the GFMM's ability to avoid collision with obstacles, which is a vital property to posses in order to provide a realistic simulaition. We compare our model with the commonly used RPGM model and provide statistical assessments based on connectivity metrics such as link changed, link duration, and relative speed. All will be detailed and explained in this paper.

  15. Estimation of NH3 emissions from a naturally ventilated livestock farm using local-scale atmospheric dispersion modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensen, A.; Loubet, B.; Mosquera, J.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Erisman, J. W.; Dämmgen, U.; Milford, C.; Löpmeier, F. J.; Cellier, P.; Mikuška, P.; Sutton, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Agricultural livestock represents the main source of ammonia (NH3) in Europe. In recent years, reduction policies have been applied to reduce NH3 emissions. In order to estimate the impacts of these policies, robust estimates of the emissions from the main sources, i.e. livestock farms are needed. In this paper, the NH3 emissions were estimated from a naturally ventilated livestock farm in Braunschweig, Germany during a joint field experiment of the GRAMINAE European project. An inference method was used with a Gaussian-3D plume model and with the Huang 3-D model. NH3 concentrations downwind of the source were used together with micrometeorological data to estimate the source strength over time. Mobile NH3 concentration measurements provided information on the spatial distribution of source strength. The estimated emission strength ranged between 6.4±0.18 kg NH3 d-1 (Huang 3-D model) and 9.2±0.7 kg NH3 d-1 (Gaussian-3D model). These estimates were 94% and 63% of what was obtained using emission factors from the German national inventory (9.6 kg d-1 NH3). The effect of deposition was evaluated with the FIDES-2D model. This increased the emission estimate to 11.7 kg NH3 d-1, showing that deposition can explain the observed difference. The daily pattern of the source was correlated with net radiation and with the temperature inside the animal houses. The daily pattern resulted from a combination of a temperature effect on the source concentration together with an effect of variations in free and forced convection of the building ventilation rate. Further development of the plume technique is especially relevant for naturally ventilated farms, since the variable ventilation rate makes other emission measurements difficult.

  16. The temperature dependence of vibronic lineshapes: Linear electron-phonon coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Claudia; Gauss, Jürgen; Diezemann, Gregor; Köhn, Andreas

    2014-10-21

    We calculate the effect of a linear electron-phonon coupling on vibronic transitions of dye molecules of arbitrary complexity. With the assumption of known vibronic frequencies (for instance from quantum-chemical calculations), we give expressions for the absorption or emission lineshapes in a second-order cumulant expansion. We show that the results coincide with those obtained from generalized Redfield theory if one uses the time-local version of the theory and applies the secular approximation. Furthermore, the theory allows to go beyond the Huang-Rhys approximation and can be used to incorporate Dushinsky effects in the treatment of the temperature dependence of optical spectra. We consider both, a pure electron-phonon coupling independent of the molecular vibrations and a coupling bilinear in the molecular vibrational modes and the phonon coordinates. We discuss the behavior of the vibronic density of states for various models for the spectral density representing the coupling of the vibronic system to the harmonic bath. We recover some of the results that have been derived earlier for the spin-boson model and we show that the behavior of the spectral density at low frequencies determines the dominant features of the spectra. In case of the bilinear coupling between the molecular vibrations and the phonons we give analytical expressions for different spectral densities. The spectra are reminiscent of those obtained from the well known Brownian oscillator model and one finds a zero-phonon line and phonon-side bands located at vibrational frequencies of the dye. The intensity of the phonon-side bands diminishes with increasing vibrational frequencies and with decreasing coupling strength (Huang-Rhys factor). It vanishes completely in the Markovian limit where only a Lorentzian zero-phonon line is observed.

  17. Continental Heat Gain in the Global Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smerdon, J. E.; Beltrami, H.; Pollack, H. N.; Huang, S.

    2001-12-01

    Observed increases in 20th century surface-air temperatures are one consequence of a net energy flux into all major components of the Earth climate system including the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, and lithosphere. Levitus et al. [2001] have estimated the heat gained by the atmosphere, ocean and cryosphere as 18.2x1022 J, 6.6x1021 J, and 8.1x1021 J, respectively, over the past half-century. However the heat gain of the lithosphere via a heat flux across the solid surface of the continents (30% of the Earth's surface) was not addressed in the Levitus analysis. Here we calculate that final component of Earth's changing energy budget, using ground-surface temperature reconstructions for the continents [Huang et al., 2000]. These reconstructions have shown a warming of at least 0.5 K in the 20th century and were used to determine the flux estimates presented here. In the last half-century, the interval of time considered by Levitus et al., there was an average flux of 40 mW/m2 across the land surface into the subsurface, leading to 9.2x1021 J absorbed by the ground. This amount of heat is significantly less than the energy transferred into the oceans, but of the same magnitude as the energy absorbed by the atmosphere or cryosphere. The heat inputs into all the major components of the climate system - atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, lithosphere - conservatively sum to more than 20x1022 J during the last half-century, and reinforce the conclusion that the warming in this interval has been truly global. Huang, S., Pollack, H.N., and Shen, P.-Y. 2000. Temperature trends over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole temperatures. Nature. 403. 756-758 Levitus, S., Antonov, J., Wang, J., Delworth, T. L., Dixon, K. and Broccoli, A. 2001. Anthropogenic warming of the Earth's climate system. Science, 292, 267-270

  18. Recent advances in environmental data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Due to the large amount and complexity of data available nowadays in geo- and environmental sciences, we face the need to develop and incorporate more robust and efficient methods for their analysis, modelling and visualization. An important part of these developments deals with an elaboration and application of a contemporary and coherent methodology following the process from data collection to the justification and communication of the results. Recent fundamental progress in machine learning (ML) can considerably contribute to the development of the emerging field - environmental data science. The present research highlights and investigates the different issues that can occur when dealing with environmental data mining using cutting-edge machine learning algorithms. In particular, the main attention is paid to the description of the self-consistent methodology and two efficient algorithms - Random Forest (RF, Breiman, 2001) and Extreme Learning Machines (ELM, Huang et al., 2006), which recently gained a great popularity. Despite the fact that they are based on two different concepts, i.e. decision trees vs artificial neural networks, they both propose promising results for complex, high dimensional and non-linear data modelling. In addition, the study discusses several important issues of data driven modelling, including feature selection and uncertainties. The approach considered is accompanied by simulated and real data case studies from renewable resources assessment and natural hazards tasks. In conclusion, the current challenges and future developments in statistical environmental data learning are discussed. References - Breiman, L., 2001. Random Forests. Machine Learning 45 (1), 5-32. - Huang, G.-B., Zhu, Q.-Y., Siew, C.-K., 2006. Extreme learning machine: theory and applications. Neurocomputing 70 (1-3), 489-501. - Kanevski, M., Pozdnoukhov, A., Timonin, V., 2009. Machine Learning for Spatial Environmental Data. EPFL Press; Lausanne, Switzerland, p.392

  19. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and each frame into slots. A parent node determines the children's frame assignment based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. First, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (including itself). Second, the packet scheduling with TreeMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Third, the data throughput to the gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24-node testbed show that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput, fairness, and energy efficiency compared to TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC. Partial results of this paper were published in Song, Huang, Shirazi and Lahusen [W.-Z. Song, R. Huang, B. Shirazi, and R. Lahusen, TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for high-throughput and fairness in sensor networks, in: The 7th Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom, March 2009]. Our new contributions include analyses of the performance of TreeMAC from various aspects. We also present more implementation detail and evaluate TreeMAC from other aspects. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  20. M{sub i} (i = 1-5) subshell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields for elements with 67 {<=} Z {<=} 92

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Yogeshwar; Puri, Sanjiv

    2008-01-15

    A complete set of the M{sub i} (i = 1-5) subshell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig (CK) yields has been generated by interpolation for elements with 67 {<=} Z {<=} 92 from the Dirac-Hartree-Slater (DHS) model based values tabulated for a limited number of elements, considering the cutoff/onset of different CK transitions in accordance with the CK transition energies evaluated in the present work. The CK transition energies have been deduced from tabulated values of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater model based neutral atom binding energies [K. Huang, M. Aoyagi, M.H. Chen, B. Crasemann, H. Mark, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 18 (1976) 243] and the L{sub i} (i = 1-3) subshell CK transition energies [M.H. Chen, B. Crasemann, K. Huang, M. Aoyagi, H. Mark, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 19 (1977) 97] in order to establish the cutoff/onset of different CK transitions at specific atomic numbers. A second set of the M{sub i} (i = 1-5) subshell fluorescence yields have also been deduced using radiative widths computed from the Dirac-Fock (DF) model based X-ray emission rates, and the total widths reevaluated to incorporate the DF model based radiative widths in place of those based on the DHS model. Further, the CK-corrected ({nu}{sub i}) and average fluorescence ({omega}{sub M}) fields, which are experimentally important, have been evaluated from the generated set of CK yields and two sets of fluorescence yields.